Sample records for nambisan gary spring

  1. Tänu Gary Schwartzile / Helena Risthein

    Risthein, Helena, 1954-


    New Yorgis sündinud ja õppinud, Hollandis elavast kunstiteadlasest, hollandi kunsti spetsialistist Gary Schwartzist, tema töödest. 17. ja 18. augustil külastasid Gary ja Loekie Schwartz Eesti Kunstimuuseumi filiaale. Gary Schwartzi rajatud Madalmaade kunsti hoidjate ja uurijate rahvusvahelisest ühingust CODART, mille konverentsidest ja õppereisidest on ka eesti kunstiteadlased osa võtnud. Ühingu häälekandjast CODART Courant

  2. Quality of gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    Gari is creamy-white, partially gelatinized roasted free flowing granular flour made from cassava roots. It is a major staple consumed in both urban and rural areas due to its convenience. Quality of Gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos, Nigeria was investigated. Gari samples were collected at random from different ...

  3. A Machine for Pulverizing and Sifting Gari Mash | Odigboh | Nigerian ...

    A prototype machine for pulverizing and sifting gari mash, designed as a companion to the gari frying machine developed by the authors, was built and tested. Driven by an electric motor, the prototype accepts lump3 of dewatered gari mash cuts them up into small pieces by a cake breaker and delivers the pieces by a belt ...


    Dr Obe

    O.75kw electric motor. Fig. 2.Photograph of prototype gari pulverizing/sifting machine. A Side view of the Prototype Gari mash Pulverize/sifting machine. 1. Vee-belt drives; 2. Head pulley; 3 belt conveyor; 4, cake breaker, 5. tail pulley; 6. lump or cake of' gari mash;7hopper; 8pulverizing roller; 9. Side gaurds; 10.brush 11.

  5. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  6. Obituary: Gary Lars Grasdalen, 1945-2003

    Strom, Stephen Eric


    With the passing of Gary Grasdalen on 20 April 2003 the astronomical community has lost one its most creative members. Born in Albert Lea, Minnesota on 7 October 1945 to the farming family of Lars G. and Lillie Grasdalen, Gary developed a strong childhood interest in science, and a particular fascination with astronomy. In 1964, he entered Harvard College intending to pursue those interests. During his freshman year, Gary enrolled in an undergraduate research seminar in which he first displayed the combination of keen insight and imagination in applying new techniques that was manifest throughout his professional career. In 1968, he published his first two papers---studies of the C12/C13 ratio in metal deficient stars, and of Fe I and Fe II transition probabilities---which summarized research carried out during his junior and senior years at Harvard. Grasdalen next entered the astronomy graduate program at the University of California, Berkeley. There he developed a strong interest in the early stages of stellar evolution and, in particular, the potential of S-1 image intensifiers and newly available near-infrared detectors to detect and analyze the stellar populations embedded within their parent molecular cloud complexes. Following award of his PhD in 1972, Grasdalen was appointed to the staff at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Early in his career at KPNO, Gary developed tools that enabled routine near-infrared mapping of nearby molecular cloud complexes, most notably the telescope control programs that enabled precise raster scanning of these regions. Those same programs were some of the many innovations in which Gary had a hand. These innovations enabled a generation of KPNO observers in the 1970s to fully exploit the power of the newly commissioned Mayall telescope as well as the smaller telescopes on Kitt Peak. In 1973, he published the first map of the central region of a molecular cloud, which revealed an extensive embedded, optically obscured

  7. Predicting Weight Change in Gari in Two Packaging Materials ...

    An equation for predicting moisture loss or gain by gari grain packed in two types of materials was developed. From this, it may be possible to establish the storability of gari in these two packaging material. The equation took into account the permeabilities of the materials, which were determined experimentally. The validity ...

  8. Chemical Changes during the Fortification of Cassava Meal (Gari ...

    The nutritional enrichment of a cassava meal (gari) with African breadfruit seed residue was investigated. Grated cassava (70%) was fermented for 3 days with the incorporation of African breadfruit seed residue (30%) at different stages of the fermentation. The fortified and unfortified gari samples were subjected to ...

  9. Flood vulnerability: Impending danger in Sabon-Gari Minna, Niger ...

    This study examines the vulnerability of buildings to flooding and the danger posed at Sabo Gari area of Minna, Niger State. Sabon-Gari which is one of the 22 neighborhoods found in Minna is a highly populated area as people who cannot afford to stay in the low density areas (Government Reserve Area - G.R.A) move to ...

  10. predicting weight change in gari in two packaging materials



    Sep 1, 1983 ... involved the microbial deterioration of gari stored in hessian and polythene bags, showed that the polythene bag gave a better result when gari was stored at moisture content of 11.2% wet basis. Mizrahi et al (1970) using dehydrated cabbage packed in two types of packaging materials predicted value.

  11. Gari agar as culture media for mycological studies | Okorondu ...

    Gari agar was prepared by weighing 28 g of Gari, 14 g of agar powder and 8 g of Hibiscus rabdariffa powder to 1 L of sterile water. A conventional media, Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) was prepared as control according to manufacturer's procedure. Aliquot of appropriate dilutions of 1 g of agricultural soil was inoculated ...

  12. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...

  13. Isolation and screening of microorganisms from a gari fermentation ...

    Isolation and screening of microorganisms from a gari fermentation process for starter culture development. Vinodh A Edward, Moutairou Egounlety, Melanie Huch, Petrus J Van Zyl, Suren Singh, Naledzani D Nesengani, Vetja M Haakuria, Charles MAP Franz ...

  14. Elujärge parandab kindlam tulevik / Gary Titley

    Titley, Gary


    EL-i laienemine tähendab, et sadadele miljonitele eurooplastele endastmõistetavad hüved - stabiilsus, turvalisus, jõukus - muutuvad kättesaadavaks ka uute liikmesriikide kodanikele, ütleb Euroopa Parlamendi liige Gary Titley

  15. Comparison of physical workload in four Gari -frying working ...

    All physical labour requires physical exertion which indicates the level of physical workload involved. This paper examines the energy expenditure in four working postures of gari-frying (garification) workers in southwestern Nigeria. The postures include sitting-beside (SB), sitting-in-front (SF), ...

  16. Gary Becker and the economics of trafficking in human beings

    de Hert, Paul; Muraszkiewic, Julia


    Gary Becker died on 3 May 2014. He was an economist, Noble prize winner and author. He was declared by Milton Friedman as the “the greatest social scientist who has lived and worked in the last half century”. His work focused on economics and sociology, and through the lenses of these disciplines he

  17. Humanities in the Aftermath: An Interview with Gary Olson

    Taylor, Todd


    This article presents an interview with Gary Olson on the changing contexts of the humanities in this modern world. He emphasizes that the humanities are absolutely essential when it comes to the very real-world problems. He explains that what he is saying not just applies to terrorism and economic crisis; the humanities equip everyone to deal…

  18. Dreams and Despair: The Early Years of the Great Depression in Gary, Indiana.

    Indiana Historian, 1993


    Based on official reports, newspapers, the memories of citizens, and historical studies, a description of Gary, Indiana during the Great Depression shows how many people in Gary were affected by the Depression. Gary began to grow rapidly beginning in 1906 with the organization of two steel companies. Black, European, and Mexican immigrants came to…

  19. John Dewey, William Wirt and the Gary Schools Plan: A Centennial Reappraisal

    Thorburn, Malcolm


    A century on from the height of John Dewey's educational writings and the reputation of the Gary Schools Plan as a model of progressive education, the paper reappraises two key matters: the relationship between John Dewey and William Wirt, the first superintendent of the Gary Schools in Gary Indiana, and the coherence between John Dewey's…

  20. 75 FR 17754 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Lift Boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR


    ... Compliance for the Lift Boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... CHIASSON ELEVATOR as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate of Alternate... for the lift boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR. The Certificate of Alternative Compliance permits the...

  1. Assessment of Gari Processing Technologies in Oja-Iya Area of ...

    This study was conducted to assess gari processing technologies in Oja-Iya Area of Ilorin West local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and observation methods. Highest percentages of gari processors procure their raw materials from farmers and market places.

  2. Impact of gari consumption on the water resource of Nigeria | Adeoti ...

    household level (blue water use), while water pollution impacts during processing and consumption (at households) are neglected. Using the 2007 cassava production estimates for Nigeria as baseline, the water impact related to the consumption of gari either as snack or as “eba” (gari reconstituted with hot water to form a ...

  3. Particle size distribution of hydrocyanic acid in gari, a cassava-based product.

    Maduagwu, E N; Fafunso, M


    A reciprocal relationship was observed between the cyanide content of gari and particle size. Hydrocyanic acid (HCN) content was positively correlated (r = 0.62) with sugar content but the correlation with starch content was poor (r = 0.33). From both the nutritional and toxicological standpoints, it would appear that larger particles size in gari is beneficial.

  4. Börsilt ei tule kunagi lihtsalt raha / Gary Weissi ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Weissi, Gary


    Intervjuu ajakirja Business Week vanemkorrespondendi ja raamatu "Born To Steal" autori Gary Weissiga aktsiapettustest ja organiseeritud kuritegevuse seostest börsidega. Autor teeb lühikokkuvõtte oma raamatust

  5. Penentuan Koordinat Titik pada Teknologi Garis dalam Grafika Komputer dengan Menggunakan Algoritma Line Equation

    Mufadhol Mufadhol


    Full Text Available Grafika  Komputer atau  computer graphics  adalah  bagian  dari ilmu  komputer yang  berkaitan  dengan pembuatan  dan  manipulasi gambar  (visual  secara  digital.  Bentuk sederhana  dari grafika  komputer adalah grafika  komputer 2D yang  kemudian  berkembang  menjadi grafika  komputer 3D.  Pola  penggambaran  yang paling sederhana adalah dengan menggunakan titik pada teknologi garis. Algoritma Line Equation merupakan salah satu metode untuk menentukan lokasi koordinat titik pada teknologi garis dalam grafika komputer dengan cara menentukan nilai gradien garis serta garis yang berpotongan dengan sumbu Y, sehingga bisa mengetahui pixel yang akan menyala pada screen coordinate

  6. Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia

    Maximilien Brice


    Photos 01,04,06,07: Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory, April 2003. Photos 02,03: From left to right: Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory with Prof. Steinar Stapnes, Physicist in the ATLAS experiment, April 2003. Photos 02,09: Mrs Kerrye Nairn, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory, April 2003

  7. Spring in the Arab Spring

    Borg, G.J.A.


    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protein, amino acids and carbohydrate contents of soya-gari diet

    Ogbadu, G.H.


    Soya-gari diet, prepared by enrichment of gari (Manihot esculanta Cranz) with soya flour, methionine, lysine and salt mixture was irradiated with doses of 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 Krad from a Co 60 γ irradiator. Gamma irradiation of the soya-gari diet with doses as high as 500 Krad had no significant effect on the amino acids, total proteins, soluble carbohydrates, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin contents. (author)

  9. 75 FR 7467 - Gary E. Hall and Rita C. Hall; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commision...


    ... Rita C. Hall; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commision, Soliciting Motions To.... Project No.: 13652-000. c. Date filed: January 11, 2010. d. Applicant: Gary E. Hall and Rita C. Hall. e... Policies Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 2705, 2708. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Gary E. Hall and Ms. Rita C. Hall, P...

  10. Spring Tire

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.


    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  11. Just Spring

    Konda, Madhusudhan


    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  12. Beginning Spring

    Caliskan, Mert


    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  13. The Garies and Their Friends: The Black American Novel Comes of Age.

    Simson, R.

    Black authors have long been telling America about its slave past, although America has apparently not been listening. Frank Webb's novel, "The Garies and Their Friends," was published in the same decade as Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin," and yet it has never achieved the popularity of Stowe's work, although its characters are…

  14. components analysis and age at harvest effect on quality of gari from ...



    May 4, 2009 ... Four elite cassava varieties in Ghana released under the local names Afisiafi, Tekbankye, Abasafitaa and Gblemoduade were planted in June and harvested the following year at 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 months after planting, and processed into gari. The effect that age at harvest had on selected.

  15. Medico-social problems of teenage hawkers in Sabon-Gari Local ...

    Medico-social problems of teenage hawkers in Sabon-Gari Local Government Area, Kaduna, North-West Nigeria. ... Two hundred and seven (207) respondents were interviewed through interviewer-administered questionnaires and data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

  16. 75 FR 22770 - Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13652-000-Montana] Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment April 22, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  17. Indeterministic metaphors: The popular science books of Fritjof Capra and Gary Zukav.

    Smith, Bradon Tl


    In the popular accounts of the new physics (i.e. relativity and quantum mechanics) by Fritjof Capra and Gary Zukav, the new physics is represented as fatally undermining the universal determinism associated with Newton and Laplace. This paper explores how different metaphors - anthropomorphic metaphors, metaphors of exploration and mapping, and metaphors of shadows - are used strategically by these writers to advance this characterisation of the new physics as indeterministic.

  18. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad


    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  19. The Question of Identity in Gary Shteyngart’s Little Failure

    Maior Enikő


    Full Text Available In my paper I want to deal with the question of identity and Gary Shteyngart’s last novel, Little Failure (2014. The novel is a memoir that deals with young Gary’s struggle as an individual of Russian Jewish origins trying to accommodate himself to the American way of life. America with its multicultural and multiethnic environment puts the immigrant Gary in a very sensitive position. He does not know how to deal with African Americans; shall he avoid them or rim away? Shall he befriend Asian colleagues or not? Are Jewish friends more valuable than others? These are the questions that Gary Shteyngart has to answer and find his own voice. The protagonist of the novel under discussion tries to find his identity which is in continuous change. He tries to figure out in a world filled with cultural, racial and urban conflicts his own identity from the perspective of a former immigrant and as a member of a minority group. The task of my paper is to show how the question of identity has changed and what solution Shteyngart’s novel can offer for the protagonist in the process of identity formation.

  20. Effect of Harvest Period on the Proximate Composition and Functional and Sensory Properties of Gari Produced from Local and Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Varieties

    Alphonse Laya


    Full Text Available This study is aimed at evaluating the proximate composition and functional and sensory characteristics of gari obtained from five cassava varieties (EN, AD, TMS92/0326, TMS96/1414, and IRAD4115. These cassavas were harvested during the dry season 12 months after planting (12MAP and in the rainy season (15MAP. Results showed that the characteristics of gari varied significantly (p<0.05 with the variety and the harvest period. Gari from EN cassava harvested at 12MAP had the highest total carbohydrates (78.07% dry weight, starch (61%, and proteins content, while gari from TMS 96/1414 variety (12MAP had high amino acids (10.25 mg/g and phenolic compounds (9.31 mg/g content. The gari from IRAD4115 had the highest value of ash content (20.62 mg/g at 12MAP. The soluble sugar content was high in the gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP while free cyanide reduced significantly in gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP. The water absorption capacity, swelling power, and bulk density were significantly (p<0.05 high in the gari from EN cassava variety at 12MAP. Compared to commercial gari (3.30, gari from EN local cassava had the best overall acceptability (4.35 followed by those obtained from TMS92/0326 and TMS92/1414 varieties, respectively.

  1. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.


    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban


    Barkate , Jonathan


    International audience; Dédié à la mémoire, le dernier roman de Romain Gary rend un vibrant hommage à la Résistance et doit être lu comme un testament destiné à perpétuer le souvenir de ceux qui ont contribué à surmonter la honte des années d’occupation. La galerie de portraits de résistants vante la folie sacrée et le roman met en scène un triangle amoureux en miroir de la situation politique de 1939-1945.

  3. Engendering Change in the UDA: Gary Mitchell’s Loyal Women

    Wesley Hutchinson


    Gary Mitchell’s most recently published play, Loyal Women, continues his systematic exploration of the Ulster loyalist mindset, focusing this time on the role of women within the UDA. Whereas on the face of it, the play moves forward through what are presented as a series of sharp, irreconcilable oppositions —UDA/IRA, women/men, domestic/public, inside/outside— it emerges in the end that the fundamental organising principle behind the play, and by extension behind the paramilitary society it ...

  4. Sex, divoce and “machismo”: about Gary Becker, nobel prize of economy 1992

    Fernández-Baca, Jorge


    Gary Becker ha dedicado su vida a extender el campo de aplicación de la teoría económica a todas las actividades del ser humano. En su Tratado sobre la Familia, Becker estudia los problemas de la discriminación sexual, la poligamia y la monogamia, la elección de parejas, la demanda de hijos y el divorcio, desde el punto de vista de la inversión en capital humano. Este es posiblemente el trabajo que lo ha llevado a merecer el Premio Nobel de Economía y del cual se ofrece aquí un breve comentar...

  5. Le sauvetage des juifs au Chambon-sur-Lignon à travers Les Cerfs-volants de Romain Gary

    Letourneau, Ingrid


    Dans Les Cerfs-volants (1980) Romain Gary relate la jeunesse résistante de Ludo à Cléry, un village normand inventé par l'auteur. Au sein de cette fiction, Gary, lui‑même ancien résistant aux racines juives, cite à plusieurs reprises le nom du Chambon‑sur‑Lignon, village connu pour avoir sauvé des réfugiés juifs durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. L'hommage de Gary adopte ainsi le ton de la pudeur. Surtout, la mémoire du village se déploie à travers le personnage d'Ambroise Fleury, dont certai...

  6. From Norman Mailer to Matthew Barney. The post human myth of Gary Gilmore

    Francesca Agamennoni


    Full Text Available Gary Gilmore, a murderer who was condamned to death in the USA in 1976, gained international notoriety thanks to his decision to accept and encourage his death sentence, refusing every kind of juridical appeal, surprisingly turning his own execution into a public and intentional suicide. For its power to make American institutions wonder about ethical and political problems, like the legitimacy of death penalty or the relationship between individual freedom and public law, this case inspired in 1979 The Executioner's Song, a non-fiction novel by Norman Mailer. about twenty years later Gilmore became a character of The Cremaster Cycle, one of the most important works by the american video-artist Matthew Barney, who based the plot of his Cremaster 2 (the second episode of this five-movie saga on Mailer's novel. The comparison between Cremaster 2 and its literary model will provide an example of the transformation of a story between different artistic languages, but also between different historical and cultural backgrounds: in the post human era the story of Gary Gilmore has lost most of its political and ethical meanings becoming a symbol of the struggle between human willingness and biological destiny.

  7. Kajian Dampak Perubahan Garis Pantai Terhadap Penggunaan Lahan Berdasarkan Analisa Penginderaan Jauh Satelit Di Kecamatan Paiton, Kabupaten Probolinggo Jawa Timur

    Prameswari, Siti Rahmi; D. S, Agus Anugroho; Rifai, Azis


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak Perubahan garis pantai terhadap Perubahan lahan pesisir di Kecamatan Paiton dalam jangka waktu 16 tahun dengan menggunakan analisa penginderaan jauh satelit. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kuantitatif yakni metode penelitian ilmiah yang sistematis terhadap bagian-bagian dan fenomena serta hubungan-hubungannya yang berkaitan dengan fenomena alam sedangkan metode pengambilan sampel menggunakan metode Purposive Sampling Method yaitu ...

  8. Engendering Change in the UDA: Gary Mitchell’s Loyal Women

    Wesley Hutchinson


    Full Text Available Gary Mitchell’s most recently published play, Loyal Women, continues his systematic exploration of the Ulster loyalist mindset, focusing this time on the role of women within the UDA. Whereas on the face of it, the play moves forward through what are presented as a series of sharp, irreconcilable oppositions —UDA/IRA, women/men, domestic/public, inside/outside— it emerges in the end that the fundamental organising principle behind the play, and by extension behind the paramilitary society it represents, is rather that of refraction, or more precisely, replication. As a result, any potential for evolution, individual or collective, is quickly subsumed into an apparently inescapable logic of duplication and repetition. In a profoundly pessimistic reading of post-Agreement Northern Irish society, Mitchell focuses on the embedded nature of a culture of violence and in the process presents an intimate, first-hand reading of the tensions within contemporary loyalist paramilitarism.

  9. Pola asuh oleh ibu pada balita dengan berat badan di Bawah Garis Merah (BGM di Surabaya

    Novida D Airinda


    Full Text Available Widely known as Asian rice producer in the past, Indonesia is still struggling with the issue of malnutrition until recent times. Growth and development of toddler are not maximal because their nutrition are not properly fulfilled since their early age. This research tries to explain mother's parenting pattern for toddler under the red line (bawah garis merah/BGM. The research was conducted in Kenjeran, District of Bulak, Surabaya, by interviewing and observing five informants. Data were analyzed by interview and observation, later to be interpreted. The research found that mother's knowledge about parenting and child's health are still influenced by belief that do not solve problem properly. Giving solid food to baby is a common thing and believed to resulted better than giving breast milk before their minimum age. This action is not medically recommended because baby has a minimum age to be able to digest solid food as complementer to breast milk.




    Full Text Available Indonesia sebagai Negara kepulauan ( Archipelagic State terbesar di dunia dengan luas wilayah 5.193.252 km² dimana dua pertiga dari keseluruhan wilayah Indonesia merupakan lautan yang diperkirakan seluas 3.288.683 km² . Jumlah 17.504 pulau-pulau yang tersebar di seluruh perairan Indonesia, ditambah dengan panjang garis pantai terpanjang kedua di dunia setelah kanada yaitu lebih kurang 81.791 km. ¹Selain Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif Indonesia (ZEEI yang menduduki urutan pertama di kawasan Asia seluas 1.577.300 mil. Dengan luas wilayah perairan yang dimiliki Indonesia tentunya ini tidak terlepas dari permasalahan dengan Negara tetangga. Permasalahan yang sangat krusial dan hingga sekarang belum mendapatkan penyelesaian yang tegas berkaitan dengan batas laut dengan beberapa Negara diantaranya adalah penyelesaian sengketa batas wilayah antara Indonesia dengan Malaysia di Pulau Sentut. Penelitian hukum yang dilakukan merupakan penelitian yuridis normatif. penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menganalisis teori-teori hukum internasional yang berkaitan dengan pengaturan subjek hukum internasional dan kedaulatan suatu negara. Data yang telah terkumpul dikategorisasi sesuai dengan tujuan penulisan hukum ini kemudian dianalisa dengan metode deduktif dan disajikan dalam uraian yang bersifat deskriptif analitis. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan teori, dan pendekatan perundangundangan. Kesimpulan yang dapat diberikan untuk saat ini adalah tidak adanya perhatian dari Pemerintah Pusat dan Pemerintah Daerah terhadap kondisi keberadaan Pulau sentut yang dinyatakan sebagai garis pangkal pengukuran batas laut antara Indonesia dan Malaysia berupa langkah nyata yaitu rekonstruksi dan pemeliharaan Titik Referensi dan Titik Dasar, pengawasan oleh Pemerintah Pusat dan Pemerintah Daerah, serta rekonstruksi pelindung pantai.

  11. Diversity and technological properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermented cassava used for the preparation of Gari, a traditional African food

    Kostinek, M


    Full Text Available fermentation for the preparation of Gari, and their technologically relevant characteristics were investigated with a view towards selection of appropriate starter cultures. A total of 139 predominant strains isolated from fermenting cassava were identified...

  12. Acting Law | Law Acting: A Conversation with Dr Felix Nobis and Professor Gary Watt

    Sean Alexander Mulcahy


    Full Text Available Dr Felix Nobis is a senior lecturer with the Centre for Theatre and Performance at Monash University. He has worked as a professional actor for many years. He previously played an assistant to the Crown Prosecutor in the Australian television series, Janus, which was set in Melbourne, Victoria and based on the true story of a criminal family allegedly responsible for police shootings. He also played an advisor to a medical defence firm in the Australian television series MDA. He is a writer and professional storyteller. He has toured his one-person adaptation of Beowulf (2004 and one-person show Once Upon a Barstool (2006 internationally and has written on these experiences. His most recent work Boy Out of the Country (2016 is written in an Australian verse style and has just completed a tour of regional Victoria. Professor Gary Watt is an academic in the School of Law at the University of Warwick where his teaching includes advocacy and mooting. He also regularly leads rhetoric workshops at the Royal Shakespeare Company. He is the author of Dress, Law and Naked Truth (2013 and, most recently, Shakespeare’s Acts of Will: Law, Testament and Properties of Performance (2016, which explores rhetoric in law and theatre. He also co-wrote A Strange Eventful History, which he performed with Australian choral ensemble, The Song Company, to mark the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death.

  13. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J


    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.


    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  15. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    Chiang, Geoff


    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.


    Fadil Rexhepi


    Full Text Available In a sample of a total of 11 judoists - one was the Tori (thrower, and the other ten were uke (those who were thrown during the performance of throwing technique, was analyzed the second phase of throwing (tsukuri judo technique osoto gari. Tori is an active athlete superior quality (master, body mass = 72 kg, and all the other, who were thrown (uke differ from each other as the weight and height of the body concerned. The average of their body weight was 73.8 kg, which means that it is almost even with body mass of tori. For data collection was used a three-dimensional motion analysis system APAS (Ariel Performance Analysis System. Tsukuri is the phase where occur most actions of reaping leg. The second phase (tsukuri begins when tori detach his right foot and lasts until the beginning of reaping opponent's leg, on which was concentrated its weight (uke's weight. The parameters that describe the effect of the reaping leg in the second phase of technique osoto gari are crucial for the successful execution of this leg technique. For the analysis of the second phase of the throw were selected 14 variables that describe the position of the body and certain body parts of both athletes, velocity parameters of tori's reaping leg and the duration of this phase (time. The role of the tori's standing leg is to maintain a stable position during this phase, while the other leg quickly and in full force acts reaping. The smallest angle of the knee joint of standing leg during the second phase was 130.84 °. Before the moment of reaping, or detachment of uke`s feet from the mat, standing leg has a tendency to extension in the knee joint, which impacts positively on raising the tori's body center of mass. Height tori's body center of mass at the beginning phase was 87.79 cm. As a result of tori's action by pulling onto uke, but little to his left side, the uke`s center of mass at the end of this phase is moved laterally to 6.10 cm. The results show quite

  17. The value-adding CFO: an interview with Disney's Gary Wilson. Interview by Geraldine E. Willigan.

    Wilson, G


    Financing a company is more complex than ever-and more important to its economic success. The demands on a CFO are tremendous. Optimizing capital costs requires an unprecedented level of technical sophistication. Yet the best CFOs today are not mere technicians. They are also strategists and innovators. Gary Wilson exemplifies the new CFO. In his 5 years as executive vice president and CFO of the Walt Disney Company and his 12 years at Marriott Corporation, he has shown how the finance function can add value-not just account for it. How does a CFO create value for shareholders? "Just like all the great marketing and operating executives," Wilson says, "by being creative." To Wilson, being creative means rethinking assumptions and finding clever ways to achieve financial and strategic goals. Some of Wilson's innovative deal making-like the off-balance-sheet financing he used at Marriott-is well known. At Marriott, he discovered the power of separating the ownership of an asset from its control. Marriott's strength was in operations, yet the company had a great deal of money tied up in real estate. Growth would require even more investment in real estate. Wilson's solution was to sell the hotels-in effect, removing them and the debt used to finance them from the balance sheet-and contract to operate them. In this interview, Wilson gives his view of the role of finance in today's corporation and explains the thinking behind some of the successful deals he has engineered-including Disney's Silver Screen movie-making partnerships and Euro Disneyland.

  18. Pro Spring Batch

    Minella, Michael T


    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  19. Shore, Gary. Drácula: A história nunca contada. EUA, 2014, 92 min.

    Paulo Henrique Calixto Moreira Monteiro


    Full Text Available A resenha versa acerca dos aspectos relevantes ao contexto social e linguístico da adaptação fílmica realizada por Gary Shore, em 2014, da obra Drácula, publicada por Bram Stoker em 1897. Utilizando-se dos pressupostos da fidelidade literária, da Disneyization e do papel do signo peirceano, a resenha busca expor os elementos que contornam o processo da adaptação cinematográfica e como se completam no público-alvo.

  20. Desarrollo embrionario y larval temprano de Gari solida (Gray, 1828 (Bivalvia: Psammobiidae

    Ramiro Contreras


    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo temprano del culengue (Gari solida (Gray, 1828 hasta el estado inicial de larva velígera, a partir de dos desoves efectuados en el verano de 2009. El desove se indujo a 80 ejemplares maduros, entre 50-60 mm de longitud valvar, mediante desecación a temperatura ambiente por aproximadamente media hora y posterior choque térmico (12-14°C y 23-25°C. Los reproductores fueron previamente acondicionados durante 90 días a 14°C en promedio, alimentados con Isochrysis aff galbana (T-Iso, Chaetoceros calcitrans y Tetraselmis suecica en proporción 1:1:1, a una concentración de 300.000 cel mL-1. Los ovocitos se fertilizaron en proporción de 10:1 espermatozoide/ovocito y se incubaron en estanques de 50 L, a 15 ± 0,8°C, sin aireación, con agua de mar filtrada a 1 μm e irradiada con luz ultravioleta. Se efectuaron observaciones y mediciones de los estados de embriogénesis y larva velígera tipo D, registrándose el tiempo de duración de cada fase. La embriogénesis se completó entre 23-24 h post- fecundación (pf y el estado de larva velígera tipo D se alcanzó en 36-37 h pf, midiendo 78 ± 4,7 μm de longitud. Una cubierta gelatinosa rodea al ovocito y se mantiene hasta que se desarrolla completamente la larva D libre nadadora, en 50-52 h pf. Este trabajo constituye un primer reporte sobre el desarrollo temprano de G. solida. Para profundizar en este conocimiento sería deseable incluir técnicas de microscopía electrónica en futuros estudios.

  1. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian


    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  2. Spring integration essentials

    Pandey, Chandan


    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  3. Perfil da sociedade natalense frente aos resíduos sólidos urbanos sob o olhar do gari

    Brunna Soares Rodrigues


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo mostrar uma análise crítica referente a postura da sociedade da cidade do Natal/RN diante dos resíduos sólidos urbanos por meio do olhar do gari. As pesquisas se baseiam no estudo da percepção de garis que trabalham em quatro locais distintos, sendo estes: O Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte - IFRN Campus Natal Central, o Parque das Dunas, o centro comercial do Alecrim e a praia de Ponta Negra, onde foram entrevistados individualmente tendo por base uma entrevista semi-estruturada. Através das análises das respostas obtidas percebeu-se que a população natalense seja ela infantil, jovem ou adulta necessita que uma educação ambiental seja trabalhada a fim de que o quadro relacionado aos resíduos mude, melhorando, portanto, a qualidade do meio ambiente e da vida das pessoas.

  4. Pro Spring Integration

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh


    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  5. Coil spring venting arrangement

    McCugh, R.M.


    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  6. Mockito for Spring

    Acharya, Sujoy


    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  7. The German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY): a nationwide registry for patients undergoing invasive therapy for severe aortic valve stenosis.

    Beckmann, A; Hamm, C; Figulla, H R; Cremer, J; Kuck, K H; Lange, R; Zahn, R; Sack, S; Schuler, G C; Walther, T; Beyersdorf, F; Böhm, M; Heusch, G; Funkat, A K; Meinertz, T; Neumann, T; Papoutsis, K; Schneider, S; Welz, A; Mohr, F W


    Background The increasing prevalence of severe aortic valve defects correlates with the increase of life expectancy. For decades, surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR), under the use of extracorporeal circulation, has been the gold standard for treatment of severe aortic valve diseases. In Germany ~12,000 patients receive isolated aortic valve surgery per year. For some time, percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty has been used as a palliative therapeutic option for very few patients. Currently, alternatives for the established surgical procedures such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have become available, but there are only limited data from randomized studies or low-volume registries concerning long-time outcome. In Germany, the implementation of this new technology into hospital care increased rapidly in the past few years. Therefore, the German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY) was founded in July 2010 including all available therapeutic options and providing data from a large quantity of patients.Methods The GARY is assembled as a complete survey for all invasive therapies in patients with relevant aortic valve diseases. It evaluates the new therapeutic options and compares them to surgical AVR. The model for data acquisition is based on three data sources: source I, the mandatory German database for external performance measurement; source II, a specific registry dataset; and source III, a follow-up data sheet (generated by phone interview). Various procedures will be compared concerning observed complications, mortality, and quality of life up to 5 years after the initial procedure. Furthermore, the registry will enable a compilation of evidence-based indication criteria and, in addition, also a comparison of all approved operative procedures, such as Ross or David procedures, and the use of different mechanical or biological aortic valve prostheses.Results Since the launch of data acquisition in July 2010, almost all institutions performing

  8. Various extraction methods influence the adhesive properties of DDGS .... pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) and lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri A. Gary (S. Watson) in the fabrication of lignocellulosic composites

    Lignocellulosic composite (LC) panels were fabricated using an adhesive matrix prepared from three different agricultural by-products: dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) press cake (PPC) or lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri A. Gary (S. Watson) press cake (L...

  9. A nova poética da natureza de Gary Snyder: budismo e ecocrítica na sua obra

    Marques, Nuno Filipe da Silva


    Esta dissertação introduz a obra do poeta Gary Snyder (1930-) à Academia Portuguesa para afirmar o seu lugar próprio na história da poesia dos Estados Unidos da América. Encontra-se dividida em três capítulos que determinam os três territórios do mapa do pensamento sincrético do autor. No primeiro capítulo, trata-se o diálogo da obra com os modos de representação da Natureza na literatura dos Estados Unidos, discutindo-se o lugar particular que nesta vem ocupar. Em rutura com a matriz lite...

  10. Utopia economica. Uno studio genealogico del neoliberalismo di Gary Becker in relazione al pensiero di Jeremy Bentham

    Eleonora Buono


    Full Text Available L’Autrice si propone di tracciare la genealogia della posizione neoliberale, partendo soprattutto dai testi di Gary Becker. Il pensiero economico neoliberale è posto in relazione con la rivoluzione scientifica e l’operazione di matematizzazione della natura che da essa scaturisce. Questo percorso porterà poi a Jeremy Bentham, il cui sistema è spesso visto come antesignano degli studiosi neoliberali. Secondo la tesi sostenuta dall’Autrice, il neoliberalismo presenta il proprio sguardo come una neutra e scientifica descrizione del reale, sennonché in tale mossa si annida pur sempre una tendenza normativa. È così che gli economisti neoliberali elaborano un sistema che è altresì prescrittivo, proponendo un modello che si pone sul piano politico; modello il quale viene qui designato con il nome di «utopia economica».

  11. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Materi Garis dan Sudut Menggunakan Macromedia Flash dan Moodle Kelas VII Sekolah Menengah Pertama

    Widyastuti Akhmadan


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan yang bertujuan untuk (1 menghasilkan bahan ajar matematika yang dikembangkan dengan menggunakan software Macromedia Flash dan Moodle yang valid dan praktis untuk mengajarkan materi garis dan sudut kepada siswa kelas VII SMP; (2 mengetahui efek potensialnya terhadap hasil belajar. Metode penelitian terdiri dari 3 tahap yaitu (1 self evaluation, meliputi tahap analisis dan desain bahan ajar; (2 prototyping, meliputi tahap evaluasi dan revisi; (3 field test. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan walk through dan dokumentasi nilai akhir siswa diperoleh dari nilai tugas dan nilai tes yaitu sebesar 79,56 nilai tersebut dikategorikan memiliki hasil belajar yang baik. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 bahan ajar yang dikembangkan dengan menggunakan software Macromedia Flash dan Moodle dalam penelitian ini dikategorikan valid dan praktis; (2 dari rata-rata nilai akhir siswa sebesar 79,56 dengan kategori baik disimpulkan bahwa bahan ajar yang dikembangkan memiliki efek potensial terhadap hasil belajar siswa. Kata Kunci: development research, Macromedia Flash, Moodle, garis, sudut This study is categorized as developmental research that aims at (1 producing a valid and practical teaching material in Mathematics subject which was developed by utilizing Macromedia Flash and Moodle and learnt by seventh graders of class VII of Junior High School; (2 examining its potential effect to learning outcome. The research method contains three phases which are: (1 self evaluation, that includes analyzing and designing material processes; (2 prototyping, includes evaluating and revising processes; (3 field test. Data collection was undertaken by walk through and documentation of students achievement obtained through task and posttest which was scored 79.56 and was categorized as good outcome as well. The conclusion drawn based on this study were (1 teaching material developed by utilizing Macromedia Flash and Moodle

  12. Learning Spring application development

    Soni, Ravi Kant


    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  13. Cyanobacteria in ambient springs

    Cantonati, M.; Komárek, Jiří; Montejano, G.


    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 865-888 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Springs * Cyanoprokaryotes * Radiation * Nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.258, year: 2015

  14. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  15. Masters of the springs

    Laursen, Steffen


    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... for water - a process which perhaps also is evidenced by temple constructions at Barbar, Umm al-Sujur and Abu Zaydan....

  16. Pro Spring security

    Scarioni, Carlo


    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  17. Instant Spring security starter

    Jagielski, Piotr


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  18. Quality of Life After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Prospective Data From GARY (German Aortic Valve Registry).

    Lange, Rüdiger; Beckmann, Andreas; Neumann, Till; Krane, Markus; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Landwehr, Sandra; Kötting, Joachim; Welz, Armin; Zahn, Ralf; Cremer, Jochen; Figulla, Hans R; Schuler, Gerhard; Holzhey, David M; Funkat, Anne-Kathrin; Heusch, Gerd; Sack, Stefan; Pasic, Miralem; Meinertz, Thomas; Walther, Thomas; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Böhm, Michael; Möllmann, Helge; Hamm, Christian W; Mohr, Friedrich W


    This study sought to analyze health-related quality-of-life (HrQoL) outcomes of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) based on data from GARY (German Aortic Valve Registry). Typically, patients currently referred for and treated by TAVR are elderly with a concomitant variable spectrum of multiple comorbidities, disabilities, and limited life expectancy. Beyond mortality and morbidity, the assessment of HrQoL is of paramount importance not only to guide patient-centered clinical decision-making but also to judge this new treatment modality in this high-risk patient population. In 2011, 3,875 patients undergoing TAVR were included in the GARY registry. HrQoL was prospectively measured using the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire self-complete version on paper at baseline and 1 year. Complete follow-up EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire evaluation was available for 2,288 patients (transvascular transcatheter aortic valve replacement [TAVR-TV]: n = 1,626 and transapical TAVR [TAVR-TA]: n = 662). In-hospital mortality was 5.9% (n = 229) and the 1-year mortality was 23% (n = 893). The baseline visual analog scale score for general health status was 52.6% for TAVR-TV and 55.8% for TAVR-TA and, in parallel to an improvement in New York Heart Association functional class, improved to 59.6% and 58.5% at 1 year, respectively (p regression analysis several pre- and post-operative factors were predictive for less pronounced HrQoL benefits. TAVR treatment led to improvements in HrQoL, especially in terms of mobility and usual activities. The magnitude of improvements was higher in the TAVR-TV group as compared to the TAVR-TA group. However, there was a sizable group of patients who did not derive any HrQoL benefits. Several independent pre- and post-operative factors were identified being predictive for less pronounced HrQoL benefits. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Moh Khoridatul Huda


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK. Subjek penelitian, yaitu siswa kelas VIII-E SMP N 4 Malang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan langkah-langkah pembelajaran kooperatif tipe investigasi kelompok yang dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa kelas VIII SMP N 4 Malang materi persamaan garis lurus. Langkah pembelajaran kooperatif tipe investigasi kelompok yang dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa kelas VIII-E SMP N 4 Malang materi persamaan garis lurus meliputi: siswa berkelompok sesuai dengan kesamaan minat pada suatu topic bahasan, diskusi kelompok dengan pemberian tambahan nilai bagi kelompok yang paling aktif, presentasi hasil diskusi oleh dua wakil kelompok yang ditunjuk oleh kelompok lain, dan diskusi kelas dengan guru hanya sebagai pendamping. Pembelajaran kooperatif tipe investigasi kelompok ini dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa yang meliputi aspek kemampuan menjalin kerja sama, kemampuan menuliskan permasalahan dalam bentuk yang mudah dipahami, dan kemampuan menggunakan pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang dimiliki. Meningkatnya kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa tersebut dapat diketahui dari peningkatan nilai tes siswa, yaitu sebesar 69,44% dari jumlah siswa dan peningkatan keaktifan siswa pada aspek: bekerja sama memecahkan masalah, memberikan pendapat apabila ada teman sekelompok yang belum mengerti, menyelesaikan perbedaan pendapat, dan berkomunikasi dengan teman dan guru selama proses pembelajaran di kelas.   This research is a classroom research. Subject of this research is students VIII-E of SMP N 4 Malang. This research supposes to describe the steps of cooperative learning type group investigation that can increase the student’s ability of problem solving of mathematics at class VIII-E of SMP N 4 Malang on the material linear equation. The steps obtained in this research include: students sit with their group

  20. Moteriškumas ir nutylėto žodžio retorika Romaino Gary romane „Aitvarai“

    Skrupskelytė, Viktorija


    Romaino Gary romanuose, pokalbiuose ir eseistinės formos kūriniuose gausu pastabų apie moteriškumą (pr. féminité) ir moteriškas vertybes (pr. valeurs féminines), rašytojo dar vadinamų moterišku kalbėjimu, la voix féminine. Tačiau šias sąvokas Gary supranta savotiškai – kaip tam tikrą neigiamą ryšį su žmogų supančia bei jį valdančia aplinka ir žmogaus sukurtomis ar jo toleruojamomis jėgos struktūromis. Jėgai rašytojas priešpriešina moteriškumo ir silpnumo (pr. faiblesse) būsenas, j...

  1. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Nakagawa, R


    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  2. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    Fay, Temple H.


    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  3. Spring batch essentials

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara


    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  4. An insight into the Northern Irish Troubles in France: Teaching English as a Foreign Language through Gary Mitchell's Loyal Women (2003) along the Common European Framework

    Privas-Bréauté, Virginie


    The pedagogical qualities of drama have recently been put to the fore especially when it comes to learning a foreign language. If we read the Common European Framework for language learning carefully, we realize that we may choose a play to facilitate language acquisition, notably at university level, when the bases are supposedly already acquired, when the knowledge of the target language needs to be strengthened. We have chosen to demonstrate that a contemporary play like Gary Mitchell's Lo...

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Midco II, Gary, IN. (First remedial action), (amendment), April 1992


    The 7-acre Midco II site is an abandoned chemical waste storage and disposal facility in Gary, Indiana. Land use in the surrounding area is predominantly industrial. The underlying aquifer, which is used primarily for non-drinking purposes, is highly susceptible to contamination from surface sources. From 1976 to 1978, the site was used for treatment, storage, and disposal of chemical and bulk liquid wastes. The ROD amends a 1989 ROD that addressed the remaining contaminated soil, pit wastes, and ground water by treatment of an estimated 35,000 cubic yards of soil wastes. The amended remedy reduces the estimated amount of soil to be treated, as a result of new information on arsenic data and amended soil CALs, further defines the site cover requirements, and further defines the requirements for deep well injection of contaminated ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the subsurface soil, sediment, and ground water are VOCs, including methylene chloride, benzene, toluene, TCE, and xylenes; other organics, including PCBs, phenols, and PAHs; and metals, including chromium, and lead. The amended remedial action for the ROD is included

  6. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

    Florencia Cremonte


    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  7. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh


    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  8. Bioinspired spring origami

    Faber, Jakob A.; Arrieta, Andres F.; Studart, André R.


    Origami enables folding of objects into a variety of shapes in arts, engineering, and biological systems. In contrast to well-known paper-folded objects, the wing of the earwig has an exquisite natural folding system that cannot be sufficiently described by current origami models. Such an unusual biological system displays incompatible folding patterns, remains open by a bistable locking mechanism during flight, and self-folds rapidly without muscular actuation. We show that these notable functionalities arise from the protein-rich joints of the earwig wing, which work as extensional and rotational springs between facets. Inspired by this biological wing, we establish a spring origami model that broadens the folding design space of traditional origami and allows for the fabrication of precisely tunable, four-dimensional–printed objects with programmable bioinspired morphing functionalities.

  9. Reproductive health problems and health seeking behavior of female sex workers in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, Zaria, Nigeria

    L O Omokanye


    Full Text Available Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Government in Zaria, Nigeria between 1 st January 2011 and 31 st June 2011. A total of 208 FSW were randomly selected and information was obtained with the use of the semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry was done with the help of structured codes in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive analysis was carried out using the statistical package (SSPS 16-University of Bristol. Results: Majority 90.7% of the respondents had experienced reproductive morbidity in the last 3 months. Frequently experienced symptoms were vaginal discharge (63.8%, acute lower abdominal pain (57.5%, menstrual irregularities (37% and genital ulcer (32.3%. Genital tear occurred in only 25 (9.8% respondents. Furthermore, 178 (63.6% had a termination of unwanted pregnancies. Most (32.3% sought care for their reproductive health problems from chemist shops; followed by the private hospitals in 23.6% of respondents. Others took self-medication for their ailments. Post-treatment success was the most frequently mentioned reason for the choice of place of treatment, followed by finance. Conclusion: The most commonly reported reproductive health problem among FSW was vaginal discharge and many of them have poor health seeking behavior. Health promotion and client sensitive health care services specifically targeting FSW should be developed, packaged and delivered to improve reproductive health of FSW. There should be concerted efforts by the government and other stakeholders in reproductive health to

  10. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)


    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  11. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    Dickson, H.W.; Hill, G.S.; Perdue, P.T.


    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  12. Las claves en el proceso de enseñanza‐aprendizaje de la técnica de judo desde la perspectiva del error: O Soto Gari vs. O Soto Guruma The process of teaching‐learning the especific judo technique from the error perspective is the key: O Soto Gari vs. O Soto Guruma

    A. Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer los errores más frecuentes de las técnicas de judo O Soto Gari y O Soto Guruma, así como clarificar las diferencias existentes entre ambas proyecciones con el fin de mejorar su proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Para ello, se ha realizado un análisis videográfico -mediante el uso de la metodología observacional- de la ejecución de las técnicas señaladas, siendo éstas efectuadas por alumnos de la Universidad de Vigo que cursaron la asignatura “Deportes de adversario con fines recreativos” durante aproximadamente 4 meses. Los resultados, analizados mediante estadísticos descriptivos con el paquete de software SPSS 12.0.1, muestran, en primer lugar, que O Soto Gari es una técnica donde los sujetos investigados alcanzan una mayor frecuencia y diversidad de errores que en O Soto Guruma, lo cual permite afirmar que esta última, debido a su mayor sencillez técnica, debería utilizarse antes que O Soto Gari en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. En segundo lugar, también se ha concluido que, en contra de lo que cabría esperar, no son tantos los errores comunes en ambas proyecciones, y, de éstos, ninguno de ellos corresponde a los más habituales de cada técnica.
    Palabras clave:
    judo, técnica, error, iniciación, O Soto Gari, O Soto Guruma.

    The present study must know the most frequent errors of the O Soto Gari and O Soto Guruma judo techniques, and clarify the existing differences between both projections in order to improve their process of education. An analysis using video-graphics is applied. It is used as observation and recording method for the mentioned judo techniques being exercised. The analysis is carried out by students of the University of Vigo. They attended

  13. Spring viremia of carp

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.


    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  14. Mild mobster / Gary Peach

    Peach, Gary


    Valge Maja küllakutsest president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele vahetult pärast Tallinna rahutusi 2007. a. aprillis. Ülevaade T.H. Ilvese elukäigust, haridusteest, poliitilisest karjäärist, harrastustest. Presidendi ees seisvatest siseriiklikest väljakutsetest. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  15. Gary O's Fence Question.

    Daniels, David S.


    Discusses the problem of finding the amount of fence it would require for the outfield fence of a baseball field of given dimensions. Presents different solution methods for each of the levels from grades 9-12. The different methods incorporate geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, and calculus. (MDH)

  16. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  17. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    Mankale, Anjana


    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  18. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.


    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  19. Spring valve for well completion

    Gorbatov, P T


    A spring-loaded valve for well completion consists of a housing with a spring-loaded closing element. In order to protect the closing element from corrosion which might lower the pressure drop, the closing element is made in the form of a piston. It is tightly connected with sealing elements. The housing has orifices, overlapping the piston in the initial position.

  20. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván


    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  1. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)


    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  2. A bountiful spring harvest


    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  3. Spring comes for ATLAS

    Butin, F.


    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  4. The Begg's uprighting spring - Revisited.

    Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha


    Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm.

  5. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard


    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Laurel Springs & DoDEA

    Jhung, Seung


    At the request of the client organization, Laurel Springs School, we developed an in-depth market analysis of comparable educational programs offered within the Department of Defense Education Activities (DoDEA...

  7. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.


    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  8. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    McCulley, B.


    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  9. Haïti : les pouvoirs de l'art dans Le Sang et la Mer de Gary Victor et La Belle Amour humaine de Lyonel Trouillot

    Odile Gannier


    Full Text Available Dans cet article, l'auteure pose une question en écho aux événements de janvier 2010 : "comment écrire encore après les catastrophes ?". Elle en prend pour témoins les œuvres de Gary Victor et de Lyonel Trouillot (respectivement parues en 2010 et 2011 qui, pour l'une, raconte l'histoire d'une orpheline, Hérodiane, au parcours difficile, et rapporte, pour l'autre, l'enquête d'Anaïse, une étrangère, sur les traces de sa famille haïtienne. Odile Gannier analyse la construction de l'intrigue et des personnages, mais aussi les tonalités et les genres représentés dans les deux œuvres, ainsi que leurs multiples similitudes avec d'autres formes de production artistique (la peinture en particulier.

  10. "No justice, no peace" and the right to self-determination: an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network.

    Grant, Gary; Muhammed, Naeema; Slatin, Craig; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen


    This is an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed, leaders of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network. Each of them talks about where they grew up, their politicization, how their paths crossed, their work together after Hurricane Floyd, and the unique challenges of organizing for social justice for black communities in the South. We learn of their fight against concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), primarily for the hog trade, and they take us up to North Carolina's Moral Monday protests of 2013 against legislation that threatens voting rights, public education, access to medical services, unemployment benefits, workers rights, occupational and environmental health, and women's access to reproductive health care. We are grateful to these two friends of New Solutions for their contribution to the journal, and we hope that their insights regarding struggles for social and environmental justice can serve as guides for us all.

  11. Emprego de quatro exames imunológicos na determinação da prevalência da doença de chagas nos garis do serviço de limpeza urbana do distrito federal

    Douglas L. Tinoco


    Full Text Available A prevalência da infecção chagásica em 368 garis do Serviço de Limpeza Urbana (SLU do Distrito Federal foi inicialmente indicada pelos exames de hemaglutinação e imunofluorescência, quando encontrou-se 32,1% e 47,6% de resultados positivos, respectivamente, para cada exame. Em vista das discrepâncias obsevadas. utilizou-se o teste cutâneo com o antígeno T12E para esclarecimento do diagnóstico em 15,5% dos que tinham apenas um teste sorológico positivo. O teste cutâneo foi positivo em 38,6% dos garis. A análise dos resultados de 183 garis mostrou 47% dos casos com três exames concordantes positivos. Mais 19, 7% tiveram dois exames concordantes positivos. Porém, 33,3% dos garis tinham apenas um dos três exames positivo. Empregou-se também o "immunoblot" na tentativa de esclarecer o diagnóstico nos 61 casos com apenas um resultado positivo. Foram encontrados 37,5% (3/8 dos casos positivos pela hemaglutinação, 11,5% (3/26 pelo teste cutâneo, e apenas 3,7% (1/27 pela imunofluorescência. Após a adição desses casos positivos pelo "immunoblot", o total de chagásicos passou a ser de 129, ou seja, 35%/ dos garis da amostra estudada.

  12. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)


    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  13. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)


    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  14. Instant Spring for Android starter

    Dahanne, Anthony


    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  15. Spring for It: First Novels

    Hoffert, Barbara


    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  16. Open-Coil Retraction Spring

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute


    Full Text Available Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. “Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS” is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.. A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement.

  17. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.


    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  18. Recent trend of administration on hot springs

    Okubo, Shigeru [Environment Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    The Environmental Agency exercises jurisdiction over Hot Spring Act, and plans to protect the source of the hot spring and to utilize it appropriately. From the aspect of utilization, hot springs are widely used as a means to remedy chronic diseases and tourist spots besides places for recuperation and repose. Statistics on Japanese hot springs showed that the number of hot spring spots and utilized-fountainhead increased in 1987, compared with the number in 1986. Considering the utilized-headspring, the number of naturally well-out springs has stabilized for 10 years while power-operated springs have increased. This is because the demand of hot springs has grown as the number of users has increased. Another reason is to keep the amount of hot water by setting up the power facility as the welled-out amount has decreased. Major point of recent administration on the hot spring is to permit excavation and utilization of hot springs. Designation of National hot spring health resorts started in 1954 in order to ensure the effective and original use of hot springs and to promote the public use of them, for the purpose of arranging the sound circumstances of hot springs. By 1988, 76 places were designated. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Castenholz, Richard W


    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  20. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN. Geneva


    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  1. Injector linac of SPring-8

    Yoshikawa, H.; Hori, T.; Suzuki, S.; Yanagida, K.; Itoh, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Taniuchi, T.; Sakaki, H.; Kuba, A.; Fukushima, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Asaka, T.; Yokomizo, H.


    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  2. Controlling proteins through molecular springs.

    Zocchi, Giovanni


    We argue that the mechanical control of proteins-the notion of controlling chemical reactions and processes by mechanics-is conceptually interesting. We give a brief review of the main accomplishments so far, leading to our present approach of using DNA molecular springs to exert controlled stresses on proteins. Our focus is on the physical principles that underlie both artificial mechanochemical devices and natural mechanisms of allostery.

  3. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Bulletin


    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  4. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks.

    Zhang, T; Schwarz, J M; Das, Moumita


    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, p(x) and p(y), for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of p(x) and p(y). We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  5. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville... (collectively referred to as the Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs... proposed project would address voltage stability and reliability concerns of two of BPA's full requirements...

  6. Emprego de quatro exames imunológicos na determinação da prevalência da doença de chagas nos garis do serviço de limpeza urbana do distrito federal

    Douglas L. Tinoco


    Full Text Available A prevalência da infecção chagásica em 368 garis do Serviço de Limpeza Urbana (SLU do Distrito Federal foi inicialmente indicada pelos exames de hemaglutinação e imunofluorescência, quando encontrou-se 32,1% e 47,6% de resultados positivos, respectivamente, para cada exame. Em vista das discrepâncias obsevadas. utilizou-se o teste cutâneo com o antígeno T12E para esclarecimento do diagnóstico em 15,5% dos que tinham apenas um teste sorológico positivo. O teste cutâneo foi positivo em 38,6% dos garis. A análise dos resultados de 183 garis mostrou 47% dos casos com três exames concordantes positivos. Mais 19, 7% tiveram dois exames concordantes positivos. Porém, 33,3% dos garis tinham apenas um dos três exames positivo. Empregou-se também o "immunoblot" na tentativa de esclarecer o diagnóstico nos 61 casos com apenas um resultado positivo. Foram encontrados 37,5% (3/8 dos casos positivos pela hemaglutinação, 11,5% (3/26 pelo teste cutâneo, e apenas 3,7% (1/27 pela imunofluorescência. Após a adição desses casos positivos pelo "immunoblot", o total de chagásicos passou a ser de 129, ou seja, 35%/ dos garis da amostra estudada.Seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was studied in 308 street-sweepers of the SLU. Federal District. Brazil, with the aid of haemaglutination. immunofluorescence and, also, a delayed-type skin test to the parasite T12E antigen. It showed 32,1%, 42.7% and 38.6% positive results, respectively for cach assay. Among these, however, only 47% were positive with each of three exams performed. In addition, 19.7% were positive with two out of three exams performed. The remaining 33-3% sera yielded one positive result out of three exams employed and were submitted to the immunoblot assay. This analysis confirmed 3 cases (37.5% positive by hemmaglutination. 3 (11.5% positive by skin test, and 1 (3-7% positive by immunofluorescence. At the end of the analysis, it was shown that 129 (35% individuals

  7. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary


    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  8. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)


    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  9. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A


    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.


    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia


    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  11. Spring 1991 Meeting outstanding papers

    The Atmospheric Sciences Committee has presented Kaye Brubaker and Jichun Shi with Outstanding Student Paper awards for presentations given at the AGU 1991 Spring Meeting, held in Baltimore May 28-31.Brubaker's paper, “Precipitation Recycling Estimated from Atmospheric Data,” presented quantitative estimates of the contribution of locallyevaporated moisture to precipitation over several large continental regions. Recycled precipitation is defined as water that evaporates from the land surface of a specified region and falls again as precipitation within the region. Brubaker applied a control volume analysis based on a model proposed by Budyko.

  12. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    Widener, W.H.


    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  13. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.


    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  14. Soft tissue modelling with conical springs.

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza N; Subic, Aleksandar; Smith, Julian; Shirinzadeh, Bijan


    This paper presents a new method for real-time modelling soft tissue deformation. It improves the traditional mass-spring model with conical springs to deal with nonlinear mechanical behaviours of soft tissues. A conical spring model is developed to predict soft tissue deformation with reference to deformation patterns. The model parameters are formulated according to tissue deformation patterns and the nonlinear behaviours of soft tissues are modelled with the stiffness variation of conical spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method can describe different tissue deformation patterns using one single equation and also exhibit the typical mechanical behaviours of soft tissues.

  15. Work Term Assignment Spring 2017

    Sico, Mallory


    My tour in the Engineering Robotics directorate exceeded my expectations. I learned lessons about Creo, manufacturing and assembly, collaboration, and troubleshooting. During my first tour, last spring, I used Creo on a smaller project, but had limited experience with it before starting in the Dynamic Systems Test branch this spring. I gained valuable experience learning assembly design, sheet metal design and designing with intent for manufacturing and assembly. These skills came from working both on the hatch and the floor. I also learned to understand the intent of other designers on models I worked with. While redesigning the floor, I was modifying an existing part and worked to understand what the previous designer had done to make it fit with the new model. Through working with the machine shop and in the mock-up, I learned much more about manufacturing and assembly. I used a Dremel, rivet gun, belt sander, and countersink for the first time. Through taking multiple safety training for different machine shops, I learned new machine shop safety skills specific to each one. This semester also gave me new collaborative opportunities. I collaborated with engineers within my branch as well as with Human Factors and the building 10 machine shop. This experience helped me learn how to design for functionality and assembly, not only for what would be easiest in my designs. In addition to these experiences, I learned many lessons in troubleshooting. I was the first person in my office to use a Windows 10 computer. This caused unexpected issues with NASA services and programs, such as the Digital Data Management Server (DDMS). Because of this, I gained experience finding solutions to lockout and freeze issues as well as Creo specific settings. These will be useful skills to have in the future and will be implemented in future rotations. This co-op tour has motivated me more to finish my degree and pursue my academic goals. I intend to take a machining Career Gateway

  16. Rooster Springs Elementary Teams Up for Success

    Edwards, Jennifer


    For many schools, membership in PTA can become "expected," instead of being a positive, fun opportunity to involve parents and support students and teachers. With more than 800 students each year, Rooster Springs Elementary PTA (RSE PTA) in Dripping Springs, Texas, never worried about membership recruitment. The PTA often assumed that…

  17. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    Dirkes, R.L.


    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception 90 Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  18. A natural tracer investigation of the hydrological regime of Spring Creek Springs, the largest submarine spring system in Florida

    Dimova, Natasha T.; Burnett, William C.; Speer, Kevin


    This work presents results from a nearly two-year monitoring of the hydrologic dynamics of the largest submarine spring system in Florida, Spring Creek Springs. During the summer of 2007 this spring system was observed to have significantly reduced flow due to persistent drought conditions. Our examination of the springs revealed that the salinity of the springs' waters had increased significantly, from 4 in 2004 to 33 in July 2007 with anomalous high radon ( 222Rn, t1/2=3.8 days) in surface water concentrations indicating substantial saltwater intrusion into the local aquifer. During our investigation from August 2007 to May 2009 we deployed on an almost monthly basis a continuous radon-in-water measurement system and monitored the salinity fluctuations in the discharge area. To evaluate the springs' freshwater flux we developed three different models: two of them are based on water velocity measurements and either salinity or 222Rn in the associated surface waters as groundwater tracers. The third approach used only salinity changes within the spring area. The three models showed good agreement and the results confirmed that the hydrologic regime of the system is strongly correlated to local precipitation and water table fluctuations with higher discharges after major rain events and very low, even reverse flow during prolong droughts. High flow spring conditions were observed twice during our study, in the early spring and mid-late summer of 2008. However the freshwater spring flux during our observation period never reached that reported from a 1970s value of 4.9×10 6 m 3/day. The maximum spring flow was estimated at about 3.0×10 6 m 3/day after heavy precipitation in February-March 2008. As a result of this storm (total of 173 mm) the salinity in the spring area dropped from about 27 to 2 in only two days. The radon-in-water concentrations dramatically increased in parallel, from about 330 Bq/m 3 to about 6600 Bq/m 3. Such a rapid response suggests a direct

  19. European supply chain for valve springs

    Barthold, G. [Scherdel GmbH, Marktredwitz (Germany); Thureborn, D.; Hallberg, M. [Haldex Garphyttan AB (Sweden); Janssen, P. [Mittal Steel Ruhrort GmbH / Mittal Steel Hochfeld GmbH (Germany)


    Forced by the Kobe earthquake in 1995 and the lack of valve spring steel on the world market due to damages of the Kobe steel plant, the development of a European supply chain has been sped up. End of 1994 a super clean valve spring steel with a reasonable quality from a European source was available. A strong relationship between the steel producer (Mittal), the wire manufacturer (Haldex Garphyttan) and the spring maker (Scherdel) was established. A working group of the three companies holds meetings on a regular basis to discuss quality and development issues. Over the last years the supply chain has achieved significant improvements in terms of cleanliness and decarburisation of the wire rod. The continuous common advancement of the valve spring quality has enabled the valve spring failures in the field to be reduced to < 0.1 ppm. The development and market launch of new grades has been prepared. (orig.)

  20. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.


    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr

  1. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing


    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. SPring-8 beamline control system.

    Ohata, T; Konishi, H; Kimura, H; Furukawa, Y; Tamasaku, K; Nakatani, T; Tanabe, T; Matsumoto, N; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T


    The SPring-8 beamline control system is now taking part in the control of the insertion device (ID), front end, beam transportation channel and all interlock systems of the beamline: it will supply a highly standardized environment of apparatus control for collaborative researchers. In particular, ID operation is very important in a third-generation synchrotron light source facility. It is also very important to consider the security system because the ID is part of the storage ring and is therefore governed by the synchrotron ring control system. The progress of computer networking systems and the technology of security control require the development of a highly flexible control system. An interlock system that is independent of the control system has increased the reliability. For the beamline control system the so-called standard model concept has been adopted. VME-bus (VME) is used as the front-end control system and a UNIX workstation as the operator console. CPU boards of the VME-bus are RISC processor-based board computers operated by a LynxOS-based HP-RT real-time operating system. The workstation and the VME are linked to each other by a network, and form the distributed system. The HP 9000/700 series with HP-UX and the HP 9000/743rt series with HP-RT are used. All the controllable apparatus may be operated from any workstation.

  3. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.


    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  4. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.


    The onset of spring plant growth has shifted earlier in the year over the past several decades due to rising global temperatures. Earlier spring onset may cause phenological mismatches between the availability of plant resources and dependent animals, and potentially lead to more false springs, when subsequent freezing temperatures damage new plant growth. We used the extended spring indices to project changes in spring onset, defined by leaf out and by first bloom, and predicted false springs until 2100 in the conterminous United States (US) using statistically-downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 ensemble. Averaged over our study region, the median shift in spring onset was 23 days earlier in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario with particularly large shifts in the Western US and the Great Plains. Spatial variation in phenology was due to the influence of short-term temperature changes around the time of spring onset versus season long accumulation of warm temperatures. False spring risk increased in the Great Plains and portions of the Midwest, but remained constant or decreased elsewhere. We conclude that global climate change may have complex and spatially variable effects on spring onset and false springs, making local predictions of change difficult.

  5. Optimum Design of a Coil Spring for Improving the Performance of a Spring -Operated Mechanism

    Lee, Dae Woo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Yoo, Wan Suk


    In this study, a release test bed is designed to evaluate the dynamic behaviors of a coil spring. From the release tests, the dynamic behaviors of a coil spring are analyzed. A lumped parameter spring model was established for numerical simulation of a spring. The design variables of a coil spring are optimized by using the design of experiments approach. Two-level factorial designs are used for the design optimization, and the primary effects of the design variables are analyzed. Based on the results of the interaction analysis and design sensitivity analysis, the level of the design variables is rearranged. Finally, the mixed-level factorial design is used for the optimum design process. According to the optimum design of the opening spring, the dynamic performance of the spring-operated mechanism increases by 2.90

  6. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  7. Sampling and analysis of 100 Area springs


    This report is submitted in fulfillment of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-30-01, submit a report to EPA and Ecology evaluating the impact to the Columbia River from contaminated springs and seeps as described in the operable unit work plans listed in M-30-03. Springs, seeps, sediments, and the Columbia River were sampled for chemical and radiological analyses during the period September 16 through October 21, 1991. A total of 26 locations were sampled. Results of these analyses show that radiological and nonradiological contaminants continue to enter the Columbia River from the retired reactor areas of the 100 Area via the springs. The primary contaminants in the springs are strontium-90, tritium, and chromium. These contaminants were detected in concentrations above drinking water standards. Analysis of total organic carbon were run on all water samples collected; there is no conclusive evidence that organic constituents are entering the river through the springs. Total organic carbon analyses were generally higher for the surface water than for the springs. The results of this study will be used to develop a focused, yet flexible, long-term spring sampling program. Analysis of Columbia River water samples collected at the Hanford Townsite (i.e., downstream of the reactor areas) did not detect any Hanford-specific contaminants

  8. Shallow groundwater investigations at Weldon Spring, Missouri


    The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (MDNR-DGLS) conducted investigations of the upper aquifer in the vicinity of the abandoned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant in southwest St. Charles County, Missouri. The objective of the investigation was to better define the relationships between precipitation, surface runoff, groundwater recharge and shallow groundwater discharge within the study area, thereby assisting the Department of Energy in designing an appropriate groundwater monitoring plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The results of the investigations indicate that the upper aquifer has been affected by karst development but that well developed karst does not exist on or around the site. Dye traces conducted during the study have shown that surface water which leaves the site enters the subsurface in losing streams around the site and travels rapidly to one or more local springs. Upper aquifer recharge areas, constructed from dye trace and potentiometric data, generally follow surface water drainage patterns on the south side of the site, but cross surface-water drainage divides north of the site. Nine springs may receive recharge from site runoff, depending upon the amount of runoff. In addition to these springs, one perennial spring and two intermittent springs to the southwest of the site may receive recharge from site infiltration. 25 refs., 13 figs

  9. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.


    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  10. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.


    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures

  11. Vibro-spring particle size distribution analyser

    Patel, Ketan Shantilal


    This thesis describes the design and development of an automated pre-production particle size distribution analyser for particles in the 20 - 2000 μm size range. This work is follow up to the vibro-spring particle sizer reported by Shaeri. In its most basic form, the instrument comprises a horizontally held closed coil helical spring that is partly filled with the test powder and sinusoidally vibrated in the transverse direction. Particle size distribution data are obtained by stretching the spring to known lengths and measuring the mass of the powder discharged from the spring's coils. The size of the particles on the other hand is determined from the spring 'intercoil' distance. The instrument developed by Shaeri had limited use due to its inability to measure sample mass directly. For the device reported here, modifications are made to the original configurations to establish means of direct sample mass measurement. The feasibility of techniques for measuring the mass of powder retained within the spring are investigated in detail. Initially, the measurement of mass is executed in-situ from the vibration characteristics based on the spring's first harmonic resonant frequency. This method is often erratic and unreliable due to the particle-particle-spring wall interactions and the spring bending. An much more successful alternative is found from a more complicated arrangement in which the spring forms part of a stiff cantilever system pivoted along its main axis. Here, the sample mass is determined in the 'static mode' by monitoring the cantilever beam's deflection following the wanton termination of vibration. The system performance has been optimised through the variations of the mechanical design of the key components and the operating procedure as well as taking into account the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the system's response. The thesis also describes the design and development of the ancillary mechanisms. These include the pneumatic

  12. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri


    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  13. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment


    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  14. Diagenetic Changes in Common Hot Spring Microfacies

    Hinman, N. W.; Kendall, T. A.; MacKenzie, L. A.; Cady, S. D.


    The friable nature of silica hot spring deposits makes them susceptible to mechanical weathering. Rapid diagenesis must take place for these rocks to persist in the geologic record. The properties of two microfacies at two deposits were compared.

  15. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie


    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the “optical spring.” The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing

  16. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum


    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum. Requiem canticles. Choral Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch". Lausanne Pro Arte Choir, Suisse Romande Chamber Choir and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" Chandos CHAN 9408 (75 minutes:DDD)

  17. Coastal Energy Corporation, Willow Springs, MO

    notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Coastal Energy Corporation, located at 232 Burnham Road, Willow Springs, Missouri, for alleged violations at the facility located at or near that facility.

  18. Beamlines on the SPring-8 project

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment


    SPring-8 project is going to construct a ultrahigh-brilliance X-ray synchrotron radiation facility and commissioning of the storage ring is expected in Spring 1977. The facility will be available to scientists and engineers of universities, national laboratories and industries not only from Japan but also from abroad. 20 proposals for public beamlines are submitted to the Beamline Committee and the ten public beamlines are scheduled for completion by the end of 1997. (author)

  19. Visit to valuable water springs. 22. ; Kanazawa spring and springs at the mountain flank of Iwate volcano. Meisui wo tazunete. 22. ; Kanazawa shimizu to Iwate sanroku yusuigun

    Itadera, K. (Kanagawa Hot Springs Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan)); Shimano, Y. (Utsunomiya Bunsei Junior College, Tochigi (Japan))


    This paper describes the following matters on the springs at the mountain flank of Iwate volcano in Iwate Prefecture, with the Kanazawa spring as the main subject: The new and old Iwate volcanos have rock-bed flow deposits which resulted from mountain disintegration, distributed over their south, east and north flanks, and most of the spring water wells up in these areas; the south, east and north flanks have about 80 springs, about 30 springs, and about 10 springs, respectively; the number of springs and the water well-up scale show a trend of inverse proportion; the Kanazawa spring is a generic name of the several springs located on the north flank in the Kanazawa area; its main spring forms a spring pond with an area of about 100 m[sup 2] with a spring water temperature of about 11.5[degree]C, electric conductivity of 200 [mu] S/cm or higher, and a flow-out rate of 500 l/s or more; the Kanazawa spring is characterized by having as large total dissolved component amount as 170 mg/l or more and abundant amount of SO4[sup 2-] and Cl[sup -]; and the spring presents properties different from those in other springs. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Strontium isotopic composition of hot spring and mineral spring waters, Japan

    Notsu, Kenji; Wakita, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuji


    In Japan, hot springs and mineral springs are distributed in Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions as well as in granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions lacking in recent volcanic activity. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio was determined in hot spring and mineral spring waters obtained from 47 sites. The ratios of waters from Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions were in the range 0.703-0.708, which is lower than that from granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions (0.706-0.712). The geographical distribution of the ratios coincides with the bedrock geology, and particularly the ratios of the waters in Quaternary volcanic regions correlate with those of surrounding volcanic rocks. These features suggest that subsurface materials control the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of soluble components in the hot spring and mineral spring waters. (author)

  1. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.


    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  2. Groundwater monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.


    This paper presents groundwater monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in groundwater beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define groundwater contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Confronting this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  3. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle; Martin, Peter


    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  4. Ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.


    This paper presents ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is a former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in ground water beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define ground water contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Solving this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  5. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Springs in Oke–Igbo, Ondo State ...

    Michael Horsfall

    each spring and analyzed for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total ... Boiling of the spring water, is therefore, .... spring against sudden change in pH might also .... The altitude of the springs may have.

  6. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Reuven Yosef


    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  7. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)


    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  8. Characterization of the hydrogeology of the sacred Gihon Spring, Jerusalem: a deteriorating urban karst spring

    Amiel, Ronit Benami; Grodek, Tamir; Frumkin, Amos


    The Gihon Spring, Jerusalem, is important for the major monotheistic religions. Its hydrogeology and hydrochemistry is studied here in order to understand urbanization effects on karst groundwater resources, and promote better water management. High-resolution monitoring of the spring discharge, temperature and electrical conductivity, was performed, together with chemical and bacterial analysis. All these demonstrate a rapid response of the spring to rainfall events and human impact. A complex karst system is inferred, including conduit flow, fissure flow and diffuse flow. Electrical conductivity, Na+ and K+ values (2.0 mS/cm, 130 and 50 mg/l respectively) are very high compared to other nearby springs located at the town margins (0.6 mS/cm, 15 and <1 mg/l respectively), indicating considerable urban pollution in the Gihon area. The previously cited pulsating nature of the spring was not detected during the present high-resolution monitoring. This phenomenon may have ceased due to additional water sources from urban leakage and irrigation feeding the spring. The urbanization of the recharge catchment thus affects the spring water dramatically, both chemically and hydrologically. Appropriate measures should therefore be undertaken to protect the Gihon Spring and other karst aquifers threatened by rapid urbanization.

  9. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri


    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included

  10. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    Oh, Sung Ha; Choi, Bok Lok


    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses

  11. Manufacture of conical springs with elastic medium technology improvement

    Kurguzov, S. A.; Mikhailova, U. V.; Kalugina, O. B.


    This article considers the manufacturing technology improvement by using an elastic medium in the stamping tool forming space to improve the conical springs performance characteristics and reduce the costs of their production. Estimation technique of disk spring operational properties is developed by mathematical modeling of the compression process during the operation of a spring. A technique for optimizing the design parameters of a conical spring is developed, which ensures a minimum voltage value when operated in the edge of the spring opening.

  12. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter


    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  13. Use of SPring-8 in drug development

    Nishijima, Kazumi


    Protein structure analysis consortium was established by 21 drug companies and has analyzed protein structures using the beam line BL32B2 of SPring-8 since September in 2002. Outline of the protein structure analysis consortium, contribution of SPring-8 to drug development, and the present status and future of use of SPring-8 are stated. For examples of structure analysis, the human nuclear enzyme (PARP-1) fragment complex crystal structure, human ISG20, human dipeptidine peptidase IV, human cMDH, chromatin binding human nuclear enzyme complex, change of structure of each step of tyrosine activation of bacteria tyrosine tRNA synthetase are described. Contribution of analysis of protein structure and functions to drug development, development process of new drug, drug screening using compounds database on the basis of the three dimensional structure of receptor active site, genome drug development, and the effects of a target drug on the market are explained. (S.Y.)

  14. Nonlinear Squeeze Film Dampers without Centralized Springs

    Zhu Changsheng


    Full Text Available In this paper, the bifurcation behavior of a flexible rotor supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs is analyzed numerically by means of rotor trajectories, Poincar maps, bifurcation diagrams and power spectra, based on the short bearing and cavitated film assumptions. It is shown that there also exist two different operations (i.e., socalled bistable operations in some speed regions in the rotor system supported on the nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs. In the bistable operation speed regions, the rotor system exhibits synchronous, sub-synchronous, sub-super-synchronous and almost-periodic as well as nonperiodic motions. The periodic bifurcation behaviors of the rotor system supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs are very complex and require further investigations.

  15. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.


    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  16. Hydrogeological characterization of peculiar Apenninic springs

    Cervi, F.; Marcaccio, M.; Petronici, F.; Borgatti, L.


    In the northern Apennines of Italy, springs are quite widespread over the slopes. Due to the outcropping of low-permeability geologic units, they are generally characterized by low-yield capacities and high discharge variability during the hydrologic year. In addition, low-flow periods (discharge lower than 1 Ls-1) reflect rainfall and snowmelt distribution and generally occur in summer seasons. These features strongly condition the management for water-supply purposes, making it particularly complex. The "Mulino delle Vene" springs (420 m a.s.l., Reggio Emilia Province, Italy) are one of the largest in the Apennines for mean annual discharge and dynamic storage and are considered as the main water resource in the area. They flow out from several joints and fractures at the bottom of an arenite rock mass outcrop in the vicinity of the Tresinaro River. To date, these springs have not yet been exploited, as the knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer and their hydrological behaviour is not fully achieved. This study aims to describe the recharge processes and to define the hydrogeological boundaries of the aquifer. It is based on river and spring discharge monitoring and groundwater balance assessment carried out during the period 2012-2013. Results confirm the effectiveness of the approach, as it allowed the total aliquot of discharge of the springs to be assessed. Moreover, by comparing the observed discharge volume with the one calculated with the groundwater balance, the aquifer has been identified with the arenite slab (mean altitude of 580 m a.s.l.), extended about 5.5 km2 and located 1 km west of the monitored springs.

  17. Spring and Its Global Echo: Quantitative Analysis

    A. V. Korotayev


    Full Text Available It is shown that the Arab Spring acted as a trigger for a global wave of socio-political destabilization, which signifi cantly exceeded the scale of the Arab Spring itself and affected absolutely all world-system zones. Only in 2011 the growth of the global number of largescale anti-government demonstrations, riots and political strikes was to a high degree (although not entirely due to their growth in the Arab world. In the ensuing years, the Arab countries rather made a negative contribution to a very noticeable further increase in the global number of large-scale anti-government demonstrations, riots and general strikes (the global intensity of all these three important types of socio-political destabilization continued to grow despite the decline in the Arab world. Thus, for all these three important indicators of sociopolitical destabilization, the scale of the global echo of the Arab Spring has overshadowed the scale of the Arab Spring itself. Only as regards the fourth considered indicator (major terrorist attacks / guerrilla warfare the scale of the global echo for the entire period considered did not overshadow the scale of the Arab Spring (and, incidentally, «Winter» - and in 2014-2015 Arab countries continued to make a disproportionate contribution to the historically record global values of this sad indicator – global number of major terrorist attacks/ guerilla warfare. To conclude, triggered by the Arab Spring, the global wave of socio-political destabilization led after 2010 to a very signifi cant growth of socio-political instability in absolutely all World System zones. However, this global destabilization wave manifested itself in different World System zones in different ways and not completely synchronously.

  18. Integrated geophysical investigations of Main Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA

    Saribudak, By Mustafa; Hauwert, Nico M.


    Barton Springs is a major discharge site for the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and is located in Zilker Park, Austin, Texas. Barton Springs actually consists of at least four springs. The Main Barton Springs discharges into the Barton Springs pool from the Barton Springs fault and several outlets along a fault, from a cave, several fissures, and gravel-filled solution cavities on the floor of the pool west of the fault. Surface geophysical surveys [resistivity imaging, induced polarization (IP), self-potential (SP), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR)] were performed across the Barton Springs fault and at the vicinity of the Main Barton Springs in south Zilker Park. The purpose of the surveys was two-fold: 1) locate the precise location of submerged conduits (caves, voids) carrying flow to Main Barton Springs; and 2) characterize the geophysical signatures of the fault crossing Barton Springs pool. Geophysical results indicate significant anomalies to the south of the Barton Springs pool. A majority of these anomalies indicate a fault-like pattern, in front of the south entrance to the swimming pool. In addition, resistivity and SP results, in particular, suggest the presence of a large conduit in the southern part of Barton Springs pool. The groundwater flow-path to the Main Barton Springs could follow the locations of those resistivity and SP anomalies along the newly discovered fault, instead of along the Barton Springs fault, as previously thought.

  19. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    Watson, M.


    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  20. Fuel column retainer using radially compressed spring

    Johansson, E.B.


    This patent describes a fuel rod construction including a fuel rod having an inside cylindrical diameter, cylindrical fuel pellets placed within the rod. The cylindrical fuel pellets having a diameter less than the inside cylindrical diameter and being stacked end to end for a distance less than the length of the fuel rod inside the fuel rod; Zircaloy end plugs for sealing the rod at either end; a compression spring adjacent one end of the rods for biasing the pellets to and towards the other end of the rod. An improvement in the Zircaloy spring is described

  1. Hydrogeochemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Nasrettin Hoca Springs, Eskisehir, Turkey

    Mehmet ÇELİK


    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to investigate the water quality, the contamination and water-rock interaction of the Nasrettin Hoca springs, with an ultimate aim of establishing protection measures. Within the scope of this study, the springs in and around the catchment area, Bağbaşı springs, Hatip spring, Ali spring, Saracık Fountain and Babadat spring, were investigated. The springs are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type when basic hydrogeochemical features are considered, are under the influence of marble-limestone and meta ophiolitic units located in the recharge area and are of shallow circulation. The trace element contents of the springs show the influence of the carbonate rocks comprising the reservoir (Sr and the basement rocks (Ni, Al. The protection areas of Nasrettin Hoca springs against contamination are determined as three different zones by considering the hydrogeologic and topographical features of the region and the Turkish Standards

  2. Standards, Assessments & Opting Out, Spring 2015

    Advance Illinois, 2015


    In the spring, Illinois students will take new state assessments that reflect the rigor and relevance of the new Illinois Learning Standards. But some classmates will sit out and join the pushback against standardized testing. Opt-out advocates raise concerns about over-testing, and the resulting toll on students as well as the impact on classroom…

  3. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  4. Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning


    acting on the SFD are presented. It is worth mentioning, that the maps and diagrams can be used as design guidance. Finally, a comparison between the numerical results and experimental result is facilitated in form of waterfall diagrams. For this, a full scale model of the arc-spring damper was designed...

  5. Tried and True: Springing into Linear Models

    Darling, Gerald


    In eighth grade, students usually learn about forces in science class and linear relationships in math class, crucial topics that form the foundation for further study in science and engineering. An activity that links these two fundamental concepts involves measuring the distance a spring stretches as a function of how much weight is suspended…

  6. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.


    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  7. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 18, Spring 1998


    our arms.” JFQ ■ O F F T H E S H E L F 142 JFQ / Spring 1998 Colonel Harry G. Summers, Jr., USA (Ret.), is a syndicated columnist and noted lecturer...a syndicate leader at a German staff college is considered a high-prestige post that usually presages promo- tion to flag rank. Two other foreign

  8. Manomaterials research activities at the SPring-8

    Kimura, Sigeru; Kobayashi, Keisuke


    The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan started the 'Nanotechnology Support Project' from 2002 for the purpose to support nanotechnology researches. As part of the nanotechnology support project, SPring-8 has supported nanotechnology researches using synchrotron radiation. In this article, some research activities of the project are introduced. (author)

  9. Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.


    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

  10. The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson.

    Kerstetter, Ned


    Presents a lesson plan examining Rachel Carson's call to arms concerning the harmful consequences of pesticides. Students view a video documentary on Carson's work and read a synopsis of her book, "Silent Spring." Assessment is provided by various activities including writing assignments, creating posters, and editorial cartoons. (MJP)

  11. Tool Releases Optical Elements From Spring Brackets

    Gum, J. S.


    Threaded hooks retract bracket arms holding element. Tool uses three hooks with threaded shanks mounted in ring-shaped holder to pull on tabs to release optical element. One person can easily insert or remove optical element (such as prism or lens) from spring holder or bracket with minimal risk of damage.

  12. Spring-recharging in the Himalayas

    Joshi, Anil P.


    in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

  13. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin


    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  14. A springs actuated finger exoskeleton: From mechanical design to spring variables evaluation.

    Bortoletto, Roberto; Mello, Ashley N; Piovesan, Davide


    In the context of post-stroke patients, suffering of hemiparesis of the hand, robot-aided neuro-motor rehabilitation allows for intensive rehabilitation treatments and quantitative evaluation of patients' progresses. This work presents the design and evaluation of a spring actuated finger exoskeleton. In particular, the spring variables and the interaction forces between the assembly and the hand were investigated, in order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed exoskeleton.

  15. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena


    theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing......-linear (second order) high frequency springing analyses with unidirectional wave excitation are much more scattered. Some of the reasons are different level of wave excitation accounted in the different Executive Summary ivtheories, inclusion of additional hydrodynamic phenomena e.g. slamming in the time...... because, to the author's knowledge, this is the first time that the wave data were collected simultaneously with stress records on the deck of the ship. This is highly appreciated because one can use the precise input and not only the most probable sea state statistics. The actual picture of the sea waves...


    Alžbeta Žofajová


    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  17. Modelling Flat Spring performance using FEA

    Fatola, B O; Keogh, P; Hicks, B


    This paper reports how the stiffness of a Flat Spring can be predicted using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The analysis of a Flat Spring is a nonlinear problem involving contact mechanics, geometric nonlinearity and material property nonlinearity. Research has been focused on improving the accuracy of the model by identifying and exploring the significant assumptions contributing to errors. This paper presents results from some of the models developed using FEA software. The validation process is shown to identify where improvements can be made to the model assumptions to increase the accuracy of prediction. The goal is to achieve an accuracy level of ±10 % as the intention is to replace practical testing with FEA modelling, thereby reducing the product development time and cost. Results from the FEA models are compared with experimental results to validate the accuracy.

  18. Fast Times During Spring Breaks: Are Traffic Fatalities Another Consequence?

    French, Michael; Gumus, Gulcin


    Every year in the United States, millions of college students travel for spring break, spending billions of dollars. We examine a potential adverse consequence of spring break that has received little attention in the literature - traffic safety. In particular, we estimate the impact of spring break season on fatal passenger vehicle crashes. Using daily county-level longitudinal data on traffic fatalities in popular spring break destinations from 1982-2011, we conduct separate analyses by age...

  19. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 4, Spring 1994


    Martin J. Peters, Jr. Calvin B. Kelley Art Direction Typography and Design Division Government Printing Office Joint Force Quarterly is published by...within larger organizations. For example, the concept 6 JFQ / Spring 1994 of the combined joint task force for Europe is designed to provide just such...or financial, may be the shared outcome for all parties to future conflicts. The image of war, shaped over centuries, is precise, graphic , and

  20. Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation

    Winterflood, J; Blair, D G


    Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance.

  1. Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation

    Winterflood, J; Barber, T; Blair, D G


    Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance

  2. Recent results from LEPS at SPring-8

    Nakano, T.


    The polarized photon beam at SPring-8 is produced by backward-Compton scattering of laser photons from 8 GeV electrons. The maximum energy of the photon beam is 2.4 GeV which is above the ss-bar production threshold. We report the status of the facility and new results obtained by experiments with this high quality beam. (author)

  3. Estimating Spring Condensation on the Great Lakes

    Meyer, A.; Welp, L.


    The Laurentian Great Lakes region provides opportunities for shipping, recreation, and consumptive water use to a large part of the United States and Canada. Water levels in the lakes fluctuate yearly, but attempts to model the system are inadequate because the water and energy budgets are still not fully understood. For example, water levels in the Great Lakes experienced a 15-year low period ending in 2013, the recovery of which has been attributed partially to decreased evaporation and increased precipitation and runoff. Unlike precipitation, the exchange of water vapor between the lake and the atmosphere through evaporation or condensation is difficult to measure directly. However, estimates have been constructed using off-shore eddy covariance direct measurements of latent heat fluxes, remote sensing observations, and a small network of monitoring buoys. When the lake surface temperature is colder than air temperature as it is in spring, condensation is larger than evaporation. This is a relatively small component of the net annual water budget of the lakes, but the total amount of condensation may be important for seasonal energy fluxes and atmospheric deposition of pollutants and nutrients to the lakes. Seasonal energy fluxes determine, and are influenced by, ice cover, water and air temperatures, and evaporation in the Great Lakes. We aim to quantify the amount of spring condensation on the Great Lakes using the National Center for Atmospheric Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NCEP NARR) Data for Winter 2013 to Spring 2017 and compare the condensation values of spring seasons following high volume, high duration and low volume, low duration ice cover.

  4. School in nature from spring to winter

    MLSOVÁ, Martina


    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  5. Natural Radioactivity of Thermal Springs in Croatia

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.; Cesar, D.


    The Republic of Croatia is rich in thermal and mineral springs, which are widely popular for medical therapy, tourism, recreation, rehabilitation and drinking. Considering the popularity of the spas and the habits of our population to use the beneficial effects of these springs it is of interest to estimate the radiation doses received by patients or tourists staying in the spas. In view of this, the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb has been engaged in a research programme dealing with the natural radioactivity concentration in the Croatian thermal and mineral waters. The aim of this paper was to estimate total natural radioactivity (Ra, Ra decay) in thermal and mineral waters from the several spas in Croatia. On basis of the obtained data the Ra and Ra activity ratio was calculated for each investigated spa. In this study possible effects of natural radioactivity were determined for each radionuclide using a derived concentration (DC) for a group of individuals for municipal drinking water supplies. Values exceeding DC represent radionuclide concentrations for radioactive waste. Total percentage ratio for each spring was also calculated. Since natural radioactivity in some spas exceeds DC value the practise of using these waters should be regularly estimated and monitored in order to avoid any possible health effects. (author)

  6. Microbiology of Kamchatka Peninsula Hot Springs

    Bonch-Osmolovsk, E.


    Hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Geyser Valley, Moutnovsky Volcano (Kamchatka Peninsula) served as the sources of isolation of numerous thermophilic prokaryotes, many of them representing new taxa. Among new isolates there were hyperthermophilic archaea - neutrophilic or acidophilic anaerobic organotrophs, able to use a wide range of polymeric organic substrates. Bacterial isolates were in majority represented by moderate thermophiles - organotrophs and lithoautotrophs. Latter group consisted of anaerobes oxidizing molecular hydrogen in the course of sulfate, sulfur or iron reduction, and of anaerobic CO-oxidizing, hydrogen-producing bacteria. Some of new isolates represented deep phylogenetic lineages in Bacteria domain. Microbial activity in Kamchatka hot springs was studied by means of radioisotopic tracing. The rates of methanogenesis, acetogenesis, inorganic carbon assimilation, acetate oxidation were determined in three different hot springs with pH ranging from 3.0 to 8.5 and water temeperature being in the range from 55 to 85oC. The results indicated the presence and activity of novel metabolic groups of thermophilic prokaryotes that so far have not been known in laboratory cultures.

  7. N Springs expedited response action proposal


    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  8. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)


    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  9. Flow-induced vibration of helical coil compression springs

    Stokes, F.E.; King, R.A.


    Helical coil compression springs are used in some nuclear fuel assembly designs to maintain holddown and to accommodate thermal expansion. In the reactor environment, the springs are exposed to flowing water, elevated temperatures and pressures, and irradiation. Flow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the spring may excite the spring coils and cause vibration. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the flow-induced vibration (FIV) response characteristics of the helical coil compression springs. Experimental tests indicate that a helical coil spring responds like a single circular cylinder in cross-flow. Two FIV excitation mechanisms control spring vibration. Namely: 1) Turbulent Buffeting causes small amplitude vibration which increases as a function of velocity squared. 2) Vortex Shedding causes large amplitude vibration when the spring natural frequency and Strouhal frequency coincide. Several methods can be used to reduce or to prevent vortex shedding large amplitude vibrations. One method is compressing the spring to a coil pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2 thereby suppressing the vibration amplitude. Another involves modifying the spring geometry to alter its stiffness and frequency characteristics. These changes result in separation of the natural and Strouhal frequencies. With an understanding of how springs respond in the flowing water environment, the spring physical parameters can be designed to avoid large amplitude vibration. (orig.)

  10. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.


    A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster

  11. Thermal algae in certain radioactive springs in Japan, (3)

    Mifune, Masaaki; Hirose, Hiroyuki.


    Shikano Hot Springs are located at five km to the south of Hamamura Station on the Sanin Line in Tottori Prefecture. The water temperature and the pH of the springs are 40.2 - 61.2 0 C, and 7.5 - 7.8, respectively. They belong to simple thermals. Hamamura Hot Springs are located in the neighbourhood of Hamamura Station. The highest radon content of the hot springs is 175.1 x 10 -10 Ci/l, and the great part of the springs belong to radioactive ones. From the viewpoint of the major ionic constituents, they are also classified under weak salt springs, sulfated salt springs, and simple thermals. Regarding the habitates of the algal flora, the water temperature and the pH of the springs are 28.0 - 68.0 0 C, and 6.8 - 7.4, respectively. The thermal algae found by Ikoma and Doi at Hamamura Hot Springs were two species of Cyanophyceae. By the authors, nine species and one variety of Cyanophyceae including Ikoma and Doi's two species were newly found at Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs. Chlorophyceous alga was not found. The dominant thermal algae of these hot springs were Mastigocladus laminosus, and the other algae which mainly consist of Oscillatoriaceous algae. From these points, it seems that the thermal algae of Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs belong to the normal type of thermal algae, and they are different from the thermal algae of Ikeda Mineral Springs and Masutomi Hot Springs which belong to strongly radioactive springs. (author)

  12. Inactivation of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor inoculated into Peruvian ''choro'' mussels (Aulacomya ater) and two species of clams (Argopecten purpuratus and Gari solida) using medium-dose irradiation

    Torres, Z.; Bernuy, B.; Kahn, G.; Zapata, G.; Vivanco, M.; Guzman, E.; Leon, R.


    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor inoculated through the natural feeding system into three species of bivalve mollusks from the Peruvian Pacific coast: ''choro'' mussels (Aulacome ater), ''abanico'' clams (Argopecten purpuratus), and common clams (Gari solida), was determined in vivo. The D 10 value obtained in vivo was 0.14 kGy in all mollusks tested. Concurrent studies conducted to determine the potential use of irradiation to extend the microbiological shelf-life of the mollusks during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C indicated that a dose of 1.0 kGy was optimal for choro mussels and abanico clams, whereas 2.0 kGy produced the best results when treating common clams. Shelf-life extension thus achieved was 31 days for choro mussels, 16 days for abanico clams, and 21 days for common clams. Non-irradiated control samples of all mollusks spoiled after 17 days of refrigerated storage. There were no significant (p<.05) adverse effects from the application of the optimal radiation treatments on the sensory characteristics (i.e. appearance, odor, flavor, and texture) of the mollusks. Total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and pH values were examined for use as indexes of seafood freshness. (author)

  13. Various Extraction Methods Influence the Adhesive Properties of Dried Distiller’s Grains and Solubles, and Press Cakes of Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L. and Lesquerella [Lesquerella fendleri (A. Gary S. Watson], in the Fabrication of Lignocellulosic Composites

    Brent Tisserat


    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic composite (LC panels were fabricated using an adhesive matrix prepared from three different agricultural by-products: dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L. press cake (PPC, or lesquerella [Lesquerella fendleri (A. Gary S. Watson] press cake (LPC reinforced with Paulownia elongata L. wood (PW particles. The goal in this study was to assess the mechanical properties of composites utilizing these low-cost matrix materials, which were subjected to various oil extraction methods. Three types of oil extraction methods were utilized: ethanol, supercritical CO2, and hexane, in order to generate matrix materials. These matrix materials were mixed with equal proportions of PW and hot pressed to generate panels. Overall, hexane extraction was the best method to enhance the mechanical properties of the matrices used to fabricate lignocellulosic composites. LPC’s produced a matrix that gave the resulting composite superior flexural properties compared to composites generated from DDGS and PPC matrices. The mechanical properties of composites generated from soy products (soybean meal flour or soy protein isolate were similar to those derived from DDGS, PPC, or LPC. The dimensional stability properties of LCs were improved when the hexane extraction method was employed, unlike with the other extraction methods that were used to generate matrices.

  14. Structural analysis of compression helical spring used in suspension system

    Jain, Akshat; Misra, Sheelam; Jindal, Arun; Lakhian, Prateek


    The main aim of this work has to develop a helical spring for shock absorber used in suspension system which is designed to reduce shock impulse and liberate kinetic energy. In a vehicle, it increases comfort by decreasing amplitude of disturbances and it improves ride quality by absorbing and dissipating energy. When a vehicle is in motion on a road and strikes a bump, spring comes into action quickly. After compression, spring will attempt to come to its equilibrium state which is on level road. Helical springs can be made lighter with more strength by reducing number of coils and increasing the area. In this research work, a helical spring is modeled and analyzed to substitute the existing steel spring which is used in suspension. By using different materials, stress and deflection of helical spring can be varied. Comparability between existing spring and newly replaced spring is used to verify the results. For finding detailed stress distribution, finite element analysis is used to find stresses and deflection in both the helical springs. Finite element analysis is a method which is used to find proximate solutions of a physical problem defined in a finite domain. In this research work, modeling of spring is accomplished using Solid Works and analysis on Ansys.

  15. Top Nozzle Holddown Spring Optimization of KSNP Fuel Assembly

    Lee, Seong Ki; Park, Nam Kyu; Kim, Hyeong Koo; Lee, Joon Ro; Kim, Jae Won


    Nuclear fuel assembly for Korea Standard Nuclear Power (KSNP) Plant has 4 helical compression springs at the upper end of it. The springs, in conjunction with the fuel assembly weight, apply a holddown force against excess of buoyancy forces and the upward hydraulic forces due to the reactor coolant flow. Thus the holddown spring is to be designed such that the positive net downward force will be maintained for all normal and anticipated transient flow and temperature conditions in the nuclear reactor. With satisfying these in-reactor requirements of the fuel assembly holddown spring. Under the assumption that spring density is constant, the volume nozzle holddown spring. Under the assumption that spring density is constant, the volume minimization is executed by using the design variables, viz., wire diameter, mean coil diameter, minimization is executed by using the design variables, viz., wire diameter, mean coil diameter are within the compatible range of the fuel assembly structural components. Based on these conditions, the optimum design of the holddown spring is obtained considering the reactor operating condition and by using ANSYS code. The optimized spring has the properties that are a decreased volume and increased stiffness, compared with the existing one even if the absolute values are very similar each other. The holddown spring design features and the algorithm developed in this study could be directly applicable to the current commercial production. Therefore, it could be used to enhance the design efficiency and the functional performance of the spring, and to reduce a material cost a little

  16. Shape modification for decreasing the spring stiffness of double-plate nozzle type spacer grid spring

    Lee, K. H.; Kang, H. S.; Song, K. N.; Yun, K. H.; Kim, H. K.


    Nozzle of the double-plated grid plays the role of the spirng to support a fuel rod as well as the coolant path in grid. The nozzle was known to be necessary to reduce the spring stiffness for supporting performance. In this study, the contact analysis between the fuel rod and the newly designed nozzle was performed by ABAQUS computer code to propose the preferable shape in term of spring performance. Two small cut at the upper and lower part of the nozzle appeared to have a minor effect in decreasing the nozzle stiffness. A long slot at the center of the nozzle was turned out not only to decrease the spring constant as desired but also to increase the elastic displacement

  17. Characteristics Analysis and Testing of SMA Spring Actuator

    Jianzuo Ma


    Full Text Available The biasing form two-way shape memory alloy (SMA actuator composed of SMA spring and steel spring is analyzed. Based on the force equilibrium equation, the relationship between load capacity of SMA spring and geometric parameters is established. In order to obtain the characteristics of SMA spring actuator, the output force and output displacement of SMA spring under different temperatures are analyzed by the theoretical model and the experimental method. Based on the shape memory effect of SMA, the relationship of the SMA spring actuator's output displacement with the temperature, the stress and strain, the material parameters, and the size parameters is established. The results indicate that the trend of theoretical results is basically consistent with the experimental data. The output displacement of SMA spring actuator is increased with the increasing temperature.

  18. Stiffness and design for strength of trapezoidal Belleville springs

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli


    in this paper. Finite element results are compared with analytical predictions and critically analysed in terms of the effect of Poisson ratio, overall stiffness, and stress distribution in the spring. This is done in order to verify the range of validity of design standards. Finite element analysis emerges......Belleville springs or coned disc springs are commonly used in machine design. The geometric dimensions of the spring and the determination of non-linear force–displacement curve are regulated by different standards. However, the theory behind Belleville spring design standards is founded on a study...... published in 1936. Furthermore, the common spring design with cross-sections of uniform thickness poses problems in terms of non-uniformity of stress distribution. In view of this, non-linear three-dimensional finite element analyses of spring designs including uniform or variable thickness are carried out...

  19. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri


    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  20. Phototrophy in Mildly Acidic Hot Spring Ecosystems

    Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.


    Microbial light-driven reduction of carbon in continental hydrothermal ecosystems is restricted to environments at temperatures less than 73 °C. In circumneutral and alkaline systems bacterial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophs) are suggested to be principally responsible for this activity whereas algal (i.e., eukaryotic) phototrophs are thought to be responsible for this activity in acidic systems. In Yellowstone National Park numerous examples of phototrophic microbial communities exist at high and low pH, while hot springs with intermediate pH (values 3-5) are rare and commonly dilute. It is thought that the transition from algal photosynthesis to bacterial photosynthesis occurs within this pH range. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced bacterial and eukaryal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, analyzed pigments, and performed comprehensive geochemical measurements from 12 hot springs within this pH realm. At all sites, the largest phototrophic population was either comprised of Cyanobacteria or affiliated with the algal order Cyanidiales, which are ubiquitous in acidic springs, yet abundant sequences of both lineages were present in 8 of the 12 sites. Nevertheless, some of these samples exceeded the known temperature limit of the algae (56 °C), suggesting that these populations are dead or inactive. Indeed, one site yielded evidence for a large Cyanidiales population as the only phototrophs present, yet an experiment at the time of sampling failed to demonstrate light-driven carbon fixation, and analysis of extracted pigments showed a large amount of the chlorophyll degradation product pheophorbide a and very little intact chlorophyll, indicating photosynthesis occurred at this site when conditions were different. Our observations illustrate the dynamic nature of these systems that may be transiently conducive to photosynthesis, which may open niches for phototrophs of both domains and likely played a role in the evolution of photosynthesis.

  1. Proceedings of the KNS spring meeting


    This proceedings contains articles of 2004 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 27-28, 2004 in Gyeongju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 10 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: reactor physics and nuclear reactor design, thermodynamics and fluid flow, reactor operation and control, reactor safety, reactor fuels and nuclear materials, fuel cycle and waste management, radiation protection, nuclear fusion and laser technology, fuel cycle and waste management, nuclear fuel and nuclear materials, radiation protection, radiation application, life time management and decontamination, nuclear structure, nuclear beam application and nuclear fusion, nuclear policy. (Yi, J. H.)

  2. Proceedings of the KNS spring meeting


    This proceedings contains articles of 2003 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 29-30, 2003 in Gyeongju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 12 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: reactor physics and nuclear reactor design, reactor operation and control, thermodynamics and fluid flow, reactor safety, reactor fuels and nuclear materials, fuel cycle and waste management, radiation protection, nuclear fusion and laser technology, fuel cycle and waste management, nuclear fuel and nuclear materials, radiation protection, radiation application, life time management and decontamination, nuclear structure, nuclear physics and nuclear fusion, nuclear policy. (Yi, J. H.)

  3. Spring-block Model for Barkhausen Noise

    Kovacs, K.; Brechet, Y.; Neda, Z.


    A simple mechanical spring-block model is used for studying Barkhausen noise (BN). The model incorporates the generally accepted physics of domain wall movement and pinning. Computer simulations on this model reproduces the main features of the hysteresis loop and Barkhausen jumps. The statistics of the obtained Barkhausen jumps follows several scaling laws, in qualitative agreement with experimental results. The model consists of a one-dimensional frictional spring-block system. The blocks model the Bloch-walls that separate inversely oriented magnetic domains, and springs correspond to the magnetized regions. Three types of realistic forces are modelled with this system: 1. the force resulting from the magnetic energy of the neighboring domains in external magnetic field (modelled by forces having alternating orientations and acting directly on the blocks); 2. the force resulting from the magnetic self-energy of each domain (modelled by the elastic forces of the springs); 3. the pinning forces acting on the domain walls (modelled by position dependent static friction acting on blocks). The dynamics of the system is governed by searching for equilibrium: one particular domain wall can jump to the next pinning center if the resultant of forces 1. and 2. is greater then the pinning force. The external magnetic field is successively increased (or decreased) and the system is relaxed to mechanical equilibrium. During the simulations we are monitoring the variation of the magnetization focusing on the shape of the hysteresis loop, power spectrum, jump size (avalanche size) distribution, signal duration distribution, signal area distribution. The simulated shape of the hysteresis loops fulfills all the requirements for real magnetization phenomena. The power spectrum indicates different behavior in the low (1/f noise) and high (white noise) frequency region. All the relevant distribution functions show scaling behavior over several decades of magnitude with a naturally


    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota


    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  5. Novosadski golozrni, a spring oat variety

    Pržulj Novo


    Full Text Available The naked oat variety Novosadski golozrni was developed from a cross between the variety Adam and a spring-type naked oat line from Canada. The variety is early, medium tall, with excellent resistance to lodging. The yield of Novosadski golozrni is 30-40% lower than that of the hulled standard and it is to the largest measure dependent on the interaction variety x year x location. The variety has high contents of proteins and fats (19.2% DM and 6.2% DM, respectively and a low cellulose content (2.8% DM. .

  6. South Atlantic Humanities Center Seminars -- Spring 2004

    Elliott, Jean


    The South Atlantic Humanities Center (SAHC) at Virginia Tech is sponsoring several seminars this spring.•À_•À_ SAHC is a partnership of the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Virginia Tech, and the University of Virginia.•À_•À_ SAHC focuses on the U.S. South Atlantic from a regional and transatlantic perspective. It explores and preserves the rich heritage of a region stretching from Virginia to the Virgin Islands.•À_•À_ It engages artists and performers, writers and filmmakers, teachers...

  7. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin


    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  8. The United States and the Arab Spring

    Timo Kivimäki


    Full Text Available This article reveals, by studying correlative relationships between US regime support and regime properties, that the US foreign policy in the Middle East has traditionally helped governments to limit the political participation of Islamists, communists, enemies of Israel and populations that could be hostile to the US oil interests. This way the US economic and strategic security interests have contributed to human insecurity in the region. With the exception of the last interest, the US has relaxed its support for repression of the above-mentioned groups. This seems to be one of the international factors that made the Arab Spring possible.

  9. Getting started with Spring Framework a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework

    Sharma, J


    Getting started with Spring Framework is a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework. The examples (consisting of 74 sample projects) that accompany this book are based on Spring 4.3 and Java 8. You can download the examples described in this book from the following GitHub This book is meant for Java developers with little or no knowledge of Spring Framework. Getting started with Spring Framework, Third Edition has been updated to reflect changes in Spring 4.3 and also includes new chapters on Java-based configuration and Spring Data (covers Spring Data JPA and Spring Data MongoDB projects). The existing chapters have been revised to include information on Java-based configuration. The book also includes some new information on bean definition profiles, importing application context XML files, lazy autowiring, creating custom qualifier annotations, JSR 349 annotations, spring-messaging module, Java 8's Optional type, and s...

  10. Annual report of SPring-8, 1996


    This report summarizes the activities of the SPring-8 Project in 1996. The purpose of the SPring-8 Project is to construct the world's most brilliant synchrotron radiation source in the soft and hard x-ray regions. The construction of the facility started in 1990, and the Project approaches its final stage of construction with the most outstanding progress in 1996 being the successful commissioning of the injector linac and the booster synchrotron. Installation of the linac was completed by the end of 1995 and the power test of the entire system started in January 1996. After the RF aging of the waveguide and accelerator columns for three months, the commissioning of the linac started on August 1 and it succeeded to accelerate electrons up to 1 GeV one week later. As for the booster synchrotron, its installation and precise alignment were completed in September. After the full power test of two months, the synchrotron commissioning started on December 6. Electrons were accelerated up to 8 GeV on December 16. The installation of all magnets in the storage ring was completed and the precise alignment of focusing magnets is under way. The installation of vacuum chambers and RF cavities has already been completed and the evacuation test is going on. The commissioning of the storage ring is scheduled in March, 1997. (M.N.)

  11. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study


    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  12. Hard-tip, soft-spring lithography.

    Shim, Wooyoung; Braunschweig, Adam B; Liao, Xing; Chai, Jinan; Lim, Jong Kuk; Zheng, Gengfeng; Mirkin, Chad A


    Nanofabrication strategies are becoming increasingly expensive and equipment-intensive, and consequently less accessible to researchers. As an alternative, scanning probe lithography has become a popular means of preparing nanoscale structures, in part owing to its relatively low cost and high resolution, and a registration accuracy that exceeds most existing technologies. However, increasing the throughput of cantilever-based scanning probe systems while maintaining their resolution and registration advantages has from the outset been a significant challenge. Even with impressive recent advances in cantilever array design, such arrays tend to be highly specialized for a given application, expensive, and often difficult to implement. It is therefore difficult to imagine commercially viable production methods based on scanning probe systems that rely on conventional cantilevers. Here we describe a low-cost and scalable cantilever-free tip-based nanopatterning method that uses an array of hard silicon tips mounted onto an elastomeric backing. This method-which we term hard-tip, soft-spring lithography-overcomes the throughput problems of cantilever-based scanning probe systems and the resolution limits imposed by the use of elastomeric stamps and tips: it is capable of delivering materials or energy to a surface to create arbitrary patterns of features with sub-50-nm resolution over centimetre-scale areas. We argue that hard-tip, soft-spring lithography is a versatile nanolithography strategy that should be widely adopted by academic and industrial researchers for rapid prototyping applications.

  13. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Ayman Gad El ashkar


    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  14. Nuclear resonant scattering beamline at SPring-8

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment


    Mainly by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research and Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, the construction of the Super Photon ring-8 GeV (SPring-8) which is the large scale synchrotron radiation facility for a high luminance light source placing emphasis on short wavelength region (shorter than about 1 nm) is in progress at the Harima Science Park City, Hyogo Prefecture. The features of the SPring-8 are the high luminance of light, the good parallelism and directionality of light, the quasi-monochromatic light with variable wavelength, and the possibility of design from straight polarization to circular polarization. The injection system that accelerates electrons up to 8 GeV and the storage ring storing the 8 GeV electrons for long hours, and 61 beamlines are explained. The manufacture of the nuclear resonant scattering beamline as the beamline for joint utilization was begun. Its transport channel and the experiment hutch are shown. By the features of undulator synchrotron radiation, the research on the matters with small recoilless fraction such as biological substances, liquid, gas and others and the research on time-dependent phenomena become feasible anew. The research on the dynamic structural analysis of heme protein is planned. (K.I.)

  15. Thermal water of the Yugawara Hot Spring

    Oki, Y; Ogino, K; Nagatsuka, Y; Hirota, S; Kokaji, F; Takahashi, S; Sugimoto, M


    The Yugawara Hot Spring is located in the bottom of the dissected creata of the Yugawara volcano. Natural hot spring water ran dry almost twenty five years ago, and thermal water is now pumped up by means of deep drill holes. The hydrorogy of the thermal water was studied from both geochemical and geophysical points of view. Two types of thermal water, sodium chloride and calcium sulfate, are recognized. Sodium chloride is predominant in the high temperature area and low in the surrounding low temperature area. Calcium sulfate predominates in the low temperature area. Sodium chloride is probably derived from deep magmatic emanations as indicated in the high Li content. Sulfate ion seems to originate from oxidation of pyrite whose impregnation took place in the ancient activity of the Yugawara volcano. The content of Ca is stoichiometrically comparable with SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. It is suggested that sulfuric acid derived from the oxidation of pyrite attacks calcite formed during the hydrothermal alteration of rocks. Some consideration of well logging in the geothermal area is also discussed. Temperature measurement in recharging of cold water is applicable to the logging of drill holes as well as the electric logging.

  16. Health Care, the Arab Spring and After

    Sonia Alianak


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of health care on Middle Eastern countries on the eve of and soon after the Arab Spring. It posits that countries that were most stable were the healthiest ones; countries which underwent revolutions were the unhealthiest ones; whereas countries that settled for reforms were moderate in health. It presents a hypothesis, the Inverted Funnel Model Hypothesis, that states that as the level of health care of a country rises so does its stability, which in turn leads to better health care as if down an inverted funnel to hypothetical maximums of both health care and stability. To test the hypothesis both quantitative and qualitative methods are used. The quantitative part involves first of all compiling seven health indicators based on the World Health Organization Annual Reports on twelve individual countries, for a period of five years preceding the Arab Spring’s onset in 2011 and in the immediate aftermath of 2011, and, second of all running correlations with political stability of each country, grouped in a three-way typology of countries. This is supplemented by a qualitative part which analyzes the health perceptions and demands of Arab Spring protesters in search of social justice.

  17. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.


    The Virgin River contributes a substantial amount of dissolved solids (salt) to the Colorado River at Lake Mead in the lower Colorado River Basin. Degradation of Colorado River water by the addition of dissolved solids from the Virgin River affects the suitability of the water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use within the basin. Dixie Hot Springs in Utah are a major localized source of dissolved solids discharging to the Virgin River. The average measured discharge from Dixie Hot Springs during 2009–10 was 11.0 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the average dissolved-solids concentration was 9,220 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average dissolved-solids load—a measurement that describes the mass of salt that is transported per unit of time—from Dixie Hot Springs during this period was 96,200 tons per year (ton/yr). Annual dissolved-solids loads were estimated at 13 monitoring sites in the Virgin River Basin from streamflow data and discrete measurements of dissolved-solids concentrations and (or) specific conductance. Eight of the sites had the data needed to estimate annual dissolved-solids loads for water years (WYs) 1999 through 2010. During 1999–2010, the smallest dissolved-solids loads in the Virgin River were upstream of Dixie Hot Springs (59,900 ton/yr, on average) and the largest loads were downstream of Littlefield Springs (298,200 ton/yr, on average). Annual dissolved-solids loads were smallest during 2002–03, which was a period of below normal precipitation. Annual dissolved-solids loads were largest during 2005—a year that included a winter rain storm that resulted in flooding throughout much of the Virgin River Basin. An average seepage loss of 26.7 ft3/s was calculated from analysis of monthly average streamflow from July 1998 to September 2010 in the Virgin River for the reach that extends from just upstream of the Utah/Arizona State line to just above the Virgin River Gorge Narrows. Seepage losses from three river reaches

  18. Developing a composite based elliptic spring for automotive applications

    Talib, Abdul Rahim Abu; Ali, Aidy; Goudah, G.; Lah, Nur Azida Che; Golestaneh, A.F.


    An automotive suspension system is designed to provide both safety and comfort for the vehicle occupants. In this study, finite element models were developed to optimize the material and geometry of the composite elliptical spring based on the spring rate, log life and shear stress parameters. The influence of the ellipticity ratio on the performance of woven roving-wrapped composite elliptical springs was investigated both experimentally and numerically. The study demonstrated that composite elliptical springs can be used for light and heavy trucks with substantial weight reduction. The results showed that the ellipticity ratio significantly influenced the design parameters. Composite elliptic springs with ellipticity ratios of a/b = 2 had the optimum spring parameters.

  19. Effects of springs on a pendulum electromechanical energy harvester

    Arnaud Notué Kadjie


    Full Text Available This paper studies a model of energy harvester that consists of an electromechanical pendulum system subjected to nonlinear springs. The output power is analyzed in terms of the intrinsic parameters of the device leading to optimal parameters for energy harvesting. It is found that in an appropriate range of the springs constant, the power attains higher values as compared to the case without springs. The dynamical behavior of the device shows transition to chaos.

  20. Effects of springs on a pendulum electromechanical energy harvester

    Arnaud Notué Kadjie; Paul Woafo


    This paper studies a model of energy harvester that consists of an electromechanical pendulum system subjected to nonlinear springs. The output power is analyzed in terms of the intrinsic parameters of the device leading to optimal parameters for energy harvesting. It is found that in an appropriate range of the springs constant, the power attains higher values as compared to the case without springs. The dynamical behavior of the device shows transition to chaos.

  1. Reactivation of Open Coil Springs: A Novel Procedure

    Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu


    Full Text Available Open coil springs are commonly used in orthodontic practice to create space for a palatally or lingually blocked out tooth. However, very often the clinician encounters a situation where the inter-bracket span is very less and the open coil spring is not long enough to open the required space needed for alignment. In such situations, the clinician needs to remove the arch wire and reinserts a longer coil spring. A new simple and cost-effective technique describes an intraoral reactivation of an open coil spring without the need for removal of the base archwire with the additional benefit of preventing unwanted forces to the adjacent teeth.

  2. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    A. A. Tsipilev


    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  3. Mechanics of patterned helical Si springs on Si substrate.

    Liu, D L; Ye, D X; Khan, F; Tang, F; Lim, B K; Picu, R C; Wang, G C; Lu, T M


    The elastic response, including the spring constant, of individual Si helical-shape submicron springs, was measured using a tip-cantilever assembly attached to a conventional atomic force microscope. The isolated, four-turn Si springs were fabricated using oblique angle deposition with substrate rotation, also known as the glancing angle deposition, on a templated Si substrate. The response of the structures was modeled using finite elements, and it was shown that the conventional formulae for the spring constant required modifications before they could be used for the loading scheme used in the present experiment.

  4. Wavelength variation of a standing wave along a vertical spring

    Welsch, Dylan; Baker, Blane


    Hand-driven resonance can be observed readily in a number of mechanical systems including thin boards, rods, strings, and springs. In order to show such behavior in the vertical spring pictured in Fig. 1, a section of spring is grasped at a location about one meter from its free end and driven by small, circular motions of the hand. At driving frequencies of a few hertz, a dramatic standing wave is generated. One of the fascinating features of this particular standing wave is that its wavelength varies along the length of the spring.

  5. Experimental investigation and modeling of dynamic performance of wave springs

    Tang, N.; Rongong, J.; Lord, C.; Sims, N.


    This paper investigates vibration suppression potentials for a novel frictional system - a wave spring.\\ud Two different types of wave springs, crest-to-crest and nested ones, were used in this work. Compared with\\ud nested wave springs, crest-to-crest wave springs have lower damping and a larger range for the linear stiffness\\ud due to a reduced level of contact. Dynamic compressive tests, subject to different static compression levels,\\ud are carried out to investigate the force-displacemen...

  6. Pressurizer safety valve serviceability enhancement by spring compression stability

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T. [California Consulting Engineering and Technology (CALCET), San Leandro, California (United States)


    The proactive maintenance of the spring-loaded-self-actuated Pressurizer Safety Valve (PSV) has caused frequent concerns pertaining the spring self actuated reliability due to set point drift, spurious openings, and seat leakage. The exhaustive testing performed on a Crosby PSV model 6M6 has revealed that the principal cause of these malfunctions is the spring compression elastic instability during service. The spring lateral deformations measurements performed validated the analytical shapes for spring compression: symmetrical bending - for coaxial supported ends - restraining any support displacement, and asymmetrical bending induced by the potential misalignment of the supported top end. The source of the spring compression instability appears on the tested Crosby PSV induced by the top end lateral displacement during long term operation. The testing with restrained displacement at the spring top has shown consistent set-point reproducibility, less than +/- 1 per cent. To eliminate the asymmetrical spring buckling, a design review of the PSV is proposed including the guided fixture at the top and the decrease of spring coil slenderness ratio H/D, corresponding to the general analytical elastic stability for the asymmetrical compression. (authors)

  7. Pressurizer safety valve serviceability enhancement by spring compression stability

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.


    The proactive maintenance of the spring-loaded-self-actuated Pressurizer Safety Valve (PSV) has caused frequent concerns pertaining the spring self actuated reliability due to set point drift, spurious openings, and seat leakage. The exhaustive testing performed on a Crosby PSV model 6M6 has revealed that the principal cause of these malfunctions is the spring compression elastic instability during service. The spring lateral deformations measurements performed validated the analytical shapes for spring compression: symmetrical bending - for coaxial supported ends - restraining any support displacement, and asymmetrical bending induced by the potential misalignment of the supported top end. The source of the spring compression instability appears on the tested Crosby PSV induced by the top end lateral displacement during long term operation. The testing with restrained displacement at the spring top has shown consistent set-point reproducibility, less than +/- 1 per cent. To eliminate the asymmetrical spring buckling, a design review of the PSV is proposed including the guided fixture at the top and the decrease of spring coil slenderness ratio H/D, corresponding to the general analytical elastic stability for the asymmetrical compression. (authors)

  8. Design of SPring-8 control system

    Wada, T.; Kumahara, T.; Yonehara, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Masuda, T.; Wang Zhen


    The control system of SPring-8 facility is designed. A distributed computer system is adopted with a three-hierarchy levels. All the computers are linked by computer networks. The network of upper level is a high-speed multi-media LAN such as FDDI which links sub-system control computers, and middle are Ethernet or MAP networks which link front end processors (FEP) such as VME system. The lowest is a field level bus which links VME and controlled devices. Workstations (WS) or X-terminals are useful for man-machine interfaces. For operating system (OS), UNIX is useful for upper level computers, and real-time OS's for FEP's. We will select hardwares and OS of which specifications are close to international standards. Since recently the cost of software has become higher than that of hardware, we introduce computer aided tools as many as possible for program developments. (author)

  9. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project


    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA's substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA

  10. Wall current monitor for SPring-8 linac

    Yanagida, Kenichi; Yamada, Kouji; Yokoyama, Minoru


    A fast rise time, broad band width and wide dynamic range wall current monitor was developed for SPring-8 linac. The performances are a rise time of ∼250ps, an effective impedance of 1.4Ω (output of ∼1.4V/A) and a bandwidth of 18kHz-2GHz. From a result of examination using 40ns electron beam, a significant change of effective impedance was not observed when a peak current was changed up to 12A or when a beam was moved by 8mm in a vacuum pipe. A circuit model that includes a core inductor loop was constructed. Using this model effective impedance and band width were calculated and compared to measured ones. They agreed very well except one part. In consequence the mechanism of wall current monitor can be explained by means of this model. (author)

  11. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project


    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  12. Radon concentration measurements in therapeutic spring water

    Deak, N.; Horvath, A.; Sajo B, L.; Marx, G.


    It is believed that people undergoing a curative cycle in a given spa, may receive a dose in the range of 400 mSv/year which is many times the average annual dose so that their risk of lung cancer may increase by 3% or more. To determine the risk due to the natural radioactivity, of the most frequented spas in Budapest (H), we selected four and some others located on the country side being of particular interest. Results of the radon concentration in spring water are presented, with the evidence that some spas have a high radon concentration. We conclude that patients receiving treatment may be exposed to an additional dose in the range of 29-76 mSv/year that at the bronchia could be between 445-1182 mSv/year. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Tight fitting garter springs-MODAR

    Kazimer, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)


    Annulus spacers are used in CANDU reactors to maintain the annular gap between two tubes - an inner pressure tube (PT) and the outer calandria tube (CT). Typically four annulus spacers are used in one fuel channel assembly, each at a specified axial position. Bruce Unit 8 and many other CANDU units were constructed with tight-fitting garter springs (TFGS). The TFGS were not designed to be detected or relocated by the conventional tool, Spacer Location And Repositioning (SLAR) processes. Due to non-optimal 'As Left' construction locations for the Bruce Unit 8 TFGS, PT/CT contact has been predicted to occur well prior to its End of Life (EOL). Bruce Power entered a Project with AECL-CRL to design, manufacture and test and implement a new tooling system that would detect and reposition tight fitting annulus spacers. (author)

  14. Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness This artist's animation illustrates the universe's early years, from its explosive formation to its dark ages to its first stars and mini-galaxies. Scientists using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found patches of infrared light splattered across the sky that might be the collective glow of clumps of the universe's first objects. Astronomers do not know if these first objects were stars or 'quasars,' which are black holes voraciously consuming surrounding gas. The movie begins with a flash of color that represents the birth of the universe, an explosion called the Big Bang that occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. A period of darkness ensues, where gas begins to clump together. The universe's first stars are then shown springing up out of the gas clumps, flooding the universe with light, an event that probably happened about a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Though these first stars formed out of gas alone, their deaths seeded the universe with the dusty heavy chemical elements that helped create future generations of stars. The first stars, called Population III stars (our star is a Population I star), were much bigger and brighter than any in our nearby universe, with masses about 1,000 times that of our sun. They grouped together into mini-galaxies, which then merged to form galaxies like our own mature Milky Way galaxy. The first quasars, not shown here, ultimately became the centers of powerful galaxies that are more common in the distant universe.

  15. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering


    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  16. Evaluation of the cleanness of SiCr-spring steels for suspension springs

    Valentin, P.; Blaesius, A.; Bruch, C. [Saarstahl AG, Voelklingen (Germany)


    The requirements of suspension springs for the automotive industry are increasing with regard to cleanness and strength. In order to meet this high quality level a remarkable quality improvement was obtained within the last years due to the introduction of a very strict ladle metallurgy together with a controlled stirring in ladle and an optimized steel flow pattern in the tundish. The tradition of spring steel and particularly of Si killed SiCr steel grades of the Saarstahl AG increased continuously within the last years and reached nearly 100000 t/a in 2004, at the same time the rejection rate decreased significantly. The application of the soft reduction technique and an advanced equipment on the new billet continuous casting machine SO with a strand size of 150 mm sq. and the introduction of the new walking beam furnace and the precise temperature controlled deformation in the rolling mill will provide further substantial quality improvements. (orig.)

  17. Process improvements for enhanced productivity of PHWR garter springs

    Srinivasula Reddy, S.; Tonpe, Sunil; Saibaba, N.; Jayaraj, R.N.


    Full text: In Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR), Garter springs are used as spacers between the coolant tube and calandria tube. Garter springs are made from Zirconium alloy containing 2.5 % Niobium and 0.5% copper. The springs are basically manufactured by coiling a wire of cross section 1.7 mm x 1.0 mm, which is produced by series of drawing and swaging operations using hot extruded rods of 19 mm diameter. The manufacturing process also involves heat treatment and chemical cleaning operations at appropriate stages. It is required to ensure that the life of springs against parameters like hydrogen pickup, residual stresses and low stiffness is improved at the manufacturing stage itself by improving manufacturing process. The impact of above problems on spring life and process improvements is briefly discussed. The critical factor affecting the garter spring performance in PHWR Reactor is mainly hydrogen. The life limiting factors for garter springs are the problems arising out of high total hydrogen content, which depends on the hydrogen pickup during reactor operation. This phenomenon can happen during the reactor operation, as springs are prone to pick-up hydrogen in the reactor environment. Hence acceptable hydrogen content for the springs is specified as 25 ppm (max.). Garter spring is susceptible to hydrogen pick-up during various production processes, which make material brittle and difficult for fabrication process such as wire drawing and coiling. By studying and optimizing the process parameters of spring manufacturing, the hydrogen pick-up of springs is brought down from 70 ppm to a level of 20 ppm. Garter springs are provided with a hook at each end to enable its assembly to coolant tube in the reactor. The hook portion is very critical in maintaining the integrity of the spring. It is desirable to have the hook portion relieved of all residual stresses. For this purpose manufacturing process has been modified and solutionising was introduced as

  18. Pemodelan Desain Sol Sepatu dengan Inovasi Penambahan Wave Spring

    Redyarsa Dharma Bintara


    Full Text Available Desain sepatu sport berkembang pesat dengan tujuan mengurangi cedera dan meningkatkankenyamanan pengguna. Pengurangan cedera dilakukan dengan cara memperbesar energi yangdiserap dari beban akibat pengguna berlari atau melompat. Pada penelitian ini dilakukanpenambahan wave spring yang digunakan sebagai mekanisme penyerap beban.Pemodelandilakukan pada sol sepatu dengan menggunakan bantuan software finite element method (FEMAnsys 14.5 Academic. Model awal dilakukan untuk mengetahui batas deformasi sol sepatu yangakan dimanfaatkan sebagai input model berikutnya yaitu model dengan diberikan inovasipenambahan wave spring. Analisa difokuskan pada sol sepatu bagian belakang (tumit kaki.Darihasil simulasi, didapatkan bahwa penyerapan energi sol sepatu dengan penambahan wave springlebih besar daripada penyerapan energi sol sepatu tanpa penambahan wave spring, sehinggapenambahan wave spring memungkinkan untuk diaplikasikan pada sol sepatu sport.Kata kunci: Penyerapan energi, wave spring, sol sepatu. Sport shoe design had been developed rapidly with the purpose to reduce injuries and increaseuser comfort. Reduction of injury is done by enlarging the energy absorbed from the user running orjumping load. In this study, the addition of the wave spring is used as the load absorbingmechanism. The shoes sole is modeled by using finite element method (FEM software Ansys 14.5Academic. Initial model was conducted to determine the deformation boundary in soles which willbe used as input to the next model for the wave spring addition innovation. Analysis focused onshoe sole on heel foot. From the simulation results, it was found that the energy absorption shoessoles with the addition of the wave spring is greater than the energy absorption soles without theaddition of wave spring. It can be concluded that the addition of a spring wave can be applied to thesoles of sports shoes.Keywords: Energy absorb, wave spring, shoe sole, deformation boundary

  19. SPring-8 Structural Biology Beamlines / Current Status of Public Beamlines for Protein Crystallography at SPring-8

    Kawamoto, Masahide; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hisanobu; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Nisawa, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masaki


    SPring-8 has 2 protein crystallography beamlines for public use, BL38B1 (Structural Biology III) and BL41XU (Structural Biology I). The BL38B1 is a bending magnet beamline for routine data collection, and the BL41XU is an undulator beamline specially customized for micro beam and ultra-high resolutional experiment. The designs and the performances of each beamline are presented

  20. The role of risk assessment in project planning at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.


    This paper presents the methodology used to prepare a baseline risk evaluation of the bulk wastes at the quarry. The DOE is proposing to remove these bulk wastes and transport them approximately 6.4 km (4 mi) to a temporary storage facility at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site. The DOE has responsibility for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). A baseline risk evaluation is an evaluation of the potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from a site in the absence of site remediation. This evaluation is a key component of the remedial investigation (RI) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List

  1. Feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri


    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program, is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Weldon Spring site, which is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), became contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildlife Area and is near a well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk waste contained therein. 105 refs., 33 figs., 42 tabs

  2. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    Richard W. Castenholz


    Full Text Available Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis, and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  3. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    Castenholz, Richard W.


    Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  4. Geochemical studies of Ishiwa hot springs in Yamanashi Prefecture-yearly change of hot springs

    Akiyama, T. (Yamanashi Prefecture Womens Junior College, Japan)


    The effect of drilling on the Ishiwa hot springs was studied. About 50 wells have been drilled since 1961 when the first well was drilled to a depth of 146 m where 47/sup 0/C water flowed at 1376 l/min. Changes have occurred in flow rate, temperature, and chemical composition of the spring water. In area A near the foot of northern Okura-Keijisan along the Byodo and Fuefuki rivers, the pH value was 8.0 to 8.2 when drilling began, but it is now 7.4 to 8.0. In area B in the central spring area along the Chikatsu water reservoir, the pH was about 8.5 when drilling began, but is presently 10. The shift of area A pH to acidic is thought to be due to the effect of river water. The shift in area B pH to alkaline was thought to be connected to the fountainhead with pH 10 which appeared in the Kami-Ogihara Resseki district in Shioyama City. The fountainhead was located along the Fuefuki River at the foot of Obosatsu, 20 km from the Ishiwa area.

  5. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2017 Crop

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to six locations in 2017 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spring...

  6. Automated cycled sprinkler irrigation for spring frost protection of cranberries

    Sprinkler irrigation is essential for preventing spring frost bud damage in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait). Risk-averse growers have been reluctant to adopt the intermittent cycling of irrigation pumps as a standard management practice. In the spring of 2013 and 2014, an experiment was conduc...

  7. Microbiological studies of hot springs in India: a review.

    Poddar, Abhijit; Das, Subrata K


    The earliest microbiological studies on hot springs in India date from 2003, a much later date compared to global attention in this striking field of study. As of today, 28 out of 400 geothermal springs have been explored following both culturable and non-culturable approaches. The temperatures and pH of the springs are 37-99 °C and 6.8-10, respectively. Several studies have been performed on the description of novel genera and species, characterization of different bio-resources, metagenomics of hot spring microbiome and whole genome analysis of few isolates. 17 strains representing novel species and many thermostable enzymes, including lipase, protease, chitinase, amylase, etc. with potential biotechnological applications have been reported by several authors. Influence of physico-chemical conditions, especially that of temperature, on shaping the hot spring microbiome has been established by metagenomic investigations. Bacteria are the predominant life forms in all the springs with an abundance of phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Thermi, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus-Thermus and Chloroflexi. In this review, we have discussed the findings on all microbiological studies that have been carried out to date, on the 28 hot springs. Further, the possibilities of extrapolating these studies for practical applications and environmental impact assessment towards protection of natural ecosystem of hot springs have also been discussed.

  8. Remote access and automation of SPring-8 MX beamlines

    Ueno, Go, E-mail:; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamashita, Keitaro; Hirata, Kunio; Yamamoto, Masaki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 JAPAN (Japan); Hasegawa, Kazuya; Murakami, Hironori; Furukawa, Yukito; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Kumasaka, Takashi [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 JAPAN (Japan)


    At SPring-8 MX beamlines, a remote access system has been developed and started user operation in 2010. The system has been developed based on an automated data collection and data management architecture utilized for the confirmed scheme of SPring-8 mail-in data collection. Currently, further improvement to the remote access and automation which covers data processing and analysis are being developed.

  9. Nano-G accelerometer using geometric anti-springs

    Boom, B. A.; Bertolini, A.; Hennes, E.; Brookhuis, R. A.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Van Den Brand, J. F J; Beker, M. G.; Oner, A.; Van Wees, D.


    We report an ultra-sensitive seismic accelerometer with nano-g sensitivity, using geometric anti-spring technology. High sensitivity is achieved by an on-chip mechanical preloading system comprising four sets of curved leaf springs that support a proof-mass. Using this preloading mechanism,

  10. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.


    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  11. Synergy of a warm spring and dry summer

    Yude Pan; David. Schimel


    An analysis suggests that high carbon uptake by US land ecosystems during the warm spring of 2012 offset the carbon loss that resulted from severe drought over the summer — and hints that the warm spring could have worsened the drought.

  12. Multiscale Mass-Spring Models of Carbon Nanotube Foams


    Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Graphical abstract (movie) Axial strain localization in a mesoscopic chain of five bistable springs. The...line). Graphical Abstract Research highlights • Axial strain localization in microscopic bistable spring chains mimics kink- ing of compressed carbon

  13. Use of thermal springs for geochemical exploration in Ethiopia ...

    In this study an attempt was made to examine precious metals in the localities of the hydrothermal areas in the central Rift valley with the objective of whether thermal springs can hit mineral deposits. Thus, Filwoha, Sodere, Ambo and Wondogenet thermal spring areas were selected and specimens were collected for gold, ...

  14. water quality evaluation of spring waters in nsukka, nigeria

    ES Obe


    Jul 2, 2013 ... directly from an underground formation from, which water flows naturally to the surface or from a bored ... evidence that surface runoff is readily entering the spring. This may mean the spring is contaminated with ... soil, hydrological factors that lead to runoff, and by biological processes within the aquatic.

  15. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    Assessment of spring water from Ikare-Akoko, a rural setting in southwest, Nigeria for microbial and chemical contaminants was carried out. Total heterotrophic bacteria count of 4.0 x 106 CFU/mL was highest during the peak of the rainy season in Omi-idu spring (Igbede community) while the lowest population of 0.14 x106 ...

  16. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    East, J.


    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  17. Force delivery of Ni-Ti coil springs.

    Manhartsberger, C; Seidenbusch, W


    Sentalloy springs (GAC, Central Islip, N.Y.) of the open and closed type were investigated with a special designed device. The closed coil springs were subjected to a tensile and the open coil springs to a compression test. After a first measurement, the springs were activated for a period of 4 weeks and then reinvestigated with the same procedure. It could be shown distinctly that, with the different coil springs, the force delivery given by the producer could be achieved only within certain limits. To remain in the martensitic plateau, changed activation ranges, and for the Sentalloy coil springs white and red of the open and closed type, also changed force deliveries had to be taken into account. There was a distinct decrease in force delivery between the first and second measurement. After considering the loading curves of all the Sentalloy coil springs and choosing the right activation range respective to the force delivery, it was found that the coil springs deliver a superior clinical behavior and open new treatment possibilities.

  18. Preliminary analysis of geothermal aspects of Brazilian thermal spring

    Hurter, S.J.; Hamza, V.M.


    Information on more than 400 geothermal springs in Brazil has been assembled. On the basis of the data colected the temperatures at the maximum depths of circulation of spring waters are calculated using the quality of silica dissolved in water. For some thermal springs temperatures are calculated on the basis of silica determination carrried out by us. Applying linear relations between silica temperature and geothermal flux the average depths of water circulation in the Parana Basin and the Brazilian folded belts surrounding the San Francisco craton are calculated. The radioactivity of the water, derived mainly from the dissolved radon can be correlated with the temperature of the spring. An inverse correlation, as was observed for thermal springs of Pocos de Caldas, can be used to calculate the ascent velocity of thermal waters, where as, a positive correlations could be interpreted as due to the mixing of thermal with surface waters. (Author) [pt

  19. Springing Response Due to Directional Wave Field Excitation

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    This paper analyses the wave-induced high-frequency bending moment response of ships, denoted springing. The aim is to predict measured severe springing responses in a large bulk carrier. It is shown that the most important springing contribution is due to the resultant second order excitation...... in multidirectional sea. The incident pressure field from the second order bidirectional wave field is derived, including the non-linear cross-coupling terms between the two wave systems (e.g. wind driven waves and swell). The resulting effect of the super-harmonic cross-coupling interaction terms on the springing...... response is discussed. An example with opposing waves is given, representing probably the 'worst' case for energy exchange between the wave systems. Theoretical predictions of standard deviation of wave- and springing-induced stress amidships are compared with full-scale measurements for a bulk carrier....

  20. Diversity of Bamboos around springs in Malang East Java

    Solikin Solikin


    Full Text Available Bamboos have important roles to people in the villages area. They are planted and used by the people for making houses, food, buckets, fences, ropes, fuels, musical instruments and plaits. The root distribution of Bamboos is large and fibrous, also the growth of their new clumps is ascendant so the Bamboos has good potency for water and soil conservation on river banks, around the springs, hillsides and scarps. The survey to invent the bamboos growing around the springs was conducted in Singosari, Lawang, Karangploso, Dau and Lowokwaru Malang East Java in May 2009. The Bamboos invented at 0-100 m from the springs. The results Showed that there were four Bamboos founded around the springs namely Bambusa blumeana,Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter and Gigantochloa apus. Dendrocalamus asper was the most dominant species founded around the springs with relative frequency, relative density and important value index is 45.83 ; 58.49 and 104.32 respectively.

  1. Analysis of Damped Mass-Spring Systems for Sound Synthesis

    Don Morgan


    Full Text Available There are many ways of synthesizing sound on a computer. The method that we consider, called a mass-spring system, synthesizes sound by simulating the vibrations of a network of interconnected masses, springs, and dampers. Numerical methods are required to approximate the differential equation of a mass-spring system. The standard numerical method used in implementing mass-spring systems for use in sound synthesis is the symplectic Euler method. Implementers and users of mass-spring systems should be aware of the limitations of the numerical methods used; in particular we are interested in the stability and accuracy of the numerical methods used. We present an analysis of the symplectic Euler method that shows the conditions under which the method is stable and the accuracy of the decay rates and frequencies of the sounds produced.

  2. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Jang, Cheng-Shin


    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  3. Framework for Springs Stewardship Program and proposed action development: Spring Mountains National Recreation Area, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest

    Marc Coles-Ritchie; Stephen J. Solem; Abraham E. Springer; Burton Pendleton


    In the desert Southwest, springs are an important ecological feature and serve as a focal point for both biological and human interactions on the landscape. As a result, attention has been placed on the stewardship and protection of these important resources. Management has traditionally focused on the more accessible and heavily used eastern canyons within the Spring...

  4. Transport properties of Topopah Spring tuff

    Lin, W.; Daily, W.


    Electrical resistivity, ultrasonic P-waves velocity, and water permeability were measured simultaneously on both intact and fractured Topopah Spring tuff samples at a confining pressure of 5.0 MPa, pore pressures to 2.5 MPa, and temperatures to 140 0 C. The tested samples were subjected to three dehydration and rehydration cycles. The dehydrations were accomplished at a temperature of 140 0 C, and the rehydrations were accomplished at various combinations of temperature and pore pressures so that the wetting fluid was either liquid water, steam or both. The electrical resistivity measurements indicate that for the intact sample, the drying and resaturation took place fairly uniformly throughout the sample. On the other hand, for the fractured sample, the drying and resaturation was spatially quite nonuniform. When samples had been subjected to 5 MPa of confining pressure and 140 0 C for several weeks, a gradual monotonic drift in resistivity was measured (decreasing resistivity when dry; increasing resistivity when wet). This may be the result of either minerological changes or grain boundary movement. In any case, the phenomenon may have important consequences on long term repository performance, and should be studied further. The permeability of the intact sample was independent of temperature, dehydration and rehydration cycles, and time. The permeability of the fractured sample, initially dominated by the fracture, decreased by about one order of magnitude after each dehydration and rehydration cycle. 11 references, 12 figures, 3 tables

  5. Conference scene: DGVS spring conference 2009.

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas


    The 3rd annual DGVS Spring Conference of the German Society for Gastroenterology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten) was held at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in Berlin, Germany, on 8-9 May, 2009. The conference was organized by Roland Schmid and Matthias Ebert from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The central theme of the meeting was 'translational gastrointestinal oncology: towards personalized medicine and individualized therapy'. The conference covered talks on markers for diagnosis, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, targets for molecular therapy, response prediction in clinical oncology, development and integration of molecular imaging in gastrointestinal oncology and translational research in clinical trial design. Owing to the broad array of topics and limitations of space, this article will focus on biomarkers, response prediction and the integration of biomarkers into clinical trials. Presentations mentioned in this summary were given by Matthias Ebert (Technical University of Munich, Germany), Esmeralda Heiden (Epigenomics, Berlin, Germany), Frank Kolligs (University of Munich, Germany), Florian Lordick (University of Heidelberg, Germany), Hans Jorgen Nielsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Anke Reinacher-Schick (University of Bochum, Germany), Christoph Röcken (University of Berlin, Germany), Wolff Schmiegel (University of Bochum, Germany) and Thomas Seufferlein (University of Halle, Germany).

  6. Phaedrus tandem mirror. Status report, Spring 1983


    During the spring of 1983, the Phaedrus group undertook a major up to air to improve diagnostic capabilities, modify RF antennas and clean up the inner vacuum surfaces of accumulated getter material. This time was also used to analyze more thoroughly our present data base and correlate it with relevant theoretical predictions. A neutral beam build up code has been developed to model RF central stream trapping and heating, neutral gas charge exchange losses with finite gyroradius effects, and beam aiming sensitivity. MHD stability of the central cell stand alone operation has been explained by a radial ponderomotive force which opposes the centrifugal force due to bad field line curvature. First drafts of research papers on RF trapping, electron cyclotron heating, the stand alone mode, and MHD instability studies were completed. All of these papers require more experiments to tie up loose ends but the loose ends were identified more clearly by this process. The remainder of this report will be organized by experimental area, describing in limited detail the status of current research, recent modifications to diagnostic and machine hardware and immediate future experimental objectives

  7. "I just wanted to get away": An analysis of spring breakers' travel motivations

    Nuno F. Ribeiro; Paul E. Durrenberger; Careen M. Yarnal; Garry E. Chick


    Scholarly research on Spring Break has grown substantially and has often associated spring breakers' motivations with a number of risky behaviors. Recent research, however, has challenged these assumptions. The purpose of this study was to examine spring breakers' motivations for going on Spring Break. Unlike the media portrayal of Spring Break as a time of...


    Dadang Sukandar


    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objectives of this study are to: 1 determine poverty line gold standard of farmers, 2 compare the gold standard with existing poverty line i.e. Sajogyo, Central Bureau of Statistics, BKKBN, World Bank US $ 1 and World Bank US $ 2, and 3 derive poverty indicators. This research was conducted in Subang, West Java. As many as 522 farmer households were collected as sample through stratified random sampling with proportional allocation. Data collected include socio-economic, income, expenditure, food consumption, health, anthropometry, agriculture aspects and living cost component and their prices. The Gold Standard was obtained through distribution standard normal while poverty indicator was derived through discriminant analysis. The results show that the poverty line gold standard of farmer is Rp. 457,558/capita/month which is equivalent to 2.29 gram of gold/capita/month. Discriminant analysis give five indicators of poverty namely, number of households member, husband education level, nutritional status of children, frequency of egg consumption, and land size manage by farmers. Keywords: farmer, poverty, gold standard, discriminant analysis, indicator

  9. Õpipoisist õpetajaks / Gary Johnson

    Johnson, Gary


    NATO Põhja-Euroopa vägede endine juhataja, rahvusvahelise kaitsenõustajate grupi (IDAB) juhataja Eestis (1995-1999) oma esimesest Eesti-visiidist, kaitsenõustajate grupi loomisest ja selle tegevusest

  10. The Periodic Round Table (by Gary Katz)

    Rodgers, Reviewed By Glen E.


    Unwrapping and lifting the Periodic Round Table out of its colorful box is an exciting experience for a professional chemist or a chemistry student. Touted as a "new way of looking at the elements", it is certainly thatat least at first blush. The "table" consists of four sets of two finely finished hardwood discs each with the following elemental symbols and their corresponding atomic numbers pleasingly and symmetrically wood-burned into their faces. The four sets of two discs are 1 1/2, 3, 4 1/2, and 6 in. in diameter, each disc is 3/4 in. thick, and therefore the entire "round table" stands 6 in. high and is 6 in. in diameter at its base. The eight beautifully polished discs (represented below) are held together by center dowels that allow each to be rotated separately.

  11. Garis dan Titik Berdasarkan Riset Visual

    Devi Kurniawati Homan


    Full Text Available A design may not be created instantly, without going through a process of creation. At the beginning it all starts from nothing, blank. It requires a visual research to make a visual communication. Without a visual research, the design will not have a strong meaning to be communicated. When an idea is created, the next step is to generate the idea to become a design. The first thing a designer to do is drawing a line. Line is one of the design basic elements. In the journey to make a good design, a designer requires a visual record to assist her/him in remembering what is important. A visual record contains not only visual things seen by eyes, but also the perceived things. What is felt at the moment is important because it is easier to forget than visual memory. Sense is an important element in design. A good work will easily be communicated not only by visuals but also from senses. The study was conducted as an insight into the process of making a visual record of nirmana using visual recording method in the exploration of dots and dashes. This method was used to sharpen the sensitivity of students to dots and lines. Initially, the students visited a traditional market to do the visual research. After that, they created a visual record in the form of the composition of dots and lines in nirmana to remember the taste, smell, and visual experiences. 

  12. Baseline risk evaluation for exposure to bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Hlohowskyj, I.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and a quarry. This baseline risk evaluation has been prepared to support a proposed response action for management of contaminated bulk wastes in the quarry. The quarry became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of various wastes that were disposed of there between 1942 and 1969. This risk evaluation assesses potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from the quarry under current site conditions. Risk assessment is a key component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); this process addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List. The DOE is also responsible for complying with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, which requires federal agencies to consider the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of the decision-making process for that action. Although this document has not been prepared to fulfill specific NEPA requirements, the analyses contained herein --- along with the analyses provided in the remedial investigation, feasibility study, and other supporting documents --- are intended to meet the environmental assessment requirements of NEPA

  13. Comparison of gas spring designs with adjustable spring characteristic for a free-piston engine; Vergleich von Gasfedervarianten mit variabler Kennlinie fuer einen Freikolbenmotor

    Pohl, S.E.; Ferrari, C. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugkonzepte


    In this paper two different gas spring designs for a free-piston application are introduced. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations the spring characteristics of a mass-variable and a volume-variable gas spring are analyzed for different operating points. A comparison of the spring performances indicates that the spring characteristics of the two designs only match at one operation point. Therefore, a calculation method minimizing the difference between the two spring characteristics over the entire operating range of a free piston engine is introduced. The theoretical examination is confirmed by measurements on a gas spring test stand. (orig.)

  14. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Ryan Greenway


    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  15. Simulation and analysis of tape spring for deployed space structures

    Chang, Wei; Cao, DongJing; Lian, MinLong


    The tape spring belongs to the configuration of ringent cylinder shell, and the mechanical properties of the structure are significantly affected by the change of geometrical parameters. There are few studies on the influence of geometrical parameters on the mechanical properties of the tape spring. The bending process of the single tape spring was simulated based on simulation software. The variations of critical moment, unfolding moment, and maximum strain energy in the bending process were investigated, and the effects of different radius angles of section and thickness and length on driving capability of the simple tape spring was studied by using these parameters. Results show that the driving capability and resisting disturbance capacity grow with the increase of radius angle of section in the bending process of the single tape spring. On the other hand, these capabilities decrease with increasing length of the single tape spring. In the end, the driving capability and resisting disturbance capacity grow with the increase of thickness in the bending process of the single tape spring. The research has a certain reference value for improving the kinematic accuracy and reliability of deployable structures.

  16. Siliceous Shrubs in Yellowstone's Hot Springs: Implications for Exobiological Investigations

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.


    Potential relict hot springs have been identified on Mars and, using the Earth as an analog, Martian hot springs are postulated to be an optimal locality for recognizing preserved evidence of extraterrestrial life. Distinctive organic and inorganic biomarkers are necessary to recognize preserved evidence of life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial hot spring accumulations. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., contain a wealth of information about primitive microbial life and associated biosignatures that may be useful for future exobiological investigations. Numerous siliceous hot springs in Yellowstone contain abundant, centimeter-scale, spinose precipitates of opaline silica (opal-A). Although areally extensive in siliceous hot spring discharge channel facies, these spinose forms have largely escaped attention. These precipitates referred to as shrubs, consist of porous aggregates of spinose opaline silica that superficially resemble miniature woody plants, i.e., the term shrubs. Shrubs in carbonate precipitating systems have received considerable attention, and represent naturally occurring biotically induced precipitates. As such, shrubs have great potential as hot spring environmental indicators and, more importantly, proxies for pre-existing microbial life.

  17. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei


    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  18. Distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in Tibetan hot springs

    Liu He


    Full Text Available Isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs from the Gulu hot springs (23–83.6 °C, pH > 7 and Yangbajing hot springs (80–128 °C, pH > 7 were analyzed in order to investigate the distribution of archaeal lipids among different hot springs in Tibet. A soil sample from Gulu was incubated at different temperatures and analyzed for changes in iGDGTs to help evaluate whether surrounding soil may contribute to the iGDGTs in hot springs. The sources of bacterial GDGTs (bGDGTs in these hot springs were also investigated. The results revealed different profiles of iGDGTs between Gulu and Yangbajing hot springs. Core iGDGTs and polar iGDGTs also presented different patterns in each hot spring. The PCA analysis showed that the structure of polar iGDGTs can be explained by three factors and suggested multiple sources of these compounds. Bivariate correlation analysis showed significant positive correlations between polar and core bGDGTs, suggesting the in situ production of bGDGTs in the hot springs. Furthermore, in the soil incubation experiment, temperature had the most significant influence on concentration of bGDGTs rather than iGDGTs, and polar bGDGTs had greater variability than core bGDGTs with changing temperature. Our results indicated that soil input had little influence on the composition of GDGTs in Tibetan hot springs. On the other hand, ring index and TEX86 values were both positively correlated with incubation temperature, suggesting that the structure of archaeal lipids changed in response to varying temperature during incubation.


    N. V. Gerasimyuk


    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.




    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  1. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.


    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997–1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20±2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM–EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10–20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio

  2. Characterization of closed nickel-titanium orthodontic coil springs

    Langeron, T. [Rene Descartes Univ., Paris V, Pontoise (France). Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire; Filleul, M.P. [Rene Descartes Univ., Paris V, Pontoise (France). Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire; ENSCP, Paris (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Structurale; Humbeeck, J. van [Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Faculteit Toegepaste Wetenschappen, Metaalkunde en Toegepaste Materialkund


    Nickel-titanium orthodontic coil springs are used to move teeth with low forces and slow deactivation. The present paper provides data on transformation temperatures and on load-deflection rate at buccal temperature of closed Nickel-Titanium coil springs available on the market from ORMCO {sup trademark} and GAC {sup trademark}. All the springs exhibited superelasticity but their properties were not stable in the range of buccal temperatures and varied not only from one manufacturer to the other but they also varied from one batch to the other of each supplier. The need for more stability is stressed. (orig.)

  3. 77 FR 9958 - Spring Pygmy Sunfish Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances; Receipt of Application for...


    ... stained spring water, spring runs, and associated spring-fed wetlands (Warren 2004). The species is highly... disclosure, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Dated: February 14, 2012. Stephen M. Ricks...

  4. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    Smallidge, S.T.; Baker, T.T.; VanLeeuwen, D.; Gould, W.R.; Thompson, B.C.


    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  5. NEFSC 2001 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0104, EK500)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  6. Formulating the spring discharge-function for the recession period ...

    College of Agricultural Engineering & Post Harvest Technology (CAEPHT),. Central Agricultural ... during the recession period is the key to its proper management. The spring .... In equation (1), Q is the recession flow, t is time, and a, b are ...

  7. SEAMAP 2011 Spring Plankton Survey (CU1101, EK60)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary survey objective was to assess the occurrence, abundance and geographical distribution of the early life stages of spring spawning fishes, especially...

  8. Ten NCI Researchers Among Spring Research Festival Award Winners | Poster

    In a ceremony at the Fort Detrick Community Activities Center earlier this week, Maj. Gen. Barbara R. Holcomb, the commanding officer of the Fort Detrick garrison, distributed the awards for outstanding presentations and posters at the 2017 Spring Research Festival.

  9. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring / Hartmut, Lück

    Lück, Hartmut


    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum Sacrum. Requiem Canticles. Choral Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch". Lausanne Pro Arte Choir, Suisse Romande Chamber Choir and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos CHAN 9408 (75 minutes:DDD)

  10. NEFSC 1999 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9903, EK500)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  11. Topology Counts: Force Distributions in Circular Spring Networks

    Heidemann, Knut M.; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Sharma, Abhinav; Rehfeldt, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Wardetzky, Max


    Filamentous polymer networks govern the mechanical properties of many biological materials. Force distributions within these networks are typically highly inhomogeneous, and, although the importance of force distributions for structural properties is well recognized, they are far from being understood quantitatively. Using a combination of probabilistic and graph-theoretical techniques, we derive force distributions in a model system consisting of ensembles of random linear spring networks on a circle. We show that characteristic quantities, such as the mean and variance of the force supported by individual springs, can be derived explicitly in terms of only two parameters: (i) average connectivity and (ii) number of nodes. Our analysis shows that a classical mean-field approach fails to capture these characteristic quantities correctly. In contrast, we demonstrate that network topology is a crucial determinant of force distributions in an elastic spring network. Our results for 1D linear spring networks readily generalize to arbitrary dimensions.

  12. Thermoelastic properties on Cu-Zn-Al shape memory springs

    Carlos Augusto do Nascimento Oliveira


    Full Text Available This paper present a thermomechanical study of actuators in form of helical springs made from shape memory alloy wires that can work as actuator and/or as sensor. These abilities are due to the martensitic transformation. This transformation is a diffusionless phase transition that occurs by a cooperative atomic rearrange mechanism. In this work, helical spring actuators were manufactured from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy wires. The springs were submitted to constant tensile loads and thermal cycles. This procedure allows to determine thermoelastic properties of the shape memory springs. Thermomechanical properties were analyzed during 50 thermal cycles in the temperature range from 20 to 130 °C. Results of variations in critical transformation temperatures, thermoelastic strain and thermal hysteresis are discussed based on defects rearrangement and martensitic transformation theory.

  13. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

    Burley, Richard K.


    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  14. SEAMAP Spring 2016 Plankton Survey (R21601, EK60)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2016 Spring Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  15. Improved Performance of Unpaved Roads During Spring Thaw

    Henry, Karen S; Olson, James P; Farrington, Stephen P; Lens, John


    Unpaved roads in Vermont are subject to deterioration from seasonal freezing and thawing, and many towns have roads that suffer chronic serviceability problems during the so-called "spring thaw," or mud season...

  16. SEAMAP Spring 2015 Plankton Survey (GU1501, EK60)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2015 Spring Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  17. Soda Creek springs - metamorphic waters in the eastern Alaska Range

    Richter, D.H.; Donaldson, D.E.; Lamarre, R.A.


    The Soda Creek springs are a group of small, cold mineral springs on the southern flank of the eastern Alaska Range. The spring waters contain anomalous concentrations of carbon dioxide, sodium, chlorine, sulfate, boron, and ammonia and are actively precipitating deposits of calcite and aragonite. Sparingly present in these deposits are mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite clays and zeolite minerals. Low-temperaturemetamorphic reactions in subjacent marine sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age may have produced the fluids and silicate minerals. With only a few exceptions, cool bicarbonate-rich springs in Alaska are concentrated south of the Denali fault system in south-central Alaska, southeastern Alaska, and along the Kaltag-Tintina fault system. These areas are characterized by active or recently activetectonism, major faults and folds, and an abundance of marine sedimentary rocks.

  18. Radioactivity measurement in spring waters of Cantabria, Spain

    Soto Torres, J.; Gomez Arozamena, J.


    A study of the radioactivity existing in a high number of springs located in Cantabria, Northern Spain, was made. The spring analyzed in three sampling campaign's, And alpha and beta total activities and 226 Ra and 222 Rn concentrations were determined for each sample. The measuring techniques employed were gamma spectrometry with Ge detector, counting with gas flow proportional counter, and counting with ZnS(Ag) scintillating detector. Results show that springs with high radon water concentration have high values respect to the national mean. The springs with the highest radium and radon levels have thermal waters and are located on two deep fault, those have historic seismicity and seismical and geomorphological evidences of recent tectonic activity

  19. Topology Counts: Force Distributions in Circular Spring Networks.

    Heidemann, Knut M; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O; Sharma, Abhinav; Rehfeldt, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph F; Wardetzky, Max


    Filamentous polymer networks govern the mechanical properties of many biological materials. Force distributions within these networks are typically highly inhomogeneous, and, although the importance of force distributions for structural properties is well recognized, they are far from being understood quantitatively. Using a combination of probabilistic and graph-theoretical techniques, we derive force distributions in a model system consisting of ensembles of random linear spring networks on a circle. We show that characteristic quantities, such as the mean and variance of the force supported by individual springs, can be derived explicitly in terms of only two parameters: (i) average connectivity and (ii) number of nodes. Our analysis shows that a classical mean-field approach fails to capture these characteristic quantities correctly. In contrast, we demonstrate that network topology is a crucial determinant of force distributions in an elastic spring network. Our results for 1D linear spring networks readily generalize to arbitrary dimensions.

  20. NEFSC 2000 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0002, EK500)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  1. NEFSC 2001 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0103, EK500)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  2. Mapping of groundwater spring potential zone using geospatial ...


    geographical information system and remote sensing with various ... integration of RS and GIS and multi-criteria decision-making techniques, .... terrain factor contains the S (spring) before taking a class of terrain factor (F) into account and its.

  3. Air and Space Power Journal-Spring 2016


    and military became interested in aviation for defensive purposes (e.g., concern over Japanese hostilities) and offers details about initial...Spring 2016 | 99 Book Reviews Empire. He finds that ace was invented in the late 1920s by cinema and that such a term would have been considered...In the real Pacific War, Japanese - Spring 2016 | 101 Book Reviews Americans were interned in camps, and a largely homogeneous American people fought

  4. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Spring Newsletter 2017

    Murphy, James Peter


    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Spring Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Spring period of 2017. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  5. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof


    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  6. Investigation about Role of Algae in Kazeroon Sasan Spring Odor

    A Hamzeian


    Full Text Available Introduction: As odor for potable water is unpleasant for costumers, it needs to do researches for finding the reasons of odorous water. Sasan spring that is located in, near kazeroon city, Fars, Iran, is potable water resource for Kazeroon and Booshehr city and many other villages. Water in Sasan spring has the odor problem. With regards to important   role of algae on ado r problems in this study the role of algae on   odor was investigated. Methods: After regular sampling, the TON (threshold odor number was indicated and algae species was distinguished and the number of total algae and any species  of algae was numbers by microscopic direct numbering method .as the algae mass  is related to nitrogen and phosphor concentration, results of concentration Of nitrogen and phosphor in this spring that was examined regularity by water company was investigated and compared to concentration of these component that are need for algae growing.   Results: results shows that TON was in range  of 4.477 to 6.2 that indicated  oderous limit . Regression and diagram between TON and number of total algae showed the linear relationship. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphor, showed adequate condition for algal grow. Result of determination of algae species showed high population of Oscilatoria and Microcystis species, which are known as essential case of mold odor in water resources. Investigation on geological maps in the region around the Sasan spring, show alluvium source and is effected by surface part of it’s around land. Conclusion: because of the algae was determined as the essential cause of odor   in the spring, and algal growth is related to nutrients, and because of the surface pollution can penetrate in the alluvium lands around the spring, and effect the water in spring, so nutrient control and management is the essential way for odor control in the spring.

  7. Development of alternative materials for BWR fuel springs

    Uruma, Y.; Osato, T.; Yamazaki, K.


    Major sources of radioactivity introduced into reactor water of BWR were estimated fuel crud and in-core materials (especially, fuel springs). Fuel springs are used for fixation of fuel cladding tubes with spacer grid. Those are small parts (total length is only within 25 mm) and so many numbers are loaded simultaneously and then total surfaces area are calculated up to about 200 m 2 . Fuel springs are located under high radiation field and high oxidative environment. Conventional fuel spring is made of alloy-X750 which is one of nickel-based alloy and is reported to show relatively higher corrosion release rate. 58 Co and 60 Co will be released directly into reactor water from intensely radio-activated fuel springs surface and increase radioactivity concentrations in primary coolant. Corrosion release control from fuel springs is an important technical item and a development of alternative material instead of alloy-X750 for fuel spring is a key subject to achieve ultra low man-rem exposure BWR plant. In present work, alloy-X718 which started usage for PWR fuel springs and stainless steel type 316L which has many mechanical property data are picked up for alternative materials and compared their corrosion behaviors with conventional material. Corrosion experiment was conducted under vapor-water two phases flow which is simulated fuel cladding surface boiling condition. After exposure, corrosion film formed under corrosion test was analyzed in detail and corrosion film amount and corrosion release amount are estimated among three materials. (authors)

  8. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming


    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine mo....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  9. Green Team Readies for Spring with Plant Swap | Poster

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer Those looking for a cost-effective way to spruce up their yards this spring can stop by the National Cancer Institute at Frederick Green Team’s booth during the Spring Research Festival (SRF) on May 7 and 8. Pick up a free plant, donate overgrown plants from your yard, or swap for a new plant. Everyone is invited to participate in the swap, whether you have plants to donate or not.

  10. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1991 Final Report.

    Fast, David E.


    The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system. 47 refs., 89 figs., 67 tabs.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigations of shape memory alloy helical springs

    Aguiar, Ricardo A A; Pacheco, Pedro M C L; Savi, Marcelo A


    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) belong to the class of smart materials and have been used in numerous applications. Solid phase transformations induced either by stress or temperature are behind the remarkable properties of SMAs that motivate the concept of innovative smart actuators for different purposes. The SMA element used in these actuators can assume different forms and a spring is an element usually employed for this aim. This contribution deals with the modeling, simulation and experimental analysis of SMA helical springs. Basically, a one-dimensional constitutive model is assumed to describe the SMA thermomechanical shear behavior and, afterwards, helical springs are modeled by considering a classical approach for linear-elastic springs. A numerical method based on the operator split technique is developed. SMA helical spring thermomechanical behavior is investigated through experimental tests performed with different thermomechanical loadings. Shape memory and pseudoelastic effects are treated. Numerical simulations show that the model results are in close agreement with those obtained by experimental tests, revealing that the proposed model captures the general thermomechanical behavior of SMA springs

  12. The saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Moore, James G.; Diggles, Michael F.; Evans, William C.; Klemic, Karin


    The five saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada in California are found between 38.5° and 38.8° N. latitude, on the South Fork American River; on Caples Creek, a tributary of the Silver Fork American River; and on the North Fork Mokelumne River. The springs issue from Cretaceous granitic rocks in the bottoms of these major canyons, between 1,200- and 2,200-m elevation. All of these springs were well known to Native Americans, who excavated meter-sized basins in the granitic rock, within which they produced salt by evaporation near at least four of the five spring sites. The spring waters are dominated by Cl, Na, and Ca; are enriched relative to seawater in Ca, Li, and As; and are depleted in SO4, Mg, and K. Tritium analyses indicate that the spring waters have had little interaction with rainfall since about 1954. The waters are apparently an old groundwater of meteoric origin that resided at depth before moving up along fractures to the surface of the exhumed granitic rocks. However, along the way these waters incorporated salts from depth, the origin of which could have been either from marine sedimentary rocks intruded by the granitic magmas or from fluid inclusions in the granitic rocks. Prolonged storage at depth fostered water-rock interactions that undoubtedly modified the fluid compositions.

  13. The false spring of 2012, earliest in North American record

    Ault, T.R.; Henebry, G.M.; de Beurs, K. M.; Schwartz, M.D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Moore, David


    Phenology - the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate - is becoming an essential tool for documenting, communicating, and anticipating the consequences of climate variability and change. For example, March 2012 broke numerous records for warm temperatures and early flowering in the United States [Karl et al., 2012; Elwood et al., 2013]. Many regions experienced a “false spring,” a period of weather in late winter or early spring sufficiently mild and long to bring vegetation out of dormancy prematurely, rendering it vulnerable to late frost and drought.As global climate warms, increasingly warmer springs may combine with the random climatological occurrence of advective freezes, which result from cold air moving from one region to another, to dramatically increase the future risk of false springs, with profound ecological and economic consequences [e.g., Gu et al., 2008; Marino et al., 2011; Augspurger, 2013]. For example, in the false spring of 2012, an event embedded in long-term trends toward earlier spring [e.g., Schwartz et al., 2006], the frost damage to fruit trees totaled half a billion dollars in Michigan alone, prompting the federal government to declare the state a disaster area [Knudson, 2012].

  14. Habitat features and distribution of Salamandra salamandra in underground springs

    Raoul Manenti


    Full Text Available Subterranean habitats are among the less known terrestrial habitats, but can reveal an unexpected biodiversity, and can play an underestimated role for amphibians. The fire salamander Salamandra salamandra is sometimes found in underground environments, but the factors affecting its distribution in subterranean spaces remain substantially unexplored. We repeatedly surveyed some hypogeous springs, such as draining galleries and “bottini” in NW Italy, in order to evaluate the relationship between environmental features and distribution of S. salamandra in these underground springs. We performed visual encounter surveys to assess the occurrence of larvae, juveniles or adults in springs. We also recorded four habitat variables: easy of access, isolation, macrobenthos richness and forest cover of the surrounding landscape. We used generalized linear models to evaluate the relationships between habitat features and occurrence of larvae. We observed larvae of S. salamandra in 13 out of 22 springs; their presence was associated to springs with high easy of access and with relatively rich macrobenthos communities. In underground springs, larval development apparently required longer time than in nearby epigeous streams. Nevertheless, S. salamandra can attain metamorphosis in this environment. The occurrence of S. salamandra in underground environments was not accidental, but repeated in the time and interesting from an ecological point of view, confirming the high plasticity of the species.

  15. In Vivo Force Decay of Niti Closed Coil Springs

    Cox, Crystal; Nguyen, Tung; Koroluk, Lorne; Ko, Ching-Chang


    Introduction Nickel-titanium (NiTi) closed coil springs are purported to deliver constant forces over extended ranges of activation and working times. In vivo studies supporting this claim are limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate changes in force decay properties of NiTi closed coil springs after clinical use. Methods Pseudoelastic force-deflection curves for 30 NiTi coil springs (used intra-orally) and 15 matched laboratory control springs (simulated intra-oral conditions - artificial saliva, 37°C) were tested pre- and post-retrieval via Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and the Instron machine, respectively, to evaluate amount of force loss and hysteresis change following 4, 8, or 12 weeks of working time (n=10 per group). Effect of the oral environment and clinical use on force properties were evaluated by comparing in vivo and in vitro data. Results The springs studied showed a statistically significant decrease in force (~12%) following 4 weeks of clinical use (pspace closure at an average rate of 0.91mm per month was still observed despite this decrease in force. In vivo and in vitro force loss data were not statistically different. Conclusions NiTi closed coil springs do not deliver constant forces when used intra-orally, but they still allow for space closure rates of ~1mm/month. PMID:24703289

  16. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    Löcken, F.; Welsch, M.


    In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into "mechanical language" enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  17. Report on the FY 1998 survey for preservation of Jozankei Hot Spring. Hot spring variation survey; 1998 nendo Jozankei onsen hozen chosa. Onsen hendo chosa hokokusho



    Of the FY 1998 survey for preservation of Jozankei Hot Spring, a survey was conducted with the aim of grasping the state of variation in ingredients of hot spring, etc. in the area and of elucidating the causes of hot spring variation. During the period from October 27, 1998 to August 28, 1999, the following were carried out: sampling of specimens of spring water at 6 spring sources, river water at 2 points and precipitation at 2 points; measurement of temperature, spring temperature, pH, electric conductivity, etc.; analyses of Na, Ca, CL, HCO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, etc. The results of the analysis are as follows. As to spring sources, A-2, A-7 and B-1, the precipitation or river water flow rate seem to largely affect the variation in hot spring measuring values. As to spring resources, A-6 and B-4, the relation with the precipitation or river water flow rate is not clear, but a big change is recognized in the snow-melting season. The tendency to the two variations seems to be caused by the difference between the spring with which the river water is greatly concerned by the crack system of the spring having reached the river and the spring which was closed on the earth surface. The temperature variation of springs was considered to be affected by the river water which flowed into the springs. (NEDO)

  18. Wolfcampian brachiopods from the Bird Spring Group, Wamp Spring area, Las Vegas Range, Clark County, Nevada ( USA).

    Mills, P.C.; Langenheim, R.L.


    The Wamp Spring section of the Bird Spring Group is subdivided into a basal platy limestone member, lower cliff-forming member, and upper cliff-forming member. Triticites, Schwagerina, and Schubertella kingi in the platy limestone member indicate an early Wolfcampian age. Schwagerina, Schubertella kingi, and a distinctive assemblage of brachiopods, similar to the West Texas fauna, indicate that the upper cliff-forming member is late Wolfcampian. The lower cliff-forming member is tentatively assigned to the middle Wolfcampian. The Wamp Spring sequence correlates temporally with the BSe 'formation' of the Bird Spring Group. The fossil-rich upper cliff-forming limestone member includes the new species Pontisia boodi, Crurithyris wampensis, and Calliprotonia(?) n. sp. A, as well as Hustedia culcitula, Crenispirifer(?) sp., Cenorhynchia(?) sp., Kutorginella(?) sp., marginiferids, lyssacine hexactinellid sponges, pleurotomarid and bellerophontid gastropods, cidaroid echinoids, rugose corals, cylindrical cryptostome bryozoans, and nuculids. -from Authors

  19. Buildings radiological characterization report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri


    This report summarizes radiological characterization data on the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) buildings gathered as part of five previous investigations, and provides a consistent will be used to support future feasibility studies which will determine the best available technologies for ultimate disposition of the buildings and associated equipment. At present no structure or piece of equipment can be released from the WSCP for unrestricted use without further radiation measurements being performed. A final group of equipment and building components contains surface radioactivity levels in excess of DOE guidelines; this group, usually found in buildings housing uranium and/or thorium processing equipment, will require decontamination and comprehensive scanning in order to be considered for unrestricted use release. 9 refs., 44 tabs

  20. Proposed plan for the management of bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri


    This proposed plan addresses the management of contaminated bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry. Activities at the site are being conducted by the US Department of Energy under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. A remedial investigation/feasibility study has been prepared in accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response. The purposes of the proposed plan are to present a notice and brief analysis of the proposed quarry bulk waste remedial action, describe the remedial action alternatives for this interim remedial action, identify the currently preferred alternative for managing the bulk wastes and present the rationale for this preference, serve as a companion document to the RI/FS and administrative record file for this action, and outline the public's role in the decision-making process for this action. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Dissolved oxygen fluctuations in karst spring flow and implications for endemic species: Barton Springs, Edwards aquifer, Texas, USA

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Bourgeais, Renan


    Karst aquifers and springs provide the dissolved oxygen critical for survival of endemic stygophiles worldwide, but little is known about fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and factors that control those concentrations. We investigated temporal variation in DO at Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA. During 2006–2012, DO fluctuated by as much as a factor of 2, and at some periods decreased to concentrations that adversely affect the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sorosum) (≤4.4 mg/L), a federally listed endangered species endemic to Barton Springs. DO was lowest (≤4.4 mg/L) when discharge was low (≤1 m3/s) and spring water temperature was >21 °C, although not at a maximum; the minimum DO recorded was 4.0 mg/L. Relatively low DO (3/s) and maximum T (22.2 °C). A four-segment linear regression model with daily data for discharge and spring water temperature as explanatory variables provided an excellent fit for mean daily DO (Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient for the validation period of 0.90). DO also fluctuated at short-term timescales in response to storms, and DO measured at 15-min intervals could be simulated with a combination of discharge, spring temperature, and specific conductance as explanatory variables. On the basis of the daily-data regression model, we hypothesize that more frequent low DO corresponding to salamander mortality could result from (i) lower discharge from Barton Springs resulting from increased groundwater withdrawals or decreased recharge as a result of climate change, and (or) (ii) higher groundwater temperature as a result of climate change.

  2. Parsimonious Hydrologic and Nitrate Response Models For Silver Springs, Florida

    Klammler, Harald; Yaquian-Luna, Jose Antonio; Jawitz, James W.; Annable, Michael D.; Hatfield, Kirk


    Silver Springs with an approximate discharge of 25 m3/sec is one of Florida's first magnitude springs and among the largest springs worldwide. Its 2500-km2 springshed overlies the mostly unconfined Upper Floridan Aquifer. The aquifer is approximately 100 m thick and predominantly consists of porous, fractured and cavernous limestone, which leads to excellent surface drainage properties (no major stream network other than Silver Springs run) and complex groundwater flow patterns through both rock matrix and fast conduits. Over the past few decades, discharge from Silver Springs has been observed to slowly but continuously decline, while nitrate concentrations in the spring water have enormously increased from a background level of 0.05 mg/l to over 1 mg/l. In combination with concurrent increases in algae growth and turbidity, for example, and despite an otherwise relatively stable water quality, this has given rise to concerns about the ecological equilibrium in and near the spring run as well as possible impacts on tourism. The purpose of the present work is to elaborate parsimonious lumped parameter models that may be used by resource managers for evaluating the springshed's hydrologic and nitrate transport responses. Instead of attempting to explicitly consider the complex hydrogeologic features of the aquifer in a typically numerical and / or stochastic approach, we use a transfer function approach wherein input signals (i.e., time series of groundwater recharge and nitrate loading) are transformed into output signals (i.e., time series of spring discharge and spring nitrate concentrations) by some linear and time-invariant law. The dynamic response types and parameters are inferred from comparing input and output time series in frequency domain (e.g., after Fourier transformation). Results are converted into impulse (or step) response functions, which describe at what time and to what magnitude a unitary change in input manifests at the output. For the

  3. Frequency-dependent springs in the seismic analysis of structures

    Tyapin, A.G.


    This paper presents a two-step algorithm for the seismic analysis of structure resting on the rigid embedded basement. Frequency-domain analysis of SSI is carried out on the second step for a platform model with special 'soil spring' which is complex, frequency-dependent, wave-dependent and non-balanced. Theory is presented to obtain the parameters of the soil spring on the first step of the analysis, performed without structure (only geometry of the basement is used) using well-known SASSI code (Lysmer et al, 1981) or in some other ways. On the second step in the SASSI analysis the soil spring is included in the model as a special finite element. Thus, the first step enables to save the computer resources on structure, the second step-to save resources on soil. Soil spring is the most general form for a SSI linear analysis: conventional springs and dashpots can be easily represented in such a format. Thus, the presented approach enables to study the impact of various factors (such as the embedment depth and soil-structure separation, the off-diagonal stiffness, various formulas for stiffness and damping, etc.) on the soil spring parameters. These parameters can be studied separately from the structure itself. As an example, the study of the horizontal soil mesh size is presented. Lumped soil spring may be used on the second step to obtain structural response spectra. To get stresses complex stiffness may be distributed over the basement slab and embedded walls. The proposed approach may be considered to be the alternative to the impedance method (see ASCE4-98). (authors)

  4. Clinical Course of Homozygous Hemoglobin Constant Spring in Pediatric Patients.

    Komvilaisak, Patcharee; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Komwilaisak, Ratana; Jirapradittha, Junya; Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan


    Hemoglobin (Hb) Constant Spring is an alpha-globin gene variant due to a mutation of the stop codon resulting in the elongation of the encoded polypeptide from 141 to 172 amino acid residues. Patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring are usually mildly anemic. We retrospectively describe clinical manifestations, diagnosis, laboratory investigations, treatment, and associated findings in pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring followed-up at Srinagarind Hospital. Sixteen pediatric cases (5 males and 11 females) were diagnosed in utero (N=6) or postnatal (n=10). Eleven cases were diagnosed with homozygous Hb Constant Spring, 4 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with heterozygous Hb E, and 1 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with homozygous Hb E. Three cases were delivered preterm. Six patients had low birth weights. Clinical manifestations included fetal anemia in 6 cases, hepatomegaly in 1 case, hepatosplenomegaly in 2 cases, splenomegaly in 1 case. Twelve cases exhibited early neonatal jaundice, 9 of which required phototherapy. Six cases received red cell transfusions; 1 (3), >1 (3). After the first few months of life, almost all patients had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and an increased reticulocyte count with a wide red cell distribution (RDW), but no longer required red cell transfusion. At 1 to 2 years of age, some patients still had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and some had normocytic hypochromic anemia with Hb around 10 g/dL, increased reticulocyte count and wide RDW. Associated findings included hypothyroidism (2), congenital heart diseases (4), genitourinary abnormalities (3), gastrointestinal abnormalities (2), and developmental delay (1). Pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring developed severe anemia in utero and up to the age of 2 to 3 months postnatal, requiring blood transfusions. Subsequently, their anemia was mild with no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly. Their Hb level was above 9 g/dL with hypochromic

  5. Development of transducers for integrated garter spring repositioning system

    Sharma, B S.V.G.; Shyam, T V; Shrivastava, A K; Rupani, B B; Sinha, R K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Reactor Engineering Div.


    In order to reposition the dislocated garter springs in active channels of 235 MW Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), a tool named as Integrated Garter Spring Repositioning System (INGRES) has been developed. The tool consists of transducers to detect the concentricity between the Pressure Tube (P/T) and Calandria Tube (C/T) and also to detect garter springs in the channel besides different modules for correcting the eccentricity between P/T and C/T and garter spring repositioning. The transducers used in the system namely Concentricity Detection Probe (CDP) and Garter Spring Detection Probe (GSDP) are based on the eddy current techniques. The CDP makes use of four eddy current bobbin probes separated 90 degrees apart in cross sectional plane of channel assembly. The transducer gives output signal in proportional to the air gap between P/T and C/T in two axes (X and Y) which are designed for the purpose. The output of the unit is obtained on the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) screen in the form of illuminated dot. The dot position on the CRO screen gives the information about mismatch in concentricity between P/T and C/T of the channel. The GSDP meant for detecting garter springs in PHWR channel uses two sets of primary and secondary coils connected in differential mode. The output signals from the transducers are processed through a signal processing unit devised for the purpose to obtain output from it as a horizontal beam on the CRO screen. The garter spring presence in the channel is indicated by a change in the voltage level of beam and also by audio-visual indication in the form of buzzer and LED illumination on the processing unit. This paper gives general design and development aspects of the CDP and GSDP transducers of the INGRES tool. (author). 3 figs.

  6. Bending spring rate investigation of nanopipette for cell injection

    Shen, Yajing; Zhang, Zhenhai; Fukuda, Toshio


    Bending of nanopipette tips during cell penetration is a major cause of cell injection failure. However, the flexural rigidity of nanopipettes is little known due to their irregular structure. In this paper, we report a quantitative method to estimate the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette by investigating its bending spring rate. First nanopipettes with a tip size of 300 nm are fabricated from various glass tubes by laser pulling followed by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Then the bending spring rate of the nanopipettes is investigated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, a yeast cell penetration test is performed on these nanopipettes, which have different bending spring rates. The results show that nanopipettes with a higher bending spring rate have better cell penetration capability, which confirms that the bending spring rate may well reflect the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette. This method provides a quantitative parameter for characterizing the mechanical property of a nanopipette that can be potentially taken as a standard specification in the future. This general method can also be used to estimate other one-dimensional structures for cell injection, which will greatly benefit basic cell biology research and clinical applications.

  7. Bending spring rate investigation of nanopipette for cell injection

    Shen, Yajing; Zhang, Zhenhai; Fukuda, Toshio


    Bending of nanopipette tips during cell penetration is a major cause of cell injection failure. However, the flexural rigidity of nanopipettes is little known due to their irregular structure. In this paper, we report a quantitative method to estimate the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette by investigating its bending spring rate. First nanopipettes with a tip size of 300 nm are fabricated from various glass tubes by laser pulling followed by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Then the bending spring rate of the nanopipettes is investigated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, a yeast cell penetration test is performed on these nanopipettes, which have different bending spring rates. The results show that nanopipettes with a higher bending spring rate have better cell penetration capability, which confirms that the bending spring rate may well reflect the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette. This method provides a quantitative parameter for characterizing the mechanical property of a nanopipette that can be potentially taken as a standard specification in the future. This general method can also be used to estimate other one-dimensional structures for cell injection, which will greatly benefit basic cell biology research and clinical applications. (paper)

  8. Balneological Evaluation of the Tafadek Spring, Agadez Region, Niger Republic

    Nghargbu, K.; Latour, T.; Ponikowska, I.; Kurowska, E.


    West Africa, particularly Niger Republic is home to thousands of tourists annually. The vast Saharan desert and it's numerous oases in the northern parts of the Republic are a hot attraction on their own. However, in a recent survey of medicinal springs within the West African sub-region, the only hot spring in this country known locally for its therapeutic egress was analyzed. Located about 160km West of Agadez, the "Tafadek" spring with a yield of over 5l/s and temperature of about 50oC, rich in fluoride and silica is a specific water with capacity for application in balneotherapy for the treatment of orthopaedic, rheumatological, neurological, urinary tract infections, and osteoporosis. If the Tafadek spring is developed into a modern health resort promoting balneotherapy, health (balnear) tourism which is non-existent in Niger Republic today could kick start a new dawn in the health/economic development of the nation and the sub-region at large. Keywords: West Africa, Nigeria, Balneotherapy, Health tourism, Spring

  9. Nonlinear Quantum Optical Springs and Their Nonclassical Properties

    Faghihi, M.J.; Tavassoly, M.K.


    The original idea of quantum optical spring arises from the requirement of quantization of the frequency of oscillations in the Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator. This purpose is achieved by considering a spring whose constant (and so its frequency) depends on the quantum states of another system. Recently, it is realized that by the assumption of frequency modulation of ω to ω√1+μa † a the mentioned idea can be established. In the present paper, we generalize the approach of quantum optical spring with particular attention to the dependence of frequency to the intensity of radiation field that naturally observes in the nonlinear coherent states, from which we arrive at a physical system has been called by us as nonlinear quantum optical spring. Then, after the introduction of the generalized Hamiltonian of nonlinear quantum optical spring and it's solution, we will investigate the nonclassical properties of the obtained states. Specially, typical collapse and revival in the distribution functions and squeezing parameters, as particular quantum features, will be revealed. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Lanthanoid abundance of some neutral hot spring waters in Japan

    Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao; Honda, Teruyuki


    Contents of lanthanoids (Ln's) in some neutral hot spring waters as well as in acidic hot spring waters were determined by neutron activation analysis. It was found that a higher pH resulted in lower concentrations of Ln's; the value of correlation coefficient (r) between the logarithm of the concentration of Sm ([Sm]), chosen as the representative of Ln's, and the logarithm of pH was -0.90. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was strongly correlated with [Ln]'s in the pH range of 1.3 and 8.8; the correlation was expressed as log[Sm] = 0.893 log([Al] + [Fe]) - 5.45 with the r value of 0.98. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was thus a good measure of the Ln contents in acidic and neutral hot spring waters. The Ln abundance patterns of neutral hot spring waters with normal CO 2 concentrations had concave shapes with relative depletion in the middle-heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln carbonates. The neutral hot spring water with a high CO 2 content of 1,800 ppm showed a Ln pattern with a relative enrichment in the heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln's observed for CO 2 -rich solutions. (author)

  11. Migratory characteristics of spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River

    Snelling, J.C.; Schreck, C.B.; Bradford, C.S.; Davis, L.E.; Slater, C.H.; Beck, M.T.; Ewing, S.K.


    This report documents our research to examine in detail the migration of juvenile and adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. We seek to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to oxygen supplementation practices at Willamette Hatchery, and to identify potential sources of adult spring chinook mortality in the Willamette River above Willamette Falls and use this information towards analysis of the study on efficiency of oxygen supplementation. The majority of juvenile spring chinook salmon released from Willamette hatchery in 1991 begin downstream movement immediately upon liberation. They travel at a rate of 1.25 to 3.5 miles per hour during the first 48 hours post-release. Considerably slower than the water velocities available to them. Juveniles feed actively during migration, primarily on aquatic insects. Na + /K + gill ATPase and cortisol are significantly reduced in juveniles reared in the third pass of the Michigan series with triple density and oxygen supplementation, suggesting that these fish were not as well developed as those reared under other treatments. Returning adult spring chinook salmon migrate upstream at an average rate of about 10 to 20 miles per day, but there is considerable between fish variation. Returning adults exhibit a high incidence of wandering in and out of the Willamette River system above and below Willamette Falls

  12. Deformation behavior of cell spring of an irradiated spacer grid

    Jin, Y. G.; Baek, S. J.; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Kim, D. S.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.; Choo, Y. S.


    Mechanical properties of a space grid of a fuel assembly are of great importance for fuel operation reliability in extended fuel burnup and duration of fuel life. The spacer grid with inner and outer straps has cell spring and dimples, which are in contact with the fuel rod. The spacer grids supporting the fuel rods absorb vibration impacts due to the reactor coolant flow and also grid spring force is decreasing under irradiation. This reduction of contact force might cause the grid to rod fretting wear. The fretting failure of the fuel rod is one of the significant issues recently in the nuclear industry from an economical as well as a safety concern. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics of cell spring behavior for an irradiated spacer grid. In the present study, the stiffness test and dimensional measurement of cell springs were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior of cell springs of an irradiated spacer grid in a hot cell at IMEF (irradiated materials examination facility) of KAERI

  13. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    Cuthbert, Mark O; Ashley, Gail M


    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.


    Naman Gupta*1, Manas purohit2 & Deepika potghan3


    This paper shows the study which deals with the weight reduction for tensile extension spring by changing the solid spring to hollow one. The springs which are generally used are in solid form due to which the weight of entire body in which the spring is attached gets increased. The forces which can be act on spring may be linear push or linear pull or radial type. This spring deflect by pulling and regain its shape when pulling is neglect. The weight of tensile spring is reduced by changing ...

  15. Radiological Studies in the Hot Spring Region of Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun Thermal Spring Areas in Western Sinai

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.; Sharshar, T.


    Radioactivity in and around the two hot springs, Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun, Western Sinai has been determined. The ground water, sediment and sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer for 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K isotopes. The enrichment of 226 Ra in Hammam Faraun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The concentration of 226 Ra in Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun hot springs are 68 and 2377 Bq/kg for sediments, 3.5 and 54.7 Bq/kg for wild plants, and 205 and 1945 mBq/l for the ground water, respectively. In addition, the concentration of sand samples are 14 times larger in the area of Hammam Faraun compared with that of Oyoun Mossa. On the other hand, the concentration of 232 Th in different samples are comparable in the two areas while 137 Cs concentrations are relatively higher in Oyoun Mossa. For the purpose of comparison, sand samples were collected from two locations 5-12 km away from each spring. The activity concentrations of the four locations are comparable and in agreement with those from the area of the two springs except in one case. The major difference was the activity concentration of 226 Ra in the area of Hammam Faraun, which is much higher. The concentrations of all detected isotopes in water samples from these two springs are much higher than that detected in 27 natural wells in north Sinai. The results of the present study indicate that water only in Hammam Faraun hot spring is contaminated with 238 U-isotopes and the surrounding area is affected by this contamination. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents in the surroundings of Hammam Faraun (81.8 μSv) is superior to the maximum contaminant levels recommended.

  16. Nickel titanium springs versus stainless steel springs: A randomized clinical trial of two methods of space closure.

    Norman, Noraina Hafizan; Worthington, Helen; Chadwick, Stephen Mark


    To compare the clinical performance of nickel titanium (NiTi) versus stainless steel (SS) springs during orthodontic space closure. Two-centre parallel group randomized clinical trial. Orthodontic Department University of Manchester Dental Hospital and Orthodontic Department Countess of Chester Hospital, United Kingdom. Forty orthodontic patients requiring fixed appliance treatment were enrolled, each being randomly allocated into either NiTi (n = 19) or SS groups (n = 21). Study models were constructed at the start of the space closure phase (T0) and following the completion of space closure (T1). The rate of space closure achieved for each patient was calculated by taking an average measurement from the tip of the canine to the mesiobuccal groove on the first permanent molar of each quadrant. The study was terminated early due to time constraints. Only 30 patients completed, 15 in each study group. There was no statistically significant difference between the amounts of space closed (mean difference 0.17 mm (95%CI -0.99 to 1.34; P = 0.76)). The mean rate of space closure for NiTi coil springs was 0.58 mm/4 weeks (SD 0.24) and 0.85 mm/4 weeks (SD 0.36) for the stainless steel springs. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.024), in favour of the stainless steel springs, when the mean values per patient were compared. Our study shows that stainless steel springs are clinically effective; these springs produce as much space closure as their more expensive rivals, the NiTi springs.

  17. Based on Artificial Neural Network to Realize K-Parameter Analysis of Vehicle Air Spring System

    Hung, San-Shan; Hsu, Chia-Ning; Hwang, Chang-Chou; Chen, Wen-Jan


    In recent years, because of the air-spring control technique is more mature, that air- spring suspension systems already can be used to replace the classical vehicle suspension system. Depend on internal pressure variation of the air-spring, thestiffnessand the damping factor can be adjusted. Because of air-spring has highly nonlinear characteristic, therefore it isn’t easy to construct the classical controller to control the air-spring effectively. The paper based on Artificial Neural Network to propose a feasible control strategy. By using offline way for the neural network design and learning to the air-spring in different initial pressures and different loads, offline method through, predict air-spring stiffness parameter to establish a model. Finally, through adjusting air-spring internal pressure to change the K-parameter of the air-spring, realize the well dynamic control performance of air-spring suspension.

  18. Chemical and Hydro-Geologic Analysis of Ikogosi Warm Spring Water in Nigeria

    Akinola Ikudayisi; Folasade Adeyemo; Josiah Adeyemo


    This study focuses on the hydro-geology and chemical constituents analysis of Ikogosi Warm Spring waters in South West Nigeria. Ikogosi warm spring is a global tourist attraction because it has both warm and cold spring sources. Water samples from the cold spring, warm spring and the meeting point were collected, analyzed and the result shows close similarity in temperature, hydrogen iron concentration (pH), alkalinity, hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Iron, total di...

  19. Rational design of the exchange-spring permanent magnet.

    Jiang, J S; Bader, S D


    The development of the optimal exchange-spring permanent magnet balances exchange hardening, magnetization enhancement, and the feasibility of scalable fabrication. These requirements can be met with a rational design of the microstructural characteristics. The magnetization processes in several model exchange-spring structures with different geometries have been analyzed with both micromagnetic simulations and nucleation theory. The multilayer geometry and the soft-cylinders-in-hard-matrix geometry have the highest achievable figure of merit (BH)max, while the soft-spheres-in-hard-matrix geometry has the lowest upper limit for (BH)max. The cylindrical geometry permits the soft phase to be larger and does not require strict size control. Exchange-spring permanent magnets based on the cylindrical geometry may be amenable to scaled-up fabrication.

  20. Modeling smog along the Los Angeles-Palm Springs trajectory

    Hanna, S.R.


    Observations of smog concentrations and wind patterns during the summer of 1973 in Los Angeles, Pomona, Riverside, Banning, and Palm Springs, California are presented which show that high oxidant concentrations at Banning and Palm Springs are often due to advection of smog from source regions in the more densely populated western part of the Los Angeles basin. At Pomona and Riverside, advection from upwind source regions combines with the effects of local emissions to cause long durations of high oxidant concentrations with peak times in the mid afternoon. An empirical model for the diurnal oxidant variation is suggested which satisfactorily simulates observed concentrations. More complex models which include chemical kinetics systems do not perform very satisfactorily at the rural stations of Banning and Palm Springs, especially at night when observed oxidant concentrations remain high

  1. Corrosion failure analysis of hearing aid battery-spring contacts

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Ambat, Rajan


    the susceptibility of these systems to galvanic corrosion. In this study, traditional behind the ear (BTE) hearing aid systems, which failed during service were analysed. Failure analysis was performed on the dome type battery-spring contact systems. The morphology of the contact areas was observed using scanning......Reliability of low power electrical contacts such as those in hearing aid battery-spring systems is a very critical aspect for the overall performance of the device. These systems are exposed to certain harsh environments like high humidity and elevated temperatures, and often in combination...... electron microscopy, and the compositional analysis of the corrosion products and contaminants was performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Wear track morphology was observed on the contact points, and the top coating on the dome was worn out exposing the substrate spring material...

  2. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.


    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  3. Spring cleaning: rural water impacts, valuation, and property rights institutions.

    Kremer, Michael; Leino, Jessica; Miguel, Edward; Zwane, Alix Peterson


    Using a randomized evaluation in Kenya, we measure health impacts of spring protection, an investment that improves source water quality. We also estimate households' valuation of spring protection and simulate the welfare impacts of alternatives to the current system of common property rights in water, which limits incentives for private investment. Spring infrastructure investments reduce fecal contamination by 66%, but household water quality improves less, due to recontamination. Child diarrhea falls by one quarter. Travel-cost based revealed preference estimates of households' valuations are much smaller than both stated preference valuations and health planners' valuations, and are consistent with models in which the demand for health is highly income elastic. We estimate that private property norms would generate little additional investment while imposing large static costs due to above-marginal-cost pricing, private property would function better at higher income levels or under water scarcity, and alternative institutions could yield Pareto improvements.

  4. Design Considerations for Optimized Lateral Spring Structures for Wearable Electronics

    Hussain, Aftab M.


    The market for wearable electronics has been gaining momentum in the recent years. For completely electronic wearable textiles with integrated sensors, actuators, computing units and communication circuitry, it is important that there is significant stretchability. This stretchability can be obtained by introducing periodic stretchable structures between the electronic circuits. In this work, we derive the equations and constraints governing the stretchability in horseshoe lateral spring structures. We have derived the optimum design and the parameters therein, to help develop the best spring structures for a given stretchability. We have also developed a figure of merit, called area efficiency of stretchability, to compare all twodimensional stretchable systems. Finally, we experimentally verify the validity of our equations by fabricating a metal/polymer bilayer thin film based stretchable horseshoe lateral spring structures. We obtain a stretchability of 1.875 which is comparable to the theoretical maxima of 2.01 for the given parameters.

  5. Design Considerations for Optimized Lateral Spring Structures for Wearable Electronics

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa


    The market for wearable electronics has been gaining momentum in the recent years. For completely electronic wearable textiles with integrated sensors, actuators, computing units and communication circuitry, it is important that there is significant stretchability. This stretchability can be obtained by introducing periodic stretchable structures between the electronic circuits. In this work, we derive the equations and constraints governing the stretchability in horseshoe lateral spring structures. We have derived the optimum design and the parameters therein, to help develop the best spring structures for a given stretchability. We have also developed a figure of merit, called area efficiency of stretchability, to compare all twodimensional stretchable systems. Finally, we experimentally verify the validity of our equations by fabricating a metal/polymer bilayer thin film based stretchable horseshoe lateral spring structures. We obtain a stretchability of 1.875 which is comparable to the theoretical maxima of 2.01 for the given parameters.

  6. Rational design of the exchange-spring permanent magnet

    Jiang, J S; Bader, S D


    The development of the optimal exchange-spring permanent magnet balances exchange hardening, magnetization enhancement, and the feasibility of scalable fabrication. These requirements can be met with a rational design of the microstructural characteristics. The magnetization processes in several model exchange-spring structures with different geometries have been analyzed with both micromagnetic simulations and nucleation theory. The multilayer geometry and the soft-cylinders-in-hard-matrix geometry have the highest achievable figure of merit (BH) max , while the soft-spheres-in-hard-matrix geometry has the lowest upper limit for (BH) max . The cylindrical geometry permits the soft phase to be larger and does not require strict size control. Exchange-spring permanent magnets based on the cylindrical geometry may be amenable to scaled-up fabrication. (paper)

  7. Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site


    A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures

  8. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2


    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action

  9. Elliptical Leaf Spring Shock and Vibration Mounts with Enhanced Damping and Energy Dissipation Capabilities Using Lead Spring

    Moussa Leblouba


    Full Text Available We present an enhancement to the existing elliptical leaf spring (ELS for improved damping and energy dissipation capabilities. The ELS consists of a high tensile stainless steel elliptical leaf spring with polymer or rubber compound. This device is conceived as a shock and vibration isolator for equipment and lightweight structures. The enhancement to the ELS consists of a lead spring plugged vertically between the leaves (referred to as lead-rubber elliptical leaf spring (LRELS. The lead is shown to produce hysteretic damping under plastic deformations. The LRELS isolator is shown to exhibit nonlinear hysteretic behavior. In both horizontal directions, the LRELS showed symmetrical rate independent behavior but undergoes stiffening behavior under large displacements. However, in the vertical direction, the LRELS behavior is asymmetric, exhibiting softening behavior in compression and stiffening behavior in tension. Mathematical models based on the Bouc-Wen model, describing the hysteretic behavior of the proposed isolator, are developed and numerically calibrated using a series of finite element analyses. The LRELS is found to be effective in the in-plane and vertical directions. The improved damping and energy dissipation of the LRELS is provided from the hysteretic damping of the lead spring.

  10. The 2010 spring drought reduced primary productivity in southwestern China

    Zhang Li; Li Jing; Xiao Jingfeng; Wang Kun; Lei Liping; Guo Huadong


    Many parts of the world experience frequent and severe droughts. Summer drought can significantly reduce primary productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. The impacts of spring droughts, however, have received much less attention. A severe and sustained spring drought occurred in southwestern China in 2010. Here we examine the influence of this spring drought on the primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems using data on climate, vegetation greenness and productivity. We first assess the spatial extent, duration and severity of the drought using precipitation data and the Palmer drought severity index. We then examine the impacts of the drought on terrestrial ecosystems using satellite data for the period 2000–2010. Our results show that the spring drought substantially reduced the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) during spring 2010 (March–May). Both EVI and GPP also substantially declined in the summer and did not fully recover from the drought stress until August. The drought reduced regional annual GPP and net primary productivity (NPP) in 2010 by 65 and 46 Tg C yr −1 , respectively. Both annual GPP and NPP in 2010 were the lowest over the period 2000–2010. The negative effects of the drought on annual primary productivity were partly offset by the remarkably high productivity in August and September caused by the exceptionally wet conditions in late summer and early fall and the farming practices adopted to mitigate drought effects. Our results show that, like summer droughts, spring droughts can also have significant impacts on vegetation productivity and terrestrial carbon cycling. (letter)

  11. Increased spring freezing vulnerability for alpine shrubs under early snowmelt.

    Wheeler, J A; Hoch, G; Cortés, A J; Sedlacek, J; Wipf, S; Rixen, C


    Alpine dwarf shrub communities are phenologically linked with snowmelt timing, so early spring exposure may increase risk of freezing damage during early development, and consequently reduce seasonal growth. We examined whether environmental factors (duration of snow cover, elevation) influenced size and the vulnerability of shrubs to spring freezing along elevational gradients and snow microhabitats by modelling the past frequency of spring freezing events. We sampled biomass and measured the size of Salix herbacea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum and Loiseleuria procumbens in late spring. Leaves were exposed to freezing temperatures to determine the temperature at which 50% of specimens are killed for each species and sampling site. By linking site snowmelt and temperatures to long-term climate measurements, we extrapolated the frequency of spring freezing events at each elevation, snow microhabitat and per species over 37 years. Snowmelt timing was significantly driven by microhabitat effects, but was independent of elevation. Shrub growth was neither enhanced nor reduced by earlier snowmelt, but decreased with elevation. Freezing resistance was strongly species dependent, and did not differ along the elevation or snowmelt gradient. Microclimate extrapolation suggested that potentially lethal freezing events (in May and June) occurred for three of the four species examined. Freezing events never occurred on late snow beds, and increased in frequency with earlier snowmelt and higher elevation. Extrapolated freezing events showed a slight, non-significant increase over the 37-year record. We suggest that earlier snowmelt does not enhance growth in four dominant alpine shrubs, but increases the risk of lethal spring freezing exposure for less freezing-resistant species.

  12. Grid with hold-down springs for fuel assembly

    Petit, B.


    The grid, especially for use in a light water nuclear power plant, has many plates which are interlaced to form rod retaining cells and springs made by a U strip with two active legs opposite to the plates to exert a pressure on the rods. The springs have their two sections joined together by welding through an aperture in the plate. Below the welded joint the sections of the strip are curved outwards while their free ends are joined together by having them overlapping or crossing close to their tips [fr

  13. Biodiversity of the microbial mat of the Garga hot spring.

    Rozanov, Alexey Sergeevich; Bryanskaya, Alla Victorovna; Ivanisenko, Timofey Vladimirovich; Malup, Tatyana Konstantinovna; Peltek, Sergey Evgenievich


    Microbial mats are a good model system for ecological and evolutionary analysis of microbial communities. There are more than 20 alkaline hot springs on the banks of the Barguzin river inflows. Water temperature reaches 75 °C and pH is usually 8.0-9.0. The formation of microbial mats is observed in all hot springs. Microbial communities of hot springs of the Baikal rift zone are poorly studied. Garga is the biggest hot spring in this area. In this study, we investigated bacterial and archaeal diversity of the Garga hot spring (Baikal rift zone, Russia) using 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. We studied two types of microbial communities: (i) small white biofilms on rocks in the points with the highest temperature (75 °C) and (ii) continuous thick phototrophic microbial mats observed at temperatures below 70 °C. Archaea (mainly Crenarchaeota; 19.8% of the total sequences) were detected only in the small biofilms. The high abundance of Archaea in the sample from hot springs of the Baikal rift zone supplemented our knowledge of the distribution of Archaea. Most archaeal sequences had low similarity to known Archaea. In the microbial mats, primary products were formed by cyanobacteria of the genus Leptolyngbya. Heterotrophic microorganisms were mostly represented by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in all studied samples of the microbial mats. Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and Chlorobi were abundant in the middle layer of the microbial mats, while heterotrophic microorganisms represented mostly by Firmicutes (Clostridia, strict anaerobes) dominated in the bottom part. Besides prokaryotes, we detect some species of Algae with help of detection their chloroplasts 16 s rRNA. High abundance of Archaea in samples from hot springs of the Baikal rift zone supplemented our knowledge of the distribution of Archaea. Most archaeal sequences had low similarity to known Archaea. Metagenomic analysis of microbial communities of the microbial mat of Garga hot spring showed that

  14. Hydrogeological and isotopic studies for selected springs in Sinai Peninsula

    Hamza, M S; Awad, M A; El-gamal, S A [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo Egypt and Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Center for The Arab Countries, Dokki, 12311, Cairo (Egypt); Hammad, F A [Desert Research Centre, Materia, Cairo, (Egypt)


    This paper deals with the hydrogeology and isotopic composition of water samples collected from selected spring in sinai (e.g. Algudierate, Alqusiema, qidis and Isram) in order to identify their genesis, their interaction with the host rocks and mixing trend. Results of isotopic composition have indicated the similarity in the hydrogeologic situation of Ain qidis and Ain-al-gudierate, while Ain Isram has shown a marked difference in its stable isotope and this could be due to evaporation effect. The isotopic and hydrochemical constituents of the studied springs reflect eater of a meteoric origin with a possible contamination from surficial materials (evaporates) and deeper aquifers. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Comparative metagenomics of eight geographically remote terrestrial hot springs

    Menzel, Peter; Islin, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn


    Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 (∘)C and pH between 1.8 and 7....... A comparison of the biodiversity and community composition generally showed a decrease in biodiversity with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. Another important factor shaping microbial diversity of the studied sites was the abundance of organic substrates. Several species of the Crenarchaeal order...

  16. Non-integrability of the generalized spring-pendulum problem

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J; Przybylska, Maria; Weil, Jacques-Arthur


    We investigate a generalization of the three-dimensional spring-pendulum system. The problem depends on two real parameters (k, a), where k is the Young modulus of the spring and a describes the nonlinearity of elastic forces. We show that this system is not integrable when k ≠ -a. We carefully investigated the case k = -a when the necessary condition for integrability given by the Morales-Ruiz-Ramis theory is satisfied. We discuss an application of the higher order variational equations for proving the non-integrability in this case

  17. Radon concentration in the springs of the alluvial fan

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masao


    Rokugo alluvial fan is one of the typical stratified alluvial fans which have grown in the east edge of Yokote basin in Akita Prefecture. Many of Rokugo's springs are gushing out from 45 m to 50 m above the sea level where city town have been developed. Mechanism of gushing out of spring is closely bound up with the landform of this area. There is nearly no radon existing in the surface water, but in groundwater, radon concentrations are stable in every stratums and infiltration of groundwater to surface water. We would like to obtain some hydrological information by measuring radon concentration in water samples of Rokugo alluvial fan. (author)

  18. Dynamic mesh optimization based on the spring analogy

    Schmidt Jonas


    Full Text Available We present an implementation of the spring analogy for three dimensional meshes in OpenFOAM. All parameters of the spring system are treated as fields that can either be pre-defined by the user, or updated at each time step according to specified geometrical regions or diffusion equations. The purpose of the method is to provide a pre-processing tool for mesh optimization. We study three simple test cases, a deformed block, an airfoil and a hill, and we analyze the evolution of skewness, non-orthogonality and aspect ratio during the approach of dynamic equilibrium.

  19. Clash of Harmonics in Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring

    Ruiz, Michael J.


    This paper describes a fascinating connection between the physics of music and the famous chord in the dissonant rhythmic section of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring (1913). The analysis of Stravinsky's chord will draw from the physics of harmonics, musical intervals, mathematics, and cognitive psychology. This highly interdisciplinary approach will especially appeal to students typically found in a physics course for non-majors. A video accompanies this paper so that readers and students can hear the construction of Stravinsky's dissonant chord as well as an orchestra performing an excerpt of The Rite of Spring.

  20. Journalism's Rewriting of History in Reporting the Arab Spring

    Jørndrup, Hanne


    Investigation of journalism’s role as writer and rewriter of the record of political episodes of world importance is central to this article, which takes an empirical approach in choosing the Danish press coverage of The Arab Spring as its starting point. The article analyses how a number...... and circumstances that put Tunisia and Egypt on the Danish media’s agenda in the year before the Arab revolutions as a starting point. The central point of this comparison is to convey how journalism, while describing contemporary events of The Arab Spring, at the same time rewrites its own prior commentary...

  1. The HISH-alliance and the Arab spring

    Dandan, Salem Ben Souhail

    , in terms of relative strength, as being essential in understanding the alliance. It then goes on to look at what the Arab-spring has so far meant for the different actors and how this has impacted the alliance. It is argued that the ability of the non-state armed entities, Hezbollah and Hamas...... within the global community, due to the current systemic situation and the Arab-spring. In short, the paper aims to establish a correlation between the international and regional changes, the newly found autonomy of the non-state entities and the decreasing capabilities of the states, in order...

  2. Note: Determination of torsional spring constant of atomic force microscopy cantilevers: Combining normal spring constant and classical beam theory

    Álvarez-Asencio, R.; Thormann, Esben; Rutland, M.W.


    A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power s...... spectrum is difficult to obtain due to the high resonance frequency and low signal/noise ratio. The applicability is shown to be general and this simple approach can thus be used to obtain torsional constants for any beam shaped cantilever. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC....

  3. A simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection for predictive and interpretative purposes

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.


    The in-reactor fuel rod support conditions against the fretting wear-induced damage can be evaluated by spacer grid residual spring deflection. In order to predict the spacer grid residual spring deflection as a function of burnup for various spring designs, a simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection has been developed and implemented in the GRIDFORCE program. The simulation methodology takes into account cladding creep rate, initial spring deflection, initial spring force, and spring force relaxation rate as the key parameters affecting the residual spring deflection. The simulation methodology developed in this study can be utilized as an effective tool in evaluating the capability of a newly designed spacer grid spring to prevent the fretting wear-induced damage

  4. Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Spring 2010


    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Spring 2010. It was held on May 13-14, 2010 in Yesan, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Radioactive wastes policy and decontamination and decommissioning, Radioactive waste treatment, Radioactive waste disposal and site selection, Spent fuel and fuel cycle and Radiation safety and environment. (Yi, J. H.)

  5. Reports of the AAAI 2016 Spring Symposium Series

    Amato, C.; Amir, O.; Bryson, J.; Grosz, B.; Indurkhya, B.; Kiciman, E.; Kido, T.; Lawless, W.F.; Liu, M.; McDorman, B.; Mead, R.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Specian, A.; Stojanov, G.; Takadama, K.


    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University's Department of Computer Science, presented the 2016 Spring Symposium Series on Monday through Wednesday, March 21-23, 2016 at Stanford University. The titles of the seven symposia were (1) AI and

  6. Proceedings of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Spring Meeting 2002


    This proceedings contains articles of 2002 Spring meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on May 17, 2002 in Suwon, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 3 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: Gynecological and Colorectal cancer, Lung cancer and Lymphoma, and general nuclear medicine. (Yi, J. H.)

  7. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Volume 8, Issue 2 Dear Colleague, The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the calcium/magnesium intake ratio in colorectal adenoma, the role of PPARγ in metabolism and reproduction, and the effects of time-restricted feeding on metabolic parameters. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. Maria Cruz-Correa, and her research on gut bacterial genes, diet, and colorectal

  8. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2018 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Dear Colleague, The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the association of gut microbial communities in premenopausal women, how high-fat, high-calorie-diet-induced obesity may increase pancreatic cancer, and the effects of calorie restriction protocols on pro-inflammatory cytokines. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. Purnima Kumar, and her research on black

  9. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Volume 7, Issue 2 The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases green tea's effect on human metabolism, fish oil — as a chemopreventive agent in myeloid leukemia and, with pectin, how they affect microRNA expression in the colon. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Richard Eckert, and his research on skin cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  10. Reflections on Arab Spring in Nigeria: Constraints and Possibilities ...

    In the light of the 2011 Arab spring that revealed to the whole world more about the legitimacy crisis, authoritarian rule, dynasty politics and bad governance in that region, this paper review the role of citizen in a revolution. In spite of the numerous advances in the Arab region, recent growth did not create enough jobs for the ...

  11. Examining spring phenology of forest understory using digital photography

    Liang Liang; Mark D. Schwartz; Songlin Fei


    Phenology is an important indicator of forest health in relation to energy/nutrient cycles and species interactions. Accurate characterization of forest understory phenology is a crucial part of forest phenology observation. In this study, ground plots set up in a temperate mixed forest in Wisconsin were observed with a visible-light digital camera during spring 2007....

  12. Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria ...

    Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on ...

  13. Removal of arthropods in the spring “trash floods”

    Flooding of cranberry marshes is a common practice in the spring. It is intended primarily to clean out detritus while protecting against frost danger. The water is sometimes held for longer periods to reduce pest populations. We examined the detritus being hauled off of flooded beds for any evidenc...

  14. Stopover habitats of spring migrating surf scoters in southeast Alaska

    Lok, E.K.; Esler, Daniel; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, S.W.; Sean, Boyd W.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Ward, D.H.


    Habitat conditions and nutrient reserve levels during spring migration have been suggested as important factors affecting population declines in waterfowl, emphasizing the need to identify key sites used during spring and understand habitat features and resource availability at stopover sites. We used satellite telemetry to identify stopover sites used by surf scoters migrating through southeast Alaska during spring. We then contrasted habitat features of these sites to those of random sites to determine habitat attributes corresponding to use by migrating scoters. We identified 14 stopover sites based on use by satellite tagged surf scoters from several wintering sites. We identified Lynn Canal as a particularly important stopover site for surf scoters originating throughout the Pacific winter range; approximately half of tagged coastally migrating surf scoters used this site, many for extended periods. Stopover sites were farther from the mainland coast and closer to herring spawn sites than random sites, whereas physical shoreline habitat attributes were generally poor predictors of site use. The geography and resource availability within southeast Alaska provides unique and potentially critical stopover habitat for spring migrating surf scoters. Our work identifies specific sites and habitat resources that deserve conservation and management consideration. Aggregations of birds are vulnerable to human activity impacts such as contaminant spills and resource management decisions. This information is of value to agencies and organizations responsible for emergency response planning, herring fisheries management, and bird and ecosystem conservation. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Mg2+-Based Method for the Pertuso Spring Discharge Evaluation

    Giuseppe Sappa


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, is the main outlet of a large karst aquifer, which is one of the most important water resources in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture, and hydroelectric supplies. The environmental monitoring activities provided data about one spring and two cross-sections of the Aniene River, from July 2014 to May 2016. A combined approach based on discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical analysis has been used to study flow paths and groundwater–surface water interaction in the study area. Tracer methods are particularly suitable in hydrogeological studies to assess transit times and flow properties in karst aquifers. The analysis of solute contents in the sampling points brought forth the identification of the Mg2+ ion as a conservative tracer in this specific system and, consequently, to the development of a conceptual model based on chemical mass balance for the Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation.

  16. Best Collaborative Publication Announced during Spring Research Festival Week | Poster

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The winner of the 2012 competition for the best collaborative publication was announced on May 7, as part of the lead-up to the Spring Research Festival sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR) and the National Cancer Institute at Frederick on May 8 and 9.

  17. 22nd Spring Research Festival Just One Week Away | Poster

    This year’s annual Spring Research Festival, scheduled for May 9 and 10, is nearly here. As usual, it is free and open to the public and promises to offer a forum for sharing scientific research and celebrating collaboration at Fort Detrick and NCI at Frederick.

  18. Spring Research Festival Highlighted on WHAG-TV | Poster

    WHAG-TV (Hagerstown, Md.) visited Fort Detrick to highlight the 2015 Spring Research Festival (SRF), sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR). Visit the WHAG-TV website to see the video broadcast, which aired May 6. The video was produced by WHAG Reporter Mallory Sofastaii. The video featured Linganore High School senior Rebecca

  19. 22nd Spring Research Festival Showcases Fort Detrick Science | Poster

    Rainy weather couldn’t dampen the spirits of visitors to the 2018 Spring Research Festival, which brought together scientists from the Frederick National Laboratory (FNL), NCI at Frederick, and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) and showcased the important research that takes place every day at Fort Detrick.

  20. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria

  1. The Arab spring and online protests in Iraq

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)


    textabstractThis article traces the influence of the Arab Spring on Iraq as activists staged fervent protests against the corruption, sectarianism, and favoritism of Nouri Maliki's government. A group of young Iraqi intellectuals, journalists, students, government employees, and unemployed youth

  2. Responses of phenological and physiological stages of spring ...

    In order to investigate impact of complementary irrigation on phenological stages, chlorophyll content, radiation absorption and extinction coefficient, as well as some aspects concerning the yield of spring safflower, a split-plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replication was conducted at ...

  3. Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply ...

    Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply scheme for the Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, central Nigeria. Joseph Omada. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol. 41(1): 131-135. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  4. Peach fruit set and buttoning after spring frost

    A spring frost occurred on 29 Mar. 2015 at the USDA-ARS Byron station after three weeks of blooming when most fruitlets were forming. Due to severe fruitlet drop, the overall fruit set on a scale of 0-9 was substantially reduced, from 5.61 averaged in 2014 to 2.61 in 2015. In addition, buttons (abno...

  5. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona


    ...., Fletcher, Heald & Hildreth, PLC, 1300 N. 17th Street - Eleventh Floor, Arlington, Virginia 22209 (Counsel... website, >. The proposed channel at Peach Springs is part of a hybrid application and rulemaking proceeding. In the application (File No. BNPH-20091016ADO), Cochise Media Licenses, the...

  6. On the nonlinear design of industrial arc spring dampers

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning


    The objective of this paper is to present a numerical approach for analyzing parameter excited vibrations on a gas compressor, induced by the nonlinear characteristic of the arc spring feature of certain designs of squeeze film dampers, SFDs. The behavior of the journal is studied in preparation...

  7. Microbial diversity and autotrophic activity in Kamchatka hot springs.

    Merkel, Alexander Yu; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Rusanov, Igor I; Slobodkin, Alexander I; Slobodkina, Galina B; Tarnovetckii, Ivan Yu; Frolov, Evgeny N; Dubin, Arseny V; Perevalova, Anna A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A


    Microbial communities of Kamchatka Peninsula terrestrial hot springs were studied using molecular, radioisotopic and cultural approaches. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments performed by means of high-throughput sequencing revealed that aerobic autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium (phylum Aquificae) dominated in a majority of streamers. Another widely distributed and abundant group was that of anaerobic bacteria of the genus Caldimicrobium (phylum Thermodesulfobacteria). Archaea of the genus Vulcanisaeta were abundant in a high-temperature, slightly acidic hot spring, where they were accompanied by numerous Nanoarchaeota, while the domination of uncultured Thermoplasmataceae A10 was characteristic for moderately thermophilic acidic habitats. The highest rates of inorganic carbon assimilation determined by the in situ incubation of samples in the presence of 14 C-labeled bicarbonate were found in oxygen-dependent streamers; in two sediment samples taken from the hottest springs this process, though much weaker, was found to be not dependent on oxygen. The isolation of anaerobic lithoautotrophic prokaryotes from Kamchatka hot springs revealed a wide distribution of the ability for sulfur disproportionation, a new lithoautotrophic process capable to fuel autonomous anaerobic ecosystems.

  8. Comment on Origin of Groundwater Discharge at Fall River Springs

    Rose, T


    I'm writing at the request of the Pit River Tribe to offer my professional opinion as a geochemist regarding the origin of groundwater discharge at the Fall River Springs, Shasta Co., California. In 1997, I conducted a study of the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes in northern California, in collaboration with one of my colleagues. This work was published as a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report (Davisson and Rose, 1997). The Fall River Springs emerge from the distal end of the Giant Crater Lava Field, a laterally extensive basalt flow that stretches from the southern flank of Medicine Lake Volcano southward for a distance of 40 km. Both Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava Field have virtually no surface water drainages. Precipitation that falls in these areas is inferred to seep into fractures in the rock, where it is carried down gradient under the force of gravity. Mean annual precipitation rates on Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava field are adequate to account for the {approx}1200 ft{sup 3}/sec discharge of the Fall River Springs. To evaluate the origin of the springs using geochemical methods, water samples were collected from the Fall River Springs and the Medicine Lake highlands and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. The isotope ratios measured for a groundwater sample are diagnostic of the average composition of the precipitation from which the water was derived. The isotope ratios of rain and snow also vary systematically with elevation, such that groundwater derived from recharge at higher elevations can be distinguished from that which originated at lower elevations. The stable isotope data for the Fall River Springs are consistent with groundwater recharge on the Medicine Lake Volcano and adjacent lava field. Mass balance calculations suggest that approximately half of the Fall River Springs flow is derived from the volcanic edifice. Rose and Davisson (1996) showed


    Tatjana Vlahović


    Full Text Available In addition to geological, hydrogeological investigations and groundwater tracing, detailed surveying of the groundwater quality is becoming particularly important for environmental impact monitoring on karst aquifers. Groundwater quality data contain two types of information i.e. the natural chemistry of water and its modifications caused by antropogenic impacts. The method of results presentation as well as the importance of water quality surveying particularly with respect to the indicators showing its natural chemistry, are shown here exemplified by the St. Ivan spring in Istria, Croatia. Natural chemistry of the groundwater is a consequence of hydrogeochemical facies, and it is used here for interpretation of spring generating conditions and the origin of groundwater. Results obtained so far confirm that the extent of recharge area of the spring change in dependence of the hydrological conditions. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the spring are presented graphically in the form of correlation diagrams showing major groundwater parameters, saturation conditions and trends of particular parameters as a function of time.

  10. Passive base isolation with superelastic nitinol SMA helical springs

    Huang, Bin; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Han; Song, Gangbing


    Seismic isolation of structures such as multi-story buildings, nuclear reactors, bridges, and liquid storage tanks should be designed to preserve structural integrity. By implementing seismic isolation technology, the deformation of superstructures can be dramatically reduced, consequently helping to protect their safety as well. In this paper, an innovative type of passive base isolation system, which is mainly composed of superelastic nitinol SMA helical springs, is developed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, a two-story experimental steel frame model is constructed, and two superelastic SMA helical springs are thermo-mechanically built in the laboratory. To describe the nonlinear mechanical properties of the superelastic SMA helical springs under reciprocating load, a phenomenological model is presented in terms of a series of tensile tests. Afterwards, a numerical model of the two-story frame with the suggested isolation system is set up to simulate the response of the isolated frame subjected to an earthquake. Both the experimental and the numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed base isolation system can remarkably suppress structural vibrations and has improved isolation effects when compared with a steel spring isolation system. Due to the capabilities of energy dissipation as well as fully re-centering, it is very applicable to utilize the suggested isolation system in base isolated structures to resist earthquakes. (paper)

  11. Climatology and classification of spring Saharan cyclone tracks

    Hannachi, A. [Reading University, Department of Meteorology, PO Box 243, Reading (United Kingdom); Awad, A. [King Abdulaziz University, Department of Meteorology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Ammar, K. [Meteorological Authority, Department of Research, Cairo (Egypt)


    Spring Saharan cyclones constitute a dominant feature of the not-well-explored Saharan region. In this manuscript, a climatological analysis and classification of Saharan cyclone tracks are presented using 6-hourly NCEP/NCAR sea level pressure (SLP) reanalyses over the Sahara (10 W-50 E, 20 N-50 N) for the Spring (March-April-May) season over the period 1958-2006. A simple tracking procedure based on following SLP minima is used to construct around 640 Spring Saharan cyclone tracks. Saharan cyclones are found to be short-lived compared to their extratropical counterparts with an e-folding time of about 3 days. The lee side of the west Atlas mountain is found to be the main cyclogenetic region for Spring Saharan cyclones. Central Iraq is identified as the main cyclolytic area. A subjective procedure is used next to classify the cyclone tracks where six clusters are identified. Among these clusters the Western Atlas-Asia Minor is the largest and most stretched, whereas Algerian Sahara-Asia Minor is composed of the most long-lived tracks. Upper level flow associated with the tracks has also been examined and the role of large scale baroclinicity in the growth of Saharan cyclones is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Genetic sampling of Palmer's chipmunks in the Spring Mountains, Nevada

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Jennifer E. Ramirez; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Schwartz


    Palmer's chipmunk (Neotamias palmeri) is a medium-sized chipmunk whose range is limited to the higher-elevation areas of the Spring Mountain Range, Nevada. A second chipmunk species, the Panamint chipmunk (Neotamias panamintinus), is more broadly distributed and lives in lower-elevation, primarily pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) habitat...

  13. Spring weights of some Palaearctic passer- ines in Ethiopia and ...

    1970, Wood 1982), and require extensive pre-migratory fattening. Some high spring weights have been noted in Ethiopia (Ash 1993, 1994, Yohannes et al. ..... northeast and east tropical Africa: A review. Proceedings of the 6th Pan-African. Ornithological Congress: 243–262. Pennycuick, C.J. 1975. Mechanics of flight.

  14. Multilevel analysis of elastic morphology: The mantis shrimp's spring.

    Rosario, M V; Patek, S N


    Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey. We quantified the shape of cross-sections of the merus segment of the raptorial appendage. We also examined specific regions of the merus that are hypothesized to either store elastic energy or provide structural support to permit energy storage in other regions of the system. We found that while all mantis shrimp contain thicker ventral bars in distal cross-sections, differences in thickness are more pronounced in high-impact "smasher" mantis shrimp than in the slower-striking "spearer" mantis shrimp. We also found that spearer cross-sections are more circular while those of smashers are more eccentric with elongation along the dorso-ventral axis. The results suggest that the regional thickening of ventral bars provides structural support for resisting spring compression and also reduces flexural stiffness along the system's long axis. This multilevel morphological analysis offers a foundation for understanding the evolution and mechanics of monolithic systems in biology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Spring-Wound Toy Cars--Experiments in Mechanics.

    Hanna, Charles


    Use of spring-wound toy cars in kinematics experiments is described. The cars, used in place of traditional dynamics carts rolling down an inclined plane, are inexpensive, motivational, and give reproducible results. Details of acceleration experiments and suggestions for additional experiments are provided. (JN)

  16. Stress corrosion cracking lifetime prediction of spring screw

    Koh, S. K.; Ryu, C. H.


    A lifetime prediction of holddown spring screw in nuclear fuel assembly was performed using fracture mechanics approach. The spring screw was designed such that it was capable of sustaining the loads imposed by the initial tensile preload and operational loads. In order to investigate the cause of failure and to predict the stress corrosion cracking life of the screw, a stress analysis of the top nozzle spring assembly was done using finite element analysis. The elastic-plastic finite element analysis showed that the local stresses at the critical regions of head-shank fillet and thread root significantly exceeded than the yield strength of the screw material, resulting in local plastic deformation. Normalized stress intensity factors for PWSCC life prediction was proposed. Primary water stress corrosion cracking life of the Inconel 600 screw was predicted by using integration of the Scott model and resulted in 1.78 years, which was fairly close to the actual service life of the holddown spring screw

  17. Analytical and experimental analysis of a parallel leaf spring guidance

    Meijaard, Jacob Philippus; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Jonker, Jan B.; Denier, J.; Finn, M.


    A parallel leaf spring guidance is defined as a benchmark problem for flexible multibody formalisms and codes. The mechanism is loaded by forces and an additional moment or misalignment. Buckling loads, changes in compliance and frequencies, and large-amplitude vibrations are calculated. A


    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  19. Student Organizations in Canada and Quebec's "Maple Spring"

    Bégin-Caouette, Olivier; Jones, Glen A.


    This article has two major objectives: to describe the structure of the student movement in Canada and the formal role of students in higher education governance, and to describe and analyze the "Maple Spring," the dramatic mobilization of students in opposition to proposed tuition fee increases in Quebec that eventually led to a…

  20. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 2014 (Newsletter)


    Spring 2014 edition of the biannual newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Each issue contains program news, success stories, and information about tools and resources to assist in the deployment of alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, idle reduction, fuel efficiency improvements, and other measures to cut petroleum use in transportation.

  1. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J


    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...


    In the Warm Springs Creek drainage near Ketchum, Idaho (17040219), a leaking pipeline coveys geothermal water through the valley to heat nearby homes as well as to supply a resorts swimming pool. Several domestic wells in close proximity to this line have exhibited increasing fl...

  3. Dire need for a Middle Eastern science spring

    Zewail, Ahmed H.


    The Middle East is rich in human and natural resources, but many of its countries need a cultural and scientific transformation to reach worldwide recognition in education, research and economic productivity. Several institutions are making a positive impact, kindling hope for a successful 'science spring'.

  4. Soil microbial diversity patterns of a lowland spring environment

    Vasileiadis, S.; Puglisi, E.; Arena, M.; Cappa, F.; Van Veen, J.A.; Cocconcelli, P.S.; Trevisan, M.


    The Po river plain lowland springs represent unique paradigms of managed environments. Their current locations used to be swamps that were drained 6–7 centuries ago, and they have been in constant use ever since. Our aims were to identify the effects of land use on the microbial communities of these

  5. Thermo-aerobic bacteria from geothermal springs in Saudi Arabia ...

    Fifteen isolates of thermo-aerobic bacteria were found. Bacillus cereus, B. licheniformis, B. thermoamylovorans, Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp. were dominant in hot springs. Genetic relatedness indicated that eleven Bacillus spp. grouped together formed several clusters within one main ...

  6. Digital Spring? New Media and New Politics on the Campus

    Bessant, Judith


    Whilst the dynamics informing processes have taken time to become clear, civic resistance initiated by young people using new media began in Egypt in 2010 against the Mubarak regime, soon widened to Tunisia, Yemen and Libya. Known as the "Arab Spring", this phenomenon re-ignited discussion about the political role of digital space and…

  7. Spring unit especially intended for a nuclear reactor core

    Brown, S.J.; Gorholt, Wilhelm.


    This invention relates to a spring unit or a group of springs bearing up a sprung mass against an unsprung mass. For instance, a gas cooled high temperature nuclear reactor includes a core of relatively complex structure supported inside a casing or vessel forming a shielded cavity enclosing the reactor core. This core can be assembled from a large number of graphite blocks of different sizes and shapes joined together to form a column. The blocks of each column can be fixed together so as to form together a loose side support. Under the effect of thermal expansion and contraction, shrinkage resulting from irradiation, the effects of pressure and the contraction and creep of the reactor vessel, it is not possible to confine all the columns of the reactor core in a cylindrical rigid structure. Further, the working of the nuclear reactor requires that the reactivity monitoring components may be inserted at any time in the reactor core. A standard process consists in mounting this loosely assembled reactor core in a floating manner by keeping it away from the vessel enclosure around it by means of a number of springs fitted between the lateral surfaces of the core unit and the reactor vessel. The core may be considered as a spring supported mass whereas, relatively, the reactor vessel is a mass that is not flexibly supported [fr

  8. OIT Times--Spring 2001, Vol. 4, No. 2


    Spring 2001 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a 12-page quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies. This issue covers Expo IV (held February 19-22, 2001) - the technical sessions, related activities, and new OIT publications that debuted at Expo IV.

  9. Amorphous calcium carbonate associated with biofilms in hot spring deposits

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong


    Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are intimately associated with crystalline calcite and aragonite in the Eryuan, Gongxiaoshe, and Zhuyuan hot springs (water temperature > 75 °C), which are located in Yunnan Province, China. The nanoparticles, springs, the ACC is always found under, in, or on top of biofilms, commonly in close proximity to crystalline calcite and/or aragonite. Textural evidence indicates that the ACC probably developed in microdomains that develop in the complex biofilm hydrogels. Critically, there is no evidence to support the notion that the nanoparticles are calcified nannobacteria. In the Chinese springs, ACC appears to play a formative role in the development of wheat-sheaf arrays of aragonite crystals and some of the calcite crystals. Hollow cores in some of the aragonite bundles probably formed as ACC was dissolved and many of the aragonite crystals appear to have developed as ACC recrystallized. Similarly, layers of ACC that coat the surfaces of some calcite crystals could be diagenetically transformed into calcite. The development of ACC in hot spring systems may be widespread and may play a critical but transitory role in the development of crystalline CaCO3 in these high temperature environments.

  10. Aerospace Power Journal. Volume 16, Number 1, Spring 2002


    America and Europe qualify, as do many in Asia, such as Singapore; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; and Tokyo, Japan. At the opposite end of the spectrum are...such as tanks Notes 68 AEROSPACE POWER JOURNAL SPRING 2002 and armored personnel carriers, nestled between tall buildings. The results are

  11. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Wafa, Dina


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  12. Cyanobacteria of the thermal spring at Pancharevo, Sofia, Bulgaria.

    Lukavský, Jaromír; Furnadzhieva, S.; Pilarski, P.


    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2011), 191-208 ISSN 0365-0588 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacteria * Thermal spring * Pancharevo, Sofia, Bulgaria Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2011

  13. How could discharge management affect Florida spring fish assemblage structure?

    Work, Kirsten; Codner, Keneil; Gibbs, Melissa


    Freshwater bodies are increasingly affected by reductions in water quantity and quality and by invasions of exotic species. To protect water quantity and maintain the ecological integrity of many water bodies in central Florida, a program of adopting Minimum Flows and Levels (MFLs) has begun for both lentic and lotic waters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were relationships between discharge and stage, water quality, and biological parameters for Volusia Blue Spring, a first magnitude spring (discharge > 380,000 m 3 day -1 or 100 mgd) for which an MFL program was adopted in 2006. Over the course of fourteen years, we assessed fish density and diversity weekly, monthly, or seasonally with seine and snorkel counts. We evaluated annual changes in the assemblages for relationships with water quantity and quality. Low discharge and dissolved oxygen combined with high stage and conductivity produced a fish population with a lower density and diversity in 2014 than in previous years. Densities of fish taxonomic/functional groups also were low in 2014 and measures of water quantity were significant predictors of fish assemblage structure. As a result of the strong relationships between variation in discharge and an array of chemical and biological characteristics of the spring, we conclude that maintaining the historical discharge rate is important for preserving the ecological integrity of Volusia Blue Spring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spring meeting of the DPG Working Group 'Solid state physics'


    The volume contains abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting of the Solid State Physics Section with the topics dielectric solids, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, semiconductor physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics, vacuum physics and engineering, chemical physics. (MM)

  15. Calibration of beam position monitor for the SPring-8 synchrotron

    Aoki, Tsuyoshi; Yonehara, Hiroto; Suzuki, Hiromitsu


    Beam position monitors (BPMs) for SPring-8 synchrotron were already designed and manufactured. 80-BPMs were successfully calibrated for the beam position measurement. In this paper, we introduce the structure of BPMs, the electronics of signal detection system and the calibration system, and the results of calibration are reported. (author)

  16. Effect of source integration on the geochemical fluxes from springs

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Phillips, Fred M.; White, Art F.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Liu, Fengjing


    Geochemical fluxes from watersheds are typically defined using mass-balance methods that essentially lump all weathering processes operative in a watershed into a single flux of solute mass measured in streamflow at the watershed outlet. However, it is important that we understand how weathering processes in different hydrological zones of a watershed (i.e., surface, unsaturated, and saturated zones) contribute to the total geochemical flux from the watershed. This capability will improve understanding of how geochemical fluxes from these different zones may change in response to climate change. Here, the geochemical flux from weathering processes occurring solely in the saturated zone is investigated. This task, however, remains exceedingly difficult due to the sparsity of subsurface sampling points, especially in large, remote, and/or undeveloped watersheds. In such cases, springflow is often assumed to be a proxy for groundwater (defined as water residing in fully saturated geologic formations). However, springflow generation may integrate different sources of water including, but not limited to, groundwater. The authors’ hypothesis is that long-term estimates of geochemical fluxes from groundwater using springflow proxies will be too large due to the integrative nature of springflow generation. Two conceptual models of springflow generation are tested using endmember mixing analyses (EMMA) on observations of spring chemistries and stable isotopic compositions in a large alpine watershed in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado. In the “total springflow” conceptual model, springflow is assumed to be 100% groundwater. In the “fractional springflow” conceptual model, springflow is assumed to be an integration of different sources of water (e.g., groundwater, unsaturated flow, preferential flow in the soil, etc.) and groundwater is only a fractional component. The results indicate that groundwater contributions in springflow range from 2% to 100

  17. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.


    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  18. Spring hydrology determines summer net carbon uptake in northern ecosystems

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John S; Reichle, Rolf H


    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO 2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO 2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (⩾50° N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO 2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO 2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends. (letters)

  19. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994


    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels

  20. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.


    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  1. Design optimization and fatigue testing of an electronically-driven mechanically-resonant cantilever spring mechanism

    Kheng, Lim Boon; Kean, Koay Loke; Gitano-Briggs, Horizon


    A light scanning device consisting of an electronically-driven mechanically-resonant cantilever spring-mirror system has been developed for innovative lighting applications. The repeated flexing of the cantilever spring during operation can lead to premature fatigue failure. A model was created to optimize the spring design. The optimized spring design can reduce stress by approximately one-third from the initial design. Fatigue testing showed that the optimized spring design can operate continuously for over 1 month without failure. Analysis of failures indicates surface cracks near the root of the spring are responsible for the failures.

  2. An adjustment in NiTi closed coil spring for an extended range of activation.

    Ravipati, Raghu Ram; Sivakumar, Arunachalam; Sudhakar, P; Padmapriya, C V; Bhaskar, Mummudi; Azharuddin, Mohammad


    The Nickel Titanium (NiTi) closed coil springs serve as an efficient force delivery system in orthodontic space closure mechanics. The closed coil springs with the eyelets come in various lengths to broaden its force characteristics for an expedient space closure. However, at a certain point of time of progressive space closure, the coil spring can be expanded no further for an adequate force delivery. In such situations, the clinician prefers to replace the existing spring with another short length spring. The present article describes a simple conservative technique for progressively re-activating the same NiTi closed coil spring for complete space closure.

  3. Mechanical characteristic evaluation of the mid grid spring in PWR fuel assembly

    Eum, K. B.; Lee, S. H.; Jeon, S. Y.; Kweon, Y. B.; Jeon, K. R.


    The spring load-deflection characteristic tests were performed for Westinghouse type 17x17 and 14x14 fuel assembly mid grids to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the springs. Six kinds of prototype mid grids manufactured by KNFC were tested and two kinds of test methods were used: block test and in-grid test. The test results showed that all tested mid grid springs satisfied the criteria required at the beginning of fuel assembly life. In addition, the variation of spring characteristics resulting from the difference in the mechanical properties of spring material and spring shapes was investigated. And the validity of the test methods was discussed

  4. Experimental investigations of higher-order springing and whipping-WILS project

    Hong Sa Young


    Full Text Available Springing and whipping are becoming increasingly important considerations in ship design as container ships increase in size. In this study, the springing and whipping characteristics of a large container ship were investigated through a series of systematic model tests in waves. A multi-segmented hull model with a backbone was adopted for measurement of springing and whipping signals. A conversion method for extracting torsion springing and whipping is described in this paper for the case of an open-section backbone. Higher-order springing, higher-mode torsion responses, and the effects of linear and nonlinear springing in irregular waves are highlighted in the discussion.

  5. Goodenough Spring, Texas, USA: Discharge and water chemistry of a large spring deeply submerged under the binational Amistad Reservoir

    Kamps, Ray H.; Tatum, Gregg S.; Gault, Mike; Groeger, Alan W.


    Goodenough Spring (Texas, USA) is a large spring near the border of the American state of Texas and the Mexican state of Coahuila, discharging into the international Amistad Reservoir on the river Rio Grande (Rio Bravo). Discharge was routinely measured from 1928 until 1968 to partition the flow of the river between the two countries in accordance with water-use treaties. Samples were analyzed for water-quality parameters in 1967-1968 prior to inundation under 45 m of Amistad Reservoir in 1968. Subsequently, discharge has been estimated indirectly by the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). For the first direct measurements of the spring in 37 years, velocity and cross-sectional measurements were made and water samples collected in the summer of 2005 using advanced self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) techniques. Spring discharge was calculated at 2.03 m3 s-1, approximately one-half of the historical mean of 3.94 m3 s-1. In situ and laboratory analyses of samples for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, fluoride, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron showed the water quality to be very good for human consumption and crop irrigation. Measurement values are relatively unchanged from those reported 37 years prior.

  6. Reconstruction of false spring occurrences over the southeastern United States, 1901-2007: an increasing risk of spring freeze damage?

    Marino, Garrett P; Kaiser, Dale P; Gu, Lianhong; Ricciuto, Daniel M


    Near-record warmth over much of the United States during March 2007 promoted early growth of crops and vegetation. A widespread arctic air outbreak followed in early April, resulting in extensive agricultural losses over much of the south-central and southeastern US. This 'false spring' event also resulted in widespread damage to newly grown tissues of native deciduous forest species, shown by previous researchers to have had measurable effects on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The current study reconstructed the historical occurrence of false springs over most of the southeastern quarter of the conterminous US (32-39 deg. N; 75-98 deg. W) from 1901 to 2007 using daily maximum and minimum temperature records from 176 stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network database, and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. A false spring index was derived that examined the timing of the start of the growing season (SGS), or leaf emergence, relative to the timing of a potentially damaging last hard freeze (minimum temperature ≤ - 2.2 deg. C). SGS was modeled for the domain by combining EVI data with ground-based temperature 'degree day' calculations reflecting the rate of springtime warming. No significant area-wide, long-term SGS trend was found; however, over much of a contiguous region stretching from Mississippi eastward to the Carolinas, the timing of the last hard freeze was found to occur significantly later, this change occurring along with increased frequency of false springs. Earlier last hard freeze dates and decreased frequency of false springs were found over much of the northwestern part of the study region, including Arkansas and southern Missouri.

  7. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation of the Saline or Salty Springs in Eastern Sichuan Basin of China

    Zhou, X.


    Saline or salty springs provide important information on the hydrogeochemical processes and hydrology within subsurface aquifers. More than 20 saline and salty springs occur in the core of anticlines in the eastern Sichuan Basin in southwestern China where the Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates outcrop. Water samples of 8 saline and salty springs (including one saline hot spring) were collected for analyses of the major and minor constituents, trace elements and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. The TDS of the springs range from 4 to 83 g/L, and they are mainly of Cl-Na type. Sr, Ba and Li are the predominant trace elements. The δ2H and δ18O of the water samples indicate that they are of meteoric origin. The source of salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals in the carbonates, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The formation mechanism of the springs is that groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, undergoes shallow or deep circulation in the core of the anticline and incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing carbonates occurs, and emerges in the river valley in the form of springs with relatively high TDS. The 8 springs can be classified into 4 springs of shallow groundwater circulation and 4 springs of deep groundwater circulation according to the depth of groundwater circulation, 7 springs of normal temperature and 1 hot spring according to temperature. There are also 2 up-flow springs: the carbonate aquifers are overlain by relatively impervious sandstone and shale, groundwater may flows up to the ground surface through the local portion of the overlying aquiclude where fractures were relatively well developed, and emerges as an up-flow spring. Knowledge of the hydrochemical characteristics and the geneses of the saline and salty springs are of important significance for the utilization and preservation of the springs.

  8. Characterising hydrological behaviour of springs draining different alpine formations

    Volze, N.; Smoorenburg, M.; Kienzler, P.; Naef, F.; Rabenstein, L.; Kinzelbach, W.


    The project SACflood (Susceptibility of alpine catchment flood runoff to changes in meteorological boundary conditions) concentrates on alpine areas and wants to identify catchments that show a damped reaction to runoff but may react unexpectedly strong to increased precipitation as observed in 2005 in the Schächen. The catchment showed a delayed and damped behaviour for smaller precipitation events but reacted with strongly increased discharge when a threshold amount of rainfall was reached, causing a flood with high damages. This is attributed to the complex interaction of storage and drainage mechanisms that are not yet well enough understood. Typical alpine geomorphic formations are identified that are likely to be associated with large storages which could considerably delay runoff reaction but still contribute to flow within a timescale relevant for flood formation. From these geomorphic formations deep drainage is measured as outflow from several springs. In addition natural tracers are measured in the springs. On a steep hill slope, associated to one of the observed springs, ground water levels are observed. Geoelectric profiles were recorded to depict the structure of the underground. Discharge measurements from the springs show remarkable differences between the sites. After long dry periods certain springs do not react to rainfall immediately but need considerable amounts of rain to increase discharge. Even steep slopes as well as large talus areas can substantially delay runoff. Observations of the groundwater levels reveal an unexpected picture of the underground. The water table is not as often assumed above the bedrock but at a depth of several meters within the highly fractured bedrock material. This can result in a much higher storage capacity of such slopes despite the steepness of the surface. On the basis of the results from field work conceptual ideas are developed. The influence of parameters such as the depth of the unsaturated zone and the


    O. H. Reidemeister


    Full Text Available Purpose. In this paper it is necessary to conduct: 1 research and analyse the influence of throttle element pneumatic resistance on elastic and damping parameters of air spring; 2 to obtain the dependence of air spring parameters on throttle element pneumatic resistance value. Methodology. The work presents the elaborated model of the air spring as a dynamic system with three phase coordinates (cylinder pressure, auxiliary reservoir pressure, cylinder air mass. Stiffness and viscosity coefficients were determined on the basis of system response to harmonic kinematic disturbance. The data for the analysis are obtained by changing the capacity of the connecting element and the law of pressure variation between the reservoir and the cylinder. The viscosity coefficient is regarded as the viscosity ratio of the hydraulic damper, which for one oscillation cycle consumes the same energy as the air spring. The process of air condition change inside the cylinder (reservoir is considered to be adiabatic; the mass air flow through the connecting element depends on the pressure difference. Findings. We obtained the curves for spring viscosity and stiffness coefficients dependence on the throttle resistance at three different laws, linking airflow through the cylinder with the pressure difference in cylinder and reservoir. At both maximum and minimum limiting resistance values the spring viscosity tends to zero, reaching its peak in the mean resistance values. Stiffness increases monotonically with increasing resistance, tends to the limit corresponding to the absence of an auxiliary reservoir (at high resistance and the increase in cylinder volume by the reservoir volume (at low resistance. Originality.The designed scheme allows determining the optimal parameters of elastic and damping properties of the pneumatic system as function of the throttle element air resistance. Practical value.The ability to predict the parameters of elastic and damping properties


    A. A. Babakoohi Ashrafi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of heat treatment on PH17-7 stainless steel spring was evaluated. Precipitation hardening phenomenon of  PH 17-7 steel was evaluated in three stages. First, the spring constant changes with time and temperature was evaluated. Second, the spring constant changes with respect to its original length at constant temperature and time with blocking (spring length after compression, 18 and 21 mm were investigated.  And finally, the spring heat treatment at 480 °C for 80 min and then holding at 230 °C in oil bath for 60 min without blocking were investigated. The results showed that the use of 18 mm block have large spring constant than 21 mm block. The optimal conditions (480°C for 80 min for this spring to reaching maximum spring constant were determined.

  11. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1984 Annual Report.

    Wasserman, Larry


    This study develops data to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. The first objective is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. Naturally produced populations will be studied to determine if these runs can be sustained in the face of present harvest and environmental conditions. This information will be gathered through spawning ground surveys, counting of adults at Prosser and Roza fish ladders, and through monitoring the tribal dipnet fishery. Concurrent studies will examine potential habitat limitations within the basin. Presently, survival to emergence studies, in conjunction with substrate quality analysis is being undertaken. Water temperature is monitored throughout the basin, and seining takes place monthly to evaluate distribution and abundance. The outcome of this phase of the investigation is to determine an effective manner for introducing hatchery stocks that minimize the impacts on the wild population. The second objective of this study is to determine relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation.

  12. N Springs expedited response action performance monitoring plan. Revision 1


    Groundwater contained in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit is contaminated with various radionuclides derived from waste water disposal practices and spills associated with 100-N Reactor operations. Of primary concern is the presence of high levels of 90 Sr in the groundwater and the discharge of 90 Sr-contaminated groundwater to the nearby Columbia River through historic river bank seeps known as ''N Springs.'' A pump-and-treat system is being installed to remove 90 Sr contamination from the groundwater as part of the N Springs expedited response action (ERA). The groundwater extraction system will consist of four extraction and two injection wells with a proposed initial treatment capacity of 50 gal/min. The proposed location of the groundwater extraction system relative to the 90 Sr groundwater plume is presented

  13. Versatile Auxiliary Orthodontic Spring for Orthodontic Correction of Impacted Teeth

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute


    Full Text Available Malocclusion such as impacted tooth is not uncommon. Many approaches with various auxiliary springs have been reported in literature till date for correction of such malocclusions. They had biomechanical, retentive and stability drawbacks inherent in their designs. This article presents the innovative approach for orthodontic correction of impacted tooth, especially with light force appliance, i.e. Begg′s appliance, where round wires in round molar tubes are used throughout treatment. A versatile auxiliary orthodontic spring (VAOS is fabricated in the 0.018 inch Australian stainless steel round wire, which may be anchored on round molar buccal tube, and desirable force vector may be applied in any of the three dimensions. Fabrication and its clinical application are discussed.

  14. Stabilization of the RF system at the SPring-8 linac

    Asaka, T; Hori, T; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Sakaki, H; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Yanagida, K; Yokomizo, H; Yoshikawa, H


    Beam energy variation of the SPring-8 linac was 1% or more at the start of beam commissioning. Depending on fluctuation, beam transmission efficiency from the linac to the booster synchrotron was significantly affected, and beam intensity in the booster synchrotron changed 20-30%. This caused delay of optimization of the various parameters in the booster synchrotron. More problematic, the beam intensities stored in each RF (radio frequency) bucket of the storage ring at SPring-8 were all different from each other. The users utilizing synchrotron radiation requested that the beam intensity in each RF bucket be as uniform as possible. It was thus a pressing necessity to stabilize the beam energy in the linac. Investigation of the cause has clarified that the various apparatuses installed in the linac periodically changed depending on circumstances and utilities such as the air conditioner, cooling water and electric power. After various improvements, beam energy stability in the linac of <0.06% rms was attai...

  15. Investigation of bacterial diversity of hot springs of Odisha, India

    Rajesh Kumar Sahoo


    Full Text Available 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis, targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. Sediment samples from two hot springs (Atri and Taptapani were collected. Atri and Taptapani metagenomes were classified into 50 and 51 bacterial phyla. Proteobacteria (45.17% dominated the Taptapani sample metagenome followed by Bacteriodetes (23.43% and Cyanobacteria (10.48% while in the Atri sample, Chloroflexi (52.39%, Nitrospirae (10.93% and Proteobacteria (9.98% dominated. A large number of sequences remained taxonomically unresolved in both hot springs, indicating the presence of potentially novel microbes in these two unique habitats thus unraveling the importance of the current study. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP057428.

  16. N-Springs pump and treat system optimization study


    This letter report describes and presents the results of a system optimization study conducted to evaluate the N-Springs pump and treat system. The N-Springs pump and treat is designed to remove strontium-90 (90Sr) found in the groundwater in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit near the Columbia River. The goal of the system optimization study was to assess and quantify what conditions and operating parameters could be employed to enhance the operating and cost effectiveness of the recently upgraded pump and treat system.This report provides the results of the system optimization study, reports the cost effectiveness of operating the pump and treat at various operating modes and 90Sr removal goals, and provides recommendations for operating the pump and treat

  17. The Meteoroid Fluence at Mars Due to Comet Siding Spring

    Moorhead, Althea V.


    Long-period comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) is headed for a close encounter with Mars on 2014 Oct 19. A collision between the comet and the planet has been ruled out, but the comets coma may envelop Mars and its man-made satellites. We present an analytic model of the dust component of cometary comae that describes the spatial distribution of cometary dust and meteoroids and their size distribution. If the coma reaches Mars, we estimate a total incident particle fluence on the planet and its satellites of 0.01 particles per square meter. We compare our model with numerical simulations, data from past comet missions, and recent Siding Spring observations.

  18. A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates

    Fufei Liu


    Full Text Available To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range.

  19. Diversity of thermophilic archaeal isolates from hot springs in Japan

    Itoh, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Naoto; Takashina, Tomonori


    In the light of the significance of extremophiles as model organisms to access possible extraterrestiral life, we provide a short review of the systematics of thermophilic Archaea, and introduce our exploratory research of novel thermophilic Archaea from hot springs in Japan. Up to date, we have isolated 162 strains of the thermophilic Archaea from hot springs in Japan by the enrichment method or the most probable number/PCR method, and the 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined to reveal their phylogenetic diversity. The sequence comparison illustrated that the isolates belonged to the orders Sulfolobales (117 isolates) , Thermoproteales (29 isolates), Desulfurococcales (8 isolates) and Thermoplasmatales (8 isolates), and there were six separate lineages representing new genera, and at least seven new species as predicted by the phylogenetic distance to known species. The collection of isolates not only included novel taxa but would give some implication for a necessity to reevaluate the current taxonomy of the thermophilic Archaea.

  20. Liquid-metal dip seal with pneumatic spring

    Poindexter, A.M.


    An improved liquid-metal dip seal for sealing the annulus between rotating plugs in the reactor vessel head of a liquid-metal fast-breeder nuclear reactor has two legs of differing widths communicating under a seal blade; the wide leg is also in communication with cover gas of the reactor and the narrow leg is also in communication with an isolated plug annulus above the seal. The annulus contains inert gas which acts as a pneumatic spring. Upon increasing cover gas pressure which depresses the level in the wide leg and greatly increases the level in the narrow leg, the pneumatic spring is compressed, and resists further level changes, thus preventing radioactive cover gas from bubbling through the seal

  1. Dynamics of large rotors on spring supported foundations

    Puttonen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)] Luukkanen, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    This article presents some case studies relating to the dynamics of the large machines on spring isolated foundations. The studies comprise both vibration calculations and measurements also introducing the accuracy of numerical methods available in practical engineering. A summary of the pros and cons of spring isolated foundations in power plants is included. The cases described are from the lately built power plants of the IVO-group. The auxiliary feed water pump analysed consists of an electric motor (7 MW), a gear and two pumps. During the trial runs, severe vibrations were observed calling for thorough vibration measurements. The modelling of the whole vibrating entity in the rotating machinery, including the shaft train, oil films of bearings and the foundation is demonstrated by a turbine generator set of 100 MW. Finally, some results of a test comparing the acoustic emission and traditional vibration measurements for recognizing the rub between the shaft and the hydrodynamic bearing are presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  2. Dynamics of large rotors on spring supported foundations

    Puttonen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)] Luukkanen, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    This article presents some case studies relating to the dynamics of the large machines on spring isolated foundations. The studies comprise both vibration calculations and measurements also introducing the accuracy of numerical methods available in practical engineering. A summary of the pros and cons of spring isolated foundations in power plants is included. The cases described are from the lately built power plants of the IVO-group. The auxiliary feed water pump analysed consists of an electric motor (7 MW), a gear and two pumps. During the trial runs, severe vibrations were observed calling for thorough vibration measurements. The modelling of the whole vibrating entity in the rotating machinery, including the shaft train, oil films of bearings and the foundation is demonstrated by a turbine generator set of 100 MW. Finally, some results of a test comparing the acoustic emission and traditional vibration measurements for recognizing the rub between the shaft and the hydrodynamic bearing are presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  3. Mining Hot Springs for Biodiversity and Novel Enzymes

    Islin, Sóley Ruth

    organisms have proven to be a great source of novel enzymes that are valuable in a variety of industrial processes. We set out to search for novel thermophilic hydrolytic enzymes by taking samples from thermal environments around the world. We employed several different methods in achieving this, both......The existence of microbial life at extreme environments, such as hot springs, has been known for a few decades. The remarkable ability of microorganisms to withstand the extreme conditions of their habitats, has astounded scientist and pushed the limits of what was considered possible. Thermophilic...... culture-dependent as well as culture-independent methods. Each hot spring sample was enriched on various polymeric substrates at high temperatures in the search of thermophilic microorganism with the ability to degrade the substrate. Enzymatic activity of the cultures was confirmed, the most promising...

  4. Redo of Coil Spring Considering Transversal Direction Mode Tracking

    Lee, Jin Min; Jang, Junyong; Lee, Tae Hee


    When the values of design variables change, mode switching can often occur. If the mode of interest is not tracked, the frequencies and modes for design optimization may be miscalculated owing to modes that differ from the intended ones. Thus, mode tracking must be employed to identify the frequencies and modes of interest whenever the values of design variables change during optimization. Furthermore, reliability-based design optimization (Redo) must be performed for design problems with design variables containing uncertainty. In this research, we perform Redo considering the mode tracking of a compressive coil spring, i.e., a component of the joint spring that supports a compressor, with design variables containing uncertainty by using only kriging meta models based on multiple responses approach (MR A) without existing mode tracking methods. The reliability analyses for Redo are employed using kriging meta model-based Monte Carlo simulation

  5. Overexploitation of karst spring as a measure against water scarcity.

    Dimkić, Dejan; Dimkić, Milan; Soro, Andjelko; Pavlović, Dusan; Jevtić, Goran; Lukić, Vladimir; Svrkota, Dragan


    Water scarcity, especially in the hydrologically critical part of the year, is a problem often present in many cities and regions, particularly in arid and sub-arid areas. Climate change and human water demand compound the problem. This paper discusses a climate change adaptation measure-the possibility of karst spring overexploitation, where there is a siphon-shaped cavity inside the mountain. The pilot area is near the city of Niš, where a decreasing precipitation trend has already been observed and is expected to continue in the future. The paper also presents some basic information related to the pilot area and undertaken investigations. The project, successfully implemented in 2004, has provided the city of Niš with an additional amount of 200 l/s of spring water during the most critical part of the year.

  6. After the Arab Spring – Democratic Aspirations and State Failure

    Afsah, Ebrahim


    About this Course: Learn why the hope and excitement of the Arab Spring is gone, why so many Arab states are falling apart, why the youth are so frustrated, why there are so many refugees, and what can be done about it. The so-called Arab Spring appeared to end decades of exceptionalism and bring...... new, better societies. Today, the Arab world is in deep crisis. Of the 22 member states of the Arab League, at least five have essentially collapsed: Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Somalia and Syria exist only in name today, as their territories have fallen to competing, murderous armed groups. In the remaining...... countries, the old autocracies have reasserted themselves. The repression at home is now worsened by regional conflict on an unprecedented scale, and the resulting frustration has led to the biggest refugee flows in recent memory. What went wrong? This course offers an overview of the structural...

  7. Natural radioactivity of thermal spring in village Banja, Municipality Fojnica

    Mihalj, A.; Saracevic, L.; Samek, D.; Gradascevic, N.; Lokmic, E.


    This study was performed in 2003 at the spring of a thermal water in the village of Banja, district of Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina. This water is used for hydrotherapy and recreation in the Centre for Medical Rehabilitation REUMAL in Fojnica. This paper describes the levels of natural radioactivity in water and in the surrounding soil. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine the most significant natural radionuclides in the water and soil. Natural radioactivity of radium in water ranged from 30.91 mBq/l for 2 28R a to 261.03 mBq/l for 2 26R a. In the soil surrounding the spring, radioactivity ranged from 31.92 Bq/kg for 2 32T h to 735.59 Bq/kg for 2 38U .(author)

  8. A Belleville-spring-based electromagnetic energy harvester

    Castagnetti, Davide


    Energy harvesting from kinetic ambient energy is particularly effective to power autonomous sensors. This work proposes an innovative energy converter based on two counteracting Belleville springs and exploiting their peculiarity, for a height to thickness ratio equal to 1.414, of nearly zero stiffness over a wide deflection range. After analytical and numerical modelling a prototype is developed and experimentally investigated. The sub-optimal geometry of the commercial springs used in the prototype, together with a non-ideal response, makes the operating frequency for the prototype higher than in analytical and numerical predictions. Nevertheless, the harvester exhibits a significantly large bandwidth, together with a high output power, compared to similar solutions in the literature, for all the examined configurations and input excitations. (paper)

  9. Late winter feeding stimulates rapid spring development of carniolan honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera carnica)

    Zlatko Puškadija; Lejla Spiljak; Marin Kovačić


    Unfavourable weather conditions after the queen starts with intensive oviposition during early spring may cause an imbalance in the division of tasks among worker bees in the bee colony. This can lead to slow spring development and poor exploitation of the main spring nectar flows. In order to accelerate the spring development, it is necessary, as a technological measure, to feed supplemental candy to bee colonies. In this research, the necessity of supplemental feeding, as well as the com...

  10. Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska

    Miller, Thomas P.; Barnes, Ivan; Pattan, William Wallace


    Numerous hot springs occur in a variety of geologic provinces in central and western Alaska. Granitic plutons are common to all the provinces and the hot springs are spatially associated with the contacts of these plutons. Of 23 hot springs whose bedrock geology is known, all occur within 3 miles of a granitic pluton. The occurrence of hot springs, however, appears to be independent of the age, composition, or magmatic history of the pluton.

  11. 2002 Spring school on superstrings and related matters

    Bachas, C [ENS, Paris (France); Gava, E [INFN, Trieste (Italy); [Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Maldacena, J [Harvard University, Cambridge (United States); Narain, K S; Randjbar-Daemi, S [Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy)


    This CD contains the lecture notes given at the Spring School on Superstrings and related Matters, held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics from 18 to 26 March 2002. It contains lectures about M theory, G{sub 2}-manifolds and four dimensional physics, covariant quantization of the superstring, mirror symmetry, strings in flat space and plane waves from N=4 super Yang Mills, phenomenological aspects of D-branes and open string star algebra.

  12. ICTP Spring College in Condensed Matter on Superconductivity

    Lu, Y


    This volume contains the lecture notes of the ""Spring College on Superconductivity"" held from 27 April to 19 June 1992 at ICTP. The distinguished faculty of lecturers has provided a wide coverage of topics on the fascinating subject of superconductivity, ranging from basic physics to the latest developments. The comprehensive reviews included in this volume will prove invaluable for research workers and graduate students in the field.

  13. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 9, Number 1. Spring 2015


    Spring 2015 Applying Cost Imposition Strategies against China The focus on monetary and other costs has a decidedly miUtary bias . Broadly...Institute of War and Peace Studies at Colum- bia University for the fall 2014 semester. He has pubHshed in International Security, International Rela...because the brain subconsciously associates any risky policy to the initia- tor. Indeed, experiencing the fear of imminent nuclear war will cause

  14. Methods of Measuring Stress Relaxation in Composite Tape Springs


    10 3. Cure Cycle Recommended for Patz F7 Prepreg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4. Typical Stress...unique and dimensionally complex parts. Hand lay-up is the method by which prepreg tape or fibers are laid down and then the matrix is then ‘painted’ on...structure. Hand lay-up using a prepreg tape stands out as the inexpensive choice for the unique low number production of tape springs and should

  15. Spring Research Festival Features Visit from FCPS Superintendent | Poster

    One of the highlights of the 19th annual Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 4–7, was a visit from Terry Alban, Ph.D., superintendent of Frederick County Public Schools (FCPS), and Mike Markoe, deputy superintendent, FCPS. They toured the event on May 7, talking to researchers and students about their posters. “Dr. Alban was very interested in hearing what the Werner H.

  16. Radon-enriched spring waters in the South of Poland

    Kozlowska, B.; Hetman, A.; Dorda, J.; Zipper, W.


    A method for determination of 222 Rn in natural water samples which involves a Wallac 1414 Win Spectral α/β liquid scintillation counter is described. Samples were collected from springs in health resorts in the Sudety Mountains in Poland. Half of the studied water samples were radon enriched with an activity concentration higher then 74 Bq/l. Seasonal variations of 222 Rn in these waters are under investigation. The method introduced is very convenient and elegant for radon activity measurements.

  17. Cyber Conflict Between Taiwan and China; Strategic Insights, Spring 2011

    Chang, Yao-chung


    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, Spring 2011 The Republic of China (Taiwan hereafter) and the People’s Republic of China (China hereafter) are two particularly attractive targets for internet hackers. Reports have found that, compared to other countries in the Asia and Pacific regions, China and Taiwan rank as the top two countries in terms of malicious computer activity. Reports have also shown that most hacking into Taiwanese computer systems is initiated from wit...

  18. Oscillations of manometric tubular springs with rigid end

    Cherentsov, D. A.; Pirogov, S. P.; Dorofeev, S. M.; Ryabova, Y. S.


    The paper presents a mathematical model of attenuating oscillations of manometric tubular springs (MTS) taking into account the rigid tip. The dynamic MTS model is presented in the form of a thin-walled curved rod oscillating in the plane of curvature of the central axis. Equations for MTS oscillations are obtained in accordance with the d’Alembert principle in projections onto the normal and tangential. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is used to solve the equations obtained.

  19. Vibration of helical springs in cross water flow

    Axisa, F.; Brunet, G.


    The purpose of this paper is to present new experimental data on vortex-shedding induced vibration on helical springs subjected to cross-flows. Intense locked-in vibration were observed on the natural modes of axial displacement. A simplified model is tentatively proposed to interpret the experimental data which is based on an analogy with vortex-shedding as observed on straight tube rows

  20. 2002 Spring school on superstrings and related matters

    Bachas, C.; Gava, E.; Maldacena, J.; Narain, K.S.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.


    This CD contains the lecture notes given at the Spring School on Superstrings and related Matters, held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics from 18 to 26 March 2002. It contains lectures about M theory, G 2 -manifolds and four dimensional physics, covariant quantization of the superstring, mirror symmetry, strings in flat space and plane waves from N=4 super Yang Mills, phenomenological aspects of D-branes and open string star algebra

  1. Strategic Insights. Volume 10, Issue 1, Spring 2011


    weapons in our arsenal and ban chemical and biological weapons. With persistence, there are solutions. A way around the attribution problem may be to...metal and plastic . America needs the ability to carpet bomb in cyberspace to create the deterrent we lack.13 In other words, Williamson was not only...Insights • Spring 2011 Volume 10, Issue 1 25 Cyber Conflict Between Taiwan and China Yao-chung Chang Introduction The Republic of China ( Taiwan

  2. The OIT Times Newsletter -- Spring 2000, Vol. 3, No. 2

    Sousa, L. [ed.


    The Spring 2000 issue of OIT [Office of Industrial Technologies] Times features articles on a new ``Best Practices'' team that is facilitating motor systems and heating equipment roadmaps; combined heat and power (CHP) industry international symposium and signing compact agreement ceremony; DOE Secretary Richardson signs compact with the petroleum industry; a major steel showcase is planned for May and OIT customers speak out with what works and what doesn't.

  3. Aquaponics System - An EPS@ISEP 2014 Spring Project

    Llauradó, Ana Mesas; Docherty, Arlene; Méry, Gwénaël; Sokolowska, Natalia; Keane, Sean; Duarte, Abel José; Malheiro, Benedita; Ribeiro, Maria Cristina; Ferreira, Fernando José; Silva, Manuel; Ferreira, Paulo; Guedes, Pedro


    The goal of this project, one of the proposals of the EPS@ISEP 2014 Spring, was to develop an Aquaponics System. Over recent years Aquaponics systems have received increased attention due to its possibilities in helping reduce strain on resources within 1st and 3rd world countries. Aquaponics is the combination of Hydroponics and Aquaculture and mimics a natural environment in order to successfully apply and enhance the understanding of natural cycles within an indoor pro...

  4. Army Communicator. Volume 37, Number 1, Spring 2012


    Geospatial Information Best Practices in Joint Operations MAJ Christopher Blais CW2 Joshua Stratton MSG Moise Danjoint 32 PM In-transit Visibility...WAN - Wide Area Network =@&<! QuickScan 26 Spring - 2012 27 Ŗ! ) 1 and MSG Moise Danjoint The fact that...34 < 4 F1;;ZH)$" +4 0F1;;Z𔃻;W) $" 5. .F1;::H MSG Moise Danjoint

  5. Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics


    ICTP's annual Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics provides pedagogical treatment of these subjects through lectures by some of the world's top string theorists. The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory. It is organized in collaboration with the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN).

  6. Post irradiation examination of garter springs from Indian PHWRs

    Dubey, J.S.; Shah, Priti Kotak; Mishra, Prerna; Singh, H.N.; Alur, V.D.; Kumar, Ashwini; Bhandekar, A.; Pandit, K.M.; Anantharaman, S.


    Irradiated Zr-2.5Nb-0.5Cu garter springs, belonging to Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors, which had experienced 8 to 10 Effective Full Power Years of operation were subjected to visual, dimensional, chemical, metallographic examination and relevant mechanical tests. Methodology of the tests conducted and results are presented. The digital photographs were used to measure the inner and outer circumferences by image processing. The hydrogen (H) content in the spring coils were measured using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In the stretch test, all the irradiated GSs were found to require an additional load, as compared to unirradiated GS, to produce a given amount of residual extension which indicated that the irradiated GSs had undergone significant irradiation hardening. The crush test results showed that the minimum load required to crush the coil or cause a sudden sideways shift in the grips was higher than 400 N/coil, much higher than the design load. The test results indicated that the irradiated GS, after 10 EFPY of operation, have adequate strength and ductility to continue to meet the design intent. Mechanical tests were carried out on irradiated girdle wires taken out of the loose fit garter springs (GS) from (NAPS-1, ∼ 8.5 EFPY) and tight fit garter spring from KAPS-2 (∼ 8.0 EFPY) PHWRs. Tensile tests on the irradiated girdle wires, showed irradiation hardening in the material and reduction in ductility. The irradiated girdle wires have around 4 to 5% residual ductility level against the 15% ductility of unirradiated wire. The fracture surfaces of the irradiated as well as the un-irradiated girdle wires were observed in SEM. (author)

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency publications. New publications Spring 2003


    This Publications Catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA issued and forthcoming during the period Spring 2003. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is indicated at the bottom of the book entry. A complete listing of all IAEA priced publications is available on the IAEA's web site:

  8. Adjustable Nonlinear Springs to Improve Efficiency of Vibration Energy Harvesters

    Boisseau, S.; Despesse, G.; Seddik, B. Ahmed


    Vibration Energy Harvesting is an emerging technology aimed at turning mechanical energy from vibrations into electricity to power microsystems of the future. Most of present vibration energy harvesters are based on a mass spring structure introducing a resonance phenomenon that allows to increase the output power compared to non-resonant systems, but limits the working frequency bandwidth. Therefore, they are not able to harvest energy when ambient vibrations' frequencies shift. To follow sh...


    Constantin MINCU


    Full Text Available The article briefly presents the developments in the Arab World between December 2010 and February 2012, epitomizing om the international context, the geopolitical and economic importance of states from Northern Africa and the Middle East, causes, goals, characteristics and consequences of the Arab Spring", the implications of these movements in the repositioning of the great powers and regional actors in the following period.

  10. Constructing collaboration and management platform with spring+ hibernate

    Zhang Hongmei; Ou Ge; Nie Jianyin; Song Liming; Chen Gang


    HCMP is the platform of collaboration and management for HXMT. The documents of HXMT project are the main context of HCMP. Besides the users of HXMT project, HCMP also serves other users. HCMP adopts the hierarchy Web structure to implement context release, documents approval, project management and portal website. HCMP provides the support of informatlization and standardization for HXMT project. This paper adopts Spring + Hibernate technique to construct the J2EE architecture, based on which HCMP is implemented. (authors)

  11. Fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of spring cruciferous plants

    Barbara Majchrzak


    Full Text Available Fungal communities isolated from the rhizosphere of spring cruciferous plants were analysed in the study. It was found that the rhizosphere of crucifers was colonized primarily by fungi of the order Mucorales and of the genus Fusarium. Members of the genus Fusarium dominated in the rhizoplane. The roots of cruciferous plants secrete glucosinolates – secondary metabolites known for their antifungal properties, thus affecting the communities of soil-dwelling fungi.

  12. SAFE Journal. Volume 35, Number 1, Spring 2007


    Division Eye Tactical, Inc. - Sales and Marketing Division First Technology Safety Systems, Inc. Fujikura Parachute Co., Ltd. FXC Corporation... markets for environmentally friendly products. The E.PA is considering using Section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to regulate...CH,OH 0,N SAFE Journal - Vol 35(1) - Spring 2007 15 RESEARC H, DEVELOPMENT. TEST & EVALUATION SECTION Figure 2. Preparation of KDNP (1) using a

  13. Arab Spring - Concepts and Characteristics (Case of Egypt

    Ayman Gad El Ashkar


    Full Text Available This study aims at sheding light on the revolutions of the Arab Spring, especially in the case of Egypt, where the conceptual side will be reviewed and to identify the most important features and highlights of this event. During the second decade of the twenty-first century, the Arab region has marked a flurry of unusual at the political level. This flurry has created a very important phenomenon not only for the Arab region, but also worldwide. This phenomenon is known as the Arab Spring, which came as a result of the ongoing suffering of the peoples of the region from injustice, oppression and inequality in all spheres of life. Thus, to achieve this purpose, revolutionary concepts and the theoretical concept of revolution will be analyzed and studied, a comparison between western concept and the Arab revolution, as well as concentration on a particular focus on the concept of Egyptian Spring and the most prominent features of it. Through this work will be provided insights on the reality of revolutionary concepts and specifically the depth of the dimensions, aspects and characteristics that belong to the concept of the Revolution of Arab Spring in general, and Egypt in particular. There is no doubt that the study of this event cannot be stopped to the limits or the time, and that this event is not just about Arab nations or peoples of the Middle East region, but it has to do will all the peoples of the world living under the pressure of the same reasons and conditions of these revolutions.


    Marina Trpčić


    Full Text Available In one part of the groundwater flow in the Vrelić cave (near the village Donje Dubrave, during the explorations in 2003, oil pollution was perceived. During field prospection and contact with local population, few possible pollution sources were located. There was a strong possibility that the oil traces in the cave are the result of the railway accident in 1970. Because of the railway accident on Rijeka-Zagreb railroad, tank carriage sliped off from the tracks and the content of the dangerous cargo leaked onto the nearby valley, 800 meters away from the cave entrance. A spring, used sometimes for water supply by the local population is also located nearby. Sampling of the water from the cave and the spring was carried out several times during the next period with the intention of monitoring the pollution impact on water quality in different seasonal (climatic conditions. In the course of the laboratory analysis of the samples the following parameters were determined: Total hardness; Concentrations of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Chlorides and Nitrates; pH-value; TOC; colony-forming unit (CFU; total Coliform; fecal Streptococus; Proteus bacteria; Salmonella bacteria and Clostridium perfringens bacteria. Several of other parameters were also measured by mobile devices: Conductivity (EC, TDS, Redox-potential, pH-value and water temperature. Water tracing with Na-fluorescine was carried out before the analysis and the connection between groundwater flow in cave and the spring water was confirmed. After the creation of a topographical (speleological map of the cave and thanks to the surface (field measurements, the distance between the place of Na-fluorescine spill in the cave and the Vrelić spring was defined (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. The differential impact of women's pariticipation in the Arab Spring

    Kuhlow, Sasha J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Arab Spring protests in 2011 uprooted regimes, challenged authoritarian leaders, and provided protesters new tools for mobilization. The use of social media and the involvement of women in public protests indicated changing protest repertoires and movement demographics in many countries. When women protested in 2011, they mobilized both physically and virtually. Assessing the influence women exert in social movements through social...

  16. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Schoen, Robert; White, Donald E.; Hemley, J.J.


    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can be traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite.Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin-alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water.In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath.

  17. Phototrophic microvegetation of thermal springs in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic

    Kaštovský, J.; span class="emphasis">Komárek, Jiříspan>


    Roč. 123, - (2001), s. 107-120 ISSN 1438-9134. [International conference: Algae and extreme environments. Třeboň, 11.09.2000-16.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cyanobacteria * algae * biodiversity * thermal springs * Karlovy Vary Spa * ecology * seasonality * anthropogenic factors * conservation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2000

  18. A GPU Accelerated Spring Mass System for Surgical Simulation

    Mosegaard, Jesper; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild


    There is a growing demand for surgical simulators to dofast and precise calculations of tissue deformation to simulateincreasingly complex morphology in real-time. Unfortunately, evenfast spring-mass based systems have slow convergence rates for largemodels. This paper presents a method to accele...... to accelerate computation of aspring-mass system in order to simulate a complex organ such as theheart. This acceleration is achieved by taking advantage of moderngraphics processing units (GPU)....

  19. Surface science station of the infrared beamline at SPring-8

    Sakurai, M.; Moriwaki, T.; Kimura, H.; Nishida, S.; Nanba, T.


    An experimental station for surface science has been constructed at the infrared beamline (BL43IR) of SPring-8, Japan. The station utilizes synchrotron radiation in the energy range of 100-20000 cm -1 to perform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of surfaces. It consists of an experimental section, a preparation chamber, gas handling equipment and a pair of focusing optics. In situ observation of vibrational spectra is possible using both IRAS and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

  20. The evolution of risk communication at the Weldon Spring site

    McCracken, S.; Sizemore, M.; Meyer, L.; MacDonell, M.; Haroun, L.


    Clear risk communication is one of the keys to establishing a positive relationship with the public at an environmental restoration site. This effort has been evolving at the Weldon Spring site over the past few years, with considerable input from the local community. The recent signing of the major cleanup decision for this site, which identifies on-site disposal as the remedy reflects the strength of the communication program that has evolved for the project