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Sample records for nano-anatase tio2 particles

  1. Ultra-Sensitive Humidity Sensor Based on Optical Properties of Graphene Oxide and Nano-Anatase TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiry, Mahdiar; Gholami, Mehrdad; Lai, C K; Ahmad, Harith; Chong, W Y

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in a waveguide-based humidity sensors, increasing the relative humidity (RH) causes the cladding refractive index (RI) to increase due to cladding water absorption. However, if graphene oxide (GO) is used, a reverse phenomenon is seen due to a gap increase in graphene layers. In this paper, this interesting property is applied in order to fabricate differential humidity sensor using the difference between RI of reduced GO (rGO) and nano-anatase TiO2 in a chip. First, a new approach is proposed to prepare high quality nano-anatase TiO2 in solution form making the fabrication process simple and straightforward. Then, the resulted solutions (TiO2 and GO) are effortlessly drop casted and reduced on SU8 two channels waveguide and extensively examined against several humid conditions. Investigating the sensitivity and performance (response time) of the device, reveals a great linearity in a wide range of RH (35% to 98%) and a variation of more than 30 dB in transmitted optical power with a response time of only ~0.7 sec. The effect of coating concentration and UV treatment are studied on the performance and repeatability of the sensor and the attributed mechanisms explained. In addition, we report that using the current approach, devices with high sensitivity and very low response time of only 0.3 sec can be fabricated. Also, the proposed device was comprehensively compared with other state of the art proposed sensors in the literature and the results were promising. Since high sensitivity ~0.47dB/%RH and high dynamic performances were demonstrated, this sensor is a proper choice for biomedical applications.

  2. Ultra-Sensitive Humidity Sensor Based on Optical Properties of Graphene Oxide and Nano-Anatase TiO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiar Ghadiry

    Full Text Available Generally, in a waveguide-based humidity sensors, increasing the relative humidity (RH causes the cladding refractive index (RI to increase due to cladding water absorption. However, if graphene oxide (GO is used, a reverse phenomenon is seen due to a gap increase in graphene layers. In this paper, this interesting property is applied in order to fabricate differential humidity sensor using the difference between RI of reduced GO (rGO and nano-anatase TiO2 in a chip. First, a new approach is proposed to prepare high quality nano-anatase TiO2 in solution form making the fabrication process simple and straightforward. Then, the resulted solutions (TiO2 and GO are effortlessly drop casted and reduced on SU8 two channels waveguide and extensively examined against several humid conditions. Investigating the sensitivity and performance (response time of the device, reveals a great linearity in a wide range of RH (35% to 98% and a variation of more than 30 dB in transmitted optical power with a response time of only ~0.7 sec. The effect of coating concentration and UV treatment are studied on the performance and repeatability of the sensor and the attributed mechanisms explained. In addition, we report that using the current approach, devices with high sensitivity and very low response time of only 0.3 sec can be fabricated. Also, the proposed device was comprehensively compared with other state of the art proposed sensors in the literature and the results were promising. Since high sensitivity ~0.47dB/%RH and high dynamic performances were demonstrated, this sensor is a proper choice for biomedical applications.

  3. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  4. Reflectance spectroscopy from TiO2 particles embedded in polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Johansen, Villads Egede

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a physical simulation carried out using TiO2-Polyurethane composite coating on bright aluminium surface to understand the light scattering effect for designing white surfaces. Polyurethane matrix is selected due to the matching refractive index (1.7) with Al2O3...... layer on anodized aluminium surfaces. Three different TiO2 particle distributions were dispersed in polyurethane and spin coated onto high gloss and caustic etched aluminium substrates. Reflectance spectra of TiO2-polyurethane films of various concentrations were analysed using an integrating sphere....... The results show that the TiO2-polyurethane coatings have a high diffuse reflectance as a result of multiple scattering from TiO2 particles. Diffuse reflectance spectra of TiO2 containing films vary weakly with particle concentration and reach a steady state value at a concentration of 0.75 wt.%. Using...

  5. Positively charged TiO2 particles in non-polar system for electrophoretic display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Young Seon

    2005-02-01

    Electrophoretic display uses a technique called electrophoresis to represent images and letters electronically with electronic ink. Although it has good characteristics such as wide viewing angle, high contrast ratio and extremely low power consumption, there are still several issues to be resolved to improve its performances. Higher mobility and stability of the ink particles are the most important issues among them. In this study, TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide were found to be effective ink particles that satisfy higher mobility and stability. The TiO 2 particles coated with 5∼40% acrylamide were prepared by dispersion polymerization using monomers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylamide. The TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide were dispersed in isopar-G with sorbitan esters such as span 20, span 80 and span 85. The size of the TiO 2 particles were changed from 200±150 nm to 350∼500 nm by the coating process. The morphology of coated particles was observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). From the TGA results, the weight fraction of TiO 2 and polymer in coated particle were calculated. From the zeta potential measurement, it was shown that as acrylamide concentration was increased from 5% to 30%, zeta potential of the coated TiO 2 particles was increased from 50mV to about 230mV. The zeta potential of the coated TiO 2 particles with 40% acrylamide was decreased to 50mV. As a stabilizer, span 85 was the most effective surfactant to improve stability of the TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide among used surfactants in this study. Span 85 showed best stability in the storage test with TiO 2 particles coated with 10% acrylamide. The mobility of TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide with span 85 in dye solution (Oil Blue-N dissolved in isopar-G) were measured by ITO cell test. The mobility of TiO 2 particles coated with 10∼30% acrylamide was over 600μm 2 /Vs while the mobility of TiO 2

  6. TiO2 (NanoParticles Extracted from Sugar-Coated Confectionery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lorenzetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the debate about TiO2 food additive safety is still open, the present study focuses on the extraction and characterisation of TiO2 (nanoparticles added as a whitening agent to confectionary products, that is, chewing gum pellets. The aim was to (1 determine the colloidal properties of suspensions mutually containing TiO2 and all other chewing gum ingredients in biologically relevant media (preingestion conditions; (2 characterise the TiO2 (nanoparticles extracted from the chewing gum coating (after ingestion; and (3 verify their potential photocatalysis. The particle size distribution, in agreement with the zeta potential results, indicated that a small but significant portion of the particle population retained mean dimensions close to the nanosize range, even in conditions of moderate stability, and in presence of all other ingredients. The dispersibility was enhanced by proteins (i.e., albumin, which acted as surfactants and reduced particle size. The particle extraction methods involved conventional techniques and no harmful chemicals. The presence of TiO2 particles embedded in the sugar-based coating was confirmed, including 17–30% fraction in the nanorange (<100 nm. The decomposition of organics under UV irradiation proved the photocatalytic activity of the extracted (nanoparticles. Surprisingly, photocatalysis occurred even in presence of an amorphous SiO2 layer surrounding the TiO2 particles.

  7. Production of TiO_2 particles by sol-gel ultrasound assisted for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Rojas, Vanessa; Solis Veliz, Jose; Gomez Leon, Monica; Matejova, Lenka; Lopez, Alcides; Cruz, Gerardo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of TiO_2 particles was made by sol-gel technique assisted of ultrasonic radiation from an alcoholic solution of titanium isopropoxide. Then was subjected to a heat treatment in air at 350 °C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the size of the crystalline domains is between 10 and 37 nm. Infrared spectroscopy study confirms the presence of -OH groups on the surface of TiO_2. Modification of the morphology and surface area, due to the influence of exposure time to the ultrasonic radiation, is evidenced by studies of SEM and BET respectively. Properties of TiO_2 obtained were studied by monitoring the degradation of solutions of methyl orange in the presence of UV-A radiation. It was observed that larger the ultrasonic radiation exposure during the TiO_2 synthesis larger the constant velocity for the photocatalytic reaction for the methyl orange. (author)

  8. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance for degradation of diclofenac and mechanism with TiO2 nano-particles decorated TiO2 nano-tubes arrays photoelectrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiuwen; Liu, Huiling; Chen, Qinghua; Li, Junjing; Wang, Pu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, TiO 2 nano-particles decorated TiO 2 nano-tubes arrays (TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs) photoelectrodes have been successfully prepared through anodization, combined with ultrasonic strategy, followed by annealing post-treatment. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoelectrodes were characterized by scanning electrons microscopy (SEM), N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–visible light diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). In addition, the generation of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) was detected by a photoluminescence (PL) spectra using terephthalic acid (TA) as a probe molecule. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical (PECH) properties of TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoanode were investigated through transient open circuit potential (OCP), photocurrent response (PCR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoelectrode exhibited a distinct decrease of OCP of −0.219 mV cm −2 and PCR of 0.049 mA cm −2 , while a significantly enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) efficiency of 63.6% (0.4 V vs. SCE) for the degradation of diclofenac. Moreover, the enhanced PEC mechanism of TiO 2 NPs/TiO 2 NTAs photoanode was proposed. The high PEC performance could be attributed to the decoration of TiO 2 NPs, which could improve the mobility and separation efficiency of photoinduced charge carriers under external potential

  9. ZnO and TiO2 particles: a study on nanosafety and photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Alexey; Zhao, Xin; Zvyagin, Andrei; Lademann, Jürgen; Roberts, Michael; Sanchez, Washington; Priezzhev, Alexander; Myllylä, Risto

    2010-04-01

    Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are used in sunscreens as protective compounds against UV radiation. We investigate these particles from the viewpoint of nanosafety (penetration into skin in vivo, production of free radicals when UV-irradiated) as well as UV protection. We show that: a) even after multiple applications, the particles remain within stratum corneum (uppermost skin layer); b) the optimal sizes are 62 nm and 45 nm, respectively for TiO2 and ZnO particles for 310-nm light and, correspondingly, 122 and 140 nm - for 400-nm radiation; c) in general, small particles (25 nm in diameter) are more photoactive than the larger ones (400 nm in diameter); however, on the background if porcine skin in vitro this difference is not seen and is substantially surpassed by skin contribution into production of free radicals.

  10. Investigations of percutaneous uptake of ultrafine TiO2 particles at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, F.; Reinert, T.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.

    2004-01-01

    Micronised TiO 2 particles with a diameter of about 15 nm are used in sunscreens as physical UV filter. Due to the small particle size it may be supposed that TiO 2 particles can pass through the uppermost horny skin layer (stratum corneum) via intercellular channels and penetrate into deeper vital skin layers. Accumulations of TiO 2 particles in the skin can decrease the threshold for allergies of the immune system or cause allergic reactions directly. Spatially resolved ion beam analysis (PIXE, RBS, STIM and secondary electron imaging) was carried out on freeze-dried cross-sections of biopsies of pig skin, on which four different formulations containing TiO 2 particles were applied. The investigations were carried out at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION in Leipzig with a 2.25 MeV proton beam, which was focused to a diameter of 1 μm. The analysis concentrated on the penetration depth and on pathways of the TiO 2 particles into the skin. In these measurements a penetration of TiO 2 particles through the s. corneum into the underlying stratum granulosum via intercellular space was found. Hair follicles do not seem to be important penetration pathways because no TiO 2 was detected inside. The TiO 2 particle concentration in the stratum spinosum was below the minimum detection limit of about 1 particle/μm 2 . These findings show the importance of coating the TiO 2 particles in order to prevent damage of RNA and DNA of skin cells by photocatalytic reactions of the penetrated particles caused by absorption of UV light

  11. Toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to Escherichia coli: effects of particle size, crystal phase and water chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun Lin

    Full Text Available Controversial and inconsistent results on the eco-toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are commonly found in recorded studies and more experimental works are therefore warranted to elucidate the nanotoxicity and its underlying precise mechanisms. Toxicities of five types of TiO2 NPs with different particle sizes (10∼50 nm and crystal phases were investigated using Escherichia coli as a test organism. The effect of water chemistry on the nanotoxicity was also examined. The antibacterial effects of TiO2 NPs as revealed by dose-effect experiments decreased with increasing particle size and rutile content of the TiO2 NPs. More bacteria could survive at higher solution pH (5.0-10.0 and ionic strength (50-200 mg L(-1 NaCl as affected by the anatase TiO2 NPs. The TiO2 NPs with anatase crystal structure and smaller particle size produced higher content of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, in line with their greater antibacterial effect. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed the concentration buildup of the anatase TiO2 NPs especially those with smaller particle sizes on the cell surfaces, leading to membrane damage and internalization. These research results will shed new light on the understanding of ecological effects of TiO2 NPs.

  12. Toxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles to Escherichia coli: Effects of Particle Size, Crystal Phase and Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuchun; Li, Jingyi; Ma, Si; Liu, Gesheng; Yang, Kun; Tong, Meiping; Lin, Daohui

    2014-01-01

    Controversial and inconsistent results on the eco-toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly found in recorded studies and more experimental works are therefore warranted to elucidate the nanotoxicity and its underlying precise mechanisms. Toxicities of five types of TiO2 NPs with different particle sizes (10∼50 nm) and crystal phases were investigated using Escherichia coli as a test organism. The effect of water chemistry on the nanotoxicity was also examined. The antibacterial effects of TiO2 NPs as revealed by dose-effect experiments decreased with increasing particle size and rutile content of the TiO2 NPs. More bacteria could survive at higher solution pH (5.0–10.0) and ionic strength (50–200 mg L−1 NaCl) as affected by the anatase TiO2 NPs. The TiO2 NPs with anatase crystal structure and smaller particle size produced higher content of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, in line with their greater antibacterial effect. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed the concentration buildup of the anatase TiO2 NPs especially those with smaller particle sizes on the cell surfaces, leading to membrane damage and internalization. These research results will shed new light on the understanding of ecological effects of TiO2 NPs. PMID:25310452

  13. Enhancement removal of tartrazine dye using HCl-doped polyaniline and TiO2-decorated PANI particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, M. A.; Gobara, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    HCl-doped polyaniline (HCl-PANI) and titanium dioxide decorated with polyaniline (TiO2-decorated PANI) with different TiO2:PANI ratios were chemically prepared and utilized for the removal of tartrazine (TZ) dye from a synthetic aqueous solution. The mechanism of preparation of the sample suggested that aniline was adsorbed on the TiO2 surface before the polymerization process took place. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that HCl-PANI and TiO2-decorated PANI have an amorphous structure. The thermal stability of the prepared samples was characterized using thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. HCl-PANI is stable up to 200 °C and the relative weight per cent of PANI in the TiO2-decorated PANI was 20, 25, 40 and 45%. The removal activity of TiO2-decorated PANI via TZ azo dye was investigated under UV light irradiations and compared with HCl-PANI and TiO2 particles. The results indicated the superiority of the TiO2-decorated PANI over pure HCl-PANI and TiO2. However, the excessive PANI percentage tends to form a relatively thick layer, and even aggregates on the surface of TiO2. This hinders the migration of excited electrons from the outer PANI layer to the inner TiO2 particles, which consequently leads to a decrease in the removal efficiency. A possible mechanism for the removal oxidative degradation is also mentioned.

  14. Particle Size Effects of TiO2 Layers on the Solar Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large particle sizes having a strong light scattering lead to a significantly decreased surface area and small particle sizes having large surface area lack light-scattering effect. How to combine large and small particle sizes together is an interesting work for achieving higher solar efficiency. In this work, we investigate the solar performance influence of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs by the multiple titanium oxide (TiO2 layers with different particle sizes. It was found that the optimal TiO2 thickness depends on the particle sizes of TiO2 layers for achieving the maximum efficiency. The solar efficiency of DSSCs prepared by triple TiO2 layers with different particle sizes is higher than that by double TiO2 layers for the same TiO2 thickness. The choice of particle size in the bottom layer is more important than that in the top layer for achieving higher solar efficiency. The choice of the particle sizes in the middle layer depends on the particle sizes in the bottom and top layers. The mixing of the particle sizes in the middle layer is a good choice for achieving higher solar efficiency.

  15. Particle-size effect on the rate of TiO2 carbonizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekanova, T.L.; Ryabkov, Yu.I.; Sevbo, O.A.

    2003-01-01

    Dependence of recovery rate constant of titanium dioxide in TiO 2 -C system on the value of specific surface initial components at 1300 deg C was studied. It is shown that decrease in equivalent particle size of titanium dioxide and carbon particles in the range of 500-100 μm has a similar effect on increase in titanium dioxide recovery rate. Analysis of kinetic equations suggests diffusion character of titanium dioxide carbonizing at the values of initial components specific surface in excess of 100 m 2 /g [ru

  16. Heterogeneous reaction of HO2 with airborne TiO2 particles and its implication for climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Daniel R.; Taverna, Giorgio S.; Anduix-Canto, Clara; Ingham, Trevor; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Seakins, Paul W.; Baeza-Romero, Maria-Teresa; Heard, Dwayne E.

    2018-01-01

    One geoengineering mitigation strategy for global temperature rises resulting from the increased concentrations of greenhouse gases is to inject particles into the stratosphere to scatter solar radiation back to space, with TiO2 particles emerging as a possible candidate. Uptake coefficients of HO2, γ(HO2), onto sub-micrometre TiO2 particles were measured at room temperature and different relative humidities (RHs) using an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube coupled to a sensitive HO2 detector. Values of γ(HO2) increased from 0.021 ± 0.001 to 0.036 ± 0.007 as the RH was increased from 11 to 66 %, and the increase in γ(HO2) correlated with the number of monolayers of water surrounding the TiO2 particles. The impact of the uptake of HO2 onto TiO2 particles on stratospheric concentrations of HO2 and O3 was simulated using the TOMCAT three-dimensional chemical transport model. The model showed that, when injecting the amount of TiO2 required to achieve the same cooling effect as the Mt Pinatubo eruption, heterogeneous reactions between HO2 and TiO2 would have a negligible effect on stratospheric concentrations of HO2 and O3.

  17. Heterogeneous reaction of HO2 with airborne TiO2 particles and its implication for climate change mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Moon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One geoengineering mitigation strategy for global temperature rises resulting from the increased concentrations of greenhouse gases is to inject particles into the stratosphere to scatter solar radiation back to space, with TiO2 particles emerging as a possible candidate. Uptake coefficients of HO2, γ(HO2, onto sub-micrometre TiO2 particles were measured at room temperature and different relative humidities (RHs using an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube coupled to a sensitive HO2 detector. Values of γ(HO2 increased from 0.021 ± 0.001 to 0.036 ± 0.007 as the RH was increased from 11 to 66 %, and the increase in γ(HO2 correlated with the number of monolayers of water surrounding the TiO2 particles. The impact of the uptake of HO2 onto TiO2 particles on stratospheric concentrations of HO2 and O3 was simulated using the TOMCAT three-dimensional chemical transport model. The model showed that, when injecting the amount of TiO2 required to achieve the same cooling effect as the Mt Pinatubo eruption, heterogeneous reactions between HO2 and TiO2 would have a negligible effect on stratospheric concentrations of HO2 and O3.

  18. CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes: particle size dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakar, K; Minkyu, S; Inyoung, S; Heeje, K

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) with different particle sizes have been used as an inorganic co-sensitizer in addition to organic dye for large band gap mesoporous TiO 2 dye sensitized solar cells. The QDs co-sensitized solar cells exhibited overall highest conversion efficiency of 3.65% at 1 sun irradiation for 3.3 nm particle size corresponding to a visible light absorption wavelength of 528 nm. The photovoltaic characteristics of CdSe QDs co-sensitized cells depend on the particle sizes rather than broad spectral light absorption as compared with CdSe QDs alone sensitized and standard dye-sensitized solar cells. Correlation between CdSe QDs adsorption on mesoporous TiO 2 surfaces and photoelectron injection into TiO 2 has been demonstrated. (fast track communication)

  19. Anisotropic Metal Deposition on TiO2 Particles by Electric-Field-Induced Charge Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewcharoen, Supakit; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Lapeyre, Veronique; Garrigue, Patrick; Fourier, Lucas; Elissalde, Catherine; Buffière, Sonia; Legros, Philippe; Gayot, Marion; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2017-09-11

    Deposition of metals on TiO 2 semiconductor particles (M-TiO 2 ) results in hybrid Janus objects combining the properties of both materials. One of the techniques proposed to generate Janus particles is bipolar electrochemistry (BPE). The concept can be applied in a straightforward way for the site-selective modification of conducting particles, but is much less obvious to use for semiconductors. Herein we report the bulk synthesis of anisotropic M-TiO 2 particles based on the synergy of BPE and photochemistry, allowing the intrinsic limitations, when they are used separately, to be overcome. When applying electric fields during irradiation, electrons and holes can be efficiently separated, thus breaking the symmetry of particles by modifying them selectively and in a wireless way on one side with either gold or platinum. Such hybrid materials are an important first step towards high-performance designer catalyst particles, for example for photosplitting of water. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Passivation of pigment-grade TiO2 particles by nanothick atomic layer deposited SiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, David M; Liang Xinhua; Weimer, Alan W; Burton, Beau B; Akhtar, M Kamal

    2008-01-01

    Pigment-grade TiO 2 particles were passivated using nanothick insulating films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Conformal SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers were coated onto anatase and rutile powders in a fluidized bed reactor. SiO 2 films were deposited using tris-dimethylaminosilane (TDMAS) and H 2 O 2 at 500 deg. C. Trimethylaluminum and water were used as precursors for Al 2 O 3 ALD at 177 deg. C. The photocatalytic activity of anatase pigment-grade TiO 2 was decreased by 98% after the deposition of 2 nm SiO 2 films. H 2 SO 4 digest tests were performed to exhibit the pinhole-free nature of the coatings and the TiO 2 digest rate was 40 times faster for uncoated TiO 2 than SiO 2 coated over a 24 h period. Mass spectrometry was used to monitor reaction progress and allowed for dosing time optimization. These results demonstrate that the TDMAS-H 2 O 2 chemistry can deposit high quality, fully dense SiO 2 films on high radius of curvature substrates. Particle ALD is a viable passivation method for pigment-grade TiO 2 particles

  1. A novel synthesis method for TiO2 particles with magnetic Fe3O4 cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qi; Zhang, Keqiang; An, Yi

    2014-01-01

    TiO2@(AC/Fe3O4) (AC is activated carbon) was prepared by using AC and Fe3O4 as joint support. The morphological features, crystal structure, and magnetism of the final product were characterized. The results indicate that TiO2 particles formed on the surface of AC and Fe3O4; the sizes of TiO2 and Fe3O4 were 0.5 and 0.7 μm respectively, and that of AC fell within a wide range. The highly crystalline cubic structures of the TiO2 particles was in accord with the standard X-ray diffractometry spectrum of magnetite and anatase. The maximum saturation magnetization of TiO2@(AC/Fe3O4) was 75 emu g(-1), which was enough to support magnetic recovery. The rate of methylene blue (MB) removal photocatalyzed by TiO2@(AC/Fe3O4) was higher by 50% than that achieved with AC/Fe3O4 photocatalysis, and similar to that achieved with TiO2@AC. The removal rate (kobs) decreased drastically from 1.77 × 10(-2) to 9.36 × 10(-3)min(-1) when the initial concentration of MB solution increased from 2.0 to 5.0 mg L(-1). The kobs value increased from 9.41 × 10(-3) to 1.34 × 10(-2)min(-1) with increasing photocatalyst dosage from 0.2 to 1.0 g, then slightly decreased to 1.33 × 10(-2)min(-1) at 2.0 g dosage.

  2. Impact of nano and bulk ZrO2, TiO2 particles on soil nutrient contents and PGPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2013-01-01

    Currently, nanometal oxides are used extensively in different industries such as medicine, cosmetics and food. The increased consumption of nanoparticles (NPs) leads the necessity to understand the fate of the nanoparticles in the environment. The present study focused on the ecotoxicological behaviour of bulk and nano ZrO2 (Zirconia) and TiO2 (Titania) particles on PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria), soil and its nutrient contents. The microbial susceptibility study showed that nano TiO2 had 13 +/- 0.9 mm (B. megaterium), 15 +/- 0.2 mm (P. fluorescens), 16 +/- 0.2 mm (A. vinelandii) and 12 +/- 0.3 mm (B. brevis) zones of inhibition. However, nano and bulk ZrO2 particles were non-toxic to PGPR. In addition, it was found that toxicity varied depends on the medium of reaction. The soil study showed that nano TiO2 was found to be highly toxic, whereas bulk TiO2 was less toxic towards soil bacterial populations at 1000 mg L(-1). In contrast, nano and bulk ZrO2 were found to be inert at 1000 mg L(-1). The observed zeta potential and hydrophobicity of TiO2 particles causes more toxic than ZrO2 in parallel with particle size. However, nano TiO2 decreases the microbial population as well as nutrient level of the soil but not zirconia. Our finding shows that the mechanism of toxicity depends on size, hydrophobic potential and zeta potential of the metal oxide particles. Thus, it is necessary to take safety measures during the disposal and use of such toxic nanoparticles in the soil to prevent their hazardous effects.

  3. Aqueous Hg(2+) associates with TiO2 nanoparticles according to particle size, changes particle agglomeration, and becomes less bioavailable to zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Halis; Boyle, David; Altinok, Ilhan; Patsiou, Danae; Henry, Theodore B

    2016-05-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have unique physicochemistry and potential to interact with other substances in the aqueous phase. Here, gene [metallothionein 2 (mt2)] expression changes in larval zebrafish were used to evaluate the association between aqueous Hg(2+) and TiO2 (NPs and bulk particle size control) to investigate the relationship between changes in Hg(2+) behavior and TiO2 size. During 24h exposures, TiO2 agglomerates increased in size and in the presence of 25μg Hg(2+)/L, greater increases in size were observed. The concentration of Hg(2+) in suspension also decreased in the presence of TiO2-NPs. Mercury increased expression of mt2 in larval zebrafish, but this response was lessened when zebrafish were exposed to Hg(2+) in the presence of TiO2-NPs, and which suggests that TiO2-NPs alter the bioavailability of Hg(2+) to zebrafish larvae. This ameliorative effect of TiO2 was also likely due to surface binding of Hg(2+) because a greater decrease in mt2 expression was observed in the presence of 1mg/L TiO2-NPs than 1mg/L TiO2-bulk. In conclusion, the results show that Hg(2+) will associate with TiO2-NPs, TiO2-NPs that have associated Hg(2+) will settle out of the aqueous phase more rapidly, and agglomerates will deliver associated Hg(2+) to sediment surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microstructure and corrosion performance of steam-based conversion coatings produced in the presence of TiO2 particles on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    The steam-based conversion coatings containing TiO2 particleswere prepared using a two-step process comprising of spin coating of particles onto an aluminiumsubstrate followed by a high-pressure steam treatment. Process has resulted in the formation of aluminium oxide layer (~1.3 μm thick) embedded...... to the coatings without TiO2 particles, while the shift in thepitting potential was a function of the steam treatment time and degree of particle incorporation into the oxide....... with TiO2 particles. The electrochemical measurements showthe beneficial effect of TiO2 particles in the oxide layer by exhibiting lowestanodic and cathodic activities, and reduced pit depth. The presence of TiO2 particles shifts the corrosion potentialvalues to positive side (noble side) when compared...

  5. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Antti J; Jensen, Alexander C Ø; Kling, Kirsten I; Kling, Jens; Budtz, Hans Christian; Koponen, Ismo K; Tuinman, Ilse; Hussein, Tareq; Jensen, Keld A; Nørgaard, Asger; Levin, Marcus

    2018-01-05

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO 2 )-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m 3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm to 31μm-size particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as well as particle deposition onto room surfaces and on the spray gun user hand. The particle emission and deposition rates were quantified using aerosol mass balance modelling. The geometric mean particle number emission rate was 1.9×10 10 s -1 and the mean mass emission rate was 381μgs -1 . The respirable mass emission-rate was 65% lower than observed for the entire measured size-range. The mass emission rates were linearly scalable (±ca. 20%) to the process duration. The particle deposition rates were up to 15h -1 for deposited particles consisted of mainly TiO 2 , TiO 2 mixed with Cl and/or Ag, TiO 2 particles coated with carbon, and Ag particles with size ranging from 60nm to ca. 5μm. As expected, no significant VOC emissions were observed as a result of spraying. Finally, we provide recommendations for exposure model parameterization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of TiO2/Al2O3 film coated diamond abrasive particles by sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weida; Wan, Long; Liu, Xiaopan; Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhiqi

    2011-04-01

    The diamond abrasive particles were coated with the TiO2/Al2O3 film by the sol-gel technique. Compared with the uncoated diamonds, the TiO2/Al2O3 film was excellent material for the protection of the diamonds. The results showed that the incipient oxidation temperature of the TiO2/Al2O3 film coated diamonds in air atmosphere was 775 °C, which was higher 175 °C than that of the uncoated diamonds. And the coated diamonds also had better the diamond's single particle compressive strength and the impact toughness than that of uncoated diamonds after sintering at 750 °C. For the vitrified bond grinding wheels, replacing the uncoated diamonds with the TiO2/Al2O3 film coated diamonds, the volume expansion of the grinding wheels decreased from 6.2% to 3.4%, the porosity decreased from 35.7% to 25.7%, the hardness increased from 61.2HRC to 66.5HRC and the grinding ratio of the vitrified bond grinding wheels to carbide alloy (YG8) increased from 11.5 to 19.1.

  7. Quantitative characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle release from textiles by conventional and single particle ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2018-01-01

    TiO2 is ubiquitously present in a wide range of everyday items, both as an intentionally incorporated additive and naturally occurring constituent. It can be found in a wide range of consumer products, including personal care products, food contact materials, and textiles. Normal use of these products may lead to consumer and/or environmental exposure to TiO2, possibly in form of nanoparticles. The aim of this study is to perform a leaching test and apply state-of-the-art methods to investigate nano-TiO2 and total Ti release from five types of commercially available conventional textiles: table placemats, wet wipes, microfiber cloths, and two types of baby bodysuits, with Ti contents ranging from 2.63 to 1448 μg/g. Released particle analysis was performed using conventional and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and spICP-MS), in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to measure total and particulate TiO2 release by mass and particle number, as well as size distribution. Less than 1% of the initial Ti content was released over 24 h of leaching, with the highest releases reaching 3.13 μg/g. The fraction of nano-TiO2 released varied among fabric types and represented 0-80% of total TiO2 release. Particle mode sizes were 50-75 nm, and TEM imaging revealed particles in sizes of 80-200 nm. This study highlights the importance of using a multi-method approach to obtain quantitative release data that is able to provide an indication regarding particle number, size distribution, and mass concentration, all of which can help in understanding the fate and exposure of nanoparticles.

  8. Single particle analysis of TiO2 in candy products using triple quadrupole ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candás-Zapico, S; Kutscher, D J; Montes-Bayón, M; Bettmer, J

    2018-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) belongs to the materials that have gained great importance in many applications. In its particulate form (micro- or nanoparticles), it has entered a huge number of consumer products and food-grade TiO 2 , better known as E171 within the European Union, represents an important food additive. Thus, there is an increasing need for analytical methods able to detect and quantify such particles. In this regard, inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in particular single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS), has gained importance due to its simplicity and ease of use. Nevertheless, the number of applications for Ti nanoparticles is rather limited. In this study, we have applied the spICP-MS strategy by comparing different measuring modes available in triple quadrupole ICP-MS. First, single quadrupole mode using the collision/reaction cell system was selected for monitoring the isotope 47 Ti. Different cell gases like He, O 2 and NH 3 were tested under optimised conditions for its applicability in spICP-MS of standard suspensions of TiO 2 . The determined analytical figures of merit were compared to those obtained by triple quadrupole mode using the 47 Ti or 48 Ti reaction products using O 2 and NH 3 as reaction gases. This comparison demonstrated that the triple quadrupole mode (TQ mode) was superior in terms of sensitivity due to the more efficient removal of spectral interferences. Particle size detection limits down to 26nm were obtained using the best instrumental conditions for TiO 2 particles at a dwell time of 10ms. Finally, the different measuring modes were applied to the analysis of chewing gum samples after a simple extraction procedure using an ultrasonic bath. The obtained results showed a good agreement for the detected particle size range using the different TQ modes. The size range of TiO 2 particles was determined to be between approximately 30 and 200nm, whereas roughly 40% of the particles were smaller than 100nm. For the

  9. The photovoltaic efficiency of the fabrication of copolymer P3HT:PCBM on different thickness nano-anatase titania as solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazim, Haidar Gazy; Ajeel, Khalid I.; Badran, Hussain A.

    2015-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) with an inverted structure have been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) as their electron transport layer, which was prepared on the indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO-glass), silicon wafer and glass substrates by sol-gel method at different spin speed by using spin-coating (1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm) for nano-thin film 58, 75 and 90 nm respectively. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and optical properties of TiO2 layer were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The optical band gap of the films has been found to be in the range 3.63-3.96 eV for allowed direct transition and to be in the range 3.23-3.69 eV for forbidden direct transition to the different TiO2 thickness. The samples were examined to feature current and voltages darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell where they were getting the highest open-circuit voltage, Voc, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39% fabricated with 90 nm respectively.

  10. The photovoltaic efficiency of the fabrication of copolymer P3HT:PCBM on different thickness nano-anatase titania as solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazim, Haidar Gazy; Ajeel, Khalid I; Badran, Hussain A

    2015-06-15

    Organic solar cells based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) with an inverted structure have been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) as their electron transport layer, which was prepared on the indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO-glass), silicon wafer and glass substrates by sol-gel method at different spin speed by using spin-coating (1000, 2000 and 3,000 rpm) for nano-thin film 58, 75 and 90 nm respectively. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and optical properties of TiO2 layer were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The optical band gap of the films has been found to be in the range 3.63-3.96 eV for allowed direct transition and to be in the range 3.23-3.69 eV for forbidden direct transition to the different TiO2 thickness. The samples were examined to feature current and voltages darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell where they were getting the highest open-circuit voltage, Voc, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39% fabricated with 90 nm respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bactericidal effect of blue LED light irradiated TiO2/Fe3O4 particles on fish pathogen in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.C.; Yao, K.S.; Yeh, N.; Chang, C.I.; Hsu, H.C.; Gonzalez, F.; Chang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses blue LED light (λ max = 475 nm) activated TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 particles to evaluate the particles' photocatalytic activity efficiency and bactericidal effects in seawater of variable salinities. Different TiO 2 to Fe 3 O 4 mole ratios have been synthesized using sol-gel method. The synthesized particles contain mainly anatase TiO 2 , Fe 3 O 4 and FeTiO 3 . The study has identified TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 's bactericidal effect to marine fish pathogen (Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida BCRC17065) in seawater. The SEM photo reveals the surface destruction in bacteria incubated with blue LED irradiated TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 . The result of this study indicates that 1) TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 acquires photocatalytic activities in both the freshwater and the seawater via blue LED irradiation, 2) higher photocatalytic activities appear in solutions of higher TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 mole ratio, and 3) photocatalytic activity decreases as salinity increases. These results suggest that the energy saving blue LED light is a feasible light source to activate TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 photocatalytic activities in both freshwater and seawater.

  12. Chemical modification of polysulfone: composite anionic exchange membrane with TiO2 nano-particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, PT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available -chemical properties studied by means of SEM and XRD techniques suggested the uniform and homogeneous distribution of TiO2 at 2.5wt. % loading, and negligible agglomeration at 10wt % loading, also indicated enhancement of crystalline character of these membranes...

  13. Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Added TiO2 Particles: Physicomechanical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Guzmán-Aponte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the TiO2 addition on the physicomechanical properties of a geopolymer system based on metakaolin (MK and hydroxide and potassium silicate as activators is presented in this article. Three different liquid-solid systems (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45 and two titanium additions were investigated (5% and 10% of the cement content. The flowability, setting time, and mechanical strength of the geopolymer mixtures and their microstructural characteristics were evaluated using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was concluded that a percentage of up to 10% TiO2 does not affect the mechanical properties of the geopolymer, although it does reduce the fluidity and setting times of the mixture.

  14. Dietary TiO2 particles modulate expression of hormone-related genes in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guofang; Zhan, Pengfei; Jin, Weiming; Fei, JianMing; Zhao, Lihua

    2017-08-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically beneficial insect. Its growth and development are regulated by endogenous hormones. In the present study, we found that feeding titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NP) caused a significant increase of body size. TiO 2 NP stimulated the transcription of several genes, including the insulin-related hormone bombyxin, PI3K/Akt/TOR (where PI3K is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and TOR is target of rapamycin), and the adenosine 5'-monophosphateactivated protein kinase (AMPK)/target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis documented 26 developmental hormone signaling related genes that were differentially expressed following dietary TiO 2 NP treatment. qPCR analysis confirmed the upregulation of insulin/ecdysteroid signaling genes, such as bombyxin B-1, bombyxin B-4, bombyxin B-7, MAPK, P70S6K, PI3k, eIF4E, E75, ecdysteroid receptor (EcR), and insulin-related peptide binding protein precursor 2 (IBP2). We infer from the upregulated expression of bombyxins and the signaling network that they act in bombyxin-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Undoped TiO2 particles as photoactive material for integrated metal-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Joel; Calleja, Wilfrido; Hernández, Luis; Zúñiga, Carlos; Linares, Monico; Wade, F. Javier

    2015-01-01

    Rutile-phase undoped TiO 2 nanoparticles are embedded within an organic SiO 2 matrix and the final dielectric mixture is then deposited by spinning on a thin film of aluminum (previously deposited on glass covers by e-beam evaporation). This so called “horizontal” TiO 2 -SiO 2 /Al/Glass structure is then electrically characterized under dark and light conditions (I-V-light) so that the total resistance of a simple aluminum stripe is measured and correlated before and after UV-Vis irradiation. Compared to dark conditions, excess carriers are photogenerated within the TiO 2 nanoparticles during light exposure and they are directly transferred to both ends of the aluminum stripe after applying a low potential difference (photoresistor). On the other hand, “vertical” structures using ultra-thin titanium films as a gate electrode produce a capacitor in the form of a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) structure. Because of the ultra-thin titanium layer, this gate electrode is highly transparent to all UV-Vis irradiation so that when all carriers are being photogenerated, a vertical transition of these carriers between top/bottom (Ti/Al) electrodes by an applied external electric field would require a shorter distance thus increasing their lifetime before recombination as compared to the horizontal structures. These vertical structures are able to photogenerate carriers more efficiently and they are similar in function to that of a so-called photocapacitor, where all carriers could be efficiently stored within the dielectric itself right after photogeneration. Therefore, a light-driven self-charging capacitor having an efficient storage mechanism of solar energy could be obtained. (full text)

  16. Size-dependent photodegradation of CdS particles deposited onto TiO2 mesoporous films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Rasin; Will, Geoffrey; Bell, John; Wang Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    The particle size, size distribution and photostability of CdS nanoparticles incorporated onto mesoporous TiO 2 films by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, UV–Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution TEM indicated that the synthesized CdS particles were hexagonal phase and the particle sizes were less than 5 nm for up to nine SILAR deposition cycles. Quantum size effect was found with the CdS-sensitized TiO 2 films prepared with up to nine SILAR cycles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles decreased from 2.65 to 2.37 eV with the increase of the SILAR cycles from 1 to 11. The investigation of the stability of the CdS/TiO 2 films in air under illumination (440.6 μW/cm 2 ) showed that the photodegradation rate was up to 85 % per day for the sample prepared with three SILAR cycles. XPS analysis indicated that the photodegradation was due to the oxidation of CdS, leading to the transformation from sulphide to sulphate (CdSO 4 ). Furthermore, the degradation rate was strongly dependent upon the particle size of CdS. Smaller particles showed faster degradation rate. The size-dependent photo-induced oxidization was rationalized with the variation of size-dependent distribution of surface atoms of CdS particles. Molecular dynamics-based theoretical calculation has indicated that the surface sulphide anion of a large CdS particle such as CdS made with 11 cycles (CdS × 11, average particle size = 5.6 nm) accounts for 9.6 % of the material whereas this value is increased to 19.2 % for (CdS × 3)-based smaller particles (average particle size = 2.7 nm). The photostability of CdS nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when coated with ZnS particles deposited with four SILAR cycles. The growth mechanism of ZnS upon CdS nanoparticles was discussed.

  17. Rapid thermal melted TiO2 nano-particles into ZnO nano-rod and its application for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Ching-Hsun; Chang, Chi-Lung; Chan, Chien-Hung; Lien, Shui-Yang; Weng, Ko-Wei; Yao, Kuo-Shan

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 nano-particles with an anchored ZnO nano-rod structure were synthesized using the hydrothermal method to grow ZnO nano-rods and coated TiO 2 nano-particles on ZnO nano-rods using the rapid thermal annealing method on ITO conducting glass pre-coated with nano porous TiO 2 film. The XRD study showed that there was little difference in crystal composition for various types of TiO 2 nano-particles anchored to ZnO nano-rods. The as-prepared architecture was characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Films with TiO 2 nano-particles anchored to ZnO nano-rods were used as electrode materials to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The best solar energy conversion efficiency of 2.397% was obtained by modified electrode material, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J sc = 15.382 mA/cm 2 , V oc = 0.479 V and fill factor = 32.8%.

  18. High Photocatalytic Activity of Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 Functional Particles with Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method of synthesizing Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles with the core-shell structure. The Fe3O4 cores which were mainly superparamagnetic were synthesized through a novel carbon reduction method. The Fe3O4 cores were then modified with SiO2 and finally encapsulated with TiO2 by the sol-gel method. The results of characterizations showed that the encapsulated 700 nm Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 particles have a relatively uniform size distribution, an anatase TiO2 shell, and suitable magnetic properties for allowing collection in a magnetic field. These magnetic properties, large area, relative high saturation intensity, and low retentive magnetism make the particles have high dispersibility in suspension and yet enable them to be recovered well using magnetic fields. The functionality of these particles was tested by measuring the photocatalytic activity of the decolouring of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under ultraviolet light and sunlight. The results showed that the introduction of the Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles significantly increased the decoloration rate so that an MO solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L could be decoloured completely within 180 minutes. The particles were recovered after utilization, washing, and drying and the primary recovery ratio was 87.5%.

  19. Semiconducting polymer-incorporated nanocrystalline TiO2 particles for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Fuguo; Wu Jihuai; Li Qingbei; Wang Yue; Yue Gentian; Xiao Yaoming; Li Qinghua; Lan Zhang; Fan Leqing; Lin Jianming; Huang Miaoliang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A P3HT-PCBM/TiO 2 trinary hybrid solar cell has been fabricated. → P3HT-PCBM heterojunction replaces the dye and electrolyte in dye-sensitized cell, → Which simplifies preparation procedure and decreases the device cost. → The hybrid cell achieves a light-to-electric conversion efficiency of 2.61%. - Abstract: In this work, we study hybrid solar cells based on blends of the semiconducting polymer poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl (PCBM) coated titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanocrystal film. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), UV-vis absorption spectra and PL quenching researches show that the films had a stronger absorption in visible light range. The influence of the PCBM:P3OT ratio were researched and the optimized ratio of PCBM to P3OT (1:1.5) exhibit a short circuit current of 4.42 mA cm -2 , an open circuit voltage of 0.81 V, a fill factor of 0.73 and a light-to-electric conversion efficiency of 2.61% under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 .

  20. Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2-noble metal particles for sensitive detection of water pollutants by SERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baia, M; Melinte, G; Iancu, V; Baia, L; Barbu-Tudoran, L; Diamandescu, L; Cosoveanu, V; Danciu, V

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2 aerogel and silver colloidal particles were prepared by different methods in order to study their capacity to detect pollutant species adsorbed on metallic nanoparticles surface from aqueous solution. The efficiency of the obtained composites to detect contaminants from water by means of SERS was evaluated using acrylamide and crystal violet as test molecules. It was found that the detection limits depend both on pollutant and composite type, and were determined to be in the range of 10 -1 -10 -4 M for acrylamide and around 10 -5 M for the dye molecule. These results prove the potential of the prepared porous composites for further use in the development of new SERS-based sensors devices.

  1. Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2-noble metal particles for sensitive detection of water pollutants by SERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baia, M; Melinte, G; Iancu, V; Baia, L [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, 400084, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Barbu-Tudoran, L [Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babes-Bolyai University, 400015, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Diamandescu, L [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Cosoveanu, V; Danciu, V, E-mail: lucian.baia@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2011-07-06

    Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2 aerogel and silver colloidal particles were prepared by different methods in order to study their capacity to detect pollutant species adsorbed on metallic nanoparticles surface from aqueous solution. The efficiency of the obtained composites to detect contaminants from water by means of SERS was evaluated using acrylamide and crystal violet as test molecules. It was found that the detection limits depend both on pollutant and composite type, and were determined to be in the range of 10{sup -1}-10{sup -4} M for acrylamide and around 10{sup -5} M for the dye molecule. These results prove the potential of the prepared porous composites for further use in the development of new SERS-based sensors devices.

  2. MIL-125-NH2@TiO2 Core-Shell Particles Produced by a Post-Solvothermal Route for High-Performance Photocatalytic H2 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingxing; Zhang, Jianling; Tan, Xiuniang; Shao, Dan; Shi, Jinbiao; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Guanying; Han, Buxing

    2018-05-02

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have proven to be an interesting class of sacrificial precursors of functional inorganic materials for catalysis, energy storage, and conversion applications. However, the controlled synthesis of MOF-derived materials with desirable compositions, structures, and properties still remains a big challenge. Herein, we propose a post-solvothermal route for the outer-to-inner loss of organic linkers from MOF, which is simple, rapid, and controllable and can be operated at temperature much lower than that of the commonly adopted pyrolysis method. By such a strategy, the MIL-125-NH 2 particles coated by TiO 2 nanosheets were produced, and the thickness of TiO 2 shell can be easily tuned. The MIL-125-NH 2 @TiO 2 core-shell particles combine the advantages of highly active TiO 2 nanosheets, MIL-125-NH 2 photosensitizer, plenty of linker defects and oxygen vacancies, and mesoporous structure, which allows them to be utilized as photocatalysts for the visible-light-driven hydrogen production reaction. It is remarkable that the hydrogen evolution rate by MIL-125-NH 2 @TiO 2 can be enhanced 70 times compared with the pristine MIL-125-NH 2 . Such a route can be easily applied to the synthesis of different kinds of MOF-derived functional materials.

  3. Modulation of physiological responses with TiO2 nano-particle in Azolla pinnata R.Br. under 2,4-D toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Arnab Kumar; Ghosh, Arijit; Debnath, Subhas Chandra; Sarkar, Bipul; Saha, Indraneel; Adak, Malay Kumar

    2018-06-05

    The present work is emphasised with the herbicidal tolerance of Azolla pinnata R.Br. and its modulation with TiO 2 nano-particle. Both carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism were effected with 2,4-D as herbicide and in few cases TiO 2 -NP had recovered few detrimental effects. From the nutrient status in Azolla it recorded the recovery of nitrogen as well as potassium by TiO 2 -NP but not in case of phosphorus. However, a conversion of nitrate to ammonium was more induced by TiO 2 -NP under herbicidal toxicity. Similar results were obtained for inter-conversion of amino acid-nitrate pool, but no changes with glutamine synthase activity with TiO 2 -NP. Initially, the effects of 2,4-D was monitored with changes of chlorophyll content but had not been recovered with nanoparticle. Photosynthetic reserves expressed as both total and reducing sugar were insensitive to TiO 2 -NP interference but activity of soluble and wall bound invertase was in reverse trend as compared to control. The 2,4-D mediated changes of redox and its oxidative stress was ameliorated in plants with over expressed ADH activity. As a whole the Azolla bio system with TiO 2 supplementation may be useful in sustenance against 2,4-D toxicity through recovery of nitrogen metabolism. Thus, Azolla-TiO 2 -NP bio system would be realised to monitor the herbicidal toxicity in soil and its possible bioremediation.

  4. The influence of TiO2 particle size and conductivity of the CuCrO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    38

    Keywords: Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, Sol-Gel method, TiO2 nanoparticle, .... at 2.0 by dropwise addition of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid with vigorous stirring. The ... The TiO2 pastes were prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel method [26, 27].

  5. α″ Martensite and Amorphous Phase Transformation Mechanism in TiNbTaZr Alloy Incorporated with TiO2 Particles During Friction Stir Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Ruoshi; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Liqiang; Lu, Eryi; Xie, Lechun; Lu, Weijie; Wang, Kuaishe; Zhang, Lai-Chang

    2018-06-01

    This work studied the formation of the α″ martensite and amorphous phases of TiNbTaZr alloy incorporated with TiO2 particles during friction stir processing. Formation of the amorphous phase in the top surface mainly results from the dissolution of oxygen, rearrangement of the lattice structure, and dislocations. High-stress stemming caused by dislocations and high-stress concentrations at crystal-amorphous interfaces promote the formation of α″ martensite. Meanwhile, an α″ martensitic transformation is hindered by oxygen diffusion from TiO2 to the matrix, thereby increasing resistance to shear.

  6. Effect of the nanosized TiO2 particles in Pd/C catalysts as cathode materials in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mahnsoo; Han, Choonsoo; Kim, In-Tae; Lee, Ji-Jung; Lee, Hong-Ki; Shim, Joongpyo

    2011-07-01

    Pd-TiO2/C catalysts were prepared by impregnating titanium dioxide (TiO2) on carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) for use as the catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried to confirm the distribution, morphology and structure of Pd and TiO2 on the carbon support. In fuel cell test, we confirmed that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles make the improved catalytic activity of oxygen reduction. The electrochemical characterization of the Pd-TiO2/C catalyst for the ORR was carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in the voltage window of 0.04 V to 1.2 V with scan rate of 25 mV/s. With the increase in the crystallite size of TiO2, the peak potential for OH(ads) desorption on the surface of Pd particle shifted to higher potential. This implies that TiO2 might affect the adsorption and desorption of oxygen molecules on Pd catalyst. The performance of Pd-TiO2/C as a cathode material was found to be similar to or better performance than that of Pt/C.

  7. Synthesis of BaTiO3 nanoparticles from TiO2-coated BaCO3 particles derived using a wet-chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Mochizuki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BaCO3 particles coated with amorphous TiO2 precursor are prepared by a wet chemical method to produce BaTiO3 nanoparticles at low temperatures. Subsequently, we investigate the formation behavior of BaTiO3 particles and the particle growth behavior when the precursor is subjected to heat treatment. The state of the amorphous TiO2 coating on the surface of BaCO3 particles depends on the concentration of NH4HCO3, and the optimum concentration is found to be in the range 0.5–1.0 M. Thermogravimetric curves of the BaCO3 particles coated with the TiO2 precursor, prepared from BaCO3 particles of various sizes, show BaTiO3 formation occurring mainly at 550–650 °C in the case of fine BaCO3 particles. However, as evidenced from the curves, the temperature of formation of BaTiO3 shifts to higher values with an increase in the size of the BaCO3 particles. The average particle size of single phase BaTiO3 at heat-treatment temperature of 650–900 °C is observed to be in the range 60–250 nm.

  8. Effect of nano particle sizes on the third-order optical non-linearities and nanostructure of copolymer P3HT:PCBM thin film for organic photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, Hussain Ali; Ajeel, Khalid I.; Lazim, Haidar Gazy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Active layer (P3HT:PCBM) has been deposited on substrate type by spin coating at 1000 rpm. • The device was completed by evaporating a 60 nm thick, circular gold electrodes onto the P3HT:PCBM. • Nonlinear refractive indices of the three particle sizes are found to be of the order of 10"−"7 cm"2/W - Abstract: Organic solar cells are based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid with methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction. An inverted structure has been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide, as the electron transport layer, which was prepared on either the Indium Tin Oxide coated glass (ITO—glass), or Silicon wafer, as well as on glass substrates by the sol–gel method, at different spin speed, using the spin-coating system. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and on the optical properties of TiO_2 layer, was investigated using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible spectrophotometer. The samples were examined to feature currents and voltages, in the darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell. The highest open-circuit voltage, V_o_c, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39%, fabricated with 90 nm, respectively. The non-linear optical properties of nano-anatase TiO_2 sol–gel, were investigated at different particle sizes, using the z-scan technique.

  9. Thermoplastic starch composites with TiO2 particles: preparation, morphology, rheology and mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Mikešová, Jana; Krejčíková, Sabina; Nevoralová, Martina; Šturcová, Adriana; Zhigunov, Alexander; Michálková, Danuše; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 101, August (2017), s. 273-282 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : thermoplastic starch * titanium dioxide particles * morphology Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 3.671, year: 2016

  10. Effect of ambient pressure on the crystalline phase of nano TiO2 particles synthesized by a dc thermal plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, I.; Karmakar, Soumen; Kulkarni, Naveen V.; Nawale, Ashok B.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) with varying percentages of anatase and rutile phases is reported. This was achieved by controlling the operating pressure in a transferred-arc, direct current thermal plasma reactor in which titanium vapors are evaporated, and then exposed to ambient oxygen. The average particle size remained around 15 nm in each case. The crystalline structure of the as-synthesized nanoparticles of TiO 2 was studied with X-ray diffraction analysis; whereas the particle morphology was investigated with the help of transmission electron microscopy. The precursor species responsible for the growth of these nanoparticles was studied with the help of optical emission spectroscopy. As inferred from the X-ray diffraction analysis, the relative abundance of anatase TiO 2 was found to be dominant when synthesized at 760 Torr, and the same showed a decreasing trend with decreasing chamber pressure. The study also reveals that anatase TiO 2 is a more effective photocatalytic agent in degrading methylene blue by comparison to its rutile phase.

  11. Study of different 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) concentration on TiO2 particles based IDE for cervical cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raqeema, S.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    HPV that also called Human Papillomaviruses is the major cause of the cervical cancer. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are the two types of HPV are the most HPV-associated cancers and responsible as a high-risk HPV. Cervical cancer taken about 70 percent of all cases due HPV infections. Cervical malignancy for the most part development on a lady's cervix and its was developed slowly as cancer disease. TiO2 particles give better performance and low cost of the biosensor. The used of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) will be more efficient for DNA nanochip. APTES used as absorption reaction to immobilize organic biomolecules on the inorganic surface. Besides, APTES give better functionalization of the adsorption mechanism on IDE. The surface functionalized for immobilizing the DNA, which is the combination of the DNA probe and the HPV target produce high sensitivity andfast detection of the IDE. The Current-Voltage (IV) characteristic proved the sensitivity of the DNA nanochip increase as the concentration varied from 0% concentration to 24% of APTES concentration.

  12. Thermoplastic starch composites with TiO2 particles: Preparation, morphology, rheology and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafińska, A; Mikešová, J; Krejčíková, S; Nevoralová, M; Šturcová, A; Zhigunov, A; Michálková, D; Šlouf, M

    2017-08-01

    Composites of thermoplastic starch (TPS) with titanium dioxide particles (mTiO 2 ; average size 0.1μm) with very homogeneous matrix and well-dispersed filler were prepared by a two-step method, including solution casting (SC) followed by melt mixing (MM). Light and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that only the two-step procedure (SC+MM) resulted in ideally homogeneous TPS/mTiO 2 systems. The composites prepared by single-step MM contained non-plasticized starch granules and the composites prepared by single-step SC suffered from mTiO 2 agglomeration. Dynamic mechanical measurements showed an increase modulus with increasing filler concentration. In TPS containing 3wt.% of mTiO 2 the stiffness was enhanced by >40%. Further experiments revealed that the recommended addition of chitosan or the exchange of mTiO 2 for anisometric titanate nanotubes with high aspect ratio did not improve the properties of the composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of donor doping and acceptor doping on rutile TiO2 particles for photocatalytic O2 evolution by water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Fumiaki; Tosaki, Ryosuke; Sato, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Yamato

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline defects of photocatalyst particles may be considered to be the recombination center of photoexcited electrons and holes. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic activity of cation-doped rutile TiO2 photocatalysts for O2 evolution from an aqueous silver nitrate solution under ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 was enhanced by donor doping of Ta5+ and Nb5+ with a valence higher than that of Ti4+, regardless of increased density of electrons and Ti3+ species (an electron trapped in Ti4+ sites). Conversely, acceptor doping of lower valence cations such as In3+ and Ga3+ decreased photocatalytic activity for O2 evolution by water oxidation. The doping of equal valence cations such as Sn4+ and Ge4+ hardly changed the activity of non-doped TiO2. This study demonstrates that Ti3+ species, which is a crystalline defect, enhanced the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor oxides, for example rutile TiO2 with large crystalline size.

  14. Determination of the light-induced degradation rate of the solar cell sensitizer N719 on TiO2 nanocrystalline particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Doan Nguyen, Sau; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    The oxidative degradation rate, kdeg of the solar cell dye (Bu4N+)2 [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2]2–, referred to as N719 or [RuL2(NCS)2], was obtained by applying a simple model system. Colloidal solutions of N719-dyed TiO2 particles in acetonitrile were irradiated with 532-nm monochromatic light, and the ...

  15. Quantitative characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle release from textiles by conventional and single particle ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2018-01-01

    TiO2 is ubiquitously present in a wide range of everyday items, both as an intentionally incorporated additive and naturally occurring constituent. It can be found in a wide range of consumer products, including personal care products, food contact materials, and textiles. Normal use...

  16. Influence of TiO2 particle size and conductivity of the CuCrO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-28

    Nov 28, 2017 ... Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells; sol–gel method; TiO2 nanoparticle; CuCrO2 nanoparticles; electrical ... The purpose of this work is construction and optimization .... can be attributed to the electron transport mechanism.

  17. Analysis of silver particles incorporated on TiO2 coatings for the photodecomposition of o-cresol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Y.-L.; Chen, H.-W.; Ku, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Silver-modified TiO 2 (Ag-TiO 2 ) and pure TiO 2 coatings were prepared on sapphire substrates by dip-coating process for the photodecomposition of o-cresol. In order to investigate the behaviors of silver incorporated on TiO 2 surface coatings, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DRS), and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra were performed. Experimental results indicate that the silver on TiO 2 surface coatings were easily oxidized into silver oxide (Ag 2 O), because of the existence of Ag 2 O crystal phase in XRD spectrum and Ag 2+ -O and O 1s -Ag chemical bonding states in Ag 3d and O 1s narrow scans of XPS, respectively. PL spectra showed that as increasing the amount of silver incorporated, the PL intensity of Ag-TiO 2 coatings evidently decrease, which means that the Ag-TiO 2 coatings have higher efficiencies of charge carrier trapping, immigration and transferring, and subsequently promote the photodecomposition rate constants after the UV/TiO 2 process. An optimal composition of 0.50 wt.% Ag-TiO 2 coating for the photodecomposition of o-cresol correspond to a maximum photodecomposition rate constant (k value) of 0.01 min -1 as compared to that of the pure TiO 2 coatings (k = 0.0062 min -1 )

  18. Development of nanostructured porous TiO2 thick film with uniform spherical particles by a new polymeric gel process for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshayesh, A.M.; Mohammadi, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    A novel simple synthetic procedure for fabrication of high surface area nanostructured TiO 2 electrode with uniform particles for photovoltaic application is reported. Modifying the TiO 2 particulate sol by pH adjustment together with employment of a polymeric agent, so-called polymeric gel process, was developed. The polymeric gel process was used to deposit nanostructured thick electrode by dip coating incorporated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that deposited film was composed of primary nanoparticles with average crystallite size in the range 21-39 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images showed that deposited film had nanostructured and porous morphology containing uniform spherical particles with diameter about 2.5 μm. The spherical particles were made of small nanoparticles with average grain size of 60 nm improving light scattering and dye loading of the DSSC. Moreover, atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis verified that the roughness mean square of prepared electrode was low, enhancing electron transport to the counter electrode. Photovoltaic measurements showed that solar cell made of polymeric gel process had higher photovoltaic performance than that made of conventional paste. An enhancement of power conversion efficiency from 4.54%, for conventional paste, to 6.21%, for polymeric gel process, was achieved. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study showed that the recombination process in solar cell made of polymeric gel process was slower than that in solar cell made of conventional paste. The presented strategy would open up new insight into fabrication of low-cost TiO 2 DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency

  19. Factors affecting color strength of printing on film-coated tablets by UV laser irradiation: TiO2 particle size, crystal structure, or concentration in the film, and the irradiated UV laser power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Akihiro; Kato, Yoshiteru

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to study factors affecting color strength of printing on film-coated tablets by ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation: particle size, crystal structure, or concentration of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in film, and irradiated UV laser power. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films containing 4.0% of TiO2, of which BET particle sizes were ranging from 126.1 to 219.8 nm, were irradiated 3.14W of UV laser at a wavelength 355 nm to study effects of TiO2 particle size and crystal structure on the printing. The films containing TiO2 concentration ranging from 1.0 to 7.7% were irradiated 3.14 or 5.39W of the UV laser to study effect of TiO2 concentration on the printing. The film containing 4.0% of TiO2, was irradiated the UV laser up to 6.42W to study effect of the UV laser power on the printing. The color strength of the printed films was estimated by a spectrophotometer as total color difference (dE). Particle size, crystal structure, and concentration of TiO2 in the films did not affect the printing. In the relationship between the irradiated UV laser power and dE, there found an inflection point (1.6W). When the UV laser power was below 1.6W, the films were not printed. When it was beyond the point, total color difference increased linearly in proportion with the irradiated laser power. The color strength of the printing on film was not changed by TiO2 particle size, crystal structure, and concentration, but could be controlled by regulating the irradiated UV laser power beyond the inflection point.

  20. Influence of ZnO and TiO_2 particle sizes in the mechanical and dielectric properties of vulcanized rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Neudys; Custal, Maria del Angels; Rodriguez, Daniel; Riba, Jordi-Roger; Armelin, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The novelty of the present study relies on the straightforward sonication of ZnO and TiO_2 and incorporation to a complex formulation of latex, with other several organic-inorganic additives that influences the cross-linking reactions. The new elastomer with particles carefully sonicated exhibit improved electrical and mechanical properties. Strong interaction among the nanoparticles and the polymer amorphous phase has been proved by means of FTIR, SEM and XRD analyses. The synergistic effect of hybrid fillers with nanometric dimensions can be used to design high-performance natural rubber nanocomposites with enhanced electrical resistance and good cross-linking degree. (author)

  1. An investigation of the photosubstitution reaction between N719-dyed nanocrystalline TiO2 particles and 4-tert-butylpyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Nguyen, Thai Hoang; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    concentration. Based on this observation, a degradation mechanism was proposed, in which the reaction proceeds through the rate-determining formation of a common intermediate complex, I=[RuII(H2dcbpy)2(NCS)(NCS)]+. An average degradation rate of kdeg=6×10-3s-1 was obtained from the value of Φdeg and the back...... electron-transfer rate, kback of the reaction TiO2+e-|N719+→TiO2|N719, obtained by means of photo-induced absorption (PIA) measurements. The lifetime of the solar cell sensitizer N719 was estimated to be between 34 years, based on kdeg and an average literature value of the regeneration rate, kreg=2×106M-1...... simple model experiments. In these experiments, colloidal solutions of N719-dyed nanocrystalline TiO2 particles in acetonitrile were irradiated with 532-nm laser light in the presence of 0-1mol/l of 4-TBP. Five degradation products were identified using LC-ESI-MS: the 4-tert-butylpyridine substitution...

  2. Cake properties in ultrafiltration of TiO2 fine particles combined with HA: in situ measurement of cake thickness by fluid dynamic gauging and CFD calculation of imposed shear stress for cake controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Qu, Fangshu; Liang, Heng; Li, Kai; Chang, Haiqing; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the cake buildup of TiO2 fine particles in the presence of humid acid (HA) and cake layer controlling during ultrafiltration (UF) were investigated. Specifically, we measured the cake thickness using fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) method under various solution conditions, including TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L), HA concentration (0-5 mg/L, total organic carbon (TOC)), and pH values (e.g., 4, 6 and 10), and calculated the shear stress distribution induced by stirring using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the cake layer controlling conditions, including the operation flux (50-200 L m(-2) h(-1)) and TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L). It was found that lower TiO2/HA concentration ratio could lead to exceedingly severe membrane fouling because of the formation of a relatively denser cake layer by filling the voids of cake layer with HA, and pH was essential for cake layer formation owing to the net repulsion between particles. Additionally, it was observed that shear stress was rewarding for mitigating cake growth under lower operation flux as a result of sufficient back-transport forces, and exhibited an excellent performance on cake layer controlling in lower TiO2 concentrations due to slight interaction forces on the vicinity of membrane.

  3. Dynamic Hydrogen Production from Methanol/Water Photo-Splitting Using Core@Shell-Structured CuS@TiO2 Catalyst Wrapped by High Concentrated TiO2 Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwan Im

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the dynamic hydrogen production ability of a core@shell-structured CuS@TiO2 photocatalyst coated with a high concentration of TiO2 particles. The rectangular-shaped CuS particles, 100 nm in length and 60 nm in width, were surrounded by a high concentration of anatase TiO2 particles (>4~5 mol. The synthesized core@shell-structured CuS@TiO2 particles absorbed a long wavelength (a short band gap above 700 nm compared to that pure TiO2, which at approximately 300 nm, leading to easier electronic transitions, even at low energy. Hydrogen evolution from methanol/water photo-splitting over the core@shell-structured CuS@TiO2 photocatalyst increased approximately 10-fold compared to that over pure CuS. In particular, 1.9 mmol of hydrogen gas was produced after 10 hours when 0.5 g of 1CuS@4TiO2 was used at pH = 7. This level of production was increased to more than 4-fold at higher pH. Cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed that the CuS in CuS@TiO2 strongly withdraws the excited electrons from the valence band in TiO2 because of the higher reduction potential than TiO2, resulting in a slower recombination rate between the electrons and holes and higher photoactivity.

  4. High Temperature Oxidation of Nickel-based Cermet Coatings Composed of Al2O3 and TiO2 Nanosized Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhzad, M. A.; Khan, T. I.

    2014-09-01

    New technological challenges in oil production require materials that can resist high temperature oxidation. In-Situ Combustion (ISC) oil production technique is a new method that uses injection of air and ignition techniques to reduce the viscosity of bitumen in a reservoir and as a result crude bitumen can be produced and extracted from the reservoir. During the in-situ combustion process, production pipes and other mechanical components can be exposed to air-like gaseous environments at extreme temperatures as high as 700 °C. To protect or reduce the surface degradation of pipes and mechanical components used in in-situ combustion, the use of nickel-based ceramic-metallic (cermet) coating produced by co-electrodeposition of nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 have been suggested and earlier research on these coatings have shown promising oxidation resistance against atmospheric oxygen and combustion gases at elevated temperatures. Co-electrodeposition of nickel-based cermet coatings is a low-cost method that has the benefit of allowing both internal and external surfaces of pipes and components to be coated during a single electroplating process. Research has shown that the volume fraction of dispersed nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 particles in the nickel matrix which affects the oxidation resistance of the coating can be controlled by the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution, as well as the applied current density during electrodeposition. This paper investigates the high temperature oxidation behaviour of novel nanostructured cermet coatings composed of two types of dispersed nanosized ceramic particles (Al2O3 and TiO2) in a nickel matrix and produced by coelectrodeposition technique as a function of the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution and applied current density. For this purpose, high temperature oxidation tests were conducted in dry air for 96 hours at 700 °C to obtain mass changes (per unit of area) at specific time

  5. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm ...

  6. Changing the characteristics and properties of zeolite Y and nano-anatase in the formation of a nano-anatase/Y composite with improved photocatalytic and adsorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoroshchina, E. N.; Chernyshev, V. V.; Kuz'micheva, G. M.; Dorokhov, A. V.; Pirutko, L. V.; Kravchenko, G. V.; Chumakov, R. B.

    2018-02-01

    Zeolite Y and the NTD/Y nanocomposite, which were synthesized in situ (the addition of zeolite Y to the reaction mixture in the course of the synthesis of NTD by the sulfate method), were studied by a variety of methods. The decrease in the particle size (scanning electron microscopy) and the water content in pores (X-ray powder diffraction study, the full-profile Rietveld method, IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry), the increase in OH groups content and the decrease in the water content on the surface of zeolite (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in the composition of NTD/Y compared to the initial zeolite Y were all established. A larger specific surface area of NTD/Y (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method) compared to the initial zeolite Y is due to the fact that zeolite Y in the nanocomposite contains a smaller amount of water because of the synthesis conditions and the presence of nanocrystalline NTD on the surface of zeolite particles. It was found that NTD/Y nanocomposite exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity in the model decomposition reaction of methyl orange under UV and adsorption capacity for the extraction of P(V) and As(V) ions from aqueous media compared to the initial zeolite and pure NTD obtained under the same conditions, which differs from NTD/Y by the larger particle size, the smaller specific surface and the smaller content of OH groups and water on the surface. The role of Bronsted and Lewis centers in the realization of properties is discussed.

  7. Assessment of Microwave/UV/O3 in the Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Bromothymol Blue in Aqueous Nano TiO2 Particles Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a microwave/UV/TiO2/ozone/H2O2 hybrid process system, in which various techniques that have been used for water treatment are combined, is evaluated to develop an advanced technology to treat non-biodegradable water pollutants efficiently. In particular, the objective of this study is to develop a novel advanced oxidation process that overcomes the limitations of existing single-process water treatment methods by adding microwave irradiation to maximize the formation of active intermediate products, e.g., OH radicals, with the aid of UV irradiation by microwave discharge electrodeless lamp, photo-catalysts, and auxiliary oxidants. The results of photo-catalytic degradation of BTB showed that the decomposition rate increased with the TiO2 particle dosages and microwave intensity. When an auxiliary oxidant such as ozone or hydrogen peroxide was added to the microwave-assisted photo-catalysis, however, a synergy effect that enhanced the reaction rate considerably was observed.

  8. Fast photo-induced color changes of Ag particles deposited on single-crystalline TiO2 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y. J.; Liu, W. Z.; Chen, A.; Shi, L.; Liu, X. H.; Zi, J.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that surface-plasmon enhanced photo-electrochemical effect or photo-thermal effect of metallic particles on a semiconductor substrate or in a suspension may result in color changes. Such character could be potentially applicable to colorimetric sensors, optical filters, and data storage devices. However, usually the response time for color changes is too long to be practically applied. In this letter, we found that the response rate of color changes could be controlled by the annealing condition of the semiconductor substrate, and changes larger than 10% in spectra were observed after only 1-min exposure to light. Furthermore, such fast response was applied to realize wavelength-dependent "write" and "read" applications with high spatial resolution.

  9. Raman Microspectroscopy of Exhaled Breath Condensate and Urine in Workers Exposed to Fine and Nano TiO2 Particles: a Cross-sectional Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Barošová, H.; Kukutschová, J.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Navrátil, Tomáš; Felclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Kačer, P.; Komarc, M.; Běláček, J.; Zakharov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2015), s. 036008 ISSN 1752-7155 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanoparticles * TiO2 * titanium Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; CG - Electrochemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.177, year: 2015

  10. Risk assessment of TiO2 photocatalyst by individual micrometer-size particle analysis with on-site combination of SEM-EDX and SR-XANES microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Jun; Ishii, Hideshi; Matsui, Yasuto; Terada, Yasuko; Tanabe, Teruo; Uchiyama, Iwao

    2007-01-01

    Applications of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) microscopy combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are reported. Electron beam excited and synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission spectra of the same yellow sand single particles are reported and compared. The Ti-K edge absorption fine structure of single microparticles of TiO 2 (rutile, anatase, and a photocatalyst aerosol) are recorded by using monochromatic synchrotron radiation of tunable energy. It is shown that the discrimination between rutile and anatase is possible. Based on the single particle speciation, the toxicity of photocatalyst aerosol powder is discussed

  11. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films prepared by TiO2 nanorods exhibited larger surface roughness than those prepared by the commercial TiO2 particles. It was found that a pure anatase phase of TiO2 nanorods can be obtained from the hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with TiO2 nanorods exhibited a higher solar efficiency than those fabricated with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles directly. Further, triple-layer structures of TiO2 thin films with different particle sizes were investigated to improve the solar efficiency.

  12. Structural, Morphological and Optical Characterization of Eu3+ and Nd3+ Co-Doped Tio2 Nano Particles by Sol Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sanjay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nano crystals have been widely studied for their fundamental properties. The Eu3+ and Nd3+ doped titanium dioxide nano powder was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The morphological and structural properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM. The Powder X- ray diffraction is carried out in order to examine the phase formation and substitution of Eu3+ and Nd3+ doped in TiO2 matrix. The UV-Vis spectral analysis was carried out between 200 nm and 1200 nm. The band gap of the Eu3+ and Nd3+ doped Tio2 nanoparticles was calculated. The functional groups of the synthesized compound have been identified by FTIR spectral analysis. The strong PL intensity confirms a blue shift.

  13. The photocatalytic application and regeneration of anatase thin films with embedded commercial TiO2 particles deposited on glass microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Valtierra, Jorge; Garcia-Servin, Josafat; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Calixto, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Anatase thin films ( 2 were prepared by sol-gel method. TiO 2 -anatase thin films were deposited on a fiberglass substrate and then ground to obtain glass microrods containing the composite films. The film structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the composite films, calcined at 450 deg. C, and the regeneration of the activity under the same experimental conditions, were assessed using gas chromatography to study the photodegradation of phenol, an industrial pollutant, in water under 365 nm irradiation. The film with 15.0 wt.% of P25 TiO 2 was found to be more photoactive (54 ppm of degraded phenol at 6 h of illumination) than the other ones

  14. TiO2-TiO2 composite resistive humidity sensor: ethanol crosssensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamboran, Milad; Saedi, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication method and characterization results of a TiO 2 -TiO 2 composite bead used for humidity sensing along with its negative cross-sensitivity to ethanol vapor are reported. The bead shaped resistive sample sensors are fabricated by the drop-casting of a TiO 2 slurry on two Pt wire segments. The dried bead is pre-fired at 750°C and subsequently impregnated with a Ti-based sol. The sample is ready for characterization after a thermal annealing at 600°C in air. Structurally, the bead is a composite of the micron-sized TiO 2 crystallites embedded in a matrix of nanometric TiO 2 particle aggregates. The performance of the beads as resistive humidity sensors is recorded at room temperature in standard humidity level chambers. Results evince the wide dynamic range of the sensors fabricated in the low relative humidity range. While the sensor conductance is not sensitive to ethanol vapor in dry air, in humid air, sensor's responses are negatively affected by the contaminant. (paper)

  15. Efficient Photocatalytic H2 Evolution: Controlled Dewetting-Dealloying to Fabricate Site-Selective High-Activity Nanoporous Au Particles on Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhat Truong; Altomare, Marco; Yoo, JeongEun; Schmuki, Patrik

    2015-05-27

    Anodic self-organized TiO2 nanostumps are formed and exploited for self-ordering dewetting of Au-Ag sputtered films. This forms ordered particle configurations at the tube top (crown position) or bottom (ground position). By dealloying from a minimal amount of noble metal, porous Au nanoparticles are then formed, which, when in the crown position, allow for a drastically improved photocatalytic H2 production compared with nanoparticles produced by conventional dewetting processes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. 'Pre-prosthetic use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) membranes treated with oxygen plasma and TiO2 nanocomposite particles for guided bone regeneration processes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Dalí, Gabriel; Castillo-Oyagüe, Raquel; Terriza, Antonia; Saffar, Jean-Louis; Batista-Cruzado, Antonio; Lynch, Christopher D; Sloan, Alastair J; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis; Torres-Lagares, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) processes are frequently necessary to achieve appropriate substrates before the restoration of edentulous areas. This study aimed to evaluate the bone regeneration reliability of a new poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) membrane after treatment with oxygen plasma (PO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) composite nanoparticles. Circumferential bone defects (diameter: 10mm; depth: 3mm) were created on the parietal bones of eight experimentation rabbits and were randomly covered with control membranes (Group 1: PLGA) or experimental membranes (Group 2: PLGA/PO2/TiO2). The animals were euthanized two months afterwards, and a morphologic study was then performed under microscope using ROI (region of interest) colour analysis. Percentage of new bone formation, length of mineralised bone formed in the grown defects, concentration of osteoclasts, and intensity of osteosynthetic activity were assessed. Comparisons among the groups and with the original bone tissue were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The level of significance was set in advance at a=0.05. The experimental group recorded higher values for new bone formation, mineralised bone length, and osteoclast concentration; this group also registered the highest osteosynthetic activity. Bone layers in advanced formation stages and low proportions of immature tissue were observed in the study group. The functionalised membranes showed the best efficacy for bone regeneration. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles onto PLGA/PO2 membranes for GBR processes may be a promising technique to restore bone dimensions and anatomic contours as a prerequisite to well-supported and natural-appearing prosthetic rehabilitations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Photocatalytic effects for the TiO2-coated phosphor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. → The photobleaching of an MB aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. → The ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor composite showed much higher photocatalytic reactivity. → The light emitted from the phosphors contributed to the photo-generation. - Abstract: This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. A TiO 2 thin film was deposited on CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Nd 3+ phosphor particles by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and its photocatalytic reaction was investigated by the photobleaching of an aqueous solution of methylene-blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. To clarify the mechanism of the TiO 2 -phosphorescent materials, two different samples of TiO 2 -coated phosphor and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor particles were prepared. The photocatalytic mechanisms of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor powders were different from those of the pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor. The absorbance in a solution of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor decreased much faster than that of pure TiO 2 under visible irradiation. In addition, the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor showed moderately higher photocatalytic degradation of MB solution than the TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor did. The TiO 2 -coated phosphorescent materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS).

  18. Synthesis And Characterization Of SiO2, SnO2 And TiO2 Metal Oxide Shells Covering Cu2O Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work is described a means of improving the chemical stability of Cu2O@SiO2, Cu2O@SnO2 and Cu2O@TiO2 materials. The SiO2, SnO2 and TiO2 coated samples were stable from pH 3 to pH 10 for up to seven days. To determine the stability of the coated nanoparticles, and their colloidal solutions under acidic and basic conditions, colloidal nanoparticle solutions with various pH values were prepared and monitored over time. Details of the effect of variations in pH on the phase stability of core-shell type Cu2O were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  19. The application of imperialist competitive algorithm for optimization of deposition rate in submerged arc welding process using TiO2 nano particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza; Eslampanah, Amirhossein; Ghaderi, Kianoosh; Aghakhani, Masood

    2015-01-01

    We used a novel optimization algorithm based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) to optimize the deposition rate in the submerged arc welding (SAW) process. This algorithm offers some advantages such as simplicity, accuracy and time saving. Experiments were conducted based on a five factor, five level rotatable central composite design (RCCD) to collect welding data for deposition rate as a function of welding current, arc voltage, contact tip to plate distance, welding speed and thickness of TiO 2 nanoparticles coated on the plates of mild steel. Furthermore, regression equation for deposition rate was obtained using least squares method. The regression equation as the cost function was optimized using ICA. Ultimately, the levels of input variables to achieve maximum deposition rate were obtained using ICA. Computational results indicate that the proposed algorithm is quite effective and powerful in optimizing the cost function.

  20. A Simple Surface Modification of NiO Cathode with TiO2 Nano-Particles for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seon; Kim, Keon; Yi, Cheolwoo

    2014-01-01

    The TiO 2 -modified Ni powders, prepared by the simple method (ball-milling and subsequent annealing) without resorting to any complex coating process, eventually form nickel titanate passive layer at high temperature. It as good corrosion resistance in molten carbonates media and higher electrical conductivity at high temperature. In addition, the modified cathode increases the degree of lithiation during the operation of MCFC. These positive effects provide a decrease in the internal resistance and improve the cell performance. Results obtained from this study can be applied to develop the surface modification of cathode materials and the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are efficient energy conversion devices to convert chemical energy into electrical energy through the electrochemical reaction. Because of a lot of advantages of MCFC operated at high temperature, many researchers have been trying to apply it to large-scaled power generations, marine boats, and so on. Among various cathode materials, nickel oxide, NiO, is the most widely used cathode for MCFCs due to its stability and high electrical conductivity, but the degradation of cathode material, so-called NiO dissolution, prevents a long-term operation of MCFC. In order to overcome the drawback, numerous studies have been performed. One of the most useful ways to enhance the surface property and maintain the bulk property of the host materials is the surface modification. The most common modification method is coating and these coating procedures which need some complicated steps with the use of organic materials, but it restricts the large-scale fabrication. In this study, to improve the electrochemical performance, we have prepared an alternative MCFC cathode material, TiO 2 -modified NiO, by simple method without resorting to any complex coating process. Results obtained in this study can provide an effective way to mass-produce the cathode materials applied to MCFC

  1. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  2. High pressure structural phase transitions of TiO2 nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quan-Jun; Liu Bing-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the high pressure study on the TiO 2 nanomaterials has attracted considerable attention due to the typical crystal structure and the fascinating properties of TiO 2 with nanoscale sizes. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress in the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials. We discuss the size effects and morphology effects on the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials with different particle sizes, morphologies, and microstructures. Several typical pressure-induced structural phase transitions in TiO 2 nanomaterials are presented, including size-dependent phase transition selectivity in nanoparticles, morphology-tuned phase transition in nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials, and pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) and polyamorphism in ultrafine nanoparticles and TiO 2 -B nanoribbons. Various TiO 2 nanostructural materials with high pressure structures are prepared successfully by high pressure treatment of the corresponding crystal nanomaterials, such as amorphous TiO 2 nanoribbons, α -PbO 2 -type TiO 2 nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials. These studies suggest that the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials depend on the nanosize, morphology, interface energy, and microstructure. The diversity of high pressure behaviors of TiO 2 nanomaterials provides a new insight into the properties of nanomaterials, and paves a way for preparing new nanomaterials with novel high pressure structures and properties for various applications. (topical review)

  3. Fabrication and Characteristics of Macroporous TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyun Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by a facile nanocasting method using polystyrene (PS spherical particles as the hard template. The synthesized photocatalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and N2-sorption. TEM, SEM, and XRD characterizations confirmed that the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst is composed of anatase phase. The high specific surface area of 87.85 m2/g can be achieved according to the N2-sorption analysis. Rhodamine B (RhB was chosen as probe molecule to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 catalysts. Compared with the TiO2 materials synthesized in the absence of PS spherical template, the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst sintered at 500°C exhibits much higher activity on the degradation of RhB under the UV irradiation, which can be assigned to the well-structured macroporosity. The macroporous TiO2 material presents great potential in the fields of environmental remediation and energy conversion and storage.

  4. Application of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vy Anh; Thinh Troung, Trieu; Pham Phan, Thu Anh

    2017-01-01

    Our research aimed to improve the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSCs by applying nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (N-TNT) for the preparation of DSCs photo-anodes. The none-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (TNTs) were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of Degussa P25 TiO2 particles in 10...

  5. Photocatalytic Decolorization Study of Methyl Orange by TiO2–Chitosan Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Fajriati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange (MO by TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite has been studied. This study was started by synthesizing TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites using sol-gel method with various concentrations of Titanium(IV isopropoxide (TTIP as the TiO2 precursor. The structure, surface morphology, thermal and optical property of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and diffuse reflectance ultra violet (DRUV spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange as a model pollutant. The results indicate that the particle size of TiO2 increases with increasing ofthe concentration of TTIP, in which TiO2 with smallest particle size exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic decolorization was obtained at 5 h of contact time, initial concentration of MO at 20 ppm and at solution pH of 4. Using these conditions, over 90% of MO was able to be decolorized using 0.02 g of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. The TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite could be reused, which meant that the TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites can be developed as an effective and economical photocatalyst to decolorize or treat dye in wastewater.

  6. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of WO3-surface modified TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Drmosh, Qasem; Ahmed, Muhammad I.; Qamaruddin, Muhammad; Yamani, Zain H.

    2015-02-01

    Development of nanostructured photocatalysts for harnessing solar energy in energy-efficient and environmentally benign way remains an important area of research. Pure and WO3-surface modified thin films of TiO2 were prepared by magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxide glass, and photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of these films were studied. TiO2 particles were <50 nm, while deposited WO3 particles were <20 nm in size. An enhancement in the photocurrent was observed when the TiO2 surface was modified WO3 nanoparticles. Effect of potential, WO3 amount, and radiations of different wavelengths on the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2 electrodes was investigated. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and WO3-modified TiO2 for the decolorization of methyl orange was tested.

  7. Enhancing photocatalytic activity by using TiO2-MgO core-shell-structured nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun; Nastasi, Michael; Kim, Jeong-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Jong-Sung; Hong, Kug Sun; Shin, Hyunho

    2006-01-01

    Hygroscopic Mg(OH) 2 gel was topotactically decomposed on TiO 2 particle surfaces, resulting in highly nanoporous MgO-coated TiO 2 particles. The highly hygroscopic and nanoporous MgO shell absorbed more water molecules and hydroxyl groups from the environment to yield an improved photocatalytic property of the core-shell particles as compared to the uncoated TiO 2 counterpart

  8. Rapid detection of TiO2 (E171) in table sugar using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Zhiyun; He, Lili

    2017-02-01

    The potential toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) to humans remain debatable despite its broad application as a food additive. Thus, confirmation of the existence of TiO 2 particles in food matrices and subsequently quantifying them are becoming increasingly critical. This study developed a facile, rapid (E171) from food products (e.g., table sugar) by Raman spectroscopy. To detect TiO 2 particles from sugar solution, sequential centrifugation and washing procedures were effectively applied to separate and recover 97% of TiO 2 particles from the sugar solution. The peak intensity of TiO 2 sensitively responded to the concentration of TiO 2 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.073 mg kg -1 . In the case of sugar granules, a mapping technique was applied to directly estimate the level of TiO 2 , which can be potentially used for rapid online monitoring. The plot of averaged intensity to TiO 2 concentration in the sugar granules exhibited a good linear relationship in the wide range of 5-2000 mg kg -1 , with an LOD of 8.46 mg kg -1 . Additionally, we applied Raman spectroscopy to prove the presence of TiO 2 in sugar-coated doughnuts. This study begins to fill in the analytical gaps that exist regarding the rapid detection and quantification of TiO 2 in food, which facilitate the risk assessment of TiO 2 through food exposure.

  9. Engineering the TiO2 -graphene interface to enhance photocatalytic H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lichen; Liu, Zhe; Liu, Annai; Gu, Xianrui; Ge, Chengyan; Gao, Fei; Dong, Lin

    2014-02-01

    In this work, TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are synthesized with tunable TiO2 crystal facets ({100}, {101}, and {001} facets) through an anion-assisted method. These three TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites have similar particle sizes and surface areas; the only difference between them is the crystal facet exposed in TiO2 nanocrystals. UV/Vis spectra show that band structures of TiO2 nanocrystals and TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are dependent on the crystal facets. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggest that the charge-transfer rate between {100} facets and graphene is approximately 1.4 times of that between {001} facets and graphene. Photoelectrochemical measurements also confirm that the charge-separation efficiency between TiO2 and graphene is greatly dependent on the crystal facets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Ti-C bonds are formed between {100} facets and graphene, while {101} facets and {001} facets are connected with graphene mainly through Ti-O-C bonds. With Ti-C bonds between TiO2 and graphene, TiO2 -100-G shows the fastest charge-transfer rate, leading to higher activity in photocatalytic H2 production from methanol solution. TiO2 -101-G with more reductive electrons and medium interfacial charge-transfer rate also shows good H2 evolution rate. As a result of its disadvantageous electronic structure and interfacial connections, TiO2 -001-G shows the lowest H2 evolution rate. These results suggest that engineering the structures of the TiO2 -graphene interface can be an effective strategy to achieve excellent photocatalytic performances. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles with the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Bin; Chen, Bijuan; Sun, Xuemei; Qu, Keming; Ma, Feifei; Du, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of TiO 2 engineered nanoparticles (NPs) to the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium was investigated by examining growth inhibition, oxidative stress and uptake. The results indicated that the toxicity of TiO 2 particles to algal cells significantly increased with decreasing nominal particle size, which was evidenced by the 96 EC 50 values of 88.78, 118.80 and 179.05 mg/L for 21 nm, 60 nm and 400 nm TiO 2 particles, respectively. The growth rate was significantly inhibited when the alga was exposed to 5 mg/L TiO 2 NPs (21 nm). Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were first induced and subsequently inhibited following exposure to 5 mg/L TiO 2 NPs. The depletion of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) posed a hazard to membrane integrity. A combination of flow cytometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy and Ti content measurement indicated that TiO 2 NPs were internalized in N. closterium cells. The level of extracellular ROS, which was induced by TiO 2 NPs under visible light, was negligible when compared with the intracellular ROS level (accounting for less than 6.0% of the total ROS level). These findings suggest that elevated TiO 2 nanotoxicity in marine environments is related to increased ROS levels caused by internalization of TiO 2 NPs. - Highlights: • Inhibition of marine microalgae by TiO 2 NPs and bulk particles was evaluated. • Aggregation of TiO 2 NPs and bulk particles was observed in marine algal test medium. • TiO 2 NPs induced damage to algal cell membranes as detected by flow cytometry. • Increased TiO 2 nanotoxicity to algal cells was caused by internalization of NPs

  11. 钛酸酯偶联剂对包硅铝钛白粉表面的有机改性%Surface Organic Modification of SiO2 & Al2O3 Coated TiO2 Particles with Titanate Coupling Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉兰; 王亭杰; 覃操; 金涌

    2001-01-01

    The surface organic modification of TiO2 particles with titanate coupling reagent,which was pre-coated with double layers of SiO2 and Al2O3,was studied.Experiments showed that the modified particles exhibited hydrophobic characteristics.The modification state of the particle surface was characterized by IR spectroscopic measurement,pyrolytic gas chromatography,thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectra.The titanate coupling reagent binding with the hydroxyl on the particle surface was analyzed.The surface characteristics of pre-modification and post-modification particles were compared.

  12. TiO2@C Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formed by Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra eVasei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e. the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolisis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent.

  13. Wet-Chemical Preparation of TiO2-Based Composites with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-based composites have been paid significant attention in the photocatalysis field. The size, crystallinity and nanomorphology of TiO2 materials have an important effect on the photocatalytic efficiency. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based materials have been widely investigated in past decades. Based on our group’s research works on TiO2 materials, this review introduces several methods for the fabrication of TiO2, rare-earth-doped TiO2 and noble-metal-decorated TiO2 particles with different morphologies. We focused on the preparation and the formation mechanism of TiO2-based materials with unique structures including spheres, hollow spheres, porous spheres, hollow porous spheres and urchin-like spheres. The photocatalytical activity of urchin-like TiO2, noble metal nanoparticle-decorated 3D (three-dimensional urchin-like TiO2 and bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle-decorated urchin-like hierarchical TiO2 are briefly discussed.

  14. Preparation and performance of photocatalytic TiO2 immobilized on palladium-doped carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yaofeng; Fu Yaqin; Ni Qingqing

    2011-01-01

    Pd-modified carbon fibers (CFs) are obtained by a facile oxidation-reduction method and then dip-coated in a sol-gel of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) to form supported TiO 2 /Pd-CF photocatalysts. The morphology of the Pd-modified CFs and the amount Pd deposited are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction is used to investigate the crystal structures of the TiO 2 photocatalyst. Acid orange II is used as a model contaminant to evaluate the photocatalytic properties of the photocatalyst under UV irradiation. TiO 2 /Pd-CF exhibits higher catalytic activity than TiO 2 /CF towards the degradation of acid orange II. Optimum photocatalytic performance and support properties are achieved when the Pd particle loading is about 10.8 mg/g.

  15. Three-dimensional observation of TiO2 nanostructures by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Suh, Young Joon

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures of TiO2 related materials including nanotubes, electron acceptor materials in hybrid polymer solar cells, and working electrodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were visualized by electron tomography as well as TEM micrographs. The regions on the wall of TiO2 nanotubes where the streptavidins were attached were elucidated by electron tomogram analysis. The coverage of TiO2 nanotubes by streptavidin was also investigated. The TiO2 nanostructures in hybrid polymer solar cells made by sol-gel and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods and the morphologies of pores between TiO2 particles in DSSCs were also observed by reconstructed three-dimensional images made by electron tomography. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Adsorption and Recovery of Polyphenolic Flavonoids Using TiO_2-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Arif; Wallace, William T.; Islam, Syed Z.; Nagpure, Suraj; Strzalka, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Exploiting specific interactions with titania (TiO_2) has been proposed for the separation and recovery of a broad range of biomolecules and natural products, including therapeutic polyphenolic flavonoids which are susceptible to degradation, such as quercetin. Functionalizing mesoporous silica with TiO_2 has many potential advantages over bulk and mesoporous TiO_2 as an adsorbent for natural products, including robust synthetic approaches leading to high surface area, stable separation platforms. Here, TiO_2 surface functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) are synthesized and characterized as a function of TiO_2 content (up to 636 mg TiO2/g). The adsorption isotherms of two polyphenolic flavonoids, quercetin and rutin, were determined (0.05-10 mg/ml in ethanol), and a 100-fold increase in the adsorption capacity was observed relative to functionalized nonporous particles with similar TiO_2 surface coverage. An optimum extent of functionalization (approximately 440 mg TiO_2/g particles) is interpreted from characterization techniques including grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption, which examined the interplay between the extent of TiO_2 functionalization and the accessibility of the porous structures. The recovery of flavonoids is demonstrated using ligand displacement in ethanolic citric acid solution (20% w/v), in which greater than 90% recovery can be achieved in a multistep extraction process. The radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the recovered and particle-bound quercetin as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay demonstrates greater than 80% retention of antioxidant activity by both particle-bound and recovered quercetin. In conclusion, these mesoporous titanosilicate materials can serve as a synthetic platform to isolate, recover, and potentially deliver degradation-sensitive natural products to biological systems.

  17. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • V-doped TiO 2 /diatomite composite photocatalyst was synthesized. • The physiochemical property and solar light photoactivity were characterized. • The presence and influence of V ions in TiO 2 matrix was systematically analyzed. • The photocatalysis for Rhodamine B were studied under solar light illumination. - Abstract: V-doped TiO 2 /diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO 2 /diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO 2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO 2 bandgap due to V 4+ ions substituted to Ti 4+ sites. The 0.5% V-TiO 2 /diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO 2 /diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V 4+ ions incorporated in TiO 2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO 2 to produce superoxide radicals ·O 2 – , while V 5+ species presented on the surface of TiO 2 particles in the form of V 2 O 5 contributed to e – –h + separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability

  18. Efficient photodecomposition of herbicide imazapyr over mesoporous Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adel A; Abdelfattah, Ibrahim; Faisal, M; Helal, Ahmed

    2018-01-15

    The unabated release of herbicide imazapyr into the soil and groundwater led to crop destruction and several pollution-related concerns. In this contribution, heterogeneous photocatalytic technique was employed utilizing mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites for degrading imazapyr herbicide as a model pollutant molecule. Mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites with varied Ga 2 O 3 contents (0-5wt%) were synthesized through sol-gel process. XRD and Raman spectra exhibited extremely crystalline anatase TiO 2 phase at low Ga 2 O 3 content which gradually reduced with the increase of Ga 2 O 3 content. TEM images display uniform TiO 2 particles (10±2nm) with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO 2 exhibits large surface areas of 167m 2 g -1 , diminished to 108m 2 g -1 upon 5% Ga 2 O 3 incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 3-9nm. The photocatalytic efficiency of synthesized Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites was assessed by degrading imazapyr herbicide and comparing with commercial photocatalyst UV-100 and mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 under UV illumination. 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is considered the optimum photocatalyst, which degrades 98% of imazapyr herbicide within 180min. Also, the photodegradation rate of imazapyr using 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is nearly 10 and 3-fold higher than that of mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 and UV-100, respectively. The high photonic efficiency and long-term stability of the mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites are ascribed to its stronger oxidative capability in comparison with either mesoporous TiO 2 , Ga 2 O 3 or commercial UV-100. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using TiO2 Impregnated Diatomite

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Ranfang; Du, Gaoxiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Lianhua; Liu, Yanming; Mei, Lefu; Li, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    Nano-TiO2 showed a good catalytic activity, but it is easy to agglomerate, resulting in the reduction or even complete loss of photocatalytic activity. The dispersion of TiO2 particles on porous materials was a potential solution to this problem. Diatomite has high specific surface and absorbability because of its particular shell structure. Thus, TiO2/diatomite composite, prepared by loading TiO2 on the surface of diatomite, was a good photocatalyst, through absorbing organic compounds with ...

  20. Optimized nanostructured TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Selda; Jodhani, Gagan; Gouma, Pelagia

    2016-07-01

    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  1. Structural and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.; Miron, I.; Sfirloaga, P.; Rusu, E.

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO 2 . The obtained ZnO, TiO 2 and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO 2 and ZnO phases in TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO 2 nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E a = 101 meV

  2. Nanostructured TiO2 microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid state polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Kang, Yong Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Bimodal mesoporous, anatase TiO 2 microspheres with particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2 μm were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method. The photovoltaic performance of TiO 2 microspheres in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a solid state electrolyte was investigated. The solid state electrolyte DSSC device based on the TiO 2 microspheres exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2%, which is greater than that of commercial P25 TiO 2 (3.6%). The higher photocurrent density was primarily achieved as a result of the greater specific surface area and pore size, which resulted in an increase in the dye uptake of the TiO 2 microspheres and easy transport of solid electrolyte through mesopores. In addition, the greater electron lifetime and superior light scattering ability also enhanced the photovoltaic performance of the TiO 2 microsphere-based, solid state DSSCs

  3. Effect of V-Nd co-doping on phase transformation and grain growth process of TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Nasima; Amin, Ruhul; Anita, Sen, Somaditya

    2018-05-01

    The pure and V-Nd co-doped TiO2 samples are prepared by the modified sol-gel process. The phase formation is confirmed by XRD spectrum. Phase transformation is delayed in V-Nd co-doped TiO2 (TVN) samples compared to pure TiO2. The particle size is comparatively small in TVN samples at both the temperature 450 °C and 900 °C. Hence the effect of Nd doping is dominated over V doping in both phase transformation and grain growth process of TiO2.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Sized TiO2@Chitosan for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei JIANG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the development of genetic engineering, it is urgent to find a vector with high transfection efficiency and good biocompatibility for genes. We considered combining nano-TiO2 with chitosan (CTS in order to tap their respective advantages to make a better new nanoparticle as gene vector.Methods: TiO2@CTS was prepared using microemulsion method. The physicochemical property of TiO2@CTS was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and zeta potential. The safety and influence on MC3T3-E1 cells were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT, blood compatibility assay and flow cytometry.Results: TiO2@CTS was well prepared and it was safe to cells under concentration tests. TiO2@CTS particles had a fuzzy boundary with a particle size remaining in 20-30 nm. Besides, the results also showed that TiO2@CTS did better in cellular uptake than TiO2 at 2 h and 24 h, and had good biocompatibility. MTT assay proved that the MC3T3 cells remained good growth when treated with different concentrations of TiO2@CTS (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/mL. Moreover, transfection assay in vitro and electrophoretic mobility shift assay illustrated the high transfection efficiency of TiO2@CTS.Conclusion: TiO2@CTS is a good choice to gene transfection, with good biocompatibility, and it also provides a new thought for the application of nanotechnology in the field of aveolar bone graft material.

  5. Formation of Sol Gel Dried Droplets of Carbon Doped Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) at Low Temperature via Electrospraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, S. U.; Hashib, S. Abd; Abu Bakar, N. F.; Ismail, S. N.; Nazli Naim, M.; Rahman, N. Abd; Krishnan, J.

    2018-05-01

    The high band gap energy of TiO2 and inconsistency in particles size has imposed a significant drawback on TiO2 applications. Dried droplets of carbon-doped TiO2 fine particles were produced by using electrospraying technique. The C-doped TiO2 particles were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide with the addition of carbon precursor followed by electrospraying the suspension in stable Taylor cone-jet mode. Coulomb fission of charged droplets from the electrospraying technique successfully transformed dispersed liquid C-doped TiO2 particles into solid. The deposited C-doped TiO2 droplets were collected on aluminium substrates placed at working distances of 10 to 20 cm from the tip of the electrospray needle. The collected C-doped TiO2 droplets were characterized by using FESEM, UV-Vis, FTIR and XRD. By increasing the working distance, the average droplets size of the deposited C-doped TiO2 was reduced from ±163.2 nm to ±147.56 nm. UV-Vis analysis showed a strong absorption in the visible-light region and about 93 nm red shift of the onset spectrum for C-doped TiO2. The red shift indicates an increase in photocatalytic efficiency by reducing the TiO2 band gap energy from 3.0 eV to 2.46 eV and shifting its activity to the visible-light region. FTIR analysis indicated the presence of Ti-C and C-O chemical bonding in the C-doped TiO2.

  6. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue on TiO_2-halloysite adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Pengwu

    2014-01-01

    TiO_2-halloysite (TiO_2-HNT) composites were fabricated by depositing anatase TiO_2 on the halloysite (HNT) surfaces with calcination treatment at 100, 200, 300 and 500 .deg. C. The obtained composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). HNT was attached with TiO_2 particles or clusters in sizes of 10-30 nm. With the increasing of calcination temperature, the crystalline of anatase became more perfect, but the structure of HNT could be destroyed at 500 .deg. C. The adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) by TiO_2-HNTs were investigated. The kinetic adsorption fit the pseudo second-order, and the isotherm data followed the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities of MB were in the range of 38.57 to 54.29 mg/g. TiO_2-HNTs exhibited an efficient photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of MB. For TiO_2-HNT calcined at 300 .deg. C, 81.6% MB were degraded after 4 h treatment of UV irradiation

  7. Rational design of carbon and TiO2 assembly materials: covered or strewn, which is better for photocatalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guan-wei; Wang, Wei-liang; Ma, Ming-yue; Zhang, Ming; Xia, Xin-yuan; Han, Feng-yun; Shi, Xi-feng; Zhao, Ying-qiang; Dong, Yu-bin; Tang, Bo

    2013-07-21

    The rational design of carbonaceous hybrid nanostructures is very important for obtaining high photoactivity. TiO2 particles strewn with an optimal quantity of carbon nanodots have a much higher photoactivity than that of TiO2 covered with a carbon layer, showing the importance of carbon morphology in the photocatalysis of carbonaceous hybrid nanostructures.

  8. Superhydrophilicity of TiO2 nano thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadizadeh, M.R.; Ashkarran, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Among the several oxide semiconductors, titanium dioxide has a more helpful role in our environmental purification due to its photocatalytic activity, photo-induced superhydrophilicity, and as a result of them non-toxicity, self cleaning, and antifogging effects. After the discovery of superhydrophilicity of titanium dioxide in 1997, several researches have been performed due to its nature and useful applications. The superhydrophilicity property of the surface allows water to spread completely across the surface rather than remains as droplets, thus making the surface antifog and easy-to-clean. The distinction of photo-induced catalytic and hydrophilicity properties of TiO 2 thin films has been accepted although, the origin of hydrophilicity property has not been recognized completely yet. TiO 2 thin films on soda lime glass were prepared by the sol-gel method and spin coating process. The calcination temperature was changed from 100 to 550 C. XRD patterns show increasing the content of polycrystalline anatase phase with increasing the calcination temperature. The AFM results indicate granular morphology of the films, which particle size changes from 22 to 166 nm by increasing the calcination temperature. The RBS, EDX and Raman spectroscopy of the films show the ratio of Ti:O∼0.5, and diffusion of sodium ions from substrate into the layer, by increasing the calcination temperature. The UV/Vis. spectroscopy of the films indicates a red shift by increasing the calcination temperature. The contact angle meter experiment shows that superhydrophilicity of the films depends on the formation of anatase crystal structure and diffused sodium content from substrate to the layer. The best hydrophilicity property was observed at 450 C calcination temperature, where the film is converted to a superhydrophilic surface after 10 minutes under 2mW/cm 2 UV irradiation. TiO 2 thin film on Si(111), Si(100), and quartz substrates needs less time to be converted to

  9. TiO2 thin-films on polymer substrates and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae-Hun; Han, Yang-Su; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We have developed dip-coating process for TiO 2 -thin film on polymer substrates (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer: ABS, polystyrene: PS). At first, a monodispersed and transparent TiO 2 nano-sol solution was prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide in the presence of acetylacetone and nitric acid catalyst at 80 deg. C. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the dried particles are indicative of crystalline TiO 2 with anatase-type structure. According to the XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, the mean particle size was estimated to be ca. 5 nm. The transparent thin films on ABS and PS substrates were fabricated by dip-coating process by changing the processing variables, such as the number of dip-coating and TiO 2 concentration in nano-sol solution. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis for the thin film samples reveals that the acetylacetone-modified TiO 2 nano-sol particles are effective for enhancing the interfacial adherence between films and polymeric substrates compared to the unmodified one. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) on the TiO 2 thin-films has also been systematically investigated

  10. Catalysis of a Nanometre Solid Super Acid of SO42-/TiO2 on the Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaolan; Wang, Yi; Song, Dan; An, Chongwei; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    Raw TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using the hydroly‐ sis of TiCl4. The nanoparticles were subjected to a surface treatment in diluted sulphuric acid and, subsequently, calcined at different temperatures. Then, a type of super solid acid (SO42-/TiO2) with particle sizes of 20∼30 nm was fabricated. The catalysis of SO42-/TiO2 on the thermolysis of ammonium nitrate (AN) was probed using thermal analysis. For SO42-/TiO2 (AN doped with 3%SO42-/TiO2), the onset temperature decreased by 19°C and ...

  11. Carbon and TiO_2 synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-01-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO_2 structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO_2/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO_2 structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO_2-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO_2 phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO_2 during the sol-gel step, with a TiO_2 structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO_2 based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO_2-Carbon composite. • The sol-gel synthesis was efficient

  12. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained

  13. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained

  14. Effect of TiO_2 Loading on Pt-Ru Catalysts During Alcohol Electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasa, Bjorn; Kalamaras, Evangelos; Papaioannou, Evangelos I.; Vakros, John; Sygellou, Labrini; Katsaounis, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2 can be used to modify Pt-Ru based electrodes for alcohol oxidation. • TiO_2 modified electrodes with lower amount of metals had higher active surface area than pure Pt-Ru electrodes. • TiO_2 modified electrodes showed comparable performance with pure Pt-Ru electrode both in a single cell and in a PEM fuel cell under alcohol fuelling. - Abstract: In this study, Pt-Ru based electrodes modified by TiO_2 were prepared by means of thermal decomposition of chloride and isopropoxide precursors on Ti substrates, characterised by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical techniques and CO stripping and used as anodes for alcohol oxidation. The minimization of the metal loading without electrocatalytic activity losses was also explored. TiO_2 was chosen due to its chemical stability, low cost and excellent properties as substrate for metal dispersion. It was found that TiO_2 loading up to 50% results in a 3-fold increase of the Electrochemically Active Surface (EAS). This conclusion has been confirmed by CO stripping experiments. All samples have been evaluated during the electrochemical oxidation of methanol, ethanol and glycerol. In all cases, the Pt_2_5-Ru_2_5-(TiO_2)_5_0 electrode had better electrocatalytic activity than the pure Pt_5_0-Ru_5_0 anode. The best modified electrode, (Pt_2_5-Ru_2_5-(TiO_2)_5_0), was also evaluated as anode in a PEM fuel cell under methanol fuelling conditions. The observed higher performance of the TiO_2 modified electrodes was attributed to the enhanced Pt-Ru dispersion as well as the formation of smaller Pt and Ru particles.

  15. Identification of the mechanisms that drive the toxicity of TiO2 particulates: the contribution of physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sheona

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on outlining the toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 particulates in vitro and in vivo, in order to understand their ability to detrimentally impact on human health. Evaluating the hazards associated with TiO2 particles is vital as it enables risk assessments to be conducted, by combining this information with knowledge on the likely exposure levels of humans. This review has concentrated on the toxicity of TiO2, due to the fact that the greatest number of studies by far have evaluated the toxicity of TiO2, in comparison to other metal oxide particulates. This derives from historical reasons (whereby the size dependency of particulate toxicity was first realised for TiO2 and due to its widespread application within consumer products (such as sunscreens. The pulmonary and dermal hazards of TiO2 have been a particular focus of the available studies, due to the past use of TiO2 as a (negative control when assessing the pulmonary toxicity of particulates, and due to its incorporation within consumer products such as sunscreens. Mechanistic processes that are critical to TiO2 particulate toxicity will also be discussed and it is apparent that, in the main, the oxidant driven inflammatory, genotoxic and cytotoxic consequences associated with TiO2 exposure, are inherently linked, and are evident both in vivo and in vitro. The attributes of TiO2 that have been identified as being most likely to drive the observed toxicity include particle size (and therefore surface area, crystallinity (and photocatalytic activity, surface chemistry, and particle aggregation/agglomeration tendency. The experimental set up also influences toxicological outcomes, so that the species (or model used, route of exposure, experiment duration, particle concentration and light conditions are all able to influence the findings of investigations. In addition, the applicability of the observed findings for particular TiO2 forms, to TiO2 particulates in

  16. Sensing and electrical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to synthesize TiO 2 nanoparticles using Coprecipitation method. 2 different samples were synthesized, one with a modifier and other without using a modifier. After synthesis, newly formed nanoparticles were characterized b different techniques to find various properties of these nanoparticles. Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to study structure and morphology of Cu nanoparticles and for compositional analysis Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Studies were also carried out to find phase an average particle Size. To find the band gap of our nanoparticles, UV-Visible Spectroscopy was also done. Non-Modified nanoparticles were as small as 12nm reported by SEM images which were synthesized using a modifier were as small as 10nm. Modified TiO 2 nanoparticles were used in humidity sensing devices and it properties as a humidity sensor were examined by doing Impedance spectroscopy, D measurements and Dielectric measurements. Our TiO 2 humidity sensor showed sensitivity for humidity at low and mid-range frequencies while its response time was 4 seconds when we changed RH% to 90 from 40% and measured the impedance. (author)

  17. Synthesis of nanocomposite coating based on TiO2/ZnAl layer double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanov, V.; Rudic, O.; Ranogajec, J.; Fidanchevska, E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was the synthesis of nanocomposite coatings based on Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDH) and TiO2. The Zn-Al LDH material, which acted as the catalyst support of the active TiO2 component (in the content of 3 and 10 wt. %), was synthesized by a low super saturation co-precipitation method. The interaction between the Zn-Al LDH and the active TiO2 component was accomplished by using vacuum evaporation prior to the mechanical activation and only by mechanical activation. The final suspension based on Zn-Al LDH and 10wt. % TiO2, impregnated only by mechanical activation, showed the optimal characteristics from the aspect of particle size distribution and XRD analysis. These properties had a positive effect on the functional properties of the coatings (photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning efficiency) after the water rinsing procedure. [es

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 in aqueous alcoholic medium and evaluation of its photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, L.; Prabhu, A.; Palanichamy, M.; Murugesan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mesoporous TiO 2 synthesized using P123 as soft template in sol-gel method. → Nanoparticle aggregates are better for photocatalytic activity than free nanoparticles. → Particle to particle transport of electrons in the conduction band of aggregates are important factor. - Abstract: Mesoporous TiO 2 was synthesized using triblock copolymer as the structure directing template in ethanol/water, isopropanol/water or 1-butanol/water medium by sol-gel method. The presence of intense peak at low angle in the XRD patterns confirmed the orderly arrangement of mesopores in the material. Among the three different alcohols, ethanol had influenced better in controlling the particle size than others. The enhanced specific surface area also revealed the formation of mesopores. Aggregates of particles were clearly seen in the TEM images and the size of the particles was approximately 10 nm. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO 2 was evaluated using aqueous alachlor as a model pollutant. The activity of mesoporous TiO 2 synthesized in ethanol/water mole ratio of 50 was higher than other mesoporous TiO 2 and commercial TiO 2 (Degussa P-25). The transport of excited electrons from one particle to its neighboring nanoparticles of mesoporous TiO 2 is suggested to be the cause for enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  19. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  20. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.

    2013-04-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different

  1. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzkus, C; Macé, T; Vaslin-Reimann, S; Ausset, P; Maillé, M

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO 2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different

  2. Tailoring the wettability of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiyu; Chen, Yan; Fan, Yuzun; Hu, Yong; Wu, Yuedong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Meng, Qingbo

    2012-01-01

    The water contact angle (WCA) of nanocrystalline TiO2 films was adjusted by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification and photocatalytic lithography. FAS modification made the surface hydrophobic with the WCA up to ∼156°, while ultraviolet (UV) irradiation changed surface to hydrophilic with the WCA down to ∼0°. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were enhanced by surface roughness. The wettability can be tailored by varying the concentration of FAS solution and soaking time, as well as the UV light intensity and irradiation time. Additionally, with the help of photomasks, hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns can be fabricated and manifested via area-selective deposition of polystyrene particles.

  3. Preparation of sol-gel TiO2/purified Na-bentonite composites and their photovoltaic application for natural dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saelim, Ni-on; Magaraphan, Rathanawan; Sreethawong, Thammanoon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Natural dye from red cabbage was successfully employed in DSSC. → A fast sol-gel method to produce TiO 2 /clay thin film was proposed. → The sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay was applied as the scattering layer on top of TiO 2 electrode. → Thicker sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay electrode showed higher DSSC efficiency. - Abstract: The sol-gel TiO 2 /purified natural clay electrodes having Ti:Si molar ratios of 95:5 and 90:10 were initially prepared, sensitized with natural red cabbage dye, and compared to the sol-gel TiO 2 electrode in terms of physicochemical characteristics and solar cell efficiency. The results showed that the increase in purified Na-bentonite content greatly increased the specific surface area and total pore volume of the prepared sol-gel TiO 2 /purified Na-bentonite composites because the clay platelets prevented TiO 2 particle agglomeration. The sol-gel TiO 2 /5 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite and sol-gel TiO 2 /10 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite composites could increase the film thickness of solar cells without cracking when they were coated as a scattering layer on the TiO 2 semiconductor-based film, leading to increasing the efficiency of the natural dye-sensitized solar cells in this work.

  4. Preparation and solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 composites: TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Three TiO2 loaded composites, TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite, were prepared in order to improve the solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity could obviously be enhanced by loading appropriate amount of inorganic mineral materials. Meanwhile, TiO2 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the photocatalytic activity were reviewed. Otherwise, the effect of solar light irradiation time and dye concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red B was investigated. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism and adsorption process were also discussed.

  5. The Effects of Doping Copper and Mesoporous Structure on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for the synthesis of Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method at relatively low temperatures. The technique used is to dope the as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 system with copper. In this method, the copper species with the form of Cu1+, which was attributed to the reduction effect of dehydroxylation and evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD, was well dispersed in the optimal concentration 1 wt.% Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2. In this as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 system, original particles with a size of approximately 20 nm are aggregated together to shapes of approximately 1100 nm, which resulted in the porous aggregate structure. More importantly, the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was discussed as effects due to the formation of stable Cu(I and the mesoporous structure in the Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2. Among them, Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2 shows the highest degradation rate of methyl orange (MO. In addition, the effects of initial solution pH on degradation of MO had also been investigated. As a result, the optimum values of initial solution pH were found to be 3.

  6. Effect of Graphite Doped TiO_2 Nanoparticles on Smoke Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshasnorlyza Hazan; Mohamad Shahrizal Md Zain; Natrah Syafiqah Rosli

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke affects in the same way as regular smoker. The best solution is to purify the air efficiently and effectively. In this study, we were successfully doped TiO_2 nanoparticle with graphite to accelerate the degradation of cigarette smoke. The graphite doped and undoped TiO_2 nanoparticles were prepared from synthetic rutile using alkaline fusion method and their photo catalytic activity were investigated under visible light irradiation. The photo catalytic activity of the TiO_2 nanoparticles was analyzed in terms of their particle size analysis, crystallization and optical band gap. TiO_2 nanoparticle act as photo catalyzer by utilization of light energy to excite electron-hole pairs in smoke degradation processes. With the aided from graphite in TiO_2 nanoparticles, the smoke degradation was accelerate up to 44.4 %. In this case, graphite helps to reduce optical band gap of TiO_2 nanoparticle, thus increasing excitation of electron from valence band to conduction band. (author)

  7. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using TiO2 Impregnated Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranfang Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-TiO2 showed a good catalytic activity, but it is easy to agglomerate, resulting in the reduction or even complete loss of photocatalytic activity. The dispersion of TiO2 particles on porous materials was a potential solution to this problem. Diatomite has high specific surface and absorbability because of its particular shell structure. Thus, TiO2/diatomite composite, prepared by loading TiO2 on the surface of diatomite, was a good photocatalyst, through absorbing organic compounds with diatomite and degrading them with TiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, chemical analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR indicated that TiO2 was impregnated well on the surface of diatomite. Furthermore, TiO2/diatomite was more active than nano-TiO2 for the degradation of methylene blue (MB in solution. MB at concentrations of 15 and 35 ppm can be completely degraded in 20 and 40 min, respectively.

  8. Microwave synthesized nanostructured TiO2-activated carbon composite electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumar, M.; Bhat, D. Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructure TiO 2 has been prepared by a microwave assisted synthesis method. ► Microwave irradiation was varied with time duration on the formation of nanoparticles. ► TiO 2 -activate carbon show very good specific capacitance for supercapacitor. ► Electrochemical properties were studied on electroanalytical techniques. - Abstract: Electrochemical properties of a supercapacitor based on nanocomposite electrodes of activated carbon with TiO 2 nano particles synthesized by a microwave method have been determined. The TiO 2 /activated carbon nanocomposite electrode with a composition of 1:3 showed a specific capacitance 92 Fg −1 . The specific capacitance of the electrode decreased with increase in titanium dioxide content. The p/p symmetrical supercapacitor fabricated with TiO 2 /activated carbon composite electrodes showed a specific capacitance of 122 Fg −1 . The electrochemical behavior of the neat TiO 2 nanoparticles has also been studied for comparison purpose. The galvanostatic charge–discharge test of the fabricated supercapacitor showed that the device has good coulombic efficiency and cycle life. The specific capacitance of the supercapacitor was stable up to 5000 cycles at current densities of 2, 4, 6 and 7 mA cm −2 .

  9. Exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles increases Staphylococcusaureusinfection of HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Walker, Stephen. G.; Wang, Hong Zhan; Gondon, Chris; Brink, Peter; Guterman, Shoshana; Zawacki, Emma; Applebaum, Eliana; Rafailovich, Miriam; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel; Mironava, Tatsiana

    TiO2 is one of the most common nanoparticles in industry from food additives to energy generation. Even though TiO2 is also used as an anti-bacterial agent in combination with UV, we found that, in the absence of UV, exposure of HeLa cells to TiO2 nanoparticles largely increased their risk of bacterial invasion. HeLa cells cultured with low dosage rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (0.1 mg/ml) for 24 hrs prior to exposure to bacteria had 350% and 250% respectively more bacteria infected per cell. The increase was attributed to increased LDH leakage, and changes in the mechanical response of the cell membrane. On the other hand, macrophages exposed to TiO2 particles ingested 40% fewer bacteria, further increasing the risk of infection. In combination, these two factors raise serious concerns regarding the impact of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on the ability of organisms to resist bacterial infection.

  10. Influence of surface treatment on preparing nanosized TiO2 supported on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuo; Ji Lijun; Wu Bin; Gong Qianming; Zhu Yuefeng; Liang Ji

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, nanosize titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) deposited on pristine and acid treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The nanoscale materials were extensively characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and Raman spectra. The results indicated that about 6.8 nm TiO 2 nanoparticles were successfully deposited on acid-treated CNTs surface homogeneously and densely, which was smaller than TiO 2 coated on pristine CNTs. The surface state of CNTs was a critical factor in obtaining a homogeneous distribution of nanoscale TiO 2 particles. Acid oxidization could etch the surface of CNTs and introduce functional groups, which were beneficial to controllable homogeneous deposition. The TiO 2 coated on acid-treated CNTs was used as photocatalyst for Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B dye degradation under UV irradiation, which showed higher efficiency than that of TiO 2 coated on pristine CNTs and commercial photocatalyst P25.

  11. TiO2 nanoparticles in seawater: Aggregation and interactions with the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Bonomini, Alessandra; Tognotti, Danika; Grassi, Giacomo; Corsi, Ilaria

    2018-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) have been widely employed in industrial applications, thus rising concern about their impact in the aquatic environment. In this study we investigated the chemical behaviour of TiO 2 NPs in the culture medium and its effect on the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, in terms of growth inhibition, oxidative stress, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) accumulation and chlorophyll content. In addition, the influence of exopolymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the microalgae on the stability of NPs has been evaluated. The physicochemical characterization showed a high propensity of TiO 2 NPs to form micrometric-sized aggregates within 30min, large enough to partially settle to the bottom of the test vessel. Indeed, an increasing amount of TiO 2 particles settled out with time, but the presence of EPS seemed to mitigate this behaviour in the first 6h of exposure where the main effects in D. tertiolecta were observed. TiO 2 NPs did not inhibit the 72-h growth rate of D. tertiolecta, nor affected the cellular chlorophyll concentration in the range 0.01-10mgL -1 . The time-course of ROS production showed an initial transient increase of ROS in TiO 2 NP-exposed algae compared to the control, concomitant with an enhancement of catalase activity. Interestingly, intracellular ROS was a small fraction of total ROS, the highest amount being extracellular. The occurrence of cell-mediated chemical transformations of TiO 2 NPs in the external medium, related to the presence of EPS, has been evaluated. Our results showed that carbohydrates were the major component of EPS, whereas proteins of medium molecular weight (20-80kDa) were preferentially bound to TiO 2 NPs, likely influencing their biological fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microglial cells (BV-2) internalize titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: toxicity and cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihane, Naima; Nury, Thomas; M'rad, Imen; El Mir, Lassaad; Sakly, Mohsen; Amara, Salem; Lizard, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    Because of their whitening and photocatalytic effects, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are widely used in daily life. These NPs can be found in paints, plastics, papers, sunscreens, foods, medicines (pills), toothpastes, and cosmetics. However, the biological effect of TiO2-NPs on the human body, especially on the central nervous system, is still unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the brain is one of the target organs in acute or chronic TiO2-NPs toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of TiO2-NPs at different concentrations (0.1 to 200 μg/mL) on murine microglial cells (BV-2) to assess their activity on cell growth and viability, as well as their neurotoxicity. Different parameters were measured: cell viability, cell proliferation and DNA content (SubG1 peak), mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (especially superoxide anions), and ultrastructural changes. Results showed that TiO2-NPs induced some cytotoxic effects with a slight inhibition of cell growth. Thus, at high concentrations, TiO2-NPs were not only able to inhibit cell adhesion but also enhanced cytoplasmic membrane permeability to propidium iodide associated with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and an overproduction of superoxide anions. No induction of apoptosis based on the presence of a SubG1 peak was detected. The microscopic observations also indicated that small groups of nanosized particles and micron-sized aggregates were engulfed by the BV-2 cells and sequestered as intracytoplasmic aggregates after 24-h exposure to TiO2-NPs. Altogether, our data show that the accumulation TiO2-NPs in microglial BV-2 cells favors mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress.

  14. Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of Co Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Sridevi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A TiO2 nanoparticle doped with cobalt was synthesized by sol-gel technique employed at room temperature with appropriate reactants. In the present case, we used titanium tetra isoprotoxide (TTIP and 2–propanol as a common starting material and the obtained products were calcined at 450˚ C. From the Powder XRD data the particle size was calculated by Scherrer method. The FE-SEM analysis shows the morphology of cobalt doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The various functional groups of the samples were identified by Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra of cobalt doped TiO2 material shows two absorption peaks in the visible region related to d-d transitions of Co2+ in TiO2 lattice. Compared to un-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, the cobalt doped material show a red shift in the band gap.

  15. Electron microscopy observation of TiO2 nanocrystal evolution in high-temperature atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian; Li, Zhaodong; Kvit, Alexander; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Davydov, Albert V; Wang, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of amorphous and crystalline phases during atomic layer deposition (ALD) is essential for creating high quality dielectrics, multifunctional films/coatings, and predictable surface functionalization. Through comprehensive atomistic electron microscopy study of ALD TiO2 nanostructures at designed growth cycles, we revealed the transformation process and sequence of atom arrangement during TiO2 ALD growth. Evolution of TiO2 nanostructures in ALD was found following a path from amorphous layers to amorphous particles to metastable crystallites and ultimately to stable crystalline forms. Such a phase evolution is a manifestation of the Ostwald-Lussac Law, which governs the advent sequence and amount ratio of different phases in high-temperature TiO2 ALD nanostructures. The amorphous-crystalline mixture also enables a unique anisotropic crystal growth behavior at high temperature forming TiO2 nanorods via the principle of vapor-phase oriented attachment.

  16. Influence of substrate temperature and silver-doping on the structural and optical properties of TiO_2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Evaporation of titanium together with activated oxygen is used to grow TiO_2 films and simultaneously with silver to grow Ag–TiO_2 films (5 at.% Ag) onto sapphire substrates at three different substrate temperatures: − 190, 30, and 200 °C. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope investigations. The properties of TiO_2 films varied with the substrate temperature. Amorphous, transparent TiO_2 films were grown at − 190 °C and opaque, polycrystalline films at 200 °C, respectively. Surprisingly, at room temperature black, amorphous TiO_2 films are obtained which transform at 350 °C into a mixture of the anatase and brookite polymorph. In the amorphous state of the TiO_2 films a predefined rutile arrangement is suggested by Raman investigations, and the contraction of the lattice constant c of anatase phases (tetragonal, space group I 4_1/amd) depending on the substrate temperature is experimentally observed. The silver-doped TiO_2 films deposited at − 190 and 30 °C contain Ag-particles with 2 nm in size inside the TiO_2 matrix, which after annealing segregate under increasing particle sizes. The silver-doping stabilizes the anatase polymorph and yields to reduced titanium species in the films especially during deposition at 30 °C. The Ag–TiO_2 films deposited at − 190 °C are transparent up to 350 °C. In the undoped as well as silver-doped TiO_2 films the rutile polymorph is directly formed at 200 °C as main phase. - Highlights: • At room temperature black, amorphous TiO_2 films are obtained. • A predefined rutile arrangement is suggested in amorphous TiO_2 films. • Annealed TiO_2 films crystallize to a mixture of the anatase and brookite polymorph. • In TiO_2 and Ag-doped TiO_2 films the rutile polymorph is directly formed at 200 °C. • Ag-doped TiO_2 films stabilize the anatase polymorph and reduced titanium

  17. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst for β-naphthol photodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qourzal, S.; Barka, N.; Tamimi, M.; Assabbane, A.; Nounah, A.; Ihlal, A.; Ait-Ichou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Silica gel supported titanium dioxide particles (TiO 2 -SiO 2 ) prepared by sol-gel method was as photocatalyst in the degradation of β-naphthol in water under UV-illumination. The prepared sample has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The supported catalyst had large surface area and good sedimentation ability. The photodegradation rate of β-naphthol under UV-irradiation depended strongly on adsorption capacity of the catalyst, and the photoactivity of the supported catalyst was much higher than that of the pure titanium dioxides. The experiments were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The photodegradation rate of β-naphthol using 60% TiO 2 -SiO 2 particles was faster than that using TiO 2 'Degussa P-25', TiO 2 'PC-50' and TiO 2 'Aldrich' as photocatalyst by 2.7, 4 and 7.8 times, respectively. The kinetics of photocatalytic β-naphthol degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. The effect of the TiO 2 loading on the photoactivity of TiO 2 -SiO 2 particles was also discussed. With good photocatalytic activity under UV-irradiation and the ability to be readily separated from the reaction system, this novel kind of catalyst exhibited the potential effective in the treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous systems.

  18. Effect of anatase nanoparticles (TiO2) on parsley seed germination (Petroselinum crispum) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkourdi, Elahe Hashemi; Mosavi, Mousa

    2013-11-01

    Nano priming is a new method for the increase of seedling vigor and improvement of germination percentage and seedling growth. The experiments to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of nano-anatase on germination parameters of parsley as a completely randomized design with five replications were performed in a tissue culture laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. In addition, nano-anatase at four concentrations (10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/ml) was added to the Murashige and Skoog medium. At the end of the experiment, the percentage of germination, germination rate index, root and shoot length, fresh weight of seedlings, vigor index, and chlorophyll content were evaluated. The results showed that an increase in the concentration of nano-anatase caused a significant increase in the percentage of germination, germination rate index, root and shoot length, fresh weight, vigor index, and chlorophyll content of seedlings. The best concentration of nano-anatase was 30 mg/ml.

  19. Functionalized TiO2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Baoli; Li, Duxin; Liu, Qingquan; Zhou, Zhihua; Liao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle with highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface, via the reaction between toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The main effect factors on the reaction of TiO 2 with TDI were studied by determining the reaction extent of hydroxyl groups on TiO 2 surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The dispersion of the TDI-functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Owing to the TDI molecules covalently bonded on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface, it was established that the TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in toluene, thus indicating that this functionalization method can prevent TiO 2 nanoparticle from agglomerating. -- Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanoparticle was functionalized with toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate. ► Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in xylene. ► Compatibility of TiO 2 nanoparticle and organic solvent is significantly improved. ► TiO 2 containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry.

  20. Recovery of hexavalent chromium from water using photoactive TiO2-montmorillonite under sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Djellabi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium was removed from water under sunlight using a synthesized TiO2-montmorillonite (TiO2-M employing tartaric acid as a hole scavenger. Cr(VI species was then reduced to Cr(III species by electrons arising from TiO2 particles. After that, the produced Cr(III species  was transferred to montmorillonite  due to electrostatic attractions leading to  set free TiO2 particles for a further Cr(VI species reduction. Furthermore, produced Cr(III, after Cr(VI reduction, does not  penetrate into the solution. The results indicate that no dark adsorption of Cr(VI species on TiO2-M is present, however, the reduction of Cr(VI species under sunlight increased strongly as a function of tartaric acid concentration up to 60 ppm, for which the extent of reduction is maximum within 3 h. On the other hand, the reduction extent of Cr(VI species is maximum with an initial concentration of Cr(VI species lower than 30 ppm by the use of 0.2 g/L of TiO2-M. Nevertheless, the increase of the Cr(VI initial concentration led to increase the amount of Cr(VI species reduced (capacity of reduction until a Cr(VI concentration of 75 and 100 ppm, for which  it remained constant at around 221 mg/g. For comparison, the increase of Cr(VI species concentration in the case of the commercial TiO2 P25 under the same conditions exhibited its deactivation when the reduced amount decreased from 198.1 to 157.6 mg/g as the concentration increased from 75 to 100 ppm.

  1. Evaluation of the content of TiO2 nanoparticles in the coatings of chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudefoi, William; Terrisse, Hélène; Popa, Aurelian Florin; Gautron, Eric; Humbert, Bernard; Ropers, Marie-Hélène

    2018-02-01

    Titanium dioxide is a metal oxide used as a white pigment in many food categories, including confectionery. Due to differences in the mass fraction of nanoparticles contained in TiO 2 , the estimated intakes of TiO 2 nanoparticles differ by a factor of 10 in the literature. To resolve this problem, a better estimation of the mass of nanoparticles present in food products is needed. In this study, we focused our efforts on chewing gum, which is one of the food products contributing most to the intake of TiO 2 . The coatings of four kinds of chewing gum, where the presence of TiO 2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, were extracted in aqueous phases. The extracts were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to establish their chemical composition, crystallinity and size distribution. The coatings of the four chewing gums differ chemically from each other, and more specifically the amount of TiO 2 varies from one coating to another. TiO 2 particles constitute the entire coating of some chewing gums, whereas for others, TiO 2 particles are embedded in an organic matrix and/or mixed with minerals like calcium carbonate, talc, or magnesium silicate. We found 1.1 ± 0.3 to 17.3 ± 0.9 mg TiO 2 particles per piece of chewing gum, with a mean diameter of 135 ± 42 nm. TiO 2 nanoparticles account for 19 ± 4% of all particles, which represents a mass fraction of 4.2 ± 0.1% on average. The intake of nanoparticles is thus highly dependent on the kind of chewing gum, with an estimated range extending from 0.04 ± 0.01 to 0.81 ± 0.04 mg of nano-TiO 2 per piece of chewing gum. These data should serve to refine the exposure scenario.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Islam, Muhammad S.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study has been conducted to investigate the matrix properties by introducing nanosize TiO 2 (5-40 nm, 0.5-2% by weight) fillers into an epoxy resin. Ultrasonic mixing process, via sonic cavitations, was employed to disperse the particles into the resin system. The thermal, mechanical, morphology and the viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposite and the neat resin were measured with TGA, DMA, TEM and Instron. The nano-particles are dispersed evenly throughout the entire volume of the resin. The nanofiller infusion improves the thermal, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the epoxy resin. The nanocomposite shows increase in storage modulus, glass transition temperature, tensile modulus, flexural modulus and short beam shear strength from neat epoxy resin. The mechanical performance and thermal stability of the epoxy nanocomposites are depending on with the dispersion state of the TiO 2 in the epoxy matrix and are correlated with loading (0.0015-0.006% by volume). In addition, the nanocomposite shows enhanced flexural strength. Several reasons to explain these effects in terms of reinforcing mechanisms were discussed

  3. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  4. Energy-Dispersive XAFS Study on Reduction Behavior of Pt Supported on TiO2 and Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Testuya; Amano, Fumiaki; Sone, Takayoshi; Yamazoe, Seiji; Tanaka, Tsunehiro; Kato, Kazuo; Teramura, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic reduction behavior of Pt4+ oxides to Pt0 particles on TiO2 and Al2O3 surface in the presence of hydrogen by means of DXAFS. The platinum oxide on TiO2 is easily reduced even at room temperature. XAFS results suggest that the mechanism of reduction of Pt4+ over TiO2 is different from that over Al2O3

  5. Preparation of Transparent Bulk TiO2/PMMA Hybrids with Improved Refractive Indices via an in Situ Polymerization Process Using TiO2 Nanoparticles Bearing PMMA Chains Grown by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Fujita, Masato; Idota, Naokazu; Matsukawa, Kimihiro; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki

    2016-12-21

    Transparent TiO 2 /PMMA hybrids with a thickness of 5 mm and improved refractive indices were prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of TiO 2 nanoparticles bearing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains grown using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and the effect of the chain length of modified PMMA on the dispersibility of modified TiO 2 nanoparticles in the bulk hybrids was investigated. The surfaces of TiO 2 nanoparticles were modified with both m-(chloromethyl)phenylmethanoyloxymethylphosphonic acid bearing a terminal ATRP initiator and isodecyl phosphate with a high affinity for common organic solvents, leading to sufficient dispersibility of the surface-modified particles in toluene. Subsequently, SI-ATRP of MMA was achieved from the modified surfaces of the TiO 2 nanoparticles without aggregation of the nanoparticles in toluene. The molecular weights of the PMMA chains cleaved from the modified TiO 2 nanoparticles increased with increases in the prolonging of the polymerization period, and these exhibited a narrow distribution, indicating chain growth controlled by SI-ATRP. The nanoparticles bearing PMMA chains were well-dispersed in MMA regardless of the polymerization period. Bulk PMMA hybrids containing modified TiO 2 nanoparticles with a thickness of 5 mm were prepared by in situ polymerization of the MMA dispersion. The transparency of the hybrids depended significantly on the chain length of the modified PMMA on the nanoparticles, because the modified PMMA of low molecular weight induced aggregation of the TiO 2 nanoparticles during the in situ polymerization process. The refractive indices of the bulk hybrids could be controlled by adjusting the TiO 2 content and could be increased up to 1.566 for 6.3 vol % TiO 2 content (1.492 for pristine PMMA).

  6. Efficient silver modification of TiO2 nanotubes with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Ding, Lei; Xi, Yaoning; Shi, Liang; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Wang, Wei; Dong, Bohua; Cao, Lixin

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, Ag(CH3NH2)2+, Ag(NH3)2+ and Ag+ with different radii have been used as silver sources to find out the distribution of Ag ions on the H-TNT surface, which is critical to the final performance. The influence of this distribution on visible photocatalytic activity is further studied. The results indicate that, when Ag+ used as silver source with low concentration, these small sized silver ions mainly distribute on interlayer spacing of H-TNT. After heat-treatment and photo-reduction, the generated silver nanoparticles uniformly embed in the anatase TiO2 nanotube walls, and bring large interfacial area between Ag particles and TiO2 nanotubes. The separation effect of photogenerated electron-hole pair in TiO2 is enhanced by Ag particles, and achieves the best at 0.15 g/L, much higher than P25, TiO2/0, Ag-N@TiO2 and Ag-C-N@TiO2. This paper provides new ideas for the modification of TiO2 nanotubes.

  7. Surface effect of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangfei; Jiang Yinshan; Yu Lixin; Yang Zhengwen; Hou Tianyi; Sun Shenmei

    2005-01-01

    The surface interaction between TiO 2 and natural zeolite, clinoptilolite, has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM), atom force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and far Fourier transform infrared ray (FTIR) spectroscopy. And the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) rate of methyl orange (MO), a model of recalcitrant azo dye, in aqueous system has been measured to compare the photocatalytic activities of different photocatalysts. A model has been carried out to explain the incorporation between TiO 2 particles and natural zeolite. The results show that the TiO 2 particles loaded on zeolite are 50 nm or so, smaller than the pure one, and combine with zeolite via chemical force. Since the reserved adsorption ability and the existence of electron trapper, the TiO 2 -zeolite performed more efficient at low initial concentration and in the later period of PCD process, as compared with pure TiO 2 nanopowders

  8. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified with WO3 on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Delgado, N.A.; Gracia-Pinilla, M.A.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Guzman-Mar, J.L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 and WO 3 /TiO 2 (2 and 5%) were tested in the photocatalytic malathion degradation. • The use of solar radiation in the photocatalytic degradation process was evaluated. • Modified catalyst showed greater photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 . • The mineralization rate was improved when WO 3 content on TiO 2 was 2%. -- Abstract: In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalysts synthesized by the sol–gel method with two different percentages of WO 3 (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO 2 was also prepared by sol–gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRUV–vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSA BET ), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO 3 was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 ) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO 2 . The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 , respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 and bare TiO 2 photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst activity on repeated uses; after several successive cycles its photocatalytic activity was retained showing long-term stability

  9. Interaction and nanotoxic effect of TiO2 nanoparticle on fibrinogen by multi-spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Toxicological effects of nanoparticles (NPs) are still poorly documented while there are great demands for industrial applications and daily life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of physicochemical characteristics on TiO 2 NP toxicological effects toward protein. In order to better understand the physicochemical basis of the toxic of NP in industrial applications and under conditions of environmental exposure, we performed an array of photophysical measurements to quantify the interaction of TiO 2 NP with protein. Fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements were performed on TiO 2 NP having a diameter range from 10 to 35 nm in the performance of protein. We find that the TiO 2 NP strongly associates with protein where the binding constant, as well as the degree of cooperativity of particle–protein binding, depends on particle size. We also find tentative evidence that the protein undergoes conformational change upon association with the NP. These results indicate that exposure to TiO 2 NP may have an unfavorable effect on human health by inactivating functional proteins. - Highlights: ► The binding constants for fibrinogen onto TiO 2 NPs depend on particle size. ► CD results showed that the structural changes of protein are quite small. ► The adsorbed protein to cause the TiO 2 NP to aggregate was indicated by DLS and TEM.

  10. Chemically synthesized TiO2 and PANI/TiO2 thin films for ethanol sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawri, Isha; Ridhi, R.; Singh, K. P.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    Ethanol sensing properties of chemically synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) and polyaniline/titanium dioxide nanocomposites (PANI/TiO2) had been performed at room temperature. In-situ oxidative polymerization process had been employed with aniline as a monomer in presence of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The prepared samples were structurally and morphologically characterized by x-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectra, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. The crystallinity of PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite was revealed by XRD and FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of chemical bonding between the polymer chains and metal oxide nanoparticles. HR-TEM micrographs depicted that TiO2 particles were embedded in polymer matrix, which provides an advantage over pure TiO2 nanoparticles in efficient adsorption of vapours. These images also revealed that the TiO2 nanoparticles were irregular in shape with size around 17 nm. FE-SEM studies revealed that in the porous structure of PANI/TiO2 film, the intercalation of TiO2 in PANI chains provides an advantage over pure TiO2 film for uniform interaction with ethanol vapors. The sensitivity values of prepared samples were examined towards ethanol vapours at room temperature. The PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited better sensing response and faster response-recovery examined at different ethanol concentrations ranging from 5 ppm to 20 ppm in comparison to pure TiO2 nanoparticles. The increase in vapour sensing of PANI/TiO2 sensing film as compared to pure TiO2 film had been explained in detail with the help of gas sensing mechanism of TiO2 and PANI/TiO2. This provides strong evidence that gas sensing properties of TiO2 had been considerably improved and enhanced with the addition of polymer matrix.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Modified with Polystyrene and Poly(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl Methacrylate as Adsorbents for the Solid Phase Extraction of Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Alejo-Molina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel hybrid TiO2 particles were developed and assessed as an adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE of organophosphorus pesticides (fensulfothion, parathion methyl, coumaphos, and diazinon from spiked water. The sol-gel method was used to synthesize TiO2 particles, which were coated with free-radical polystyrene (PS and poly(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (PClHPMA polymers. Particle structures were determined via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to confirm that the polymers were successfully anchored to the TiO2 particles. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to determine organic and inorganic matter in TiO2-PS and TiO2-PClHPMA particles showing results of 20 : 80 wt/wt% and 23 : 77 wt/wt%, respectively. SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction test were conducted to determine the morphology and semielemental composition of the particles showing amorphous characteristics. By observing the contact angle, particles coated with PClHPMA were determined to be more hydrophilic than TiO2-PS particles. The pore size distributions obtained from the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms were 0.150 and 0.168 cm3g−1. The specific surface area (BET was 239.9 m2g−1 for TiO2-PS and 225.7 m2g−1 for TiO2-PClHPMA. The synthesized particles showed relatively high yields of adsorption in SPE. The pesticide recoveries obtained by high performance liquid chromatography ranged from 6 to 26% for TiO2-PClHPMA and 44 to 92% for TiO2-PS.

  12. Progress of studies on preparation of TiO2 photocatalysts with sol-gel auto igniting synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Shi, Zaifeng; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Xinghui, Wu

    2017-11-01

    In this article, influencing factors on the kinetics of the process of Sol-gel Auto igniting Synthesis (SAS) which is an advanced technology for preparing nanometer particles of inorganic materials were reviewed. The studies on preparing of nanometer TiO2 photocatalysts with SAS were focused. It was concluded that SAS will play an important role in practical preparing of high-pure nanometer TiO2 powder, and as a technical support, preparation of titania TiO2 from titanic iron ore with SAS is feasible and practicable.

  13. Mesoporous TiO2 Micro-Nanometer Composite Structure: Synthesis, Optoelectric Properties, and Photocatalytic Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous anatase TiO2 micro-nanometer composite structure was synthesized by solvothermal method at 180°C, followed by calcination at 400°C for 2 h. The as-prepared TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR. The specific surface area and pore size distribution were obtained from N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and the optoelectric property of the mesoporous TiO2 was studied by UV-Vis absorption spectrum and surface photovoltage spectra (SPS. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of sole rhodamine B (RhB and sole phenol aqueous solutions under simulated sunlight irradiation and compared with that of Degussa P-25 (P25 under the same conditions. The photodegradation preference of this mesoporous TiO2 was also investigated for an RhB-phenol mixed solution. The results show that the TiO2 composite structure consists of microspheres (∼0.5–2 μm in diameter and irregular aggregates (several hundred nanometers with rough surfaces and the average primary particle size is 10.2 nm. The photodegradation activities of this mesoporous TiO2 on both RhB and phenol solutions are higher than those of P25. Moreover, this as-prepared TiO2 exhibits photodegradation preference on RhB in the RhB-phenol mixture solution.

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dyes under sunlight using biocompatible TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, B.; Sonkar, A. K.; Singh, N.; Dash, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2017-08-01

    As TiO2 is one of the most popular photocatalysts, we have studied here the photocatalytic degradation of the most common dyestuffs like rhodamine B (RhB), congo red (CR) and methylene blue (MB), which mainly come from the textile and photographic industries using nanoparticles of TiO2. Nanoparticles of TiO2 synthesized through a simple and cost effective sol-gel technique crystallizes in the anatase phase, showing a band gap less than that of bulk value. Particles consisting of coherently scattered domains of size 33 nm are found to be agglomerated and polycrystalline in nature. While the degradation rates of MB, CR and RhB after irradiating with a renewable source of energy, i.e. sunlight, show 100% degradation, TiO2 irradiated with UV light of 4.8 eV shows a much slower degradation rate. To use the waste water after photocatalysis, we examine further the biocompatibile nature of the TiO2 nanoparticles by platelet interaction activity, hemolysis effect and MTT assay. It is worth mentioning here that TiO2 nanoparticles are found to be highly hemocompatible, show no platelet aggregation, and the level of intracellular ROS in human platelets does not show significant change in ROS level. We conclude that TiO2 nanoparticles constitute an excellent photocatalyst and biocompatible material, and that after photocatalytic degradation of dye effluents obtained from textile industries, purified water can be used in agriculture and domestic sectors.

  15. Nuclear microscopy as a tool in TiO2 nanoparticles bioaccumulation studies in aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Teresa; Moita, Liliana; Silva, Luís; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Engineered Titanium nanoparticles are used for a wide range of applications from coatings, sunscreen cosmetic additives to solar cells or water treatment agents. Inevitably environmental exposure can be expected and data on the ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles are still scarce. The potential effects of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on two model organisms, the water flea, Daphnia magna and the duckweed Lemna minor, were examined in semichronic toxicity tests. Daphnia and Lemna were exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size value of 28 ± 11 nm (n = 42); concentration range, 1.4-25 mg/L) by dietary route and growth in medium containing the nanoparticles of TiO2, respectively. Both morphology and microdistribution of Ti in the individuals were examined by nuclear microscopy techniques. A significant amount of TiO2 was found accumulated in Daphnia exposed to nanoparticles. Nuclear microscopy imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the Daphnia, which displayed difficulty in eliminating the nanoparticles from their body. Daphnia showed higher mortality when exposed to higher concentrations of TiO2 (>10 mg/L). The exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles above 25 mg/L caused morphological alterations in Lemna. The roots became stiff and fronds colorless. The Ti mapping of cross-sections of roots and fronds showed that Ti was mainly deposited in the epidermis of the fronds and roots, with minor internalization. In summary, exposure of aquatic organisms to TiO2 nanoparticles may alter the physiology of these organisms at individual and population levels, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Nuclear microscopy as a tool in TiO2 nanoparticles bioaccumulation studies in aquatic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Teresa; Moita, Liliana; Silva, Luís; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Engineered Titanium nanoparticles are used for a wide range of applications from coatings, sunscreen cosmetic additives to solar cells or water treatment agents. Inevitably environmental exposure can be expected and data on the ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles are still scarce. The potential effects of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) on two model organisms, the water flea, Daphnia magna and the duckweed Lemna minor, were examined in semichronic toxicity tests. Daphnia and Lemna were exposed to TiO 2 nanoparticles (average particle size value of 28 ± 11 nm (n = 42); concentration range, 1.4–25 mg/L) by dietary route and growth in medium containing the nanoparticles of TiO 2 , respectively. Both morphology and microdistribution of Ti in the individuals were examined by nuclear microscopy techniques. A significant amount of TiO 2 was found accumulated in Daphnia exposed to nanoparticles. Nuclear microscopy imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the Daphnia, which displayed difficulty in eliminating the nanoparticles from their body. Daphnia showed higher mortality when exposed to higher concentrations of TiO 2 (>10 mg/L). The exposure to TiO 2 nanoparticles above 25 mg/L caused morphological alterations in Lemna. The roots became stiff and fronds colorless. The Ti mapping of cross-sections of roots and fronds showed that Ti was mainly deposited in the epidermis of the fronds and roots, with minor internalization. In summary, exposure of aquatic organisms to TiO 2 nanoparticles may alter the physiology of these organisms at individual and population levels, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems

  17. Facile fabrication of p-n heterojunctions for Cu2O submicroparticles deposited on anatase TiO2 nanobelts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Lei, Jingguo; Ji, Tianhao

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cu 2 O particle-deposited TiO 2 nanobelts with p-n semiconductor heterojunction structure were successfully prepared via two-step preparation process, and their visible-light photodegradation activities of Rhodamine B were investigated in detail. Highlights: → Cu 2 O particle-deposited TiO 2 nanobelts mainly with diameters in a range of 200-400 nm were successfully prepared. → The amount of Cu 2 O particles deposited on TiO 2 nanobelts can be tuned. → The composite structure with Cu 2 O particles and TiO 2 nanobelts exhibits p-n semiconductor heterojunction performance. → Photocatalytic properties of such composites. -- Abstract: In this paper, Cu 2 O particle-deposited TiO 2 nanobelts with p-n semiconductor heterojunction structure were successfully prepared via a two-step preparation process to investigate electron-transfer performance between p-type Cu 2 O and n-type TiO 2 . Various measurement results confirm that the amount of pure Cu 2 O submicroparticles, with diameters within the range of 200-400 nm and deposited on the surface of TiO 2 nanobelts, can be controlled, and that the purity of Cu 2 O is heavily affected by reaction time. Visible-light photodegradation activities of Rhodamine B show that photocatalysts have little or no photocatalytic activities mainly due to their p-n heterojunction structure, indicating that there hardly appears any electron-transfer from Cu 2 O to TiO 2 .

  18. Formation of TiO2 domains in Poly (9-vinylcarbazole) thin film by hydrolysis-condensation of a metal alkoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlier, V.; Bounor-Legare, V.; Alcouffe, P.; Boiteux, G.; Davenas, J.

    2007-01-01

    New organic-inorganic hybrid thin films based on Poly (9-vinylcarbazole) (P9VK) and Dioxide titanium (TiO 2 ) bulk-heterojunction were obtained by a hydrolysis-condensation (H-C) process of titanium (IV) isopropoxide in thin film. The TiO 2 distribution in the film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that homogeneous TiO 2 particles around 100 nm were formed on the surface of the polymer thin film. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study the charge transfer efficiency in the photoactive layer and results were compared with a simplest elaboration route, the dispersion of TiO 2 anatase in a P9VK solution before spin coating. Results showed that TiO 2 elaborated by H-C exhibits a competitive quenching effect with TiO 2 anatase

  19. Interface role in the enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2-Na0.9Mg0.45Ti3.55O8 nanoheterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Qing Guo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-Na0.9Mg0.45Ti3.55O8 (TiO2-NMTO nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. TiO2 nanoparticles were loaded on NMTO nanosheets with well matched lattices. The TiO2-NMTO nanoheterojunctions enjoyed high photodegradative ability for a RhB pollutant. The photoinduced electron-hole pairs were separated effectively by the TiO2-NMTO nanoheterojunctions, which were directly observed by surface potential measurements with a scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The photogenerated electrons accumulate at interface due to the high density of interface states, and holes remain TiO2 and NMTO particles, other than they migrate from one part to another in heterojunctions by comparing the surface potentials under illumination with different wavelengths.

  20. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m respectively, according to four point probe. Keywords: TiO2, Diode laser, XRD, SEM

  1. Decolorization of Methylene Blue with TiO2 Sol via UV Irradiation Photocatalytic Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 sol was prepared for the degradation of methylene blue (MB solution under ultraviolet (UV irradiation. The absorption spectra of MB indicated that the maximum wavelength, 663 nm, almost kept the same. The performance of 92.3% for color removal was reached after 160 min. The particle size of TiO2 sol was about 22.5 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that TiO2 consisted of a single anatase phase. The small size and anatase phase probably resulted in high photocatalytic activity of TiO2 sol. The degradation ratio decreased as the initial concentration of MB increased. The photodegradation efficiency decreased in the order of pH 2>pH 9>pH 7. Regarding catalyst load, the degradation increased with the mass of catalyst up to an amount of 1.5 g⋅L−1 then decreased as the mass continued to increase. The addition of H2O2 to TiO2 sol resulted in an increase on the degradation ratio.

  2. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  3. Photosensitization of TiO2 P25 with CdS Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenczek-Zając A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A TiO2/CdS coupled system was prepared by mixing the TiO2 P25 with CdS synthesized by means of the precipitation method. It was found that the specific surface area (SSA of both components is extremely different and equals 49.5 for TiO2 and 145.4 m2·g−1 for CdS. The comparison of particle size distribution and images obtained by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed agglomeration of nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns suggest that CdS crystallizes in a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases. Optical reflectance spectra revealed a gradual shift of the fundamental absorption edge towards longer wavelengths with increasing CdS molar fraction, which indicates an extension of the absorption spectrum of TiO2. The photocatalytic activity in UV and UV-vis was tested with the use of methyl orange (MO. The Langmuir–Hinshelwood model described well the photodegradation process of MO. The results showed that the photocatalytic behaviour of the TiO2/CdS mixture is significantly better than that of pure nanopowders.

  4. Nanostructured Photocatalytic TiO2 Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spraying with Different Injection Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuezhang; Wen, Kui; Deng, Chunming; Yang, Kun; Deng, Changguang; Liu, Min; Zhou, Kesong

    2018-02-01

    High plasma power is beneficial for the deposition efficiency and adhesive strength of suspension-sprayed photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, but it confronts two challenges: one is the reduced activity due to the critical phase transformation of anatase into rutile, and the other is fragmented droplets which cannot be easily injected into the plasma core. Here, TiO2 coatings were deposited at high plasma power and the position of suspension injection was varied with the guidance of numerical simulation. The simulation was based on a realistic three-dimensional time-dependent numerical model that included the inside and outside of torch regions. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the microstructure of the TiO2 coatings, whereas x-ray diffraction was adopted to analyze phase composition. Meanwhile, photocatalytic activities of the manufactured TiO2 coatings were evaluated by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue dye. Fragmented droplets were uniformly injected into the plasma jet, and the solidification pathway of melting particles was modified by varying the position of suspension injection. A nanostructured TiO2 coating with 93.9% anatase content was obtained at high plasma power (48.1 kW), and the adhesive coating bonding to stainless steel exhibited the desired photocatalytic activity.

  5. Gold and TiO2 Nanostructure Surfaces for Assembling of Electrochemical Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curulli, A.; Zane, D.

    2008-01-01

    Devices based on nano materials are emerging as a powerful and general class of ultrasensitive sensors for the direct detection of biological and chemical species. In this work, we report the preparation and the full characterization of nano materials such as gold nano wires and TiO 2 nano structured films to be used for assembling of electrochemical biosensors. Gold nano wires were prepared by electroless deposition within the pores of polycarbonate particle track-etched membranes (PMS). Glucose oxidase was deposited onto the nano wires using self-assembling monolayer as an anchor layer for the enzyme molecules. Finally, cyclic voltammetry was performed for different enzymes to test the applicability of gold nano wires as biosensors. Considering another interesting nano material, the realization of functionalized TiO 2 thin films on Si substrates for the immobilization of enzymes is reported. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase immobilized onto TiO 2 -based nano structured surfaces exhibited a pair of well-defined and quasi reversible voltammetric peaks. The electron exchange between the enzyme and the electrodes was greatly enhanced in the TiO 2 nano structured environment. The electrocatalytic activity of HRP and GOD embedded in TiO 2 electrodes toward H 2 O 2 and glucose, respectively, may have a potential perspective in the fabrication of third-generation biosensors based on direct electrochemistry of enzymes.

  6. Water Adsorption on TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Wendt, Stefan; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies and Density Functional Theory (DFT) investigations of the interaction of water with the rutile TiO2 (110) surface are summarized. From high-resolution STM the following reactions have been revealed: water adsorption and diffusion in the Ti troughs, water...... dissociation in bridging oxygen vacancies, assembly of adsorbed water monomers into rapidly diffusing water dimers, and formation of water dimers by reduction of oxygen molecules. The STM results are rationalized based on DFT calculations, revealing the bonding geometries and reaction pathways of the water...

  7. Kinetic model for transformation from nano-sized amorphous $TiO_2$ to anatase

    OpenAIRE

    Madras, Giridhar; McCoy, Benjamin J

    2006-01-01

    We propose a kinetic model for the transformation of nano-sized amorphous $TiO_2$ to anatase with associated coarsening by coalescence. Based on population balance (distribution kinetics) equations for the size distributions, the model applies a first-order rate expression for transformation combined with Smoluchowski coalescence for the coarsening particles. Size distribution moments (number and mass of particles) lead to dynamic expressions for extent of reaction and average anatase particl...

  8. Pulmonary toxicity screening studies in male rats with TiO2 particulates substantially encapsulated with pyrogenically deposited, amorphous silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb TR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute lung toxicity in rats of intratracheally instilled TiO2 particles that have been substantially encapsulated with pyrogenically deposited, amorphous silica. Groups of rats were intratracheally instilled either with doses of 1 or 5 mg/kg of hydrophilic Pigment A TiO2 particles or doses of 1 or 5 mg/kg of the following control or particle-types: 1 R-100 TiO2 particles (hydrophilic in nature; 2 quartz particles, 3 carbonyl iron particles. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS instilled rats served as additional controls. Following exposures, the lungs of PBS and particle-exposed rats were evaluated for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid inflammatory markers, cell proliferation, and by histopathology at post-instillation time points of 24 hrs, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. The bronchoalveolar lavage results demonstrated that lung exposures to quartz particles, at both concentrations but particularly at the higher dose, produced significant increases vs. controls in pulmonary inflammation and cytotoxicity indices. Exposures to Pigment A or R-100 TiO2 particles produced transient inflammatory and cell injury effects at 24 hours postexposure (pe, but these effects were not sustained when compared to quartz-related effects. Exposures to carbonyl iron particles or PBS resulted only in minor, short-term and reversible lung inflammation, likely related to the effects of the instillation procedure. Histopathological analyses of lung tissues revealed that pulmonary exposures to Pigment A TiO2 particles produced minor inflammation at 24 hours postexposure and these effects were not significantly different from exposures to R-100 or carbonyl iron particles. Pigment A-exposed lung tissue sections appeared normal at 1 and 3 months postexposure. In contrast, pulmonary exposures to quartz particles in rats produced a dose-dependent lung inflammatory response characterized by neutrophils and foamy (lipid

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped TiO2 photocatalyst by the sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, Cam Loc; Ho, Si Thoang; Nguyen, Quoc Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Thin layers of pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 doped by different amounts of Fe 2 O 3 have been prepared by the sol–gel method with tetraisopropyl orthotitanate and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . Physico-chemical properties of catalysts were characterized by BET Adsorption, x-ray Diffraction (XRD), FE-SEM, as well as Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained materials was investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of p-xylene in gas phase under the radiation of UV (λ=365 nm) and LED (λ=470 nm) lamps. It has been found that the particle size of all samples was distributed in the range 20–30 nm. The content of the rutile phase in Fe-doped TiO 2 samples varied in the range 6.8 to 41.8% depending on the Fe content. Iron oxide doped into TiO 2 enables the photon absorbing zone of TiO 2 to extend from UV towards visible waves as well as to reduce its band gap energy from 3.2 to 2.67 eV. Photocatalytic activities of the TiO 2 samples modified by Fe 3+ have been found to be higher than those of pure TiO 2 by about 2.5 times

  10. Cosensitization Properties of Glutathione-Protected Au25 Cluster on Ruthenium Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Nakata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosensitization by glutathione-protected Au25 clusters on Ru complex, N719-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes is demonstrated. Glutathione-protected Au25 clusters showed no significant changes in properties after adsorption onto TiO2 particles, as confirmed by optical absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Adsorption property of the glutathione-protected Au25 clusters depends on the pH, which affects the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE of the TiO2 photoelectrode containing Au25 clusters. When pH 7. The IPCE of a TiO2 photoelectrode sensitized by both glutathione-protected Au25 clusters and N719 was increased compared with photoelectrodes containing either glutathione-protected Au25 clusters or N719, which suggests that glutathione-protected Au25 clusters act as a coadsorbent for N719 on TiO2 photoelectrodes. This is also supported by the results that the IPCE of N719-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes increased upon addition of glutathione. Furthermore, cosensitization by glutathione-protected Au25 clusters on N719-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes allows that wavelength of photoelectric conversion was extended to the near infrared (NIR region. These results suggest that glutathione-protected Au25 clusters act not only as a coadsorbent to increase IPCE but also as an NIR-active sensitizer.

  11. Al2O3 doping of TiO2 electrodes and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Sung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively studied since their discovery in 1991. DSSCs have been extensively researched over the past decades as cheaper alternatives to silicon solar cells due to their high energy-conversion efficiency and their low production cost. However, some problems need to be solved in order to enhance the efficiency of DSSCs. In particular, the electron recombination that occurs due to the contact between the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and a redox electrolyte is one of the main limiting factors of efficiency. In this work, we report for the first time the improvement of the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs by doping TiO 2 with Al 2 O 3 . DSSCs were constructed using composite particles of Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 and TiO 2 nanoparticles. The DSSCs using Al 2 O 3 showed the maximum conversion efficiency of 6.29% due to effective electron transport. DSSCs based on Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 films showed better photovoltaic performance than cells fabricated with only TiO 2 nanoparticles. This result is attributed to the prevention of electron recombination between electrons in the TiO 2 conduction band with holes in the dye or the electrolyte. There mechanism is suggested based on impedance results, which indicated improved electron transport at the TiO 2 /dye/electrolyte interface.

  12. Synergistic operation of photocatalytic degradation and Fenton process by magnetic Fe3O4 loaded TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiong; Hong, Yong; Liu, Qiuhong; Dong, Lifeng

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic Fe3O4 loaded anatase TiO2 photocatalysts with different mass ratios were successfully synthesized by a one-step convenient calcining method. The morphology and structure analysis revealed that Fe3O4 was formed in TiO2 with very fine-grained particles. After a small amount of Fe3O4 loaded onto TiO2, the photocatalytic property enhanced obviously for the degradation of organic dye. Furthermore, the photo-Fenton-like catalysis of the iron-containing samples could also be induced after the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The apparent kinetic constant of the reaction that catalyzed by Fe-TiO2 was about 5.3 and 8.3 times of that catalyzed by TiO2 or Fe3O4 only, respectively, proving an effective synergistic contribution of the photocatalysis and Fenton reaction in the composite. Compared with Fe3O4 or free Fe3+ ions, only 13% of iron in TiO2 dissolved into acidic solution (25% for Fe3O4 and 100% for Fe3+) after the reaction, which confirmed the iron had been well immobilized onto TiO2. In addition, the extremely stable photocatalytic activity in cycling experiments proved the immobilized iron had been tightly attached onto TiO2, indicating the great potential of the catalyst for practical applications.

  13. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles filled poly(d,l lactid acid) (PDLLA) matrix composites for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhardt, L.C.; Jell, G.M.R.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were investigated for bone tissue engineering applications with regard to bioactivity and particle cytotoxicity. Composite films on the basis of poly(d,l lactid acid) (PDLLA) filled with 0, 5 and 30 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles were processed by solvent casting.

  14. Taking a fresh look at optical crowding of TiO2: the role of nanocarbonate as synergistic optical extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Cathy J.; Gane, Patrick A. C.

    2013-10-01

    The light scattering potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) is maximized when the TiO2 particles are correctly spaced in relation to the size of the particles, their spacing distance and the refractive index contrast with the surrounding medium. Nanoparticle extenders are claimed to improve TiO2 spacing due to the small particles acting to separate larger TiO2 particles (void size in respect to the separation of the surfaces ˜0.2 µm) and so preventing the TiO2 particles from reaching optical crowding. This concept has been challenged by previous work (Diebold 2011 J. Coat. Technol. Res. 8 541-52) using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and image analysis techniques. Surprisingly in the light of traditional interpretations, the results showed that nanoparticles did not, in fact, space TiO2 particles under any conditions examined. Instead, TiO2 distributions and spacings were completely indifferent to the presence of smaller particles. This current paper undertakes to study why in certain cases extenders do in fact deliver significant synergy allowing TiO2 levels to be reduced in practice. The use of nano-calcium carbonate is demonstrated to provide a wide range of synergistic extension of TiO2 when in combination with synthetic latex binder, but, as found in the previous theoretical work, only a limited synergistic range in direct pigment packing studies using slurry pigment mixes only. A schematic model of the action of calcium carbonate containing a high nanoparticle fraction in the presence of binder is proposed, and is related to a combination of the potential reduction of contact between latex and TiO2 related to an increase in effective pigment volume fraction and surface area as well as the potential for differential flocculation. This model is supported by electron microscopy images and a measure of the ‘hardness’ of the skeletal elements making up the coating structure, determined via the bulk modulus using mercury intrusion porosimetry, enabling

  15. Taking a fresh look at optical crowding of TiO2: the role of nanocarbonate as synergistic optical extender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgway, Cathy J; Gane, Patrick A C

    2013-01-01

    The light scattering potential of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is maximized when the TiO 2 particles are correctly spaced in relation to the size of the particles, their spacing distance and the refractive index contrast with the surrounding medium. Nanoparticle extenders are claimed to improve TiO 2 spacing due to the small particles acting to separate larger TiO 2 particles (void size in respect to the separation of the surfaces ∼0.2 µm) and so preventing the TiO 2 particles from reaching optical crowding. This concept has been challenged by previous work (Diebold 2011 J. Coat. Technol. Res. 8 541–52) using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and image analysis techniques. Surprisingly in the light of traditional interpretations, the results showed that nanoparticles did not, in fact, space TiO 2 particles under any conditions examined. Instead, TiO 2 distributions and spacings were completely indifferent to the presence of smaller particles. This current paper undertakes to study why in certain cases extenders do in fact deliver significant synergy allowing TiO 2 levels to be reduced in practice. The use of nano-calcium carbonate is demonstrated to provide a wide range of synergistic extension of TiO 2 when in combination with synthetic latex binder, but, as found in the previous theoretical work, only a limited synergistic range in direct pigment packing studies using slurry pigment mixes only. A schematic model of the action of calcium carbonate containing a high nanoparticle fraction in the presence of binder is proposed, and is related to a combination of the potential reduction of contact between latex and TiO 2 related to an increase in effective pigment volume fraction and surface area as well as the potential for differential flocculation. This model is supported by electron microscopy images and a measure of the ‘hardness’ of the skeletal elements making up the coating structure, determined via the bulk modulus using mercury intrusion

  16. Mechanochemical preparation of nanocrystalline TiO2 powders and their behavior at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajovic, A.; Furic, K.; Tomasic, N.; Popovic, S.; Skoko, Z.; Music, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 powders were prepared by high-energy ball-milling using zirconia vial and balls. The changes of microstructure caused by material processing were studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The milling of the starting TiO 2 powder (anatase + rutile in traces) induced phase transitions to high-pressure polymorph, TiO 2 II, and rutile. We found that the phase transition to TiO 2 II was initiated at the surface of the small particles, while transition to rutile started in their center. Changes in crystallite size during milling process were obtained by the Scherrer method, while the particle size changes were monitored by TEM. The kinetics of phase changes, a decrease in crystallite/particle size, as well as zirconia contamination depended on the powder-to-ball weight ratio. The starting powder and some selected ball-milled samples were investigated in situ by Raman spectroscopy and XRD at high temperatures (up to 1300 deg. C) to examine their behavior during the sintering process. A difference in the results obtained by these two techniques was explained in frame of basic physical properties characterizing both methods. The morphology of the final sinters was monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  17. Influence of material properties on TiO2 nanoparticle agglomeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhou

    Full Text Available Emerging nanomaterials are being manufactured with varying particle sizes, morphologies, and crystal structures in the pursuit of achieving outstanding functional properties. These variations in these key material properties of nanoparticles may affect their environmental fate and transport. To date, few studies have investigated this important aspect of nanoparticles' environmental behavior. In this study, the aggregation kinetics of ten different TiO2 nanoparticles (5 anatase and 5 rutile each with varying size was systematically evaluated. Our results show that, as particle size increases, the surface charge of both anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles shifts toward a more negative value, and, accordingly, the point of zero charge shifts toward a lower value. The colloidal stability of anatase sphere samples agreed well with DLVO theoretical predictions, where an increase in particle size led to a higher energy barrier and therefore greater critical coagulation concentration. In contrast, the critical coagulation concentration of rutile rod samples correlated positively with the specific surface area, i.e., samples with higher specific surface area exhibited higher stability. Finally, due to the large innate negative surface charge of all the TiO2 samples at the pH value (pH = 8 tested, the addition of natural organic matter was observed to have minimal effect on TiO2 aggregation kinetics, except for the smallest rutile rods that showed decreased stability in the presence of natural organic matter.

  18. Dispersions of geometric TiO2 nanomaterials and their toxicity to RPMI 2650 nasal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Trevor B.; Kerr, Lei L.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Schlager, John J.; Hussain, Saber M.

    2014-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) based nanofilaments—nanotube, nanowire, nanorod—have gained interest for industrial, electrical, and as of recent, medical applications due to their superior performance over TiO2 nanoparticles. Safety assessment of these nanomaterials is critical to protect workers, patients, and bystanders as these technologies become widely implemented. Additionally, TiO2 based nanofilaments can easily be inhaled by humans and their high aspect ratio, much like asbestos fibers, may make them toxic in the respiratory system. The tendency of TiO2 nanofilaments to aggregate makes evaluating their nanotoxicity difficult and the results controversial, because incomplete dispersion results in larger particle sizes that are no longer in the nano dimensional size range. TiO2 nanofilaments are aggregated and difficult to disperse homogeneously in solution by conventional methods, such as sonication and vortexing. In this study, a microfluidic device was utilized to produce stable, homogeneous dosing solutions necessary for in vitro toxicity evaluation by eliminating any toxicity caused by aggregated TiO2 nanomaterials. The toxicity results could then be directly correlated to the TiO2 nanostructure itself. The toxicity of four TiO2 nanogeometries—nanotube, nanowire, nanorod, and nanoparticle—were assessed in RPMI 2650 human nasal epithelial cells at representative day, week, and month in vitro exposure dosages of 10, 50, 100 μg/ml, respectively. All TiO2 based nanomaterials dispersed by the microfluidic method were nontoxic to RPMI 2650 cells at the concentrations tested, whereas higher concentrations of 100 μg/ml of nanowires and nanotubes dispersed by sonication reduced viability up to 27 %, indicating that in vitro toxicity results may be controlled by the dispersion of dosing solutions.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Li; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were prepared via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers have stronger catalytic activity and excellent chemical stability. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor. - Abstract: The TiO 2 fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO 2 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers. Compared with TiO 2 fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO 2 , Ag 3 PO 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the • OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers system

  20. Catalysis of a Nanometre Solid Super Acid of SO42-/TiO2 on the Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raw TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using the hydroly‐ sis of TiCl4. The nanoparticles were subjected to a surface treatment in diluted sulphuric acid and, subsequently, calcined at different temperatures. Then, a type of super solid acid (SO42-/TiO2 with particle sizes of 20∼30 nm was fabricated. The catalysis of SO42-/TiO2 on the thermolysis of ammonium nitrate (AN was probed using thermal analysis. For SO42-/TiO2 (AN doped with 3%SO42-/TiO2, the onset temperature decreased by 19°C and the peak tem‐ perature decreased by 15.8°C. For TiO2 (AN doped with 3%TiO2, the peak temperature decreased by only 0.5°C. Using the DSC-IR technology, the gas products of the decomposition of 3%SO42-/TiO2-doped AN were detected. We found that the products were mainly N2O (g and a small amount of H2O (g, and that no NH3 (g or HNO3 (g was detected, which ascertained the decomposition reaction of NH4NO3→N2O(g+H2O(g. In addition, the catalysis mechanism of SO42-/TiO2 on the AN decomposi‐ tion was discussed in detail.

  1. Defect-rich TiO2-δ nanocrystals confined in a mooncake-shaped porous carbon matrix as an advanced Na ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanna; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hehe; Li, Jiadong; Peng, Zhiguang; Tang, Yougen; Shao, Minhua

    2017-06-01

    Inferior electronic conductivity and sluggish sodium ion diffusion are still two big challenges for TiO2 anode material for Na ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, we synthesize TiO2/C composites by the pyrolysis of MIL-125(Ti) precursor and successfully introduce defects to TiO2/C composite by a simple magnesium reduction. The as-prepared defect-rich TiO2-δ/C composite shows mooncake-shaped morphology consisting of TiO2-δ nanocrystals with an average particle size of 5 nm well dispersed in the carbon matrix. When used as a SIBs anode, the defect-rich TiO2-δ/C composite exhibits a high reversible capacity of 330.2 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 at the voltage range of 0.001-3.0 V and long-term cycling stability with negligible decay after 5000 cycles. Compared with other four TiO2/C samples, the electrochemical performance of defect-rich TiO2-δ/C is highly improved, which may benefit from the enhanced electronic/ionic conductivities owing to the defect-rich features, high surface area rendering shortened electronic and ionic diffusion path, and the suppress of the TiO2 crystal aggregation during sodiation and desodiation process by the carbon matrix.

  2. Development of a Low-Cost TiO2/CuO/Cu Solar Cell by using Combined Spraying and Electroplating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamat Rokhmat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is proposed to develop a low-cost TiO2/CuO/Cu based solar cell. The cell is made by employing a lower grade (technical grade of TiO2 as the active material. CuO powder is synthesized using a wet chemical method and mixed with TiO2 powder to give impurity to the TiO2. A layer of TiO2/CuO is then deposited onto fluorin-doped tin oxide (FTO by spraying. Copper particles are grown on the spaces between the TiO2 and/or CuO particles by electroplating for more feasible electron migration. The TiO2/CuO/Cu solar cell is finalized by sandwiching a polymer electrolyte between the film and the counter electrode. Current-voltage measurement was performed for various parameters, such as the molarity of NaOH for producing CuO particles, the weight ratio of CuO over TiO2, and the current in the electroplating process. A highest efficiency of 1.40% and a fill factor of 0.37 were achieved by using this combined spray and electroplating method.

  3. Mixed matrix membranes prepared from high impact polystyrene with dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles for gas separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Safaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents synthesis and characterization of high impact polystyrene - TiO2 nanoparticles mixed matrix membranes for separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen. The solution-casting method was used for preparation of membranes. The nano mixed matrix membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy to ensure the suitable dispersion of nano particles in high impact polystyrene matrix. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles loading on membrane performance was investigated. The separation performance of synthesized membranes was investigated in separation of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture. Effect of feed pressure and TiO2 content on separation of CO2 was studied. The results revealed that increase of feed pressure decreases flux of gases through the mixed matrix membrane. The results also confirmed that the best separation performance can be obtained at TiO2 nanoparticles loading of 7 wt.%.

  4. Cluster synthesis of monodisperse rutile-TiO2 nanoparticles and dielectric TiO2-vinylidene fluoride oligomer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Kraemer, Kristin L; Valloppilly, Shah R; Ducharme, Stephen; Sellmyer, David J

    2011-01-01

    The embedding of oxide nanoparticles in polymer matrices produces a greatly enhanced dielectric response by combining the high dielectric strength and low loss of suitable host polymers with the high electric polarizability of nanoparticles. The fabrication of oxide-polymer nanocomposites with well-controlled distributions of nanoparticles is, however, challenging due to the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers between the polymer matrix and nanoparticle fillers. In the present study, monodisperse TiO 2 nanoparticles having an average particle size of 14.4 nm and predominant rutile phase were produced using a cluster-deposition technique without high-temperature thermal annealing and subsequently coated with uniform vinylidene fluoride oligomer (VDFO) molecules using a thermal evaporation source, prior to deposition as TiO 2 -VDFO nanocomposite films on suitable substrates. The molecular coatings on TiO 2 nanoparticles serve two purposes, namely to prevent the TiO 2 nanoparticles from contacting each other and to couple the nanoparticle polarization to the matrix. Parallel-plate capacitors made of TiO 2 -VDFO nanocomposite film as the dielectric exhibit minimum dielectric dispersion and low dielectric loss. Dielectric measurements also show an enhanced effective dielectric constant in TiO 2 -VDFO nanocomposites as compared to that of pure VDFO. This study demonstrates for the first time a unique electroactive particle coating in the form of a ferroelectric VDFO that has high-temperature stability as compared to conventionally used polymers for fabricating dielectric oxide-polymer nanocomposites.

  5. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Hao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one containing a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double layer structure was a significant improvement in comparison to the DSSC consisting of only a single film layer. The addition of TiO2-P25 in the top layer caused an improvement in the adsorption of dye molecules on the film rather than on the TiO2 nanotubes only. The presence of the TiO2 nanotubes together with TiO2-P25 in the top layer revealed the enhancement in harvesting the incident light and an improvement of electron transport through the film.

  6. TiO2 beads and TiO2-chitosan beads for urease immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, İlyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO 2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO 2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO 2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO 2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2 mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5 mg/ml for A and 1.0 mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0 mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4–70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30 °C (A), 40 °C (B) and 35 °C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65 °C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. - Highlights: • TiO 2 and TiO 2 -chitosan beads for urease immobilization have been prepared and characterized. • The beads used in this work are good matrices for the immobilization of urease. • The immobilized urease was shown to have good properties and stabilities (pH and thermal stability, operational stability). • The 50% activity was protected after 11 cycles for method A and 16 cycles for method B

  7. Fabricating TiO2 nanocolloids by electric spark discharge method at normal temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Chaur-Yang; Chung, Meng-Yun; Cheng, Ting-Shou

    2017-11-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (T on) and pulse off time (T off) were respectively set at 50 and 100 μs, 100 and 100 μs, 150 and 100 μs, and 200 and 100 μs to produce four types of TiO2 nanocolloids. Zetasizer analysis of the nanocolloids showed that a decrease in T on increased the suspension stability, but there were no significant correlations between T on and particle size. Colloids produced from the four production configurations showed a minimum particle size between 29.39 and 52.85 nm and a zeta-potential between -51.2 and -46.8 mV, confirming that the method introduced in this study can be used to produce TiO2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy also indicated that the TiO2 colloids did not contain elements other than Ti and oxygen.

  8. Fabricating TiO2 nanocolloids by electric spark discharge method at normal temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Chaur-Yang; Chung, Meng-Yun; Cheng, Ting-Shou

    2017-11-17

    In this study, TiO 2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (T on ) and pulse off time (T off ) were respectively set at 50 and 100 μs, 100 and 100 μs, 150 and 100 μs, and 200 and 100 μs to produce four types of TiO 2 nanocolloids. Zetasizer analysis of the nanocolloids showed that a decrease in T on increased the suspension stability, but there were no significant correlations between T on and particle size. Colloids produced from the four production configurations showed a minimum particle size between 29.39 and 52.85 nm and a zeta-potential between -51.2 and -46.8 mV, confirming that the method introduced in this study can be used to produce TiO 2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy also indicated that the TiO 2 colloids did not contain elements other than Ti and oxygen.

  9. BIOSYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF TIO2 NANOPARTICLES IN BIOCATALYSIS AND PROTEIN FOLDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Ahmad,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The nano-TiO2 was synthesized using Lactobacillus sp. and characterized by XRD and TEM. The X-ray diffraction showed that TiO2 nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM images revealed that these particles are irregular in shape with an average particle size of 50–100 nm. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were used for the immobilization and refolding of thermally inactivated alpha amylase enzyme. The enzyme after adsorption on TiO2 nanoparticles retained 71% of enzyme activity. The immobilized enzyme was found to be thermally more stable as compared to the free enzyme. When the enzyme was heated to 60°C for 60 min the free enzyme loses all of its activity whereas the adsorbed enzyme retained 82% of its activity.The adsorbed/immobilized protein could be reused five times without any loss in enzyme activity. The operational stability data also shows that after immobilization the stability of alpha amylase increases. To study the nanoparticles-protein interaction, alpha amylase enzyme was inactivated by heating at 60°C for 1 hour. The thermally inactivated alpha amylase when incubated with the biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles regains nearly 65% activity after 2.0 hour. Thus TiO2 nanoparticles assist in refolding of the enzyme.

  10. Investigation on the conditions mitigating membrane fouling caused by TiO2 deposition in a membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) used for dye wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodar, Rahul-Ashok; You, Sheng-Jie; Chiou, Guan-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The charge differences between particle and membrane accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles. ► Severe fouling at pH 5 and low fouling at pH ≥ 7 at all flux conditions. ► The presence of a very thin TiO 2 cake layer can alter the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. ► The resistance offered by dense TiO 2 cake layer could dominate the hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of MPR's operating conditions such as permeate flux, solution pH, and membrane hydrophobicity on separation characteristics and membrane fouling caused by TiO 2 deposition were investigated. The extent of fouling was measured in terms of TMP and tank turbidity variation. The results showed that, at mildly acidic conditions (pH ∼ 5), the turbidity within the tank decreased and the extent of turbidity drop increased with increasing flux for all the membranes. On the other hand, at pH ≥ 7, the turbidity remained constant at all flux and for all membranes tested. The fouling variation at different pH was closely linked with the surface charge (zeta potential) and hydrophilicity of both membrane and particles. It was observed that the charge differences between the particles and membranes accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles on the membrane surface under different pH conditions. The presence of a very thin layer of TiO 2 can alter the hydrophilicity of the membranes and can slightly decrease the TMP (filtration resistance) of the fouled membranes. Besides, the resistance offered by the dense TiO 2 cake layer would dominate this hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles, and it may not alter the filtration resistance of the fouled membranes.

  11. Ecotoxicity of nanosized TiO2. Review of in vivo data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, Anja; Drobne, Damjana; Jemec, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This report presents an exhaustive literature review of data on the effect of nanoparticulate TiO 2 on algae, higher plants, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and freshwater fish. The aim, to identify the biologically important characteristics of the nanoparticles that have most biological significance, was unsuccessful, no discernable correlation between primary particle size and toxic effect being apparent. Secondary particle size and particle surface area may be relevant to biological potential of nanoparticles, but insufficient confirmatory data exist. The nanotoxicity data from thirteen studies fail to reveal the characteristics actually responsible for their biological reactivity because reported nanotoxicity studies rarely carry information on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles tested. A number of practical measures are suggested which should support the generation of reliable QSAR models and so overcome this data inadequacy. - Ecotoxicity of nanosized TiO 2 .

  12. Controlled Directional Growth of TiO2 Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how the anodization direction and growth rate of vertically aligned, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can be controlled and manipulated by the local concentration of O-2 in the electrolyte. This leads to the growth of highly active TiO2 NT arrays directly on nonconducting s...

  13. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, S. David; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that tuning the donor density of protective TiO2 layers on a photocathode has dramatic consequences for electronic conduction through TiO2 with implications for the stabilization of oxidation-sensitive catalysts on the surface. Vacuum annealing at 400 °C for 1 hour o...

  14. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photocatalyst; TiO2 nanoparticle; polyaniline; conducting polymer; core-shell nanocomposite. 1. Introduction ..... tine TiO2 nanoparticles, HCl-doped PANI and PANI/TiO2 ..... Karim M R, Lim K T, Lee M S, Kim K and Yeum J H 2009 Synth. Met.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bitao; WANG Ke; BAI Jie; MU Hongmei; TONG Yongchun; MIN Shixiong; SHE Shixiong; LEI Ziqiang

    2007-01-01

    Fe3+-doped TiO2 composite nanoparticles with different doping amounts were successfully synthesized using sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was used as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Fe3+/TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradia-tion. The influence of doping amount of Fe3+ (ω: 0.00%-3.00%) on photocatalytic activities of TiO2 was investigated.Results show that the size of Fe3+/TiO2 particles decreases with the increase of the amount of Fe3+ and their absorptionspectra are broaden and absorption intensities are also increased. Doping Fe3+ can control the conversion of TiO2 from anatase to rutile. The doping amount of Fe3+ remarkably affects the activity of the catalyst, and the optimum efficiency occurs at about the doping amount of 0.3%. The appropriate doping of Fe3+ can markedly increase the catalytic activity of TiO2 under visible light irradiation.

  16. Simple method of preparing nitrogen - doped nanosized TiO2 powders of high photocatalytic activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hung; Dang Thi Thanh Le

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped nanosized TiO 2 powders were prepared by a simple thermal treatment method of the mixture of titanium dioxide and urea. The prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis-DRS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the crystal structure of N-TiO 2 was a mixture of anatase and rutile phases, and the average particle size was 31 nm calculated from XRD results. The UV-vis spectra indicate an increase in absorption of visible light when compared to undoped TiO 2 . The photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped TiO 2 powder was evaluated by the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. And it was found that nitrogen-doped TiO 2 powders exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO 2 . Moreover, the study also showed that, the doping N atoms improve the growth of the TiO 2 crystal and phase transformation. (author)

  17. MSINDO quantum chemical modeling study of water molecule adsorption at nano-sized anatase TiO2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Hilal S.; Bredow, Thomas; Aliwi, Salah M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we studied the adsorption of water molecule onto the (1 0 0), (0 1 0) and (0 0 1) surfaces of nano-sized anatase TiO 2 with semiempirical SCF MO method, MSINDO. The anatase TiO 2 particles are modeled with free clusters (TiO 2 ) n, where n = 20-80. Whereas, the surfaces have been modeled with two saturated clusters, Ti 21 O 58 H 32 and Ti 36 O 90 H 36 . The surface lattice fivefold coordinated titanium atoms (Ti 5C ), which represent the Lewis acid sites, are selected as adsorption centers. We also investigated the effect of TiO 2 cluster size on the computed band gap energy. Results reveal that the electronic properties of a cluster in the lowest excited state differ from that of the ground state. Furthermore, the MSINDO band gap energies of 3.68-3.77 eV for the anatase TiO 2 are in a fair accordance with other literature data. In agreement with other computational and experimental studies, the dissociated form of water molecule adsorption on anatase TiO 2 surfaces is always more stabilized than the molecular form

  18. Bi-functional TiO2 cemented Ag grid under layer for enhancing the photovoltaic performance of a large-area dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Zhang; Wu Jihuai; Lin Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Enhanced photovoltaic performance of large-area DSSC with conductive grids in the photo and counter electrodes. Highlights: ► TiO 2 protected Ag grids is made for using as electrode in large-area DSSC. ► The electrode has high conductivity and low internal resistance. ► TiO 2 protected Ag grids electrode avoids iodine corrosion in electrolyte. ► The TiO 2 layer also play a blocking layer role. ► Above factors enhance the photovoltaic performance of large-area DSSC. - Abstract: A bi-functional TiO 2 cemented Ag grid under layer for enhanced the photovoltaic performance of a large-area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is prepared with a simple way. The conductive printing paste contains micro-sized Ag powders and nano-sized TiO 2 cementing agent. The conductive printing paste can be well cemented on the FTO glass and form high conductive grids with Ag powders sintered together by the nano-sized TiO 2 particles. The formed conductive grid is protected with a TiO 2 thin layer and TiO 2 sol treatment to avoid the iodine corrosion. The addition of the TiO 2 cemented conductive grid can decrease the internal resistance of the large-area dye-sensitized solar cell when it is prepared in the photo and counter electrodes. Furthermore, the protecting TiO 2 thin layer and the TiO 2 sol treatment can be done on the whole area of the large-area photo electrode to both play as the blocking under layer at the same time, which can also enhance the photovoltaic performance of the large-area dye-sensitized solar cell.

  19. The Electrochemical Properties of Low-crystallinity TiO2(B)-Carbon Composite as an Anode Material in Lithium Ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Yasuyuki; Zhao, Wenwen; Unno, Masashi; Noguchi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 (B)-carbon composites was synthesized from Lepidocrocite-type compounds. • Tight adhesion between TiO 2 (B) and CNT in the composite is confirmed. • TiO 2 (B)-carbon composite delivers higher capacity than that of bare TiO 2 (B). • TiO 2 (B)-carbon composite exhibits improved rate performance. - Abstract: We have prepared two types TiO 2 (B)-carbon composites from Lepidocrocite-type compounds (K 0.86 Li 0.26 T i1.72 O 4 ) heated at 700 and 900 °C under presence of carbon nanotube (CNT) and glucose as carbon sources. The XRD data shows that it contains a single phase of TiO 2 (B) and the existence of carbon was confirmed by Raman spectra. TEM image confirms that TiO 2 (B) primary particles and carbon nanotube are scattered randomly and contact tightly in the composite. Carbon content in the composite was found to be 5 - 8% and CNT is the major carbonaceous material. The charge and discharge curves of TiO 2 (B)-carbon composite prepared from precursor heated at 700 °C resemble with that of amorphous TiO 2 . The calculated discharge capacity of the composite is 323 mAh g −1 at a cut off voltage of 0.9 V, which is higher than that of bare TiO 2 (B). It is suggested that the electrochemical performance of this material is strongly influenced by both the operating temperature and cut off voltage. The discharge capacity can reach 198 mAh g −1 at 4.5 C rate at a cut off voltage 1.3 V and the coulombic efficiency is over 99.8% after 10 th cycles

  20. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO2 thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlıdil, İlknur; Bacaksız, Emin; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Breen, Chris; Sökmen, Münevver

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel method. ► We obtained lower E g values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO 2 thin films. ► Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. ► Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO 2 thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO 2 thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe 3+ or Co 2+ ion doped TiO 2 thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol–gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E g value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO 2 , 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO 2 film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO 2 thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO 2 thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO 2 thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  1. Foaming of aluminium with and without TiO2 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S.; Ozturuk, T.

    2003-01-01

    A study was carried out into the formation of aluminium foams via powder processing route. Aluminum powder compacts both in pure form and AI-5%TiO 2 were foamed at temperatures ranging from 675 to 800 o C. Foaming agent TiH 2 was mixed with powders typically with 0.6 wt % in two different sizes. Experiments have shown that foaming in excess of 120 % is possible both with pure AI as well as in AI-TiO 2 . It is found that with coarse TiH 2 , with and without TiO 2 , Al expands more, implying that there may be a certain size below which particles may not participate in the foaming process. It is further found that with the use of high temperature there are internal reactions between foaming agent and aluminium as well as between TiO 2 and AI. This is with the result that with TiO 2 added system foaming becomes more temperature dependant than the pure AI. (Original)

  2. Dispersion and Stabilization of Photocatalytic TiO2 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspension for Coatings Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle coatings, it is desirable that the nanoparticles are dispersed into a liquid solution and remain stable for a certain period of time. Controlling the dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles is crucial to exploit the advantages of the nanometer-sized TiO2 particles. In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed and stabilized in aqueous suspensions using two common dispersants which were polyacrylic acid (PAA and ammonium polymethacrylate (Darvan C. The effect of parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude and type and amount of dispersants on the dispersibility and stability of the TiO2 aqueous suspensions were examined. Rupture followed by erosion was determined to be the main break up mechanisms when ultrasonication was employed. The addition of dispersant was found to produce more dispersed and more stabilized aqueous suspension. 3 wt.% of PAA with average molecular weight (Mw of 2000 g/mol (PAA 2000 was determined to produce the best and most stable dispersion. The suspensions were then coated on quartz glass, whereby the photocatalytic activity of the coatings was studied via the degradation of formaldehyde gas under UV light. The coatings were demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 Composite Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman ZUAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 and CeO2-doped TiO2 (3 % CeO2-97 %TiO2 composite nanocrystals were synthesized via co-precipitation method and characterized using TGA, XRD, FTIR, DR-UV-vis and TEM. The XRD data revealed that the phase structure of the synthesized samples was mainly in pure anatase having crystallite size in the range of 7 nm – 11 nm. Spherical shapes with moderate aggregation of the crystal particles were observed under the TEM observation. The presence of the CeO2 at TiO2 site has not only affected morphologically but also induced the electronic property of the TiO2 by lowering the band gap energy from 3.29 eV (Eg-Ti to 3.15 eV (Eg-CeTi. Performance evaluation of the synthesized samples showed that both samples have a strong adsorption capacity toward Congo red (CR dye in aqueous solution at room temperature experiment, where  the capacity of the CeTi was higher than the Ti sample. Based on DR-UV data, the synthesized samples obtained in this study may also become promising catalysts for photo-assisted removal of synthetic dye in aqueous solution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2732

  4. Nanostructured TiO2 Doped with Nb as a Novel Support for PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the major issues of the PEMFC concerns the durability. Historically, carbon has been used as a catalyst support in PEMFC; nevertheless, under the environmental conditions of the cell, the carbon is oxidized, leaving the catalyst unsupported. In order to increase the stability and durability of the catalyst in the PEMFC, a novel nanostructured metallic oxide support is proposed. In this work, TiO2 was doped with Nb to obtain a material that combines chemical stability, high surface area, and an adequate electronic conductivity in order to be a successful catalyst support candidate for long-term PEMFC applications. The TiO2-Nb nanostructured catalyst support was physically and electrochemically characterized. According to the results, the TiO2-Nb offers high surface area and good particle dispersion; also, the electrochemical activity and stability of the support were evaluated under high potential conditions, where the TiO2-Nb proved to be much more stable than carbon.

  5. Visible light active TiO2 films prepared by electron beam deposition of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xinggang; Ma Jun; Liu Andong; Li Dejun; Huang Meidong; Deng Xiangyun

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 films prepared by sol-gel method were modified by electron beam deposition of noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Ag). Effects of noble metals on the chemical and surface characteristics of the films were studied using XPS, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic activity of modified TiO 2 films was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye solution under visible light UV irradiation. The result of TEM reveals that most of the surface area of TiO 2 is covered by tiny particles of noble metals with diameter less than 1 nm. Broad red shift of UV-Visible absorption band of modified photocatalysts was observed. The catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solutions under visible light illumination demonstrates a significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity of these films compared with the un-loaded films. The photocatalytic efficiency of modified TiO 2 films by this method is affected by the concentration of impregnating solution.

  6. Mo-doped Gray Anatase TiO2: Lattice Expansion for Enhanced Sodium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Hanxiao; Xie, Lingling; Zhang, Yan; Qiu, Xiaoqing; Li, Simin; Huang, Zhaodong; Hou, Hongshuai; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Gray-colored Mo 6+ -doped anatase TiO 2 is prepared uniformly with particle size of 10–20 nm, and is firstly employed as anode material in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), presenting excellent electrochemical performances. It delivered reversible specific capacities of 231.8 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C (33.5 mA g −1 ) after 100 cycles and 108.3 mAh g −1 at 5 C (1.68 A g −1 ), comparing to 170.5 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C and only 41.7 mAh g −1 at 5C for the bare TiO 2 . The improved electrochemical performances might be beneficial from the doping of Mo 6+ , which can effectively enhance the conductivity of TiO 2 resulting from induced conduction band electrons, interstitial oxygen defects and vacancies. In addition, the doping can also lead to the lattice expansion, which can facilitate the diffusion of Na + . In combination with natural abundance and environmental benignity, Mo 6+ -doped TiO 2 can be expected to be utilized as an anode material for enhanced sodium storage.

  7. Different modes of TiO2 uptake by Ceriodaphnia dubia: relevance to toxicity and bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Iswarya, V; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    The extensive environmental exposure of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) may result in their bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms leading to their biotransfer in a food chain through various routes in a freshwater ecosystem. The present study focuses on the possible modes of TiO2 NP trophic transfer to Ceriodaphnia dubia, in presence and/absence of its diet, Scenedesmus obliquus (primary producer). The acute exposure studies (48h) were designed to have daphnids exposed to (i) the free NPs, (ii) both the free and the algae-borne NPs; and (iii) only the algae-borne NPs in separate tests to understand the possible routes of NP transfer. The dietary uptake of TiO2 NPs (algae-borne) was found to be the primary route for NP biotransfer with ∼70% of total NP uptake. Interestingly, in a separate study it was noticed that the NPs coated with algal exudates were easily taken up by daphnids as compared to pristine NPs of same concentrations, leading to their higher bioaccumulation. A chronic toxicity study, where daphnids were exposed to both free and algae-borne NPs for 21 days was undertaken to comprehend the TiO2 NP effect on daphnia growth and reproduction upon chronic exposure and also the bioaccumulation potential. Both acute and chronic exposure studies suggested higher bioaccumulation of TiO2 in daphnids when the particles were less toxic to the diet (algae). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photocatalytic properties of nano-structured TiO2-carbon films obtained by means of electrophoretic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta-Hernandez, J.M.; Manriquez, J.; Meas-Vong, Y.; Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Chapman, Thomas W.; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Godinez, Luis A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the light-absorption and photocatalytic efficiencies of TiO 2 can be improved by coupling TiO 2 nano-particles with nonmetallic dopants, such as carbon. In this paper, we describe the electrophoretic preparation of a novel TiO 2 -carbon nano-composite photocatalyst on a glass indium thin oxide (ITO) substrate. The objective is to take better advantage of the (e - /h + ) pair generated by photoexcitation of semiconducting TiO 2 particles. The transfer of electrons (e - ) into adjacent carbon nano-particles promotes reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) which, in the presence of iron ions, can subsequently form hydroxyl radicals ( · OH) via the Fenton reaction. At the same time, · OH is formed from water by the (h + ) holes in the TiO 2 . Thus, the · OH oxidant is produced by two routes. The efficiency of this photolytic-Fenton process was tested with a model organic compound, Orange-II (OG-II) azo dye, which is employed in the textile industry

  9. Whiter, brighter, and more stable cellulose paper coated with TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lorch, Mark; Sajedin, Seyed Mani; Kelly, Stephen M; Kornherr, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    To inhibit the photocatalytic degradation of organic material supports induced by small titania (TiO2 ) nanoparticles, four kinds of TiO2 nanoparticles, that is, commercial P25-TiO2 , commercial rutile phase TiO2 , rutile TiO2 nanorods and rutile TiO2 spheres, prepared from TiCl4 , were coated with a thin, but dense, coating of silica (SiO2 ) using a conventional sol-gel technique to form TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles. These core/shell particles were deposited and fixed as a very thin coating onto the surface of cellulose paper samples by a wet-chemistry polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer approach. The TiO2 /SiO2 nanocoated paper samples exhibit higher whiteness and brightness and greater stability to UV-bleaching than comparable samples of blank paper. There are many potential applications for this green chemistry approach to protect cellulosic fibres from UV-bleaching in sunlight and to improve their whiteness and brightness. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Role of Platinum Deposited on TiO2 in Photocatalytic Methanol Oxidation and Dehydrogenation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma M. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania modified nanoparticles have been prepared by the photodeposition method employing platinum particles on the commercially available titanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100. The properties of the prepared photocatalysts were investigated by means of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and UV-visible diffuse spectrophotometry (UV-Vis. XRD was employed to determine the crystallographic phase and particle size of both bare and platinised titanium dioxide. The results indicated that the particle size was decreased with the increasing of platinum loading. AFM analysis showed that one particle consists of about 9 to 11 crystals. UV-vis absorbance analysis showed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength for 0.5% Pt loading compared with bare titanium dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of pure and Pt-loaded TiO2 was investigated employing the photocatalytic oxidation and dehydrogenation of methanol. The results of the photocatalytic activity indicate that the platinized titanium dioxide samples are always more active than the corresponding bare TiO2 for both methanol oxidation and dehydrogenation processes. The loading with various platinum amounts resulted in a significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. This beneficial effect was attributed to an increased separation of the photogenerated electron-hole charge carriers.

  11. Preparation of weak-light-driven TiO2-based catalysts via adsorbed-layer nanoreactor synthesis and enhancement of their photo-degradation performance in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Xu, Zhi-yong; Zhu, Yi-chen; Wu, Li-guang; Yuan, Hao-xuan; Li, Chang-chun; Liu, Ya-yu; Cai, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was first employed as a support in preparing TiO2 nanoparticles by adsorbed-layer nanoreactor synthesis (ALNS). Both TiO2 crystallization and GO reduction simultaneously occurred during solvothermal treatment with alcohol as a solvent. By transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, the results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles with less than 10 nm of size distributed very homogeneously on the GO surface. Tight interaction between TiO2 particles and GO surface could effectively inhibit the aggregation of TiO2 particles, during solvothermal treatment for anatase TiO2 formation. Alcohol could also reduce oxygenated functional groups on GO surface after solvothermal treatment. TiO2 particles with small size and the decrease in oxygenated functional groups on the GO surface both caused high separation efficiency of photo-generated charge carriers, thus resulting in high photo-degradation performance of catalysts. Strong phenol adsorption on photocatalyst was key to enhancing photo-degradation efficiency for phenol in seawater. Moreover, the change in catalyst structure was minimal at different temperatures of solvothermal treatment. But, the degradation rate and efficiency for phenol in seawater were obviously enhanced because of the sensitive structure-activity relationship of catalysts under weak-light irradiation.

  12. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  13. Time-dependent translocation and potential impairment on central nervous system by intranasally instilled TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangxue; Liu Ying; Jiao Fang; Lao Fang; Li Wei; Gu Yiqun; Li Yufeng; Ge Cuicui; Zhou Guoqiang; Li Bai; Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Chen Chunying

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles can be administered via nasal, oral, intraocular, intratracheal (pulmonary toxicity), tail vein and other routes. Here, we focus on the time-dependent translocation and potential damage of TiO 2 nanoparticles on central nervous system (CNS) through intranasal instillation. Size and structural properties are important to assess biological effects of TiO 2 nanoparticles. In present study, female mice were intranasally instilled with two types of well-characterized TiO 2 nanoparticles (i.e. 80 nm, rutile and 155 nm, anatase; purity > 99%) every other day. Pure water instilled mice were served as controls. The brain tissues were collected and evaluated for accumulation and distribution of TiO 2 , histopathology, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers at post-instillation time points of 2, 10, 20 and 30 days. The titanium contents in the sub-brain regions including olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results indicated that the instilled TiO 2 directly entered the brain through olfactory bulb in the whole exposure period, especially deposited in the hippocampus region. After exposure for 30 days, the pathological changes were observed in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb using Nissl staining and transmission electron microscope. The oxidative damage expressed as lipid peroxidation increased significantly, in particular in the exposed group of anatase TiO 2 particles at 30 days postexposure. Exposure to anatase TiO 2 particles also produced higher inflammation responses, in association with the significantly increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) levels. We conclude that subtle differences in responses to anatase TiO 2 particles versus the rutile ones could be related to crystal structure. Thus, based on these results, rutile ultrafine-TiO 2 particles are expected to have a little lower risk potential for producing adverse

  14. Dielectric response and room temperature ferromagnetism in Cr doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Swaleha; Khan, Wasi; Khan, Shakeel; Husain, Shahid; Ahmad, Abid

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, nanocrystalline samples of Ti1-xCrxO2 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were synthesized in anatase phase through simple and cost effective acid modified sol gel method. The influence of Cr doping on thermal, microstructural, electrical and magnetic properties was investigated in TiO2 host matrix. The surface morphology has revealed less agglomeration and considerable reduction in particle size in case of Cr doped TiO2 as compared to undoped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) established high purity, appropriate stoichiometry and oxidation states of the compositions. The dielectric properties of the nanoparticles were altered by the doping concentration, applied frequency as well as temperature variation. The variation in dielectric constant (ε‧), dielectric loss (δ) and ac conductivity as a function of frequency and temperature at different doping concentration of Cr were interpreted in the light of Maxwell Wagner theory, space charge polarization mechanism and drift mobility of charge carriers. Both undoped and Cr doped TiO2 samples exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) that remarkably influenced by means of the Cr content. The significant enhancement in the magnetization was observed at 4% Cr doping. However, decrease in magnetization for higher doping signify antiferromagnetic interactions between Cr ions or superexchange mechanism. These results reveal that the oxygen vacancies play a crucial role to initiate the RTFM. Therefore, the present investigation suggests the potential applications of Cr doped TiO2 nanoparticles for spintronics application.

  15. Influence of silver on photocatalytic activity of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisen, Carla Yuri; Teodoro, Vinicius; Zaghete, Maria Ap.; Perazolli, Leinig Antonio; Longo, Elson

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This work studied the influence of silver on photo activity of TiO 2 , prepared by Pechini method, in the photodegradation of Rhodamine-B. The catalysts were prepared with different percentage of silver (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 %) and different calcination temperatures (500, 600 and 700°C), characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX) and field emission gun - scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), The powders' photo catalytic activity was defined by Rhodamine-B decolorisation test. The solution containing the dye and the catalyst, in the concentration of 0,01 mmol L -1 e 1,0 g L -1 respectively, were submitted to radiation with 9W germicidal lamp for 120 minutes. The control samples, for comparison effects, were made with TiO 2 anatase (Synth brand) and photolysis tests. In the micrographs, obtained by SEM, all the temperatures and compositions employed presented similar morphologies, it is assumed the calcination temperature rise leads to a decreased apparent porosity and the generation of particles clusters. The X-ray diffractograms indicates the calcination temperature influence in the generation of distinct TiO 2 phases during the catalysts synthesis. Regardless of the TiO 2 proportions, the only actual phase with 500°C calcination is the anatase. At 600°C, the rutile phase coexisting with the anatase phase disappears, and the rutile phase predominates. Among the catalysts, what presented greater activity was the TiO 2 with 0.5% Ag and calcination temperature of 500°C, which degraded around 100% in 60 minutes. References: [1] P. Cozolli, E. Fanizza and A. Agostiano. J. Phys.Chem. B108, 9623-9630, 2004. (author)

  16. Investigation on the structural and nonlinear optical properties of Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahulan, K. Mani; Padmanathan, N.; Vinitha, G.; Kanakam, Charles Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The open aperture Z-scan traces of Pt doped TiO 2 nanoparticles at different Pt concentrations were carried out at an irradiation wavelength of 532 nm. It was numerically found that, two photon absorption (TPA) type process gives the best fit to the obtained open aperture Z-scan data. The nonlinear transmission was found to be of third order as it fits to a two-photon absorption. The optical limiting performances of nanoparticles were greatly enhanced with increased volume ratio of Pt. Increasing particle size reduced the limiting threshold and enhanced the optical limiting performance. - Highlights: • Pt doped TiO 2 nanoparticles with different concentrations of Pt have been synthesized by sol–gel method. • The average fluorescence lifetime decreases as the volume fraction of Pt dopant increases. • The effects of Pt content on the optical limiting property were investigated by open aperture Z-scan measurements done at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses. • The values of the third-order nonlinearities of nanoparticles are interesting from the application point of view which could be used as a potential candidate for the application of nonlinear optical device. - Abstract: Pt doped TiO 2 nanoparticles with different concentrations of Pt were prepared by sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals that the samples have a homogeneous anatase phase tetragonal system and the lattice parameter analysis indicates that Pt ions substitute into the lattice of TiO 2 . The addition of dopant increases the growth of TiO 2 grains, agglomerates them and shifts the absorption band of TiO 2 from ultraviolet to visible region. The incorporation of Pt in TiO 2 is also confirmed by fluorescence quenching and the fluorescence lifetime decreases as the volume fraction of Pt dopant increases. Open aperture Z-scan measurements done at 532 nm using 7 ns laser pulses show nonlinear absorption which arises from an effective two photon absorption process

  17. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Ali, Asghar

    TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW) diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m) respectively, according to four point probe.

  18. TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A P; Priezzhev, A V; Lademann, J; Myllylae, R

    2005-01-01

    Protecting human skin against harmful UV-B radiation coming from the sun is currently a problem. Due to the decreased thickness of the ozone layer, a more dangerous amount of UV-B light reaches the surface of our planet. This causes increased frequency of skin diseases. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) fine particles are embedded with sunscreens into the skin to effectively attenuate UV-B radiation. This study evaluates the most appropriate size of such particles assuming they are spheres. The distribution of TiO 2 particles within the skin, achieved with topically applied sunscreens, is determined experimentally by the tape-stripping technique. Computer code implementing the Monte Carlo method is used to simulate photon migration within the plain 20 μm thick horny layer matrix partially filled with nano-sized TiO 2 particles. Dependences of harmful UV-B radiation of 307-311 nm absorbed by, backscattered from and transmitted through the horny layer on the concentration of TiO 2 particles are obtained and analysed. As a result, particles of 62 nm are found to be the most effective in protecting skin against UV-B light

  19. Solid-state synthesis of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 whiskers from TiO_2-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Wenjun; Zhuang, Wei; Ji, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaohua; Wang, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 whiskers were synthesized from TiO_2-B whiskers via a solid state reaction. • The TiO_2-B crystal structure for lithium diffusion is easier than anatase. • The separated diffusion and reaction process is crucial for the solid-state syntheses of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 whiskers. - Abstract: In this work, Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) was synthesized from the precursors of TiO_2-B and anatase whiskers, respectively. The synthesized LTO whiskers from TiO_2-B whiskers via a solid state reaction at 650 °C have a high degree of crystallinity with an average diameter of 300 nm. However, when anatase whiskers were used as the precursor, only particle morphology LTO was produced at 750 °C. The further analysis of the precursors, the intermediate products and the final products reveal that the crystal structure of the anatase hinders the diffusion of lithium, leading to a typical reaction–diffusion process. Under this condition, only particle morphology LTO can be produced. However, the crystal structure of the TiO_2-B is easy for lithium diffusion and the process is performed in two separated steps (i.e., diffusion and reaction), which makes it possible to decrease the solid-state reaction temperature down to 650 °C and then maintain the morphologies of whiskers.

  20. Nano-crystalline thin and nano-particulate thick TiO2 layer: Cost effective sequential deposition and study on dye sensitized solar cell characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Sengupta, D.; Kasinadhuni, U.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin TiO 2 layer is deposited on conducting substrate using sol–gel based dip coating. • TiO 2 nano-particles are synthesized using hydrothermal route. • Thick TiO 2 particulate layer is deposited on prepared thin layer. • Dye sensitized solar cells are made using thin and thick layer based photo-anode. • Introduction of thin layer in particulate photo-anode improves the cell efficiency. - Abstract: A compact thin TiO 2 passivation layer is introduced between the mesoporous TiO 2 nano-particulate layer and the conducting glass substrate to prepare photo-anode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In order to understand the effect of passivation layer, other two DSSCs are also developed separately using TiO 2 nano-particulate and compact thin film based photo-anodes. Nano-particles are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis route and the compact passivation layer is prepared by simply dip coating the precursor sol prepared through wet chemical route. The TiO 2 compact layer and the nano-particles are characterised in terms of their micro-structural features and phase formation behavior. It is found that introduction of a compact TiO 2 layer in between the mesoporous TiO 2 nano-particulate layer and the conducting substrate improves the solar to electric conversion efficiency of the fabricated cell. The dense thin passivation layer is supposed to enhance the photo-excited electron transfer and prevent the recombination of photo-excited electrons

  1. Visible Light Excited Catalysis and Reusability Performances of TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 Upconversion Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To get high efficiency photodegradation on pollutants under visible light, Pr(III doped Y2SiO5 upconversion materials and anatase TiO2 nanofilm coated Pr:Y2SiO5 composite have been prepared by using a sol-gel method. XRD and SEM test results indicated that TiO2 nanofilm was well coated on Pr:Y2SiO5 to form TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 composite particles with the sizes of 0.5–1.0 μm. To avoid secondary pollution resulting from incomplete recovery of catalyst particles, TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 was loaded on the glass fiber filters by using a dip-coating method. It is found that the catalyst particles were embedded into the carrier firmly, even after having been reused for 6 times. The luminescence intensities of TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 were getting down sharply with the coating contents of TiO2 increased, which was attributed to the adsorption of the luminescence by the TiO2 film in situ. As a result, TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 with 4% TiO2, which presented lowest luminescence intensity, showed the highest efficiency on the photodegradation of nitrobenzene wastewater. The catalysts loaded on glass fiber filters showed excellent reusability on the photodegradation of nitrobenzene and presented a photodegradation rate of 95% at the first time and up to 75.9% even after 6 times of reusing by the treatment time of 12 h.

  2. Investigation of the adsorption of ozone molecules on TiO2/WSe2 nanocomposites by DFT computations: Applications to gas sensor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Amirali; Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of O3 molecule on the undoped and N-doped TiO2/WSe2 nanocomposites was studied using first principles density functional theory calculations. O3 interaction with TiO2/WSe2 nanocomposites is considered so as to investigate WSe2 effects on the adsorption process. WSe2 favors the adsorption of O3 on TiO2 particles. In other words, WSe2 is conducive to the interaction of O3 molecule with fivefold coordinated titanium sites of TiO2. The effects of vdW interactions were taken into account in order to obtain equilibrium geometries of O3 molecules at TiO2/WSe2 interfaces. For all adsorption configurations, the binding site was positioned on the fivefold coordinated titanium atoms. The results show that the interactions between O3 and TiO2 in TiO2/WSe2 nanocomposites are stronger than those between O3 and bare TiO2, suggesting that WSe2 helps to strengthen the interaction of ozone molecule with TiO2 particles. The results also indicate that the adsorption of the O3 molecule on the N-doped TiO2/WSe2 nanocomposite is more energetically favorable than the adsorption of O3 on the pristine one, representing that the N-doped nanocomposites are more sensitive than the undoped ones. Our DFT results clearly show that the N-doped TiO2/WSe2 nanocomposite would be a promising O3 gas sensor. The electronic structure of the adsorption system was also investigated, including analysis of the total and projected density of states, and charge density differences of the TiO2/WSe2 with adsorbed O3 molecules. The charge density difference calculations indicate that the charges were accumulated over the adsorbed O3 molecule. Besides, the N-doped nanocomposites have better sensing response than the pristine ones. This work was devoted to provide the theory basis for the design and development of novel and advanced O3 sensors based on modified TiO2/WSe2 nanocomposites.

  3. Synthesis of Cr3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: characterization and evaluation of their visible photocatalytic performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, Sandra Yadira; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Turnes-Palomino, Gemma; Maya-Alejandro, Fernando; Caballero-Quintero, Adolfo; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Hinojosa-Reyes, Laura

    2017-09-28

    Cr 3+ -doped TiO 2 nanoparticles (Ti-Cr) were synthesized by microwave-assisted sol-gel method. The Ti-Cr catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zetametry. The anatase mesoporous Ti-Cr material exhibited a specific surface area of 54.5 m 2 /g. XPS analysis confirmed the proper substitution of Ti 4+ cations by Cr 3+ cations in the TiO 2 matrix. The particle size was of average size of 17 nm for the undoped TiO 2 but only 9.5 nm for Ti-Cr. The Cr atoms promoted the formation of hydroxyl radicals and modified the surface adsorptive properties of TiO 2 due to the increase in surface acidity of the material. The photocatalytic evaluation demonstrated that the Ti-Cr catalyst completely degraded (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid under visible light irradiation, while undoped TiO 2 and P25 allowed 45.7% and 31.1%, respectively. The rate of degradation remained 52% after three cycles of catalyst reuse. The higher visible light photocatalytic activity of Ti-Cr was attributed to the beneficial effect of Cr 3+ ions on the TiO 2 surface creating defects within the TiO 2 crystal lattice, which can act as charge-trapping sites, reducing the electron-hole recombination process.

  4. Silicon impurity release and surface transformation of TiO2 anatase and rutile nanoparticles in water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuyang; Chen, Gexin; Erwin, Justin G.; Su, Chunming

    2014-01-01

    Surface transformation can affect the stability, reactivity, and toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) in water environments. Herein, we investigated the release kinetics of Si impurity frequently introduced during NP synthesis and the resulting effect on TiO 2 NP transformation in aqueous solutions. The release of Si increased from 2 h to 19 d at three pHs with the order: pH 11.2 ≥ pH 2.4 > pH 8.2. The Si release process followed parabolic kinetics which is similar to diffusion controlled dissolution of minerals, and the release magnitude followed the order: 10 × 40 nm rutile > 50 nm anatase > 30 × 40 nm rutile. FTIR data indicated preferential dissolving of less polymerized Si species on NP surface. Surface potential and particle size of TiO 2 NPs remained almost constant during the 42-day monitoring, implying the unaffected stability and transport of these NPs by the incongruent dissolution of impurities. Highlights: • Si impurity may affect the colloid stability, reactivity, and toxicity of TiO 2 NPs. • Si impurity gradually released during 2 h – 19 d following a parabolic curve. • FTIR data indicated less polymerized Si species dissolved from TiO 2 NPs. • Surface potential and size of TiO 2 remained constant during impurity release. • NP production needs to consider ion release and environmental transformation. -- The incongruent dissolution of surface charge determining Si impurity did not significantly affect the surface potential and aggregation status of TiO 2 nanoparticles in aqueous solutions

  5. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  6. Production of TiO2 crystalline nanoparticles by laser ablation in ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, B.; Val, J. del; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoparticles of TiO 2 have been obtained by laser ablation of Ti submerged in ethanol using CW laser. ► The use of CW laser contributes to control the size distribution and to complete oxidation. ► The particles formation mechanism is the melting and rapid solidification. - Abstract: TiO 2 nanoparticles have received a special attention due to their applications in many different fields, such as catalysis, biomedical engineering, and energy conversion in solar cells. In this paper we report on the production of TiO 2 nanoparticles by means of a pulsed laser to ablate titanium metallic target submerged in ethanol. The results show that titanium crystalline dioxide nanoparticles can be obtained in a narrow size distribution. Crystalline phases, morphology and optical properties of the obtained colloidal nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. The produced particles consisted mainly of titanium oxide crystalline nanoparticles showing spherical shape with most diameters ranging from 5 to 50 nm. Nanoparticles are polycrystalline exhibiting the coexistence of the three main phases with the predominance of brookite.

  7. Discoloration of a red cationic dye by supported TiO2 photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounir, B.; Pons, M.N.; Zahraa, O.; Yaacoubi, A.; Benhammou, A.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation under UV, visible and sunlight irradiation of C.I. Basic Red 46 (BR 46) dye used for acrylic fibers dyeing has been studied in a lab-scale continuous system with two different immobilized TiO 2 systems. Catalyst I was based on TiO 2 particles deposited on cellulose fibers; Catalyst II combined TiO 2 particles deposited on a layer of cellulose fibers (as in Catalyst I) with a layer of carbon fibers and finally a layer of cellulose fibers. The treatment of aqueous dye solutions and industrial wastewater contaminated with the same dye has been evaluated in terms of color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease. With UV light, aqueous solutions containing dye were decolorized slightly more rapidly with Catalyst II than with Catalyst I. Sunlight was also very effective and experiments involving sunlight irradiation showed Catalyst II to be the more efficient, giving more than 90% discoloration after 20 min of treatment. Comparing the discoloration yield by adsorption or under visible light for both catalysts, it was observed that the difference between them is below 5%. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow a second-order rate law for Catalyst I and a first-order rate law for Catalyst II. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation under UV or sunlight were found to follow a first-order rate law for both catalytic systems. Under sunlight the COD removal yield for textile wastewater reaches 33% with Catalyst I against 93% with Catalyst II

  8. TiO2-ITO and TiO2-ZnO nanocomposites: application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessais B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising ideas to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 is to couple this photocatalyst with other semiconductors. In this work, we report on the development of photo-catalytic properties of two types of composites based on TiO2 – ITO (Indium Tin Oxide and TiO2 – ZnO deposited on conventional ceramic substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The photo-catalytic test was carried out under UV light in order to reduce/oxidize a typical textile dye (Cibacron Yellow. The experiment was carried out in a bench scale reactor using a solution having a known initial dye concentration. After optimization, we found that both nanocomposites exhibit better photocatalytic activity compared to the standard photocatalyst P25 TiO2.

  9. Degradation of Semiconductor Manufacturing Wastewater by Using a Novel Magnetic Composite TiO2/Fe3O4 Photoreactor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a photocatalytic TiO2 that can be activated by visible light and can be conveniently recollected for reusing. This research synthesizes the 20 to 40 nm TiO2/Fe3O4 particles with magnetization of 5.8 emu/g using the modified sol-gel method followed by 500°C calcinations. The experiment verified that visible fluorescent light (VFL, contains no UV-A could activate the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Fe3O4 particles as did ultraviolet A light (UV-A, 360 nm. Regular magnets can be used to separate TiO2/Fe3O4 particles from solution. The results indicate that VFL-sirradiated TiO2/Fe3O4 particles could decompose isopropanol (IPA in the absence of UV-A and the issue of TiO2/Fe3O4 recollection from water for reusing is also resolved.

  10. Obtaining, characterization and fibre use of nanostructured TiO_2 doped with tungsten as photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, L.G.; Bergmann, C.P.; Alves, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The use and applicability of nanomaterials are increasingly common in our day to day, due to propitiate more effective end products, lightweight and low cost. The nanomaterials used preferably in various applications is due to properties such as reduced particle size, diversified and high surface area. In this work nanostructured fibers of TiO_2 and TiO_2/WO_3 were obtained by electrospinning, annealed at temperatures between 650 deg C and 800 deg C, and its photocatalytic activity was evaluated. The technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the crystalline structure and crystallite size. The morphology of nanomaterials was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preliminary results indicate that the nano-doped tungsten presented more efficient in bleaching methyl orange dye, indicating a higher catalytic activity of this material compared to a standard catalyst. This phenomenon can be explained through the phases present and morphological characteristics of the fibers. (author)

  11. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co and Nb co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachisu, M.; Mori, K.; Hyodo, K.; Morimoto, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Ichiyanagi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Co- and Nb-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles encapsulated with amorphous SiO 2 were synthesized by our novel preparation method. An anatase TiO 2 single-phase structure was confirmed using X-ray diffraction. The particle size could be controlled to be about 5 nm. The composition of these nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra showed that the Ti 4+ and Co 2+ states were dominant in our prepared samples. A reduction in the coordination number was also confirmed. The dependence of the electrical conductivity on the frequency was measured by an LCR meter, and the carrier concentration was determined. The magnetization curves for the nanoparticles indicated ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. We concluded that the ferromagnetism originated in oxygen vacancies around the transition metal ions

  12. Structural and morphological characterization of TiO2 powders prepared using Pechini and combustion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Almeida, E.P.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da; Lira, H.L.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 is a semiconductor oxide and polymorphic and can exist in three crystallographic forms: anatase, rutile and broquita, and forms anatase and rutile are the major interests in scientific research. Thus, this study aims to synthesize TiO 2 by Pechini methods and combustion reaction and to evaluate the influence of synthesis methods in structural and morphological characteristics of the samples. The nanopowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, and particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy. The results of X-ray diffraction showed that the samples obtained by the Pechini method showed the single phase anatase with crystallite size of 20 nm and surface area of 49.44 m 2 /g, whereas the samples synthesized by combustion reaction using glycine as fuel showed the rutile phase as major phase and traces of anatase phase, with crystallite size of 65 nm and surface area 4.34 m 2 /g. (author)

  13. The use of nanoscale visible light-responsive photocatalyst TiO2-Pt for the elimination of soil-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Exposure to the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia cenocepacia can lead to severe infections and even mortality. These pathogens exhibit a high resistance to antibiotic treatments. In addition, no licensed vaccine is currently available. A nanoscale platinum-containing titania photocatalyst (TiO(2-Pt has been shown to have a superior visible light-responsive photocatalytic ability to degrade chemical contaminants like nitrogen oxides. The antibacterial activity of the catalyst and its potential use in soil pathogen control were evaluated. Using the plating method, we found that TiO(2-Pt exerts superior antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli compared to other commercially available and laboratory prepared ultraviolet/visible light-responsive titania photocatalysts. TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis also affectively eliminates the soil-borne bacteria B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. An air pouch infection mouse model further revealed that TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis could reduce the pathogenicity of both strains of bacteria. Unexpectedly, water containing up to 10% w/v dissolved soil particles did not reduce the antibacterial potency of TiO(2-Pt, suggesting that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst is suitable for use in soil-contaminated environments. The TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst exerted superior antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. Soil particles (<10% w/v did not significantly reduce the antibacterial activity of TiO(2-Pt in water. These findings suggest that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst may have potential applications in the development of bactericides for soil-borne pathogens.

  14. Facile one step synthesis of novel TiO2 nanocoral by sol-gel method using Aloe vera plant extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Palani, N. S.; Thirumal, V.; Jose, Sujin P.; Wang, Fu-Ming; Ilangovan, R.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol gel method using Aloe vera plant extract as a biological capping agent and a cauliflower-nanocoral morphology was observed in this technique. The assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder was calcined at a range of temperatures (300-600 °C) for 1 h. The influence of A. vera plant extract on the thermal, structural and morphological properties of TiO2 nanopowder was evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis was employed to study the thermal properties of the assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder. The crystallinity, phase transformation and the crystallite size of the calcined samples were studied by X-ray diffraction technique. XRD result confirmed the presence of TiO2 with anatase phase. FT Raman spectra showed the Raman active modes pertaining to the TiO2 anatase phase and Raman band shift was also observed with respect to particle size variation. The different functional group vibrations of as dried pure A. vera plant extract were compared with the mixture of TiO2 and A. vera plant extract by FT-IR analysis. The scanning electron microscopy images apparently showed the formation of spherical shaped NPs and also it demonstrated the effect of A. vera plant extract on the reduction of particles size. The surface area of the TiO2 NPs was measured through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Transmission electron microscopy images ascertained that the spherical shaped TiO2 NPs were formed with cauliflower-nanocoral morphology decorated with nanopolyps with the size range between 15 and 30 nm.

  15. Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of Co Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals by Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sridevi , D.V ,; Ramesh , V; Sakthivel , T; Geetha , K ,; Ratchagar , V ,; Jagannathan , K ,; Rajarajan , K ,; Ramachadran , K ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A TiO2 nanoparticle doped with cobalt was synthesized by sol-gel technique employed at room temperature with appropriate reactants. In the present case, we used titanium tetra isoprotoxide (TTIP) and 2–propanol as a common starting material and the obtained products were calcined at 450˚C450˚450˚C. From the Powder XRD data the particle size was calculated by Scherrer method. The FE-SEM analysis shows the morphology of cobalt doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The various functi...

  16. Data on the effect of the dispersion of functionalized nanoparticles TiO2 with photocatalytic activity in LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Jahell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the dataset referring to the article ''Study of the effect of the dispersion of functionalized nanoparticles TiO2 with photocatalytic activity in LDPE'' (Jahell et al., 2016 [1]. It includes the FT-IR data of the functionalized nanoparticles of TiO2 with Hexadecyltrimethoxysilane in different degrees of functionalization, thermogravimetric analysis, distribution and particle size in the polymer matrix by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, carbonyl index, gravimetry and scanning electron microscopy of the nanocomposite degraded by UV radiation.

  17. Plasma-induced synthesis of Pt nanoparticles supported on TiO2 nanotubes for enhanced methanol electro-oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nan; Hu, Xiulan; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Cheng, Jiexu; Yu, Jinchen; Ge, Chao

    2017-03-01

    A Pt/C/TiO2 nanotube composite catalyst was successfully prepared for enhanced methanol electro-oxidation. Pt nanoparticles with a particle size of 2 nm were synthesized by plasma sputtering in water, and anatase TiO2 nanotubes with an inner diameter of approximately 100 nm were prepared by a simple two-step anodization method and annealing process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images indicated that the different morphologies of TiO2 synthesized on the surface of Ti foils were dependent on the different anodization parameters. The electrochemical performance of Pt/C/TiO2 catalysts for methanol oxidation showed that TiO2 nanotubes were more suitable for use as Pt nanoparticle support materials than irregular TiO2 short nanorods due to their tubular morphology and better electronic conductivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization showed that the binding energies of the Pt 4f of the Pt/C/TiO2 nanotubes exhibited a slightly positive shift caused by the relatively strong interaction between Pt and the TiO2 nanotubes, which could mitigate the poisoning of the Pt catalyst by COads, and further enhance the electrocatalytic performance. Thus, the as-obtained Pt/C/TiO2 nanotubes composites may become a promising catalyst for methanol electro-oxidation.

  18. Layer-by-layer assembly of TiO(2) colloids onto diatomite to build hierarchical porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuxin; Han, Wei; Xiong, Guoxing; Yang, Weishen

    2008-07-15

    TiO(2) colloids with the most probably particle size of 10 nm were deposited on the surface of macroporous diatomite by a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method with using phytic acid as molecular binder. For preparation of colloidal TiO(2), titanium(IV) isopropoxide (Ti(C(3)H(7)O)(4)) was used as titanium precursor, nitric acid (HNO(3)) as peptizing agent and deionized water and isopropanol (C(3)H(7)OH) as solvent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N(2) adsorption-desorption, and UV-vis spectra are used to assess the morphology and physical chemistry properties of the resulting TiO(2) coated diatomite. It was shown that the mesoporosity has been introduced into macroporous diatomite by LBL deposition. The mesoporosity was originated from close-packing of the uniform TiO(2) nanoparticles. More TiO(2) could be coated on the surface of diatomite by increasing the deposition cycles. This hierarchical porous material has potential for applications in catalytic reactions involved diffusion limit, especially in photocatalytic reactions.

  19. Degradation of the ammonia wastewater in aqueous medium with ozone in combination with mesoporous TiO2 catalytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwu; Qiu, Jianping; Zheng, Chaocan; Li, Liqing

    2017-03-01

    TiO2 mesoporous nanomaterials are now widely used in catalytic ozone technology. In this paper, the market P25 as precursor hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 mesoporous materials, ozone catalyst material characterization by transmission electron microscopy, surface area analyzers, and X-ray diffraction technique and found that nanotubes, nanosheets, nanorods through characterization results, nano-particles of different morphology and anatase and rutile proportion of the ozone catalytic material can be controlled by the calcination temperature and the temperature of hot water to give, and with the hot water temperature and calcination temperature, the catalyst becomes small aperture size larger catalyst crystalline phase from anatase to rutile gradually shift. Catalytic materials have been prepared by the Joint ozone degradation of ammonia wastewater to evaluate mesoporous TiO2 nanomaterials ozone catalytic performance, the results showed that: ammonia wastewater removal efficiency of various catalytic materials relatively separate ozone and markets P25 effects are significantly improved, and TiO2 nanotubes cooperate with ozone degradation ammonia wastewater highest efficiency, in addition, rutile TiO2 catalysts, the more the better the performance of their ozone catalysis.

  20. Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Efficiency Using Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanoparticles as Photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hua Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is a potential candidate to replace conventional silicon-based solar cells because of high efficiency, cheap cost, and lower energy consumption in comparison with silicon chip manufacture. In this report, mixed-phase (anatase and rutile nanoparticles TiO2 photoanode was synthesized to investigate material characteristics, carriers transport, and photovoltaic performance for future DSSC application. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to characterize mixed TiO2 particles. Subsequently, various mixed-phase TiO2 anodes in DSSC devices were measured by electrical impedance spectra (EIS and energy efficiency conversion. The overall energy conversion efficiency of DSSC chip was improved as a result of the increase of rutile phase of TiO2 (14% in anatase matrix. Synergistic effects including TiO2 crystallization, reduction of defect density level in energy band, longer lifetime of photoexcited electrons, and lower resistance of electron pathway all contributed to high efficiency of light energy conversion.

  1. Superhydrophobic TiO2-polymer nanocomposite surface with UV-induced reversible wettability and self-cleaning properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian Feng; Liu, Yang; Lin, Fang-Ju; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M

    2013-09-25

    Multifunctional superhydrophobic nanocomposite surfaces based on photocatalytic materials, such as fluorosilane modified TiO2, have generated significant research interest. However, there are two challenges to forming such multifunctional surfaces with stable superhydrophobic properties: the photocatalytic oxidation of the hydrophobic functional groups, which leads to the permanent loss of superhydrophobicity, as well as the photoinduced reversible hydrolysis of the catalytic particle surface. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive template lamination method to fabricate multifunctional TiO2-high-density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposite surfaces exhibiting superhydrophobicity, UV-induced reversible wettability, and self-cleaning properties. The laminated surface possesses a hierarchical roughness spanning the micro- to nanoscale range. This was achieved by using a wire mesh template to emboss the HDPE surface creating an array of polymeric posts while partially embedding untreated TiO2 nanoparticles selectively into the top surface of these features. The surface exhibits excellent superhydrophobic properties immediately after lamination without any chemical surface modification to the TiO2 nanoparticles. Exposure to UV light causes the surface to become hydrophilic. This change in wettability can be reversed by heating the surface to restore superhydrophobicity. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticle surface coverage and chemical composition on the mechanism and magnitude of wettability changes was studied by EDX and XPS. In addition, the ability of the surface to shed impacting water droplets as well as the ability of such droplets to clean away particulate contaminants was demonstrated.

  2. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to a freshwater benthic amphipod: are benthic systems at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a freshwater benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca) using 48-h and 96-h bioassays. Thorough monitoring of particle interactions with exposure media (Lake Superior water, LSW) and the surface of organisms was p...

  3. Engineering the surface of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles with quantum pits towards excellent lithium storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jinglu; Fang, Fang; Huang, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Engineering the surface structure of nanomaterials is of great importance for applications in energy conversion and storage. Herein, unique rutile TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a facile solution and subsequent thermal annealing method. Each particle surface has been...

  4. THERMALLY STABLE NANOCRYSTALLINE TIO2 PHOTOCATALYSTS SYNTHESIZED VIA SOL-GEL METHODS MODIFIED WITH IONIC LIQUID AND SURFACTANT MOLECULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, sol-gel methods employing ionic liquids (ILs) have shown significant implications for the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured inorganic materials. Herein, we synthesized nanocrystalline TiO2 particles via an alkoxide sol-gel method employing a water-immi...

  5. Interaction of sunscreen TiO2 nanoparticles with skin and UV light: penetration, protection, phototoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Alexey; Lademann, Jürgen; Priezzhev, Alexander; Myllylä, Risto

    2009-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are extensively used nowadays in sunscreens as protective compounds for human skin from UV radiation. In this paper, such particles are investigated from the viewpoint of penetration into living skin, UV protective properties (compared with silicon (Si) particles) and as sources of free radicals if UV-irradiated. We show that: a) even after multiple applications, the particles are located within the uppermost 3-μm-thick part of the skin; b) the optimal sizes are found to be 62 nm and 55 nm, respectively for TiO2 and Si particles for 310-nm light and, correspondingly, 122 and 70 nm - for 400-nm radiation; c) if applied onto glass, small particles of 25 nm in diameter produce an increased amount of free radicals compared to the larger ones of 400 nm in diameter and placebo itself; however, if applied onto porcine skin in vitro, there is no statistically distinct difference in the amount of radicals generated by the two kinds of particles on skin and by the skin itself. This proves that although particles as part of sunscreens produce free radicals, the effect is negligible in comparison to the production of radicals by skin in vitro.

  6. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO2 anatase for large-area photon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO 2 particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO 2 (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO 2 with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  7. Synthesis of TiO2 by electrochemical method from TiCl4 solution as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus; Jumari, Arif; Dyartanti, Endah R.; Sari, Sifa Dian Permata; Hanifah, Ita Nur

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide combined with graphite becomes interesting composition. TiO 2 is a good candidate for Li ion battery anode because of cost, availability of sufficient materials, and environmentally friendly. TiO 2 gravimetric capacity varied within a fairly wide range. TiO 2 crystals form highly depends on the synthesis method used. The electrochemical method is beginning to emerge as a valuable option for preparing TiO 2 powders. Using the electrochemical method, the particle can easily be controlled by simply adjusting the imposed current or potential to the system. In this work, the effects of some key parameters of the electrosynthesis on the formation of TiO 2 have been investigated. The combination of graphite and TiO 2 particle has also been studied for lithium-ion batteries. The homogeneous solution for the electrosynthesis of TiO 2 powders was TiCl 4 in ethanol solution. The electrolysis was carried out in an electrochemical cell consisting of two carbon electrodes with dimensions of (5 × 2) cm. The electrodes were set parallel with a distance of 2.6 cm between the electrodes and immersed in the electrolytic solution at a depth of 2 cm. The electrodes were connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply. The electrosynthesis was performed galvanostatically at 0.5 to 2.5 hours and voltages were varied from 8 to 12 V under constant stirring at room temperature. The resulted suspension was aged at 48 hrs, filtered, dried directly in an oven at 150°C for 2 hrs, washed 2 times, and dried again 60 °C for 6 hrs. The particle product has been used to lithium-ion battery as anode. Synthesis of TiO 2 particle by electrochemical method at 10 V for 1 to 2.5 hrs resulted anatase and rutile phase

  8. Crystal growth and design of a facile synthesized uniform single crystalline football-like anatase TiO2 microspheres with exposed {0 0 1} facets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bitao; Jin, Chunhua; Ju, Yue; Peng, Lingling; Tian, Liangliang; Wang, Jinbiao; Zhang, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Football-like TiO 2 synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. • The formation mechanism of football-like TiO 2 was investigated. • The DSSC efficiency assembled by football-like TiO 2 is 23.3% higher than P25. - Abstract: Uniform football-like anatase TiO 2 particles exposed by {0 0 1} facets were successfully synthesized by an environment-friendly, facile and low-temperature hydrothermal method in water solution without any additional capping agent. The crystallographic structure and the growth mechanism of anatase TiO 2 particles were investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), respectively. The formation mechanism of football-like anatase TiO 2 particles exposed by {0 0 1} facets is investigated. It was found that there existed a selective adsorption of F − ions on different facets by analyzed with the density functional theory (DFT) computer simulation results, and it would lead to a selective nucleation and crystal growth of anatase football-like TiO 2 particles. Additionally, this type of exposed {0 0 1} facets football-like TiO 2 microspheres were used as a scattering overlayer on a transparent P25 film for fabrication of photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The results showed that an overall light conversion efficiency of this film was 6.31%, which is higher than that of the overall efficiency (5.13%) obtained from the P25 photoanode owing to the superior light scattering effect of microspheres and excellent light reflecting ability of the mirror-like plane {0 0 1} facets

  9. Single-step preparation of TiO2/MWCNT Nanohybrid materials by laser pyrolysis and application to efficient photovoltaic energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Lin, Yaochen; Pinault, Mathieu; Filoramo, Arianna; Fabert, Marc; Ratier, Bernard; Bouclé, Johann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie

    2015-01-14

    This paper presents the continuous-flowand single-step synthesis of a TiO2/MWCNT (multiwall carbon nanotubes) nanohybrid material. The synthesis method allows achieving high coverage and intimate interface between the TiO2particles and MWCNTs, together with a highly homogeneous distribution of nanotubes within the oxide. Such materials used as active layer in theporous photoelectrode of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells leads to a substantial performance improvement (20%) as compared to reference devices.

  10. The Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen Dopant and Calcination Temperature on the Visible-Light-Induced Photoactivity of N-Doped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of nitrogen content and calcinations temperature on the N-doped TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method was investigated. The phase and structure, chemical state, optical properties, and surface area/pore distribution of N-doped TiO2 were characterized using X-ray diffraction spectrometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area. Finding showed that the photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was greatly enhanced compared to pure TiO2 under visible irradiation. N dopants could retard the transformation from anatase to rutile phase. Namely, N-doping effect is attributed to the anatase phase stabilization. The results showed nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the interstitial positions of the TiO2 lattice. Ethylene was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of samples under visible-light illumination. The results suggested good anatase crystallization, smaller particle size, and larger surface are beneficial for photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 catalyst prepared with ammonia to titanium isopropoxide molar ratio of 2.0 and calcinated at 400°C showed the best photocatalytic ability.

  11. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-20

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO 2 -NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO 2 -NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO 2 -NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO 2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO 2 -treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO 2 from dietary sources.

  12. In vitro secretion of TNF-α from bone marrow mononuclear cells incubated on amino group modified TiO2 nano-composite under ultrasound irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuzono, T.; Masuda, M.; Nitta, N.; Kaya, A.; Yamane, T.; Okada, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is recently known that titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) can be excited by ultrasound and release of OH radicals on the surface. In this study, secretion of an indirect angiogenic factor, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), from bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) incubated on amino group modified TiO 2 nano-particles covalently coated on polyester fabric (TiO 2 /PET) under ultrasonic irradiation was examined in vitro. The cell viability and TNF-α secretion were measured under ultrasound irradiation condition with 255 mW/cm 2 of intensity, which is below the highest output (1 W/cm 2 ) specified in the safety standard for a medical ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus. The living cell number on the TiO 2 /PET and original PET with/without continuous ultrasound irradiation was unchanged statistically by ANOVA test. TNF-α secretion level from BM-MNC remarkably increased on the TiO 2 /PET under ultrasonic irradiation without cell damage. It was, therefore, thought that the high level of TNF-α secretion on the TiO 2 nano-composite by ultrasound irradiation was due to oxidative stress induced from OH radicals on TiO 2 .

  13. CeO2-TiO2 Photocatalyst: Ionic Liquid-Mediated Synthesis, Characterization, and Performance for Diisopropanolamine Visible Light Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagath Retchahan Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2-TiO2 photocatalyst with Ce:Ti molar ratio of 1:9 was synthesized via co-precipitation method in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium octylsulfate, [EMIM][OctSO4] (CeO2-TiO2-IL. The ionic liquid acts as a templating agent for particle growth. The CeO2-TiO2 and TiO2 photocatalysts were also synthesized without any ionic liquid for comparison. Calcination was conducted on the as-synthesized materials at 400˚C for 2 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy (DR-UV-Vis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and surface area and pore size analyzer (SAP. The presence of CeO2 has changed the optical property of TiO2. It has extended the absorption edge of TiO2 from UV to visible region. The calculated band gap energy decreased from 2.82 eV (TiO2 to 2.30 eV (CeO2-TiO2-IL. The FESEM morphology showed that samples forms aggregates and the surface smoothens when ionic liquid was added. The average crystallite size of TiO2, CeO2-TiO2, and CeO2-TiO2-IL were 20.8 nm, 5.5 nm, and 4 nm. In terms of performance, photodegradation of 1000 ppm of diisopropanolamine (DIPA was conducted in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and visible light irradiation which was provided by a 500 W halogen lamp. The best performance was displayed by CeO2-TiO2-IL calcined at 400˚C. It was able to remove 82.0% DIPA and 54.8% COD after 6 h reaction.  Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 26th July 2017; Revised: 22nd October 2017; Accepted: 29th October 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Sivalingam, J.R., Kait, C.F., Wilfred, C.D. (2018. CeO2-TiO2 Photocatalyst: Ionic Liquid-Mediated Synthesis, Characterization, and Performance for Diisopropanolamine Visible Light Degradation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 170-178 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1396.170-178

  14. ??????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????-???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?aO?Al2O3?TiO2 ??? ???????? ?????? ?????

    OpenAIRE

    ???????, ????; ??????, ?????????

    2011-01-01

    ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????-????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?aO?Al2O3?TiO2, ?? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? 12000?, ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ???? ? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ????????, ?? ?? ...

  15. Electrical properties of composites of TiO2-triphenylamine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kaneyoshi; Kurosaka, Youko; Osako, Youko; Ha, Jaekook; Vacha, Martin; Sato, Hisaya

    2005-01-01

    We report a concept of organic molecular charge dopant in organic-inorganic composites and study its effect on the composite conductivity. Thin film composites are prepared from a 1:1 dispersion of TiO 2 or other metal oxide particles in a polymer binder. Introduction of a small percentage of triphenylamine (TPA) derivative dopants increases the dark conductivity by up to five orders of magnitude. This phenomenon is explained in terms of electron donation by the dopant to a continuous network of aggregated metal oxide particles

  16. The role of poly(methacrylic acid) conformation on dispersion behavior of nano TiO2 powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bimal P.; Nayak, Sasmita; Samal, Samata; Bhattacharjee, Sarama; Besra, Laxmidhar

    2012-02-01

    To exploit the advantages of nanoparticles for various applications, controlling the dispersion and agglomeration is of paramount importance. Agglomeration and dispersion behavior of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles was investigated using electrokinetic and surface chemical properties. Nanoparticles are generally stabilized by the adsorption of a dispersant (polyelectrolyte) layer around the particle surface and in this connection ammonium salt of polymethacrylic acid (Darvan C) was used as dispersant to stabilize the suspension. The dosages of polyelectrolyte were optimized to get best dispersion stability by techniques namely particle charge detector (13.75 mg/g) and adsorption (14.57 mg/g). The surface charge of TiO2 particles changed significantly in presence of dispersant Darvan C and isoelectric point (iep) shifted significantly towards lower pH from 5.99 to 3.37. The shift in iep has been quantified in terms of free energy of interaction between the surface sites of TiO2 and the adsorbing dispersant Darvan C. Free energies of adsorption were calculated by electrokinetic data (-9.8 RT unit) and adsorption isotherms (-10.56 RT unit), which corroborated well. The adsorption isotherms are of typical Langmuir type and employed for calculation of free energy. The results indicated that adsorption occurs mainly through electrostatic interactions between the dispersant molecule and the TiO2 surface apart from hydrophobic interactions.

  17. Adsorption of toxic metal ion Cr(VI) from aqueous state by TiO2-MCM-41: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Kulamani; Mishra, Krushna Gopal; Dash, Suresh Kumar

    2012-11-30

    This paper deals with the immobilization of various weight percentage of TiO(2) on mesoporous MCM-41, characterization of the materials by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and evaluation of the adsorption capacity toward Cr(VI) removal. It is found that the MCM-41 structure retained after loading of TiO(2) but the surface area and pore diameter decreased due to pore blockage. Adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous state was investigated on TiO(2)-MCM-41 by changing various parameters such as pH, metal ion concentration, and the temperature. When TiO(2) loading was more than 20 wt.%, the adsorption activity (25)TiO(2)-MCM-41 reduced significantly due to considerable decrease in the surface area. It is also observed that TiO(2) and neat MCM-41 exhibits very less Cr(VI) adsorption compared to TiO(2)-MCM-41. The adsorption of Cr(VI) onto (20)TiO(2)-MCM-41 at pH~5.5 and temperature 323 K was 91% at 100mg/L Cr(VI) metal ion concentration in 80 min. The experimental data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on TiO(2)-MCM-41 followed a second order kinetics with higher values of intra-particle diffusion rate. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature and desorption studies indicated a chemisorption mode. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal degradation of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaram, Anish; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research was to study thermal degradation behavior of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium (Ti). TiO2 nanotubes were grown via anodization method on commercially pure Ti (Cp-Ti) discs using two different electrolytes, 1 vol. % HF in deionized (DI) water and 1 vol. % HF + 0.5 wt. % NH4F + 10 vol. % DI water in ethylene glycol, to obtain nanotubes with two different lengths, 300 nm and 950 nm keeping the nanotube diameter constant at 100 ± 20 nm. As grown TiO2 nanotubes were subjected to heat treatment to understand thermal degradation as a function of both temperature and hold time. The signs of degradation were observed mainly when amorphous nanotubes started to crystallize, however the crystallization temperature varied based on TiO2 nanotubes length and anodizing condition. Overall, 300 nm nanotubes were thermally stable at least up to 400 °C for 12 h, while the 950 nm long nanotubes show signs of degradation from 400 °C for 6 h only. Clearly, length of nanotubes, heat treatment temperature as well as hold times show influence toward degradation kinetics of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium.

  19. Synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with beta-cyclodextrin as a supramolecular shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Landong; Sun, Xiaohong; Yang, Yali; Guan, Naijia; Zhang, Fuxiang

    2006-11-20

    We report a novel, green hydrothermal-synthesis route to well-dispersed anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with particle sizes of 9-16 nm in the presence of beta-CD (beta-cyclodextrin). During the synthesis process, the CD-containing synthesis mixture assembled in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions. Driven by the interaction between molecules, the beta-CDs assembled in the longitudinal direction to form long-chain compounds, whereas in the latitudinal direction, they tended to form regular aggregates through coordination with the Ti species from the hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate. In view of the effect of the coordination and the steric hindrance of beta-CDs as a supramolecular shell, homogeneous nuclei and slow growth of TiO2 crystals during the synthesis process was observed, which was responsible for the formation of uniform TiO2 nanoparticles. The low beta-CD dosage and the high product yield (>90%) demonstrated well the potential of this synthesis route in the large-scale industrial production of anatase nanoparticles.

  20. In vivo screening to determine hazards of nanoparticles: Nanosized TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobne, Damjana; Jemec, Anita; Pipan Tkalec, Ziva

    2009-01-01

    A single-species laboratory test with terrestrial invertebrates was used to identify the hazard of nanosized TiO 2 . Feeding parameters, weight change, mortality, and the activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were evaluated after 3 or 14 days of dietary exposure. The effects of nano-TiO 2 were dependent on exposure concentration and duration, total consumed quantity, size and pre-treatment of particles. The intensity of a response was ruled by duration of exposure and not by consumed quantity of nano-TiO 2 or exposure concentration as expected. The response to nano-TiO 2 is described as threshold-like. The exposure concentrations 10-1000 μg TiO 2 /g dry food (1.35-1025 μg of total consumed quantity of TiO 2 /g animal wet wt.) were identified as safe for tested species after tested exposure period. We conclude that the response to nanoparticles is different from that of soluble chemicals therefore these two types of data should be interpreted and processed differently. - The response of a biological system to nanoparticles is unique and depends on their physico-chemical characteristics, dose and duration of exposure

  1. Accurate quantification of tio2 nanoparticles collected on air filters using a microwave-assisted acid digestion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Anthony, T. Renée; Grassian, Vicki H.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles, including nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 100 nm, are used extensively in consumer products. In a 2011 current intelligence bulletin, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended methods to assess worker exposures to fine and ultrafine TiO2 particles and associated occupational exposure limits for these particles. However, there are several challenges and problems encountered with these recommended exposure assessment methods involving the accurate quantitation of titanium dioxide collected on air filters using acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Specifically, recommended digestion methods include the use of chemicals, such as perchloric acid, which are typically unavailable in most accredited industrial hygiene laboratories due to highly corrosive and oxidizing properties. Other alternative methods that are used typically involve the use of nitric acid or combination of nitric acid and sulfuric acid, which yield very poor recoveries for titanium dioxide. Therefore, given the current state of the science, it is clear that a new method is needed for exposure assessment. In this current study, a microwave-assisted acid digestion method has been specifically designed to improve the recovery of titanium in TiO2 nanoparticles for quantitative analysis using ICP-OES. The optimum digestion conditions were determined by changing several variables including the acids used, digestion time, and temperature. Consequently, the optimized digestion temperature of 210°C with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid (2:1 v/v) resulted in a recovery of >90% for TiO2. The method is expected to provide for a more accurate quantification of airborne TiO2 particles in the workplace environment. PMID:26181824

  2. Low-Temperature Preparation of Amorphous-Shell/Nanocrystalline-Core Nanostructured TiO2 Electrodes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongshe Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An amorphous shell/nanocrystalline core nanostructured TiO2 electrode was prepared at low temperature, in which the mixture of TiO2 powder and TiCl4 aqueous solution was used as the paste for coating a film and in this film amorphous TiO2 resulted from direct hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 100∘C sintering was produced to connect the particles forming a thick crack-free uniform nanostructured TiO2 film (12 μm, and on which a photoelectrochemical solar cell-based was fabricated, generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.58 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.647 V, and an overall 4.48% light-to-electricity conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination.

  3. Synthesis of titanate, TiO2 (B), and anatase TiO2 nanofibers from natural rutile sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavasupree, Sorapong; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Kawahata, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Titanate nanofibers were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) and anatase TiO 2 (high crystallinity) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-100 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively. The samples characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, HRTEM, and BET surface area. This synthesis method provides a simple route to fabricate one-dimensional nanostructured TiO 2 from low cost material. -- Graphical abstract: Titanate nanofibers (b) were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand (a) as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) (c) and anatase TiO 2 (d) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-50 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively

  4. Effect of TiO2 on the Gas Sensing Features of TiO2/PANi Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Ngoc Huyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and polyaniline (PANi was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi monomer and TiCl4 as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO2 and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH3 gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO2 shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600–700%, 20–25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO2 nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules.

  5. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-anatase TiO2 nanocomposite and its improved photo-induced charge transfer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhai, Yueming; Wang, Dejun; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-04-01

    The construction of reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide with semiconductor has gained more and more attention due to its unexpected optoelectronic and electronic properties. The synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or graphene oxide-semiconductor nanocomposite with well-dispersed decorated particles is still a challenge now. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for the synthesis of graphene oxide-amorphous TiO(2) and reduced graphene oxide-anatase TiO(2) nanocomposites with well-dispersed particles. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The photovoltaic properties of RGO-anatase TiO(2) were also compared with that of similar sized anatase TiO(2) by transient photovoltage technique, and it was interesting to find that the combination of reduced graphene oxide with anatase TiO(2) will significantly increase the photovoltaic response and retard the recombination of electron-hole pairs in the excited anatase TiO(2).

  6. Synergistic Effect of Fluorinated and N Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Leading to Different Microstructure and Enhanced Photocatalytic Bacterial Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Milosevic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the development of a facile and scalable wet milling method followed by heat treatment to prepare fluorinated and/or N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with improved photocatalytic properties under visible light. The structural and electronic properties of doped particles were investigated by various techniques. The successful doping of TiO2 was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and the atoms appeared to be mainly located in interstitial positions for N whereas the fluorination is located at the TiO2 surface. The formation of intragap states was found to be responsible for the band gap narrowing leading to the faster bacterial inactivation dynamics observed for the fluorinated and N doped TiO2 particles compared to N-doped TiO2. This was attributed to a synergistic effect. The results presented in this study confirmed the suitability of the preparation approach for the large-scale production of cost-efficient doped TiO2 for effective bacterial inactivation.

  7. Controlled Assembly of Nanorod TiO2 Crystals via a Sintering Process: Photoanode Properties in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Vafaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a synthetic method of obtaining 1D TiO2 nanorods with sintering methods using bundle-shaped 3D rutile TiO2 particles (3D BR-TiO2 with the dimensions of around 100 nm. The purpose of this research is (i to control crystallization of the mixture of two kinds of TiO2 semiconductor nanocrystals, that is, 3D BR-TiO2 and spherical anatase TiO2 (SA-TiO2 on FTO substrate via sintering process and (ii to establish a new method to create photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In addition, we focus on the preparation of low-cost and environmentally friendly titania electrode by adopting the “water-based” nanofluids. Our results provide useful guidance on how to improve the photovoltaic performance by reshaping the numerous 3D TiO2 particles to 1D TiO2-based electrodes with sintering technique.

  8. SYNTHESIS OF MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES OF TiO2-NiFe2O4: CHARACTERIZATION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY ON DEGRADATION OF RHODAMINE B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmayeni Rahmayeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles of TiO2-(xNiFe2O4 with x = 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3have been synthesized by mixture of titanium isopropoxide (TIP and nitric metal as precursors. The particles were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, and VSM. XRD pattern show the peaks at 2q = 25.3°, 38.4° and 47.9° which are referred as anatase phase of TiO2. Meanwhile NiFe2O4 phase was observed clearly for x = 0.3. The present of NiFe2O4 can prevent the transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile when the calcination temperature increased. Microstructure analyses by SEM show the homogeneous form and size of particles. The magnetic properties analysis by VSM indicates that TiO2-NiFe2O4 is paramagnetic behavior. TiO2 doped NiFe2O4 has higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2 synthesized for degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation.

  9. One-pot engineering TiO2/graphene interface for enhanced adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of multiple organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianhua; Ling, Yun; Xie, Yu; Liu, Lianjun; Zhu, Huihua

    2018-06-13

    It is challenging to design a multifunctional structure or composite for simultaneously adsorb and photocatalytic degrade organic pollutants in water. Towards this goal, this work innovatively engineered interfacial sites between TiO2 particles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets by employing in situ one-pot one-step solvothermal method. The interface was associated with the content of RGO, solvothermal time and solvent ratio of n-pentanol to n-hexane. It was found that when at a moderate amount of RGO (25%), TiO2 nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surface of RGO or wrapped by RGO, thus leading to a fully contact and strong interaction to form Ti - O - C interfacial structure. But when at a low content of RGO (6%), TiO2 aggregates were mixture of nanosheets, nanoparticles and nanorods. 25%RGO/TiO2 also had 175% higher surface area (146m2/g), 95% larger volume (0.339 cm3/g) and smaller band gap than 6%RGO/TiO2. More importantly, 25%RGO/TiO2 demonstrated higher adsorption efficiency (25%) and 4 times faster degradation rate than TiO2 (0%). It also exhibited good capability to eliminate multiple organics and stable long-term cycle performance (up to 93% retention after 30 cycles). Its superiority was attributed to the large surface area and unique interface between TiO2 and RGO, which not only provided more active sites to capture pollutants but also enhanced charge transfer (3 µA/cm2, 5 times higher than TiO2). This work offered a promising way to purify water through engineering new materials structure and integrating adsorption and photodegradation technologies. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Phosphorous-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and visible photocatalytic evaluation on sulfamethazine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, Sandra Yadira; Hernández-Ramírez, Ma Aracely; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Garza-Tovar, Lorena Leticia; Hinojosa-Reyes, Laura

    2018-05-24

    Mesoporous phosphorous-doped TiO 2 (TP) with different wt% of P (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) was synthetized by microwave-assisted sol-gel method. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD with cell parameters refinement approach, Raman, BET-specific surface area analysis, SEM, ICP-OES, UV-Vis with diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence, FTIR, and XPS. The photocatalytic activity under visible light was evaluated on the degradation of sulfamethazine (SMTZ) at pH 8. The characterization of the phosphorous materials (TP) showed that incorporation of P in the lattice of TiO 2 stabilizes the anatase crystalline phase, even increasing the annealing temperature. The mesoporous P-doped materials showed higher surface area and lower average crystallite size, band gap, and particle size; besides, more intense bands attributed to O-H bond were observed by FTIR analysis compared with bare TiO 2 . The P was substitutionally incorporated in the TiO 2 lattice network as P 5+ replacing Ti 4+ to form Ti-O-P bonds and additionally present as PO 4 3-  on the TiO 2 surface. All these characteristics explain the observed superior photocatalytic activity on degradation (100%) and mineralization (32%) of SMTZ under visible radiation by TP catalysts, especially for P-doped TiO 2 1.0 wt% calcined at 450 °C (TP1.0-450). Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions released during the photocatalytic degradation were quantified by ion chromatography; the nitrogen and sulfur mass balance evidenced the partial mineralization of this recalcitrant molecule.

  11. Role of Zn doping in oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Khan, M. A. Majeed; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A.; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effect of Zn-doping on structural and optical properties as well as cellular response of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. A library of Zn-doped (1-10 at wt%) TiO2 NPs was prepared. Characterization data indicated that dopant Zn was incorporated into the lattice of host TiO2. The average particle size of TiO2 NPs was decreases (38 to 28 nm) while the band gap energy was increases (3.35 eV-3.85 eV) with increasing the amount of Zn-doping. Cellular data demonstrated that Zn-doped TiO2 NPs induced cytotoxicity (cell viability reduction, membrane damage and cell cycle arrest) and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species generation & glutathione depletion) in MCF-7 cells and toxic intensity was increases with increasing the concentration of Zn-doping. Molecular data revealed that Zn-doped TiO2 NPs induced the down-regulation of super oxide dismutase gene while the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene in MCF-7 cells. Cytotoxicity induced by Zn-doped TiO2 NPs was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine suggesting that oxidative stress might be the primarily cause of toxicity. In conclusion, our data indicated that Zn-doping decreases the particle size and increases the band gap energy as well the oxidative stress-mediated toxicity of TiO2 NPs in MCF-7 cells.

  12. Facile Aluminum Reduction Synthesis of Blue TiO2 with Oxygen Deficiency for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Ji, Guangbin; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xingzhong; Wang, Baoyi; Yu, Linghui; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2015-12-07

    An ultrafacile aluminum reduction method is reported herein for the preparation of blue TiO2 nanoparticles (donated as Al-TiO2 , anatase phase) with abundant oxygen deficiency for lithium-ion batteries. Under aluminum reduction, the morphology of the TiO2 nanosheets changes from well-defined rectangular into uniform round or oval nanoparticles and the particle size also decreases from 60 to 31 nm, which can aggressively accelerate the lithium-ion diffusion. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) results reveal that plentiful oxygen deficiencies relative to the Ti(3+) species were generated in blue Al-TiO2 ; this effectively enhances the electron conductivity of the TiO2 . X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis indicates that a small peak is observed for the Al-O bond, which probably plays a very important role in the stabilization of the oxygen deficiencies/Ti(3+) species. As a result, the blue Al-TiO2 possesses significantly higher capacity, better rate performance, and a longer cycle life than the white pure TiO2 . Such improvements can be attributed to the decreased particle size, as well as the existence of the oxygen deficiencies/Ti(3+) species. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of some organic dyes under solar light irradiation using TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Amini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of the ZnO and TiO2 were synthesized and the physicochemical properties of the compounds were characterized by IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD patterns of the ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles could be indexed to hexagonal and rutile phase, respectively. Aggregated nanoparticles of ZnO and TiO2 with spherical-like shapes were observed with particle diameter in the range of 80-100 nm. These nanoparticles were used for photocatalytic degradation of various dyes, Rhodamine B (RhB, Methylene blue (MB and Acridine orange (AO under solar light irradiation at room temperature. Effect of the amount of catalyst on the rate of photodegradation was investigated. In general, because ZnO is unstable, due to incongruous dissolution to yield Zn(OH2 on the ZnO particle surfaces and thus leading to catalyst inactivation,the catalytic activity of the system for photodegradation of dyes decreased dramatically when TiO2 was replaced by ZnO.

  14. Surface plasmon resonance effect of silver nanoparticles on a TiO2 electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haeng-Yun; Yeo, In-Seon; Kim, Tae-Un; Ki, Hyun-Chul; Gu, Hal-Bon

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we exploit local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in order to improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In order to investigate the effect of LSPR, Ag nanoparticles of several sizes were formed using electro-beam equipment; sizes were varied by changing the annealing time. DSSCs were fabricated by coating Ag nanoparticles onto a TiO2 thin film. Finally, TiO2 nanoparticles were layered onto the Ag nanoparticles via a titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) treatment. This study used nanoparticle-coated TiO2 thin films as photoelectrodes, and manufactured the cell in the unit of the DSSCs. We compared the behavior of the electrical properties of DSSCs depending on the presence or absence of Ag nanoparticles, as well as on the nanoparticle size. The Ag particles did not affect dye adsorption because the content of Ag particles is very low (0.13%) compared to that in TiO2 in the photoelectrode. The DSSCs with LSPR showed increased electric current density compared to those without LSPR, and improved the solar conversion efficiency (η) by 24%. The current density of the DSSCs increased because the light absorption of the dye increased. Therefore, we determined that LSPR affects the electrical properties of DSSCs.

  15. Synthesis of nanocomposite coating based on TiO2/ZnAl layer double hydroxides; Síntesis de un revestimiento nanocompuesto basado en TiO2 / ZnAl hidróxidos dobles en capas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanov, V.; Rudic, O.; Ranogajec, J.; Fidanchevska, E.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was the synthesis of nanocomposite coatings based on Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDH) and TiO2. The Zn-Al LDH material, which acted as the catalyst support of the active TiO2 component (in the content of 3 and 10 wt. %), was synthesized by a low super saturation co-precipitation method. The interaction between the Zn-Al LDH and the active TiO2 component was accomplished by using vacuum evaporation prior to the mechanical activation and only by mechanical activation. The final suspension based on Zn-Al LDH and 10wt. % TiO2, impregnated only by mechanical activation, showed the optimal characteristics from the aspect of particle size distribution and XRD analysis. These properties had a positive effect on the functional properties of the coatings (photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning efficiency) after the water rinsing procedure. [Spanish] El objetivo de esta investigación fue la preparación de recubrimientos de nanocompuestos basados en Zn-Al hidróxidos dobles en capas (Zn-Al LDH) y TiO2. El material de LDH Zn-Al, que actuaba como catalizador del componente activo TiO2 (en el contenido de 3 y 10 en peso.%), se sintetizó por un método de co-precipitación con baja sobresaturación. La interacción entre el Zn-Al LDH y el componente activo TiO2 se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la evaporación al vacío antes de la activación mecánica y sólo por activación mecánica. La suspensión final basada en Zn-Al LDH y 10wt. % TiO2, impregnada solamente por la activación mecánica, mostró las características óptimas desde el aspecto de la distribución de tamaño de partícula y análisis de XRD. Estas propiedades tenían un efecto positivo sobre las propiedades funcionales de los revestimientos (actividad fotocatalítica y eficiencia de auto-limpieza) después del procedimiento de aclarado de agua.

  16. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatil Amali Che Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC, TiO2/carbon (C, and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1. The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.

  17. Sulphur doped nanoparticles of TiO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szatmáry, Lórant; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Bezdička, Petr; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Bastl, Zdeněk; Brezová, V.; Korenko, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-28 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : photocatalyst * S-doped TiO2 * Thiourea Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  18. Impedance spectroscopy studies of surface engineered TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Impedance; nanoTiO2; self-assembled monolayers; electrical resistivity; permittivity. 1. Introduction ... search studies showed that nanostructured TiO2 ceramics possess ..... tion handbook (ed) J Cazes (New York: Marcel Dekker). 3rd ed, p ...

  19. Supercritical Flow Synthesis of TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus has been constructed in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis. TiO2 is a well-known mater...

  20. Fluoropolymer - TiO2 coatings and their superhydrophilicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Jepsen, Henrik

    In this work the superhydrophilicity of coatings on fluoropolymer were investigated. The different coatings were prepared by help of P25 Degussa TiO2 powder, titaniumisopropoxide, Lumiflon® and two different curing agents (BL 3175 and Cymel 303). The investigations were performed by help of a sta...

  1. High-pressure polymorphs of anatase TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlt, T.; Bermejo, M.; Blanco, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The equation of state of anatase TiO2 has been determined experimentally-using polycrystalline as well as single-crystal material-and compared with theoretical calculations using the ab initio perturbed ion model. The results are highly consistent, the zero-pressure bulk modulus being 179(2) GPa ...

  2. Protein Corona Prevents TiO2 Phototoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Garvas

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles have generally low toxicity in the in vitro systems although some toxicity is expected to originate in the TiO2-associated photo-generated radical production, which can however be modulated by the radical trapping ability of the serum proteins. To explore the role of serum proteins in the phototoxicity of the TiO2 nanoparticles we measure viability of the exposed cells depending on the nanoparticle and serum protein concentrations.Fluorescence and spin trapping EPR spectroscopy reveal that the ratio between the nanoparticle and protein concentrations determines the amount of the nanoparticles' surface which is not covered by the serum proteins and is proportional to the amount of photo-induced radicals. Phototoxicity thus becomes substantial only at the protein concentration being too low to completely coat the nanotubes' surface.These results imply that TiO2 nanoparticles should be applied with ligands such as proteins when phototoxic effects are not desired - for example in cosmetics industry. On the other hand, the nanoparticles should be used in serum free medium or any other ligand free medium, when phototoxic effects are desired - as for efficient photodynamic cancer therapy.

  3. TiO2--a prototypical memristive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szot, K; Rogala, M; Speier, W; Klusek, Z; Besmehn, A; Waser, R

    2011-06-24

    Redox-based memristive switching has been observed in many binary transition metal oxides and related compounds. Since, on the one hand, many recent reports utilize TiO(2) for their studies of the memristive phenomenon and, on the other hand, there is a long history of the electronic structure and the crystallographic structure of TiO(2) under the impact of reduction and oxidation processes, we selected this material as a prototypical material to provide deeper insight into the mechanisms behind memristive switching. In part I, we briefly outline the results of the historical and recent studies of electroforming and resistive switching of TiO(2)-based cells. We describe the (tiny) stoichiometrical range for TiO(2 - x) as a homogeneous compound, the aggregation of point defects (oxygen vacancies) into extended defects, and the formation of the various Magnéli phases. Furthermore, we discuss the driving forces for these solid-state reactions from the thermodynamical point of view. In part II, we provide new experimental details about the hierarchical transformation of TiO(2) single crystals into Magnéli phases, and vice versa, under the influence of chemical, electrical and thermal gradients, on the basis of the macroscopic and nanoscopic measurements. Those include thermogravimetry, high-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-temperature conductivity measurements, as well as low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and LC-AFM (atomic force microscope equipped with a conducting tip) studies. Conclusions are drawn concerning the relevant parameters that need to be controlled in order to tailor the memristive properties.

  4. Photocatalytic growth of Ag nanocrystals on hydrothermally synthesized multiphasic TiO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites and their SERS performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Long; Li, Ji-Guang; Sun, Xudong; Sakka, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    TiO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were prepared via a facile one-step hydrothermal method using TiCl3 as the TiO2 precursor. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was introduced as a stabilizer for GO in solution. The effects of GO content, Ti3+ concentration and urea additive on phase constituent and morphology of the TiO2 crystallites in the nanocomposites were systematically investigated. UV-vis absorption ability of the as-made composites was further tested and discussed. Ag nanocrystals (NCs) were photocatalytically grown on the surfaces of biphasic (anatase + brookite) and triphasic (anatase + brookite + rutile) TiO2/rGO nanocomposites to evaluate their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performances. Morphology evolution of the Ag NCs in response to different photocatalytic ability of the TiO2/rGO nanocomposite was also investigated in detail. The nanocomposite with triphasic TiO2 of proper phase constituents was confirmed to favor the growth of Ag particles of two distinctly different sizes and to produce SERS substrates of substantially better performance.

  5. Studies on the Fe3+ Doping Effect on Structural, Optical and Catalytic Properties of Hydrothermally Synthesized TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Ravi [Department of Physics, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, India; Sabale, Sandip [P.G. Department of Chemistry, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, Maharashtra, India; Chikode, Prashant [Department of Physics, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, India; Puri, Vijaya [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004, India; Yu, Xiao-Ying [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA 99352, United States; Mahajan, Smita [Department of Physics, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, India

    2017-08-01

    Pure TiO2 and Fe3+-TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by simple hydrothermal method with different Fe3+ concentrations. The synthesized nanoparticles are analysed to determine its structural, optical, morphological and compositional properties using X-ray diffraction, Raman, UV-DRS, photoluminescence, Mossbauer, XPS, TEM and SEM/EDS. The EDS micrograph confirms the existence of Fe3+ atoms in the TiO2 matrix with 0.85, 1.52 and 1.87 weight percent. The crystallite size and band gap decrease with increase in Fe3+concentration. The average particle size obtained from TEM is 7-11 nm which is in good agreement with XRD results. Raman bands at 640 cm-1, 517 cm-1 and 398 cm-1 further confirm pure phase anatase in all samples. XPS shows the proper substitutions of few sites of Ti4+ ions by Fe3+ ions in the TiO2 host lattice. The intensity of PL spectra for Fe3+-TiO2 shows a gradual decrease in the peak intensity with increasing Fe3+ concentration in TiO2, and it indicates lower recombination rate as Fe3+ ions increases. These nanoparticles are further studied for its photocatalytic activities using malachite green dye under UV light, visible light and sunlight.

  6. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO 2 , the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO 2 @CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO 2 . After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO 2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO 2 -based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of NaA Zeolite Oxygen Permeable Membrane on TiO2/α-Al2O3 Composite Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Mengfu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The NaA zeolite membrane was synthesized on the surface of TiO2/α-Al2O3 composite support with TiO2 as modifier of α-Al2O3 porous tubular ceramic membrane support by crystallization method. The structure characterization indicated that the TiO2 of the support surface could effectively improve the surface properties of the support. It didn’t affect the crystallization of NaA synthesis liquid and synthesis process of NaA zeolite membrane. There were no obvious defects between the crystal particles with size of approximate 6μm. The perfect and complete membrane with thickness of approximate 15μm combined closely with support to connection together by TiO2 modified. The oxygen permeability of the membrane on TiO2/α-Al2O3 composite support improves of 47% compared with that of α-Al2O3 support. So the process of TiO2 modifying the surface of α-Al2O3 support should increase the oxygen permeability of the NaA zeolite membrane.

  8. Enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene plastic with CuPc modified TiO2 photocatalyst under solar light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xu; Li Zongwei; Chen Yi; Shi Liyi; Zhu Yongfa

    2008-01-01

    Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene (PE) plastic, one of the most common commercial plastic, over copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) modified TiO 2 (TiO 2 /CuPc) photocatalyst was investigated in the ambient air under solar light irradiation. Higher PE weight loss rate, greater texture change; more amount of generated CO 2 , which is the main product of the photocatalytic degradation of the composite PEC plastic can be achieved in the system of PE-(TiO 2 /CuPc) in comparison with PE-TiO 2 system. The CuPc promoted charge separation of TiO 2 and enhanced the photocatalytic degradation of PE based on the analysis of surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). During the photodegradation of PE plastic, the reactive oxygen species generated on TiO 2 or TiO 2 /CuPc particle surfaces play important roles. The present study demonstrates that the combination of polymer plastic with TiO 2 /CuPc composite photocatalyst in the form of thin film is a practical and useful way to photodegrade plastic contaminants under solar light irradiation

  9. Effects of exposure to nano and bulk sized TiO2 and CuO in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc Koce, Jasna

    2017-10-01

    Nanoparticles of TiO 2 and CuO are among most commonly used nanoparticles, and elevated concentrations of them are expected to be found in all environments, including aquatic. A standard growth inhibition test ISO/CD 20079 was used to determine the toxicity of nano sized and larger micro sized (bulk) particles in the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μM CuO and TiO 2 on common duckweed (Lemna minor L.). Both nano and bulk CuO particles caused changes in the structure and function of treated plants. The number of fronds and colonies decreased by as much as 78%, the length of roots and fronds decreased by 99% and 14%, respectively. Furthermore, photochemical efficiency was reduced by up to 35%, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased by more than 240%. The altered physiological state of the CuO exposed plants was also reflected in the elevated occurrence of necrosis and bleaching in the duckweed colonies. Nano sized particles of CuO proved more phytotoxic than bulk particles, and the effects of both studied CuO sizes were concentration dependent. On the other hand, both bulk and nano sized particles of TiO 2 caused no severe phytotoxic effects, there was no concentration dependence and they could be considered as non-harmful to common duckweed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Photocatalytic performance of TiO2 catalysts modified by H3PW12O40, ZrO2 and CeO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Tiejun; LIAO Yuchao; PENG Zhenshan; LONG Yunfei; WEI Zongyuan; DENG Qian

    2009-01-01

    The binary composite photo-catalysts CeO2/TiO2, ZrO2/TiO2 and the ternary composite photo-catalysts H3PW12O40-CeO2/TiO2,H2PW12O40-ZrO2/TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photocatalyfic elimination of methanol was used as model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the composite catalysts under ultraviolet light irradiation. The effects of doped content, activation temperature, time, initial concentration of methanol and gas flow rate on the catalytic activity were investigated. The results showed that after doping a certain amount of CeO2 and ZrO2, crystaniTation process of TiO2 was restrained, particles of catalysts are smaller and more uniform. Doping ZrO2 not only significantly improved the catalytic activity, but also increased thermal stability. Doping H3PW12O40 also enhanced the catalytic activity. The catalytic activities of binary and ternary composite photocatalysts were significantly higher than tin-doped TiO2. The dynamics law of photocatalytic reaction over the binary CeO2/TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 catalysts has been studied. The activation energy 15.627 and 15.631 kJ/mol and pre-exponential factors 0.5176 and 0.9899 s-1 over each corresponding catalyst were obtained. This reaction accords to the first order dynamics law.

  11. TiO2 effect on crystallization mechanism and physical properties of nano glass-ceramics of MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 glass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sinae; Kang, Seunggu

    2013-05-01

    The effect of TiO2 on the degree of crystallization, thermal properties and microstructure for MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics system containing 0-13 wt% TiO2 and 0-1.5 wt% B2O3 in which the cordierite is the main phase was studied. Using Kissinger and Augis-Bennett equations, the activation energy, 510 kJ/mol and Avrami constant, 1.8 were calculated showing the surface-oriented crystallization would be preferred. The alpha-cordierite phase was generated in the glass-ceramics of containing TiO2 of 0-5.6 wt%. However, for the glass-ceramics of TiO2 content above 7 wt%, an alpha-cordierite disappeared and micro-cordierite phase was formed. The glass-ceramics of no TiO2 added had spherical crystals of few tens nanometer size spread in the matrix. As TiO2 content increased up to 5.6 wt%, a lump of dendrite was formed. In the glass-ceramics containing TiO2 7-13 wt%, in which the main phase is micro-cordierite, the dendrite crystal disappeared and a few hundred nanometer sized crystal particles hold tightly each other were generated. The thermal conductivity of glass-ceramics of both a-cordierite and micro-cordierite base decreased with TiO2 contend added. The thermal conductivity of glass-ceramics of 1.5 wt% TiO2 added was 3.4 W/mK which is 36% higher than that of glass-ceramics of no TiO2 added. The sintering temperature for 1.5 wt% TiO2 glass-ceramics was 965 degrees C which could be concluded as to apply to LTCC process for LED packaging.

  12. Structural Properties of Nanoparticles TiO2/PVA Polymeric Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara A. Madhloom

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, X-ray diffraction of the powder (PVA polymer, titanium dioxide with two parti-cle sizes and (TiO2 (15.7 nm/PVA and TiO2 (45.7 nm/PVA films have been studied,the amount of polymer is (0.5 g and (0.01g from each particle sizes of nanoparticles will be used. Casting method is used to prepare homogeneous films on glass petri dishes. All parameters ac-counted for the X-ray diffraction; full width half maximum (FWHM, Miller indices (hkl, size of crystalline (D, Specific Surface Area (S and Dislocation Density (δ. The nature of the structural of materials and films will be investigated. The XRD pattern of PVA polymer has semi-crystalline nature and the titanium dioxide with two particle sizes have crystalline structure; ana-tase type. While the mixture between these materials led to appearing some crystalline peaks into XRD pattern of PVA polymer

  13. Substitutional Carbon-Modified Anatase TiO2 Decahedral Plates Directly Derived from Titanium Oxalate Crystals via Topotactic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ping; Wu, Tingting; Wen, Lei; Tan, Jun; Yang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Shijian; Liang, Yan; Li, Feng; Irvine, John Ts; Liu, Gang; Ma, Xiuliang; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2018-03-30

    Changing the composition and/or structure of some metal oxides at the atomic level can significantly improve their performance in different applications. Although many strategies have been developed, the introduction of heteroatoms, particularly anions to the internal part of metal oxide particles, is still not adequate. Here, an effective strategy is demonstrated for directly preparing polycrystalline decahedral plates of substitutional carbon-doped anatase TiO 2 from titanium (IV) oxalate by a thermally induced topotactic transition in an inert atmosphere. Because of the carbon concentration gradient introduced in side of the plates, the carbon-doped TiO 2 (TiO 2- x C x ) shows an increased visible light absorption and a two orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity than pure TiO 2 . Consequently, it can be used as a photocatalyst and an active material for lithium storage and shows much superior activity in generating hydroxyl radicals under visible light and greatly increased electrical-specific capacity at high charge-discharge rates. The strategy developed could also be applicable to the atomic-scale modification of other metal oxides. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The comparison of photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO2 and ZrO2 nanosize onto wool fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 and ZrO 2 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized and deposited onto wool fibers using the sol-gel technique at low temperature. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 -coated and ZrO 2 -coated wool fibers were measured by studying photodegradation of methylene blue and eosin yellowish dyes. The initial and the treated samples were characterized by several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray diffraction. The TEM study shows dispersed particles with 10-30 nm in size for TiO 2 -coated and 20-40 nm in size for ZrO 2 -coated samples on the fiber surface. Comparison of the photocatalytic activity of the coated samples reveals superiority of TiO 2 modified sample with respect to that of ZrO 2 for degradation of both dyes. Our observations indicate that by applying this technique to the fabrics, self-cleaning materials could be designed for practical application.

  15. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2011-09-01

    TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions 25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  16. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO 2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO 2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions ∼25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO 2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  17. Synergy between surface adsorption and photocatalysis during degradation of humic acid on TiO2/activated carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Gang; Liu Huanhuan; Chen Quanyuan; Hills, Colin; Tyrer, Mark; Innocent, Francis

    2011-01-01

    A photocatalyst comprising nano-sized TiO 2 particles on granular activated carbon (GAC) was prepared by a sol-dipping-gel process. The TiO 2 /GAC composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractiometry (XRD) and nitrogen sorptometry, and its photocatalytic activity was studied through the degradation of humic acid (HA) in a quartz glass reactor. The factors influencing photocatalysis were investigated and the GAC was found to be an ideal substrate for nano-sized TiO 2 immobilization. A 99.5% removal efficiency for HA from solution was achieved at an initial concentration of 15 mg/L in a period of 3 h. It was found that degradation of HA on the TiO 2 /GAC composite was facilitated by the synergistic relationship between surface adsorption characteristics and photocatalytic potential. The fitting of experimental results with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model showed that the reaction rate constant and the adsorption constant values were 0.1124 mg/(L min) and 0.3402 L/mg. The latter is 1.7 times of the calculated value by fitting the adsorption equilibrium data into the Langmuir equation.

  18. Monolithic route to efficient dye-sensitized solar cells employing diblock copolymers for mesoporous TiO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Nedelcu, Mihaela; Guldin, Stefan; Orilall, M. Christopher; Lee, Jinwoo; Hü ttner, Sven; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Warren, Scott C.; Ducati, Caterina; Laity, Pete R.; Eder, Dominik; Wiesner, Ulrich; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a material and device based study on the fabrication of mesoporous TiO2 and its integration into dye-sensitized solar cells. Poly(isoprene-block-ethyleneoxide) (PI-b-PEO) copolymers were used as structure directing agents for the sol-gel based synthesis of nanoporous monolithic TiO2 which was subsequently ground down to small particles and processed into a paste. The TiO2 synthesis and the formation of tens of micrometre thick films from the paste is a scalable approach for the manufacture of dye sensitised solar cells (DSCs). In this study, we followed the self-assembly of the material through the various processing stages of DSC manufacture. Since this approach enables high annealing temperatures while maintaining porosity, excellent crystallinity was achieved. Internal TiO 2 structures ranging from the nanometre to micrometre scale combine a high internal surface area with the strong scattering of light, which results in high light absorption and an excellent full-sun power conversion efficiency of up to 6.4% in a robust, 3 μm thick dye-sensitized solar cell. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. H2O-EG-assisted synthesis of uniform urchinlike rutile TiO2 with superior lithium storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun Song; Liang, Yen Nan; Li, Yongmei; Yan, Qingyu; Hu, Xiao

    2013-10-23

    A facile green method to synthesize uniform nanostructured urchinlike rutile TiO2 is demonstrated. Titanium trichloride was selected as the TiO2 precursor, and a mixed solvent containing H2O and ethylene glycol was used. By using this binary medium, the nucleation and crystal growth of rutile TiO2 can be regulated, giving rise to very uniform urchinlike structures with tailorable sizes. As confirmed by the SEM and TEM analysis, large particles with dense aggregation of needle-like building blocks or small ones with loosely packed subunits could be obtained at different reaction conditions. The as-prepared samples were applied as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, and they were shown to have superior properties with a high reversible capacity of 140 mA h g(-1) at a high current rate of 10 C for up to 300 cycles, which is almost unmatched by other rutile TiO2-based electrodes. A stable capacity of 88 mA h g(-1) can also be delivered at an extremely high rate of 50 C, suggesting the great potential of the as-prepared product for high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of iron doped TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Rohini; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with synthesis of Fe (III) doped TiO 2 catalyst using the ultrasound assisted approach and conventional sol-gel approach with an objective of establishing the process intensification benefits. Effect of operating parameters such as Fe doping, type of solvent, solvent to precursor ratio and initial temperature has been investigated to get the best catalyst with minimum particle size. Comparison of the catalysts obtained using the conventional and ultrasound assisted approach under the optimized conditions has been performed using the characterization techniques like DLS, XRD, BET, SEM, EDS, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis band gap analysis. It was established that catalyst synthesized by ultrasound assisted approach under optimized conditions of 0.4mol% doping, irradiation time of 60min, propan-2-ol as the solvent with the solvent to precursor ratio as 10 and initial temperature of 30°C was the best one with minimum particle size as 99nm and surface area as 49.41m 2 /g. SEM analysis, XRD analysis as well as the TEM analysis also confirmed the superiority of the catalyst obtained using ultrasound assisted approach as compared to the conventional approach. EDS analysis also confirmed the presence of 4.05mol% of Fe element in the sample of 0.4mol% iron doped TiO 2 . UV-Vis band gap results showed the reduction in band gap from 3.2eV to 2.9eV. Photocatalytic experiments performed to check the activity also confirmed that ultrasonically synthesized Fe doped TiO 2 catalyst resulted in a higher degradation of Acid Blue 80 as 38% while the conventionally synthesized catalyst resulted in a degradation of 31.1%. Overall, the work has clearly established importance of ultrasound in giving better catalyst characteristics as well as activity for degradation of the Acid Blue 80 dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fate of pristine TiO2 nanoparticles and aged paint-containing TiO2 nanoparticles in lettuce crop after foliar exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Trcera, Nicolas; Sorieul, Stéphanie; Cécillon, Lauric; Ouerdane, Laurent; Legros, Samuel; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-05-30

    Engineered TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are present in a large variety of consumer products, and are produced in largest amount. The building industry is a major sector using TiO2-NPs, especially in paints. The fate of NPs after their release in the environment is still largely unknown, and their possible transfer in plants and subsequent impacts have not been studied in detail. The foliar transfer pathway is even less understood than the root pathway. In this study, lettuces were exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs and aged paint leachate containing TiO2-NPs and microparticles (TiO2-MPs). Internalization and in situ speciation of Ti were investigated by a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Not only TiO2-NPs pristine and from aged paints, but also TiO2-MPs were internalized in lettuce leaves, and observed in all types of tissues. No change in speciation was noticed, but an organic coating of TiO2-NPs is likely. Phytotoxicity markers were tested for plants exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs. No acute phytotoxicity was observed; variations were only observed in glutathione and phytochelatin levels but remained low as compared to typical values. These results obtained on the foliar uptake mechanisms of nano- and microparticles are important in the perspective of risk assessment of atmospheric contaminations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Favorable recycling photocatalyst TiO2/CFA: Effects of loading percent of TiO2 on the structural property and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianwen; Chen Shaohua; Ye Zhilong; Wang Shumei; Wu Peng

    2010-01-01

    A series of photocatalysts TiO 2 /CFA were prepared using coal fly ash (CFA), waste discharged from coal-fired power plant, as substrate, and then these photocatalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen adsorption test and ultraviolet-visible absorption analysis. The effects of loading percent of TiO 2 on the photocatalytic activity and re-use property of TiO 2 /CFA were evaluated by the photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization of methyl orange solution. The results show that the pore volume and the specific surface area of the TiO 2 /CFA both increased with the increase in the loading percent of TiO 2 , which improved the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 /CFA. However, when the loading percent of TiO 2 was too high (up to 54.51%), superfluous TiO 2 was easy to break away from CFA in the course of water treatment, which was disadvantaged to the recycling property of TiO 2 /CFA. In this study, the optimal loading percent of TiO 2 was 49.97%, and the efficiencies of photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization could be maintained above 99% and 90%, respectively, when the photocatalyst was used repeatedly, without any decline, even at the sixth cycle.

  3. Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles from Ilmenite Through the Mechanism of Vapor-Phase Reaction Process by Thermal Plasma Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sneha

    2017-11-01

    Synthesis of nanoparticles of TiO2 was carried out by non-transferred arc thermal plasma reactor using ilmenite as the precursor material. The powder ilmenite was vaporized at high temperature in plasma flame and converted to a gaseous state of ions in the metastable phase. On cooling, chamber condensation process takes place on recombination of ions for the formation of nanoparticles. The top-to-bottom approach induces the disintegration of complex ilmenite phases into simpler compounds of iron oxide and titanium dioxide phases. The vapor-phase reaction mechanism was carried out in thermal plasma zone for the synthesis of nanoparticles from ilmenite compound in a plasma reactor. The easy separation of iron particles from TiO2 was taken place in the plasma chamber with deposition of light TiO2 particles at the top of the cooling chamber and iron particles at the bottom. The dissociation and combination process of mechanism and synthesis are studied briefly in this article. The product TiO2 nanoparticle shows the purity with a major phase of rutile content. TiO2 nanoparticles produced in vapor-phase reaction process shows more photo-induced capacity.

  4. Enhancement of mechanical strength of TiO2/high-density polyethylene composites for bone repair with silane-coupling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Masami; Takadama, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Mineo; Kokubo, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical properties of composites made up of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and silanated TiO 2 particles for use as a bone-repairing material were investigated in comparison with those of the composites of HDPE with unsilanized TiO 2 particles. The interfacial morphology and interaction between silanated TiO 2 and HDPE were analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The absorption in spectral bands related to the carboxyl bond in the silane-coupling agent, the vinyl group in the HDPE, and the formation of the ether bond was studied in order to assess the influence of the silane-coupling agent. The SEM micrograph showed that the 'bridging effect' between HDPE and TiO 2 was brought about by the silane-coupling agent. The use of the silane-coupling agent and the increase of the hot-pressing pressure for shaping the composites facilitated the penetration of polymer into cavities between individual TiO 2 particles, which increased the density of the composite. Therefore, mechanical properties such as bending yield strength and Young's modulus increased from 49 MPa and 7.5 GPa to 65 MPa and 10 GPa, respectively, after the silane-coupling treatment and increase in the hot-pressing pressure

  5. Preparation of TiO2/Ag colloids with ultraviolet resistance and antibacterial property using short chain polyethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.; Wei, S.S.; Hu, S.Q.; Tang, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 /Ag nano-antibacterial material was prepared at low temperature using polyethylene glycol (PEG-600) as reducing and stabilizing agent. The size and shape as well as the optical properties of the nano-materials were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis). The results showed that the average particle size of TiO 2 among these nano-materials was around 50-150 nm, and the average particle size of nano-silver was around 20 nm. Formation of Ag nano-particles on the surface of TiO 2 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the antibacterial activity was also investigated. By the antibacterial activity study and ultraviolet resistance test, it is noted that growth inhibition rates against E. coli was 99.99% as the concentration of nano-particles dispersion solution was 10 ppm, the minimum UV protective effect could be achieved as the concentration was 290 ppm.

  6. Reduced graphene oxide enwrapped pinecone-liked Ag3PO4/TiO2 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ni; Qiu, Yiwei; Zhang, Yichao; Liu, Hanyang; Yang, Yana; Wang, Jingwei; Li, Xiaoyun; Cui, Can

    2015-01-01

    Ag 3 PO 4 possesses high photocatalytic activity under visible light, but its application is limited by photogenerated charges recombination, photocorrosion as well as consumption of noble Ag. It is of great interesting to develop new Ag 3 PO 4 -based photocatalysts with high charges separation efficiency, good stability and low content of Ag. In this paper, we report a novel Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /reduced graphene oxide (Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO) photocatalyst. It exhibits advantages on both the microstructure and the charges separation. The microstructure shows that TiO 2 spheres of hundreds of nanometers in size are decorated with dense nano-sized Ag 3 PO 4 to form pinecone-liked particles, which are enwrapped by rGO sheets. This novel structure effectively prevents aggregation of nano-sized Ag 3 PO 4 , which not only suppresses the charges recombination in Ag 3 PO 4 but also significantly reduces the content of Ag. Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO also favors separation of photogenerated charges owing to its two pathways for charges transportation, i.e., the electrons in Ag 3 PO 4 can be transferred to rGO, while the holes in Ag 3 PO 4 can be transferred to TiO 2 . The dual-pathway for charges separation as well as the pinecone-liked Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 microstructure ultimately leads to enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability of Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO. The photocatalytic performance varies with different contents of Ag 3 PO 4 in the composites, because low content of Ag 3 PO 4 induces weak light absorption while excess Ag 3 PO 4 results in serious charges recombination due to the aggregation of Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles. In this work, Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 /rGO with weight ratio of Ag 3 PO 4 against TiO 2 /rGO equals to 0.6 exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity. The percentage of Ag in this composite is around 29 wt%, much lower than 77 wt% in pure Ag 3 PO 4 . - Highlights: • Nano-sized Ag 3 PO 4 were decorated on TiO 2 particles. • Pinecone-liked Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2

  7. Ecotoxicity of nanosized TiO2. Review of in vivo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Anja; Drobne, Damjana; Jemec, Anita

    2011-03-01

    This report presents an exhaustive literature review of data on the effect of nanoparticulate TiO(2) on algae, higher plants, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and freshwater fish. The aim, to identify the biologically important characteristics of the nanoparticles that have most biological significance, was unsuccessful, no discernable correlation between primary particle size and toxic effect being apparent. Secondary particle size and particle surface area may be relevant to biological potential of nanoparticles, but insufficient confirmatory data exist. The nanotoxicity data from thirteen studies fail to reveal the characteristics actually responsible for their biological reactivity because reported nanotoxicity studies rarely carry information on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles tested. A number of practical measures are suggested which should support the generation of reliable QSAR models and so overcome this data inadequacy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of fibrous TiO2 from layered protonic tetratitanate by a hydrothermal soft chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xuezhen; Li Yongxiang; Yang Qunbao; Yin Qingrui

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous TiO 2 (anatase) was prepared by a hydrothermal soft chemical process using H 2 Ti 4 O 9 ·0.25H 2 O as a template precursor. The influence of reaction time, temperature and precursor concentration on the phase formation, morphology and crystal-axis orientation were studied. The results have shown that fibrous anatase can be obtained at 220 deg. C for 24 h with the precursor concentrations in the range of 0.025-0.100 M, and that particles had diameters of 0.2-1 μm and lengths of 2-20 μm. The fibrous TiO 2 anatase prepared by this method showed a high orientation along a-axis direction. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and SEM analyses have indicated that in situ transformation mechanism dominated the entire hydrothermal process but dissolution-recrystallization also occurred on the surface of the particles

  9. Characterization and photocatalytic performance evaluation of various metal ion-doped microstructured TiO2 under UV and visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available microcrystalline TiO2 was doped with silver, ferrous and ferric ion (1.0 mol %) using silver nitrate, ferrous sulfate and ferric nitrate solutions following the liquid impregnation technology. The catalysts prepared were characterised by FESEM, XRD, FTIR, DRS, particle size and micropore analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was tested on the degradation of two model dyes, methylene blue (3,7-bis (Dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, a cationic thiazine dye) and methyl blue (disodium;4-[4-[[4-(4-sulfonatoanilino)phenyl]-[4-(4-sulfonatophenyl)azaniumylidenecyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]anilino]benzene sulfonate, an anionic triphenyl methane dye) under irradiation by UV and visible light in a batch reactor. The efficiency of the photocatalysts under UV and visible light was compared to ascertain the light range for effective utilization. The catalysts were found to have the anatase crystalline structure and their particle size is in a range of 140-250 nm. In the case of Fe(2+) doped TiO2 and Fe(3+) doped TiO2, there was a greater shift in the optical absorption towards the visible range. Under UV light, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient catalyst and the corresponding decolorization was more than 99% for both the dyes. Under visible light, Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was the most efficient photocatalyst with more than 96% and 90% decolorization for methylene blue and methyl blue, respectively. The kinetics of the reaction under both UV and visible light was investigated using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Kinetic measurements confirmed that, Ag(+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the UV range, while Fe(3+) doped TiO2 was most efficient in the visible range.

  10. Photocorrosion Mechanism of TiO2-Coated Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Didden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition was used to coat CdS photoanodes with 7 nm thick TiO2 films to protect them from photocorrosion during photoelectrochemical water splitting. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the TiO2 coating does not provide full protection against photocorrosion. The degradation of the film initiates from small pinholes and shows oscillatory behavior that can be explained by an Avrami-type model for photocorrosion that is halfway between 2D and 3D etching. XPS analysis of corroded films indicates that a thin layer of CdS remains present on the surface of the corroded photoanode that is more resilient towards photocorrosion.

  11. Application of TIO2 as A sorbent for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamroni, H.; Las, T.; Kamarz, H.

    1997-01-01

    The sorption properties of the neodymium has been studied by using TiO 2 sorbent. The experiment was carried out by batch methods to investigate the kinetic sorption, effect of pH and effect of NaNO 3 concentration in the solution. Neodymium uses for a model of trivalent actinide treated by TiO 2 which was known as materials having high thermal and radiation stabilities as well as potentially used for immobilization of waste with cement or vitrification. the results show that the optimum of kinetic sorption was obtained after one day experiment to reach the equilibrium in sorption on pH 4, and the increasing of NaNO 3 concentrations will increase the sorption of neodymium in solution (author)

  12. Effect of photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide by N-Zr co-doped nano TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Wang, Li; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Qiang; Pan, Huixian

    2017-11-01

    Modified sol-gel method was adopted to prepare TiO 2 , Zr-TiO 2 and N/Zr-TiO 2 composite catalyst. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunner- Emmet- Teller measurement and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. And the photocatalytic performance toward CO 2 reduction was evaluated under ultraviolet light. The catalyst particles were demonstrated in the nanometer level size. When N and Zr are co-doped, on the one hand, Ti 4+ can be replaced by Zr 4  +, which leads to lattice distortion and inhibits electron-hole recombination. On the other hand, N enters into TiO 2 lattice gap to form O-Ti-N bond structure, and partial Ti 4+ are reduced to Ti 3+ . Compared with pristine TiO 2 , the specific surface area and the band gap of N/Zr-TiO 2 were improved and reduced, respectively. The N and Zr synergistically contribute to the obviously strengthened absorption intensity in visible region, as well as significantly improved photocatalytic activity. In the gas phase reactor, when the calcination temperature was 550°C, 0.125N/0.25Zr-TiO 2 composite performed the highest photocatalytic activity UV irradiation for 8 h, and the corresponding CH 4 yield was 11.837 µmol/g, which was 87.8% higher than that of pristine TiO 2 . For the visible light, the CH 4 yield was 9.003 µmol/g after 8 h irradiation, which was 83.9% higher than that of pristine TiO 2 .

  13. Antimicrobial photodisinfection with Zn(II) phthalocyanine adsorbed on TiO2 upon UVA and red irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Eneva, Ivelina; Kussovski, Vesselin; Borisova, Ekaterina; Angelov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The light exposure on a daily basis has been well accepted as a competitive method for decontamination of wastewater. The catalytic properties of TiO2 offer a great potential to reduce the transmission of pathogens in the environment. Although the titanium dioxide shows high activity against pathogens, its general usage in water cleaning is limited due to the insufficient excitation natural light (about 3% of the solar spectrum). A hydrophobic dodecylpyridyloxy Zn(II)-phthalocyanine with four peripheral hydrocarbon chains of C12 (ZnPcDo) was immobilized on a photocatalyst TiO2 anatase (P25). The resulted greenish colored nanoparticles of phthalocyanine were characterized by the means of absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the phthalocyanine dye by the red fluorescence emission (650 - 740 nm). The intensive Q-band in the far red visible spectral region (~ 690 nm) suggested a monomeric state of phthalocyanine on TiO2 nanoparticles. Two pathogenic bacterial strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA and Salmonella enteritidis) associated with wastewater were photoinactivated with the suspension of the particles. The effective photoinactivation was observed with 1 g.L-1 TiO2 anatase at irradiation with UVA 364 nm as with UVA 364 nm and LED 643 nm. The gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis was fully photoinactivated with ZnPcDo-TiO2 and TiO2 alone at UVA 346 nm and at irradiation with two light sources (364 nm + 643 nm). The proposed conjugate appears as an useful composite material for antibacterial disinfection.

  14. Synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes with ZnO nanoparticles to achieve antibacterial properties and stem cell compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwen; Su, Penglei; Chen, Su; Wang, Na; Ma, Yuanping; Liu, Yiran; Wang, Jinshu; Zhang, Zhenting; Li, Hongyi; Webster, Thomas J.

    2014-07-01

    To endow titanium (Ti) with antibacterial properties, different concentrations of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were decorated on anodized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes by a simple hydrothermal treatment method. The particle sizes of ZnO, which were evenly distributed and tightly adherent to the walls of the Ti nanotubes, ranged from 20-50 nm. Results from this study showed that Zn was released from the TiO2 nanotubes in a constant, slow, and biologically inspired manner. Importantly, the results showed that the ZnO decorated TiO2 nanotubular samples inhibited Streptococcus mutants and Porphyromonas gingivalis growth compared to control unmodified Ti samples. Specifically, S. mutants and P. gingivalis growth were both reduced 45-85% on the ZnO decorated Ti samples compared to Ti controls after 7 days of culture. When examining the mechanism of action, it has been further found for the first time that the ZnO decorated Ti samples inhibited the expression of Streptococcus mutans bacterial adhesion genes. Lastly, the results showed that the same samples which decreased bacterial growth the most (0.015 M precursor Zn(NO3)2 samples) did not inhibit mesenchymal stem cell growth compared to Ti controls for up to 7 days. In summary, results from this study showed that compared to plain TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2 decorated with 0.015 M ZnO provided unprecedented antibacterial properties while maintaining the stem cell proliferation capacity necessary for enhancing the use of Ti in numerous medical applications, particularly in dentistry.

  15. Toxicity of nanoparticles of CuO, ZnO and TiO2 to microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoja, Villem; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne

    2009-02-01

    Toxicities of ZnO, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were determined using OECD 201 algal growth inhibition test taking in account potential shading of light. The results showed that the shading effect by nanoparticles was negligible. ZnO nanoparticles were most toxic followed by nano CuO and nano TiO2. The toxicities of bulk and nano ZnO particles were both similar to that of ZnSO4 (72 h EC50 approximately 0.04 mg Zn/l). Thus, in this low concentration range the toxicity was attributed solely to solubilized Zn2+ ions. Bulk TiO2 (EC50=35.9 mg Ti/l) and bulk CuO (EC50=11.55 mg Cu/l) were less toxic than their nano formulations (EC50=5.83 mg Ti/l and 0.71 mg Cu/l). NOEC (no-observed-effect-concentrations) that may be used for risk assessment purposes for bulk and nano ZnO did not differ (approximately 0.02 mg Zn/l). NOEC for nano CuO was 0.42 mg Cu/l and for bulk CuO 8.03 mg Cu/l. For nano TiO2 the NOEC was 0.98 mg Ti/l and for bulk TiO2 10.1 mg Ti/l. Nano TiO2 formed characteristic aggregates entrapping algal cells that may contribute to the toxic effect of nano TiO2 to algae. At 72 h EC50 values of nano CuO and CuO, 25% of copper from nano CuO was bioavailable and only 0.18% of copper from bulk CuO. Thus, according to recombinant bacterial and yeast Cu-sensors, copper from nano CuO was 141-fold more bioavailable than from bulk CuO. Also, toxic effects of Cu oxides to algae were due to bioavailable copper ions. To our knowledge, this is one of the first systematic studies on effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on algal growth and the first describing toxic effects of nano CuO towards algae.

  16. TiO2 and SiC nanostructured films, organized CNT structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sized nanostructured TiO2 films through hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide. (TTIP) [9 ... structured TiO2 as a photocatalyst is as follows [15]:. TiO2(ns) ... The deposited films were easily detached from the silica tube and subjected to. SEM.

  17. Enhanced Bonding of Silver Nanoparticles on Oxidized TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Ørbæk; Salazar, Estephania Lira; Galliker, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of silver nanoclusters on TiO2(110) surfaces with on-top O adatoms (oxidized TiO2), surface O vacancies and H adatoms (reduced TiO2) have been studied. From the interplay of scanning tunneling microscopy/photoelectron spectroscopy experiments and density functional theor...

  18. Photocatalytic Water Treatment on TiO2 Thin Layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Spáčilová, L.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 25 (2016), s. 11631-11638 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos Island, 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : water purification * endocrine disruptor * photocatalytic * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  19. TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposite as high performace photocatalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Popelková, Daniela; Vláčil, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 51 (2011), s. 25209-25218 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FI-IM3/061; GA MPO FI-IM5/239 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : titanium-dioxide * visible-light * doped TiO2 * degradation * graphene * oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.805, year: 2011

  20. Defects improved photocatalytic ability of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lei; Tian, Hong-Wei; Meng, Fan-Ling; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Wei-Tao; Sun, Chang Q.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Defect improves the photocatalytic ability by band gap narrowing and carrier life prolonging. • Atomic undercoordination shortens the local bonds, entraps, and polarizes electrons. • Polarization lowers the local workfunction and lengthens carrier life. • Entrapment and polarization narrows the band gap tuning the wavelength of absorption. - Abstract: Defect generation forms an important means modulating the photocatalytic ability of TiO 2 with mechanisms that remain yet unclear. Here we show that a spectral distillation clarifies the impact of defect on modulating the band gap, electroaffinity, and work function of the substance. Firstly, by analyzing XPS measurements, we calibrated the 2p 3/2 level of 451.47 eV for an isolated Ti atom and its shifts by 2.14 and 6.94 eV, respectively, upon Ti and TiO 2 bulk formation. Spectral difference between the defected and the un-defected TiO 2 skin revealed then that the 2p 3/2 level shifts further from 6.94 to 9.67 eV due to the defect-induced quantum entrapment. This entrapment is associated with an elevation of the upper edges of both the 2p 3/2 and the conduction band by polarization. The shortening and strengthening of bonds between undercoordinated atoms densify and entrap the core electrons, which in turn polarize the dangling bond electrons of defect atoms. The entrapment and polarization mediate thus the band gap, the electroaffinity, the work function, and the photocatalytic ability of TiO 2

  1. Versatile preparation method for mesoporous TiO2 electrodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    cyanate into CuI layer further enhanced the efficiency up to 2⋅75% under the irradiance .... an extremely easy way to dope films with virtually any .... to see the effect of ionic liquid on CuI, 1-ethyl-3-methyl- ... This analysis showed that TiO2 electrodes were polycrys- .... thin insulating layer of Al2O3 by using dip-coating meth-.

  2. Drug loading of nanoporous TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon, Arturo A; Cantu, Michael; Chava, Kalpana; Agrawal, C Mauli; Feldman, Marc D; Johnson, Dave; Patel, Devang; Marton, Denes; Shi, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The loading of therapeutic amounts of drug on a nanoporous TiO 2 surface is described. This novel drug-loading scheme on a biocompatible surface, when employed on medical implants, will benefit patients who require the deployment of drug-eluting implants. Anticoagulants, analgesics and antibiotics can be considered on the associated implants for drug delivery during the time of maximal pain or risk for patients undergoing orthopedic procedures. Therefore, this scheme will maximize the chances of patient recovery. (communication)

  3. Lattice defects in rutile, TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Itoh, H.; Nakanishi, S.; Kondo, K.; Okada, M.; Atobe, K.

    1991-01-01

    Rutile, TiO 2 , having a relatively high melting point exhibits strong optical absorption after neutron irradiation (8 x 10 16 n f /cm 2 ) at 15K. The band peak is located near 0.96 μ, having a FWHM of 0.87 eV (at liquid nitrogen temperature). After inverse recovery at 120K, lattice defects due probably to F centers are annealed out at about 220K. (author)

  4. Microporous TiO2-WO3/TiO2 films with visible-light photocatalytic activity synthesized by micro arc oxidation and DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kee-Rong; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Yeh, Chung-Wei; Wu, Jiing-Kae

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple MAO is used to prepare porous WO 3 /TiO 2 layer on Ti sheet as a visible-light enabled catalyst. ► The photocatalytic activity of the WO 3 /TiO 2 is enhanced by sputtering over an N,C-TiO 2 layer. ► This is ascribed to the synergetic effect of hybrid sample prepared by two-step method. - Abstract: This study reports the preparation of microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 films with a high surface area using a two-step approach. A porous WO 3 /TiO 2 template was synthesized by oxidizing a titanium sheet using a micro arc oxidation (MAO) process. This sheet was subsequently overlaid with a visible light (Vis)-enabled TiO 2 (N,C-TiO 2 ) film, which was deposited by codoping nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) ions into a TiO 2 lattice using direct current magnetron sputtering. The resulting microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film with a 0.38-μm-thick N,C-TiO 2 top-layer exhibited high photocatalytic activity in methylene blue (MB) degradation among samples under ultraviolet (UV) and Vis irradiation. This is attributable to the synergetic effect of two-step preparation method, which provides a highly porous microstructure and the well-crystallized N,C-TiO 2 top-layer. This is because a higher surface area with high crystallinity favors the adsorption of more MB molecules and more photocatalytic active areas. Thus, the microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film has promising applications in the photocatalytic degradation of dye solution under UV and Vis irradiation. These results imply that the microporous WO 3 /TiO 2 can be used as a template of hybrid electrode because it enables rapid fabrication.

  5. Incorporation of chromium into TiO2 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollbek, Kamila; Sikora, Marcin; Kapusta, Czesław; Szlachetko, Jakub; Radecka, Marta; Lyson-Sypien, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanopowders of TiO 2 :Cr with different amount of Cr dopant were obtained by flame spray synthesis, FSS. • Increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge were observed upon Cr doping. • HERFD-XANES measurements indicated that the average valence state of titanium ions was preserved. • Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character was observed upon Cr doping. - Abstract: The paper reports on the results of a study of optical, electronic and magnetic properties of TiO 2 nanopowders doped with Cr ions. Diffused reflectance spectra reveal an increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge towards lower energies upon Cr doping. Direct information on the Ti electronic state and the symmetry of its nearest environment is obtained from XANES Ti K-edge spectra. Magnetic behaviour is probed by means of the temperature dependence of DC magnetic susceptibility. Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character is observed upon increasing chromium doping. The Curie constant of TiO 2 :10 at.% Cr sample (0.12 emu K/mol Oe) is lower than that expected for Cr 3+ (0.1875 emu K/mol Oe) possibly due to the appearance of Cr 4+ or the presence of the orbital contribution to the magnetic moment

  6. Properties of TiO2 prepared by acid treatment of BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kiyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tomoki; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Akira

    2007-01-01

    TiO 3 powders were prepared by acid treatment of BaTiO 3 and their properties were investigated. The BaTiO 3 powder was subjected to HNO 3 in concentrations ranging from 10 -3 to 8 M at 90 deg. C for 0.5-6 h. Dissolution of BaTiO 3 and precipitation of TiO 2 occurred at acid concentrations of 2-5 M. BaTiO 3 dissolves completely to form a clear solution at reaction times of 0.5-1 h, but a rutile precipitate is formed after 2 h of acid treatment. By contrast, anatase is precipitated by adjusting the pH of the clear solution to 2-3 using NaOH or NH 4 OH solution. The rutile crystals were small and rod-shaped, consisting of many small coherent domains connected by grain boundaries with small inclination angles and edge dislocations, giving them a high specific surface area (S BET ). With increasing HNO 3 concentration, the S BET value increased from 100 to 170 m 2 /g while the crystallite size decreased from 25 to 11 nm. The anatase crystals obtained here were very small equi-axial particles with a smaller crystallite size than the rutile and S BET values of about 270 m 2 /g (higher than the rutile samples). The photocatalytic activity of these TiO 2 was determined from the decomposition rate of Methylene Blue under ultraviolet irradiation. Higher decomposition rates were obtained with larger crystallite sizes resulting from heat treatment. The maximum decomposition rates were obtained in samples heated at 500-600 deg. C. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 was found to depend more strongly on the sample crystallite size than on S BET

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of nanocrystalline TiO2 films on Ti substrates for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Weiwei; Yin Xiong; Zhou Xiaowen; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Lin Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 films were prepared on flexible Ti-metal sheets by electrophoretic deposition followed by chemical treatment with tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBT) and sintering at 450 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that TBT treatment led to the formation of additional anatase TiO 2 , which plays an important role in improving the interconnection between TiO 2 particles, as well as the adherence of the film to the substrate, and in modifying the surface properties of the nanocrystalline particles. The effect of TBT treatment on the electron transport in the nanocrystalline films was studied by intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). An increase in the conversion efficiency was obtained for the dye-sensitized solar cells with TBT-treated nanocrystalline TiO 2 films. The cell performance was further optimized by designing nanocrystalline TiO 2 films with a double-layer structure composed of a light-scattering layer and a transparent layer. The light-scattering effect of the double-layer nanocrystalline films was evaluated by diffuse reflectance spectra. Employing the double-layer nanocrystalline films as the photoelectrodes resulted in a significant improvement in the incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency of the corresponding cells due to enhanced solar absorption by light scattering. A high conversion efficiency of 6.33% was measured under illumination with 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5) simulated sunlight.

  8. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous TiO2 suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaming; Zhang Ke; Shi Rongrong; Li Xianwei; Dong Xiaodan; Yu Yongmei

    2006-01-01

    Anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles of about 16 nm in crystal size have been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method. Thermal treatment of the precursor at 500-600 deg. C results in the formation of different TiO 2 phase compositions. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Effects of the pH value of the solution, H 2 O 2 addition, TiO 2 phase composition and recycled TiO 2 on the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MeO) in TiO 2 suspensions under ultraviolet (UV) illumination were primarily investigated. The results indicate that a low pH value, proper amount of H 2 O 2 and pure anatase TiO 2 will facilitate the photocatalytic oxidation of the MeO solution. The photodegradation degree decreases with increasing the pH value of the solution and varies with different amounts of H 2 O 2 . Pure anatase TiO 2 shows better photocatalytic activity for MeO decolorization than biphase TiO 2 . The photocatalytic mechanism of the as-synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles was discussed

  9. OXIDACIÓN DE p -NITROFENOL USANDO TiO 2 -ADENOSINA MONOFOSFATO I OXIDATION OF p -NITROPHENOL USING TiO 2 -ADENOSIN MONOPHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Rivas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface of TiO2 was modified with the nucleotides adenosine 3’-monophosphate (AMP’3 and Adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP’5. The adsorption of nucleotides was adjusted to Langmuir ́s adsorption model, determining that the optimal condition for TiO 2 modification was at neutral pH. UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance and IR Attenuated Total Reflectance spectra show that the chemisorption of nucleotides take placed on TiO 2 anatase. The new catalysts (TiO 2 -nucleotide improved the photodegradation of p -nitrophenol in a wide range of pH as compared with the titanium dioxide precursor. Most photoactivity was generated by using the new photocatalytic in the degradation of p -nitrophenol at pH = 6, obtaining high values for the pseudo first order kinetic constant (0.0254 min -1 and 0.0244 min -1 for TiO 2 -AMP’3 and TiO 2 -AMP’5, respectively. For all pH, the trend obtained for the photodegradation was: TiO 2 -AMP ́3 @ TiO 2 -AMP’5 > TiO 2 . Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics shows that the contribution of the surface reac tion rate governs the oxidation of the contaminant.

  10. Raman Microspectroscopic Mapping with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) Applied to the High-Pressure Polymorph of Titanium Dioxide, TiO2-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph P; Smith, Frank C; Ottaway, Joshua; Krull-Davatzes, Alexandra E; Simonson, Bruce M; Glass, Billy P; Booksh, Karl S

    2017-08-01

    The high-pressure, α-PbO 2 -structured polymorph of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -II) was recently identified in micrometer-sized grains recovered from four Neoarchean spherule layers deposited between ∼2.65 and ∼2.54 billion years ago. Several lines of evidence support the interpretation that these layers represent distal impact ejecta layers. The presence of shock-induced TiO 2 -II provides physical evidence to further support an impact origin for these spherule layers. Detailed characterization of the distribution of TiO 2 -II in these grains may be useful for correlating the layers, estimating the paleodistances of the layers from their source craters, and providing insight into the formation of the TiO 2 -II. Here we report the investigation of TiO 2 -II-bearing grains from these four spherule layers using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) applied to Raman microspectroscopic mapping. Raman spectra provide evidence of grains consisting primarily of rutile (TiO 2 ) and TiO 2 -II, as shown by Raman bands at 174 cm -1 (TiO 2 -II), 426 cm -1 (TiO 2 -II), 443 cm -1 (rutile), and 610 cm -1 (rutile). Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded a predominantly three-phase system comprised of rutile, TiO 2 -II, and substrate-adhesive epoxy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggests heterogeneous grains containing polydispersed micrometer- and submicrometer-sized particles. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares applied to the Raman microspectroscopic mapping yielded up to five distinct chemical components: three phases of TiO 2 (rutile, TiO 2 -II, and anatase), quartz (SiO 2 ), and substrate-adhesive epoxy. Spectral profiles and spatially resolved chemical maps of the pure chemical components were generated using MCR-ALS applied to the Raman microspectroscopic maps. The spatial resolution of the Raman microspectroscopic maps was enhanced in comparable, cost-effective analysis times by limiting spectral resolution

  11. Effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on largely improving solar reflectance and cooling property of high density polyethylene (HDPE) by influencing its crystallization behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shichao; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HDPE/TiO 2 composites have more perfect crystal structure. • Refractive index is the key factor affecting the final solar reflectance. • HDPE/TiO 2 composites can achieve high solar reflectance. • The real cooling property is in accordance with solar reflectance. - Abstract: In this study, the different crystal forms of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) were added into high density polyethylene (HDPE) to fabricate cool material. Crystal structure, crystallization behavior, crystal morphology were investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to observe dispersion of TiO 2 particles in the HDPE matrix and the cross section morphology. The solar reflectance and actual cooling property were evaluated by UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer and a self-designed device. By adding TiO 2 particles into HDPE matrix, the polymer chain could crystallize into more perfect and thermal stable lamella. The presence of TiO 2 particles dramatically increased the number of nucleation site therefore decreased the crystal size. The subsequent solar reflectance was related to the degree of crystallinity, the spherulite size of HDPE, refractive index, and distribution of TiO 2 particles in HDPE matrix. It was found the rutile TiO 2 could largely improve the total solar reflectance from 28.2% to 51.1%. Finally, the temperature test showed that the composites had excellent cooling property, which was in accordance with solar reflectance result

  12. Study on preparation of SnO2-TiO2/Nano-graphite composite anode and electro-catalytic degradation of ceftriaxone sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolei; Wan, Jiafeng; Yu, Xiujuan; Lin, Yuhui

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve the electro-catalytic activity and catalytic reaction rate of graphite-like material, Tin dioxide-Titanium dioxide/Nano-graphite (SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G) composite was synthesized by a sol-gel method and SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode was prepared in hot-press approach. The composite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared, Raman, N 2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electrons microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance of the SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G anode electrode was investigated via cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electro-catalytic performance was evaluated by the degradation of ceftriaxone sodium and the yield of ·OH radicals in the reaction system. The results demonstrated that TiO 2 , SnO 2 and Nano-G were composited successfully, and TiO 2 and SnO 2 particles dispersed on the surface and interlamination of the Nano-G uniformly. The specific surface area of SnO 2 modified anode was higher than that of TiO 2 /Nano-G anode and the degradation rate of ceftriaxone sodium within 120 min on SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode was 98.7% at applied bias of 2.0 V. The highly efficient electro-chemical property of SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode was attributed to the admirable conductive property of the Nano-G and SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode. Moreover, the contribution of reactive species ·OH was detected, indicating the considerable electro-catalytic activity of SnO 2 -TiO 2 /Nano-G electrode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 (anatase) and TiO2(B) in ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mansfeldová, Věra; Lásková, Barbora; Krýsová, Hana; Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 85-90 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA MŠk 7E09117 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) NMP-229036 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TiO2(B) * ionic liquid * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  14. INKJET PRINTING OF HIGH REFRACTIVE STRUCTURES BASED ON TiO2 SOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Eremeeva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with description of novel inkjet printing method for optical elements formed by structures based on TiO2 sol. The proposed approach presents effective way to obtain such optical nano objects as diffraction structures and transparent interference patterns. Methods. TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (0.36 mol in deionized water (33.3 mol under vigorous stirring and using nitric acid (0.04 mol as a protonating agent. Viscosity was determined by Brookfield HA/HB viscometer, and surface tension - by Kyowa DY-700 tensiometer. Titanium dioxide inks were deposited on commercially available microembossed PET film with a thickness of 20 µm. To print titania ink Canon Pixma IP 2840 desktop office printer was used with a drop volume of 2 pL. The thickness of an inkjet TiO2 layer after drying in the air and removal of the solvents did not exceed 500 nm with a refractive index not less than 2.08 in the entire visible range.Main Results. The synthesis of aqueous TiO2 sol was used to obtain the ink with desirable rheological characteristics: viscosity and surface tension. The required rheology was regulated by controlling parameters of sol-gel transition in the system of aqueous titanium dioxide sol and by adding ethanol that affects the charge of double electrical layer of disperse phase. The reviled ratio of titanium dioxide sol and ethanol in the system gives such values of viscosity and surface tension that make this material convenient for inkjet printing. The coatings created by sol have a high refractive index in the entire visible range (not less than 2.08. We have shown that the deposition of optical transparent microstructures with diffraction effect has an ability to be applied on the transparent surfaces. The morphology of particles and the topology of printed structures were analyzed by optic and atomic-force microscopes.Practical Relevance. We have proposed the approach

  15. The Effect of SiO2 Shell on the Suppression of Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 and ZnO Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Choon Soo; Patil, Umakant Mahadev; Kochuveedu, Saji Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the potential use of TiO 2 SiO 2 and ZnO SiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) as effective UV shielding agent. In the typical synthesis, SiO 2 was coated over different types of TiO 2 (anatase and rutile) and ZnO by sol-gel method. The synthesized TiO 2 SiO 2 and ZnO SiO 2 Nps were characterized by UV-Vis, XRD, Sem and TEM. The UV-vis absorbance and transmittance spectra of core shell NPs showed an efficient blocking effect in the UV region and more than 90% transmittance in the visible region. XRD and SAED studies confirmed the formation of amorphous SiO 2 coated over the TiO 2 and ZnO NPs. The FESEM and TEM images shows that coating of SiO 2 over the surface of anatase, rutile TiO 2 and ZnO NPs resulted in the increase in particle size by ∼30 nm. In order to study the UV light shielding capability of the samples, photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on TiO 2 SiO 2 and ZnO SiO 2 NPs was performed. Photocatalytic activity for both types of TiO 2 NPs was partially suppressed. In comparison, the photocatalytic activity of ZnO almost vanished after the SiO 2 coating

  16. Microwave absorption properties of polypyrrole-SrFe12O19-TiO2-epoxy resin nanocomposites: Optimization using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Dorraji, M. S.; Rasoulifard, M. H.; Amani-Ghadim, A. R.; Khodabandeloo, M. H.; Felekari, M.; Khoshrou, M. R.; hajimiri, I.

    2016-10-01

    At a few works are discussed about formation of heterogeneous composites with different distribution of particle shape and size that are used for electromagnetic absorption purposes. In this study a novel heterogeneous nanocpmposites is investigated. The nanocomposite has been successfully prepared based on epoxy resin including various nano-metal oxides (TiO2, SrFe12O19) and polypyrrole (PPy) by sol-gel and the solution chemistry method, respectively. The performance of prepared nanocomposite in absorption of microwave in X-band range was investigated and transmission line method by X-band waveguide straight was used to measure EM parameters of nanocomposites. The Response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was utilized to study the effects of the wt.% TiO2 in SrFe12O19, wt.% Tio2-SrFe12O19 in PPy and wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19-PPy in epoxy resin, on the microwave absorption properties with the absorber thickness of only 2 mm. The proposed quadratic model was in accordance with the experimental results with correlation coefficient of 96.5%. The optimum condition for maximum microwave absorption efficiency were wt.% TiO2 in SrFe12O19 of 70, wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19 in PPy of 10 and wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19-PPy in epoxy of 25. The sample prepared in optimal conditions indicated reflection loss of -15 dB corresponding to 97% absorption, at the range of 9.2-10.8 GHz.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Rutile TiO_2 Powder by the Sulfuric Acid Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soon Ok; Cho, Jee Hee; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Won Yong

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the experimental method that uses the homogeneous precipitation method to prepare mica flakes-coated rutile-type titania pearlescent pigment with urea as a precipitant. TiO_2 particles exhibit a high reflection of lights and optical properties with chemical stabilities, so they are appropriate for coating on luminescent pigments (mica). The coating principle of mica coated titania with various thicknesses was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tested by spectrophotometer. Mica with a particle size in the range of 40-60 um was suspended in water, and metal sulphates and urea were added to the mixture, which was heated to boiling. The change in pH was continuously followed. The metal oxide and crystal structure were affected by the conditions of TiOSO_4 concentration and reaction time with a sintering temperature the range of 800-1100°C.

  18. Synergistic effects between TiO2 and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a TiO2/CNTs system under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Kuo, Chao-Yin; Chen, Shih-Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study synthesized a TiO2/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite via the sol-gel method. The surface characteristics of the TiO2/CNTs composite were determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area analyser, ultraviolent (UV)-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectrometer. The photocatalytic activity ofthe TiO2/CNTs composite was evaluated by decolourizing C.I. Reactive Red 2 (RR2) under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the effects of calcination temperature, pH, RR2 concentration, and the TiO2/CNTs composite dosage on RR2 decolourization were determined simultaneously. The optimal calcination temperature to generate TiO2 and the TiO2/CNTs composite was 673 K, as the percentage of anatase crystallization at this temperature was highest. The specific surface area of the TiO2/CNTs composite and TiO2 were 45 and 42 m2/g, respectively. The band gap of TiO2 and the TiO2/CNTs composite was 2.97 and 2.71 eV by UV-vis measurements, respectively. Experimental data indicate that the Ti-O-C bond formed in the TiO2/CNTs composite. The RR2 decolourization rates can be approximated by pseudo-first-order kinetics; moreover, only the TiO2/CNTs composite had photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. At pH 7, the RR2 decolourization rate constant of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/L TiO2/CNTs addition was 0.005, 0.0015, and 0.0047 min(-1), respectively. Decolourization rate increased as pH and the RR2 concentration decreased. The CNTs functioned as electron acceptors, promoting separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs to retard their recombination; thus, photocatalytic activity of the TiO2/CNTs composite exceeded that of TiO2.

  19. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO2 nanoparticle layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Minami, Satoshi; Kohno, Kazufumi

    2016-01-01

    TiO 2 /CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 -based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. TiO 2 require high-temperature processing to achieve suitably high carrier mobility. TiO 2 electron transport layers and TiO 2 scaffold layers for the perovskite were fabricated from TiO 2 nanoparticles with different grain sizes. The photovoltaic properties and microstructures of solar cells were characterized. Nanoparticle sizes of these TiO 2 were 23 nm and 3 nm and the performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiO 2 nanoparticles

  20. Photocatalytic decouloration of malachite green dye by application of TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Alexandre G.S.; Costa, Leonardo L.

    2009-01-01

    The nanotubes of titania were synthesized in a hydrothermal system and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, FT-Raman, and surface charge density by surface area analyzer. These nanomaterials were applied to photocatalyse malachite green dye degradation. Photodegradation capacity of TiO 2 nanotubes was compared to TiO 2 anatase photoactivity. Malachite dye was completely degraded in 75 and 105 min of reaction photocatalysed by TiO 2 nanotubes and TiO 2 anatase, respectively. Catalysts displayed high photodegradation activity at pH 4. TiO 2 nanotubes were easily recycled whereas the reuse of TiO 2 anatase was not effective. Nanotubes maintained 80% of their activity after 10 catalytic cycles and TiO 2 anatase presented only 8% of its activity after 10 cycles.

  1. First-principles atomistic Wulff constructions for an equilibrium rutile TiO2 shape modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fengzhou; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Dali; He, Gang; Zhou, Jiabei; Wang, Fanhou; Chen, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-01

    Identifying the exposed surfaces of rutile TiO2 crystal is crucial for its industry application and surface engineering. In this study, the shape of the rutile TiO2 was constructed by applying equilibrium thermodynamics of TiO2 crystals via first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and Wulff principles. From the DFT calculations, the surface energies of six low-index stoichiometric facets of TiO2 are determined after the calibrations of crystal structure. And then, combined surface energy calculations and Wulff principles, a geometric model of equilibrium rutile TiO2 is built up, which is coherent with the typical morphology of fully-developed equilibrium TiO2 crystal. This study provides fundamental theoretical guidance for the surface analysis and surface modification of the rutile TiO2-based materials from experimental research to industry manufacturing.

  2. Composition of Surface Adsorbed Layer of TiO2 Stored in Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharenko V.S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of dark, UV, and visible light promoted desorption of surface species were investigated for three different TiO2 samples: TiO2 prepared by dispersion of the titania single crystal, TiO2 prepared by combustion of a pyrotechnic mixture in air, and commercial TiO2 P25. The composition of the adsorbed layer was identified in the dark and under UV and visible light irradiation. The composition of desorption products showed the dependence of the adsorption layer state on the TiO2 nature. Methane photodesorption was detected only for the commercial TiO2 P25. Possible reasons for methane emission include the capturing of complete molecules during the TiO2 production process and photocatalytic hydrogenation of CO2 under UV-light.

  3. Immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles on Fe-filled carbon nanocapsules for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-C.; Huang, G.-L.; Chen, H.-L.; Lee, Y.-D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a simple sol-gel method, a novel magnetic photocatalyst was produced by immobilization of TiO 2 nano-crystal on Fe-filled carbon nanocapsules (Fe-CNC). High resolution TEM images indicated that the immobilization of TiO 2 on Fe-CNC was driven primarily by heterogeneous coagulation, whereas surface nucleation and growth was the dominant mechanism for immobilizing TiO 2 on acid-functionalized hollow CNC. The TiO 2 immobilized on Fe-CNC exhibited the anatase phase as revealed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. In comparison with free TiO 2 and TiO 2 -coated CNC, TiO 2 -coated Fe-CNC displayed good performance in the removal of NO gas under UV exposure. Due to the advantages of easy recycling and good photocatalytic efficiency, the novel magnetic photocatalyst developed here has potential use in photocatalytic applications for pollution prevention

  4. Study of TiO2 nanotubes as an implant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazan, Roshasnorlyza; Sreekantan, Srimala; Mydin, Rabiatul Basria S. M. N.; Mat, Ishak; Abdullah, Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Vertically aligned TiO 2 nanotubes have become the primary candidates for implant materials that can provide direct control of cell behaviors. In this work, 65 nm inner diameters of TiO 2 nanotubes were successfully prepared by anodization method. The interaction of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) in term of cell adhesion and cell morphology on bare titanium and TiO 2 nanotubes is reported. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis proved interaction of BMSC on TiO 2 nanotubes structure was better than flat titanium (Ti) surface. Also, significant cell adhesion on TiO 2 nanotubes surface during in vitro study revealed that BMSC prone to attach on TiO 2 nanotubes. From the result, it can be conclude that TiO 2 nanotubes are biocompatible to biological environment and become a new generation for advanced implant materials

  5. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Khan Mamun; Kurny, ASW; Gulshan, Fahmida

    2017-07-01

    Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating wastewater containing textile dye have such disadvantages as high cost, high energy requirement and generation of secondary pollution during treatment process. The advanced oxidation processes technology has been attracting growing attention for the decomposition of organic dyes. Such processes are based on the light-enhanced generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which oxidize the organic matter in solution and convert it completely into water, CO2 and inorganic compounds. In this presentation, the photocatalytic degradation of dyes in aqueous solution using TiO2 as photocatalyst under solar and UV irradiation has been reviewed. It is observed that the degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of oxidants. Reaction temperature and the intensity of light also affect the degradation of dyes. Particle size, BET-surface area and different mineral forms of TiO2 also have influence on the degradation rate.

  6. TiO2 nanotubes supported NiW hydrodesulphurization catalysts: Characterization and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcheva, R.; Dimitrov, L.; Tyuliev, G.; Spojakina, A.; Jiratova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NiW catalysts supported on TiO 2 nanotubes, titania and alumina. ► The best results are obtained with NiW/TiO 2 nanotubes in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. ► Active phase is Ni-WO x S y . ► Electronic promotion of W by Ti. - Abstract: High surface area TiO 2 nanotubes (Ti-NT) synthesized by alkali hydrothermal method were used as a support for NiW hydrodesulphurization catalyst. Nickel salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid – Ni 3/2 PW 12 O 40 was applied as oxide precursor of the active components. The catalyst was characterized by S BET , XRD, UV–vis DRS, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TPR and HRTEM. The results obtained were compared with those for the NiW catalysts prepared over high surface area titania and alumina supports. A polytungstate phase evidenced by Raman spectroscopy was observed indicating the destruction of the initial heteropolyanion. The catalytic experiments revealed two times higher thiophene conversion on NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT than those of catalysts supported on alumina and titania. Increased HDS activity of the NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT could be related to a higher amount of W oxysulfide entities interacting with Ni sulfide particles as consequence of the electronic effects of the Ti-NT observed with XPS analysis.

  7. ODS - modified TiO2 nanoparticles for the preparation of self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokare, Ashvini M.; Sutar, Rajaram S.; Deshmukh, S. G.; Xing, Ruimin; Liu, Shanhu; Latthe, Sanjay S.

    2018-05-01

    Rolling water drops takes off dust particles from lotus leaf showing self-cleaning performance. Self-cleaning effect has great importance in industry as well as in daily life. The present paper describes the preparation of self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating through simple and low cost dip coating technique. The prepared superhydrophobic surface enact as lotus leaf. Firstly TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in ethanol and different concentration of octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) was added in TiO2 dispersion. The effect of number of deposition layer on the wettability of the coating was studied. The coating prepared from five deposition layers showed contact angle higher than 150° and sliding angle less than 10°. The superhydrophobicity increases with increasing concentration of ODS. The hierarchical rough morphology which is preferable for superhydrophobicity was obtained. The prepared coatings were stable against water jet impact and showed repellent towards colored and muddy water. Such superhydrophobic coating can find enormous scope in self-cleaning application.

  8. Biotoxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Raphidocelis subcapitata Microalgae Exemplified by Membrane Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Ozkaleli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs, which are mainly used in consumer products (mostly cosmetics, have been found to cause ecotoxic effects in the aquatic environment. The green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, as a representative of primary producers of the freshwater ecosystem, has been frequently used to study the effects of metal oxide NPs. An ecotoxicity study was conducted herein to investigate the effects of TiO2 NPs on survival and membrane deformation of algal cells. Five different concentrations of nano-TiO2 particles (1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 mg/L were prepared in synthetic surface water samples with five different water quality characteristics (pH 6.4–8.4, hardness 10–320 mg CaCO3/L, ionic strength 0.2–8 mM, and alkalinity 10–245 mg CaCO3/L. Results showed a significant increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of NPs with respect to both NP concentrations and ionic content of the test system. A soft synthetic freshwater system at pH 7.3 ± 0.2 appeared to provide the most effective water type, with more than 95% algal mortality observed at 50, 100 and 500 mg/L NP concentrations. At high exposure concentrations, increased malondialdehyde formations were observed. Moreover, due to membrane deformation, TEM images correlated the uptake of the NPs.

  9. Biotoxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Raphidocelis subcapitata Microalgae Exemplified by Membrane Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaleli, Merve; Erdem, Ayca

    2018-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), which are mainly used in consumer products (mostly cosmetics), have been found to cause ecotoxic effects in the aquatic environment. The green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, as a representative of primary producers of the freshwater ecosystem, has been frequently used to study the effects of metal oxide NPs. An ecotoxicity study was conducted herein to investigate the effects of TiO2 NPs on survival and membrane deformation of algal cells. Five different concentrations of nano-TiO2 particles (1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 mg/L) were prepared in synthetic surface water samples with five different water quality characteristics (pH 6.4–8.4, hardness 10–320 mg CaCO3/L, ionic strength 0.2–8 mM, and alkalinity 10–245 mg CaCO3/L). Results showed a significant increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of NPs with respect to both NP concentrations and ionic content of the test system. A soft synthetic freshwater system at pH 7.3 ± 0.2 appeared to provide the most effective water type, with more than 95% algal mortality observed at 50, 100 and 500 mg/L NP concentrations. At high exposure concentrations, increased malondialdehyde formations were observed. Moreover, due to membrane deformation, TEM images correlated the uptake of the NPs. PMID:29495534

  10. Optical properties of titanium-di-oxide (TiO2) prepared by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Kazi Hasibur; Biswas, Sayari; Kar, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Research on titanate and its derived TiO2 nanostructures with large specific surface area have received great attention due to their enhanced efficiency in photocatalysis, DSSC etc. Here, in this communication TiO2 powder has been prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 °C. In this work we have shown the changes in optical properties of the powder with two different sintering temperatures ‒ 500 °C and 800 °C. The as prepared powder was also studied. FESEM images show spherical particles for the as prepared samples which look more like agglomeration after sintering. Band gaps of the prepared samples were calculated from UV-Vis spectroscopy which lies in the range 2.85 eV ‒ 3.13 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the prepared samples were recorded at room temperature in the range of 300‒700 nm. It shows two distinct peaks at 412 nm and 425 nm.

  11. Describing excited state relaxation and localization in TiO2 nanoparticles using TD-DFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berardo, Enrico; Hu, Han-Shi; Van Dam, Hubertus J. J.; Shevlin, Stephen A.; Woodley, Scott M.; Kowalski, Karol; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the description of excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO 2 nanoparticles using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) with three common hybrid exchange-correlation (XC) potentials; B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and BHLYP. Use of TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP yields qualitatively similar results for all structures, which are also consistent with predictions of coupled cluster theory for small particles. TD-B3LYP, in contrast, is found to make rather different predictions; including apparent conical intersections for certain particles that are not observed with TD-CAM-B3LYP nor with TD-BHLYP. In line with our previous observations for vertical excitations, the issue with TD-B3LYP appears to be the inherent tendency of TD-B3LYP, and other XC potentials with no or a low percentage of Hartree-Fock Like Exchange, to spuriously stabilize the energy of charge-transfer (CT) states. Even in the case of hydrated particles, for which vertical excitations are generally well described with all XC potentials, the use of TD-B3LYP appears to result in CT-problems for certain particles. We hypothesize that the spurious stabilization of CT-states by TD-B3LYP even may drive the excited state optimizations to different excited state geometries than those obtained using TD-CAM-B3LYP or TD-BHLYP. In conclusion, focusing on the TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP results, excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO 2 nanoparticles is predicted to be associated with a large Stokes' shift

  12. Distinct toxic interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with four coexisting organochlorine contaminants on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Deng, Rui; Lin, Daohui; Wu, Fengchang

    Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly discharged into the environment. After discharge, these nanoparticles can interact with co-existing organic contaminants, resulting in a phenomena referred to as 'joint toxicity'. This study evaluated joint toxicities of TiO 2 nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) with four different (atrazine, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) organochlorine contaminants (OCs) toward algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa). The potential mechanisms underlying the joint toxicity were discussed, including TiO 2 NPs-OC interactions, effects of TiO 2 NPs and OCs on biophysicochemical properties of algae and effects of TiO 2 NPs and OCs on each other's bioaccumulation in algae. The results indicate that coexposure led to a synergistic effect on the joint toxicity for TiO 2 NPs-atrazine, antagonistic effect for TiO 2 NPs-hexachlorobenzene and TiO 2 NPs-3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and an additive effect for TiO 2 NPs-pentachlorobenzene. There was nearly no adsorption of OCs by TiO 2 NPs, and the physicochemical properties of TiO 2 NPs were largely unaltered by the presence of OCs. However, both OCs and NPs affected the biophysicochemical properties of algal cells and thereby influenced the cell surface binding and/or internalization. TiO 2 NPs significantly increased the bioaccumulation of each OC. However, with the exception of atrazine, the bioaccumulation of TiO 2 NPs decreased when used with each OC. The distinct joint toxicity outcomes were a result of the balance between the increased toxicities of OCs (increased bioaccumulations) and the altered toxicity of TiO 2 NPs (bioaccumulation can either increase or decrease). These results can significantly improve our understanding of the potential environmental risks associated with NPs.

  13. Fast and simple microwave synthesis of TiO2/Au nanoparticles for gas-phase photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Masnou, Anna; Soler, Lluís; Torras, Miquel; Salles, Pol; Llorca, Jordi; Roig, Anna

    2018-04-01

    The fabrication of small anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) attached to larger anisotropic gold (Au) morphologies by a very fast and simple two-step microwave-assisted synthesis is presented. The TiO2/Au NPs are synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as reducing, capping and stabilizing agent through a polyol approach. To optimize the contact between the titania and the gold and facilitate electron transfer, the PVP is removed by calcination at mild temperatures. The nanocatalysts activity is then evaluated in the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water/ethanol mixtures in gas-phase at ambient temperature. A maximum value of 5.3 mmol·gcat-1·h-1 (7.4 mmol·gTiO2-1·h-1) of hydrogen is recorded for the system with larger gold particles at an optimum calcination temperature of 450 °C. Herein we demonstrate that TiO2-based photocatalysts with high Au loading and large Au particle size (≈ 50 nm) NPs have photocatalytic activity.

  14. Nb-doped TiO2 cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Arashi, Takuya

    2014-09-01

    Nb-doped TiO2 particles were studied as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under acidic conditions. The Nb-doped TiN nanoparticles were first synthesized by meso-porous C3N4 and then fully oxidized to Nb-doped TiO2 by immersing in 0.1 M H 2SO4 at 353 K for 24 h. Although the ORR activity of the as-obtained sample was low, a H2 treatment at relatively high temperature (1173 K) dramatically improved the ORR performance. An onset potential as high as 0.82 VRHE was measured. No degradation of the catalysts was observed during the oxidation-reduction cycles under the ORR condition for over 127 h. H2 treatment at temperatures above 1173 K caused the formation of a Ti4O7 phase, resulting in a decrease in ORR current. Elemental analysis indicated that the Nb-doped TiO 2 contained 25 wt% residual carbon. Calcination in air at 673 or 973 K eliminated the residual carbon in the catalyst, which was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in ORR activity. This post-calcination process may reduce the conductivity of the sample by filling the oxygen vacancies, and the carbon residue in the particle aggregates may enhance the electrocatalytic activity for ORR. The feasibility of using conductive oxide materials as electrocatalysts is discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Photocatalytic behaviors and structural characterization of nanocrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 synthesized by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Hong, Hyun Seon; Kim, Sun Jae; Song, Jae Sung; Lee, Kyung Sub

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-doped TiO 2 powders were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) with varying Fe contents from 0 up to 4.8 wt.% to shift the absorption threshold into the visible light region. The photocatalytic feasibility of the Fe-doped TiO 2 powder was evaluated by quantifying the visible light absorption capacity using ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Effects of Fe additions on the crystal structures and the morphologies of the Fe-doped powders were also investigated as a function of the doping content using transmission electron microscopy-electron diffraction pattern (TEM-EDP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The UV-Vis study showed that the UV absorption for the Fe-doped powder moved to a longer wavelength (red shift) and the photoefficiency was enhanced. Based on the analysis of the photoluminescence spectra, the red shift was believed to be induced by localizing the dopant level near the valence band of TiO 2 . The UV-Vis absorption depended on the Fe concentration. TEM-EDP and XRD investigations showed that the Fe-doped powder had a rutile phase in which the added Fe atoms were dissolved. The rutile phase was composed of spherical particles and chestnut bur shaped particles, resulting in a larger surface area than the spherical P-25 powder

  16. Distinctive toxicity of TiO2 rutile/anatase mixed phase nanoparticles on Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Kirsten; Fenoglio, Ivana; Carella, Emanuele; Kolling, Julia; Albrecht, Catrin; Boots, Agnes W; Förster, Irmgard; Schins, Roel P F

    2012-03-19

    Titanium dioxide has a long-standing use as a food additive. Micrometric powders are, e.g., applied as whiteners in confectionary or dairy products. Possible hazards of ingested nanometric TiO(2) particles for humans and the potential influence of varying specific surface area (SSA) are currently under discussion. Five TiO(2)-samples were analyzed for purity, crystallinity, primary particle size, SSA, ζ potential, and aggregation/agglomeration. Their potential to induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage was evaluated in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Only anatase-rutile containing samples, in contrast to the pure anatase samples, induced significant LDH leakage or mild DNA damage (Fpg-comet assay). Evaluation of the metabolic competence of the cells (WST-1 assay) revealed a highly significant correlation between the SSA of the anatase samples and cytotoxicity. The anatase/rutile samples showed higher toxicity per unit surface area than the pure anatase powders. However, none of the samples affected cellular markers of oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that both SSA and crystallinity are critical determinants of TiO(2)-toxicity toward intestinal cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  17. Nb-doped TiO2 cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Arashi, Takuya; Seo, Jeongsuk; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    Nb-doped TiO2 particles were studied as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under acidic conditions. The Nb-doped TiN nanoparticles were first synthesized by meso-porous C3N4 and then fully oxidized to Nb-doped TiO2 by immersing in 0.1 M H 2SO4 at 353 K for 24 h. Although the ORR activity of the as-obtained sample was low, a H2 treatment at relatively high temperature (1173 K) dramatically improved the ORR performance. An onset potential as high as 0.82 VRHE was measured. No degradation of the catalysts was observed during the oxidation-reduction cycles under the ORR condition for over 127 h. H2 treatment at temperatures above 1173 K caused the formation of a Ti4O7 phase, resulting in a decrease in ORR current. Elemental analysis indicated that the Nb-doped TiO 2 contained 25 wt% residual carbon. Calcination in air at 673 or 973 K eliminated the residual carbon in the catalyst, which was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in ORR activity. This post-calcination process may reduce the conductivity of the sample by filling the oxygen vacancies, and the carbon residue in the particle aggregates may enhance the electrocatalytic activity for ORR. The feasibility of using conductive oxide materials as electrocatalysts is discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILM OF TiO2 ON GRAPHITE SUBSTRATE BY Cu-ELECTRODEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of graphite/TiO2 has been done by mean of Cu electrodeposition. This research aims to study the effect of Cu electrodeposition on photocatalytic enhancing of TiO2. Electrodeposition has been done using CuSO4 0,4 M as the electrolyte at controlled current. The XRD pattern of modified TiO2 thin film on graphite substrate exhibited new peaks at 2θ= 43-44o and 2θ= 50-51o that have been identified as Cu with crystal cubic system, face-centered crystal lattice and crystallite size of 26-30 nm. CTABr still remains in the material as impurities. Meanwhile, based on morphological analysis, Cu particles are dissipated in the pore of thin film. Graphite/TiO2/Cu has higher photoconversion efficiency than graphite/TiO2.   Keywords: semiconductor, graphite/TiO2, Cu electrodeposition

  19. Structural and morphological characterization of TiO2-ZrO2 powders obtained by the polymeric precursors method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.A.; Gama, L.; Bispo, A.; Neiva, L.S.; Bernardi, M.I.B.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to characterize the structure and morphology of TiO 2 -ZrO 2 powders obtained by polymeric precursor method. For this we studied the following compositions: 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 moles of Zr and calcined at 800 deg C for one hour. The powders obtained were characterized by XRD, SEM and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed that the powders had a phase of TiO 2 in the anatase form and a tetragonal phase of ZrO 2 . The crystallite size was between 8, 13 and 11 nm respectively. The analysis of scanning electron microscopy showed the growth of ZrO 2 nanoparticles and that these comprise spherical agglomerates of less than 100 nm. Particle size determined by the BET ranging 28.1-29.5 nm, showing thereby the character of nanosized powders. (author)

  20. Polymeric precursors method for obtaining pigments based on Inorganic oxides of chromium and iron deposited on TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Everlania M. da; Galvao, Sheila B.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The case study was the use of chromium oxides and iron, as a precursor in the synthesis of inorganic pigments. The synthesis was based on the dissolution of citric acid as a complexing agent, addition of metal oxides, such as ion chromophores; polymerization with ethylene glycol and doping with titanium oxide. Going through pre-calcination, breakdown, calcination at different temperatures (700, 900 and 1100 deg C resulting in pigments: green for pigment and chromium deposited on TiO2, orange for iron on TiO2. The thermal analysis (TG and DTA), evaluated their thermal decompositions, the XRD revealed the formation of crystalline phases such as iron titanate and chrome titanate; SEM showed the formation of hexagonal particles for both oxides. Under the different analysis, one can see the potential stability of pigments and powders, can be proposed its use as pigments in polymers. (author)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic pigments based on oxides of chromium and iron, on TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M. da; Galvao, S.B.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    This work used oxides of chromium and iron, as precursors of the synthesis of ceramic pigments. The synthesis is based on the dissolution of citric acid as a complexing agent, addition of metal oxides, such as ion chromophores; polymerization with ethylene glycol and doping with titanium oxide. Passing through pre-calcination, breakdown, calcination at different temperatures (900 and 1100 ° C), resulting in pigments: green for pigment chrome deposited on TiO 2 and orange for iron on TiO 2 . Noticing an increase in the opacity with increasing temperature. The thermal analysis (TG and DTA), evaluated their thermal behavior, the XRD revealed the formation of crystalline phases as Iron Titanate and Chrome Titanate; SEM showed the formation of hexagonal particles for both oxides. Thus, the synthesized oxides were within the requirements for application as ceramic pigments. (author)

  2. Hybrid matrices of TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers with silicone for high water flux photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Alm, Martin; Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers were produced by electrospinning technique and surface coated on silicone elastomer (diameter: 10.0 mm; thickness: 2.0 mm) by dipcoating method. These coated hybrid nanoporous matrices were characterized by various morphological and physicochemical techniques (like SEM...

  3. TiO2/Cu2O composite based on TiO2 NTPC photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Le

    2015-01-01

    in practice of water splitting with pure TiO2 material, one of the most popular semiconductor material used for photoelectrochemical water splitting, is still challenging. One dimensional TiO2 nanotubes is highly desired with its less recombination

  4. Charge transfer between biogenic jarosite derived Fe3+and TiO2 enhances visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mahabubur; Shoko, Sipiwe; Cummings, Fransciuos; Fester, Veruscha; Ojumu, Tunde Victor

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we have shown that mining waste derived Fe 3+ can be used to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 . This will allow us to harness a waste product from the mines, and utilize it to enhance TiO 2 photocatalytic waste water treatment efficiency. An organic linker mediated route was utilized to create a composite of TiO 2 and biogenic jarosite. Evidence of FeOTi bonding in the TiO 2 /jarosite composite was apparent from the FTIR, EFTEM, EELS and ELNEFS analysis. The as prepared material showed enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO 2 , biogenic jarosite and mechanically mixed sample of jarosite and TiO 2 under both simulated and natural solar irradiation. The prepared material can reduce the electrical energy consumption by 4 times compared to pristine P25 for degradation of organic pollutant in water. The material also showed good recyclability. Results obtained from sedimentation experiments showed that the larger sized jarosite material provided the surface to TiO 2 nanoparticles, which increases the settling rate of the materials. This allowed simple and efficient recovery of the catalyst from the reaction system after completion of photocatalysis. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composite material was due to effective charge transfer between TiO 2 and jarosite derived Fe 3+ as was shown from the EELS and ELNEFS. Generation of OH was supported by photoluminesence (PL) experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Photocatalytic activity of Al2O3-doped TiO2 thin films activated with visible light on the bacteria Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas-Ledesma, E.; Garcia-Benjume, M.L.; Espitia-Cabrera, I.; Bravo-Patino, A.; Espinoza-Beltran, F.J.; Mostaghimi, J.; Contreras-Garcia, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with sputtering. A Corning* glass was used as a substrate, in which a titanium film was deposited by sputtering. Then, a precursor sol was prepared with Ti(n-OBu) 4 and Al(s-OBu) 3 and used as the medium for EPD. Next, the thin films were sintered and, finally, characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Several cultures of Escherichia coli, strain XL1-Blue, were prepared. Nine experiments were carried out. In three of them, an inoculum (a low amount of a product that contains bacteria) was prepared without a film; in the other six Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 film-coated glass substrates were irradiated with visible light before they were introduced in the inoculum. The SEM and EDS results showed that TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 films were obtained, covering all the glass substrate and with uniform size of particles forming them, and that the aluminium was distributed uniformly on the film. XRD results showed that rutile phase was obtained. By TEM, the structure of TiO 2 was demonstrated. Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were successful at eliminating E. coli.

  6. The Effect of TiO2 Doped Photocatalytic Nano-Additives on the Hydration and Microstructure of Portland and High Alumina Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez-Nicolás

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mortars with two different binders (Portland cement (PC and high alumina cement (HAC were modified upon the bulk incorporation of nano-structured photocatalytic additives (bare TiO2, and TiO2 doped with either iron (Fe-TiO2 or vanadium (V-TiO2. Plastic and hardened state properties of these mortars were assessed in order to study the influence of these nano-additives. Water demand was increased, slightly by bare TiO2 and Fe-TiO2, and strongly by V-TiO2, in agreement with the reduction of the particle size and the tendency to agglomerate. Isothermal calorimetry showed that hydration of the cementitious matrices was accelerated due to additional nucleation sites offered by the nano-additives. TiO2 and doped TiO2 did not show pozzolanic reactivity in the binding systems. Changes in the pore size distribution, mainly the filler effect of the nano-additives, accounted for the increase in compressive strengths measured for HAC mortars. A complex microstructure was seen in calcium aluminate cement mortars, strongly dependent on the curing conditions. Fe-TiO2 was found to be homogeneously distributed whereas the tendency of V-TiO2 to agglomerate was evidenced by elemental distribution maps. Water absorption capacity was not affected by the nano-additive incorporation in HAC mortars, which is a favourable feature for the application of these mortars.

  7. Effect of iron doping on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin film by sol–gel routed spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Lourduraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (Fe:TiO2 were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and further calcined at 450∘C. The structural and optical properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis and atomic force microscopic (AFM techniques. The XRD results confirm the nanostructured TiO2 thin films having crystalline nature with anatase phase. The characterization results show that the calcined thin films having high crystallinity and the effect of iron substitution lead to decreased crystallinity. The SEM investigations of Fe-doped TiO2 films also gave evidence that the films were continuous spherical shaped particles with a nanometric range of grain size and film was porous in nature. AFM analysis establishes that the uniformity of the TiO2 thin film with average roughness values. The optical measurements show that the films having high transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap energy of Fe-doped TiO2 film with iron (Fe decrease with increase in iron content. These important requirements for the Fe:TiO2 films are to be used as window layers in solar cells.

  8. Structural properties of TiO2 nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusior, Anna; Banas, Joanna; Trenczek-Zajac, Anita; Zubrzycka, Paulina; Micek-Ilnicka, Anna; Radecka, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The surface of solids is characterized by active, energy-rich sites that determine physicochemical interaction with gaseous and liquid media and possible applications in photocatalysis. The behavior of materials in such processes is related to their form and amount of various species, especially water and forms of oxygen adsorbed on the surface. The preparation of materials with controlled morphology, which includes modifications of the size, geometry, and composition, is currently an important way of optimizing properties, as many of them depend on not only the size and phase composition, but also on shape. Hydroxylated centers on the surface, which can be treated as trapping sites, are particularly significant. Water adsorbed on the surface bridging hydroxyl groups can distinctly modulate the properties of the surface of titania. The saturation of the surface with hydroxyl groups may improve the photocatalytic properties. TiO2 nanomaterials were obtained via different methods. SEM and TEM analysis were performed to study the morphology. The analysis of XRD and Raman data revealed a phase composition of obtained materials. To examine the surface properties, FTIR absorption spectra of TiO2 nanomaterials were recorded. The photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was investigated through the decomposition of methylene blue. It was demonstrated that each surface modification affects the amount of adsorbed hydroxyl groups. The different contributions of the two species to the ν(H2O) FTIR bands for different nanostructures result from the preparation conditions. It was noted that pre-adsorbed water (the surface-bridging hydroxyl) might significantly modulate the surface properties of the material. The increase in hydroxyl group density on the titanium dioxide surface enhances the effectiveness of the photocatalytic processes. It was demonstrated that flower-like titania obtained via hydrothermal synthesis exhibits the weakest catalytic activity, in contrast to the typical spherical TiO2.

  9. Influence of Ce Doping on the Electrical and Optical Properties of TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Activity for the Degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles doped with different concentrations of Cerium (Ce, 1–10% have been synthesized using sol-gel method. The prepared particles were characterized by standard analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The XRD analysis shows no change in crystal structure of TiO2 after doping with different concentrations of Ce, which indicates the single-phase polycrystalline material. The SEM analysis shows the partial crystalline nature of undoped, and doped TiO2 and TEM analysis shows the particle sizes were in the range of 9–14 nm in size. The a.c. analysis shows that the dielectric constant ε and dielectric loss tan δ decrease with the increase in frequency. The dielectric property decreases with the increase in dopant concentration. It is also observed that the impedance increases with an increase in dopant concentration. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized particles (Ce-doped TiO2 with dopant concentration of 9% (Ce showed the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the dye derivative Remazol Brilliant Blue R in an immersion well photochemical reactor with 500 W halogen linear lamp in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.

  10. The effect of 4-tert-butylpyridine and Li+ on the thermal degradation of TiO2 – bound ruthenium dye N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lund, Torben

    The ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structures [RuLL’(NCS)2)] degrade slowly at elevated temperatures (t > 80 ˚C) on the surface of nano-sized TiO2 particles. The degradation takes place by reversible nucleophilic substitution reactions in which one of the thiocyanate ligands ...

  11. The effect of 4-tert-butylpyridine and Li+ on the thermal degradation of TiO2 - bound ruthenium dye N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lund, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Thermal stability experiments were performed at 100 °C of the dye-sensitized solar cell ruthenium dye N719. The experiments were performed as simple test-tube experiments carried out with colloidal solutions of N719-loaded TiO2 particles. The dye degradation was followed by the use of HPLC-couple...

  12. Study of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Scanning Electron Micrograph Observation and Thickness Optimization of Porous TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoenergy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, it is important to optimize their porous TiO2 electrodes. This paper examines the surface and cross-sectional views of the electrodes using scanning electron micrography. Two types of samples for cross-sectional viewing were prepared by mechanically breaking the substrate and by using an Ar-ion etching beam. The former displays the surface of the TiO2 particles and the latter shows the cross-section of the TiO2 particles. We found interesting surface and cross-sectional structures in the scattering layer containing the 400 nm diameter particles, which have an angular and horned shape. The influence of TiO2 particle size and the thickness of the nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrode in DSCs using four kinds of sensitizing dyes (D149, K19, N719 and Z907 and two kinds of electrolytes (acetonitrile-based and ionic-liquid electrolytes are discussed in regards to conversion efficiency, which this paper aims to optimize.

  13. Structure and properties of nanophase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.W.; Hahn, H.; Ramasamy, S.; Zongquan, Li; Ting, Lu; Gronsky, R.

    1987-07-01

    Ultrafine-grained, nanophase samples of TiO 2 (rutile) were synthesized by the gas-condensation method and subsequent in-situ compaction, and then studied by transmission electron microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements, and positron annihilation spectroscopy as a function of sintering temperature. The nanophase compacts densified rapidly above 500 0 C, with only a small increase in grain size. The hardness values obtained by this method are comparable to or greater than coarser-grained compacts, but at temperatures 400 to 600 0 C lower than conventional sintering temperatures and without the need for sintering aids. 11 refs., 3 figs

  14. On Multiple Zagreb Indices of TiO2 Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mehar Ali; Imran, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The First and Second Zagreb indices were first introduced by I. Gutman and N. Trinajstic in 1972. It is reported that these indices are useful in the study of anti-inflammatory activities of certain chemical instances, and in elsewhere. Recently, the first and second multiple Zagreb indices of a graph were introduced by Ghorbani and Azimi in 2012. In this paper, we calculate the Zagreb indices and the multiplicative versions of the Zagreb indices of an infinite class of Titania nanotubes TiO(2)[m,n].

  15. Carrier recombination dynamics in anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigli, Lucia; Bogani, Franco; Vinattieri, Anna; Cortese, Lorenzo; Colocci, Marcello; Faso, Valentina; Baldi, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    We present an experimental study of the radiative recombination dynamics in size-controlled TiO 2 nanoparticles in the range 20-130 nm. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra clearly show a dominance of self-trapped exciton (STE) emission, with main features not dependent on the nanoparticle size and on its environment. From picosecond time-resolved experiments as a function of the excitation density and the nanoparticle size we address the STE recombination dynamics as the result of two main processes related to the direct STE formation and to the indirect STE formation mediated by non-radiative surface states.

  16. Al-bound hole polarons in TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stashans, Arvids; Bermeo, Sthefano

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the structural and electronic properties of TiO 2 (anatase and rutile) due to the Al-doping are studied using a quantum-chemical approach based on the Hartree-Fock theory. The formation of hole polarons trapped at oxygen sites near the Al impurity has been discovered and their spatial configuration are discussed. The occurrence of well-localized one-center hole polarons in rutile may influence its photocatalytic activity. Optical absorption energy for this hole center is obtained, 0.4 eV, using the ΔSCF approach.

  17. Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching characteristics in TiO2/BaTiO3/TiO2 multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Yue; Lin, S. P.; Luo, J. M.; Wang, B.; Li, Z. X.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale multilayer structure TiO 2 /BaTiO 3 /TiO 2 has been fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate by chemical solution deposition method. Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching (BRS) characteristics have been observed in Pt/TiO 2 /BaTiO 3 /TiO 2 /Pt cells. Analysis of the current-voltage relationship demonstrates that the space-charge-limited current conduction controlled by the localized oxygen vacancies should be important to the resistive switching behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that oxygen vacancies in TiO 2 play a crucial role in the resistive switching phenomenon and the introduced TiO 2 /BaTiO 3 interfaces result in the high uniformity of bipolar resistive switching characteristics

  18. Synthesis of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanorod-nanotube arrays by filling TiO2 nanotubes with Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Susanta K; Banerjee, Subarna; Misra, Mano

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanostructures on a titania (TiO 2 ) nanotubular template is carried out using a pulsed electrodeposition technique. The TiO 2 nanotubes are prepared by the sonoelectrochemical anodization method and are filled with iron (Fe) by pulsed electrodeposition. The Fe/TiO 2 composite is then annealed in an O 2 atmosphere to convert it to Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The length of the Fe 2 O 3 inside the TiO 2 nanotubes can be tuned from 50 to 550 nm by changing the deposition time. The composite material is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible studies to confirm the formation of one-dimensional Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The present approach can be used for designing variable one-dimensional metal oxide heterostructures

  19. Síntese e caracterização de nanopartículas de TiO2 Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. F. M. Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários métodos de síntese química têm sido desenvolvidos e utilizados na obtenção de pós para fabricação de membranas cerâmicas. Dentre os métodos alternativos utilizados em escala de laboratório, o método Pechini tem sido empregado com sucesso para a obtenção de diversos tipos de materiais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo sintetizar e caracterizar nanopós de TiO2 obtidos por este método, visando à preparação de membranas cerâmicas de ultrafiltração. Os pós resultantes foram caracterizados por análise térmica gravimétrica e diferencial, difração de raios X, espectrofotometria de absorção no infravermelho, adsorção de nitrogênio e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A análise de difração de raios X do pó mostrou a presença da fase cristalina anatásio, com tamanho de cristalito 15 nm. O tamanho de partículas calculado a partir da área superficial pelo método BET foi 19 nm e a morfologia apresentou-se constituída de nanopartículas e presença de aglomerados moles. Os resultados evidenciam que o método Pechini é promissor para produção de TiO2 nanométrico, adequado para a preparação de membranas cerâmicas.Several methods of chemical synthesis have been developed and used to obtain powder for production of ceramic membranes. Amongst the alternative methods used in laboratory scale, the Pechini method has been used successfully for the preparation of several types of materials. The objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize TiO2 powders obtained by this method, aiming the preparation of ultra-filtration ceramic membranes. The powder has been characterized by gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption by BET, and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction of the powders showed the presence of the anatase crystalline phase, with crystallite size 15 nm. The particle size calculated from the surface area was 19

  20. In situ growth of lamellar ZnTiO3 nanosheets on TiO2 tubular array with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunyu; Ye, Yixing; Tian, Zhenfei; Liu, Jun; Liu, Yishu; Liang, Changhao

    2013-12-14

    We report a self-sacrificed in situ growth design toward preparation of ZnTiO3-TiO2 heterojunction structure. Highly reactive zinc oxide colloidal particles derived by laser ablation in liquids can react with TiO2 nanotubes to form a lamellar ZnTiO3 nanosheet structure in a hydrothermal-treatment process. Such hybrid structural product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the hybrid structure toward degradation of methyl orange (MO) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) molecules was demonstrated and compared with single phase TiO2, as a result of the efficient separation of light excited electrons and holes at the hetero-interfaces in the two semiconductors.

  1. Photocatalytic activities of heterostructured TiO2-graphene porous microspheres prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jikai; Zhang, Xintong; Li, Bing; Liu, Hong; Sun, Panpan; Wang, Changhua; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yichun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • USP method is used to prepare TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres. • XPS shows GO sheets in the composites has been reduced to graphene. • TiO 2 -graphene microspheres display a red-shifted absorption edge. • PL spectra indicate graphene can accept the photoexcited electrons from TiO 2 . • TiO 2 -graphene shows higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 under solar light. -- Abstract: TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) of aqueous suspension of graphene oxide containing TiO 2 nanoparticles (Degussa P25). The composite microspheres were characterized with SEM, XPS, photoluminescence, Raman and UV–Vis absorption spectra. TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres displayed higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution than pristine TiO 2 microspheres under the irradiation of Xe lamp, and the highest activity was obtained at a weight percentage of graphene around 1%. The effect of graphene on photocatalytic activity of porous microsphere was discussed in terms of the enhanced charge separation by TiO 2 -graphene heterojunction, increased absorption of the visible light, as well as the possible hindrance of mass transportation in microspheres

  2. The Influence of NiO Addition in TiO2 Structure and Its Photoactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Purwanti, P. D.; Munawaroh, H.; Ichsan, S.; Kristiawan, Y. R.

    2018-03-01

    The synthesis of TiO2 together with the TiO2-NiO composite using various annealing temperatures has been studied. The synthesis of TiO2 was performed by sol gel method using Titanium Tetra Isopropoxide (TTIP) precursor, whereas the synthesis of TiO2-NiO composite was done by wet impregnation method using NiNO3.6H2O precursor. This study aims to determine the influence of NiO addition in its structure and photoactivity. The diffraction of synthesized TiO2 at 400 °C temperature shows anatase TiO2 peak at 2θ = 25.35 °. The addition of NiO dopant to the synthesis of TiO2 process is carried out by annealing at 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C, respectively. The TiO2-NiO composite has been prepared and shows the diffraction peak of NiO at 2θ=43° about 33.08 to 36.68%. The optimum result of Rhodamine B photodegradation with TiO2 was 43.15%, while the optimum result of Rhodamine B degradation with TiO2-NiO composite was 92.85%.

  3. A thick hierarchical rutile TiO2 nanomaterial with multilayered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shengli; Xie, Guoqiang; Yang, Xianjin; Cui, Zhenduo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We synthesized a new rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure. ► The nano architecture structure consist of nanorods and nanoflower arrays. ► The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). ► The TiO 2 nanomaterials present a multilayer structure. - Abstract: In the present paper, we synthesized a new type of rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure using a novel method, which combined dealloying process with chemical synthesis. The structure characters were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). The hierarchical structure of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial consists of large quantities nanorods and nanoflower arrays. The nanoflowers consist of serveral nanopetals with diameter of 100–200 nm. The cross section of TiO 2 nanomaterials presents a multilayer structure with the layer thickness of about 3–5 μm. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has high specific surface area. The formation mechanism of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial was discussed according to the experimental results. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has potential applications in catalysis, photocatalysis and solar cells

  4. Preparation of rutile TiO(2) coating by thermal chemical vapor deposition for anticoking applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiyun; Wang, Jianli; Zhu, Quan; Chen, Yaoqiang; Li, Xiangyuan

    2014-10-08

    To inhibit the metal catalytic coking and improve the oxidation resistance of TiN coating, rutile TiO2 coating has been directly designed as an efficient anticoking coating for n-hexane pyrolysis. TiO2 coatings were prepared on the inner surface of SS304 tubes by a thermal CVD method under varied temperatures from 650 to 900 °C. The rutile TiO2 coating was obtained by annealing the as-deposited TiO2 coating, which is an alternative route for the deposition of rutile TiO2 coating. The morphology, elemental and phase composition of TiO2 coatings were characterized by SEM, EDX and XRD, respectively. The results show that deposition temperature of TiO2 coatings has a strong effect on the morphology and thickness of as-deposited TiO2 coatings. Fe, Cr and Ni at.% of the substrate gradually changes to 0 when the temperature is increased to 800 °C. The thickness of TiO2 coating is more than 6 μm and uniform by metalloscopy, and the films have a nonstoichiometric composition of Ti3O8 when the deposition temperature is above 800 °C. The anticoking tests show that the TiO2 coating at a deposition temperature of 800 °C is sufficiently thick to cover the cracks and gaps on the surface of blank substrate and cut off the catalytic coke growth effect of the metal substrate. The anticoking ratio of TiO2 coating corresponding to each 5 cm segments is above 65% and the average anticoking ratio of TiO2 coating is up to 76%. Thus, the TiO2 coating can provide a very good protective layer to prevent the substrate from severe coking efficiently.

  5. Exchange of TiO2 nanoparticles between streams and streambeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncagni, Natalia Ticiana; Otaegui, Justo Manuel; Warner, Evelyn; Curran, Trisha; Ren, Jianhong; de Cortalezzi, Maria Marta Fidalgo

    2009-10-15

    The expanding use of manufactured nanoparticles has increased the potential for their release into the natural environment. Particularly, TiO2 nanoparticles pose significant exposure risk to humans and other living species due to their extensive use in a wide range of fields. To better understand the environmental and health risks associated with the release of TiO2 nanoparticles, knowledge on their fate and transport is needed. This study evaluates the transport of two different TiO2 nanoparticles: one commercially available (P25 TiO2 and the other synthesized at a lab scale (synthesized TiO2). Laboratory flume, column, and batch experiments were conducted to investigate the processes dominating the transport of TiO2 nanoparticles between streams and streambeds and to characterize the properties of these nanoparticles under different physicochemical conditions. Results show that the synthesized TiO2 was more stable compared to the P25 TiO2, which underwent significant aggregation under the same experimental conditions. As a result, P25 TiO2 deposited at a faster rate than the synthesized TiO2 in the streambed. Both types of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited in the streambed were easily released when the stream velocity was increased. The aggregation and deposition of P25 TiO2 were highly dependent on pH. A process-based colloid exchange model was applied to interpret the observed transport behavior of the TiO2 nanoparticles.

  6. Comparative assessment of the efficiency of Fe-doped TiO2 prepared by two doping methods and photocatalytic degradation of phenol in domestic water suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Shamsun Nahar, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Shigehiro Kagaya and Shigeyasu Kuroda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 particles responding to visible light were synthesized by impregnation and calcination method using TiO2 particle and Ti element, respectively. The optical and the chemical properties were characterized by measuring the X-ray diffraction (XRD and UV–visible spectroscopy. The onset of absorption shifted to longer wavelengths on doping TiO2 by the calcination process, which showed a better response as compared to the impregnation method. The photocatalytic reactivity was evaluated by the degradation of phenol with impregnated Fe-doped (0.5% w/w in Fe and calcined Fe-doped (FexTi1−xO2, x=0.005 (Fe/Ti molar ratio TiO2 separately in distilled and tap water. The characterization results have confirmed the advanced possibility of correlation between photoactivity and the special property of sulfur-containing calcined Fe-doped TiO2. In case of the coagulation of the undoped A-I and the Fe-doped B-I, the photoactivity showed a decrease due to the presence of natural electrolytes and due to the high pH of tap water, whereas in the case of the coagulation of calcined Fe-doped TiO2 prepared from sulfides (FexTiS2, the photoactivity showed an increase. In this study, highest catalytic activity was found to be strongly dependent both on catalyst structure and on the type of water used.

  7. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai; Yang, Xiulin; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Ahmed, Elaf S.; Shi, Le; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs

  8. Preparation and Characterization of TiO2 Nanostructure by TiCl4 Hydrolysis with Additive NaOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Taleb Rasheed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized via the hydrolysis of TiCl4 in alcohol / water solution/with sodium hydroxide solution in the ice-bath (0-5 ◦C. The particles were char-acterized by using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD, spectroscopy of Ultra Violet-Visible (UV / Visible and infrared (FT-IR, atomic force microscope (AFM and scanning electron micro-scope (SEM analysis were used in order to gain information about the material, morphology, size and the shape of the particles

  9. Photoluminescence studies on Eu doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningthoujam, R.S.; Sudarsan, V.; Vatsa, R.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Jagannath; Gupta, A.

    2009-01-01

    Eu 3+ doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by urea hydrolysis in ethylene glycol medium at low temperature of 150 deg. C. X-ray diffraction study showed that anatase phase of tetragonal structure was formed below 500 deg. C; and above this temperature, additional peaks due to rutile phase were also observed. From luminescence study, it was found that as prepared nanoparticles showed the enhanced luminescence intensity due to energy transfer from host to europium ions. However, photoluminescence from these nanoparticles was found to disappear when the samples were heated above 900 deg. C. We established the origin of the reduction in the luminescence intensity from Eu 3+ when doped in TiO 2 and heated at 900 deg. C. Based on detailed studies at different heat-treatment temperatures using techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, Raman spectroscopy, and Moessbauer spectroscopy, it has been established that formation of Eu 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase, wherein Eu 3+ ions occupy high symmetric environment (D 3d ) and also reduced distance between Eu 3+ and Eu 3+ ions is responsible for the decrease/loss in the luminescence intensity.

  10. Unconventional cells of TiO2 doped with erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Campos, R.D.; Oliveira, A.S.; Wellen, R.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da

    2016-01-01

    The technology used in TiO_2 solar cells is in constant improvement, new configurations have been developed, aiming practicality and leading to efficiency increase of photovoltaic devices. This paper proposes a new technology for the production of solar cells in order to investigate a better utilization of solar spectrum of TiO2 doped with erbium (Er"3"+), proven by energetic conversion. The Ti_0_,_9Er_0_,_1O2 system was obtained by Pechini method. Nanoparticles have a crystallite size 65.30 nm and surface area 118.48 m"2/g. These characteristics are essential for the formation of the film to be deposited on the conductive glass substrate constituting the cell's photoelectrode. The other side of the cell is the platinum counter electrode. The cell will have the faces sealed by a thermoplastic and, finally the electrolyte will be inserted, then they will be electrically evaluated through energy efficiency and confronted with the literature data base. (author)

  11. The effect of rare earth dopants on the structure, surface texture and photocatalytic properties of TiO2-SiO2 prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.; Mkhalid, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sol-gel method was successfully used to prepare a series of TiO 2 -SiO 2 and rare earth (RE) (La 3+ , Nd 3+ , Sm 3+ , Gd 3+ )-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 nanoparticles at a doping level of 3 atomic percent. The structural features of parent TiO 2 -SiO 2 and RE-TiO 2 -SiO 2 fired at 550 o C have been investigated by XRD, UV-diffuse reflection, SEM and nitrogen adsorption measurements at -196 o C. XRD data verified the formation of typical characteristic anatase form in all the prepared RE-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 samples. In comparison with the pure TiO 2 -SiO 2 samples (ca. 35 nm in diameter), the RE-TiO 2 -SiO 2 samples have relatively small particle size indicating that the doping with RE metal ions can improve the particle morphology, and retard the grain growth of TiO 2 -SiO 2 during heat treatment. The results indicated that Gd 3+ doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 has the lowest bandgap and particle size compared with pure TiO 2 -SiO 2 and other nanoparticles of RE-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 . The highest surface area (S BET ) and pore volume (V p ) values were recorded for Gd-TiO 2 -SiO 2 as well. The effect of doping on the photoactivity was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of EDTA as a probe reaction. Among all the pure and RE-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 , Gd 3+ -TiO 2 -SiO 2 performed the highest catalytic activity towards the tested reaction. That might be due to its special characteristics of particle size, surface texture and bandgap properties. Details of the synthesis procedure and results of the characterization studies of the produced RE-TiO 2 -SiO 2 are presented in this paper.

  12. New Hybrid Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles Surface Modified With Catecholate Type Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džunuzović Enis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface modification of nanocrystalline TiO2 particles (45 Å with bidentate benzene derivatives (catechol, pyrogallol, and gallic acid was found to alter optical properties of nanoparticles. The formation of the inner-sphere charge–transfer complexes results in a red shift of the semiconductor absorption compared to unmodified nanocrystallites. The binding structures were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. The investigated ligands have the optimal geometry for chelating surface Ti atoms, resulting in ring coordination complexes (catecholate type of binuclear bidentate binding–bridging thus restoring in six-coordinated octahedral geometry of surface Ti atoms. From the Benesi–Hildebrand plot, the stability constants at pH 2 of the order 103 M−1 have been determined.

  13. Photocatalytic activity of sonochemically prepared TiO_2 decorated with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, R.

    2017-01-01

    A novel way of titanium dioxide synthesis using non-water environment was investigated. In synthesis, water causes aggregation of particles of titania thus reducing active surface significantly. To avoid this, a non- water environment such as toluene was employed. Reaction between solid precursor and gaseous ammonia was conducted in this environment using dried reactants in tempered glass reactor and irradiated by ultrasonic horn. As prepared powders were then calcinated and decorated with Ag nanoparticles. Photocatalytic activity was determined by TOC method and compared to P25 standard TiO_2. Samples were analysed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy and surface morphology was investigated by SEM. Powders prepared by this method had comparable or higher photocatalytic activity than P25. Ag nanoparticles seem to have no significant impact on photocatalytic activity whatsoever. (authors)

  14. Modification of TiO2 nanoparticles through lanthanum doping and PEG templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Milanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure and lanthanum doped titania nanopowders were synthesized through a room temperature sol-gel method using a template of polyethylene glycol (PEG. The progress of the synthesis in terms of phase formation and size of nanoparticles was monitored by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM analysis. After calcination at 450 °C in air, the results have shown the presence of small particles crystallized predominantly in the form of anatase phase, with significant agglomeration. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements confirmed that all prepared powders are mesoporous with an average pore diameter in range 3.1–3.8 nm. The addition of lanthanum ions leads to the nanopowders with the highest specific surface (BET area (203 m2/g. The obtained powders were compared to TiO2 prepared without a template.

  15. Controllable synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials by assisting with l-cysteine and ethylenediamine

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yugui

    2013-11-21

    This paper reports a facile l-cysteine-assisted solvothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials using ethylenediamine (En) and distilled water as solvent. The influence of reaction time, temperature, l-cysteine and solvent was initially investigated. Results demonstrated the reaction temperature, l-cysteine and En significantly imposed impact on the phase and morphology of the particles. Amorphous nanosheets, mixed-crystal nanorods and pure anatase nanoparticles were controllably synthesized by varying reaction temperature. The formation of the amorphous nanosheets and mixed-crystal nanorods were directly affected by the presence of l-cysteine and En. And the presence of En distinctly affected the crystal phase of the products, which was rarely mentioned in other studies. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of three typical samples were excellent. The possible formation mechanism of the sample was also discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  16. Controllable synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials by assisting with l-cysteine and ethylenediamine

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yugui; Cao, Ning; Pan, Jun; Sun, Yichen; Jin, Cheng; Song, Yang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a facile l-cysteine-assisted solvothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials using ethylenediamine (En) and distilled water as solvent. The influence of reaction time, temperature, l-cysteine and solvent was initially investigated. Results demonstrated the reaction temperature, l-cysteine and En significantly imposed impact on the phase and morphology of the particles. Amorphous nanosheets, mixed-crystal nanorods and pure anatase nanoparticles were controllably synthesized by varying reaction temperature. The formation of the amorphous nanosheets and mixed-crystal nanorods were directly affected by the presence of l-cysteine and En. And the presence of En distinctly affected the crystal phase of the products, which was rarely mentioned in other studies. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of three typical samples were excellent. The possible formation mechanism of the sample was also discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  17. Atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) coatings of Al2O3-TiO2 system for photocatalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengl, V; Ageorges, H; Ctibor, P; Murafa, N

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the photocatalytic ability of coatings produced by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The plasma gun used is a common gas-stabilized plasma gun (GSP) working with a d.c. current and a mixture of argon and hydrogen as plasma-forming gas. The TiO(2) powders are particles of about 100 nm which were agglomerated to a mean size of about 55 mum, suitable for spraying. Composition of the commercial powder is 13 wt% of TiO(2) in Al(2)O(3), whereas also in-house prepared powder with the same nominal composition but with agglomerated TiO(2) and conventional fused and crushed Al(2)O(3) was sprayed. The feedstock materials used for this purpose are alpha-alumina and anatase titanium dioxide. The coatings are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion probe (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Photocatalytic degradation of acetone is quantified for various coatings. All plasma sprayed coatings show a lamellar structure on cross section, as typical for this process. Anatase titania from feedstock powder is converted into rutile titania and alpha-alumina partly to gamma-alumina. Coatings are proven to catalyse the acetone decomposition when irradiated by UV rays.

  18. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 using collagen fiber as template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Wan, Xiang-Jun; Jiang, Shang-Xuan; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Hong, Zheng-Qu; Liu, Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 were prepared using collagen fiber as template. Morphology, crystalline structure, surface area, element content, chemical composition and elemental chemical status, microstructure and element distribution of the prepared samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and element mapping, respectively. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by following degradation of methyl orange. The results showed that the fiber structure of collagen template was fully preserved when the calcination temperature was 500-800 °C. However, with the increase of calcination temperature, crystallinity and average particle size were increased, and the photocatalytic performance was decreased. For 2% Tb3+-TiO2 calcined at 500 °C, the degradation rate of methyl orange reached 93.87% after 6 h when a high-pressure mercury lamp (150 W) was used as the light source for photocatalytic degradation. Titanium tanning agent performance was excellent, the yield of TiO2 was high, and the fiber structure was presented when 0.2 mol/L citric acid/sodium citrate buffer solution was used.

  19. Effects of Calcination Temperature on Preparation of Boron-Doped TiO2 by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Being calcinated at temperatures from 300°C to 600°C, all the 3% B-TiO2 samples presented anatase TiO2 phase, and TiO2 crystallite sizes were calculated to be 7.6, 10.3, 13.6, and 27.3 nm, respectively. The samples were composed of irregular particles with rough surfaces in the size range within 3 μm. Ti atoms were in an octahedron skeleton and existed mainly in the form of Ti4+, while the Ti-O-B structure was the main boron existing form in the 3% B-TiO2 sample. When calcination temperature increased from 300°C to 600°C, specific surface area decreased sharply from 205.6 m2/g to 31.8 m2/g. The average pore diameter was 10.53 nm with accumulative pore volume of 0.244 mL/g for the 3% B-TiO2 sample calcinated at 400°C, which performed optimal photocatalytic degradation activity. After 90 min of UV-light irradiation, degradation rate of methyl orange was 96.7% on the optimized photocatalyst.

  20. Application of carbon-coated TiO2 for decomposition of methylene blue in a photocatalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozia, Sylwia; Toyoda, Masahiro; Inagaki, Michio; Tryba, Beata; Morawski, Antoni W.

    2007-01-01

    An application of carbon-coated TiO 2 for decomposition of methylene blue (MB) in a photocatalytic membrane reactor (PMR), coupling photocatalysis and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was investigated. Moreover, photodegradation of a model pollutant in a batch reactor without membrane distillation (MD) was also examined. Carbon-modified TiO 2 catalysts containing different amount of carbon and commercially available TiO 2 (ST-01) were used in this study. The carbon-coated catalyst prepared from a mixture of ST-01 and polyvinyl alcohol in the mass ratio of 70/30 was the most effective in degradation of MB from all of the photocatalysts applied. Photodecomposition of MB on the recovered photocatalysts was lower than on the fresh ones. The photodegradation of MB in the PMR was slower than in the batch reactor, what probably resulted from shorter time of exposure of the catalyst particles to UV irradiation. The MD process could be successfully applied for separation of photocatalyst and by-products from the feed solution

  1. The Effects of Oxidation Temperature on the Microstructure and Photocatalytic Activity of the TiO2 Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin TANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium coatings were prepared on the surface of 1mm ZrO2 balls by mechanical ball mill, then the coatings were oxidized to photocatalytic TiO2 films at 400 ~ 600 °C. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Optical Microscope were used to analyze the microstructure and crystal form of the films. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was also evaluated. After that, the effects of oxidation temperature on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the films were discussed. The results show that the fabricated coatings are uneven, with average thickness of 60 μm. In the process of oxidation, oxygen is imported into the inner coatings by the gaps existed in the Ti coatings, which makes the Ti particles oxidize from surface to core, finally the films with TiO2 + Ti composite microstructure are obtained. The films oxidized at 500 °C have the best photocatalytic performance with the degradation rate of methyl orange solution 79.08 %, this owing to the existence of anatase and the TiO2+Ti composite microstructure. The result will provide theoretical basis for the fabrication of efficient photocatalytic film.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15590

  2. Heat-Treated TiO2 Plasma Spray Deposition for Bioactivity Improvement in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, titanium di-oxide (TiO2) coating has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition. Followed by plasma spraying, heat treatment of the sprayed sample has been carried out by isothermally holding it at 823 K (550 °C) for 2 h. Microstructural analysis shows the presence of porosity and unmelted particles on the as-sprayed surface, the area fraction of which reduces after heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the phase transformation from anatase (in precursor powder) to rutile (in as-sprayed coating and the same after heat treatment). There is an improvement in nano-hardness, "Young's modulus" and wear resistance in plasma-sprayed TiO2 coating (as-sprayed as well as post-heat-treated condition) as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V, though post-heat treatment offers a superior hardness, "young's modulus" and wear resistance as compared to as-sprayed coating. The corrosion behavior in "hank's solution" shows decrease in corrosion resistance after plasma spraying and post-heat treatment as compared to as-received substrate. A significant decrease in contact angle and improvement in bioactivity (in terms of apatite deposition) were observed in TiO2-coated surface as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V.

  3. A multifunctional cotton fabric using TiO2 and PCMs: introducing thermal comfort and self-cleaning properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, F. A. P.; Pinto, E.; Soares, G.

    2017-10-01

    The development of materials with multiple functionalities is a market imperative that places new challenges on textile processing. The purpose of this study was to establish the conditions to obtain a cotton material that is comfortable, with self-cleaning and antimicrobial properties. For this purpose, microcapsules of phase change materials (mPCM) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) were applied. The resulting fabrics were characterized with resource to infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), contact angle and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The self-cleaning properties of treated fabrics were also analysed based on the photocatalytic ability of coated fabrics. Therefore, the decomposition of methyl orange (MO) and the degradation of red wine and curry spots under the irradiation of a solar simulator were analysed. Thus, the incorporation of TiO2 particles into the cotton fabric promoted self-cleaning and antibacterial characteristics, but the presence of PCM combined with TiO2 increases the bioactivity of materials.

  4. Electrical conductivity characteristic of TiO2 nanowires from hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Amat, Noor Faridah; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Rajan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    One dimensional nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) were synthesized via hydrothermal method by mixing TiO 2 as precursor in aqueous solution of NaOH as solvent. Then, heat and washing treatment was applied. Thus obtained wires had diameter ∼15 nm. TiO 2 nanowires will be used as a network in solar cell such dye-sensitized solar cell in order to improve the performance of electron movement in the device. To improve the performance of electron movement, the characteristics of TiO 2 nanowires have been analyses using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis, x-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis and brunauer emmett teller (BET) analysis. Finally, electrical conductivity of TiO 2 nanowires was determined by measuring the resistance of the TiO 2 nanowires paste on microscope glass.

  5. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  6. Photodegradation of Reactive Golden Yellow R Dye Catalyzed by Effective Titania (TiO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedurus, E.A.; Marinah Mohd Ariffin; Mohd Hasmizam Razali

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, Microwave Assisted Synthesis (MAS) method was applied to synthesize titania (TiO 2 ) at 150 degree Celsius in a range of 2-6 hours heating time. Each prepared TiO 2 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen gas (N 2 ) sorption analysis (Brunaeur-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) calculation) techniques. The TiO 2 prepared by MAS 150 degree Celsius (4 hours) has emerged with the highest photo catalytic activity. Within 4 hours, the TiO 2 managed to catalyze the degradation of Reactive Golden Yellow R dye up to 98.51 %. This is because of the TiO 2 possessed high crystallinity of anatase phase, small crystallite size and high pore volume compared to other prepared TiO 2 . (author)

  7. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2012-02-10

    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  8. Engineering of highly ordered TiO2 nanopore arrays by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yong; Kou, Shengzhong; Yang, Hangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis was used to simulate the current density distributions in the TiO2 barrier layer formed at the initial stage of Ti anodization. The morphology modification of the barrier layer was found to induce current density distribution change. By starting the anodization with proper TiO2 barrier layer morphology, the current density distribution can be adjusted to favor the formation of either nanotube arrays or nanopore arrays of anodic TiO2. We also found that the addition of sodium acetate into the electrolyte suppressed both the field-assisted chemical dissolution of TiO2 and the TiF62- hydrolysis induced TiO2 deposition during anodization, and thus further favored the nanopore formation. Accordingly, highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanopore arrays, similar to anodic aluminum oxide nanopore arrays, were successfully prepared.

  9. XRD analysis of undoped and Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles by Williamson Hall method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Bandna; Barman, P. B.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and Fe doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature. The synthesized samples were annealed at 500°C. For structural analysis, the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size of TiO 2 and Fe doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were calculated by Scherer’s formula, and was found to be 15 nm and 11 nm, respectively. Reduction in crystallite size of TiO 2 with Fe doping was observed. The anatase phase of Fe-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction. By using Williamson-Hall method, lattice strain and crystallite size were also calculated. Williamson–Hall plot indicates the presence of compressive strain for TiO 2 and tensile strain for Fe-TiO 2 nanoparticles annealed at 500°C

  10. Effect of surface ethoxy groups on photoactivity of TiO2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lihong; Deng Kejian; Ye Liqun; Zan Lin

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 nanocrystals modified by ethoxy groups were prepared by a facile nonhydrolytic solvothermal method and characterized by XRD, TEM, TG-DTA and XPS, which showed an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity on the degradation of Rhodamine B compared with TiO 2 modified by benzyloxy groups and the 'naked' TiO 2 . The adsorption and degradation pathway of Rhodamine B on TiO 2 modified by ethoxy groups were also investigated. The zeta-potential (ζ) results showed that the TiO 2 modified by ethoxy groups had high negative surface charge, which incited the positive -N(Et) 2 group of RhB absorbing on the TiO 2 surface and preferably led the N-dealkylation pathway under visible light irradiation.

  11. An innovative approach to synthesize highly-ordered TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isimjan, Tayirjan T; Yang, D Q; Rohani, Sohrab; Ray, Ajay K

    2011-02-01

    An innovative route to prepare highly-ordered and dimensionally controlled TiO2 nanotubes has been proposed using a mild sonication method. The nanotube arrays were prepared by the anodization of titanium in an electrolyte containing 3% NH4F and 5% H2O in glycerol. It is demonstrated that the TiO2 nanostructures has two layers: the top layer is TiO2 nanowire and underneath is well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes. The top layer can easily fall off and form nanowires bundles by implementing a mild sonication after a short annealing time. We found that the dimensions of the TiO2 nanotubes were only dependent on the anodizing condition. The proposed technique may be extended to fabricate reproducible well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes with large area on other metals.

  12. Graphene-enhanced Raman imaging of TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumenko, Denys; Snitka, Valentinas; Snopok, Boris; Arpiainen, Sanna; Lipsanen, Harri

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of anatase titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles with chemical vapour deposited graphene sheets transferred on glass substrates is investigated by using atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and imaging. Significant electronic interactions between the nanoparticles of TiO 2 and graphene were found. The changes in the graphene Raman peak positions and intensity ratios indicate that charge transfer between graphene and TiO 2 nanoparticles occurred, increasing the Raman signal of the TiO 2 nanoparticles up to five times. The normalized Raman intensity of TiO 2 nanoparticles per their volume increased with the disorder of the graphene structure. The complementary reason for the observed enhancement is that due to the higher density of states in the defect sites of graphene, a higher electron transfer occurs from the graphene to the anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles. (paper)

  13. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  14. Ammonia Sensing Behaviors of TiO2-PANI/PA6 Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide-polyaniline/polyamide 6 (TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of PA6 nanofibers and a sputtering-deposition process with a high purity titanium sputtering target. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers and PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were fabricated for ammonia gas sensing. The ammonia sensing behaviors of the sensors were examined at room temperature. All the results indicated that the ammonia sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers was superior to that of PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers had good selectivity to ammonia. It was also found that the content of TiO2 had a great influence on both the morphology and the sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers.

  15. Eco-friendly synthesis of TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cell applications and evaluation of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, K.; Kumaraguru, S.; Bhakyaraj, K.; Thirumal, S.; Arumugam, A.

    2016-04-01

    Driven by the demand of pure TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 NPs were successfully synthesized using Terminalia arjuna bark extract. The eco-friendly synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-Vis-DRS, ATR-FT-IR, PL, XRD, Raman, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were investigation for dye sensitized solar cell applications. UV-Vis-Diffused Reflectance Spectra clearly showed that the expected TiO2 inter band absorption below 306 nm, incorporation of gold shows surface plasma resonant (SPR) near 555 nm and platinum incorporated TiO2 NPs shows absorbance at 460 nm. The energy conversion efficiency for Au doped TiO2 NPs when compared to pure and Pt doped TiO2 NPs. In addition to that, Au noble metal present TiO2 matrix and an improve open-circuit voltage (Voc) of DSSC. Synthesized NPs was evaluated into antibacterial and antifungal activities by disk diffusion method. It is observed that NPs have not shown any activities in all tested bacterial and fungal strains. In this eco-friendly synthesis method to provide non toxic and environmental friendly nanomaterials can be used for solar energy device application.

  16. TiO2 nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO2 hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe; Nam, Chang-Yong; Shi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO 2 layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO 2 nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO 2 layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO 2 precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO 2 layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO 2 blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO 2 layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime

  17. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  18. Photocatalytic deposition of Ag nanoparticles on TiO2: Metal precursor effect on the structural and photoactivity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Albiter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1 wt.% Ag–TiO2 photocatalysts were obtained by photodeposition using different organic (acetylacetonate, Ag-A and inorganic (nitrate, Ag-N, and perchlorate, Ag-C silver precursors in order to determinate the influence of the silver precursor on final properties of the photocatalysts. The resulting photocatalytic materials were characterized by different techniques (UV–Vis DRS, TEM/HRTEM and XPS and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (used as model pollutant in aqueous solution under simulated solar light. The photocatalytic reduction of Ag species to Ag0 on TiO2 was higher with silver nitrate as precursor compared to acetylacetonate or perchlorate. All the Ag-modified TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a surface plasmon resonance effect in the visible region (400–530 nm indicating different metal particle sizes depending on the Ag precursor used in their synthesis. A higher photocatalytic activity was obtained with all the Ag/TiO2 samples compared with non-modified TiO2. The descending order of photocatalytic activity was as follows: Ag-A/TiO2 ≈ Ag-N/TiO2 > Ag-C/TiO2 > TiO2-P25. The enhanced photoactivity was attributed to the presence of different amounts Ag0 nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on Ag2O and TiO2, trapping the photogenerated electrons and avoiding charge recombination.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of fluorinated anatase TiO_2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lijun; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Ali; Wang, Min; Liu, Yongjun; Bian, Longchun; Jiang, Fengzhi; Pan, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • F–TiO_2–RGO nanocomposites were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • Presence of F ion prevents phase transformation from anatase to rutile. • The adsorbed F"− and RGO improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO_2 synergistically. • The F–TiO_2–RGO nanocomposites were applied to degrade bisphenol A. - Abstract: The surface fluorinated TiO_2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (denoted as F–TiO_2–RGO) were synthesized via hydrothermal method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that pure anatase TiO_2 particles were anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. And the HF added during the preparation process can not only prevent phase transformation from anatase to rutile, but also the F"− ion adsorbed on the surface of TiO_2–RGO surface can enhance photocatalytic activity of F–TiO_2–RGO. The photocatalytic activities of F–TiO_2–RGO nanocomposites were evaluated by decomposing bisphenol A under UV light illumination. Under optimal degradation condition, the degradation rate constant of BPA over F–TiO_2–10RGO (0.01501 min"−"1) was 3.41 times than that over P25 (0.00440 min"−"1). The result indicated that the enhanced photocatalytic activity of F–TiO_2–10RGO was ascribed to the adsorbed F ion and RGO in F–TiO_2–RGO composite, which can reduce the recombination rate of the photo-generated electrons and holes synergistically.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV-vis light by Au-modified nitrogen-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weirong; Ai, Zhuyu; Dai, Jiusong; Zhang, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen evolution is a potential way to solve many energy and environmental issues. Developing visible-light-active photocatalysts to efficiently utilize sunlight and finding proper ways to improve photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution have always been hot topics for research. This study attempts to expand the use of sunlight and to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by N doping and Au loading. Au/N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized and successfully used for photocatalytic water splitting for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV and UV-vis light, respectively. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and photoelectrochemical characterizations. DRS displayed an extension of light absorption into the visible region by doping of N and depositing with Au, respectively. PL analysis indicated electron-hole recombination due to N doping and an efficient inhibition of electron-hole recombination due to the loaded Au particles. Under the irradiation of UV light, the photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the as-synthesized samples followed the order Au/TiO2 > Au/N-doped TiO2 > TiO2 > N-doped TiO2. While under irradiation of UV-vis light, the N-TiO2 and Au/N-TiO2 samples show higher H2 evolution than their corresponding nitrogen-free samples (TiO2 and Au/TiO2). This inconsistent result could be attributed to the doping of N and the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) effect of Au particles extending the visible light absorption. The photoelectrochemical characterizations further indicated the enhancement of the visible light response of Au/N-doped TiO2. Comparative studies have shown that a combination of nitrogen doping and Au loading enhanced the visible light response of TiO2 and increased the utilization of solar energy, greatly

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV-vis light by Au-modified nitrogen-doped TiO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND PURPOSE: Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen evolution is a potential way to solve many energy and environmental issues. Developing visible-light-active photocatalysts to efficiently utilize sunlight and finding proper ways to improve photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution have always been hot topics for research. This study attempts to expand the use of sunlight and to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by N doping and Au loading. METHODS: Au/N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized and successfully used for photocatalytic water splitting for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV and UV-vis light, respectively. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL, and photoelectrochemical characterizations. RESULTS: DRS displayed an extension of light absorption into the visible region by doping of N and depositing with Au, respectively. PL analysis indicated electron-hole recombination due to N doping and an efficient inhibition of electron-hole recombination due to the loaded Au particles. Under the irradiation of UV light, the photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the as-synthesized samples followed the order Au/TiO2 > Au/N-doped TiO2 > TiO2 > N-doped TiO2. While under irradiation of UV-vis light, the N-TiO2 and Au/N-TiO2 samples show higher H2 evolution than their corresponding nitrogen-free samples (TiO2 and Au/TiO2. This inconsistent result could be attributed to the doping of N and the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR effect of Au particles extending the visible light absorption. The photoelectrochemical characterizations further indicated the enhancement of the visible light response of Au/N-doped TiO2. CONCLUSION: Comparative studies have shown that a combination of nitrogen doping and Au loading enhanced the visible light response of

  2. Interfacial electron-transfer equilibria and flat-band potentials of α-Fe2O3 and TiO2 colloids studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, N.M.; Savic, D.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics and equilibria of electron transfer between methylviologen cation radicals and α-Fe 2 O 3 or TiO 2 colloidal particles were studied with the pulse-radiolysis technique. The rates of electron transfer to both colloids are lower than those predicted for a diffusion-controlled reaction. For higher pHs (TiO 2 , pH > 2; α-Fe 2 O 3 , pH > 9) the established equilibrium MV + in equilibrium MV 2+ + (e - )/sub coll/ is strongly influenced by the MV 2+ concentration and pH. The MV + equilibrium concentration can be exploited to derive the flat-band potential of the semiconductor colloids. The method for determining the flat-band potential of the particles is independent of whether the injected electrons are free or trapped, and whether the electrons raise the bulk Fermi level toward the conduction band or just produce a space charge. The flat-band potentials for both colloids appear to be somewhat more negative (-0.1 to -0.2 V) than the corresponding single-crystal electrodes. Also, the flat-band potentials become slightly more negative with increasing radiation dose (initial MV + concentration). The effect of absorbed radiation dose is explained by the corresponding changes in the ratio of oxidized to reduced forms of the redox couple, which in turn changes the adsorbed ionic charge on the semiconductor surface. For colloidal particles of TiO 2 stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), the flat-band potentials were almost the same as those for PVA-free TiO 2 sols. The decrease of particle diameter from 800 to 70 A does not affect the value of the flat-band potentials for TiO 2 and α-Fe 2 O 3 colloids. 28 references, 9 figures

  3. Positron annihilation lifetime characterization of oxygen ion irradiated rutile TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Homnath; Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Chattopadhyay, S.; Asokan, K.; Sanyal, D.

    2016-07-01

    Ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature has been induced in rutile phase of TiO2 polycrystalline sample by O ion irradiation. 96 MeV O ion induced defects in rutile TiO2 sample has been characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopic techniques. Positron annihilation results indicate the formation of cation vacancy (VTi, Ti vacancy) in these irradiated TiO2 samples. Ab initio density functional theoretical calculations indicate that in TiO2 magnetic moment can be induced either by creating Ti or O vacancies.

  4. The effects of nanostructures on the mechanical and tribological properties of TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoungchin; Park, Jeongwon

    2018-04-01

    TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization on Ti substrates with a diameter variation of 30-100 nm, and the structure of the nanotubes were studied using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the structure changes from the anatase phase to the rutile phase of TiO2 at a diameter below 50 nm. The tribological behaviors of TiO2 nanotubes were investigated with different diameters. The effectiveness of the rutile phase and the diameter size enhanced the frictional performance of TiO2 nanotubes.

  5. Annealing of TiO2 Films Deposited on Si by Irradiating Nitrogen Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Katsuhiro; Yano, Yoshinori; Miyashita, Fumiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were deposited on Si at a temperature of 600 deg. C by an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method. The TiO2 films were annealed for 30 min in Ar at temperatures below 700 deg. C. The as-deposited TiO2 films had high permittivities such 200 εo and consisted of crystallites that were not preferentially oriented to the c-axis but had an expanded c-axis. On the annealed TiO2 films, permittivities became lower with increasing annealing temperature, and crystallites were oriented preferentially to the (110) plane

  6. Synthesis of Nd3+doped TiO2 nanoparticles and Its Optical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure and Rare earth ion doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by Sol-gel method. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence emission spectra. From the UV-visible measurement, the absorption edge of Nd3+-TiO2 was shifted to a higher wavelength side with decreasing band gap. Photoluminescence emission studies reveal the energy transfer mechanism of Nd3+ doped TiO2 nanoparticles explain.

  7. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00476g

  8. Enhancing lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris using oxidative stress by TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Moon, Myounghoon; Park, Min S.; Yang, Ji-Won; Lim, JitKang

    2014-01-01

    Ability to increase the lipid production in microalgae is one of the heavily sought-after ideas to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae-derived transportation fuels for commercial applications. We used the oxidative stress by TiO 2 nanoparticles, a well-known photocatalyst, to induce lipid production in microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 was cultivated under various concentrations of TiO 2 ranging from 0.1 to 5 g/L under UV-A illumination. Maximum specific growth rate was affected in responding to TiO 2 concentrations. In the presence of UV-A, chlorophyll concentration was decreased at the highest concentration of TiO 2 (5 g/L TiO 2 ) by oxidative stress. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition analysis suggested that oxidative stress causes the accumulation and decomposition of lipids. The highest FAME productivity was 18.2 g/L/d under low concentrations of TiO 2 (0.1 g/L) and a short induction time (two days). The controlled condition of TiO 2 /UV-A inducing oxidative stress (0.1 g/L TiO 2 and two days induction) could be used to increase the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris UTEX 265. Our results show the possibility of modulating the lipid induction process through oxidative stress with TiO 2 /UV-A

  9. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline porous TiO2/WO3 composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsay, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 materials possessing not only photocatalytic but also electrochromic properties have attracted many research and development interests. Though WO 3 exhibits excellent electrochromic properties, the much higher cost and water-sensitivity of WO 3 as compared with the TiO 2 may restrict the practical application of WO 3 materials. In the present study, the feasibility of preparing nanocrystalline porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite thin films was investigated. Precursors of sols TiO 2 and/or WO 3 and polystyrene microspheres were used to prepare nanocrystalline pure TiO 2 , WO 3 , and composite TiO 2 /WO 3 thin films by spin coating. The spin-coated thin films were amorphous and, after heat treating at a temperature of 500 o C, nanocrystalline TiO 2 , TiO 2 /WO 3 , and WO 3 thin films with or without pores were prepared successfully. The heat-treated thin films were colorless and coloration-bleaching phenomena can be observed during cyclic voltammetry tests. The heat-treated thin films exhibited good reversible electrochromic behavior while the porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite film exhibited improved electrochromic properties

  10. Flow-Regulated Growth of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) Nanotubes in Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Chen, Xinye; Wang, Zihao; Custer, David; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-08-01

    Electrochemical anodization of titanium (Ti) in a static, bulk condition is used widely to fabricate self-organized TiO 2 nanotube arrays. Such bulk approaches, however, require extended anodization times to obtain long TiO 2 nanotubes and produce only vertically aligned nanotubes. To date, it remains challenging to develop effective strategies to grow long TiO 2 nanotubes in a short period of time, and to control the nanotube orientation. Here, it is shown that the anodic growth of TiO 2 nanotubes is significantly enhanced (≈16-20 times faster) under flow conditions in microfluidics. Flow not only controls the diameter, length, and crystal orientations of TiO 2 nanotubes, but also regulates the spatial distribution of nanotubes inside microfluidic devices. Strikingly, when a Ti thin film is deposited on silicon substrates and anodized in microfluidics, both vertically and horizontally aligned (relative to the bottom substrate) TiO 2 nanotubes can be produced. The results demonstrate previously unidentified roles of flow in the regulation of growth of TiO 2 nanotubes, and provide powerful approaches to effectively grow long, oriented TiO 2 nanotubes, and construct hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays on silicon-based materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. One-component solution system to prepare nanometric anatase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trung, Tran; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2004-01-01

    A novel one-pot synthesis route was proposed to prepare nanometric anatase TiO 2 using trichloroethylene as reaction medium, which may have great advantage over multicomponent solution systems when TiO 2 is used as a reinforcing filler for polymers dissolved in trichloroethylene. The anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It was found that the diameters of TiO 2 nanoparticles are in the range from 5 to 13 nm

  12. Photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds using TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jnug; Lin, Chi-Hsiang

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using TiO2 catalyst fabricated by the Submerged Arc Nanoparticle Synthesis System (SANSS). TiO2 catalyst was employed to decompose volatile organic compounds and compare with Degussa-P25 TiO2 in terms of decomposition efficiency. In the electric discharge manufacturing process, a Ti bar, applied as the electrode, was melted and vaporized under high temperature. The vaporized Ti powders were then rapidly quenched under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions in deionized water, thus nucleating and forming nanocrystalline powders uniformly dispersed in the base solvent. The average diameter of the TiO2 nanoparticles was 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the nanoparticles in the deionized water were Anatase type TiO2. It was found that gaseous toluene exposed to UV irradiation produced intermediates that were even harder to decompose. After 60-min photocomposition, Degussa-P25 TiO2 reduced the concentration of gaseous toluene to 8.18% while the concentration after decomposition by SANSS TiO2 catalyst dropped to 0.35%. Under UV irradiation at 253.7 +/- 184.9 nm, TiO2 prepared by SANSS can produce strong chemical debonding energy, thus showing great efficiency, superior to that of Degussa-P25 TiO2, in decomposing gaseous toluene and its intermediates.

  13. Degradation of Methyl Orange and Congo Red dyes by using TiO2 nanoparticles activated by the solar and the solar-like radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubas, Davor; Smoljanić, Goran; Juretić, Hrvoje

    2015-09-15

    In this study we used TiO2 nanoparticles as semiconductor photocatalysts for the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) and Congo Red (CR) dyes in an aqueous solution. Since TiO2 particles become photocatalytically active by UV radiation, two sources of UV-A radiation were used - natural solar radiation which contains 3-5% UV-A and artificial, solar-like radiation, created by using a lamp. The optimal doses of TiO2 of 500 mg/L for the CR and 1500 mg/L for the MO degradation were determined in experiments with the lamp and were also used in degradation experiments with natural solar light. The efficiency of each process was determined by measuring the absorbance at two visible wavelengths, 466 nm for MO and 498 nm for CR, and the total organic carbon (TOC), i.e. decolorization and mineralization, respectively. In both cases, considerable potential for the degradation of CR and MO was observed - total decolorization of the solution was achieved within 30-60 min, while the TOC removal was in the range 60-90%. CR and MO solutions irradiated without TiO2 nanoparticles showed no observable changes in either decolorization or mineralization. Three different commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles were used: pure-phase anatase, pure-phase rutile, and mixed-phase preparation named Degussa P25. In terms of degradation kinetics, P25 TiO2 exhibited a photocatalytic activity superior to that of pure-phase anatase or rutile. The electric energy consumption per gram of removed TOC was determined. For nearly the same degradation effect, the consumption in the natural solar radiation experiment was more than 60 times lower than in the artificial solar-like radiation experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Iron insertion and hematite segregation on Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles obtained from sol-gel and hydrothermal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Reginaldo da S; Faria, Guilherme A; Giles, Carlos; Leite, Carlos A P; Barbosa, Herbert de S; Arruda, Marco A Z; Longo, Claudia

    2012-10-24

    Iron-doped TiO(2) (Fe:TiO(2)) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method (with Fe/Ti molar ratio corresponding to 1, 3, and 5%), followed by hydrothermal treatment, drying, and annealing. A similar methodology was used to synthesize TiO(2) and α-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles. For comparison, a mixture hematite/titania, with Fe/Ti = 4% was also investigated. Characterization of the samples using Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data revealed that TiO(2) consisted of 82% anatase and 18% brookite; for Fe:TiO(2), brookite increased to 30% and hematite was also identified (0.5, 1.0, and 1.2 wt % for samples prepared with 1, 3, and 5% of Fe/Ti). For hematite/titania mixture, Fe/Ti was estimated as 4.4%, indicating the Rietveld method reliability for estimation of phase composition. Because the band gap energy, estimated as 3.2 eV for TiO(2), gradually ranged from 3.0 to 2.7 eV with increasing Fe content at Fe:TiO(2), it can be assumed that a Fe fraction was also inserted as dopant in the TiO(2) lattice. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra obtained for the Ti K-edge and Fe K-edge indicated that absorbing Fe occupied a Ti site in the TiO(2) lattice, but hematite features were not observed. Hematite particles also could not be identified in the images obtained by transmission electron microscopy, in spite of iron identification by elemental mapping, suggesting that hematite can be segregated at the grain boundaries of Fe:TiO(2).

  15. Development and Application of Binary Suspensions in the Ternary System Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 for S-HVOF Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Kratzsch, Robert; Barbosa, Maria; Kulissa, Nick; Kunze, Oliver; Toma, Filofteia-Laura

    2018-04-01

    Compositions in the system Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr2O3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al2O3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3, each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.

  16. Development and Application of Binary Suspensions in the Ternary System Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 for S-HVOF Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Kratzsch, Robert; Barbosa, Maria; Kulissa, Nick; Kunze, Oliver; Toma, Filofteia-Laura

    2018-03-01

    Compositions in the system Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr2O3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al2O3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3, each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.

  17. Xanes and SR-XRF Study of Skin as a Barrier to Ultra-Fine Nanocrystals of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Lekki, J.; Stachura, Z.; Hanson, A.; Ablett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 is commonly used in cosmetic industry as a photoprotective agent. With recent advances in nanomaterial processing, the size of TiO 2 crystals decreased into the nanometre regime. There is no satisfactory evidence that crystals of such small size are harmless to the human population. An EU project NANODERM has been launched where several techniques have been applied to investigate the possibility of particle penetration through the protective horny layer into vital skin regions. Skin biopsies of the animal and human skin have been collected after exposition to formulations containing TiO 2 nanocrystals. The Ti depth distributions were measured by electron and ion microscopy. The microscopy studies did not detect penetration into vital tissue of healthy skin what does not exclude a possibility that TiO 2 could penetrate pathological skin with lowered barrier efficiency. Due to literature the physical effect of the UV irradiation of the TiO 2 nanoparticle is the shift from 4 th to 3 rd oxidation state of the Ti. Titanium at 3 rd oxidation state interact with environment producing free radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species. In order to quantify the oxidation state shift, XANES experiments were carried out with commercially available TiO 2 nanocrystals (6 - 100 nm size), both in anatase and rutile phase. The samples were irradiated with X-rays with, and without accompanying UV illumination at the NSLS X27A beam line. The corresponding XANES spectra were registered and the absorption edge was compared in UV - illuminated and not illuminated spectra. A shift of about 1 eV in the absorption edge position of the rutile sample exposed to UVA light (365 nm, 20 mW/cm 2 ) has been measured and attributed to the changed electron configuration. However, the direction of the shift detected in measured samples was opposite to the expected. (author)

  18. Enhanced bonding between TiO2-Graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naknikham, Usuma; Buffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    analysis. Besides, the study of Ti-O-C and Ti-C interface bonding was carried out using XPS. The band-gap energy was determined using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Thus, it was possible for us to determine the reactivity of the new photocatalysts under the visible light...... as photocatalysts, which can efficiently react with organic species under solar light and can enhance the adsorption of water pollutants [3]. Many studies have shown that TiO2-GO heterostructures can quickly mineralize organic dyes in solution under UV-light. However, it is not clear if these materials can provide...... the same performances under sunlight and with complex real water systems. Hence, this research aims to study the photocatalystic property on GO-TiO2 composites with aqueous solutions of selected emerging pollutants under visible light. The samples were synthesized via the in-situ sol-gel nucleation...

  19. TiO2 Photocatalyst Nanoparticle Separation: Flocculation in Different Matrices and Use of Powdered Activated Carbon as a Precoat in Low-Cost Fabric Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Liriano-Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Separation of photocatalyst nanoparticles is a problem impeding widespread application of photocatalytic oxidation. As sedimentation of photocatalyst particles is facilitated by their flocculation, the influence of common constituents of biologically pretreated wastewaters (NaCl, NaHCO3, and their combination with humic acid sodium salt on flocculation was tested by the pipet method. Results showed that the impact of these substances on TiO2 nanoparticle flocculation is rather complex and strongly affected by pH. When humic acid was present, TiO2 particles did not show efficient flocculation in the neutral and slightly basic pH range. As an alternative to photocatalyst separation by sedimentation, precoat vacuum filtration with powdered activated carbon (PAC over low-cost spunbond polypropylene fabrics was tested in the presence of two PAC types in aqueous NaCl and NaHCO3 solutions as well as in biologically treated greywater and in secondary municipal effluent. PAC concentrations of ≥2 g/L were required in order to achieve a retention of nearly 95% of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the fabric filter when TiO2 concentration was 1 g/L. Composition of the aqueous matrix and PAC type had a slight impact on precoat filtration. PAC precoat filtration represents a potential pretreatment for photocatalyst removal by micro- or ultrafiltration.

  20. Facile synthesis of hierarchical Ag3PO4/TiO2 nanofiber heterostructures with highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinlei; Yang, Yefeng; He, Haiping; Cheng, Ding; Mao, Minmin; Jiang, Qinxu; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Heterostructured semiconductor nanostructures have provoked great interest in the areas of energy, environment and catalysis. Herein, we report a novel hierarchical Ag3PO4/TiO2 heterostructure consisting of nearly spherical Ag3PO4 particles firmly coupled on the surface of TiO2 nanofibers (NFs). The construction of Ag3PO4/TiO2 heterostructure with tailored morphologies, compositions and optical properties was simply achieved via a facile and green synthetic strategy involving the electrospinning and solution-based processes. Owing to the synergetic effects of the components, the resulting hybrid heterostructures exhibited much improved visible light photocatalytic performance, which could degrade the RhB dye completely in 7.5 min. In addition, the coupling of Ag3PO4 particles with UV-light-sensitive TiO2 NFs enabled full utilization of solar energy and less consumption of noble metals, significantly appealing for their practical use in new energy sources and environmental issues. The developed synthetic strategy was considered to be applicable for the rational design and construction of other heterostructured catalysts.

  1. Investigating the solubility and cytocompatibility of CaO-Na2 O-SiO2 /TiO2 bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Anthony W; Coughlan, Aisling; Smith, Courtney M; Hudson, Sarah P; Laffir, Fathima R; Towler, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the solubility of a series of titanium (TiO2 )-containing bioactive glasses and their subsequent effect on cell viability. Five glasses were synthesized in the composition range SiO2 -Na2 O-CaO with 5 mol % of increments TiO2 substituted for SiO2 . Glass solubility was investigated with respect to (1) exposed surface area, (2) particle size, (3) incubation time, and (4) compositional effects. Ion release profiles showed that sodium (Na(+) ) presented high release rates after 1 day and were unchanged between 7 and 14 days. Calcium (Ca(2+) ) release presented a significant change at each time period and was also composition dependent, where a reduction in Ca(2+) release is observed with an increase in TiO2 concentration. Silica (Si(4+) ) release did not present any clear trends while no titanium (Ti(4+) ) was released. Cell numbers were found to increase up to 44%, compared to the growing control population, with a reduction in particle size and with the inclusion of TiO2 in the glass composition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ag nanoparticles modified TiO2 NTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingyao; Yang Xiuchun; Liu Dan; Zhao Jianfu

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TiO 2 NTs were first treated with bi-functional mercaptoacetic acid linkers (HOOC–R–S). The –OH group on the surface of TiO 2 NT provides a strong affinity with the carboxylate group in the linker molecules. The thiol functional group in the linker molecules facilitates the binding with Ag from AgNO 3 solution. After Ag + ions were reduced by NaBH 4 , Ag nanoparticles formed by nucleation and growth. Highlights: ► Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9.2 nm were filled in the TiO 2 nanotubes by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. ► Bi-functional mercaptoacetic acid linkers were used to bind TiO 2 nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles. ► Ag nanoparticles modification of TiO 2 NTs largely enhanced the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet light irradiation. - Abstract: Ordered anatase TiO 2 nanotubes (TiO 2 NTs) on Ti substrate were synthesized by electrochemical anodization and subsequently vapor-thermal treatment. Ag nanoparticles were decorated on TiO 2 NTs by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the characterization of surface morphology, phase composition, and microstructure of the original TiO 2 NTs, the vapor-thermally treated TiO 2 NTs and the Ag nanoparticles decorated TiO 2 NTs. The results indicate that vapor-thermal treatment favors to the transformation of amorphous TiO 2 into anatase phase. Increasing the SILAR cycle times favors to increase the loaded amounts of Ag nanoparticles in TiO 2 NTs. Ag nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in the TiO 2 NTs, and the SILAR process does not damage the ordered tubular structure. A possible formation mechanism of Ag/TiO 2 NTs has also been proposed. The photocatalytic results showed that the Ag nanoparticle modified TiO 2 NTs largely enhanced the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet light irradiation.

  3. The Effects of Anchor Groups on (1) TiO2-Catalyzed Photooxidation and (2) Linker-Assisted Assembly on TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian Mark

    Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are a popular target for research due to their potential for highly efficient, easily tuned absorption. Typically, light is absorbed by quantum dots attached to a semiconductor substrate, such as TiO2, via bifunctional linker molecules. This research aims to create a patterned monolayer of linker molecules on a TiO2 film, which would in turn allow the attachment of a patterned layer of quantum dots. One method for the creation of a patterned monolayer is the functionalization of a TiO2 film with a linker molecule, followed by illumination with a laser at 355 nm. This initiates a TiO 2-catalyzed oxidation reaction, causing loss of surface coverage. A second linker molecule can then be adsorbed onto the TiO2 surface in the illuminated area. Towards that end, the behaviors of carboxylic and phosphonic acids adsorbed on TiO2 have been studied. TiO2 films were functionalized by immersion in solutions a single adsorbate and surface coverage was determined by IR spectroscopy. It is shown that phosphonic acids attain higher surface coverage than carboxylic acids, and will displace them from TiO2 when in a polar solvent. Alkyl chain lengths, which can influence stabilities of monolayers, are shown not to have an effect on this relationship. Equilibrium binding data for the adsorption of n-hexadecanoic acid to TiO2 from a THF solution are presented. It is shown that solvent polarity can affect monolayer stability; carboxylates and phosphonates undergo more desorption into polar solvents than nonpolar. Through illumination, it was possible to remove nearly all adsorbed linkers from TiO2. However, the illuminated areas were found not to be receptive to attachment by a second adsorbate. A possible reason for this behavior is presented. I also report on the synthesis and characterization of a straight-chain, thiol-terminated phosphonic acid. Initial experiments involving monolayer formation and quantum dot attachment are presented. Finally, it was found that quantum dots attach in high amounts to linker-functionalized TiO2 when suspended in pyridine. This increased surface attachment was present even when the linker molecule used lacked a functional group which would bind to the CdSe surface.

  4. The synthesis of aqueous-dispersible anatase TiO2 nanoplatelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Guobin; Demopoulos, George P

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous well-dispersed and phase-pure anatase TiO 2 truncated octahedron nanoplatelets (NPLs) were prepared via controlled hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) in ethylene glycol at 240 deg. C. Two shapes, square and hexagon, were observed by microscopy, exactly corresponding to the truncated octahedron NPLs. Ethylene glycol was found to produce water in situ that reacts with TiCl 4 to produce TiO 2 and HCl-the latter promoting TiO 2 colloid peptization. TiO 2 truncated octahedron NPLs are formed under the stabilizing action of ethylene glycol thermolysis derivatives, such as aldehydes. Crystal growth of the TiO 2 NPLs was affected by the reaction temperature that determines the water production rate and HCl-assisted peptization. TGA and FT-IR results showed ∼1.2% ethylene glycol thermolysis derivatives are attached to the surface of the TiO 2 NPLs, which prevents their agglomeration, hence making them easily dispersible in aqueous media. HR-TEM and SAED results showed that the TiO 2 NPLs are well crystallized and that the SAED patterns of the single TiO 2 NPL changes with its size and shape. XRD patterns showed that the TiO 2 NPLs are phase-pure anatase and the percentage of the {101} plane in the TiO 2 NPLs to be only 18%-a structural feature that renders the TiO 2 NPLs with enhanced UV absorption and reactivity properties.

  5. The Influence of Cr3+ on TiO2 Crystal Growth and Photoactivity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Hidayatika, W. N.; Sari, P. L.; Sari, P. P.; Hidayat, R.; Munawaroh, H.; Ramelan, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    The photocatalyst technology is an integrated combination of photochemical processes and catalysis in order to carry out a chemical transformation reaction. One of the semiconductor materials that have good photocatalytic activity is TiO2 anatase. This study aim to determine the effect of the Cr3+ addition on the growth of TiO2 rutile crystal and the increasing of TiO2 photoactivity. Diffractogram X-Ray of the samples showed that the synthesized TiO2 at 400 °C has been produced 100% TiO2 anatase. Synthesis of TiO2 doped Cr3+ composite was using wet impregnation method. The TiO2 doped Cr3+ composites have beed grown by annealed at a temperature of 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C, respectively Annealing process have capabled to gain to the TiO2 doped Cr3+ nanocomposite. The result product annealed at 500 °C only appear anatase phase due to the Cr3+ addition influence that was able to suppress the growth of rutile. Identification of TiO2 doped Cr3+ composite using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) showed O-Cr vibration at 2283.72 cm-1. The TiO2 doped Cr3+ photoactivity was studied to degrade Rhodamin B. The best result on photodegradation of Rhodamin B was performed by using TiO2 doped Cr3+ composite which was annealed at 700 °C i.e. 74.71%.

  6. Formation Mechanism and Dispersion of Pseudo-Tetragonal BaTiO3-PVP Nanoparticles from Different Titanium Precursors: TiCl4 and TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized tetragonal BaTiO3 (BT particles that are well dispersed in solution are essential for the dielectric layer in multilayer ceramic capacitor technology. A hydrothermal process using TiCl4 and BaCl2, as source of Ti and Ba, respectively, or the precursor TiO2 as seed for the formation of BT, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP as a surfactant, was employed in this study to enhance both the dispersibility and tetragonality (c/a simultaneously in a single reaction process. The process parameters, i.e., the ratio of TiO2 substitution of TiCl4, the reaction time, and PVP content were systematically studied, and the growth mechanism and relation between the tetragonality and the particle size are discussed. Dynamic light scattering (DLS analysis was used to show that truncated pseudo-tetragonal BT-PVP particles with an average size of 100 nm, having a narrow size distribution and a coefficient of variation (CV as low as 20% and being mono-dispersed in water, were produced. The narrow particle size distribution is attributed to the ability of PVP to inhibit the growth of BT particles, and the high c/a of BT-PVP to heterogeneous particle growth using TiO2 seeds.

  7. Effect of Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles on aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosteva, I; Morgalev, Yu; Morgaleva, T; Morgalev, S

    2015-01-01

    Environmental toxicity of aqueous disperse systems of nanoparticles of binary compounds of titanium dioxides (with particle size Δ 50 =5 nm, Δ 50 =50 nm, Δ 50 =90 nm), aluminum oxide alpha-forms (Δ 50 =7 nm and Δ 50 =70 nm) and macro forms (TiO 2 Δ 50 =350 nm, Al 2 O 3 A 50 =4000 nm) were studied using biological testing methods. The bioassay was performed using a set of test organisms representing the major trophic levels. We found the dependence of the toxic effect concentration degree of nTiO 2 and nAl 2 O 3 on the fluorescence of the bacterial biosensor 'Ekolyum', the chemotactic response of ciliates Paramecium caudatum, the growth of unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer and mortality of entomostracans Daphnia magna Straus. We revealed the selective dependence of nTiO 2 and nAl 2 O 3 toxicity on the size, concentration and chemical nature of nanoparticles. The minimal concentration causing an organism's response on nTiO 2 and nAl 2 O 3 effect depends on the type of the test- organism and the test reaction under study. We specified L(E)C 50 and acute toxicity categories for all the studied nanoparticles. We determined that nTiO 2 (Δ 50 =5 nm) belong to the category «Acute toxicity 1», nTiO 2 (A 50 =90 nm) and nAl 2 O 3 (Δ 50 =70 nm) – to the category «Acute toxicity 2», nAl 2 O 3 (Δ 50 =7 nm) – to the category «Acute toxicity 3». No acute toxicity was registered for nTiO 2 (Δ 50 =50 nm) and macro form TiO 2 . (paper)

  8. Effect of AL2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles on aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, Yu; Morgaleva, T.; Morgalev, S.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental toxicity of aqueous disperse systems of nanoparticles of binary compounds of titanium dioxides (with particle size Δ50=5 nm, Δ50=50 nm, Δ50=90 nm), aluminum oxide alpha-forms (Δ50=7 nm and Δ50=70 nm) and macro forms (TiO2 Δ50=350 nm, Al2O3 A50=4000 nm) were studied using biological testing methods. The bioassay was performed using a set of test organisms representing the major trophic levels. We found the dependence of the toxic effect concentration degree of nTiO2 and nAl2O3 on the fluorescence of the bacterial biosensor "Ekolyum", the chemotactic response of ciliates Paramecium caudatum, the growth of unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer and mortality of entomostracans Daphnia magna Straus. We revealed the selective dependence of nTiO2 and nAl2O3 toxicity on the size, concentration and chemical nature of nanoparticles. The minimal concentration causing an organism's response on nTiO2 and nAl2O3 effect depends on the type of the test- organism and the test reaction under study. We specified L(E)C50 and acute toxicity categories for all the studied nanoparticles. We determined that nTiO2 (Δ50=5 nm) belong to the category «Acute toxicity 1», nTiO2 (A50=90 nm) and nAl2O3 (Δ50=70 nm) - to the category «Acute toxicity 2», nAl2O3 (Δ50=7 nm) - to the category «Acute toxicity 3». No acute toxicity was registered for nTiO2 (Δ50=50 nm) and macro form TiO2.

  9. ICP-MS based methods to characterize nanoparticles of TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens with focus on regulatory and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Caimi, Stefano; Senofonte, Oreste; Alimonti, Alessandro; Petrucci, Francesco

    2018-07-15

    This study sought to develop analytical methods to characterize titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), including the particle size distribution and concentration, in cream and spray sunscreens with different sun protection factor (SPF). The Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (SP ICP-MS) was used as screening and fast method to determine particles size and number. The Asymmetric Flow-Field Flow Fractionation (AF4-FFF) as a pre-separation technique was on-line coupled to the Multi-Angle Light Scattering (MALS) and ICP-MS to determine particle size distributions and size dependent multi-elemental concentration. Both methods were optimized in sunscreens in terms of recovery, repeatability, limit of detection and linear dynamic range. Results showed that sunscreens contained TiO 2 particles with an average size of ≤107 nm and also a minor number of ZnO particles sized ≤98 nm. The higher fraction of particles <100 nm was observed in sunscreens with SPF 50+ (ca. 80%); the lower percentage (12-35%) in sunscreens with lower SPF values. Also the higher TiO 2 (up to 24% weight) and ZnO (ca. 0.25% weight) concentrations were found in formulations of SPF 50+. Creamy sunscreens could be considered safe containing TiO 2 and ZnO NPs less than the maximum allowable concentration of 25% weight as set by the European legislation. On the contrary, spray products required additional considerations with regard to the potential inhalation of NPs. The developed methods can contribute to the actual demand for regulatory control and safety assessment of metallic NPs in consumers' products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol on TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/cellulosic fiber under UV and sunlight irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Jallouli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen ((N-(4-hydroxyphe-nylacetamide, an analgesic drug has been investigated in a batch reactor using TiO2 P25 as a photocatalyst in slurry and under UV light. Using TiO2 P25 nanoparticles, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred, more than 90% of 2.65 × 10−4 M paracetamol was degraded under UV irradiation. Changes in pH values affected the adsorption and the photodegradation of paracetamol. pH 9.0 is found to be the optimum for the photodegradation of paracetamol. HPLC detected hydroquinone, benzoquinone, p-nitrophenol, and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene during the TiO2-assisted photodegradation of paracetamol among which some pathway products are disclosed for the first time. The results showed that TiO2 suspension/UV system is more efficient than the TiO2/cellulosic fiber mode combined to solar light for the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol. Nerveless the immobilization of TiO2 showed many advantages over slurry system because it can enhance adsorption properties while allowing easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated solution with improved reusable performance.

  11. Histomorphometric and removal torque analysis for TiO2-blasted titanium implants. An experimental study on dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Nimb, L; Hjörting-Hansen, E

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the anchorage of TiO2-blasted screw and cylindrical implants with conventionally used machine-produced screw and cylindrical implants inserted immediately in extraction sockets on dogs. 6 adult mongrel dogs had 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars extracted...... bilaterally and 24 commercial pure titanium implants were placed immediately in extraction sockets and covered with mucoperiosteum. Each dog had inserted 4 implants: 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles; 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant with machine...

  12. SiO2@TiO2 Coating: Synthesis, Physical Characterization and Photocatalytic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of silicon dioxide (SiO2 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 have been widely investigated individually in coatings technology, but their combined properties promote compatibility for different innovative applications. For example, the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 coatings, when exposed to UV light, have interesting environmental applications, such as air purification, self-cleaning and antibacterial properties. However, as reported in different pilot projects, serious durability problems, associated with the adhesion between the substrate and TiO2, have been evidenced. Thus, the aim of this work is to synthesize SiO2 together with TiO2 to increase the durability of the photocatalytic coating without affecting its photocatalytic potential. Therefore, synthesis using sonochemistry, synthesis without sonochemistry, physical characterization, photocatalytic evaluation, and durability of the SiO2, SiO2@TiO2 and TiO2 coatings are presented. Results indicate that using SiO2 improved the durability of the TiO2 coating without affecting its photocatalytic properties. Thus, this novel SiO2@TiO2 coating shows potential for developing long-lasting, self-cleaning and air-purifying construction materials.

  13. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to ... gaku D-max γA diffractometer with graphite mono- chromized ... FT–IR absorption spectra of TiO2-doped SiO2 com-.

  14. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  15. Oxidation and photo-oxidation of water on TiO2 surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdes, A.; Qu, Z.W.; Kroes, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation and photo-oxidation of water on the rutile TiO2(110) surface is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We investigate the relative stability of different surface terminations of TiO2 interacting with H2O and analyze the overpotential needed for the electrol...

  16. Hazards of TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans

  17. Spectral Sensitization of TiO2 Substrates by Monolayers of Porphyrin Heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Boschloo, G.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Goossens, A.; Schaafsma, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical cells have been constructed by depositing monolayers of oriented covalently linked zinc/free base porphyrin heterodimers onto ~30 nm nonporous layers of TiO2 on ITO, deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD), and onto ~100 nm porous, nanostructured TiO2

  18. Construction of hydrophobic wood surfaces by room temperature deposition of rutile (TiO2) nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongbo Zheng; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Qingyu Li; Hongyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    A convenient room temperature approach was developed for growing rutile TiO2 hierarchical structures on the wood surface by direct hydrolysis and crystallization of TiCl3 in saturated NaCl aqueous solution.The morphology and the crystal structure of TiO2 coated on the wood surface were characterized...

  19. TiO2 Based Photocatalyst: From Synthesis and Characterization to Optimization and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 based photocatalyst has attracted gerat attentions from both fundamental and an applied aspects in water/air purifications and energy production. In this thesis, series of well-defined TiO2 photocatalyst with various parameters (i.e., polymorph composition, shape, impurity concentration, sur...

  20. Characterization of low temperature deposited atomic layer deposition TiO2 for MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Pandraud, G.; Sarro, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 is an interesting and promising material for micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). For high performance and reliable MEMS/NEMS, optimization of the optical characteristics, mechanical stress, and especially surface smoothness of TiO2 is required. To overcome the roughness issue of

  1. The Effects of Leaching Process to the TiO2 Synthesis from Bangka Ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Pramono, E.; Argawan, P.; Djatisulistya, A.; Firdiyono, F.; Sulistiyono, E.; Sari, P. P.

    2018-03-01

    Ilmenite mineral is a naturally occurring iron titanate (FeTiO3) and is abundant in nature. The separation of components into TiO2 and Fe2O3 must be expand. The purpose of this research is to synthesis TiO2 nanoparticles from the filtrate of Bangka ilmenite leaching process. Leaching of ilmenite was done with H2SO4 and HCl at various concentrations. The formation of TiO2 crystal determined by hydrolysis conditions and condensation reaction. TiO2 synthesized from the filtrate of sulfuric acid leaching that produced from TiO2 anatase phase when hydrolyzed in an aquaregia solvent and low concentrations of HCl (0.1M). Hydrolysis conditions at higher concentrations of HCl (1M) was produced TiO2 anatase-rutile phase. The synthesis of TiO2 from the filtrate of hydrochloric acid leaching was produced anatase phase. While the condition under the alcoholic solvent (2-propanol: H2O (v/v) = 9: 1) anatase phase crystallites grow in the temperature range up to 550 °C, above this temperature, TiO2 transform into rutile phase.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 Nanotubes: Microwave heating versus conventional heating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sikhwivhilu, LM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the method of synthesis in the properties of the tubular structures derived from TiO2 was investigated using XRD, SEM and BET analysis. The use of microwave irradiation resulted in the formation of TiO2 tubes comprising anatase...

  3. TiO2 Photocatalysis Damages Lipids and Proteins in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carre, Gaelle; Hamon, Erwann; Ennahar, Said; Estner, Maxime; Lett, Marie-Claire; Horvatovich, Peter; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Keller, Valerie; Keller, Nicolas; Andre, Philippe

    This study investigates the mechanisms of UV-A (315 to 400 nm) photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) applied to the degradation of Escherichia coli and their effects on two key cellular components: lipids and proteins. The impact of TiO2 photocatalysis on E. coli survival was monitored by

  4. New TiO2/DSAT Immobilization System for Photodegradation of Anionic and Cationic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Izhan Nawawi Wan Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new immobilized TiO2 technique was prepared by coating TiO2 solution onto double-sided adhesive tape (DSAT as a thin layer binder without adding any organic additives. Glass plate was used as support material to immobilized TiO2/DSAT. Two different charges of dyes were applied, namely, anionic reactive red 4 (RR4 and cationic methylene blue (MB dyes. Photocatalytic degradation of RR4 and MB dyes was observed under immobilized TiO2/DSAT with the degradation rate slightly lower and higher, respectively, compared with TiO2 in suspension mode. It was observed that DSAT is able to provide a very strong intact between glass and TiO2 layers thus making the reusability of immobilized TiO2/DSAT be up to 30 cycles. In fact, a better photodegradation activity was observed by number of cycles due to increasing formation of pores on TiO2 surface observed by SEM analysis.

  5. Photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.; Hsu, T.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. By introducing polystyrene (PS) spheres into the precursor solution, porous TiO 2 /Ag thin films were prepared after calcination at a temperature of 500 deg. C for 4 h. Three different sizes (50, 200, and 400 nm) of PS spheres were used to prepare porous TiO 2 films. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy to reveal structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. When PS spheres of different sizes were introduced after calcination, the as-prepared TiO 2 films exhibited different porous structures. XRD results showed that all TiO 2 /Ag films exhibited a major anatase phase. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 thin films prepared with 200 nm PS spheres and doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where ∼ 100% methylene blue was decomposed within 8 h under UV exposure

  6. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    goes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to .... Figure 6. Photodegradation of IGOR organic dye by a. bare TiO2 thin film and b. ... Meng L-J and Dos Santos M P 1993 Thin Solid Films 226 22.

  7. Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic activity of nano TiO2 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    salicylic acid over combustion-synthesized nano TiO2 under UV and solar exposure has been carried out. Under identical conditions of UV exposure, the initial degra- dation rate of phenol with combustion-synthesized TiO2 is two times higher than the initial degradation rate of phenol with Degussa P25, the commercial ...

  8. Microstructure and antibacterial property of in situ TiO(2) nanotube layers/titanium biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, C X; Gao, X; Qi, Y M; Liu, S J; Sun, J B

    2012-04-01

    The TiO(2) nanotube layer was in situ synthesized on the surface of pure titanium by the electrochemical anodic oxidation. The diameter of nano- TiO(2) nanotubes was about 70~100 nm. The surface morphology and phase compositions of TiO(2) nanotube layers were observed and analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The important processing parameters, including anodizing voltage, reaction time, concentration of electrolyte, were optimized in more detail. The photocatalytic activity of the nano- TiO(2) nanotube layers prepared with optimal conditions was evaluated via the photodegradation of methylthionine in aqueous solution. The antibacterial property of TiO(2) nanotube layers prepared with optimal conditions was evaluated by inoculating Streptococcus mutans on the TiO(2) nanotube layers in vitro. The results showed that TiO(2) nanotube layers/Ti biocomposites had very good antibacterial activity to resist Streptococcus mutans. As a dental implant biomaterial, in situ TiO(2) nanotube layer/Ti biocomposite has better and wider application prospects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanorice on TiO2 nanofibers

    KAUST Repository

    Chetibi, Loubna; Hamana, Djamel; Achour, Slimane

    2014-01-01

    with anatase TiO2 nanofibers. These nanofibers were prepared by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a concentrated solution of H 2O2 and NaOH, followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Afterward, TiO2 nanofibers on Ti substrate were coated with HA

  10. Electrospinning processed nanofibrous TiO2 membranes for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Katsuhiro; Ding, Bin; Tsuge, Yosuke; Naka, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Michiyo; Sugi, Shinichiro; Ohno, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Masato; Shiratori, Seimei

    2006-02-01

    We have recently fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising nanofibrous TiO2 membranes as electrode materials. A thin TiO2 film was pre-deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrate by immersion in TiF4 aqueous solution to reduce the electron back-transfer from FTO to the electrolyte. The composite polyvinyl acetate (PVac)/titania nanofibrous membranes can be deposited on the pre-deposited thin TiO2 film coated FTO by electrospinning of a mixture of PVac and titanium isopropoxide in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The nanofibrous TiO2 membranes were obtained by calcining the electrospun composite nanofibres of PVac/titania as the precursor. Spectral sensitization of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes was carried out with a ruthenium (II) complex, cis-dithiocyanate-N,N'-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) ruthenium (II) dihydrate. The results indicated that the photocurrent and conversion efficiency of electrodes can be increased with the addition of the pre-deposited TiO2 film and the adhesion treatment using DMF. Additionally, the dye loading, photocurrent, and efficiency of the electrodes were gradually increased by increasing the average thickness of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes. The efficiency of the fibrous TiO2 photoelectrode with the average membrane thickness of 3.9 µm has a maximum value of 4.14%.

  11. Nanoscale surface potential imaging of the photocatalytic TiO2 films on aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Dirscherl, Kai; Canulescu, Stela

    2013-01-01

    in the surface potential of TiO2 coatings upon UV-illumination are closely correlated to the band gap and thickness of the coatings. The inhomogeneity surface potential distribution of a 100 nm TiO2 film indicates a heterogeneous coating. Transition to a homogeneous surface potential distribution was observed...

  12. Hot corrosion performance of LVOF sprayed Al2O3–40% TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ficients of thermal expansions of the two. ... size 40 mesh just prior to deposition of the coating. Al2O3–. 40% TiO2 ... the laboratory Kanthal wire tube furnace, which was cali- ... formation of TiO2, Al2O3 and Al2Ti7O15 phases in the coat- ing.

  13. Intrinsic Photocatalytic Assessment of Reactively Sputtered TiO2 Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Driessen, Rick Theodorus; Driessen, Rick T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were prepared by DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering, a transition from metallic Ti to TiO2 was identified by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline nature of the film developed during

  14. Electrochemical characteristics of porous TiO2 encapsulated silicon anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances of the TiO 2 coated silicon anode at different catalyst pH values. Display Omitted Highlights: → TiO 2 coated silicon was used as the anode material for lithium batteries. → TiO 2 layer acted as a buffer layer for reducing the volume expansion. → Pore size distribution of TiO 2 coated silicon influenced discharge capacity. → Higher capacity retention was exhibited at pH 10.7. - Abstract: TiO 2 coated silicon, which was prepared by the modified sol-gel method, was employed as the anode material for lithium secondary batteries and the relationship between the diffusivity and electrochemical characteristics was investigated. The results showed that the physical properties of the samples, such as their diffusivity and pore size distribution, enhanced the cycling efficiency of the TiO 2 coated silicon, probably due to the reduction of the side reactions, which may be closely related to the pore size distribution of the TiO 2 coating layer. The pore size of the coating layer plays an important role in retarding the lithium ion diffusion. In the experimental range studied herein, higher capacity retention was exhibited for the TiO 2 coated silicon prepared at pH 10.7.

  15. Fullerene C70 decorated TiO2 nanowires for visible-light-responsive photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Er-Chieh; Ciou, Jing-Hao; Zheng, Jia-Huei; Pan, Job; Hsiao, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Kuen-Chan; Huang, Jen-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO 2 nanowire decorated with C 60 and C 70 derivatives has been synthesized. • The fullerenes impede the charge recombination due to its high electron affinity. • The fullerenes expand the utilization of solar light from UV to visible light. • The modified-TiO 2 has great biocompatibility. - Abstract: In this study, we have synthesized C 60 and C 70 -modified TiO 2 nanowire (NW) through interfacial chemical bonding. The results indicate that the fullerenes (C 60 and C 70 derivatives) can act as sinks for photogenerated electrons in TiO 2 , while the fullerene/TiO 2 is illuminated under ultraviolet (UV) light. Therefore, in comparison to the pure TiO 2 NWs, the modified TiO 2 NWs display a higher photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. Moreover, the fullerenes also can function as a sensitizer to TiO 2 which expand the utilization of solar light from UV to visible light. The results reveal that the C 70 /TiO 2 NWs show a significant photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue (MB) in visible light region. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the effect of fullerenes on the photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 , the electron only devices and photoelectrochemical cells based on fullerenes/TiO 2 are also fabricated and evaluated.

  16. Complex impedance study on nano-CeO2 coating TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei; Wang Honglian; Wang Xidong; Li Wenchao

    2006-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles and cerium dioxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles coated titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (CeO 2 -TiO 2 nanoparticles) have been successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The complex impedance of the materials was investigated. The grain resistance, boundary resistance and activation energy of the nanoparticles were calculated according to Arrhenius equation. According to calculating results, the active capacity of pure TiO 2 nanoparticles has been improved because of nano-CeO 2 coating. An optimal CeO 2 content of 4.9 mol% was achieved. The high resolution electron microscopy images of CeO 2 -TiO 2 nanoparticles showed that TiO 2 nanoparticles, as a core, were covered by CeO 2 nanoparticles. The average size of CeO 2 coating TiO 2 nanoparticles was about 70 nm. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicted that CeO 2 nanoparticle coating improved the separation, insulation, and stability the CeO 2 -TiO 2 nanoparticles, which was benefit to the activity of materials

  17. MoSe2 modified TiO2 nanotube arrays with superior photoelectrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping; Zhu, Haifeng; Yu, Lianqing; He, Jiandong; Huang, Chengxing

    2018-04-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs) are first prepared by anodization Ti foils in ethylene glycol electrolyte. Then, MoSe2 deposites electrochemically on TNTs. The as-synthesized MoSe2/TiO2 composite has a much higher photocurrent density of 1.07 mA cm‑2 at 0 V than pure TNTs of 0.38 mA cm‑2, which suggests that the MoSe2/TiO2 composite film has optimum photoelectrocatalysis properties. The electron transport resistances of the MoSe2/TiO2 decreases to half of pure TiO2, at 295.6 ohm/cm2. Both photocurrent-time and Mott-Schottky plots indicate MoSe2 a p-type semiconductor characteristics. MoSe2/TiO2 composite can achieve a maximum 5 orders of magnitude enhancement in carrier density (4.650 × 1027 cm‑3) than that of pure TiO2 arrays. It can be attributed to p-n heterojunction formed between MoSe2 and TiO2, and the composite can be potentially applied in photoelectrochemical, photocatalysis fields.

  18. Azo dyes decomposition on new nitrogen-modified anatase TiO2 with high adsorptivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus, M.; Choina, J.; Morawski, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    New vis active photocatalyst was obtained by the modification of commercial anatase TiO 2 (Police, Poland) in pressure reactor in an ammonia water atmosphere at 100 o C for 4 h. The photocatalytic activity of new material was tested during three azo dyes decomposition: monoazo (Reactive Read), diazo (Reactive Black) and poliazodye (Direct Green). Obtained photocatalyst had new bands at 1430-1440 cm -1 attributed to the bending vibrations of NH 4 + and at 1535 cm -1 associated with NH 2 groups or NO 2 and NO. UV-vis/DR spectra of photocatalyst had also insignificant decrease in visible region. Fluorescence technique was used for studying the amount of hydroxyl radicals produced on TiO 2 surface during visible light irradiation. The hydroxyl radicals produced react with coumarin present in the solution to form 7-hydroxycoumarin which has fluorescent capacity. Photocatalytic activity of modified TiO 2 was compared with commercial titanium dioxide P25 (Degussa, Germany). The photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 /N was higher than that of unmodified material and P25 under visible light irradiation. The ability for dye adsorption (Reactive Red) on photocatalyst surface was also tested. Unmodified TiO 2 and P25 has isotherm of adsorption by Freundlich model, and nitrogen-modified TiO 2 by Langmuir model. The presence of nitrogen at the surface of TiO 2 significantly increased adsorption capacity of TiO 2 as well as OH· radicals formation under visible radiation.

  19. Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays for efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinlian; Wang, Yanqing; Cui, Zhendong; Li, Long; Shi, Chengwu

    2018-05-01

    To improve the electron transportation in TiO2 nanorod arrays and charge separation in the interface of TiO2/perovskite, Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays with the length of 200 nm, diameter of 11 nm and areal density of 1050 μm-2 were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method and the influence of Y/Ti molar ratios of 0%, 3%, 5% in the hydrothermal grown solutions on the growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays was investigated. The results revealed that the appropriate Y/Ti molar ratios can increase the areal density of the corresponding TiO2 nanorod arrays and improve the charge separation in the interface of the TiO2/perovskite. The Y-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells with the Y/Ti molar ratio of 3% exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.11% along with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 22.50 mA cm-2 and fill factor (FF) of 76.16%, while the un-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells gave a PCE of 16.42% along with Voc of 1.04 V, Jsc of 21.66 mA cm-2 and FF of 72.97%.

  20. Improvement of light harvesting and device performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using rod-like nanocrystal TiO2 overlay coating on TiO2 nanoparticle working electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Gao, Mei; Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Weidong; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Novel TiO 2 single crystalline nanorods were synthesized by electrospinning and hydrothermal treatment. The role of the TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode in improvement of light harvesting and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was examined. Although the TiO 2 nanorods had lower dye loading than TiO 2 nanoparticle, they showed higher light utilization behaviour. Electron transfer in TiO 2 nanorods received less resistance than that in TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregation. By just applying a thin layer of TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle working electrode, the DSSC device light harvesting ability and energy conversion efficiency were improved significantly. The thickness of the nanorod layer in the working electrode played an important role in determining the photovoltaic property of DSSCs. An energy conversion efficiency as high as 6.6% was found on a DSSC device with the working electrode consisting of a 12 μm think TiO 2 nanoparticle layer covered with 3 μm thick TiO 2 nanorods. The results obtained from this study may benefit further design of highly efficient DSSCs. - Highlights: • Single crystalline TiO 2 nanorods were prepared for DSSC application. • TiO 2 nanorods show effective light scattering performance. • TiO 2 nanorods have higher electron transfer efficiency than TiO 2 nanoparticles. • TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode improve DSSC efficiency

  1. First-Principles Modeling of Polaron Formation in TiO2 Polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaslmane, A R; Watkins, M B; McKenna, K P

    2018-06-21

    We present a computationally efficient and predictive methodology for modeling the formation and properties of electron and hole polarons in solids. Through a nonempirical and self-consistent optimization of the fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange (α) in a hybrid functional, we ensure the generalized Koopmans' condition is satisfied and self-interaction error is minimized. The approach is applied to model polaron formation in known stable and metastable phases of TiO 2 including anatase, rutile, brookite, TiO 2 (H), TiO 2 (R), and TiO 2 (B). Electron polarons are predicted to form in rutile, TiO 2 (H), and TiO 2 (R) (with trapping energies ranging from -0.02 eV to -0.35 eV). In rutile the electron localizes on a single Ti ion, whereas in TiO 2 (H) and TiO 2 (R) the electron is distributed across two neighboring Ti sites. Hole polarons are predicted to form in anatase, brookite, TiO 2 (H), TiO 2 (R), and TiO 2 (B) (with trapping energies ranging from -0.16 eV to -0.52 eV). In anatase, brookite, and TiO 2 (B) holes localize on a single O ion, whereas in TiO 2 (H) and TiO 2 (R) holes can also be distributed across two O sites. We find that the optimized α has a degree of transferability across the phases, with α = 0.115 describing all phases well. We also note the approach yields accurate band gaps, with anatase, rutile, and brookite within six percent of experimental values. We conclude our study with a comparison of the alignment of polaron charge transition levels across the different phases. Since the approach we describe is only two to three times more expensive than a standard density functional theory calculation, it is ideally suited to model charge trapping at complex defects (such as surfaces and interfaces) in a range of materials relevant for technological applications but previously inaccessible to predictive modeling.

  2. Structural, optical and ferromagnetic properties of Cr doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Biswajit; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Doping of Cr 3+ distorts the lattice of TiO 2 , generate oxygen vacancies and create d-band states in the mid band gap of TiO 2 . Incorporation of Cr 3+ also imparts magnetism in non-magnetic TiO 2 by undergoing coupling with the neighboring oxygen vacancies. -- Highlights: • Incorporation of Cr 3+ increases the concentration of oxygen vacancies in TiO 2 nanoparticles. • Doped TiO 2 nanoparticles contain absorption peaks corresponding to d–d transition of Cr 3+ into TiO 2 . • Pure and doped TiO 2 nanoparticles contain emission peaks related to oxygen vacancies. • Pure TiO 2 shows diamagnetism while Cr doped TiO 2 shows ferromagnetism. • The ferromagnetism is due to the interaction of Cr 3+ ions via oxygen vacancies. -- Abstract: Cr doped TiO 2 nanoparticles are prepared with three different concentrations of chromium, 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5 mol% respectively. Doping decreases the crystallinity and increases the width of the X-ray diffraction peak. The Raman active E g peak of TiO 2 nanoparticles become asymmetric and shifted to higher energy on doping of 4.5% chromium. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra reveal the presence of Cr 3+ in the host TiO 2 matrix. The absorption spectra of Cr doped TiO 2 nanoparticles contain absorption peaks corresponding to d–d transition of Cr 3+ in octahedral coordination. Most of the visible emission peaks are due to the electrons trapped in the oxygen vacancy centers. Undoped TiO 2 nanoparticles show diamagnetism at room temperature while all chromium doped samples show ferromagnetism. The magnetization of the doped samples increases at 1.5% and 3.0% and decreases at 4.5%. The ferromagnetism arises owing to the interaction of the neighboring Cr 3+ ions via oxygen vacancies. The decrease of magnetization at the highest doping is possibly due to the antiferromagnetic interactions of Cr 3+ pairs or due to Cr 3+ -O 2− -Cr 3+ superexchange interaction in the lattice

  3. Synergistic effects for the TiO2/RuO2/Pt photodissociation of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondel, G; Harriman, A; Williams, D

    1983-07-01

    Compressed discs of naked TiO2 or TiO2 coated with a thin film of a noble metal (e.g. Pt) do not photodissociate water upon illumination with UV light, but small amounts of H2 are generated if the TiO2 has been reduced in a stream of H2 at 600 C. Discs prepared from mixtures of TiO2/RuO2 facilitate the UV photodissociation of water into H2 and O2 although the yields are very low. When a thin (about 9 nm) film of Pt is applied to the TiO2/RuO2 discs, the yields of H2 and O2 observed upon irradiation with UV light are improved drastically. 25 references.

  4. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV–visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2.

  5. Properties of phases in HfO2-TiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'ko, V.P.; Terekhovskij, P.B.; Majster, I.M.; Shevchenko, A.V.; Lopato, L.M.; Dvernyakova, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made on axial and linear coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of HfO 2 -TiO 2 system samples in concentration range of 25-50 mol% TiO 2 . Samples, containing 35 and 37 mol% TiO 2 , are characterized by the lowest values of linear CTE. Dispersion of the basic substances doesn't affect CTE value. Correlation with axial and linear CTE of samples in ZrO 2 -TiO 2 system was conducted. Presence of anisotropy of change of lattice parameters was supported for samples, containing 37.5 and 40 mol% TiO 2 . Polymorphous transformations for hafnium titanate were not revealed

  6. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated with CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zheng; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Can; Li, Zhengcao; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 nanorod arrays (TiO 2 NRAs) sensitized with CdS nanoparticles were fabricated via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and TiO 2 NRAs were obtained by oxidizing Ti NRAs obtained through oblique angle deposition. The TiO 2 NRAs decorated with CdS nanoparticles exhibited excellent photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties under visible light, and the one decorated with 20 SILAR cycles CdS nanoparticles shows the best performance. This can be attributed to the enhanced separation of electrons and holes by forming heterojunctions of CdS nanoparticles and TiO 2 NRAs. This provides a promising way to fabricate the material for solar energy conversion and wastewater degradation. (paper)

  7. Effects of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation of Cu electrodeposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effects of TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation density of Cu during electrodeposition in a solution of CuSO4 and H2SO4 at 50 degrees C compared with those of pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates. During electrodeposition, the density of Cu nuclei on the TiO2 nanotube substrate increased and the average size of Cu nuclei decreased with increasing anodizing voltage and time for the synthesis of the substrate. In addition, the nucleation density of Cu electrodeposits on the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrate was much higher than that on pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates.

  8. Preparation of anatase TiO2 thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Tsukada, Satoshi; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2006-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films with high photocatalytic activity have been prepared with deposition rates as high as 16 nm/min by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) method using sintered TiO 2 pellets as the source material. Highly transparent TiO 2 thin films prepared at substrate temperatures from room temperature to 400 deg. C exhibited photocatalytic activity, regardless whether oxygen (O 2 ) gas was introduced during the VAPE deposition. The highest photocatalytic activity and photo-induced hydrophilicity were obtained in anatase TiO 2 thin films prepared at 300 deg. C, which correlated to the best crystallinity of the films, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction. In addition, a transparent and conductive anatase TiO 2 thin film with a resistivity of 2.6 x 10 -1 Ω cm was prepared at a substrate temperature of 400 deg. C without the introduction of O 2 gas

  9. Antimicrobial and Barrier Properties of Bovine Gelatin Films Reinforced by Nano TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nassiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nano titanium dioxide incorporation were investigated on the water vaporpermeability, oxygen permeability, and antimicrobial properties of bovine gelatin films. The nano TiO2 (TiO2-N was homogenized by sonication and incorporated into bovine gelatin solutions at different concentrations(e.g. 1, 2, 3, and 5% w/w of dried gelatin. The permeability of the films to water vapor and oxygen wassignificantly decreased by incorporating of low concentration TiO2-N to gelatin solutions. TiO2-N gelatin filmsshowed an excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Theseproperties suggest that TiO2-N has the potential as filler in gelatin-based films for using as an active packagingmaterials in pharmaceutical and food packaging industries.

  10. Optimized monolayer grafting of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane onto amorphous, anatase and rutile TiO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Yan; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik

    2010-02-01

    Experimental conditions were studied for optimized attachment of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) onto amorphous, anatase and rutile titanium dioxide (TiO 2) surfaces. The attachment process and extent was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In particular, the effect of attachment time, silane concentration, reaction temperature and the TiO 2 crystalline structure on the growth kinetics of the silane layers was studied. The measurements reveal that typically monolayers are more dense on amorphous than on crystalline TiO 2. The results show that critical experimental conditions exist where APTES attachment to the TiO 2 surface changes from a monolayer to a multilayer growth mode. The obtained results and parameters to produce optimized APTES layers are of a high practical relevance as APTES attachment often constitutes the initial step for organic modification of TiO 2 surface with biorelevant molecules such as proteins, enzymes or growth factors.

  11. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summarize the synthesis and properties of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanomaterials (bare 1D TiO2 nanomaterial and 1D hierarchical TiO2 and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs.

  12. Excess electrons in reduced rutile and anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Jin; Wen, Bo; Zhou, Chuanyao; Selloni, Annabella; Liu, Li-Min

    2018-05-01

    As a prototypical photocatalyst, TiO2 is a material of scientific and technological interest. In photocatalysis and other applications, TiO2 is often reduced, behaving as an n-type semiconductor with unique physico-chemical properties. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the fundamental properties and applications of excess electrons in reduced, undoped TiO2. We discuss the characteristics of excess electrons in the bulk and at the surface of rutile and anatase TiO2 focusing on their localization, spatial distribution, energy levels, and dynamical properties. We examine specific features of the electronic states for photoexcited TiO2, for intrinsic oxygen vacancy and Ti interstitial defects, and for surface hydroxyls. We discuss similarities and differences in the behaviors of excess electrons in the rutile and anatase phases. Finally, we consider the effect of excess electrons on the reactivity, focusing on the interaction between excess electrons and adsorbates.

  13. Preparation of brookite TiO2 nanoparticles with small sizes and the improved photovoltaic performance of brookite-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlei; Wu, Shufang; Jin, Jingpeng; Peng, Tianyou

    2016-11-10

    Brookite TiO 2 nanoparticles with small sizes (hereafter denoted as BTP particles) were synthesized through the hydrothermal treatment of TiCl 4 solution with Pb(NO 3 ) 2 as an additive. The obtained BTP particles have a large specific surface area (∼122.2 m 2 g -1 ) and relatively uniform particle sizes (∼10 nm) with the coexistence of a small quantity of nanorods with a length of ∼100 nm. When used as a photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the BTP particles show a much higher dye-loading content than the brookite TiO 2 quasi nanocubes (denoted as BTN particles) with a mean size of ∼50 nm and a specific surface area of ∼34.2 m 2 g -1 that were prepared through a similar hydrothermal process but without the addition of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 . The fabricated BTP film-based solar cell with an optimized film thickness gives a conversion efficiency up to 6.36% with a 74% improvement when compared to the BTN film-based one (3.65%) under AM 1.5G one sun irradiation, while the corresponding bilayer brookite-based solar cell by using brookite TiO 2 submicrometer particles as an overlayer of the BTP film displays a significantly enhanced efficiency of 7.64%. Both of them exceed the current record (5.97%) for the conversion efficiency of pure brookite-based DSSCs reported in the literature. The present results not only demonstrate a really simple synthesis of brookite TiO 2 nanoparticles with both high phase purity and a large surface area, but also offer an efficient approach to improve the photovoltaic performance of brookite-based solar cells by offsetting brookite's inherent shortages such as lower dye-loading and poor conductivity as compared to anatase.

  14. Optimizing Thermoelectric Properties of In Situ Plasma-Spray-Synthesized Sub-stoichiometric TiO2-x Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwasoo; Seshadri, Ramachandran Chidambaram; Pala, Zdenek; Sampath, Sanjay

    2018-06-01

    In this article, an attempt has been made to relate the thermoelectric properties of thermal spray deposits of sub-stoichiometric titania to process-induced phase and microstructural variances. The TiO2-x deposits were formed through the in situ reaction of the TiO1.9 or TiO1.7 feedstock within the high-temperature plasma flame and manipulated via varying the amounts of hydrogen fed into in the thermal plasma. Changes in the flow rates of H2 in the plasma plume greatly affected the in-flight particle behavior and composition of the deposits. For reference, a high-velocity oxy-fuel spray torch was also used to deposit the two varieties of feedstocks. Refinements to the representation of the in-flight particle characteristics derived via single particle and ensemble diagnostic methods are proposed using the group parameters (melting index and kinetic energy). The results show that depending on the value of the melting index, there is an inverse proportional relationship between electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, whereas thermal conductivity has a directly proportional relationship with the electrical conductivity. Retention of the original phase and reduced decomposition is beneficial to retain the high Seebeck coefficient or the high electrical conductivity in the TiO2 system.

  15. ADSORCIÓN DE ALDEHÍDOS INSATURADOS SOBRE TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudió la adsorción de aldehídos insaturados sobre la superficie del TiO2. Para evaluar su eficiencia como catalizador, se realizaron experimentos de fotocatálisis heterogénea de p-nitrofenol (PNF y una muestra proveniente de efluentes industriales. Se empleó un simulador solar y cuatro sistemas de TiO2: el TiO2-sólo (sin modificar y los sistemas TiO2-dienal constituidos por la adsorción química de 2,4 hexadienal, 2,4 heptadienal y el trans-cinamaldehído sobre la superficie del TiO2. La adsorción de los aldehídos insaturados sobre el TiO2 se cuantificó empleando los modelos de adsorción de Langmuir y Freundlich. Se evaluó la influencia del pH en los sistemas TiO2-dienal y su efecto en la degradación fotocatalítica del PNF. En condiciones básicas, la constante de velocidad del PNF es mayor al emplear los sistemas TiO2-dienal en comparación con el TiO2-sólo, mientras que en condiciones ácidas se encontró la tendencia opuesta. El sistema TiO2-cina resultó ser el fotocatalizador de mayor eficiencia.

  16. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of graphene based doped TiO2 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yongji; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene based doped TiO 2 nanocomposites were prepared. • The intimate contact between doped TiO 2 and graphene is achieved simultaneously. • These nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 and doped TiO 2 . • Photocatalytic mechanism was explained thoroughly. - Abstract: The nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide based nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N–TiO 2 –RGO) and reduced graphene oxide based nitrogen and vanadium co-doped TiO 2 (N, V–TiO 2 –RGO) were prepared via a facile hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide and TiO 2 in a water solvent. In this hydrothermal treatment, the reduction of graphene oxide and the intimate contact between nitrogen doped TiO 2 (N–TiO 2 ) or nitrogen and vanadium co-doped TiO 2 (N,V–TiO 2 ) and the RGO sheet is achieved simultaneously. Both N–TiO 2 –RGO and N,V–TiO 2 –RGO nanocomposites exhibit much higher visible light photocatalytic activity than N–TiO 2 and N,V–TiO 2 , and the order of visible light photocatalytic activity is N,V–TiO 2 –RGO > N–TiO 2 –RGO > N,V–TiO 2 > N–TiO 2 > TiO 2 . According to the characterization, the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites is attributed to reasons, such as enhancement of adsorption of pollutants, light absorption intensity, minimizing the recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes and more excited states of these nanocomposites under visible light irradiation. Overall, this work provides a more marked contrast of graphene based semiconductor nanocomposites and a more comprehensive explanation of the mechanism

  17. Recovery TiO2 by leaching process of carbothermic reduced Kalimantan ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Sari, P. P.; Ramelan, A. H.

    2018-05-01

    Ilmenite naturally occurred in iron titanate (FeTiO3) minerals. The separation of natural ilmenite into TiO2 and Fe2O3 need to be explored to gain the high purity separation product. A new combination method named of carbothermic reduction, acidic-leaching and complexation by EDTA were proposed for separation TiO2 from Ilmenite. Roasting of ilmenite was carried out at 950 °C for 1 h by the addition of activated carbon with mass ratio of ilmenite : activated carbon =4:3. The carbothermic reduction was carried out to yield a high separation of initial content of ilmenite that will be easily to dissolve within hydrochloric acid solution in leaching process. The composition of ilmenite observed by X-Ray Fluoresences (XRF) changed after the carbothermic reduction process and the dominant content is TiO2 (57.56%). X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) of roasted ilmenite composed of decomposed product of ilmenite i.e. hematite (Fe2O3), TiO2 anatase, TiO2 rutile, and inorganic salt. The leaching of the roasted ilmenite has been done by sulphuric acid solution (6 M) to gain the titanyl sulphate solution. Separation of iron impurities of TiO2 gel from titanyl sulphate (TiOSO4) solution was conducted by complexation method using EDTA as a complexation agent. The characteristic of TiO2 obtained using XRD showed that TiO2 is anatase type and the percentage of TiO2 using XRF showed that TiO2 content of 86,03%.

  18. The Effect of Process Parameters on the Synthesis of Ti and TiO2 Nanoparticles Producted by Electromagnetic Levitational Gas Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moazeni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticles of Ti and TiO2 have attracted extensive research interest because of their diverse applications in, for instance, catalysis, energy conversion, pigment and cosmetic manufacturing and biomedical engineering. Through this project, a one-step bulk synthesis method of electromagnetic levitational gas condensation (ELGC was utilized for the synthesis of monodispersed and crystalline Ti and TiO2 nanoparticles. Within the process, the Ti vapours ascending from the high temperature levitated droplet were condensed by an argon gas stream under atmospheric pressure. The TiO2 nanoparticles were produced by simultaneous injection of argon and oxygen into the reactor. The effects of flow rate of the condensing and oxidizing gases on the size and the size distribution of the nanoparticles were investigated. The particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and image analysis. The process parameters for the synthesis of the crystalline Ti and TiO2 nanoparticles were determined.

  19. Interaction of NO during cathodic polarization in alkaline conditions at the interface of Pt-nanostructures supported on C and TiO2-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estudillo-Wong, L.A.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Manzo-Robledo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The electroreduction of nitric oxide (NO) in alkaline media was carried out on Pt nanoparticles (5 wt.% Pt), which were synthesized by the carbonyl route. The as-prepared materials were supported on Carbon Black (XC-72R, C) and TiO 2 -C composite (10 wt.% TiO 2 ) and deposited on glassy carbon (GC) electrode. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), CO-stripping and hydrogen adsorption-desorption (H upd ) analysis were employed to characterize the structure and electrochemical properties. According to XRD patterns, the particle size increases from 3.95 to 8.98 nm due to the interaction of Pt with TiO 2 in the carbon matrix. This modification promotes a better performance during CO-oxidation and proton adsorption-desorption. As a consequence, the performance toward NO-reduction was more important in TiO 2 -C composite, linked with the electrochemical active-surface area and chemical surface area relationship (ECSA/CSA). It was found that the mechanism for the reduction of nitric oxide toward nitrogen is a bi-functional process with coupled chemical and electrochemical interfacial-reactions with NH 2 specie as intermediate, as demonstrated by the induced reduction reaction of NO 2 − and NO 2 − + NO, and UV-vis spectrometry

  20. Enhanced Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Mesoporous-Macroporous TiO2 Photoanode Obtained Using ZnO Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trang T. T.; Mathews, Nripan; Lam, Yeng-Ming; Mhaisalkar, Subodh

    2017-06-01

    Improved light harvesting efficiency can be achieved by enhancing the optical properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), leading to higher power conversion efficiency. By incorporating submicrometer cavities in TiO2 mesoporous film, using zinc oxide (ZnO) particles as a template, a bimodal pore size structure has been created, called a mesoporous-macroporous nanostructure. This photoanode structure consists of 20-nm TiO2 nanoparticles with two kinds of pores with size of 20 nm (mesopores) and 500 nm (macropores). Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies showed no trace of ZnO in the TiO2 after removal by TiCl4 treatment. Higher diffuse transmittance of this film compared with the standard transparent photoanode provides evidence of improved light scattering. When employed in a device, the incident-photon-to-current efficiency of ZnO-assisted devices showed enhancement at longer wavelengths, corresponding to the Mie light scattering effect with the macropores as scattering centers. This resulted in overall higher power conversion efficiency of the DSSC. In this work, a nonvolatile gel ionic liquid was used as the electrolyte to also demonstrate the benefit of this structure in combination with a viscous electrolyte and its promising application to prolong the stability of DSSCs.