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Sample records for nadh-ubiquinone oxidoreductase ndi1

  1. Mitigation of NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase deficiency by chronic Trolox treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.H.; Verkaart, S.A.J.; Emst-de Vries, S.E. van; Grefte, S.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Willems, P.H.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Deficiency of mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), is associated with a variety of clinical phenotypes such as Leigh syndrome, encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy. Circumstantial evidence suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels contribute to the

  2. Origin and evolution of the sodium -pumping NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase.

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    Adrian Reyes-Prieto

    Full Text Available The sodium -pumping NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR is the main ion pump and the primary entry site for electrons into the respiratory chain of many different types of pathogenic bacteria. This enzymatic complex creates a transmembrane gradient of sodium that is used by the cell to sustain ionic homeostasis, nutrient transport, ATP synthesis, flagellum rotation and other essential processes. Comparative genomics data demonstrate that the nqr operon, which encodes all Na+-NQR subunits, is found in a large variety of bacterial lineages with different habitats and metabolic strategies. Here we studied the distribution, origin and evolution of this enzymatic complex. The molecular phylogenetic analyses and the organizations of the nqr operon indicate that Na+-NQR evolved within the Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes group, after the duplication and subsequent neofunctionalization of the operon that encodes the homolog RNF complex. Subsequently, the nqr operon dispersed through multiple horizontal transfer events to other bacterial lineages such as Chlamydiae, Planctomyces and α, β, γ and δ -proteobacteria. Considering the biochemical properties of the Na+-NQR complex and its physiological role in different bacteria, we propose a detailed scenario to explain the molecular mechanisms that gave rise to its novel redox- dependent sodium -pumping activity. Our model postulates that the evolution of the Na+-NQR complex involved a functional divergence from its RNF homolog, following the duplication of the rnf operon, the loss of the rnfB gene and the recruitment of the reductase subunit of an aromatic monooxygenase.

  3. Three-Dimensional Structure of Bovine NADH : Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Heel, Marin G. van; Bruggen, Ernst F.J. van

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the structure of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone (Q) oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.3) by image analysis of electron micrographs. A three-dimensional reconstruction was calculated from a tilt-series of a two-dimensional crystal of the molecule. Our interpretation of the

  4. Characterization of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in the trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens (Kinetoplastida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermáková, Petra; Verner, Zdenek; Man, Petr; Lukes, Julius; Horváth, Anton

    2007-06-01

    NADH dehydrogenase activity was characterized in the mitochondrial lysates of Phytomonas serpens, a trypanosomatid flagellate parasitizing plants. Two different high molecular weight NADH dehydrogenases were characterized by native PAGE and detected by direct in-gel activity staining. The association of NADH dehydrogenase activities with two distinct multisubunit complexes was revealed in the second dimension performed under denaturing conditions. One subunit present in both complexes cross-reacted with the antibody against the 39 kDa subunit of bovine complex I. Out of several subunits analyzed by MS, one contained a domain characteristic for the LYR family subunit of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases. Spectrophotometric measurement of the NADH:ubiquinone 10 and NADH:ferricyanide dehydrogenase activities revealed their different sensitivities to rotenone, piericidin, and diphenyl iodonium.

  5. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity in the kinetoplasts of the plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Halphen, Diego; Maslov, Dmitri A

    2004-03-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity is present in mitochondrial lysates of Phytomonas serpens. Rotenone at 2-10 microM inhibited the activity 50-75%, indicating that it belongs to respiratory complex I. The activity was also inhibited 50-60% in the presence of 10-30 nM atovaquone suggesting that inhibition of complex I represents a likely mechanism of the known antileishmanial activity of this drug. The complex was partially purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and gel-filtration on Sepharose CL-2B. The NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity in this preparation was completely inactivated by 20 nM atovaquone. The partially purified complex was present in a low amount and its subunits could not be discerned by staining with Coomassie. However, one of its components, a homologue of the 39 kDa subunit of the bovine complex I, was identified immunochemically in the original lysate and in the partially purified material.

  6. Na+-NQR (Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) as a novel target for antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrov, Pavel; Dibrov, Elena; Pierce, Grant N

    2017-09-01

    The recent breakthrough in structural studies on Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae creates a perspective for the systematic design of inhibitors for this unique enzyme, which is the major Na+ pump in aerobic pathogens. Widespread distribution of Na+-NQR among pathogenic species, its key role in energy metabolism, its relation to virulence in different species as well as its absence in eukaryotic cells makes this enzyme especially attractive as a target for prospective antibiotics. In this review, the major biochemical, physiological and, especially, the pharmacological aspects of Na+-NQR are discussed to assess its 'target potential' for drug development. A comparison to other primary bacterial Na+ pumps supports the contention that NQR is a first rate prospective target for a new generation of antimicrobials. A new, narrowly targeted furanone inhibitor of NQR designed in our group is presented as a molecular platform for the development of anti-NQR remedies. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The reaction of NADPH with bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase revisited: II. Comparison of the proposed working hypothesis with literature data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albracht, S.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The first purification of bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) was reported nearly half a century ago (Hatefi et al. J Biol Chem 237:1676-1680, 1962). The pathway of electron-transfer through the enzyme is still under debate. A major obstacle is the assignment of EPR signals to the

  8. The reaction of NADPH with bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase revisited: I. Proposed consequences for electron transfer in the enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albracht, S.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) is the first complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has long been assumed that it contained only one FMN group. However, as demonstrated in 2003, the intact enzyme contains two FMN groups. The second FMN was proposed to be located in a

  9. Effects of the deletion of the Escherichia coli frataxin homologue CyaY on the respiratory NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase

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    Grauman Peter L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frataxin is discussed as involved in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Recently it was discovered that a frataxin homologue is a structural component of the respiratory NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I in Thermus thermophilus. It was not clear whether frataxin is in general a component of complex I from bacteria. The Escherichia coli homologue of frataxin is coined CyaY. Results We report that complex I is completely assembled to a stable and active enzyme complex equipped with all known iron-sulfur clusters in a cyaY mutant of E. coli. However, the amount of complex I is reduced by one third compared to the parental strain. Western blot analysis and live cell imaging of CyaY engineered with a GFP demonstrated that CyaY is located in the cytoplasm and not attached to the membrane as to be expected if it were a component of complex I. Conclusion CyaY plays a non-essential role in the assembly of complex I in E. coli. It is not a structural component but may transiently interact with the complex.

  10. Resolution of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria into two subcomplexes, one of which contains the redox centers of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finel, M; Skehel, J M; Albracht, S P; Fearnley, I M; Walker, J E

    1992-11-24

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) was purified from bovine heart mitochondria by solubilization with n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside (lauryl maltoside), ammonium sulfate fractionation, and chromatography on Mono Q in the presence of the detergent. Its subunit composition was very similar to complex I purified by conventional means. Complex I was dissociated in the presence of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide and beta-mercaptoethanol, and two subcomplexes, I alpha and I beta, were isolated by chromatography. Subcomplex I alpha catalyzes electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone-1. It is composed of about 22 different and mostly hydrophilic subunits and contains 2.0 nmol of FMN/mg of protein. Among its subunits is the 51-kDa subunit, which binds FMN and NADH and probably contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster also. Three other potential Fe-S proteins, the 75- and 24-kDa subunits and a 23-kDa subunit (N-terminal sequence TYKY), are also present. All of the Fe-S clusters detectable by EPR in complex I, including cluster 2, are found in subcomplex I alpha. The line shapes of the EPR spectra of the Fe-S clusters are slightly broadened relative to spectra measured on complex I purified by conventional means, and the quinone reductase activity is insensitive to rotenone. Similar changes were found in samples of the intact chromatographically purified complex I, or in complex I prepared by the conventional method and then subjected to chromatography in the presence of lauryl maltoside. Subcomplex I beta contains about 15 different subunits. The sequences of many of them contain hydrophobic segments that could be membrane spanning, including at least two mitochondrial gene products, ND4 and ND5. The role of subcomplex I beta in the intact complex remains to be elucidated.

  11. Crystallization of the NADH-oxidizing domain of the Na{sup +}-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Minli [Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Türk, Karin [School of Engineering and Science, International University Bremen, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Diez, Joachim [Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Grütter, Markus G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Fritz, Günter, E-mail: guenter.fritz@uni-konstanz.de [Fachbereich Biologie, Universität Konstanz, Postfach M665, Universitätsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Steuber, Julia, E-mail: guenter.fritz@uni-konstanz.de [Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2006-02-01

    The FAD domain of the NqrF subunit from the Na{sup +}-translocating NADH dehydrogenase from V. cholerae has been purified and crystallized. A complete data set was recorded at 3.1 Å. The Na{sup +}-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na{sup +}-NQR) from pathogenic and marine bacteria is a respiratory complex that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by quinone to the transport of Na{sup +} across the membrane. The NqrF subunit oxidizes NADH and transfers the electrons to other redox cofactors in the enzyme. The FAD-containing domain of NqrF has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The purified NqrF FAD domain exhibited high rates of NADH oxidation and contained stoichiometric amounts of the FAD cofactor. Initial crystallization of the flavin domain was achieved by the sitting-drop technique using a Cartesian MicroSys4000 robot. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded yellow hexagonal crystals with dimensions of 30 × 30 × 70 µm. The protein mainly crystallizes in long hexagonal needles with a diameter of up to 30 µm. Crystals diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.3, c = 90.2 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°.

  12. Protective Role of rAAV-NDI1, Serotype 5, in an Acute MPTP Mouse Parkinson's Model

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    Jennifer Barber-Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Defects in mitochondrial proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (complex I have been implicated in a number of acquired and hereditary diseases including Leigh's syndrome and more recently Parkinson's disease. A limited number of strategies have been attempted to repair the damaged complex I with little or no success. We have recently shown that the non-proton-pumping, internal NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast can be successfully inserted into the mitochondria of mice and rats, and the enzyme was found to be fully active. Using recombinant adenoassociated virus vectors (serotype 5 carrying our NDI1 gene, we were able to express the Ndi1 protein in the substantia nigra (SN of C57BL/6 mice with an expression period of two months. The results show that the AAV serotype 5 was highly efficient in expressing Ndi1 in the SN, when compared to a previous model using serotype 2, which led to nearly 100% protection when using an acute MPTP model. It is conceivable that the AAV-serotype5 carrying the NDI1 gene is a powerful tool for proof-of-concept study to demonstrate complex I defects as the causable factor in diseases of the brain.

  13. Characterization of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in the trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens (Kinetoplastida)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, P.; Verner, Zdeněk; Man, Petr; Lukeš, Julius; Horváth, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 274, č. 12 (2007), s. 3150-3158 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06129; GA MŠk LC07032; GA ČR GA204/06/1558 Grant - others:Vedecká grantová agentúra Ministerstva školstva SR a Slovenskej akadémie vied(SK) VEGA(SK) VEGA1/3241/06; Comenius University(SK) UK/139/2006; Comenius University(SK) UK/247/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : NADH dehydrogenase * complex I * Phytomonas * respiratory chain * trypanosomatid Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.396, year: 2007

  14. The rotenone-insensitive reduction of quinones and nitrocompounds by mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bironaite, D A; Cenas, N K; Kulys, J J

    1991-10-18

    The rotenone-insensitive reduction of quinones and aromatic nitrocompounds by mitochondrial NADH: ubiquinone reductase (complex I, EC 1.6.99.3) has been studied. It was found that these reactions proceed via a mixed one- and two-electron transfer. The logarithms of the bimolecular rate constants of oxidation (TN/Km) are proportional to the one-electron-reduction potentials of oxidizers. The reactivities of nitrocompounds are close to those of quinones. Unlike the reduction of ferricyanide, these reactions are not inhibited by NADH. However, they are inhibited by NAD+ and ADP-ribose, which also act as the mixed-type inhibitors for ferricyanide. TN/Km of quinones and nitrocompounds depend on the NAD+/NADH ratio, but not on NAD+ concentration. They are diminished by the limiting factors of 2.5-3.5 at NAD+/NADH greater than 200. It seems that rotenone-insensitive reduction of quinones and nitrocompounds takes place near the NAD+/NADH and ferricyanide binding site, and the inhibition is caused by induced conformational changes after the binding of NAD+ or ADP-ribose.

  15. The NADH: Ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complec I) of the mammalian respiratory chain and the cAMP cascade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papa, S.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Scacco, S.; Petruzzella, V.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Vergari, R.; Signorile, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2002), s. 1-10 ISSN 0145-479X Grant - others:Italian Research Council(CNR) Rome(IT) 99/03622/PF49; travel grant from CNR(IT) Z.T-D Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : protein * phosphorylation * mitochondria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.920, year: 2002

  16. Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is active in but non-essential for procyclic Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verner, Zdeněk; Čermáková, P.; Škodová, Ingrid; Kriegová, Eva; Horváth, A.; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 2 (2011), s. 196-200 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk 2B06129; GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Mitochondrion * Respiration * Complex I Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2011

  17. Inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and correlation of this inhibition with the occurrence of energy-coupling site 1 in various organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity of the respiratory chains of several organisms was inhibited by the carboxyl-modifying reagent N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). This inhibition correlated with the presence of an energy-transducing site in this segment of the respiratory chain. Where the NADH-quinone reductase segment involved an energy-coupling site (e.g., in bovine heart and rat liver mitochondria, and in Paracoccus denitrificans, Escherichia coli, and Thermus thermophilus HB-8 membranes), DCCD acted as an inhibitor of ubiquinone reduction by NADH. By contrast, where energy-coupling site 1 was absent (e.g., in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria and BacilLus subtilis membranes), there was no inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity by DCCD. In the bovine and P. denitrificans systems, DCCD inhibition was pseudo first order with respect to incubation time, and reaction order with respect to inhibitor concentration was close to unity, indicating that inhibition resulted from the binding of one inhibitor molecule per active unit of NADH-ubiquinone reductase. In the bovine NADH-ubiquinone reductase complex (complex I), [ 14 C]DCCD was preferentially incorporated into two subunits of molecular weight 49,000 and 29,000. The time course of labeling of the 29,000 molecular weight subunit with [ 14 C]DCCD paralleled the time course of inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity

  18. No immune responses by the expression of the yeast Ndi1 protein in rats.

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    Mathieu Marella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rotenone-insensitive internal NADH-quinone oxidoreductase from yeast, Ndi1, has been shown to work as a replacement molecule for complex I in the respiratory chain of mammalian mitochondria. In the so-called transkingdom gene therapy, one major concern is the fact that the yeast protein is foreign in mammals. Long term expression of Ndi1 observed in rodents with no apparent damage to the target tissue was indicative of no action by the host's immune system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we examined rat skeletal muscles expressing Ndi1 for possible signs of inflammatory or immune response. In parallel, we carried out delivery of the GFP gene using the same viral vector that was used for the NDI1 gene. The tissues were subjected to H&E staining and immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific for markers, CD11b, CD3, CD4, and CD8. The data showed no detectable signs of an immune response with the tissues expressing Ndi1. In contrast, mild but distinctive positive reactions were observed in the tissues expressing GFP. This clear difference most likely comes from the difference in the location of the expressed protein. Ndi1 was localized to the mitochondria whereas GFP was in the cytosol. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that Ndi1 expression did not trigger any inflammatory or immune response in rats. These results push forward the Ndi1-based molecular therapy and also expand the possibility of using foreign proteins that are directed to subcellular organelle such as mitochondria.

  19. NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the liver of rats with acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis on the background of alimentary protein deficiency

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    G. P. Kopylchuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ratio between the redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes and key enzymatic activity of the I and II respiratory chain complexes in the liver cells mitochondria of rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis under the conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein was studied. It was estimated, that under the conditions of acute acetaminophen-induced hepatitis of rats kept on a low-protein diet during 4 weeks a significant decrease of the NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity with simultaneous increase of the ratio between redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes (NAD+/NADН is observed compared to the same indices in the liver cells of animals with experimental hepatitis kept on the ration balanced by all nutrients. Results of research may become basic ones for the biochemical rationale for the approaches directed to the correction and elimination of the consequences­ of energy exchange in the toxic hepatitis, induced on the background of protein deficiency.

  20. Conserved Negative Charges in the Transmembrane Segments of Subunit K of the NADH : Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Determine Its Dependence on YidC for Membrane Insertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, Claire E.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2010-01-01

    All members of the Oxa1/Alb3/YidC family have been implicated in the biogenesis of respiratory and energy transducing proteins. In Escherichia coli, YidC functions together with and independently of the Sec system. Although the range of proteins shown to be dependent on YidC continues to increase,

  1. Yeast AMID homologue Ndi1p displays respiration-restricted apoptotic activity and is involved in chronological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Sun, Libo; Liang, Qiuli; Wang, Juan; Mo, Weike; Zhou, Bing

    2006-04-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and AIF-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death (AMID) are both mitochondrial flavoproteins that trigger caspase-independent apoptosis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these two proteins evolutionarily diverge back from their common prokaryote ancestor. Compared with AIF, the proapoptotic nature of AMID and its mode of action are much less clarified. Here, we show that overexpression of yeast AMID homologue internal NADH dehydrogenase (NDI1), but not external NADH dehydrogenase (NDE1), can cause apoptosis-like cell death, and this effect can be repressed by increased respiration on glucose-limited media. This result indicates that the regulatory network of energy metabolism, in particular the cross-talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell, is involved in Ndi1p-induced yeast cell apoptosis. The apoptotic effect of NDI1 overexpression is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria. In addition, NDI1 overexpression in sod2 background causes cell lethality in both fermentable and semifermentable media. Interruption of certain components in the electron transport chain can suppress the growth inhibition from Ndi1p overexpression. We finally show that disruption of NDI1 or NDE1 decreases ROS production and elongates the chronological life span of yeast, accompanied by the loss of survival fitness. Implication of these findings for Ndi1p-induced apoptosis is discussed.

  2. Deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in an infant with congenital lactic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Batshaw, M L; Ohnishi, T; Kerr, D; Knox, B; Jackson, D; Hruban, R; Olson, J; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-09-01

    We report the case of an infant with hypoglycemia, progressive lactic acidosis, an increased serum lactate/pyruvate ratio, and elevated plasma alanine, who had a moderate to profound decrease in the ability of mitochondria from four organs to oxidize pyruvate, malate plus glutamate, citrate, and other NAD+-linked respiratory substrates. The capacity to oxidize the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked substrate, succinate, was normal. The most pronounced deficiency was in skeletal muscle, the least in kidney mitochondria. Enzymatic assays on isolated mitochondria ruled out defects in complexes II, III, and IV of the respiratory chain. Further studies showed that the defect was localized in the inner membrane mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). When ferricyanide was used as an artificial electron acceptor, complex I activity was normal, indicating that electrons from NADH could reduce the flavin mononucleotide cofactor. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on liver submitochondrial particles showed an almost total loss of the iron-sulfur clusters characteristic of complex I, whereas normal signals were noted for other mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters. This infant is presented as the first reported case of congenital lactic acidosis caused by a deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADH alternative dehydrogenase Ndi1p, as a tool to identify new genes involved in complex I related diseases

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    Raynald eCossard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complex I deficiencies are one of the most commonly observed biochemical features in patients suffering from mitochondrial disorders. In the majority of these clinical cases the molecular bases of the diseases remain unknown suggesting the involvement of unidentified factors that are critical for complex I function.The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NDI1 gene, encoding the mitochondrial internal NADH dehydrogenase was previously shown to complement a complex I deficient strain in Caenorhabitis elegans with notable improvements in reproduction, whole organism respiration. These features indicate that Ndi1p can functionally integrate the respiratory chain, allowing complex I deficiency complementation. Taking into account the Ndi1p ability to bypass complex I, we evaluate the possibility to extend the range of defects/mutations causing complex I deficiencies that can be alleviated by NDI1 expression.We report here that NDI1 expressing animals unexpectedly exhibit a slightly shortened lifespan, a reduction in the progeny and a depletion of the mitochondrial genome. However, Ndi1p is expressed and targeted to the mitochondria as a functional protein that confers rotenone resistance to those animals and without affecting their respiration rate and ATP content.We show that the severe embryonic lethality level caused by the RNAi knockdowns of complex I structural subunit encoding genes (e.g. NDUFV1, NDUFS1, NDUFS6, NDUFS8 or GRIM-19 human orthologs in wild type animals is significantly reduced in the Ndi1p expressing worm.All together these results open up the perspective to identify new genes involved in complex I function, assembly or regulation by screening an RNAi library of genes leading to embryonic lethality that should be rescued by NDI1 expression.

  4. Oxidoreductases on their way to industrial biotransformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, Angel T.; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Camarero, Susana; Serrano, Ana; Linde, Dolores; Lund, Henrik; Vind, Jesper; Tovborg, Morten; Herold-Majumdar, Owik M.; Hofrichter, Martin; Liers, Christiane; Berkel, van Willem J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi produce heme-containing peroxidases and peroxygenases, flavin-containing oxidases and dehydrogenases, and different copper-containing oxidoreductases involved in the biodegradation of lignin and other recalcitrant compounds. Heme peroxidases comprise the classical ligninolytic peroxidases and

  5. Oxidoreductases on their way to industrial biotransformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, Angel T.; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Camarero, Susana; Serrano, Ana; Linde, Dolores; Lund, Henrik; Vind, Jesper; Tovborg, Morten; Herold-Majumdar, Owik M.; Hofrichter, Martin; Liers, Christiane; Ullrich, René; Scheibner, Katrin; Sannia, Giovanni; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Pezzella, Cinzia; Sener, Mehmet E.; Kılıç, Sibel; van Berkel, Willem J.H.; Guallar, Victor; Lucas, Maria Fátima; Zuhse, Ralf; Ludwig, Roland; Hollmann, F.; Fernandez Fueyo, E.; Record, Eric; Faulds, Craig B.; Tortajada, Marta; Winckelmann, Ib; Rasmussen, Jo Anne; Gelo-Pujic, Mirjana; Gutiérrez, Ana; del Río, José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Alcalde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Fungi produce heme-containing peroxidases and peroxygenases, flavin-containing oxidases and dehydrogenases, and different copper-containing oxidoreductases involved in the biodegradation of lignin and other recalcitrant compounds. Heme peroxidases comprise the classical ligninolytic peroxidases

  6. Mutation of C20orf7 Disrupts Complex I Assembly and Causes Lethal Neonatal Mitochondrial Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugiana, Canny; Pagliarini, David J.; McKenzie, Matthew; Kirby, Denise M.; Salemi, Renato; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Hutchison, Wendy M.; Vascotto, Katherine A.; Smith, Stacey M.; Newbold, Robert F.; Christodoulou, John; Calvo, Sarah; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Ryan, Michael T.; Thorburn, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and largest multimeric complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Human complex I comprises seven Subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA and 38 nuclear-encoded subunits that are assembled together in a process that is only partially

  7. Respiratory chain complex I, a main regulatory target of the cAMP/PKA pathway is defective in different human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, S.; De Rasmo, D.; Technikova-Dobrova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has 31 supernumerary subunits in addition to the 14 conserved from prokaryotes to humans. Multiplicity of structural protein components, as well as of biogenesis factors, makes complex I a sensible pace-...

  8. Tracing the tail of ubiquinone in mitochondrial complex I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angerer, H.; Nasiri, H.R.; Niedergesass, V.; Kerscher, S.; Schwalbe, H.; Brandt, U.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (proton pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest and most complicated component of the respiratory electron transfer chain. Despite its central role in biological energy conversion the structure and function of this membrane integral multiprotein complex is

  9. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of extracts from Polyalthia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inhibit complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mitochondrial electron transport systems (Lewis et al., 1993); in addition, they are potent inhibitors of NADH oxidase of plasma membranes (Morré et al.,. 1995); these enzymes are all found in P. falciparum and the effects of inhibitors impair parasite oxidative and ...

  10. Genomic and immunohistochemical characterisation of a lacrimal gland oncocytoma and review of literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lauge Hjorth; Andreasen, Simon; Melchior, Linea Cicilie

    2017-01-01

    as the sole genomic imbalances. These chromosomal alterations have not previously been identified in oncocytoma and may be specific to lacrimal gland oncocytoma. Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome demonstrated multiple alterations of the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5 (ND5) gene involved...

  11. Metallothionein isoform 2A expression is inducible and protects against ROS-mediated cell death in rotenone-treated HeLa cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinecke, F.; Levanets, O.; Olivier, Y.; Louw, R.; Semete, B.; Grobler, A.; Hidalgo, J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Olckers, A.; Westhuizen, F.H. van der

    2006-01-01

    The role of MT (metallothionein) gene expression was investigated in rotenone-treated HeLa cells to induce a deficiency of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Complex I deficiency leads to a diversity of cellular consequences, including production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and

  12. AcEST: BP913530 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lue sp|P04540|NU5M_TRYBB NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5 OS=T... 34 0.47 sp|P14612|NXLH_PSEAU Long neurotoxin...FWYRFFA 160 >sp|P14612|NXLH_PSEAU Long neurotoxin homolog Pa ID OS=Pseudechis australis PE=1 SV=1 Length = 6

  13. Soapwort oxidoreductase is involved in trinitrotoluene detoxification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podlipná, Radka; Nepovím, Aleš; Soudek, Petr; Vágner, Martin; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2007), s. 367-371 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC042; GA MŠk 1P05ME730 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : flavoprotein * Old Yellow Enzyme * oxidoreductase Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2007

  14. Plant Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone, Alessio; Archipowa, Nataliya; Zipfel, Peter F.; Hermann, Gudrun; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33) has a key role in plant development. It catalyzes one of the later steps in chlorophyll synthesis, the light-induced reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) into chlorophyllide (Chlide) in the presence of NADPH. Two isozymes of plant POR, POR A and POR B from barley, which differ in their function during plant life, are compared with respect to their substrate binding affinity, catalytic efficiency, and catalytic mechanism. POR B as compared with POR A shows an 5-fold higher binding affinity for PChlide and an about 6-fold higher catalytic efficiency measured as kcat/Km. Based on the reaction intermediates, which can be trapped at low temperatures the same reaction mechanism operates in both POR A and POR B. In contrast to results reported for POR enzymes from cyanobacteria, the initial light-driven step, which occurs at temperatures below 180 K already involves the full chemistry of the photoreduction and yields the reaction product, Chlide, in an enzyme-bound form. The subsequent dark reactions, which include cofactor (NADP+) release and cofactor (NADPH) rebinding, show different temperature dependences for POR A and POR B and suggest a higher conformational flexibility of POR B in the surrounding active center. Both the higher substrate binding affinity and well adapted enzyme dynamics are held responsible for the increased catalytic activity of POR B as compared with POR A. PMID:26408201

  15. Xanthine oxidoreductase and xanthine oxidase in human cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Cejkova, J.; Ardan, T.; Filipec, M.; Midelfart, A.

    2002-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (xanthine dehydrogenase + xanthine oxidase) is a complex enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine, subsequently producing uric acid. The enzyme complex exists in separate but interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, which generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), a well known causative factor in ischemia/reperfusion injury and also in some other pathological states and diseases. Because th...

  16. Xanthine oxidoreductase and xantine oxidase in human cornea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Ardan, Taras; Filipec, M.; Midelfart, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2002), s. 755-760 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1635; GA ČR GV307/96/K226 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : human cornea * xanthine oxidoreductase in situ Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.881, year: 2002

  17. Reduction and Scavenging of Chemically Reactive Drug Metabolites by NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 and NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 and Variability in Hepatic Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Braver-Sewradj, Shalenie P; den Braver, Michiel W; Toorneman, Robin M; van Leeuwen, Stephanie; Zhang, Yongjie; Dekker, Stefan J; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M; Vos, J Chris

    2018-01-01

    Detoxicating enzymes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) catalyze the two-electron reduction of quinone-like compounds. The protective role of the polymorphic NQO1 and NQO2 enzymes is especially of interest in the liver as the major site of drug

  18. Xanthine oxidoreductase in cancer: more than a differentiation marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Human xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the last two steps of purine catabolism and is present in two interconvertible forms, which may utilize O 2 or NAD + as electron acceptors. In addition to uric acid, XOR products may comprise reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that have many biologic effects, including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and cytotoxicity, as well as mutagenesis and induction of proliferation. XOR is strictly modulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and its expression and activity are highly variable in cancer. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) expression has been negatively associated with a high malignity grade and a worse prognosis in neoplasms of the breast, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and kidney, which normally express a high level of XOR protein. However, the level of XOR expression may be associated with a worse outcome in cancer of low XOR-expressing cells, in relation to the inflammatory response elicited through the tissue damage induced by tumor growth. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been implicated in the process of oncogenesis either directly because it is able to catalyze the metabolic activation of carcinogenic substances or indirectly through the action of XOR-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The role of uric acid is characterized by both oxidant and antioxidant action; thus, it is still debatable whether control of uricemia may be helpful to improve the outcomes of tumor illness

  19. High levels of xanthine oxidoreductase in rat endothelial, epithelial and connective tissue cells. A relation between localization and function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Bosch, K. S.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity was investigated in unfixed cryostat sections of various rat tissues by an enzyme histochemical method which specifically demonstrates both the dehydrogenase and oxidase forms of xanthine oxidoreductase. High activity was found in epithelial cells

  20. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

  1. Differentially regulated NADPH: cytochrome p450 oxidoreductases in parsely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmann, E.; Hahlbrock, K.

    1997-01-01

    Two NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (CPRs) from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) were cloned, and the complete proteins were expressed and functionally identified in yeast. The two enzymes, designated CPR1 and CPR2, are 80% identical in amino acid sequence with one another and about 75% identical with CPRs from several other plant species. The mRNA accumulation patterns for CPR1 and CPR2 in fungal elicitor-treated or UV-irradiated cultured parsley cells and in developing or infected parsley plants were compared with those for cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), one of the most abundant CPR-dependent P450 enzymes in plants. All treatments strongly induced the mRNAs for C4H and CPR1 but not for CPR2, suggesting distinct metabolic roles of CPR1 and CPR2 and a functional relationship between CPR1 and C4H

  2. An oxidoreductase from ‘Alphonso’ mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, R.; Chidley, H.; Deshpande, A.; Schmidt, A.; Pujari, K.; Giri, A.; Gershenzon, J.; Gupta, V.

    2013-01-01

    Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (...

  3. Clinical, genetic, and enzymatic characterization of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency in four patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2009-12-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility.

  4. Purification and partial characterisation of camel milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiani, A; Harrison, R; Benboubetra, M

    2003-12-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified in the presence of dithiothrietol from camel milk with yields of up to 22.2mg/l that were comparable to those obtained from bovine and human milk sources. On SDS-PAGE, the freshly purified camel milk XOR had a protein flavin (A280/A450) ratio of 5.3 +/- 0.4 and appeared homogenous with a single major band of approximately Mr 145.3 KDa. Surprisingly, in all the batches (n = 8) purified camel milk XOR showed no detectable activity towards xanthine or NADH. The molybdenum content of camel XOR was comparable to human and goat milk enzymes. After resulphuration, camel milk XOR gave a specific activity of 1.1 nmol/min/mg and 13.0 nmol/min/mg enzyme towards pterin (fluorimetric assay) and xanthine (spectrophotometric assay) respectively. This activity was markedly lower than that of human, bovine and goat enzymes obtained under the same conditions. These findings suggest that the molybdo-form of camel enzyme is totally under desulpho inactive form. It is possible that camel neonates are equipped with an enzymic system that reactivates XOR in their gut and consequently generates antibacterial reactive oxygen species.

  5. Functional characterization of the chloroplast ferric chelate oxidoreductase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solti, Adám; Müller, Brigitta; Czech, Viktória; Sárvári, Éva; Fodor, Ferenc

    2014-05-01

    Iron (Fe) has an essential role in the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and redox cofactors, and thus chloroplast iron uptake is a process of special importance. The chloroplast ferric chelate oxidoreductase (cFRO) has a crucial role in this process but it is poorly characterized. To study the localization and mechanism of action of cFRO, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv Orbis) chloroplast envelope fractions were isolated by gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was tested by western blotting against different marker proteins. The ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity of envelope fractions was studied in the presence of NAD(P)H (reductants) and FAD coenzymes. Reduction of Fe(III)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was monitored spectrophotometrically by the Fe(II)-bathophenanthroline disulfonate complex formation. FCR activity, that is production of free Fe(II) for Fe uptake, showed biphasic saturation kinetics, and was clearly associated only to chloroplast inner envelope (cIE) vesicles. The reaction rate was > 2.5 times higher with NADPH than with NADH, which indicates the natural coenzyme preference of cFRO activity and its dependence on photosynthesis. FCR activity of cIE vesicles isolated from Fe-deficient plants also showed clear biphasic kinetics, where the KM of the low affinity component was elevated, and thus this component was down-regulated. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Physicochemical and kinetic properties of purified sheep's milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benboubetra, Mustapha; Baghiani, Abderahmene; Atmani, Djebbar; Harrison, Roger

    2004-06-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified for the first time from sheep's milk. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum was essentially identical to those of the corresponding bovine, human, and goats' milk enzymes and showed an A280/A450 ratio of 5.35 +/- 0.24, indicating a high degree of purity. Like milk XOR from other species, sheep's milk enzyme showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a subunit with approximate Mr 150,000. Xanthine oxidase activity of purified sheep's milk XOR (0.69 +/- 0.04 micromole urate min(-1) mg(-1)) was low relative to that of the bovine milk enzyme (1.83 +/- 0.02 micromole urate min(-1) mg(-1)), but higher than those of human or goats' milk XOR. As in the latter 2 cases, the low activity of sheep's milk XOR can be attributed to its relatively low molybdenum content (0.18 atoms per subunit), compared with that of the bovine milk enzyme (0.56 atoms Mo per subunit). Consistent with this, NADH oxidase activity of sheep's milk XOR was similar to that of enzymes purified from bovine, human, or goats' milk. The presence of desulpho-enzyme in sheep's milk XOR was demonstrated by resulfuration experiments, whereby xanthine oxidase activity was increased by approximately 75%.

  7. Goats' milk xanthine oxidoreductase is grossly deficient in molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha; Harrison, Roger

    2004-02-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified from goats' milk. The u.v.-visible absorption spectrum was essentially identical to those of the corresponding bovine and human milk enzymes and showed an A280/A450 ratio of 5.20+/-0.12, indicating a high degree of purity. Like bovine and human milk XORs, enzyme purified from goats' milk showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a subunit with approximate Mr 150,000. On Western blotting, mouse monoclonal anti-human XOR antibody cross-reacted with purified caprine and bovine XORs. The specific xanthine oxidase activity of goats' milk XOR, however, was very much lower than that of bovine XOR, although NADH oxidase activities of XOR from the two sources were similar. In these respects, the caprine milk XOR mirrors the human milk enzyme, in which case the kinetic effects have previously been attributed to relatively low molybdenum content. The molybdenum content of goats' milk XOR also was shown to be relatively low, with 0.09 atoms Mo per subunit, compared with 055 atoms Mo per subunit for the bovine enzyme. A parallel purification of human milk XOR showed 0.03 atoms Mo per subunit. The possible physiological significance of the low molybdenum content of the caprine milk enzyme and of its correspondingly low enzymic activity is discussed.

  8. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Battelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes.

  9. Characterization of apoptosis-related oxidoreductases from Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carneiro

    Full Text Available The genome from Neurospora crassa presented three open reading frames homologous to the genes coding for human AIF and AMID proteins, which are flavoproteins with oxidoreductase activities implicated in caspase-independent apoptosis. To investigate the role of these proteins, namely within the mitochondrial respiratory chain, we studied their cellular localization and characterized the respective null mutant strains. Efficiency of the respiratory chain was analyzed by oxygen consumption studies and supramolecular organization of the OXPHOS system was assessed through BN-PAGE analysis in the respective null mutant strains. The results demonstrate that, unlike in mammalian systems, disruption of AIF in Neurospora does not affect either complex I assembly or function. Furthermore, the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes of the mutant strains display a similar supramolecular organization to that observed in the wild type strain. Further characterization revealed that N. crassa AIF appears localized to both the mitochondria and the cytoplasm, whereas AMID was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. AMID2 was detected in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of the amid mutant strain, but was barely discernible in wild type extracts, suggesting overlapping functions for the two proteins.

  10. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myong-Ok; Mizutani, Taeko; Jones, Patrik R

    2007-10-01

    The genome sequence of the non-sugar-assimilating mesophile Methanococcus maripaludis contains three genes encoding enzymes: a nonphosphorylating NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (GAPOR); all these enzymes are potentially capable of catalyzing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) metabolism. GAPOR, whose homologs have been found mainly in archaea, catalyzes the reduction of ferredoxin coupled with oxidation of G3P. GAPOR has previously been isolated and characterized only from a sugar-assimilating hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus (GAPOR(Pf)), and contains the rare metal tungsten as an irreplaceable cofactor. Active recombinant M. maripaludis GAPOR (GAPOR(Mm)) was purified from Escherichia coli grown in minimal medium containing 100 muM sodium molybdate. In contrast, GAPOR(Mm) obtained from cells grown in medium containing tungsten (W) and W and molybdenum (Mo) or in medium without added W and Mo did not display any activity. Activity and transcript analysis of putative G3P-metabolizing enzymes and corresponding genes were performed with M. maripaludis cultured under autotrophic conditions in chemically defined medium. The activity of GAPOR(Mm) was constitutive throughout the culture period and exceeded that of GAPDH at all time points. As GAPDH activity was detected in only the gluconeogenic direction and GAPN activity was completely absent, only GAPOR(Mm) catalyzes oxidation of G3P in M. maripaludis. Recombinant GAPOR(Mm) is posttranscriptionally regulated as it exhibits pronounced and irreversible substrate inhibition and is completely inhibited by 1 muM ATP. With support from flux balance analysis, it is concluded that the major physiological role of GAPOR(Mm) in M. maripaludis most likely involves only nonoptimal growth conditions.

  11. Protein Conformational Gating of Enzymatic Activity in Xanthine Oxidoreductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Eger, Bryan T.; Okamoto, Ken; Nishino, Takeshi; Pai, Emil F. (Toronto); (Kyoto)

    2012-05-24

    In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor. In spite of identical protein primary structures, the redox potential difference between XDH and XO for the flavin semiquinone/hydroquinone pair (E{sub sq/hq}) is {approx}170 mV, a striking difference. The former greatly prefers NAD{sup +} as ultimate substrate for ET from the iron-sulfur cluster FeS-II via flavin while the latter only accepts dioxygen. In XDH (without NAD{sup +}), however, the redox potential of the electron donor FeS-II is 180 mV higher than that for the acceptor flavin, yielding an energetically uphill ET. On the basis of new 1.65, 2.3, 1.9, and 2.2 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures for XDH, XO, the NAD{sup +}- and NADH-complexed XDH, E{sub sq/hq} were calculated to better understand how the enzyme activates an ET from FeS-II to flavin. The majority of the E{sub sq/hq} difference between XDH and XO originates from a conformational change in the loop at positions 423-433 near the flavin binding site, causing the differences in stability of the semiquinone state. There was no large conformational change observed in response to NAD{sup +} binding at XDH. Instead, the positive charge of the NAD{sup +} ring, deprotonation of Asp429, and capping of the bulk surface of the flavin by the NAD{sup +} molecule all contribute to altering E{sub sq/hq} upon NAD{sup +} binding to XDH.

  12. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance...

  13. Unravelling the Effects of the Mutation m.3571insC/MT-ND1 on Respiratory Complexes Structural Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Iommarini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian respiratory complex I (CI biogenesis requires both nuclear and mitochondria-encoded proteins and is mostly organized in respiratory supercomplexes. Among the CI proteins encoded by the mitochondrial DNA, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1 (ND1 is a core subunit, evolutionary conserved from bacteria to mammals. Recently, ND1 has been recognized as a pivotal subunit in maintaining the structural and functional interaction among the hydrophilic and hydrophobic CI arms. A critical role of human ND1 both in CI biogenesis and in the dynamic organization of supercomplexes has been depicted, although the proof of concept is still missing and the critical amount of ND1 protein necessary for a proper assembly of both CI and supercomplexes is not defined. By exploiting a unique model in which human ND1 is allotopically re-expressed in cells lacking the endogenous protein, we demonstrated that the lack of this protein induces a stall in the multi-step process of CI biogenesis, as well as the alteration of supramolecular organization of respiratory complexes. We also defined a mutation threshold for the m.3571insC truncative mutation in mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (MT-ND1, below which CI and its supramolecular organization is recovered, strengthening the notion that a certain amount of human ND1 is required for CI and supercomplexes biogenesis.

  14. An investigation on the quinoprotein nature of some fungal and plant oxidoreductases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Veldink, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as the organic cofactor of Dactylium dendroides galactose oxidase and lentil (Lens culinaris) seedling amine oxidase, purported PQQ-containing oxidoreductases (Van der Meer, R. A., Jongejan, J. A., and Duine, J. A. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 7792-7794;

  15. WrbA bridges bacterial flavonoids and eukaryotic NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carey, J.; Brynda, Jiří; Wolfová, Julie; Grandori, R.; Gustavsson, T.; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 10 (2007), s. 2301-2305 ISSN 0961-8368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : WrbA * crystal structure * Nqo1 * oxidoreductases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.135, year: 2007

  16. Comparative histochemical and immunohistochemical study on xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase in mammalian corneal epithelium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ardan, Taras; Andonova, Janetta; Čejková, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 106, - (2004), s. 69-75 ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : xanthine oxidoreductase * xanthine oxidase Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2004

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER Chaperones and Oxidoreductases: Critical Regulators of Tumor Cell Survival and Immunorecognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSimmen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER chaperones and oxidoreductases are abundant enzymes that mediate the production of fully folded secretory and transmembrane proteins. Resisting the Golgi and plasma membrane-directed bulk flow, ER chaperones and oxidoreductases enter retrograde trafficking whenever they are pulled outside of the ER. However, solid tumors are characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, combined with reduced blood flow that leads to low oxygen supply and ER stress. Under these conditions, hypoxia and the unfolded protein response (UPR upregulate ER chaperones and oxidoreductases. When this occurs, ER oxidoreductases and chaperones become important regulators of tumor growth. However, under these conditions, these proteins not only promote the production of proteins, but also alter the properties of the plasma membrane and hence modulate tumor immune recognition. For instance, high levels of calreticulin serve as an eat-me signal on the surface of tumor cells. Conversely, both intracellular and surface BiP/GRP78 promotes tumor growth. Other ER folding assistants able to modulate the properties of tumor tissue include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, Ero1α and GRP94. Understanding the roles and mechanisms of ER chaperones in regulating tumor cell functions and immunorecognition will lead to important insight for the development of novel cancer therapies.

  18. Optimizing Cofactor Specificity of Oxidoreductase Enzymes for the Generation of Microbial Production Strains—OptSwap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Feist, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Central oxidoreductase enzymes (eg, dehydrogenases, reductases) in microbial metabolism often have preferential binding specificity for one of the two major currency metabolites NAD(H) and NADP(H). These enzyme specificities result in a division of the metabolic functionality of the currency meta...

  19. An oxidoreductase from 'Alphonso' mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ram; Chidley, Hemangi; Deshpande, Ashish; Schmidt, Axel; Pujari, Keshav; Giri, Ashok; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gupta, Vidya

    2013-01-01

    Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (72% identity). The complete open reading frame was expressed in E. coli and the (his)6-tagged recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The purified protein assayed with NADH as a reducing agent converted D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate into furaneol, the immediate precursor of mesifuran. The enzyme was also able to convert two highly reactive carbonyls, 3-buten-2-one and 1-penten-3-one, produced by lipid peroxidation in plants, into their saturated derivatives. Expression profiling in various ripening stages of Alphonso fruits depicted an expression maxima at 10 days after harvest stage, shortly before the appearance of the maximum amount of furanones (completely ripe stage, 15 days after harvest). Although no furanones were detected at the 0 day after harvest stage, significant expression of this gene was detected in the fruits at this stage. Overall, the results suggest that this oxidoreductase plays important roles in Alphonso mango fruits.

  20. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  1. Localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol and final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Frederiks, W. M.; Gossrau, R.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    We have detected xanthine oxidoreductase activity in unfixed cryostat sections of rat and chicken liver, rat duodenum, and bovine mammary gland using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol, the electron carrier 1-methoxyphenazine methosulfate, the final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT, and

  2. Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew [Boston, MA; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Hause, Benjamin Matthew [Currie, MN; Van Hoek, Pim [Camarillo, CA; Dundon, Catherine Asleson [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-03-20

    Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

  3. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Cherney, Maia M.; Solomonson, Matthew; Liu, Jianshe; James, Michael N. G.; Weiner, Joel H.

    2009-01-01

    The sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. Crystallization and preliminarily X-ray crystallographic analysis were performed for the recombinant enzyme. The gene product of open reading frame AFE-1293 from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 is annotated as encoding a sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, an enzyme that catalyses electron transfer from sulfide to quinone. Following overexpression in Escherichia coli, the enzyme was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The native crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 2 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 131.7, c = 208.8 Å, and diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit, with an extreme value of the Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 4.53 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 72.9%

  4. NADH oxidase activity of human xanthine oxidoreductase--generation of superoxide anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, S A; Eisenthal, R; Harrison, R

    1997-05-01

    Human xanthine oxidase was purified from breast milk. The dehydrogenase form of the enzyme, which predominates in most mammalian tissues, catalyses the oxidation of NADH by oxygen, generating superoxide anion significantly faster than does the oxidase form. The corresponding forms of bovine enzyme behave very similarly. The steady-state kinetics of NADH oxidation and superoxide production, including inhibition by NAD, by the dehydrogenase forms of both enzymes, are analysed in terms of a model involving two-stage recycling of oxidised enzyme. Established inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductases (allopurinol oxypurinol, amflutizole and BOF 4272), which block all other reducing substrates, were ineffective in the case of NADH. Diphenyleneiodonium, on the other hand, was a powerful inhibitor of NADH oxidation. The potential involvement of reactive oxygen species arising from NADH oxidation by xanthine oxidoreductase in ischaemia-reperfusion injury and other disease states, as well as in normal signal transduction, is discusssed.

  5. Enzymatic coupling of 2,4-dichlorophenol to stream fulvic acid in the presence of oxidoreductases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, J.M.; Malcolm, R.L.; Bollag, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The coupling 14 C-ring-labelled 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) to stream fulvic acid was investigated in the presence of several oxidoreductases including tyrosinase, peroxidase, and laccases of Rhizoctonia praticola and Trametes vesicolor. During 12-h incubation of the oxidoreductases with 14 C-2, 4-DCP and stream fulvic acid, a substantial amount of the radioactivity was incorporated into fulvic acid. Chromatographic analysis indicated that although a large portion of the radioactivity remained in solution, no unbound 14 C-2,4-DCP was present in the supernatant. The effects of pH, temperature, concentration of fulvic acid, and concentration of enzyme on the coupling processes were studied. The results of this research provide evidence that the enzymatic coupling of certain xenobiotic pollutants to humic substances is an important natural process which must be considered in studies of the fate, reactivity, and persistence of these organic compounds in soils and stream waters

  6. Mitochondrial Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase Prevents Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response in Hydrogen Sulfide*

    OpenAIRE

    Horsman, Joseph W.; Miller, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gaseous molecule with important roles in cellular signaling. In mammals, exogenous H2S improves survival of ischemia/reperfusion. We have previously shown that exposure to H2S increases the lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans, and improves protein homeostasis in low oxygen. The mitochondrial SQRD-1 (sulfide quinone oxidoreductase) protein is a highly conserved enzyme involved in H2S metabolism. SQRD-1 is generally considere...

  7. Inflammatory Role of Macrophage Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Pulmonary Hypertension: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    inhibitor of NADPH oxidase activity and ROS generation. After 24 hrs cells were harvested and analyzed by qRT-PCR for expression of Nlrp3 and IL-1β...after LPS insufflation, and we observed that XOR activity from XORfl/fl BAL cells was largely in Oxidase (O-Form) (>90%) following LPS insufflation but...0451) included: Fini MA, Vaitaitia G, Wagner D, Stenmark KR. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Uric Acid Induce Novel Th40 Cells Expansion and Activation in

  8. Protein Engineering for Nicotinamide Coenzyme Specificity in Oxidoreductases: Attempts and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chánique, Andrea M; Parra, Loreto P

    2018-01-01

    Oxidoreductases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze an extensive range of chemical reactions with great specificity, efficiency, and selectivity. Most oxidoreductases are nicotinamide cofactor-dependent enzymes with a strong preference for NADP or NAD. Because these coenzymes differ in stability, bioavailability and costs, the enzyme preference for a specific coenzyme is an important issue for practical applications. Different approaches for the manipulation of coenzyme specificity have been reported, with different degrees of success. Here we present various attempts for the switching of nicotinamide coenzyme preference in oxidoreductases by protein engineering. This review covers 103 enzyme engineering studies from 82 articles and evaluates the accomplishments in terms of coenzyme specificity and catalytic efficiency compared to wild type enzymes of different classes. We analyzed different protein engineering strategies and related them with the degree of success in inverting the cofactor specificity. In general, catalytic activity is compromised when coenzyme specificity is reversed, however when switching from NAD to NADP, better results are obtained. In most of the cases, rational strategies were used, predominantly with loop exchange generating the best results. In general, the tendency of removing acidic residues and incorporating basic residues is the strategy of choice when trying to change specificity from NAD to NADP, and vice versa . Computational strategies and algorithms are also covered as helpful tools to guide protein engineering strategies. This mini review aims to give a general introduction to the topic, giving an overview of tools and information to work in protein engineering for the reversal of coenzyme specificity.

  9. Mechanisms of action of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal on xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cighetti, G; Bortone, L; Sala, S; Allevi, P

    2001-05-15

    Studies have been made on the possible involvement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and (E)-4-hydroxynon-2-enal (HNE), two terminal compounds of lipid peroxidation, in modifying xanthine oxidoreductase activity through interaction with the oxidase (XO) and/or dehydrogenase (XDH) forms. The effect of the two aldehydes on XO (reversible, XO(rev), and irreversible, XO(irr)) and XDH was studied using xanthine oxidase from milk and xanthine oxidoreductase partially purified from rat liver. The incubation of milk xanthine oxidase with these aldehydes resulted in the inactivation of the enzyme following pseudo-first-order kinetics: enzyme activity was completely abolished by MDA (0.5-4 mM), while residual activity (5% of the starting value) associated with an XO(irr) form was always observed when the enzyme was incubated in the presence of HNE (0.5-4 mM). The addition of glutathione to the incubation mixtures prevented enzyme inactivation by HNE. The study on the xanthine oxidoreductase partially purified from rat liver showed that MDA decreases the total enzyme activity, acting only with the XO forms. On the contrary HNE leaves the same level of total activity but causes the conversion of XDH into an XO(irr) form. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Oxidoreductases that act as conditional virulence suppressors in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Anwar

    Full Text Available In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily contribute to bacterial invasiveness, intracellular replication and to the virulence in BALB/c mice as well as in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The scsABCD gene cluster, present in many but not all enteric bacteria, codes for four putative oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily. Here we have analyzed the potential role of the scs genes in oxidative stress tolerance and virulence in S. Typhimurium. An scsABCD deletion mutant showed moderate sensitization to the redox-active transition metal ion copper and increased protein carbonylation upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Still, the scsABCD mutant was not significantly affected for invasiveness or intracellular replication in respectively cultured epithelial or macrophage-like cells. However, we noted a significant copper chloride sensitivity of SPI1 T3SS mediated invasiveness that strongly depended on the presence of the scs genes. The scsABCD deletion mutant was not attenuated in animal infection models. In contrast, the mutant showed a moderate increase in its competitive index upon intraperitoneal challenge and enhanced invasiveness in small intestinal ileal loops of BALB/c mice. Moreover, deletion of the scsABCD genes restored the invasiveness of a trxA mutant in epithelial cells and its virulence in C. elegans. Our findings thus demonstrate that the scs gene cluster conditionally affects virulence and underscore the complex interactions between oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily in maintaining host adaptation of S. Typhimurium.

  11. Protein Engineering for Nicotinamide Coenzyme Specificity in Oxidoreductases: Attempts and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Chánique

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidoreductases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze an extensive range of chemical reactions with great specificity, efficiency, and selectivity. Most oxidoreductases are nicotinamide cofactor-dependent enzymes with a strong preference for NADP or NAD. Because these coenzymes differ in stability, bioavailability and costs, the enzyme preference for a specific coenzyme is an important issue for practical applications. Different approaches for the manipulation of coenzyme specificity have been reported, with different degrees of success. Here we present various attempts for the switching of nicotinamide coenzyme preference in oxidoreductases by protein engineering. This review covers 103 enzyme engineering studies from 82 articles and evaluates the accomplishments in terms of coenzyme specificity and catalytic efficiency compared to wild type enzymes of different classes. We analyzed different protein engineering strategies and related them with the degree of success in inverting the cofactor specificity. In general, catalytic activity is compromised when coenzyme specificity is reversed, however when switching from NAD to NADP, better results are obtained. In most of the cases, rational strategies were used, predominantly with loop exchange generating the best results. In general, the tendency of removing acidic residues and incorporating basic residues is the strategy of choice when trying to change specificity from NAD to NADP, and vice versa. Computational strategies and algorithms are also covered as helpful tools to guide protein engineering strategies. This mini review aims to give a general introduction to the topic, giving an overview of tools and information to work in protein engineering for the reversal of coenzyme specificity.

  12. Physiological functions of pyruvate:NADP+oxidoreductase and 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase in Euglena gracilis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masami; Hayashi, Ryuta; Takenaka, Shigeo; Inui, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2017-07-01

    In Euglena gracilis, pyruvate:NADP + oxidoreductase, in addition to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, functions for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in the mitochondria. Furthermore, the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is absent, and instead 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase is found in the mitochondria. To elucidate the central carbon and energy metabolisms in Euglena under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, physiological significances of these enzymes involved in 2-oxoacid metabolism were examined by gene silencing experiments. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was indispensable for aerobic cell growth in a glucose medium, although its activity was less than 1% of that of pyruvate:NADP + oxidoreductase. In contrast, pyruvate:NADP + oxidoreductase was only involved in the anaerobic energy metabolism (wax ester fermentation). Aerobic cell growth was almost completely suppressed when the 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase gene was silenced, suggesting that the tricarboxylic acid cycle is modified in Euglena and 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase takes the place of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in the aerobic respiratory metabolism.

  13. Identification of P450 Oxidoreductase as a Major Determinant of Sensitivity to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Francis W; Young, Richard J; Shalev, Zvi; Vellanki, Ravi N; Wang, Jingli; Gu, Yongchuan; Joshi, Naveen; Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Weinreb, Ilan; Goldstein, David P; Moffat, Jason; Ketela, Troy; Brown, Kevin R; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Solomon, Benjamin; Rischin, Danny; Wilson, William R; Wouters, Bradly G

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia is a prevalent feature of many tumors contributing to disease progression and treatment resistance, and therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Several hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) have been developed, including the phase III candidate TH-302 (evofosfamide) and the preclinical agent SN30000, which is an optimized analogue of the well-studied HAP tirapazamine. Experience with this therapeutic class highlights an urgent need to identify biomarkers of HAP sensitivity, including enzymes responsible for prodrug activation during hypoxia. Using genome-scale shRNA screens and a high-representation library enriched for oxidoreductases, we identified the flavoprotein P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR) as the predominant determinant of sensitivity to SN30000 in three different genetic backgrounds. No other genes consistently modified SN30000 sensitivity, even within a POR-negative background. Knockdown or genetic knockout of POR reduced SN30000 reductive metabolism and clonogenic cell death and similarly reduced sensitivity to TH-302 under hypoxia. A retrospective evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas showed heterogeneous POR expression and suggested a possible relationship between human papillomavirus status and HAP sensitivity. Taken together, our study identifies POR as a potential predictive biomarker of HAP sensitivity that should be explored during the clinical development of SN30000, TH-302, and other hypoxia-directed agents. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Structural and functional alterations of two multidomain oxidoreductases induced by guanidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ming; Zhou, Yu-Ling; Li, Hong-Tao; Zhang, De-Ling; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The unfolding and refolding of two multidomain oxidoreductases, bovine liver catalase and flavoprotein bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO), have been analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and activity measurements. Two intermediates, a partially folded active dimer disassembled from the native tetramer and a partially folded inactivated monomer, are found to exist in the conformational changes of catalase induced by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). Similarly, two intermediates, an active, compacted intermediate bound by flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) partially and an inactive flexible intermediate with FAD completely dissociated, exist in the conformational changes of XO induced by GdnHCl. The activity regains completely and an enhancement in activity compared with the native catalase or native XO is observed by dilution of catalase or XO incubated with GdnHCl at concentrations not >0.5 or 1.8 M into the refolding buffer, but the yield of reactivation for catalase or XO is zero when the concentration of GdnHCl is >1.5 or 3.0 M. The addition of FAD provides a remarkable protection against the inactivation of XO by GdnHCl under mild denaturing conditions, and the conformational change of XO is irreversible after FAD has been removed in the presence of a strong denaturing agent. These findings provide impetus for exploring the influences of cofactors such as FAD on the structure-function relationship of xanthine oxidoreductases.

  15. Quinone oxidoreductase 2 is involved in haustorium development of the parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Juliane K; Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2017-07-03

    The family Orobanchaceae includes many parasitic plant species. Parasitic plants invade host vascular tissues and form organs called haustoria, which are used to obtain water and nutrients. Haustorium formation is initiated by host-derived chemicals including quinones and flavonoids. Two types of quinone oxidoreductase (QR) are involved in signal transduction leading to haustorium formation; QR1 mediates single-electron transfers and QR2 mediates 2-electron transfers. In the facultative parasite Triphysaria versicolor, QR1 is involved in haustorium induction signaling, while this role is played by QR2 in the model plant Phtheirospermum japonicum. Our results suggest that there is functional diversification in haustorium signaling molecules among different species of the Orobanchaceae.

  16. NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timko, Michael P

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

  17. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Winkler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S-selectivity and together with a highly (R-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  18. A novel insight into the oxidoreductase activity of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Roszczenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The formation of a disulfide bond between two cysteine residues stabilizes protein structure. Although we now have a good understanding of the Escherichia coli disulfide formation system, the machineries at work in other bacteria, including pathogens, are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this work was to improve our understanding of the disulfide formation machinery of Helicobacter pylori, a leading cause of ulcers and a risk factor for stomach cancer worldwide. METHODS AND RESULTS: The protein HP0231 from H. pylori, a structural counterpart of E. coli DsbG, is the focus of this research. Its function was clarified by using a combination of biochemical, microbiological and genetic approaches. In particular, we determined the biochemical properties of HP0231 as well as its redox state in H. pylori cells. CONCLUSION: Altogether our results show that HP0231 is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes disulfide bond formation in the periplasm. We propose to call it HpDsbA.

  19. A suite of de novo c-type cytochromes for functional oxidoreductase engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daniel W; Armstrong, Craig T; Beesley, Joseph L; Marsh, Jane E; Jenkins, Jonathan M X; Sessions, Richard B; Mann, Stephen; Ross Anderson, J L

    2016-05-01

    Central to the design of an efficient de novo enzyme is a robust yet mutable protein scaffold. The maquette approach to protein design offers precisely this, employing simple four-α-helix bundle scaffolds devoid of evolutionary complexity and with proven tolerance towards iterative protein engineering. We recently described the design of C2, a de novo designed c-type cytochrome maquette that undergoes post-translational modification in E. coli to covalently graft heme onto the protein backbone in vivo. This de novo cytochrome is capable of reversible oxygen binding, an obligate step in the catalytic cycle of many oxygen-activating oxidoreductases. Here we demonstrate the flexibility of both the maquette platform and the post-translational machinery of E. coli by creating a suite of functional de novo designed c-type cytochromes. We explore the engineering tolerances of the maquette by selecting alternative binding sites for heme C attachment and creating di-heme maquettes either by appending an additional heme C binding motif to the maquette scaffold or by binding heme B through simple bis-histidine ligation to a second binding site. The new designs retain the essential properties of the parent design but with significant improvements in structural stability. Molecular dynamics simulations aid the rationalization of these functional improvements while providing insight into the rules for engineering heme C binding sites in future iterations. This versatile, functional suite of de novo c-type cytochromes shows significant promise in providing robust platforms for the future engineering of de novo oxygen-activating oxidoreductases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electron transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dengue Virus Hijacks a Noncanonical Oxidoreductase Function of a Cellular Oligosaccharyltransferase Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the most common arboviral infection globally, infecting an estimated 390 million people each year. We employed a genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR screen to identify host dependency factors required for DENV propagation and identified the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST complex as an essential host factor for DENV infection. Mammalian cells express two OSTs containing either STT3A or STT3B. We found that the canonical catalytic function of the OSTs as oligosaccharyltransferases is not necessary for DENV infection, as cells expressing catalytically inactive STT3A or STT3B are able to support DENV propagation. However, the OST subunit MAGT1, which associates with STT3B, is also required for DENV propagation. MAGT1 expression requires STT3B, and a catalytically inactive STT3B also rescues MAGT1 expression, supporting the hypothesis that STT3B serves to stabilize MAGT1 in the context of DENV infection. We found that the oxidoreductase CXXC active site motif of MAGT1 was necessary for DENV propagation, as cells expressing an AXXA MAGT1 mutant were unable to support DENV infection. Interestingly, cells expressing single-cysteine CXXA or AXXC mutants of MAGT1 were able to support DENV propagation. Utilizing the engineered peroxidase APEX2, we demonstrate the close proximity between MAGT1 and NS1 or NS4B during DENV infection. These results reveal that the oxidoreductase activity of the STT3B-containing OST is necessary for DENV infection, which may guide the development of antiviral agents targeting DENV.

  1. Granzyme A Cleaves a Mitochondrial Complex I Protein to Initiate Caspase-Independent Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinvalet, Denis; Dykxhoorn, Derek M.; Ferrini, Roger; Lieberman, Judy

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The killer lymphocyte protease granzyme A (GzmA) triggers caspase-independent target cell death with morphological features of apoptosis. We previously showed that GzmA acts directly on mitochondria to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disrupt the transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) but does not permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mitochondrial damage is critical to GzmA-induced cell death since cells treated with superoxide scavengers are resistant to GzmA. Here we find that GzmA accesses the mitochondrial matrix to cleave the complex I protein NDUFS3, an iron-sulfur subunit of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex I, after Lys56 to interfere with NADH oxidation and generate superoxide anions. Target cells expressing a cleavage site mutant of NDUFS3 are resistant to GzmA-mediated cell death but remain sensitive to GzmB. PMID:18485875

  2. Definition of the mitochondrial proteome by measurement of molecular masses of membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joe; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2006-01-01

    The covalent structure of a protein is incompletely defined by its gene sequence, and mass spectrometric analysis of the intact protein is needed to detect the presence of any posttranslational modifications. Because most membrane proteins are purified in detergents that are incompatible with mass spectrometric ionization techniques, this essential measurement has not been made on many hydrophobic proteins, and so proteomic data are incomplete. We have extracted membrane proteins from bovine mitochondria and detergent-purified NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) with organic solvents, fractionated the mixtures by hydrophilic interaction chromatography, and measured the molecular masses of the intact membrane proteins, including those of six subunits of complex I that are encoded in mitochondrial DNA. These measurements resolve long-standing uncertainties about the interpretation of the mitochondrial genome, and they contribute significantly to the definition of the covalent composition of complex I. PMID:17060615

  3. The proportion of xanthine oxidase activity of total xanthine oxidoreductase activity in situ remains constant in rat liver under various (patho)physiological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Bosch, K. S.

    1996-01-01

    Activity of xanthine oxidoreductase (total xanthine dehydrogenase plus xanthine oxidase) and xanthine oxidase was determined cytophotometrically in periportal and pericentral areas of livers of rats under various (patho)physiological conditions that are known to affect the content of reduced

  4. Modeling the transition state structure to probe a reaction mechanism on the oxidation of quinoline by quinoline 2-oxidoreductase

    OpenAIRE

    Bayle, Enyew A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Quinoline 2-oxidoreductase (Qor) is a member of molybdenum hydroxylase which catalyzes the oxidation of quinoline (2, 3 benzopyridine) to 1-hydro-2-oxoquinoline. Qor has biological and medicinal significances. Qor is known to metabolize drugs produced from quinoline for the treatment of malaria, arthritis, and lupus for many years. However, the mechanistic action by which Qor oxidizes quinoline has not been investigated either experimentally or theoretically. Purpose of the study T...

  5. A single-electron reducing quinone oxidoreductase is necessary to induce haustorium development in the root parasitic plant Triphysaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C G; Filappova, Tatiana; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B; Jamison-McClung, Denneal; Ngo, Quy; Inoue, Kentaro; Yoder, John I

    2010-04-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae develop haustoria in response to contact with host roots or chemical haustoria-inducing factors. Experiments in this manuscript test the hypothesis that quinolic-inducing factors activate haustorium development via a signal mechanism initiated by redox cycling between quinone and hydroquinone states. Two cDNAs were previously isolated from roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor that encode distinct quinone oxidoreductases. QR1 encodes a single-electron reducing NADPH quinone oxidoreductase similar to zeta-crystallin. The QR2 enzyme catalyzes two electron reductions typical of xenobiotic detoxification. QR1 and QR2 transcripts are upregulated in a primary response to chemical-inducing factors, but only QR1 was upregulated in response to host roots. RNA interference technology was used to reduce QR1 and QR2 transcripts in Triphysaria roots that were evaluated for their ability to form haustoria. There was a significant decrease in haustorium development in roots silenced for QR1 but not in roots silenced for QR2. The infrequent QR1 transgenic roots that did develop haustoria had levels of QR1 similar to those of nontransgenic roots. These experiments implicate QR1 as one of the earliest genes on the haustorium signal transduction pathway, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase necessary for the redox bioactivation of haustorial inducing factors.

  6. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of an aldehyde oxidoreductase isolated from Desulfovibrio aminophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapper, Anders; Rivas, Maria G; Brondino, Carlos D; Ollivier, Bernard; Fauque, Guy; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G

    2006-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR) activity has been found in a number of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of aldehydes to carboxylic acids is a mononuclear molybdenum enzyme belonging to the xanthine oxidase family. We report here the purification and characterization of AOR isolated from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio (D.) aminophilus DSM 12254, an aminolytic strain performing thiosulfate dismutation. The enzyme is a homodimer (ca. 200 kDa), containing a molybdenum centre and two [2Fe-2S] clusters per monomer. UV/Visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of D. aminophilus AOR recorded in as-prepared and reduced states are similar to those obtained in AORs from Desulfovibrio gigas, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Despite AOR from D. aminophilus is closely related to other AORs, it presents lower activity towards aldehydes and no activity towards N-heterocyclic compounds, which suggests another possible role for this enzyme in vivo. A comparison of the molecular and EPR properties of AORs from different Desulfovibrio species is also included.

  7. Dicoumarol-sensitive NADPH: phenanthrenequinone oxidoreductase in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasspieler, B M; Di Giulio, R T

    1994-04-01

    Phenanthrenequinone (PQ), which occurs widely as a pollutant and as a major metabolite of phenanthrene in a number of species, has been demonstrated to undergo futile redox cycling leading to oxidative stress. In the presence of cytosolic fractions of selected channel catfish tissues, PQ undergoes enzymatic reduction which is mediated by either NADH or NADPH and is composed of dicoumarol-sensitive and -insensitive components. Most notably, gastric cytosol catalyzed a disproportionately high level of NADPH-dependent, dicoumarol-sensitive PQ reduction as compared to gill, liver, and kidney cytosols. In the presence of stomach cytosol and NADPH, PQ facilitated production of superoxide anion at rates several fold higher than those mediated by menadione. The dicoumarol-sensitive PQ-reducing agent, which we have termed NADPH: phenanthrenequinone oxidoreductase (PQR), was purified by affinity chromatography and was demonstrated to be separable from DT diaphorase activity in gastric cytosol. Under aerobic conditions, purified PQR facilitates redox cycling of PQ as indicated by continued NADPH oxidation and hydrogen peroxide production. Under anaerobic conditions, NADPH oxidation is limited to a quantity indicative of PQ reduction to the hydroquinone. Substrate specificities, pH profiles, and kinetic characteristics combine to indicate that PQR represents a novel quinone reductase in this species.

  8. Associations of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase genetic polymorphisms with smoking cessation in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijie; Li, Suyun; Wang, Qiang; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-12-01

    Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) A503V (rs1057868) in cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene was reported to influence nicotine metabolism. Considering the importance of nicotine metabolism to smoking cessation, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between POR gene polymorphisms and smoking cessation in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted with 363 successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 345 failed smoking quitters as the controls. Eight tagSNPs which cover the entire gene and four functional SNPs were selected and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between POR SNPs and smoking cessation in codominant, additive, dominant and recessive models. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that POR rs3823884 and rs3898649 were associated with increased possibility of smoking cessation. Meanwhile, POR rs17685 and rs239953 were shown to have negative effect on successful smoking cessation. No significant differences in the distribution of haplotypes between cases and controls were detected. In conclusion, this study reveals that four SNPs in the POR gene (rs3823884, rs3898649, rs239953 and rs17685) may affect the susceptibility of smoking cessation in a Chinese Han population.

  9. Plant Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases A and B: CATALYTIC EFFICIENCY AND INITIAL REACTION STEPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone, Alessio; Archipowa, Nataliya; Zipfel, Peter F; Hermann, Gudrun; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2015-11-20

    The enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33) has a key role in plant development. It catalyzes one of the later steps in chlorophyll synthesis, the light-induced reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) into chlorophyllide (Chlide) in the presence of NADPH. Two isozymes of plant POR, POR A and POR B from barley, which differ in their function during plant life, are compared with respect to their substrate binding affinity, catalytic efficiency, and catalytic mechanism. POR B as compared with POR A shows an 5-fold higher binding affinity for PChlide and an about 6-fold higher catalytic efficiency measured as kcat/Km. Based on the reaction intermediates, which can be trapped at low temperatures the same reaction mechanism operates in both POR A and POR B. In contrast to results reported for POR enzymes from cyanobacteria, the initial light-driven step, which occurs at temperatures below 180 K already involves the full chemistry of the photoreduction and yields the reaction product, Chlide, in an enzyme-bound form. The subsequent dark reactions, which include cofactor (NADP(+)) release and cofactor (NADPH) rebinding, show different temperature dependences for POR A and POR B and suggest a higher conformational flexibility of POR B in the surrounding active center. Both the higher substrate binding affinity and well adapted enzyme dynamics are held responsible for the increased catalytic activity of POR B as compared with POR A. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Mutations Associated with Functional Disorder of Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Hereditary Xanthinuria in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid with concomitant reduction of either NAD+ or O2. The enzyme is a target of drugs to treat hyperuricemia, gout and reactive oxygen-related diseases. Human diseases associated with genetically determined dysfunction of XOR are termed xanthinuria, because of the excretion of xanthine in urine. Xanthinuria is classified into two subtypes, type I and type II. Type I xanthinuria involves XOR deficiency due to genetic defect of XOR, whereas type II xanthinuria involves dual deficiency of XOR and aldehyde oxidase (AO, a molybdoflavo enzyme similar to XOR due to genetic defect in the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is associated with triple deficiency of XOR, AO and sulfite oxidase, due to defective synthesis of molybdopterin, which is a precursor of molybdenum cofactor for all three enzymes. The present review focuses on mutation or chemical modification studies of mammalian XOR, as well as on XOR mutations identified in humans, aimed at understanding the reaction mechanism of XOR and the relevance of mutated XORs as models to estimate the possible side effects of clinical application of XOR inhibitors.

  11. Xanthine oxidoreductase in human mammary epithelial cells: activation in response to inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, S; Powell, D; Benboubetra, M; Stevens, C R; Blake, D R; Selase, F; Wolstenholme, A J; Harrison, R

    1998-07-23

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in human mammary epithelial cells was shown to have low true specific activity, similar to that in breast milk. Enzymic activity was increased in response to inflammatory cytokines; increases of 2-2.5-fold being seen with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and of approximately 8-fold with IFN-gamma. No significant increase was seen with IL-6. A combination of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, or of these two cytokines plus IL-1beta, led to responses representing the sum of those obtained by using the individual cytokines. The 8-fold increase in enzymic activity, stimulated by IFN-gamma, corresponded to only a 2-3-fold increase in specific mRNA, suggesting the possibility of post-translational activation; a possibility strongly supported by the corresponding 2-3-fold rise in XOR protein, as determined by ELISA. In no case was cytokine-induced activation accompanied by changes in the oxidase-dehydrogenase ratio of XOR. These data strongly support a role for XOR in the inflammatory response of the human mammary epithelial cell, and provide further evidence of post-translational activation of a low activity form of human XOR, similar to that previously observed in vivo for the breast milk enzyme. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Oxidoreductase NmDsbA3 from Neisseria meningitidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivian, Julian P.; Scoullar, Jessica; Robertson, Amy L.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Horne, James; Chin, Yanni; Wielens, Jerome; Thompson, Philip E.; Velkov, Tony; Piek, Susannah; Byres, Emma; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Kahler, Charlene M.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Scanlon, Martin J. (UWA); (Monash)

    2009-09-02

    DsbA is an enzyme found in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria that catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in a diverse array of protein substrates, many of which are involved in bacterial pathogenesis. Although most bacteria possess only a single essential DsbA, Neisseria meningitidis is unusual in that it possesses three DsbAs, although the reason for this additional redundancy is unclear. Two of these N. meningitidis enzymes (NmDsbA1 and NmDsbA2) play an important role in meningococcal attachment to human epithelial cells, whereas NmDsbA3 is considered to have a narrow substrate repertoire. To begin to address the role of DsbAs in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis, we have determined the structure of NmDsbA3 to 2.3-{angstrom} resolution. Although the sequence identity between NmDsbA3 and other DsbAs is low, the NmDsbA3 structure adopted a DsbA-like fold. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated that NmDsbA3 acts as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase in vitro and is reoxidized by Escherichia coli DsbB (EcDsbB). However, pronounced differences in the structures between DsbA3 and EcDsbA, which are clustered around the active site of the enzyme, suggested a structural basis for the unusual substrate specificity that is observed for NmDsbA3.

  13. Degradation of (-)-ephedrine by Pseudomonas putida. Detection of (-)-ephedrine: NAD+-oxidoreductase from Arthrobacter globiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamann, E; Lingens, F

    1980-01-01

    A bacterium utilizing the alkaloid (-)-ephedrine as its sole source of carbon was isolated by an enrichment-culture technique from soil supplemented with 4-benzoyl-1,3-oxazolidinon-(2). The bacterium was indentified as Pseudomonas putida by morphological and physiological studies. The following metabolites were isolated from the culture fluid: methylamine, formaldehyde, methylbenzoylcarbinol (2-hydroxy-1-oxo-1 phenylpropane), benzoid acid, pyrocatechol and cis, cis-muconic acid. A pathway for the degradation of (-)-ephedrine by Pseudomonas putida is proposed and compared with the degradative pathway in Arthrobacter globiformis. The enzyme, which is responsible for the first step in the catabolism of (-)-ephedrine could be demonstrated in extracts from Arthrobacter globiformis. This enzyme catalyses the dehydrogenation of (-)-ephedrine yielding phenylacetylcarbinol/methylbenzoylcarbinol and methylamine. It requires NAD+ as cofactor and exhibits optimal activity at pH 11 in 0.1 M glycine/NaOH buffer. The Km value for (-)-ephedrine is 0.02 mM and for NAD+ 0.11 mM, respectively. No remarkable loss of activity is observed following treatment with EDTA. The enzyme has been shown to react with a wide range of ethanolamines. A slight enrichment was obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation. The name (-)-ephedrine: NAD+-oxidoreductase (deaminating) is proposed.

  14. Correlating EPR and X-ray structural analysis of arsenite-inhibited forms of aldehyde oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapper, Anders; Boer, D R; Brondino, Carlos D; Moura, José J G; Romão, Maria J

    2007-03-01

    Two arsenite-inhibited forms of each of the aldehyde oxidoreductases from Desulfovibrio gigas and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans have been studied by X-ray crystallography and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The molybdenum site of these enzymes shows a distorted square-pyramidal geometry in which two ligands, a hydroxyl/water molecule (the catalytic labile site) and a sulfido ligand, have been shown to be essential for catalysis. Arsenite addition to active as-prepared enzyme or to a reduced desulfo form yields two different species called A and B, respectively, which show different Mo(V) EPR signals. Both EPR signals show strong hyperfine and quadrupolar couplings with an arsenic nucleus, which suggests that arsenic interacts with molybdenum through an equatorial ligand. X-ray data of single crystals prepared from EPR-active samples show in both inhibited forms that the arsenic atom interacts with the molybdenum ion through an oxygen atom at the catalytic labile site and that the sulfido ligand is no longer present. EPR and X-ray data indicate that the main difference between both species is an equatorial ligand to molybdenum which was determined to be an oxo ligand in species A and a hydroxyl/water ligand in species B. The conclusion that the sulfido ligand is not essential to determine the EPR properties in both Mo-As complexes is achieved through EPR measurements on a substantial number of randomly oriented chemically reduced crystals immediately followed by X-ray studies on one of those crystals. EPR saturation studies show that the electron transfer pathway, which is essential for catalysis, is not modified upon inhibition.

  15. Relationship between plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity and left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy among cardiac patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujimura

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR, which catalyzes purine catabolism, has two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, the latter of which produces superoxide during uric acid (UA synthesis. An association between plasma XOR activity and cardiovascular and renal outcomes has been previously suggested. We investigated the potential association between cardiac parameters and plasma XOR activity among cardiology patients.Plasma XOR activity was measured by [13C2,15N2]xanthine coupled with liquid chromatography/triplequadrupole mass spectrometry. Among 270 patients who were not taking UA-lowering drugs, XOR activity was associated with body mass index (BMI, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, HbA1c and renal function. Although XOR activity was not associated with serum UA overall, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, those with higher XOR activity had higher serum UA among patients without CKD. Compared with patients with the lowest XOR activity quartile, those with higher three XOR activity quartiles more frequently had left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, plasma XOR activity showed a U-shaped association with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and increased plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels, and these associations were independent of age, gender, BMI, ALT, HbA1C, serum UA, and CKD stages.Among cardiac patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, low LVEF, and increased BNP were significantly associated with plasma XOR activity independent of various confounding factors. Whether pharmaceutical modification of plasma XOR activity might inhibit cardiac remodeling and improve cardiovascular outcome should be investigated in future studies.

  16. Structural basis for human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chuanwu; Panda, Satya P.; Marohnic, Christopher C.; Martásek, Pavel; Masters, Bettie Sue; Kim, Jung-Ja P. (MCW); (Charles U); (UTSMC)

    2012-03-15

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is essential for electron donation to microsomal cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenation in such diverse physiological processes as drug metabolism (approximately 85-90% of therapeutic drugs), steroid biosynthesis, and bioactive metabolite production (vitamin D and retinoic acid metabolites). Expressed by a single gene, CYPOR's role with these multiple redox partners renders it a model for understanding protein-protein interactions at the structural level. Polymorphisms in human CYPOR have been shown to lead to defects in bone development and steroidogenesis, resulting in sexual dimorphisms, the severity of which differs significantly depending on the degree of CYPOR impairment. The atomic structure of human CYPOR is presented, with structures of two naturally occurring missense mutations, V492E and R457H. The overall structures of these CYPOR variants are similar to wild type. However, in both variants, local disruption of H bonding and salt bridging, involving the FAD pyrophosphate moiety, leads to weaker FAD binding, unstable protein, and loss of catalytic activity, which can be rescued by cofactor addition. The modes of polypeptide unfolding in these two variants differ significantly, as revealed by limited trypsin digestion: V492E is less stable but unfolds locally and gradually, whereas R457H is more stable but unfolds globally. FAD addition to either variant prevents trypsin digestion, supporting the role of the cofactor in conferring stability to CYPOR structure. Thus, CYPOR dysfunction in patients harboring these particular mutations may possibly be prevented by riboflavin therapy in utero, if predicted prenatally, or rescued postnatally in less severe cases.

  17. Modulatory role of allopurinol on xanthine oxidoreductase system and antioxidant status in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.; Abbady, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, used for management of hyperuricaema. It acts on purine catabolism without disrupting the biosynthesis of purine. The present work was conducted to examine the role of xanthine oxidase inhibitor (allopurinol) in minimizing radiation injuries in male albino rats. Allopurinol was given to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a dose of 30 mg/kg body wt/day for 7 successive days before starting irradiation and 14 successive days during and in between exposure to gamma radiation. Rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation, delivered as 1 Gy every other day up to total dose 8 Gy. Results demonstrate that treatment with allopurinol by the regime assumed in the present study minimized significantly the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), product of lipid peroxidation, in liver, intestine and plasma. This effect was associated with significant amelioration in xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) system as observed on the 1st and 7th days post last radiation fraction. The severity of changes in antioxidant parameters namely: superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were less manifested in liver, intestine and blood as compared to irradiated rats. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were significantly improved in plasma and the two investigated tissues as compared to irradiated rats. A significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentration was recorded on the 1st and 7th days post last allopurinol dose. However, significant amelioration was recorded in the plasma uric acid of rats treated with allopurinol before and during radiation exposure as compared to irradiated rats. Accordingly, it could be concluded that XO inhibitor (allopurinol) play a significant role in minimizing the tissue damages upon exposure to ionizing radiation via preventing the over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells through the XOR system of irradiation rats

  18. Update of the NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliou Vasilis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The NAD(PH:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase (NQO gene family belongs to the flavoprotein clan and, in the human genome, consists of two genes (NQO1 and NQO2. These two genes encode cytosolic flavoenzymes that catalyse the beneficial two-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones. This reaction prevents the unwanted one-electron reduction of quinones by other quinone reductases; one-electron reduction results in the formation of reactive oxygen species, generated by redox cycling of semiquinones in the presence of molecular oxygen. Both the mammalian NQO1 and NQO2 genes are upregulated as a part of the oxidative stress response and are inexplicably overexpressed in particular types of tumours. A non-synonymous mutation in the NQO1 gene, leading to absence of enzyme activity, has been associated with an increased risk of myeloid leukaemia and other types of blood dyscrasia in workers exposed to benzene. NQO2 has a melatonin-binding site, which may explain the anti-oxidant role of melatonin. An ancient NQO3 subfamily exists in eubacteria and the authors suggest that there should be additional divisions of the NQO family to include the NQO4 subfamily in fungi and NQO5 subfamily in archaebacteria. Interestingly, no NQO genes could be identified in the worm, fly, sea squirt or plants; because these taxa carry quinone reductases capable of one- and two-electron reductions, there has been either convergent evolution or redundancy to account for the appearance of these enzyme functions whenever they have been needed during evolution.

  19. Association of Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase with the photosynthetic apparatus modulates electron transfer in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosebach, Laura; Heilmann, Claudia; Mutoh, Risa; Gäbelein, Philipp; Steinbeck, Janina; Happe, Thomas; Ikegami, Takahisa; Hanke, Guy; Kurisu, Genji; Hippler, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Ferredoxins (FDX) and the FDX:NADP + oxidoreductase (FNR) represent a key junction of electron transport downstream of photosystem I (PSI). Dynamic recruitment of FNR to the thylakoid membrane has been considered as a potential mechanism to define the fate of photosynthetically derived electrons. In this study, we investigated the functional importance of the association of FNR with the photosynthetic apparatus in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In vitro assays based on NADP + photoreduction measurements as well as NMR chemical shift perturbation analyses showed that FNR preferentially interacts with FDX1 compared to FDX2. Notably, binding of FNR to a PSI supercomplex further enhanced this preference for FDX1 over FDX2, suggesting that FNR is potentially capable of channelling electrons towards distinct routes. NADP + photoreduction assays and immunoblotting revealed that the association of FNR with the thylakoid membrane including the PSI supercomplex is impaired in the absence of Proton Gradient Regulation 5 (PGR5) and/or Proton Gradient Regulation 5-Like photosynthetic phenotype 1 (PGRL1), implying that both proteins, directly or indirectly, contribute to the recruitment of FNR to the thylakoid membrane. As assessed via in vivo absorption spectroscopy and immunoblotting, PSI was the primary target of photodamage in response to high-light stress in the absence of PGR5 and/or PGRL1. Anoxia preserved the activity of PSI, pointing to enhanced electron donation to O 2 as the source of the observed PSI inactivation and degradation. These findings establish another perspective on PGR5/PGRL1 knockout-related phenotypes and potentially interconnect FNR with the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport and PSI photoprotection in C. reinhardtii.

  20. Unique amino acids cluster for switching from the dehydrogenase to oxidase form of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Yoshimitsu; Nishino, Tomoko; Okamoto, Ken; Matsumura, Tomohiro; Eger, Bryan T; Pai, Emil F; Nishino, Takeshi

    2003-07-08

    In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase is synthesized as a dehydrogenase (XDH) but can be readily converted to its oxidase form (XO) either by proteolysis or modification of cysteine residues. The crystal structures of bovine milk XDH and XO demonstrated that atoms in the highly charged active-site loop (Gln-423-Lys-433) around the FAD cofactor underwent large dislocations during the conversion, blocking the approach of the NAD+ substrate to FAD in the XO form as well as changing the electrostatic environment around FAD. Here we identify a unique cluster of amino acids that plays a dual role by forming the core of a relay system for the XDH/XO transition and by gating a solvent channel leading toward the FAD ring. A more detailed structural comparison and site-directed mutagenesis analysis experiments showed that Phe-549, Arg-335, Trp-336, and Arg-427 sit at the center of a relay system that transmits modifications of the linker peptide by cysteine oxidation or proteolytic cleavage to the active-site loop (Gln-423-Lys-433). The tight interactions of these residues are crucial in the stabilization of the XDH conformation and for keeping the solvent channel closed. Both oxidative and proteolytic generation of XO effectively leads to the removal of Phe-549 from the cluster causing a reorientation of the bulky side chain of Trp-336, which then in turn forces a dislocation of Arg-427, an amino acid located in the active-site loop. The conformational change also opens the gate for the solvent channel, making it easier for oxygen to reach the reduced FAD in XO.

  1. Enzyme activation and catalysis: characterisation of the vibrational modes of substrate and product in protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytina, Olga A; Alexandre, Maxime T; Heyes, Derren J; Hunter, C Neil; Robert, Bruno; van Grondelle, Rienk; Groot, Marie Louise

    2011-02-14

    The light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide, a key step in the synthesis of chlorophyll, is catalyzed by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) and requires two photons (O. A. Sytina et al., Nature, 2008, 456, 1001-1008). The first photon activates the enzyme-substrate complex, a subsequent second photon initiates the photochemistry by triggering the formation of a catalytic intermediate. These two events are characterized by different spectral changes in the infra-red spectral region. Here, we investigate the vibrational frequencies of the POR-bound and unbound substrate, and product, and thus provide a detailed assignment of the spectral changes in the 1800-1250 cm(-1) region associated with the catalytic conversion of PChlide:NADPH:TyrOH into Chlide:NADP(+):TyrO(-). Fluorescence line narrowed spectra of the POR-bound Pchlide reveal a C=O keto group downshifted by more than 20 cm(-1) to a relatively low vibrational frequency of 1653 cm(-1), as compared to the unbound Pchlide, indicating that binding of the chromophore to the protein occurs via strong hydrogen bond(s). The frequencies of the C=C vibrational modes are consistent with a six-coordinated state of the POR-bound Pchlide, suggesting that there are two coordination interactions between the central Mg atom of the chromophore and protein residues, and/or a water molecule. The frequencies of the C=C vibrational modes of Chlide are consistent with a five-coordinated state, indicating a single interaction between the central Mg atom of the chromophore and a water molecule. Rapid-scan FTIR measurements on the Pchlide:POR:NADPH complex at 4 cm(-1) spectral resolution reveal a new band in the 1670 cm(-1) region. The FTIR spectra of the enzyme activation phase indicate involvement of a nucleotide-binding structural motif, and an increased exposure of the protein to solvent after activation.

  2. Engineering of Helicobacter pylori dimeric oxidoreductase DsbK (HP0231

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    Katarzyna Marta Bocian-Ostrzycka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of disulfide bonds that are catalyzed by proteins of the Dsb (disulfide bond family is crucial for the correct folding of many extracytoplasmic proteins. Thus, this formation plays an essential, pivotal role in the assembly of many virulence factors. The Helicobacter pylori disulfide bond-forming system is uncomplicated compared to the best-characterized Escherichia coli Dsb pathways. It possesses only two extracytoplasmic Dsb proteins named HP0377 and HP0231. As previously shown, HP0377 is a reductase involved in the process of cytochrome c maturation. Additionally, it also possesses disulfide isomerase activity. HP0231 was the first periplasmic dimeric oxidoreductase involved in disulfide generation to be described. Although HP0231 function is critical for oxidative protein folding, its structure resembles that of dimeric EcDsbG, which does not confer this activity. However, the HP0231 catalytic motifs (CXXC and the so-called cis-Pro loop are identical to that of monomeric EcDsbA. To understand the functioning of HP0231, we decided to study the relations between its sequence, structure and activity through an extensive analysis of various HP0231 point mutants, using in vivo and in vitro strategies. Our work shows the crucial role of the cis-Pro loop, as changing valine to threonine in this motif completely abolishes the protein function in vivo. Functioning of HP0231 is conditioned by the combination of CXXC and the cis-Pro loop, as replacing the HP0231 CXXC motif by the motif from EcDsbG or EcDsbC results in bifunctional protein, at least in E. coli. We also showed that the dimerization domain of HP0231 ensures contact with its substrates. Moreover, the activity of this oxidase is independent on the structure of the catalytic domain. Finally, we showed that HP0231 chaperone activity is independent of its redox function.

  3. Purification and properties of NAD(P)H: (quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase of sugarbeet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, P; Bonora, P; Scagliarini, S; Pupillo, P

    1995-12-01

    NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase [NAD(P)H-QR], a plant cytosolic protein, was purified from cultured sugarbeet cells by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, FPLC Superdex 200 gel filtration, Q-Sepharose anion-exchange chromatography, and a final Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity chromatography with an NADPH gradient. The subunit molecular mass is 24 kDa and the active protein (94 kDa) is a tetramer. The isoelectric point is 4.9. The enzyme was characterized by ping-pong kinetics and extremely elevated catalytic capacity. It prefers NADPH over NADH as electron donor (kcat/Km ratios of 1.7 x 10(8) M-1 S-1 and 8.3 x 10(7) M-1 S-1 for NADPH and NADH, respectively, with benzoquinone as electron acceptor). The acridone derivative 7-iodo-acridone-4-carboxylic acid is an efficient inhibitor (I0.5 = 5 x 10(-5) M), dicumarol is weakly inhibitory. The best acceptor substances are hydrophilic, short-chain quinones such as ubiquinone-0 (Q-0), benzoquinone and menadione, followed by duroquinone and ferricyanide, whereas hydrophobic quinones, cytochrome c and oxygen are reduced at negligible rates at best. Quinone acceptors are reduced by a two-electron reaction with no apparent release of free semiquinonic intermediates. This and the above properties suggest some relationship of NAD(P)H-QR to DT-diaphorase, an animal flavoprotein which, however, has distinct structural properties and is strongly inhibited by dicumarol. It is proposed that NAD(P)H-QR by scavenging unreduced quinones and making them prone to conjugation may act in plant tissues as a functional equivalent of DT-diaphorase.

  4. Omeprazole impairs vascular redox biology and causes xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas C. Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are widely used drugs that may increase the cardiovascular risk by mechanisms not entirely known. While PPIs increase asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA levels and inhibit nitric oxide production, it is unknown whether impaired vascular redox biology resulting of increased xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR activity mediates PPIs-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED. We examined whether increased XOR activity impairs vascular redox biology and causes ED in rats treated with omeprazole. We also examined whether omeprazole aggravates the ED found in hypertension. Treatment with omeprazole reduced endothelium-dependent aortic responses to acetylcholine without causing hypertension. However, omeprazole did not aggravate two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertension, nor hypertension-induced ED. Omeprazole and 2K1C increased vascular oxidative stress as assessed with dihydroethidium (DHE, which reacts with superoxide, and by the lucigenin chemiluminescence assay. The selective XOR inhibitor febuxostat blunted both effects induced by omeprazole. Treatment with omeprazole increased plasma ADMA concentrations, XOR activity and systemic markers of oxidative stress. Incubation of aortic rings with ADMA increased XOR activity, DHE fluorescence and lucigenin chemiluminescence signals, and febuxostat blunted these effects. Providing functional evidence that omeprazole causes ED by XOR-mediated mechanisms, we found that febuxostat blunted the ED caused by omeprazole treatment. This study shows that treatment with omeprazole impairs the vascular redox biology by XOR-mediated mechanisms leading to ED. While omeprazole did not further impair hypertension-induced ED, further studies in less severe animal models are warranted. Our findings may have major relevance, particularly to patients with cardiovascular diseases taking PPIs.

  5. Identification of a lactate-quinone oxidoreductase (Lqo in staphylococcus aureus that is essential for virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Fuller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen commonly infecting nearly every host tissue. The ability of S. aureus to resist innate immunity is critical to its success as a pathogen, including its propensity to grow in the presence of host nitric oxide (NO·. Upon exogenous NO· exposure, S. aureus immediately excretes copious amounts of L-lactate to maintain redox balance. However, after prolonged NO·-exposure, S. aureus reassimilates L-lactate specifically and in this work, we identify the enzyme responsible for this L-lactate consumption as a L-lactate-quinone oxidoreductase (Lqo, SACOL2623. Originally annotated as Mqo2 and thought to oxidize malate, we show that this enzyme exhibits no affinity for malate but reacts specifically with L-lactate (KM = ~330 µM. In addition to its requirement for reassimilation of L-lactate during NO·-stress, Lqo is also critical to respiratory growth on L-lactate as a sole carbon source. Moreover, ∆lqo mutants exhibit attenuation in a murine model of sepsis, particularly in their ability to cause myocarditis. Interestingly, this cardiac-specific attenuation is completely abrogated in mice unable to synthesize inflammatory NO· (iNOS-/-. We demonstrate that S. aureus NO·-resistance is highly dependent on the availability of a glycolytic carbon sources. However, S. aureus can utilize the combination of peptides and L-lactate as carbon sources during NO·-stress in an Lqo-dependent fashion. Murine cardiac tissue has markedly high levels of L-lactate in comparison to renal or hepatic tissue consistent with the NO·-dependent requirement for Lqo in S. aureus myocarditis. Thus, Lqo provides S. aureus with yet another means of replicating in the presence of host NO·.

  6. Mechanistic reappraisal of early stage photochemistry in the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

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    Derren J Heyes

    Full Text Available The light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR catalyzes the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide to chlorophyllide (Chlide. This reaction is a key step in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll. Ultrafast photochemical processes within the Pchlide molecule are required for catalysis and previous studies have suggested that a short-lived excited-state species, known as I675*, is the first catalytic intermediate in the reaction and is essential for capturing excitation energy to drive subsequent hydride and proton transfers. The chemical nature of the I675* excited state species and its role in catalysis are not known. Here, we report time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy measurements to study the involvement of the I675* intermediate in POR photochemistry. We show that I675* is not unique to the POR-catalyzed photoreduction of Pchlide as it is also formed in the absence of the POR enzyme. The I675* species is only produced in samples that contain both Pchlide substrate and Chlide product and its formation is dependent on the pump excitation wavelength. The rate of formation and the quantum yield is maximized in 50∶50 mixtures of the two pigments (Pchlide and Chlide and is caused by direct energy transfer between Pchlide and neighboring Chlide molecules, which is inhibited in the polar solvent methanol. Consequently, we have re-evaluated the mechanism for early stage photochemistry in the light-driven reduction of Pchlide and propose that I675* represents an excited state species formed in Pchlide-Chlide dimers, possibly an excimer. Contrary to previous reports, we conclude that this excited state species has no direct mechanistic relevance to the POR-catalyzed reduction of Pchlide.

  7. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially...... was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions...

  8. Identification of NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductase activity in azoreductases from P. aeruginosa: azoreductases and NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductases belong to the same FMN-dependent superfamily of enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ryan

    Full Text Available Water soluble quinones are a group of cytotoxic anti-bacterial compounds that are secreted by many species of plants, invertebrates, fungi and bacteria. Studies in a number of species have shown the importance of quinones in response to pathogenic bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Two electron reduction is an important mechanism of quinone detoxification as it generates the less toxic quinol. In most organisms this reaction is carried out by a group of flavoenzymes known as NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductases. Azoreductases have previously been separate from this group, however using azoreductases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa we show that they can rapidly reduce quinones. Azoreductases from the same organism are also shown to have distinct substrate specificity profiles allowing them to reduce a wide range of quinones. The azoreductase family is also shown to be more extensive than originally thought, due to the large sequence divergence amongst its members. As both NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductases and azoreductases have related reaction mechanisms it is proposed that they form an enzyme superfamily. The ubiquitous and diverse nature of azoreductases alongside their broad substrate specificity, indicates they play a wide role in cellular survival under adverse conditions.

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of phylogenetically closely related Hydrogenobaculum sp. isolates from Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Christine; D'Imperio, Seth; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Lasken, Roger; Shock, Everett L; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-05-01

    We describe the complete genome sequences of four closely related Hydrogenobaculum sp. isolates (≥ 99.7% 16S rRNA gene identity) that were isolated from the outflow channel of Dragon Spring (DS), Norris Geyser Basin, in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY. The genomes range in size from 1,552,607 to 1,552,931 bp, contain 1,667 to 1,676 predicted genes, and are highly syntenic. There are subtle differences among the DS isolates, which as a group are different from Hydrogenobaculum sp. strain Y04AAS1 that was previously isolated from a geographically distinct YNP geothermal feature. Genes unique to the DS genomes encode arsenite [As(III)] oxidation, NADH-ubiquinone-plastoquinone (complex I), NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain, a DNA photolyase, and elements of a type II secretion system. Functions unique to strain Y04AAS1 include thiosulfate metabolism, nitrate respiration, and mercury resistance determinants. DS genomes contain seven CRISPR loci that are almost identical but are different from the single CRISPR locus in strain Y04AAS1. Other differences between the DS and Y04AAS1 genomes include average nucleotide identity (94.764%) and percentage conserved DNA (80.552%). Approximately half of the genes unique to Y04AAS1 are predicted to have been acquired via horizontal gene transfer. Fragment recruitment analysis and marker gene searches demonstrated that the DS metagenome was more similar to the DS genomes than to the Y04AAS1 genome, but that the DS community is likely comprised of a continuum of Hydrogenobaculum genotypes that span from the DS genomes described here to an Y04AAS1-like organism, which appears to represent a distinct ecotype relative to the DS genomes characterized.

  10. NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducer activity of some novel anilinoquinazoline derivatives

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    Ghorab MM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa M Ghorab,1,2 Mansour S Alsaid,1 Maureen Higgins,3 Albena T Dinkova-Kostova,3–5 Abdelaaty A Shahat,1,6 Nehal H Elghazawy,7 Reem K Arafa7,8 1Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Drug Radiation Research, National Center for Radiation Research & Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt; 3Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Research, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK; 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Phytochemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, 7Zewail City of Science and Technology, 8Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/antioxidant response elements pathway enables cells to survive oxidative stress conditions through regulating the expression of cytoprotective enzymes such as NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1. This work presents the design and synthesis of novel anilinoquinazoline derivatives (2–16a and evaluation of their NQO1 inducer activity in murine cells. Molecular docking of the new compounds was performed to assess their ability to inhibit Keap1–Nrf2 protein–protein interaction through occupying the Keap1–Nrf2-binding domain, which leads to Nrf2 accumulation and enhanced gene expression of NQO1. Docking results showed that all compounds can potentially interact with Keap1; however, 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-4-(2-phenylquinazolin-4-ylamino-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-one (9, the most potent inducer, showed the largest number of interactions with key amino acids in the binding pocket (Arg483, Tyr525, and Phe478 compared to the native ligand or any other compound in this series. Keywords: Kelch domain, molecular

  11. Tempol improves xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated vascular responses to nitrite in experimental renovascular hypertension

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    Gustavo H. Oliveira-Paula

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Upregulation of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR increases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels and contributes to nitroso-redox imbalance. However, XOR can generate nitric oxide (NO from nitrite, and increased superoxide could inactivate NO formed from nitrite. This study tested the hypothesis that XOR contributes to the cardiovascular effects of nitrite in renovascular hypertension, and that treatment with the antioxidant tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl improves XOR-mediated effects of nitrite. Blood pressure was assessed weekly in two-kidney one-clip (2K1C and control rats. After six weeks of hypertension, the relaxing responses to nitrite were assessed in aortic rings in the presence of the XOR inhibitor oxypurinol (or vehicle, either in the absence or in the presence of tempol. Moreover, in vivo hypotensive responses to nitrite were also examined in the presence of oxypurinol (or vehicle and tempol (or vehicle. Aortic XOR activity and expression were evaluated by fluorescence and Western blot, respectively. Vascular ROS production was assessed by the dihydroethidium assay. 2K1C hypertensive rats showed increased aortic XOR activity and vascular ROS production compared with control rats. Oxypurinol shifted the nitrite concentration–response curve to the right in aortic rings from 2K1C rats (but not in controls. Oxypurinol also attenuated the hypotensive responses to nitrite in 2K1C rats (but not in controls. These functional findings agree with increased aortic and plasma XOR activity found in 2K1C rats. Tempol treatment enhanced oxypurinol-induced shift of the nitrite concentration–response curve to the right. However, antioxidant treatment did not affect XOR-mediated hypotensive effects of nitrite. Our results show that XOR is important to the cardiovascular responses to nitrite in 2K1C hypertension, and XOR inhibitors commonly used by patients may cancel this effect. This finding suggests that nitrite

  12. Tempol improves xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated vascular responses to nitrite in experimental renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Guimaraes, Danielle A; Tella, Sandra O Conde; Blanco, Ana L Furlan; Angelis, Celio D; Schechter, Alan N; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2016-08-01

    Upregulation of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) increases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and contributes to nitroso-redox imbalance. However, XOR can generate nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite, and increased superoxide could inactivate NO formed from nitrite. This study tested the hypothesis that XOR contributes to the cardiovascular effects of nitrite in renovascular hypertension, and that treatment with the antioxidant tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) improves XOR-mediated effects of nitrite. Blood pressure was assessed weekly in two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) and control rats. After six weeks of hypertension, the relaxing responses to nitrite were assessed in aortic rings in the presence of the XOR inhibitor oxypurinol (or vehicle), either in the absence or in the presence of tempol. Moreover, in vivo hypotensive responses to nitrite were also examined in the presence of oxypurinol (or vehicle) and tempol (or vehicle). Aortic XOR activity and expression were evaluated by fluorescence and Western blot, respectively. Vascular ROS production was assessed by the dihydroethidium assay. 2K1C hypertensive rats showed increased aortic XOR activity and vascular ROS production compared with control rats. Oxypurinol shifted the nitrite concentration-response curve to the right in aortic rings from 2K1C rats (but not in controls). Oxypurinol also attenuated the hypotensive responses to nitrite in 2K1C rats (but not in controls). These functional findings agree with increased aortic and plasma XOR activity found in 2K1C rats. Tempol treatment enhanced oxypurinol-induced shift of the nitrite concentration-response curve to the right. However, antioxidant treatment did not affect XOR-mediated hypotensive effects of nitrite. Our results show that XOR is important to the cardiovascular responses to nitrite in 2K1C hypertension, and XOR inhibitors commonly used by patients may cancel this effect. This finding suggests that nitrite treatment may not be

  13. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

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    Uesaka Miki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS, and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E, such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild

  14. The decrease of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity and increase of ROS production by NADPH oxidases are early biomarkers in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa, Ricardo; Gañán, Carlos; López-Sánchez, Carmen; García-Martínez, Virginio; Gutierrez-Merino, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity displays a complex and multifactorial progression. Identify early biochemical mechanisms leading to a sustained imbalance of cellular bioenergetics. Measurements of the temporal evolution of selected biochemical markers after treatment of rats with doxorubicin (20 mg/kg body weight). Doxorubicin treatment increased lipid oxidation, catalase activity and production of H₂O₂ by Nox-NADPH oxidases, and down-regulated quinone oxidoreductase-1 prior eliciting changes in reduced glutathione, protein carbonyls and protein nitrotyrosines. Alterations of mitochondrial and myofibrillar bioenergetics biomarkers were detected only after this oxidative imbalance was established. quinone oxidoreductase-1 activity and increase of hydrogen peroxide production by NADPH oxidases are early biomarkers in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  15. Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase in junction with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: characteristics of an enzymatically active nanohybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Krzysztof; Worch, Remigiusz; Grzyb, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) is a plant and cyanobacterial photosynthetic enzyme, also found in non-photosynthetic tissues, where it is involved in redox reactions of biosynthetic pathways. In vivo it transfers electrons to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), forming its reduced version, NADPH, while in vitro it can also use NADPH to reduce several substrates, such as ferricyanide, various quinones and nitriles. As an oxidoreductase catalyzing reaction of a broad range of substrates, FNR may be used in biotechnological processes. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals of a few to several nanometers diameter, having very useful luminescent properties. We present the spectroscopic and functional characteristics of a covalent conjugation of FNR and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. Two types of quantum dots, of different diameter and emission maximum (550 and 650 nm), were used for comparison. Steady-state fluorescence and gel electrophoresis confirmed efficient conjugation, while fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) allowed for determination of the conjugates’ radii. The nanohybrids sustained enzymatic activity; however, changes in maximal reaction rates and Michaelis constant were found. Detailed analysis of the kinetic parameters showed that the changes in the enzyme activity depend on the substrate used for activity measurement but also on the size of the quantum dots. The presented nanohybrids, as the first example using plant and photosynthetic enzyme as a protein partner, may became a tool to study photosynthesis as well as other biosynthetic and biotechnological processes, involving enzymatically catalyzed electron transfer.

  16. Requirement of Signal Peptidase ComC and Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductase DsbA for Optimal Cell Surface Display of Pseudopilin ComGC in Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M.; Reilman, Ewoud; Sibbald, Mark J. J. B.; Veenstra-Kyuchukova, Yanka K.; Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Buist, Girbe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important Gram-positive bacterial pathogen producing many secreted and cell surface-localized virulence factors. Here we report that the staphylococcal thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA is essential for stable biogenesis of the ComGC pseudopilin. The signal peptidase

  17. In vivo relevance of two critical levels for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated cellular protection against electrophile toxicity found in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de L.H.J.; Pot, G.K.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Alink, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated detoxification of quinones is suggested to be involved in cancer prevention. In the present study, using transfected CHO cells, it was demonstrated that the relation between NQO1 activity and the resulting protection against the cytotoxicity of

  18. In vivo relevance of two critical levels for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated cellular protection against electrophile toxicity found in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.H.; Pot, G.K.; Aarts, J.M.; Rietjens, I.M.; Alink, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated detoxification of quinones is suggested to be involved in cancer prevention. In the present study, using transfected CHO cells, it was demonstrated that the relation between NQO1 activity and the resulting protection against the cytotoxicity of

  19. Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-mediated inactivation of reactive quinoneimine metabolites of diclofenac and mefenamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenburg, Galvin; Elias, Naura S; Venkataraman, Harini; Hendriks, Delilah F G; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M; Vos, J Chris

    2014-01-01

    NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an enzyme capable of reducing a broad range of chemically reactive quinones and quinoneimines (QIs) and can be strongly upregulated by Nrf2/Keap1-mediated stress responses. Several commonly used drugs implicated in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are known

  20. Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-12-01

    The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F 1 F 0 ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbuswamy K. Prabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks. These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications.

  2. The sodium pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na⁺-NQR), a unique redox-driven ion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Blanca

    2014-08-01

    The Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) is a unique Na(+) pumping respiratory complex found only in prokaryotes, that plays a key role in the metabolism of marine and pathogenic bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae and other human pathogens. Na(+)-NQR is the main entrance for reducing equivalents into the respiratory chain of these bacteria, catalyzing the oxidation of NADH and the reduction of quinone, the free energy of this redox reaction drives the selective translocation of Na(+) across the cell membrane, which energizes key cellular processes. In this review we summarize the unique properties of Na(+)-NQR in terms of its redox cofactor composition, electron transfer reactions and a possible mechanism of coupling and pumping.

  3. Biphasic kinetic behavior of E. coli WrbA, an FMN-dependent NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kishko

    Full Text Available The E. coli protein WrbA is an FMN-dependent NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase that has been implicated in oxidative defense. Three subunits of the tetrameric enzyme contribute to each of four identical, cavernous active sites that appear to accommodate NAD(PH or various quinones, but not simultaneously, suggesting an obligate tetramer with a ping-pong mechanism in which NAD departs before oxidized quinone binds. The present work was undertaken to evaluate these suggestions and to characterize the kinetic behavior of WrbA. Steady-state kinetics results reveal that WrbA conforms to a ping-pong mechanism with respect to the constancy of the apparent Vmax to Km ratio with substrate concentration. However, the competitive/non-competitive patterns of product inhibition, though consistent with the general class of bi-substrate reactions, do not exclude a minor contribution from additional forms of the enzyme. NMR results support the presence of additional enzyme forms. Docking and energy calculations find that electron-transfer-competent binding sites for NADH and benzoquinone present severe steric overlap, consistent with the ping-pong mechanism. Unexpectedly, plots of initial velocity as a function of either NADH or benzoquinone concentration present one or two Michaelis-Menten phases depending on the temperature at which the enzyme is held prior to assay. The effect of temperature is reversible, suggesting an intramolecular conformational process. WrbA shares these and other details of its kinetic behavior with mammalian DT-diaphorase, an FAD-dependent NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase. An extensive literature review reveals several other enzymes with two-plateau kinetic plots, but in no case has a molecular explanation been elucidated. Preliminary sedimentation velocity analysis of WrbA indicates a large shift in size of the multimer with temperature, suggesting that subunit assembly coupled to substrate binding may underlie the two-plateau behavior. An

  4. Oxidoreductase activities of polyclonal IgGs from the sera of Wistar rats are better activated by combinations of different metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmacheva, Anna S; Zaksas, Nataliya P; Buneva, Valentina N; Vasilenko, Nataliya L; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2009-01-01

    It was shown that IgGs purified from the sera of healthy Wistar rats contain several different bound Me2+ ions and oxidize 3,3'-diaminobenzidine through a H2O2-dependent peroxidase and H2O2-independent oxidoreductase activity. IgGs have lost these activities after removing the internal metal ions by dialysis against EDTA. External Cu2+ or Fe2+ activated significantly both activities of non-dialysed IgGs containing different internal metals (Fe > or = Pb > or = Zn > or = Cu > or = Al > or = Ca > or = Ni > or = Mn > Co > or = Mg) showing pronounced biphasic dependencies corresponding to approximately 0.1-2 and approximately 2-5 mM of Me2+, while the curves for Mn2+ were nearly linear. Cu2+ alone significantly stimulated both the peroxidase and oxidoreductase activities of dialysed IgGs only at high concentration (> or = 2 mM), while Mn2+ weakly activated peroxidase activity at concentration >3 mM but was active in the oxidoreductase oxidation at a low concentration (ions taken separately; the rates of the oxidation reactions, catalysed by non-dialysed and dialysed IgGs, became comparable. Mg2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ markedly activated the Cu2+-dependent oxidation reactions catalysed by dialysed IgGs, while Ca2+ inhibited these reactions. A possible role of the second metal in the oxidation reactions is discussed. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Single-Electron Reducing Quinone Oxidoreductase Is Necessary to Induce Haustorium Development in the Root Parasitic Plant Triphysaria[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Filappova, Tatiana; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B.; Jamison-McClung, Denneal; Ngo, Quy; Inoue, Kentaro; Yoder, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae develop haustoria in response to contact with host roots or chemical haustoria-inducing factors. Experiments in this manuscript test the hypothesis that quinolic-inducing factors activate haustorium development via a signal mechanism initiated by redox cycling between quinone and hydroquinone states. Two cDNAs were previously isolated from roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor that encode distinct quinone oxidoreductases. QR1 encodes a single-electron reducing NADPH quinone oxidoreductase similar to ζ-crystallin. The QR2 enzyme catalyzes two electron reductions typical of xenobiotic detoxification. QR1 and QR2 transcripts are upregulated in a primary response to chemical-inducing factors, but only QR1 was upregulated in response to host roots. RNA interference technology was used to reduce QR1 and QR2 transcripts in Triphysaria roots that were evaluated for their ability to form haustoria. There was a significant decrease in haustorium development in roots silenced for QR1 but not in roots silenced for QR2. The infrequent QR1 transgenic roots that did develop haustoria had levels of QR1 similar to those of nontransgenic roots. These experiments implicate QR1 as one of the earliest genes on the haustorium signal transduction pathway, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase necessary for the redox bioactivation of haustorial inducing factors. PMID:20424175

  6. Epsilonproteobacterial hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (εHao): characterization of a 'missing link' in the multihaem cytochrome c family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Doreen; Hermann, Bianca; Einsle, Oliver; Simon, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    Members of the multihaem cytochrome c family such as pentahaem cytochrome c nitrite reductase (NrfA) or octahaem hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (Hao) are involved in various microbial respiratory electron transport chains. Some members of the Hao subfamily, here called εHao proteins, have been predicted from the genomes of nitrate/nitrite-ammonifying bacteria that usually lack NrfA. Here, εHao proteins from the host-associated Epsilonproteobacteria Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter curvus and the deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria Caminibacter mediatlanticus and Nautilia profundicola were purified as εHao-maltose binding protein fusions produced in Wolinella succinogenes. All four proteins were able to catalyze reduction of nitrite (yielding ammonium) and hydroxylamine whereas hydroxylamine oxidation was negligible. The introduction of a tyrosine residue at a position known to cause covalent trimerization of Hao proteins did neither stimulate hydroxylamine oxidation nor generate the Hao-typical absorbance maximum at 460 nm. In most cases, the εHao-encoding gene haoA was situated downstream of haoC, which predicts a tetrahaem cytochrome c of the NapC/NrfH family. This suggested the formation of a membrane-bound HaoCA assembly reminiscent of the menaquinol-oxidizing NrfHA complex. The results indicate that εHao proteins form a subfamily of ammonifying cytochrome c nitrite reductases that represents a 'missing link' in the evolution of NrfA and Hao enzymes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 inhibits the proteasomal degradation of homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Tomoji, E-mail: t-maeda@nichiyaku.ac.jp [Department of Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba-Cho, Shiwagun, Iwate, 028-3603 (Japan); Tanabe-Fujimura, Chiaki; Fujita, Yu; Abe, Chihiro; Nanakida, Yoshino; Zou, Kun; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu [Department of Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba-Cho, Shiwagun, Iwate, 028-3603 (Japan); Nakajima, Toshihiro [Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjyuku, Shinjyuku, Tokyo, Tokyo, 160-8402 (Japan); Komano, Hiroto, E-mail: hkomano@iwate-med.ac.jp [Department of Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba-Cho, Shiwagun, Iwate, 028-3603 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein (Herp) is an ER stress-inducible key regulatory component of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) that has been implicated in insulin hypersecretion in diabetic mouse models. Herp expression is tightly regulated. Additionally, Herp is a highly labile protein and interacts with various proteins, which are characteristic features of ubiquitinated protein. Previously, we reported that ubiquitination is not required for Herp degradation. In addition, we found that the lysine residues of Herp (which are ubiquitinated by E3 ubiquitin ligase) are not sufficient for regulation of Herp degradation. In this study, we found that NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-mediated targeting of Herp to the proteasome was involved in Herp degradation. In addition, we found that Herp protein levels were markedly elevated in synoviolin-null cells. The E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin is a central component of ERAD and is involved in the degradation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which regulates cellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, NQO1 is a target of Nrf2. Thus, our findings indicated that NQO1 could stabilize Herp protein expression via indirect regulation of synoviolin. -- Highlights: •Herp interacts with NQO1. •NQO1 regulates Herp degradation.

  8. Mechanisms underlying erythrocyte and endothelial nitrite reduction to NO in hypoxia: role for Xanthine Oxidoreductase and eNOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrew J.; Milsom, Alexandra B.; Rathod, Krishnaraj S.; Chu, Wai Lum; Qureshi, Shehla; Lovell, Matthew J.; Lecomte, Florence M.J.; Perrett, David; Raimondo, Carmello; Khoshbin, Espeed; Ahmed, Zubair; Uppal, Rakesh; Benjamin, Nigel; Hobbs, Adrian J.; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of nitrite (NO2−) provides a major source of nitric oxide (NO) in the circulation, especially in hypoxemic conditions. Our previous studies suggest that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an important nitrite reductase in the heart and kidney. Herein, we have demonstrated that conversion of nitrite to NO by blood vessels and RBCs was enhanced in the presence of the XOR substrate, xanthine (10μM), and attenuated by the XOR inhibitor, allopurinol (100μM) in acidic and hypoxic conditions only. Whilst endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibition had no effect on vascular nitrite reductase activity, in RBCs L-NAME, L-NMMA and L-arginine inhibited nitrite-derived NO production by >50% (p<0.01), at pH 7.4 and 6.8 under hypoxic conditions. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of RBC membranes confirmed the presence of eNOS and abundant XOR on whole RBCs. Thus, XOR and eNOS are ideally situated on the membranes of RBCs and blood vessels to generate intravascular vasodilator NO from nitrite during ischemic episodes. In addition to the proposed role of deoxyhemoglobin, our findings suggest that the nitrite reductase activity within the circulation, under hypoxic conditions (at physiological pH), is mediated by eNOS; however, as acidosis develops a substantial role for XOR becomes evident. PMID:18818408

  9. The secretome of Trametes versicolor grown on tomato juice medium and purification of the secreted oxidoreductases including a versatile peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, Maira; Kellner, Harald; Levin, Laura; Jehmlich, Nico; Hofrichter, Martin; Ullrich, René

    2013-10-10

    The present work was carried out with the aim to analyze the secretome of Trametes versicolor BAFC 2234 grown on tomato juice medium supplemented with copper and manganese. T. versicolor BAFC 2234 was selected among diverse wood dwelling agaricomycetes from Argentina by its ability to cause a strong white rot on hardwood and in addition to show high tolerance toward phenolic compounds. A considerable number of the identified proteins were related to the degradation/modification of lignocelluloses. Hydrolases, peroxidases and phenoloxidases were the most abundant enzymes produced under the above-mentioned culture conditions. The lignin-modifying oxidoreductases laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP) were successfully purified - the latter for the first time from T. versicolor. The native VP protein has a molecular mass of 45kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 3.7. The study clearly shows that complex plant-based media being rich in phenolics, such as tomato juice, can stimulate the secretion of a broad set of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes. Using such natural products as fungal culture media may give the opportunity to investigate plant biomass decomposition as well as the biodegradation of organic pollutants in an environment close to nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of radioiodinated indolequinones targeting NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 for internal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Junichi; Sano, Kohei; Hagimori, Masayori; Yoshikawa, Mai; Maeda, Minoru; Mukai, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an obligate two-electron reductase and is highly expressed in many human solid cancers. Because NQO1 can be induced immediately after exposure to ionizing radiation, we aimed to develop an NQO1-targeted radiolabeled agent to establish a novel internal radiation therapy that amplifies the therapeutic effects when combined with external radiation therapy. We designed three NQO1-targeted radioiodinated compounds including two ether linkage compounds ([(125)I]1 and [(125)I]2) and a sulfide linkage compound ([(125)I]3) based on the selective binding of indolequinone analogs to the active site of NQO1 by the stacking effect. These compounds were successfully prepared using an oxidative iododestannylation reaction with high radiochemical yields and purity. In NQO1-expressing tumor cells, [(125)I]1 and [(125)I]2 were readily metabolized to p-[(125)I]iodophenol or m-[(125)I]iodophenol and [(125)I]I(-), whereas over 85% of the initial radioactivity of [(125)I]3 was observed as an intact form at 1h after incubation. The cellular uptake of [(125)I]3 was significantly higher than those of [(125)I]1 and [(125)I]2. The uptake of [(125)I]3 was specific and was dependent on the expression of NQO1. These data suggest that the novel NQO1-targeted radioiodinated compound [(125)I]3 could be used as a novel internal radiation agent for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 inhibits the proteasomal degradation of homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Tomoji; Tanabe-Fujimura, Chiaki; Fujita, Yu; Abe, Chihiro; Nanakida, Yoshino; Zou, Kun; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Komano, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein (Herp) is an ER stress-inducible key regulatory component of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) that has been implicated in insulin hypersecretion in diabetic mouse models. Herp expression is tightly regulated. Additionally, Herp is a highly labile protein and interacts with various proteins, which are characteristic features of ubiquitinated protein. Previously, we reported that ubiquitination is not required for Herp degradation. In addition, we found that the lysine residues of Herp (which are ubiquitinated by E3 ubiquitin ligase) are not sufficient for regulation of Herp degradation. In this study, we found that NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-mediated targeting of Herp to the proteasome was involved in Herp degradation. In addition, we found that Herp protein levels were markedly elevated in synoviolin-null cells. The E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin is a central component of ERAD and is involved in the degradation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which regulates cellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, NQO1 is a target of Nrf2. Thus, our findings indicated that NQO1 could stabilize Herp protein expression via indirect regulation of synoviolin. -- Highlights: •Herp interacts with NQO1. •NQO1 regulates Herp degradation.

  12. Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, A.F.; Anderson, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with 3 H-cortisone and 14 C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease

  13. Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1. 1. 1. 146)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, A.F.; Anderson, F.H.

    1983-10-01

    Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with /sup 3/H-cortisone and /sup 14/C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. New insights into the operative network of FaEO, an enone oxidoreductase from Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collu, Gabriella; Farci, Domenica; Esposito, Francesca; Pintus, Francesca; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Piano, Dario

    2017-05-01

    The 2-methylene-furan-3-one reductase or Fragaria x ananassa Enone Oxidoreductase (FaEO) catalyses the last reductive step in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, a major component in the characteristic flavour of strawberries. In the present work, we describe the association between FaEO and the vacuolar membrane of strawberry fruits. Even if FaEO lacks epitopes for stable or transient membrane-interactions, it contains a calmodulin-binding region, suggesting that in vivo FaEO may be associated with the membrane via a peripheral protein complex with calmodulin. Moreover, we also found that FaEO occurs in dimeric form in vivo and, as frequently observed for calmodulin-regulated proteins, it may be expressed in different isoforms by alternative gene splicing. Further mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the isolated FaEO consists in the already known isoform and that it is the most characteristic during ripening. Finally, a characterization by absorption spectroscopy showed that FaEO has specific flavoprotein features. The relevance of these findings and their possible physiological implications are discussed.

  15. The Crystal Structure and Mechanism of an Unusual Oxidoreductase, GilR, Involved in Gilvocarcin V Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Bosserman, Mary A.; Schickli, M. Alexandra; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Kharel, Madan K.; Pahari, Pallab; Buchanan, Susan K.; Rohr, Jürgen (NIH); (Kentucky)

    2012-11-26

    GilR is a recently identified oxidoreductase that catalyzes the terminal step of gilvocarcin V biosynthesis and is a unique enzyme that establishes the lactone core of the polyketide-derived gilvocarcin chromophore. Gilvocarcin-type compounds form a small distinct family of anticancer agents that are involved in both photo-activated DNA-alkylation and histone H3 cross-linking. High resolution crystal structures of apoGilR and GilR in complex with its substrate pregilvocarcin V reveals that GilR belongs to the small group of a relatively new type of the vanillyl-alcohol oxidase flavoprotein family characterized by bicovalently tethered cofactors. GilR was found as a dimer, with the bicovalently attached FAD cofactor mediated through His-65 and Cys-125. Subsequent mutagenesis and functional assays indicate that Tyr-445 may be involved in reaction catalysis and in mediating the covalent attachment of FAD, whereas Tyr-448 serves as an essential residue initiating the catalysis by swinging away from the active site to accommodate binding of the 6R-configured substrate and consequently abstracting the proton of the hydroxyl residue of the substrate hemiacetal 6-OH group. These studies lay the groundwork for future enzyme engineering to broaden the substrate specificity of this bottleneck enzyme of the gilvocarcin biosynthetic pathway for the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

  16. Preliminary crystallographic data of the three homologues of the thiol–disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafaye, Céline [Laboratoire des Protéines Membranaires, Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA/CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 01 (France); Iwena, Thomas; Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Cristallogénèse et Cristallisation des Protéines, Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA/CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 01 (France); Kroll, J. Simon [Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Hospital Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG (United Kingdom); Griat, Mickael; Serre, Laurence, E-mail: laurence.serre@ibs.fr [Laboratoire des Protéines Membranaires, Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA/CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 01 (France)

    2008-02-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs. To throw light on the reason for this genetic multiplicity, the three enzymes have been purified and crystallized. Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process that is catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. Uniquely among bacteria, the Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host-interactive biology, while the function of DsbA3 remains unknown. In an attempt to shed light on the reason for this multiplicity of dsbA genes, the three enzymes from N. meningitidis have been purified and crystallized in the presence of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate. The best crystals were obtained using DsbA1 and DsbA3; they belong to the orthorhombic and tetragonal systems and diffract to 1.5 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.F.; Lee, J.; Rizzo, W.B.; Zoeller, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have isolated a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line that is defective in long-chain fatty alcohol oxidation. The ability of the mutant cells to convert labeled hexadecanol to the corresponding fatty acid in vivo was reduced to 5% of the parent strain. Whole-cell homogenates from the mutant strain, FAA.1, were deficient in long-chain fatty alcohol:NAD + oxidoreductase activity, which catalyzes the oxidation of hexadecanol to hexadecanoic acid, although the intermediate fatty aldehyde was formed normally. A direct measurement of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase showed that the FAA.1, strain was defective in this component of FAO activity. FAA.1 is a two-stage mutant that was selected from a previously described parent strain, ZR-82, which is defective in ether lipid biosynthesis and peroxisome assembly. Because of combined defects in ether lipid biosynthesis and fatty alcohol oxidation, the ability of the FAA.1 cells to incorporate hexadecanol into complex lipids was greatly impaired, resulting in a 60-fold increase in cellular fatty alcohol levels. As the FAO deficiency in FAA.1 cells appears to be identical to the defect associated with the human genetic disorder Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome, the FAA.1 cell line may be useful in studying this disease

  18. Dicumarol inhibition of NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase induces growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer via a superoxide-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Joseph J; Hinkhouse, Marilyn M; Grady, Matthew; Gaut, Andrew W; Liu, Jingru; Zhang, Yu Ping; Weydert, Christine J Darby; Domann, Frederick E; Oberley, Larry W

    2003-09-01

    NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO(1)), a homodimeric, ubiquitous, flavoprotein, catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones. This reaction prevents the one-electron reduction of quinones by cytochrome P450 reductase and other flavoproteins that would result in oxidative cycling with generation of superoxide (O(2)(.-)). NQO(1) gene regulation may be up-regulated in some tumors to accommodate the needs of rapidly metabolizing cells to regenerate NAD(+). We hypothesized that pancreatic cancer cells would exhibit high levels of this enzyme, and inhibiting it would suppress the malignant phenotype. Reverse transcription-PCR, Western blots, and activity assays demonstrated that NQO(1) was up-regulated in the pancreatic cancer cell lines tested but present in very low amounts in the normal human pancreas. To determine whether inhibition of NQO(1) would alter the malignant phenotype, MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells were treated with a selective inhibitor of NQO(1), dicumarol. Dicumarol increased intracellular production of O(2)(.-), as measured by hydroethidine staining, and inhibited cell growth. Both of these effects were blunted with infection of an adenoviral vector containing the cDNA for manganese superoxide dismutase. Dicumarol also inhibited cell growth, plating efficiency, and growth in soft agar. We conclude that inhibition of NQO(1) increases intracellular O(2)(.-) production and inhibits the in vitro malignant phenotype of pancreatic cancer. These mechanisms suggest that altering the intracellular redox environment of pancreatic cancer cells may inhibit growth and delineate a potential strategy directed against pancreatic cancer.

  19. Insights into MHC class I peptide loading from the structure of the Tapasin-ERp57 thiol oxidoreductase heterodimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, G.; Wearsch, P.A.; Peaper, D.R.; Cresswell, P.; Reinisch, K.M.; (Yale-MED)

    2009-03-02

    Tapasin is a glycoprotein critical for loading major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules with high-affinity peptides. It functions within the multimeric peptide-loading complex (PLC) as a disulfide-linked, stable heterodimer with the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57, and this covalent interaction is required to support optimal PLC activity. Here, we present the 2.6 {angstrom} resolution structure of the tapasin-ERp57 core of the PLC. The structure revealed that tapasin interacts with both ERp57 catalytic domains, accounting for the stability of the heterodimer, and provided an example of a protein disulfide isomerase family member interacting with substrate. Mutational analysis identified a conserved surface on tapasin that interacted with MHC class I molecules and was critical for peptide loading and editing functions of the tapasin-ERp57 heterodimer. By combining the tapasin-ERp57 structure with those of other defined PLC components, we present a molecular model that illuminates the processes involved in MHC class I peptide loading.

  20. The mechanism of coupling between oxido-reduction and proton translocation in respiratory chain enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Sergio; Capitanio, Giuseppe; Papa, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    The respiratory chain of mitochondria and bacteria is made up of a set of membrane-associated enzyme complexes which catalyse sequential, stepwise transfer of reducing equivalents from substrates to oxygen and convert redox energy into a transmembrane protonmotive force (PMF) by proton translocation from a negative (N) to a positive (P) aqueous phase separated by the coupling membrane. There are three basic mechanisms by which a membrane-associated redox enzyme can generate a PMF. These are membrane anisotropic arrangement of the primary redox catalysis with: (i) vectorial electron transfer by redox metal centres from the P to the N side of the membrane; (ii) hydrogen transfer by movement of quinones across the membrane, from a reduction site at the N side to an oxidation site at the P side; (iii) a different type of mechanism based on co-operative allosteric linkage between electron transfer at the metal redox centres and transmembrane electrogenic proton translocation by apoproteins. The results of advanced experimental and theoretical analyses and in particular X-ray crystallography show that these three mechanisms contribute differently to the protonmotive activity of cytochrome c oxidase, ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the respiratory chain. This review considers the main features, recent experimental advances and still unresolved problems in the molecular/atomic mechanism of coupling between the transfer of reducing equivalents and proton translocation in these three protonmotive redox complexes. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Structural views of quinone oxidoreductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveal large conformational changes induced by the co-factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qianqian; Song, Yunlong; Zhang, Wei; Shaw, Neil; Zhou, Weihong; Rao, Zihe

    2015-07-01

    Energy generation, synthesis of biomass and detoxification of synthetic compounds are driven by electron transfer in all living organisms. Soluble quinone oxidoreductases (QORs) catalyze transfer of electrons from NADPH to substrates. The open reading frame Rv1454c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes a NADPH-dependent QOR that is known to catalyze one-electron reduction of quinones to produce semiquinones. Here, we report the crystal structures of the apo-enzyme of MtbQOR and its binary complex with NADPH determined at 1.80 and 1.85 Å resolutions, respectively. The enzyme is bi-modular. Domain I binds the substrate, while domain II folds into a typical Rossmann fold for tethering NADPH. Binding of NADPH induces conformational changes. Among the known structures of QORs, MtbQOR exhibits the largest conformational change. Movement of Phe41 to stack against Ala244 results in partial closure of the active site. Comparison of the structure with homologs suggests a conserved topology. However, differences are observed in the region around the site of hydride transfer, highlighting differences in substrate specificities amongst the homologs. Unliganded as well as NADPH-bound MtbQOR crystallized as a dimer. Dimerization is mediated by homotypic intermolecular interactions involving main chain Cα as well as side-chain atoms of residues. The results of analytical ultracentrifugation analysis revealed that MtbQOR exists as a dimer in solution. Enzymatic assays indicate that MtbQOR prefers 9,10-phenanthrenequinone over 1,4-benzoquinone as a substrate. The ability to reduce quinones probably assists Mtb in detoxification of a range of harmful chemicals encountered in the host during invasion. The coordinates and structure factors for apo- and NADPH-bound MtbQOR have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession codes 4RVS and 4RVU, respectively. © 2015 FEBS.

  2. Manganese ions enhance mitochondrial H2O2emission from Krebs cycle oxidoreductases by inducing permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonke, Erik; Siebels, Ilka; Zwicker, Klaus; Dröse, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Manganese-induced toxicity has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We could recently show in mechanistic studies that Mn 2+ ions induce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production from the ubiquinone binding site of mitochondrial complex II (II Q ) and generally enhance H 2 O 2 formation by accelerating the rate of superoxide dismutation. The present study with intact mitochondria reveals that manganese additionally enhances H 2 O 2 emission by inducing mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). In mitochondria fed by NADH-generating substrates, the combination of Mn 2+ and different respiratory chain inhibitors led to a dynamically increasing H 2 O 2 emission which was sensitive to the mPT inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) as well as Ru-360, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Under these conditions, flavin-containing enzymes of the mitochondrial matrix, e.g. the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutaratedehydrogenase (OGDH), were major sources of ROS. With succinate as substrate, Mn 2+ stimulated ROS production mainly at complex II, whereby the applied succinate concentration had a marked effect on the tendency for mPT. Also Ca 2+ increased the rate of H 2 O 2 emission by mPT, while no direct effect on ROS-production of complex II was observed. The present study reveals a complex scenario through which manganese affects mitochondrial H 2 O 2 emission: stimulating its production from distinct sites (e.g. site II Q ), accelerating superoxide dismutation and enhancing the emission via mPT which also leads to the loss of soluble components of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems and favors the ROS production from flavin-containing oxidoreductases of the Krebs cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueck, Christa E., E-mail: christa.flueck@dkf.unibe.ch [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children' s Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Mallet, Delphine [Service d' Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Hofer, Gaby [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children' s Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Samara-Boustani, Dinane [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Leger, Juliane [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Polak, Michel [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Morel, Yves [Service d' Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children' s Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  4. Quinol-cytochrome c Oxidoreductase and Cytochrome c4 Mediate Electron Transfer during Selenate Respiration in Thauera selenatis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Elisabeth C.; Bydder, Sarah; Hartshorne, Robert S.; Tape, Hannah L. U.; Dridge, Elizabeth J.; Debieux, Charles M.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Singleton, Ian; Lewis, Richard J.; Santini, Joanne M.; Richardson, David J.; Butler, Clive S.

    2010-01-01

    Selenate reductase (SER) from Thauera selenatis is a periplasmic enzyme that has been classified as a type II molybdoenzyme. The enzyme comprises three subunits SerABC, where SerC is an unusual b-heme cytochrome. In the present work the spectropotentiometric characterization of the SerC component and the identification of redox partners to SER are reported. The mid-point redox potential of the b-heme was determined by optical titration (Em + 234 ± 10 mV). A profile of periplasmic c-type cytochromes expressed in T. selenatis under selenate respiring conditions was undertaken. Two c-type cytochromes were purified (∼24 and ∼6 kDa), and the 24-kDa protein (cytc-Ts4) was shown to donate electrons to SerABC in vitro. Protein sequence of cytc-Ts4 was obtained by N-terminal sequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and based upon sequence similarities, was assigned as a member of cytochrome c4 family. Redox potentiometry, combined with UV-visible spectroscopy, showed that cytc-Ts4 is a diheme cytochrome with a redox potential of +282 ± 10 mV, and both hemes are predicted to have His-Met ligation. To identify the membrane-bound electron donors to cytc-Ts4, growth of T. selenatis in the presence of respiratory inhibitors was monitored. The specific quinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (QCR) inhibitors myxothiazol and antimycin A partially inhibited selenate respiration, demonstrating that some electron flux is via the QCR. Electron transfer via a QCR and a diheme cytochrome c4 is a novel route for a member of the DMSO reductase family of molybdoenzymes. PMID:20388716

  5. Effect of Different Carbon Sources on Relative Growth Rate, Internal Carbohydrates, and Mannitol 1-Oxidoreductase Activity in Celery Suspension Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, JMH.; Pharr, D. M.

    1993-11-01

    Little information exists concerning the biochemical route of mannitol catabolism in higher plant cells. In this study, the role of a recently discovered mannitol 1-oxidoreductase (MDH) in mannitol catabolism was investigated. Suspension cultures of celery (Apium graveolens L. var dulce [Mill.] Pers.) were successfully grown on nutrient media with either mannitol, mannose, or sucrose as the sole carbon source. Cell cultures grown on any of the three carbon sources did not differ in relative growth rate, as measured by packed cell volume, but differed drastically in internal carbohydrate concentration. Mannitol-grown cells contained high concentrations of mannitol and extremely low concentrations of sucrose, fructose, glucose, and mannose. Sucrose-grown cells had high concentrations of sucrose early in the growth cycle and contained a substantial hexose pool. Mannose-grown cells had a high mannose concentration early in the cycle, which decreased during the growth cycle, whereas their internal sucrose concentrations remained relatively constant during the entire growth cycle. Celery suspension cultures on all three carbon substrates contained an NAD-dependent MDH. Throughout the growth cycle, MDH activity was 2- to 4-fold higher in mannitol-grown cells compared with sucrose- or mannose-grown cells, which did not contain detectable levels of mannitol, indicating that MDH functions pre-dominantly in an oxidative capacity in situ. The MDH activity observed in celery cells was 3-fold higher than the minimum amount required to account for the observed rate of mannitol utilization from the media. Cultures transferred from mannitol to mannose underwent a decrease in MDH activity over a period of days, and transfer from mannose to mannitol resulted in an increase in MDH activity. These data provide strong evidence that MDH plays an important role in mannitol utilization in celery suspension cultures.

  6. The key role of glutamate 172 in the mechanism of type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipe M; Sena, Filipa V; Batista, Ana P; Athayde, Diogo; Brito, José A; Archer, Margarida; Oliveira, A Sofia F; Soares, Cláudio M; Catarino, Teresa; Pereira, Manuela M

    2017-10-01

    Type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane bound enzymes that deliver electrons to the respiratory chain by oxidation of NADH and reduction of quinones. In this way, these enzymes also contribute to the regeneration of NAD + , allowing several metabolic pathways to proceed. As for the other members of the two-Dinucleotide Binding Domains Flavoprotein (tDBDF) superfamily, the enzymatic mechanism of NDH-2s is still little explored and elusive. In this work we addressed the role of the conserved glutamate 172 (E172) residue in the enzymatic mechanism of NDH-2 from Staphylococcus aureus. We aimed to test our earlier hypothesis that E172 plays a key role in proton transfer to allow the protonation of the quinone. For this we performed a complete biochemical characterization of the enzyme's variants E172A, E172Q and E172S. Our steady state kinetic measurements show a clear decrease in the overall reaction rate, and our substrate interaction studies indicate the binding of the two substrates is also affected by these mutations. Interestingly our fast kinetic results show quinone reduction is more affected than NADH oxidation. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structure of the E172S mutant (2.55Ǻ) and compared it with the structure of the wild type (2.32Ǻ). Together these results support our hypothesis for E172 being of central importance in the catalytic mechanism of NDH-2, which may be extended to other members of the tDBDF superfamily. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure-based development of anticancer drugs: complexes of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 with chemotherapeutic quinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faig, M; Bianchet, M A; Winski, S; Hargreaves, R; Moody, C J; Hudnott, A R; Ross, D; Amzel, L M

    2001-08-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase (QR1) protects animal cells from the deleterious and carcinogenic effects of quinones and other electrophiles. Remarkably, the same enzyme activates cancer prodrugs that become cytotoxic only after two-electron reduction. QR1's ability to bioactivate quinones and its elevated expression in many human solid tumors makes this protein an excellent target for enzyme-directed drug development. Until now, structural analysis of the mode of binding of chemotherapeutic compounds to QR1 was based on model building using the structures of complexes with simple substrates; no structure of complexes of QR1 with chemotherapeutic prodrugs had been reported. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structures of complexes of QR1 with three chemotherapeutic prodrugs: RH1, a water-soluble homolog of dimethylaziridinylbenzoquinone; EO9, an aziridinylindolequinone; and ARH019, another aziridinylindolequinone. The structures, determined to resolutions of 2.0 A, 2.5 A, and 1.86 A, respectively, were refined to R values below 21% with excellent geometry. The structures show that compounds can bind to QR1 in more than one orientation. Surprisingly, the two aziridinylindolequinones bind to the enzyme in different orientations. The results presented here reveal two new factors that must be taken into account in the design of prodrugs targeted for activation by QR1: the enzyme binding site is highly plastic and changes to accommodate binding of different substrates, and homologous drugs with different substituents may bind to QR1 in different orientations. These structural insights provide important clues for the optimization of chemotherapeutic compounds that utilize this reductive bioactivation pathway.

  8. Nitrate decreases xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated nitrite reductase activity and attenuates vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Damacena-Angelis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite and nitrate restore deficient endogenous nitric oxide (NO production as they are converted back to NO, and therefore complement the classic enzymatic NO synthesis. Circulating nitrate and nitrite must cross membrane barriers to produce their effects and increased nitrate concentrations may attenuate the nitrite influx into cells, decreasing NO generation from nitrite. Moreover, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR mediates NO formation from nitrite and nitrate. However, no study has examined whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated NO generation from nitrite. We hypothesized that nitrate attenuates the vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite either by interfering with nitrite influx into vascular tissue, or by competing with nitrite for XOR, thus inhibiting XOR-mediated NO generation. We used two independent vascular function assays in rats (aortic ring preparations and isolated mesenteric arterial bed perfusion to examine the effects of sodium nitrate on the concentration-dependent responses to sodium nitrite. Both assays showed that nitrate attenuated the vascular responses to nitrite. Conversely, the aortic responses to the NO donor DETANONOate were not affected by sodium nitrate. Further confirming these results, we found that nitrate attenuated the acute blood pressure lowering effects of increasing doses of nitrite infused intravenously in freely moving rats. The possibility that nitrate could compete with nitrite and decrease nitrite influx into cells was tested by measuring the accumulation of nitrogen-15-labeled nitrite (15N-nitrite by aortic rings using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. Nitrate exerted no effect on aortic accumulation of 15N-nitrite. Next, we used chemiluminescence-based NO detection to examine whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate significantly shifted the Michaelis Menten saturation curve to the right, with a 3-fold increase in

  9. NAD(P)H:(Quinone-Acceptor) Oxidoreductase of Tobacco Leaves Is a Flavin Mononucleotide-Containing Flavoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparla, F.; Tedeschi, G.; Trost, P.

    1996-09-01

    The soluble NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase [NAD(P)H-QR, EC 1.6.99.2] of Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves and roots has been purified. NAD(P)H-QR contains noncovalently bound flavin mononucleotide. Pairs of subunits of 21.4 kD are linked together by disulfide bridges, but the active enzyme is a homotetramer of 94 to 100 kD showing an isoelectric point of 5.1. NAD(P)H-QR is a B-stereospecific dehydrogenase. NADH and NADPH are electron donors of similar efficiency with Kcat:Km ratios (with duroquinone) of 6.2 x 107 and 8.0 x 107 m-1 s-1, respectively. Hydrophilic quinones are good electron acceptors, although ferricyanide and dichlorophenolindophenol are also reduced. The quinones are converted to hydroquinones by an obligatory two-electron transfer. No spectral evidence for a flavin semiquinone was detected following anaerobic photoreduction. Cibacron blue and 7-iodo-acridone-4-carboxylic acid are inhibitory. Tobacco NAD(P)H-QR resembles animal DT-diaphorase in some respects (identical reaction mechanism with a two-electron transfer to quinones, unusually high catalytic capability, and donor and acceptor substrate specificity), but it differs from DT-diaphorase in molecular structure, flavin cofactor, stereospecificity, and sensitivity to inhibitors. As in the case with DT-diaphorase in animals, the main NAD(P)H-QR function in plant cells may be the reduction of quinones to quinols, which prevents the production of semiquinones and oxygen radicals. The enzyme appears to belong to a widespread group of plant and fungal flavoproteins found in different cell compartments that are able to reduce quinones.

  10. Arabidopsis Root-Type Ferredoxin:NADP(H) Oxidoreductase 2 is Involved in Detoxification of Nitrite in Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Takushi; Ueda, Nanae; Kitagawa, Munenori; Hanke, Guy; Suzuki, Akira; Hase, Toshiharu; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Ferredoxin:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR) plays a key role in redox metabolism in plastids. Whereas leaf FNR (LFNR) is required for photosynthesis, root FNR (RFNR) is believed to provide electrons to ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent enzymes, including nitrite reductase (NiR) and Fd-glutamine-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (Fd-GOGAT) in non-photosynthetic conditions. In some herbal species, however, most nitrate reductase activity is located in photosynthetic organs, and ammonium in roots is assimilated mainly by Fd-independent NADH-GOGAT. Therefore, RFNR might have a limited impact on N assimilation in roots grown with nitrate or ammonium nitrogen sources. AtRFNR genes are rapidly induced by application of toxic nitrite. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that RFNR could contribute to nitrite reduction in roots by comparing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings of the wild type with loss-of-function mutants of RFNR2 When these seedlings were grown under nitrate, nitrite or ammonium, only nitrite nutrition caused impaired growth and nitrite accumulation in roots of rfnr2 Supplementation of nitrite with nitrate or ammonium as N sources did not restore the root growth in rfnr2 Also, a scavenger for nitric oxide (NO) could not effectively rescue the growth impairment. Thus, nitrite toxicity, rather than N depletion or nitrite-dependent NO production, probably causes the rfnr2 root growth defect. Our results strongly suggest that RFNR2 has a major role in reduction of toxic nitrite in roots. A specific set of genes related to nitrite reduction and the supply of reducing power responded to nitrite concomitantly, suggesting that the products of these genes act co-operatively with RFNR2 to reduce nitrite in roots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothée; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-04-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of approximately 37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria x ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF.

  12. ns-μs Time-Resolved Step-Scan FTIR of ba3 Oxidoreductase from Thermus thermophilus: Protonic Connectivity of w941-w946-w927

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    Antonis Nicolaides

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy has been employed to probe the dynamics of the ba3 oxidoreductase from Thermus thermophilus in the ns-μs time range and in the pH/pD 6–9 range. The data revealed a pH/pD sensitivity of the D372 residue and of the ring-A propionate of heme a3. Based on the observed transient changes a model in which the protonic connectivity of w941-w946-927 to the D372 and the ring-A propionate of heme a3 is described.

  13. Facilitation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone-elicited neuroblastoma cell apoptosis by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kamase, Kyoko; Takasawa, Hiroaki; Yamaji, Yukiko; Endo, Satoshi; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Ikari, Akira

    2018-01-05

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (PQ), a major quinone component in diesel exhaust particles, is considered to provoke damage of respiratory and vascular cells through highly producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), but little is known about its pathophysiological role in neuronal cell damage. In this study, we found that incubation with 1,2-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone and PQ, major quinone components in diesel exhausts, provokes apoptosis of human neuroblastoma cell lines. SK-N-SH cell treatment with a lethal concentration of PQ facilitated ROS production within 6 h. The treatment also promoted formation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine, p53 activation, elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential, and resultant activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, inferring that ROS production, DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are crucial processes of the PQ-triggered SK-N-SH cell apoptosis. The PQ treatment of SK-N-SH cells elevated the level of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a cytotoxic reactive aldehyde generated from lipid peroxidation. The treatment with PQ and HNE also decreased cellular levels of total and reduced glutathiones, and the damage elicited by HNE was ameliorated and deteriorated by pretreating with cell-permeable glutathione analog and the depletor, respectively. Moreover, the treatment with PQ and HNE decreased the proteasomal proteolytic activities, suggesting a contribution of decrease in the antioxidant abilities to the ROS-mediated neuroblastoma cell apoptosis. Our comparative analyses of 17 cells showed a positive correlation between the PQ reductase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activities. In addition, overexpression and knockdown of NQO1 augmented and lowered, respectively, the ROS production through PQ redox-cycling and the quinone toxicity. Furthermore, the treatment with PQ and HNE up-regulated the NQO1 expression. Taken together, PQ exposure produces large amounts of ROS in neuroblastoma cells via NQO1 up

  14. The Na+-Translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase Enhances Oxidative Stress in the Cytoplasm of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muras, Valentin; Dogaru-Kinn, Paul; Minato, Yusuke; Häse, Claudia C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We searched for a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytoplasm of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and addressed the mechanism of ROS formation using the dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in respiring cells. By comparing V. cholerae strains with or without active Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR), this respiratory sodium ion redox pump was identified as a producer of ROS in vivo. The amount of cytoplasmic ROS detected in V. cholerae cells producing variants of Na+-NQR correlated well with rates of superoxide formation by the corresponding membrane fractions. Membranes from wild-type V. cholerae showed increased superoxide production activity (9.8 ± 0.6 μmol superoxide min−1 mg−1 membrane protein) compared to membranes from the mutant lacking Na+-NQR (0.18 ± 0.01 μmol min−1 mg−1). Overexpression of plasmid-encoded Na+-NQR in the nqr deletion strain resulted in a drastic increase in the formation of superoxide (42.6 ± 2.8 μmol min−1 mg−1). By analyzing a variant of Na+-NQR devoid of quinone reduction activity, we identified the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor of cytoplasmic NqrF subunit as the site for intracellular superoxide formation in V. cholerae. The impact of superoxide formation by the Na+-NQR on the virulence of V. cholerae is discussed. IMPORTANCE In several studies, it was demonstrated that the Na+-NQR in V. cholerae affects virulence in a yet unknown manner. We identified the reduced FAD cofactor in the NADH-oxidizing NqrF subunit of the Na+-NQR as the site of superoxide formation in the cytoplasm of V. cholerae. Our study provides the framework to understand how reactive oxygen species formed during respiration could participate in the regulated expression of virulence factors during the transition from aerobic to microaerophilic (intestinal) habitats. This hypothesis may turn out to be right for many other pathogens which, like V. cholerae, depend on

  15. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

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    Kaustubh S Gadave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH and xanthine oxidase (XO, catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m of 0.11 sec(-1 µM(-1 of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm of 46,000 M(-1 cm(-1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. CONCLUSION: A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  16. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadave, Kaustubh S; Panda, Santanu; Singh, Surender; Kalra, Shalini; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K; Kaushik, Jai K

    2014-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m) of 0.11 sec(-1) µM(-1) of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm) of 46,000 M(-1) cm(-1) suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum) were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+) entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  17. Phylogenomic analysis and predicted physiological role of the proton-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) across bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, Melanie A; Aylward, Frank O; Currie, Cameron R; Donohue, Timothy J

    2015-04-14

    The proton-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a multisubunit integral membrane enzyme found in the respiratory chains of both bacteria and eukaryotic organelles. Although much research has focused on the enzyme's central role in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, comparatively little is known about its role in the diverse energetic lifestyles of different bacteria. Here, we used a phylogenomic approach to better understand the distribution of complex I across bacteria, the evolution of this enzyme, and its potential roles in shaping the physiology of different bacterial groups. By surveying 970 representative bacterial genomes, we predict complex I to be present in ~50% of bacteria. While this includes bacteria with a wide range of energetic schemes, the presence of complex I is associated with specific lifestyles, including aerobic respiration and specific types of phototrophy (bacteria with only a type II reaction center). A phylogeny of bacterial complex I revealed five main clades of enzymes whose evolution is largely congruent with the evolution of the bacterial groups that encode complex I. A notable exception includes the gammaproteobacteria, whose members encode one of two distantly related complex I enzymes predicted to participate in different types of respiratory chains (aerobic versus anaerobic). Comparative genomic analyses suggest a broad role for complex I in reoxidizing NADH produced from various catabolic reactions, including the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Together, these findings suggest diverse roles for complex I across bacteria and highlight the importance of this enzyme in shaping diverse physiologies across the bacterial domain. Living systems use conserved energy currencies, including a proton motive force (PMF), NADH, and ATP. The respiratory chain enzyme, complex I, connects these energy currencies by using NADH produced during nutrient breakdown to generate a PMF, which is

  18. Investigation of protein FTT1103 electroactivity using carbon and mercury electrodes. Surface-inhibition approach for disulfide oxidoreductases using silver amalgam powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Večerková, Renata; Hernychová, Lenka; Dobeš, Petr; Vrba, Jiří; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Bartošík, Martin; Vacek, Jan

    2014-06-09

    Recently, it was shown that electrochemical methods can be used for analysis of poorly water-soluble proteins and for study of their structural changes and intermolecular (protein-ligand) interactions. In this study, we focused on complex electrochemical investigation of recombinant protein FTT1103, a disulfide oxidoreductase with structural similarity to well described DsbA proteins. This thioredoxin-like periplasmic lipoprotein plays an important role in virulence of bacteria Francisella tularensis. For electrochemical analyses, adsorptive transfer (ex situ) square-wave voltammetry with pyrolytic graphite electrode, and alternating-current voltammetry and constant-current chronopotentiometric stripping analysis with mercury electrodes, including silver solid amalgam electrode (AgSAE) were used. AgSAE was used in poorly water-soluble protein analysis for the first time. In addition to basic redox, electrocatalytic and adsorption/desorption characterization of FTT1103, electrochemical methods were also used for sensitive determination of the protein at nanomolar level and study of its interaction with surface of AgSA microparticles. Proposed electrochemical protocol and AgSA surface-inhibition approach presented here could be used in future for biochemical studies focused on proteins associated with membranes as well as on those with disulfide oxidoreductase activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Directed Evolution and Resolution Mechanism of 1, 3-Propanediol Oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae toward Higher Activity by Error-Prone PCR and Bioinformatics.

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    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available 1, 3-propanediol oxidoreductase (PDOR is a key enzyme in glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol (1, 3-PD which is a valuable chemical and one of the six new petrochemical products. We used error-prone PCR and activity screening to identify mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae PDOR with improved activity. The activity of one of the identified mutants, PDOR'-24, which includes a single mutation, A199S, was 48 U/mg, 4.9 times that of the wild-type enzyme. Molecular docking was performed to analyze the identified mutants; and amino acids S103, H271, N366, D106, N262 and D364 were predicted to bond with NADH. The origins of the improved activity of PDOR'-24, as well as three other mutants were analyzed by simulating the interaction mechanism of the mutants with the substrate and coenzyme, respectively. This research provides useful information about the use of safranine O plate screening for the directed evolution of oxidoreductases, identifies interesting sites for improving PDOR activity, and demonstrates the utility of using molecular docking to analyze the interaction mechanism of the mutants with the substrate and coenzyme, respectively.

  20. Synechocystis ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase is capable of functioning as ferric reductase and of driving the Fenton reaction in the absence or presence of free flavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junichi; Takeda, Kouji; Nishiyama, Rika; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Abo, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Nakagawa, Junichi; Abe, Akira; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi

    2011-04-01

    We purified free flavin-independent NADPH oxidoreductase from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 based on NADPH oxidation activity elicited during reduction of t-butyl hydroperoxide in the presence of Fe(III)-EDTA. The N-terminal sequencing of the purified enzyme revealed it to be ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR( S )). The purified enzyme reacted with cytochrome c, ferricyanide and 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP). The substrate specificity of the enzyme was similar to the known FNR. DNA degradation occurring in the presence of NADPH, Fe(III)-EDTA and hydrogen peroxide was potently enhanced by the purified enzyme, indicating that Synechocystis FNR( S ) may drive the Fenton reaction. The Fenton reaction by Synechocystis FNR( S ) in the presence of natural chelate iron compounds tended to be considerably lower than that in the presence of synthetic chelate iron compounds. The Synechocystis FNR( S ) is considered to reduce ferric iron to ferrous iron when it evokes the Fenton reaction. Although Synechocystis FNR( S ) was able to reduce iron compounds in the absence of free flavin, the ferric reduction by the enzyme was enhanced by the addition of free flavin. The enhancement was detected not only in the presence of natural chelate iron compounds but also synthetic chelate iron compounds.

  1. Progesterone Exerts a Neuromodulatory Effect on Turning Behavior of Hemiparkinsonian Male Rats: Expression of 3α-Hydroxysteroid Oxidoreductase and Allopregnanolone as Suggestive of GABAA Receptors Involvement

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    Roberto Yunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing amount of evidence for a neuroprotective role of progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite, allopregnanolone, in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By using a model of hemiparkinsonism in male rats, injection of the neurotoxic 6-OHDA in left striatum, we studied progesterone’s effects on rotational behavior induced by amphetamine or apomorphine. Also, in order to find potential explanatory mechanisms, we studied expression and activity of nigrostriatal 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, the enzyme that catalyzes progesterone to its active metabolite allopregnanolone. Coherently, we tested allopregnanolone for a possible neuromodulatory effect on rotational behavior. Also, since allopregnanolone is known as a GABAA modulator, we finally examined the action of GABAA antagonist bicuculline. We found that progesterone, in addition to an apparent neuroprotective effect, also increased ipsilateral expression and activity of 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase. It was interesting to note that ipsilateral administration of allopregnanolone reversed a clear sign of motor neurodegeneration, that is, contralateral rotational behavior. A possible GABAA involvement modulated by allopregnanolone was shown by the blocking effect of bicuculline. Our results suggest that early administration of progesterone possibly activates genomic mechanisms that promote neuroprotection subchronically. This, in turn, could be partially mediated by fast, nongenomic, actions of allopregnanolone acting as an acute modulator of GABAergic transmission.

  2. Regional distribution of cytosolic and particulate 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductases in female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Bertics, P J; Karavolas, H J

    1997-03-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that progesterone metabolites, particularly 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone, can potently influence multiple brain functions, e.g. they have the capacity to mediate gonadotropin regulation and various anticonvulsive, anesthetic and anxiolytic effects. These circulating progesterone metabolites are likely to represent only a fraction of the bioavailable pool of these steroids in that the central nervous system (CNS) also possesses enzymes that can synthesize these metabolites in situ. Therefore, because the ability of the CNS to produce these neuroactive progestins is an important consideration when assessing overall progestin function and metabolism, we measured the major progesterone metabolizing enzyme activities, namely the cytosolic NADPH and particulate NADH 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3alpha-HSOR) and progesterone 5alpha-reductase activities in nine brain regions from random cycling and ovariectomized rats. These assays entailed the use of reverse isotopic dilution analysis and revealed that all three enzymic activities were present in each of the brain regions examined, but that these regions displayed differential patterns with regard to their levels of cytosolic and particulate 3alpha-HSOR activity. The cytosolic 3alpha-HSOR activity was highest in the olfactory bulb/tubercle and colliculi regions which were greater than levels in the hypothalamus/preoptic area and cerebellum which were greater than levels in the amygdala/striatum and hippocampus/dentate gyrus. Midbrain/thalamus, cerebral cortex and pons/medulla were different only from the olfactory bulb/tubercle and colliculi regions. The particulate 3alpha-HSOR activity was highest in the olfactory bulb/tubercle region followed by colliculi, hippocampus/dentate gyrus and pons/medulla which were greater than levels in the hypothalamus/preoptic area, cerebellum and amygdala/striatum. Cerebral cortex and midbrain/thalamus were

  3. Cranberry extract-enriched diets increase NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and catalase activities in obese but not in nonobese mice.

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    Boušová, Iva; Bártíková, Hana; Matoušková, Petra; Lněničková, Kateřina; Zappe, Lukáš; Valentová, Kateřina; Szotáková, Barbora; Martin, Jan; Skálová, Lenka

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of antioxidant-enriched diets is 1 method of addressing obesity, which is associated with chronic oxidative stress and changes in the activity/expression of various enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and redox status through a cranberry extract (CBE)-enriched diet would differ between obese and nonobese mice. The CBE used in this study was obtained from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ericaceae), a popular constituent of dietary supplements that is a particularly rich source of (poly)phenols and has strong antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to test and compare the in vivo effects of 28-day consumption of a CBE-enriched diet (2%) on the antioxidant status of nonobese mice and mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and small intestine were studied concurrently to obtain more complex information. The specific activities, protein, and messenger RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as the levels of malondialdehyde and thiol (SH) groups were analyzed. Cranberry extract treatment increased the SH group content in plasma and the glutathione S-transferase activity in the erythrocytes of the obese and nonobese mice. In addition, in the obese animals, the CBE treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content in erythrocytes and increased quinone oxidoreductase (liver) and catalase (erythrocytes and small intestine) activities. The elevation of hepatic quinone oxidoreductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding messenger RNA levels. The effects of CBE on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and redox status were more pronounced in the obese mice compared with the nonobese mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Architecture of mammalian respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinothkumar, Kutti R; Zhu, Jiapeng; Hirst, Judy

    2014-11-06

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is essential for oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian mitochondria. It couples electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with proton translocation across the energy-transducing inner membrane, providing electrons for respiration and driving ATP synthesis. Mammalian complex I contains 44 different nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded subunits, with a combined mass of 1 MDa. The 14 conserved 'core' subunits have been structurally defined in the minimal, bacterial complex, but the structures and arrangement of the 30 'supernumerary' subunits are unknown. Here we describe a 5 Å resolution structure of complex I from Bos taurus heart mitochondria, a close relative of the human enzyme, determined by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. We present the structures of the mammalian core subunits that contain eight iron-sulphur clusters and 60 transmembrane helices, identify 18 supernumerary transmembrane helices, and assign and model 14 supernumerary subunits. Thus, we considerably advance knowledge of the structure of mammalian complex I and the architecture of its supernumerary ensemble around the core domains. Our structure provides insights into the roles of the supernumerary subunits in regulation, assembly and homeostasis, and a basis for understanding the effects of mutations that cause a diverse range of human diseases.

  5. Congenital deficiency of two polypeptide subunits of the iron-protein fragment of mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Cleeter, M W; Ragan, C I; Batshaw, M L; Lehninger, A L

    1987-02-01

    Recently, we described a patient with severe lactic acidosis due to congenital complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) deficiency. We now report further enzymatic and immunological characterizations. Both NADH and ferricyanide titrations of complex I activity (measured as NADH-ferricyanide reductase) were distinctly altered in the mitochondria from the patient's tissues. In addition, antisera against complex I immunoprecipitated NADH-ferricyanide reductase from the control but not the patient's mitochondria. However, immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of complex I polypeptides demonstrated that the majority of the 25 polypeptides comprising complex I were present in the affected mitochondria. A more detailed analysis using subunit selective antisera against the main polypeptides of the iron-protein fragments of complex I revealed a selective absence of the 75- and 13-kD polypeptides. These findings suggest that the underlying basis for this patient's disease was a congenital deficiency of at least two polypeptides comprising the iron-protein fragment of complex I, which resulted in the inability to correctly assemble a functional enzyme complex.

  6. Roles of Pyruvate, NADH, and Mitochondrial Complex I in Redox Balance and Imbalance in β Cell Function and Dysfunction

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    Xiaoting Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic β cells not only use glucose as an energy source, but also sense blood glucose levels for insulin secretion. While pyruvate and NADH metabolic pathways are known to be involved in regulating insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation, the roles of many other components along the metabolic pathways remain poorly understood. Such is the case for mitochondrial complex I (NADH/ubiquinone oxidoreductase. It is known that normal complex I function is absolutely required for episodic insulin secretion after a meal, but the role of complex I in β cells in the diabetic pancreas remains to be investigated. In this paper, we review the roles of pyruvate, NADH, and complex I in insulin secretion and hypothesize that complex I plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of β cell dysfunction in the diabetic pancreas. This hypothesis is based on the establishment that chronic hyperglycemia overloads complex I with NADH leading to enhanced complex I production of reactive oxygen species. As nearly all metabolic pathways are impaired in diabetes, understanding how complex I in the β cells copes with elevated levels of NADH in the diabetic pancreas may provide potential therapeutic strategies for diabetes.

  7. Mechanistic Study of the Phytocompound, 2-β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne in Human T-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells by Using Combined Differential Proteomics and Bioinformatics Approaches

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    Jeng-Yuan Shiau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa, a medicinal herb worldwide, is rich in bioactive polyynes. In this study, by using high resolution 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, as many as 2000 protein spots could be detected and those whose expression was specifically up- or downregulated in Jurkat T cells responsive to the treatment with 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne (GHTT can be identified. GHTT treatment can upregulate thirteen proteins involved in signal transduction, detoxification, metabolism, energy pathways, and channel transport in Jurkat cells. Nine proteins, that is, thioredoxin-like proteins, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID protein involving apoptosis, methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, were downregulated in GHTT-treated Jurkat cells. Further, bioinformatics tool, Ingenuity software, was used to predict signaling pathways based on the data obtained from the differential proteomics approach. Two matched pathways, relevant to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, in Jurkat cells were inferred from the proteomics data. Biochemical analysis further verified both pathways involving GHTT in Jurkat cells. These findings do not merely prove the feasibility of combining proteomics and bioinformatics methods to identify cellular proteins as key players in response to the phytocompound in Jurkat cells but also establish the pathways of the proteins as the potential therapeutic targets of leukemia.

  8. Tau oligomers impair memory and induce synaptic and mitochondrial dysfunction in wild-type mice

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    Jackson George R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The correlation between neurofibrillary tangles of tau and disease progression in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients remains an area of contention. Innovative data are emerging from biochemical, cell-based and transgenic mouse studies that suggest that tau oligomers, a pre-filament form of tau, may be the most toxic and pathologically significant tau aggregate. Results Here we report that oligomers of recombinant full-length human tau protein are neurotoxic in vivo after subcortical stereotaxic injection into mice. Tau oligomers impaired memory consolidation, whereas tau fibrils and monomers did not. Additionally, tau oligomers induced synaptic dysfunction by reducing the levels of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins synaptophysin and septin-11. Tau oligomers produced mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing the levels of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (electron transport chain complex I, and activated caspase-9, which is related to the apoptotic mitochondrial pathway. Conclusions This study identifies tau oligomers as an acutely toxic tau species in vivo, and suggests that tau oligomers induce neurodegeneration by affecting mitochondrial and synaptic function, both of which are early hallmarks in AD and other tauopathies. These results open new avenues for neuroprotective intervention strategies of tauopathies by targeting tau oligomers.

  9. Kalkitoxin Inhibits Angiogenesis, Disrupts Cellular Hypoxic Signaling, and Blocks Mitochondrial Electron Transport in Tumor Cells

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    J. Brian Morgan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active lipopeptide kalkitoxin was previously isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (Lyngbya majuscula. Kalkitoxin exhibited N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity and acted as an inhibitory ligand for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. Subsequent studies revealed that kalkitoxin generated a delayed form of colon tumor cell cytotoxicity in 7-day clonogenic cell survival assays. Cell line- and exposure time-dependent cytostatic/cytotoxic effects were previously observed with mitochondria-targeted inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1. The transcription factor HIF-1 functions as a key regulator of oxygen homeostasis. Therefore, we investigated the ability of kalkitoxin to inhibit hypoxic signaling in human tumor cell lines. Kalkitoxin potently and selectively inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1 in T47D breast tumor cells (IC50 5.6 nM. Mechanistic studies revealed that kalkitoxin inhibits HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondrial oxygen consumption at electron transport chain (ETC complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Further studies indicate that kalkitoxin targets tumor angiogenesis by blocking the induction of angiogenic factors (i.e., VEGF in tumor cells.

  10. Changes in mitochondrial functioning with electromagnetic radiation of ultra high frequency as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Anatoly; Selyuk, Marina; Gafurov, Marat; Lukin, Sergei; Potaskalova, Viktoria; Sidorik, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    To study the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of ultra high frequency (UHF) in the doses equivalent to the maximal permitted energy load for the staffs of the radar stations on the biochemical processes that occur in the cell organelles. Liver, cardiac and aorta tissues from the male rats exposed to non-thermal UHF EMR in pulsed and continuous modes were studied during 28 days after the irradiation by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods including a spin trapping of superoxide radicals. The qualitative and quantitative disturbances in electron transport chain (ETC) of mitochondria are registered. A formation of the iron-nitrosyl complexes of nitric oxide (NO) radicals with the iron-sulphide (FeS) proteins, the decreased activity of FeS-protein N2 of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex and flavo-ubisemiquinone growth combined with the increased rates of superoxide production are obtained. (i) Abnormalities in the mitochondrial ETC of liver and aorta cells are more pronounced for animals radiated in a pulsed mode; (ii) the alterations in the functioning of the mitochondrial ETC cause increase of superoxide radicals generation rate in all samples, formation of cellular hypoxia, and intensification of the oxide-initiated metabolic changes; and (iii) electron paramagnetic resonance methods could be used to track the qualitative and quantitative changes in the mitochondrial ETC caused by the UHF EMR.

  11. Genomic differences between Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Fibrobacter intestinalis DR7, identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, M; Nelson, K E; Daugherty, S C; Nelson, W C; Hance, I R; Morrison, M; Forsberg, C W

    2008-02-01

    Fibrobacter is a highly cellulolytic genus commonly found in the rumen of ruminant animals and cecum of monogastric animals. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify the genes present in Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 but absent from F. intestinalis DR7. A total of 1,082 subtractive clones were picked, plasmids were purified, and inserts were sequenced, and the clones lacking homology to F. intestinalis were confirmed by Southern hybridization. By comparison of the sequences of the clones to one another and to those of the F. succinogenes genome, 802 sequences or 955 putative genes, comprising approximately 409 kb of F. succinogenes genomic DNA, were identified that lack similarity to those of F. intestinalis chromosomal DNA. The functional groups of genes, including those involved in cell envelope structure and function, energy metabolism, and transport and binding, had the largest number of genes specific to F. succinogenes. Low-stringency Southern hybridization showed that at least 37 glycoside hydrolases are shared by both species. A cluster of genes responsible for heme, porphyrin, and cobalamin biosynthesis in F. succinogenes S85 was either missing from or not functional in F. intestinalis DR7, which explains the requirement of vitamin B12 for the growth of the F. intestinalis species. Two gene clusters encoding NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunits probably shared by Fibrobacter genera appear to have an important role in energy metabolism.

  12. Chapter 3 Studies of complex I by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Douglas; Rich, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform vibrational infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy provides a novel spectroscopic tool to study atomic details of the structure and mechanism of respiratory NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Methods for the acquisition of difference spectra in both transmission and ATR modes in the mid-IR 4000 to 900 cm(-1) region are reviewed. In both modes, redox transitions can be induced by electrochemistry, and ultraviolet (UV)/visible spectra can be recorded simultaneously. Use of the ATR method with complex I layers immobilized on an internal reflection element (IRE) additionally allows transitions to be induced by perfusion/buffer exchange, hence providing a versatile means of analyzing IR changes associated with, for example, ligand/substrate binding or specific catalytic intermediates at high signal-to-noise. Absolute absorbance IR spectra can provide information on secondary structure, lipid/protein ratio, extent of isotope exchange, and sample quality and stability more generally. Such information is useful for quality control of samples during the acquisition of difference spectra in which specific atomic details of changes between two states may be probed. Examples of absolute and difference IR spectra of complex I are presented, and strategies for assignments of the spectral features are discussed.

  13. The effect of silicon on the leaf proteome of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under cadmium-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwugo, Chika C; Huerta, Alfredo J

    2011-02-04

    The best known silicon (Si)-accumulating plant, rice (Oryza sativa L.), stores most of its Si in leaves, but the importance of Si has been limited to a mechanical role. Our initial studies showed that Si-induced cadmium (Cd) tolerance is mediated by the enhancement of instantaneous water-use-efficiency, carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO), and light-use-efficiency in leaves of rice plants. In this study, we investigated changes in the rice leaf proteome in order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in Si-induced Cd tolerance. Our study identified 60 protein spots that were differentially regulated due to Cd and/or Si treatments. Among them, 50 were significantly regulated by Si, including proteins associated with photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, regulation/protein synthesis, pathogen response and chaperone activity. Interestingly, we observed a Si-induced up-regulation of a class III peroxidase and a thaumatin-like protein irrespective of Cd treatment, in addition to a Cd-induced up-regulation of protein disulfide isomerase, a HSP70 homologue, a NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, and a putative phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, especially in the presence of Si. Taken together, our study sheds light on molecular mechanisms involved in Si-induced Cd tolerance in rice leaves and suggests a more active involvement of Si in plant physiological processes than previously proposed.

  14. Region-specific expression of mitochondrial complex I genes during murine brain development.

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    Stefanie Wirtz

    Full Text Available Mutations in the nuclear encoded subunits of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase may cause circumscribed cerebral lesions ranging from degeneration of the striatal and brainstem gray matter (Leigh syndrome to leukodystrophy. We hypothesized that such pattern of regional pathology might be due to local differences in the dependence on complex I function. Using in situ hybridization we investigated the relative expression of 33 nuclear encoded complex I subunits in different brain regions of the mouse at E11.5, E17.5, P1, P11, P28 and adult (12 weeks. With respect to timing and relative intensity of complex I gene expression we found a highly variant pattern in different regions during development. High average expression levels were detected in periods of intense neurogenesis. In cerebellar Purkinje and in hippocampal CA1/CA3 pyramidal neurons we found a second even higher peak during the period of synaptogenesis and maturation. The extraordinary dependence of these structures on complex I gene expression during synaptogenesis is in accord with our recent findings that gamma oscillations--known to be associated with higher cognitive functions of the mammalian brain--strongly depend on the complex I activity. However, with the exception of the mesencephalon, we detected only average complex I expression levels in the striatum and basal ganglia, which does not explain the exquisite vulnerability of these structures in mitochondrial disorders.

  15. Genome Analysis of Structure-Function Relationships in Respiratory Complex I, an Ancient Bioenergetic Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2015-11-27

    Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a ubiquitous bioenergetic enzyme formed by over 40 subunits in eukaryotes and a minimum of 11 subunits in bacteria. Recently, crystal structures have greatly advanced our knowledge of complex I but have not clarified the details of its reaction with ubiquinone (Q). This reaction is essential for bioenergy production and takes place in a large cavity embedded within a conserved module that is homologous to the catalytic core of Ni-Fe hydrogenases. However, how a hydrogenase core has evolved into the protonmotive Q reductase module of complex I has remained unclear. This work has exploited the abundant genomic information that is currently available to deduce structure-function relationships in complex I that indicate the evolutionary steps of Q reactivity and its adaptation to natural Q substrates. The results provide answers to fundamental questions regarding various aspects of complex I reaction with Q and help re-defining the old concept that this reaction may involve two Q or inhibitor sites. The re-definition leads to a simplified classification of the plethora of complex I inhibitors while throwing a new light on the evolution of the enzyme function. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. A Homodimer Model Can Resolve the Conundrum as to How Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase and Cytochrome b5 Compete for the Same Binding Site on Cytochrome P450c17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holien, Jessica K; Parker, Michael W; Conley, Alan J; Corbin, Cynthia Jo; Rodgers, Raymond J; Martin, Lisandra L

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase (P450c17) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of cortisol in the zona fascicula of the adrenal cortex, and the synthesis of androgen precursors in the adrenal zona reticularis and the gonads. Each of these reactions require electrons transferred by the electron donor cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. The 17α-hydroxylation of its substrate occurs in all cells where P450c17 is expressed. Remarkably, a second, subsequent reaction, namely the 17,20-lyase activity, only occurs in the zona reticularis and gonads. The specificity of the second reaction is due to the interaction with the haem-protein cytochrome b5. Surprisingly, cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase have overlapping sites of interaction on the surface of P450c17. This poses the question as to how cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase interact with P450c17 structurally, functionally and physiologically? This conundrum can be resolved based on the observation that P450c17 can homo-dimerise. A homodimer would allow cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase to bind to one P450c17 monomer of the P450c17 homodimer whilst cytochrome b5 could bind to the other P450c17 monomer simultaneously at the surfaces distal to the dimer interface. This structure is likely to be dynamic in vivo. Our modelling predicts that the proteins can assemble as a stable tetramer and is fully consistent with extensive experimental data that have been published over the last two decades. Predictions derived from this structural model are currently being tested by a range of in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. The NADH:flavin oxidoreductase Nox from Rhodococcus erythropolis MI2 is the key enzyme of 4,4'-dithiodibutyric acid degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, H; Wübbeler, J H; Steinbüchel, A

    2016-12-01

    The reduction of the disulphide bond is the initial catabolic step of the microbial degradation of the organic disulphide 4,4'-dithiodibutyric acid (DTDB). Previously, an NADH:flavin oxidoreductase from Rhodococcus erythropolis MI2 designated as Nox MI2 , which belongs to the old yellow enzyme (OYE) family, was identified. In the present study, it was proven that Nox MI2 has the ability to cleave the sulphur-sulphur bond in DTDB. In silico analysis revealed high sequence similarities to proteins of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase family identified in many strains of R. erythropolis. Therefore, nox was heterologously expressed in the pET23a(+) expression system using Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) pLysS, which effectively produces soluble active Nox MI2 . Nox MI2 showed a maximum specific activity (V max ) of 3·36 μmol min -1  mg -1 corresponding to a k cat of 2·5 s -1 and an apparent substrate K m of 0·6 mmol l -1 , when different DTDB concentrations were applied. No metal cofactors were required. Moreover, Nox MI2 had very low activity with other sulphur-containing compounds like 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (8·0%), 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid (7·6%) and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (8·0%). The UV/VIS spectrum of Nox MI2 revealed the presence of the cofactor FMN. Based on results obtained, Nox MI2 adds a new physiological substrate and mode of action to OYE members. It was unequivocally demonstrated in this study that an NADH:flavin oxidoreductase from Rhodococcus erythropolis MI2 (Nox MI2 ) is able to cleave the xenobiotic disulphide 4,4'-dithiodibutyric acid (DTDB) into two molecules of 4-mercaptobutyric acid (4MB) with concomitant consumption of NADH. Nox MI2 showed a high substrate specificity as well as high heat stability. This study provides the first detailed characterization of the initial cleavage of DTDB, which is considered as a promising polythioester precursor. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. A novel aldose-aldose oxidoreductase for co-production of D-xylonate and xylitol from D-xylose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Marilyn G; Nygård, Yvonne; Oja, Merja; Andberg, Martina; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivula, Anu; Penttilä, Merja; Toivari, Mervi

    2015-11-01

    An open reading frame CC1225 from the Caulobacter crescentus CB15 genome sequence belongs to the Gfo/Idh/MocA protein family and has 47 % amino acid sequence identity with the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis (Zm GFOR). We expressed the ORF CC1225 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used a yeast strain expressing the gene coding for Zm GFOR as a reference. Cell extracts of strains overexpressing CC1225 (renamed as Cc aaor) showed some Zm GFOR type of activity, producing D-gluconate and D-sorbitol when a mixture of D-glucose and D-fructose was used as substrate. However, the activity in Cc aaor expressing strain was >100-fold lower compared to strains expressing Zm gfor. Interestingly, C. crescentus AAOR was clearly more efficient than the Zm GFOR in converting in vitro a single sugar substrate D-xylose (10 mM) to xylitol without an added cofactor, whereas this type of activity was very low with Zm GFOR. Furthermore, when cultured in the presence of D-xylose, the S. cerevisiae strain expressing Cc aaor produced nearly equal concentrations of D-xylonate and xylitol (12.5 g D-xylonate l(-1) and 11.5 g D-xylitol l(-1) from 26 g D-xylose l(-1)), whereas the control strain and strain expressing Zm gfor produced only D-xylitol (5 g l(-1)). Deletion of the gene encoding the major aldose reductase, Gre3p, did not affect xylitol production in the strain expressing Cc aaor, but decreased xylitol production in the strain expressing Zm gfor. In addition, expression of Cc aaor together with the D-xylonolactone lactonase encoding the gene xylC from C. crescentus slightly increased the final concentration and initial volumetric production rate of both D-xylonate and D-xylitol. These results suggest that C. crescentus AAOR is a novel type of oxidoreductase able to convert the single aldose substrate D-xylose to both its oxidized and reduced product.

  19. Steady-state kinetic mechanism of the proline:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity of proline utilization A (PutA) from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Michael A; Tanner, John J; Becker, Donald F

    2011-12-15

    The multifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) flavoenzyme from Escherichia coli performs the oxidation of proline to glutamate in two catalytic steps using separate proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase domains. In the first reaction, the oxidation of proline is coupled to the reduction of ubiquinone (CoQ) by the PRODH domain, which has a β(8)α(8)-barrel structure that is conserved in bacterial and eukaryotic PRODH enzymes. The structural requirements of the benzoquinone moiety were examined by steady-state kinetics using CoQ analogs. PutA displayed activity with all the analogs tested; the highest k(cat)/K(m) was obtained with CoQ(2). The kinetic mechanism of the PRODH reaction was investigated use a variety of steady-state approaches. Initial velocity patterns measured using proline and CoQ(1), combined with dead-end and product inhibition studies, suggested a two-site ping-pong mechanism for PutA. The kinetic parameters for PutA were not strongly influenced by solvent viscosity suggesting that diffusive steps do not significantly limit the overall reaction rate. In summary, the kinetic data reported here, along with analysis of the crystal structure data for the PRODH domain, suggest that the proline:ubiquinone oxidoreductase reaction of PutA occurs via a rapid equilibrium ping-pong mechanism with proline and ubiquinone binding at two distinct sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Catalytic Bias of 2-Oxoacid:ferredoxin Oxidoreductase in CO2: evolution and reduction through a ferredoxin-mediated electrocatalytic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Elliott, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes from the 2-oxoacid: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (OFOR) family engage in both CO 2 evolution and reduction in nature, depending on their physiological roles. Two enzymes and their redox partner ferredoxins (Fds) from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus and Desulfovibrio africanus were examined to investigate the basis of the catalytic bias. The Fd1 from H. thermophilus demonstrated a potential of ∼ −485 mV at room temperature, the lowest for known single [4Fe-4S] cluster Fds. It suggests a low potential electron donor may be the key factor in overcoming the large thermodynamic barrier of CO 2 reduction. The Fd-mediated electrocatalytic experiments further demonstrated the impact of Fd’s potential on the direction of the OFOR reaction: as OFOR enzymes could essentially catalyze both CO 2 evolution and reduction in vitro, the difference in their physiological roles is associated with the reduction potential of the redox partner Fd. The electrocatalytic assay could study both CO 2 evolution and reduction in one setup and is a good tool to probe Fds’ reactivity that arise from their reduction potentials.

  1. Structures of recombinant human and mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases: species comparison and structural changes with substrate binding and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faig, M; Bianchet, M A; Talalay, P; Chen, S; Winski, S; Ross, D; Amzel, L M

    2000-03-28

    NAD(P)H/quinone acceptor oxidoreductase (QR1, NQO1, formerly DT-diaphorase; EC ) protects animal cells from the deleterious and carcinogenic effects of quinones and other electrophiles. In this paper we report the apoenzyme structures of human (at 1.7-A resolution) and mouse (2.8 A) QR1 and the complex of the human enzyme with the substrate duroquinone (2.5 A) (2,3,5, 6-tetramethyl-p-benzoquinone). In addition to providing a description and rationale of the structural and catalytic differences among several species, these structures reveal the changes that accompany substrate or cofactor (NAD) binding and release. Tyrosine-128 and the loop spanning residues 232-236 close the binding site, partially occupying the space left vacant by the departing molecule (substrate or cofactor). These changes highlight the exquisite control of access to the catalytic site that is required by the ping-pong mechanism in which, after reducing the flavin, NAD(P)(+) leaves the catalytic site and allows substrate to bind at the vacated position. In the human QR1-duroquinone structure one ring carbon is significantly closer to the flavin N5, suggesting a direct hydride transfer to this atom.

  2. Similar developmental fluctuations of hepato-renal xanthine oxidoreductase gene expression and xanthine oxidase activity in layer and broiler chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, D; Asasi, K; Karimi, I

    2017-04-01

    1. Xanthine oxidase (XO) has many physiological functions associated with the synthesis of both antioxidant (uric acid: UA) and numerous oxidants (e.g. H 2 O 2 ), which makes it an important regulator of the cellular redox potential involving organogenesis. The ontogenetic study of hepatic and renal XO makes a better understanding of the putative role of this enzyme in the development of these tissues. 2. Developmental changes of gene expression of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), XO activity and UA content of liver and kidney tissues in both broiler and layer chicken embryos were examined during incubation d 14-21. 3. In both strains, hepatic XOR gene expression peaked on d 21 while renal XOR gene expression did not change. 4. The XO activity was higher in kidney than liver in both strains. Hepatic XO activity of both strains peaked on d 18 and thereafter was decreased on d 21. Renal XO activity peaked on d 18 and from then on did not show any significant changes until d 21 in both strains. 5. The UA content was higher in kidney vs. liver in both strains. The hepatic and renal UA values of the both strains increased significantly from d 14 to d 21. 6. The present results showed dissimilar behaviour of XOR gene expression, XO activity and UA content of liver and kidney tissues in both broiler and layer chicken embryos.

  3. Molecular characterization of human xanthine oxidoreductase: the enzyme is grossly deficient in molybdenum and substantially deficient in iron-sulphur centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godber, Benjamin L J; Schwarz, Guenter; Mendel, Ralf R; Lowe, David J; Bray, Robert C; Eisenthal, Robert; Harrison, Roger

    2005-06-01

    XOR (xanthine oxidoreductase) purified from human milk was shown to contain 0.04 atom of Mo and 0.09 molecule of molybdopterin/subunit. On the basis of UV/visible and CD spectra, the human enzyme was approx. 30% deficient in iron-sulphur centres. Mo(V) EPR showed the presence of a weak rapid signal corresponding to the enzyme of low xanthine oxidase activity and a slow signal indicating a significant content of desulpho-form. Resulphuration experiments, together with calculations based on enzymic activity and Mo content, led to an estimate of 50-60% desulpho-form. Fe/S EPR showed, in addition to the well-known Fe/S I and Fe/S II species, the presence of a third Fe/S signal, named Fe/S III, which appears to replace partially Fe/S I. Comparison is made with similarly prepared bovine milk XOR, which has approx. 15-fold higher enzymic activity and Mo content. Taken along with evidence of low Mo content in the milk of other mammals, these findings add further support to the idea that XOR protein plays a physiological role in milk (e.g. in secretion) equal in importance to its catalytic function as an enzyme.

  4. Kinetic and Structural Studies of Aldehyde Oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas Reveal a Dithiolene-Based Chemistry for Enzyme Activation and Inhibition by H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondino, Carlos D.; Moura, José J. G.; Romão, Maria J.; González, Pablo J.; Santos-Silva, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Mononuclear Mo-containing enzymes of the xanthine oxidase (XO) family catalyze the oxidative hydroxylation of aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds. The molybdenum active site shows a distorted square-pyramidal geometry in which two ligands, a hydroxyl/water molecule (the catalytic labile site) and a sulfido ligand, have been shown to be essential for catalysis. The XO family member aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (DgAOR) is an exception as presents in its catalytically competent form an equatorial oxo ligand instead of the sulfido ligand. Despite this structural difference, inactive samples of DgAOR can be activated upon incubation with dithionite plus sulfide, a procedure similar to that used for activation of desulfo-XO. The fact that DgAOR does not need a sulfido ligand for catalysis indicates that the process leading to the activation of inactive DgAOR samples is different to that of desulfo-XO. We now report a combined kinetic and X-ray crystallographic study to unveil the enzyme modification responsible for the inactivation and the chemistry that occurs at the Mo site when DgAOR is activated. In contrast to XO, which is activated by resulfuration of the Mo site, DgAOR activation/inactivation is governed by the oxidation state of the dithiolene moiety of the pyranopterin cofactor, which demonstrates the non-innocent behavior of the pyranopterin in enzyme activity. We also showed that DgAOR incubation with dithionite plus sulfide in the presence of dioxygen produces hydrogen peroxide not associated with the enzyme activation. The peroxide molecule coordinates to molybdenum in a η2 fashion inhibiting the enzyme activity. PMID:24391748

  5. Kinetic and structural studies of aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas reveal a dithiolene-based chemistry for enzyme activation and inhibition by H(2O(2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Marangon

    Full Text Available Mononuclear Mo-containing enzymes of the xanthine oxidase (XO family catalyze the oxidative hydroxylation of aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds. The molybdenum active site shows a distorted square-pyramidal geometry in which two ligands, a hydroxyl/water molecule (the catalytic labile site and a sulfido ligand, have been shown to be essential for catalysis. The XO family member aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (DgAOR is an exception as presents in its catalytically competent form an equatorial oxo ligand instead of the sulfido ligand. Despite this structural difference, inactive samples of DgAOR can be activated upon incubation with dithionite plus sulfide, a procedure similar to that used for activation of desulfo-XO. The fact that DgAOR does not need a sulfido ligand for catalysis indicates that the process leading to the activation of inactive DgAOR samples is different to that of desulfo-XO. We now report a combined kinetic and X-ray crystallographic study to unveil the enzyme modification responsible for the inactivation and the chemistry that occurs at the Mo site when DgAOR is activated. In contrast to XO, which is activated by resulfuration of the Mo site, DgAOR activation/inactivation is governed by the oxidation state of the dithiolene moiety of the pyranopterin cofactor, which demonstrates the non-innocent behavior of the pyranopterin in enzyme activity. We also showed that DgAOR incubation with dithionite plus sulfide in the presence of dioxygen produces hydrogen peroxide not associated with the enzyme activation. The peroxide molecule coordinates to molybdenum in a η(2 fashion inhibiting the enzyme activity.

  6. Kinetic and structural studies of aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas reveal a dithiolene-based chemistry for enzyme activation and inhibition by H(2)O(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Jacopo; Correia, Hugo D; Brondino, Carlos D; Moura, José J G; Romão, Maria J; González, Pablo J; Santos-Silva, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Mononuclear Mo-containing enzymes of the xanthine oxidase (XO) family catalyze the oxidative hydroxylation of aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds. The molybdenum active site shows a distorted square-pyramidal geometry in which two ligands, a hydroxyl/water molecule (the catalytic labile site) and a sulfido ligand, have been shown to be essential for catalysis. The XO family member aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (DgAOR) is an exception as presents in its catalytically competent form an equatorial oxo ligand instead of the sulfido ligand. Despite this structural difference, inactive samples of DgAOR can be activated upon incubation with dithionite plus sulfide, a procedure similar to that used for activation of desulfo-XO. The fact that DgAOR does not need a sulfido ligand for catalysis indicates that the process leading to the activation of inactive DgAOR samples is different to that of desulfo-XO. We now report a combined kinetic and X-ray crystallographic study to unveil the enzyme modification responsible for the inactivation and the chemistry that occurs at the Mo site when DgAOR is activated. In contrast to XO, which is activated by resulfuration of the Mo site, DgAOR activation/inactivation is governed by the oxidation state of the dithiolene moiety of the pyranopterin cofactor, which demonstrates the non-innocent behavior of the pyranopterin in enzyme activity. We also showed that DgAOR incubation with dithionite plus sulfide in the presence of dioxygen produces hydrogen peroxide not associated with the enzyme activation. The peroxide molecule coordinates to molybdenum in a η(2) fashion inhibiting the enzyme activity.

  7. Aromatic aldehydes at the active site of aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas: reactivity and molecular details of the enzyme-substrate and enzyme-product interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Hugo D; Marangon, Jacopo; Brondino, Carlos D; Moura, Jose J G; Romão, Maria J; González, Pablo J; Santos-Silva, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Desulfovibrio gigas aldehyde oxidoreductase (DgAOR) is a mononuclear molybdenum-containing enzyme from the xanthine oxidase (XO) family, a group of enzymes capable of catalyzing the oxidative hydroxylation of aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds. The kinetic studies reported in this work showed that DgAOR catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of aromatic aldehydes, but not heterocyclic compounds. NMR spectroscopy studies using (13)C-labeled benzaldehyde confirmed that DgAOR catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes to the respective carboxylic acids. Steady-state kinetics in solution showed that high concentrations of the aromatic aldehydes produce substrate inhibition and in the case of 3-phenyl propionaldehyde a suicide substrate behavior. Hydroxyl-substituted aromatic aldehydes present none of these behaviors but the kinetic parameters are largely affected by the position of the OH group. High-resolution crystallographic structures obtained from single crystals of active-DgAOR soaked with benzaldehyde showed that the side chains of Phe425 and Tyr535 are important for the stabilization of the substrate in the active site. On the other hand, the X-ray data of DgAOR soaked with trans-cinnamaldehyde showed a cinnamic acid molecule in the substrate channel. The X-ray data of DgAOR soaked with 3-phenyl propionaldehyde showed clearly how high substrate concentrations inactivate the enzyme by binding covalently at the surface of the enzyme and blocking the substrate channel. The different reactivity of DgAOR versus aldehyde oxidase and XO towards aromatic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds is explained on the basis of the present kinetic and structural data.

  8. Compounds from the Fruits of the Popular European Medicinal Plant Vitex agnus-castus in Chemoprevention via NADP(H:Quinone Oxidoreductase Type 1 Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our continuing efforts in the search for potential biologically active compounds from medicinal plants, we have isolated 18 compounds including two novel nitrogen containing diterpenes from extracts of the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus. These isolates, along with our previously obtained novel compound vitexlactam A (1, were evaluated for potential biological effects, including cancer chemoprevention. Chemically, the nitrogenous isolates were found to be two labdane diterpene alkaloids, each containing an α, β-unsaturated γ-lactam moiety. Structurally, they were elucidated to be 9α-hydroxy-13(14-labden-16,15-amide (2 and 6β-acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-13(14-labden-15,16-amide (3, which were named vitexlactams B and C, respectively. The 15 known isolates were identified as vitexilactone (4, rotundifuran (5, 8-epi-manoyl oxide (6, vitetrifolin D (7, spathulenol (8, cis-dihydro-dehydro-diconiferylalcohol-9-O-β-D-glucoside (9, luteolin-7-O-glucoside (10, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (11, casticin (12, artemetin (13, aucubin (14, agnuside (15, β-sitosterol (16, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (17, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucose ester (18. All compound structures were determined/identified on the basis of 1D and/or 2D NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Compounds 6, 8, 9, and 18 were reported from a Vitex spieces for the first time. The cancer chemopreventive potentials of these isolates were evaluated for NADP(H:quinone oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1 induction activity. Compound 7 demonstrated promising QR1 induction effect, while the new compound vitexlactam (3 was only slightly active.

  9. The antiproliferative activity of the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor IPI-504 is not dependent on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Mark; Lim, Alice R; Porter, James R; West, Kip; Pink, Melissa M; Ge, Jie; Wylie, Andrew A; Tibbits, Thomas T; Biggs, Kurtis; Curtis, Michael; Palombella, Vito J; Adams, Julian; Fritz, Christian C; Normant, Emmanuel

    2009-12-01

    IPI-504, a water-soluble ansamycin analogue currently being investigated in clinical trials, is a potent inhibitor of the protein chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Inhibition of Hsp90 by IPI-504 triggers the degradation of important oncogenic client proteins. In cells, the free base of IPI-504 hydroquinone exists in a dynamic redox equilibrium with its corresponding quinone (17-AAG); the hydroquinone form binding 50 times more tightly to Hsp90. It has been proposed recently that the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase NQO1 can produce the active hydroquinone and could be essential for the activity of IPI-504. Here, we have devised a method to directly measure the intracellular ratio of hydroquinone to quinone (HQ/Q) and have applied this measurement to correlate NQO1 enzyme abundance with HQ/Q ratio and cellular activity of IPI-504 in 30 cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the intracellular HQ/Q ratio was correlated with NQO1 levels only in a subset of cell lines and overall was poorly correlated with the growth inhibitory activity of IPI-504. Although artificial overexpression of NQO1 is able to increase the level of hydroquinone and cell sensitivity to IPI-504, it has little effect on the activity of 17-amino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin, the major active metabolite of IPI-504. This finding could provide an explanation for the biological activity of IPI-504 in xenograft models of cell lines that are not sensitive to IPI-504 in vitro. Our results suggest that NQO1 activity is not a determinant of IPI-504 activity in vivo and, therefore, unlikely to become an important resistance mechanism to IPI-504 in the clinic.

  10. LEDGF/p75 Overexpression Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Necrosis and Upregulates the Oxidoreductase ERP57/PDIA3/GRP58 in Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Basu

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa mortality is driven by highly aggressive tumors characterized by metastasis and resistance to therapy, and this aggressiveness is mediated by numerous factors, including activation of stress survival pathways in the pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment. LEDGF/p75, also known as the DFS70 autoantigen, is a stress transcription co-activator implicated in cancer, HIV-AIDS, and autoimmunity. This protein is targeted by autoantibodies in certain subsets of patients with PCa and inflammatory conditions, as well as in some apparently healthy individuals. LEDGF/p75 is overexpressed in PCa and other cancers, and promotes resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death via the transactivation of survival proteins. We report in this study that overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells attenuates oxidative stress-induced necrosis but not staurosporine-induced apoptosis. This finding was consistent with the observation that while LEDGF/p75 was robustly cleaved in apoptotic cells into a p65 fragment that lacks stress survival activity, it remained relatively intact in necrotic cells. Overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells led to the upregulation of transcript and protein levels of the thiol-oxidoreductase ERp57 (also known as GRP58 and PDIA3, whereas its depletion led to ERp57 transcript downregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcription reporter assays showed LEDGF/p75 binding to and transactivating the ERp57 promoter, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly elevated co-expression of these two proteins in clinical prostate tumor tissues. Our results suggest that LEDGF/p75 is not an inhibitor of apoptosis but rather an antagonist of oxidative stress-induced necrosis, and that its overexpression in PCa leads to ERp57 upregulation. These findings are of significance in clarifying the role of the LEDGF/p75 stress survival pathway in PCa.

  11. Compounds from the Fruits of the Popular European Medicinal Plant Vitex agnus-castus in Chemoprevention via NADP(H):Quinone Oxidoreductase Type 1 Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Yao, Ping; Sun, Handong; Fong, Harry H S; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    As part of our continuing efforts in the search for potential biologically active compounds from medicinal plants, we have isolated 18 compounds including two novel nitrogen containing diterpenes from extracts of the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus. These isolates, along with our previously obtained novel compound vitexlactam A (1), were evaluated for potential biological effects, including cancer chemoprevention. Chemically, the nitrogenous isolates were found to be two labdane diterpene alkaloids, each containing an α , β -unsaturated γ -lactam moiety. Structurally, they were elucidated to be 9 α -hydroxy-13(14)-labden-16,15-amide (2) and 6 β -acetoxy-9 α -hydroxy-13(14)-labden-15,16-amide (3), which were named vitexlactams B and C, respectively. The 15 known isolates were identified as vitexilactone (4), rotundifuran (5), 8-epi-manoyl oxide (6), vitetrifolin D (7), spathulenol (8), cis-dihydro-dehydro-diconiferylalcohol-9-O- β -D-glucoside (9), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (10), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (11), casticin (12), artemetin (13), aucubin (14), agnuside (15), β -sitosterol (16), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (17), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucose ester (18). All compound structures were determined/identified on the basis of 1D and/or 2D NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Compounds 6, 8, 9, and 18 were reported from a Vitex spieces for the first time. The cancer chemopreventive potentials of these isolates were evaluated for NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1) induction activity. Compound 7 demonstrated promising QR1 induction effect, while the new compound vitexlactam (3) was only slightly active.

  12. A bacterial quercetin oxidoreductase QuoA-mediated perturbation in the phenylpropanoid metabolic network increases lignification with a concomitant decrease in phenolamides in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic perturbations by a gain-of-function approach provide a means to alter steady states of metabolites and query network properties, while keeping enzyme complexes intact. A combination of genetic and targeted metabolomics approach was used to understand the network properties of phenylpropanoid secondary metabolism pathways. A novel quercetin oxidoreductase, QuoA, from Pseudomonas putida, which converts quercetin to naringenin, thus effectively reversing the biosynthesis of quercetin through a de novo pathway, was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. QuoA transgenic lines selected for low, medium, and high expression levels of QuoA RNA had corresponding levels of QuoA activity and hypocotyl coloration resulting from increased anthocyanin accumulation. Stems of all three QuoA lines had increased tensile strength resulting from increased lignification. Sixteen metabolic intermediates from anthocyanin, lignin, and shikimate pathways had increased accumulation, of which 11 paralleled QuoA expression levels in the transgenic lines. The concomitant upregulation of the above pathways was explained by a significant downregulation of the phenolamide pathway and its precursor, spermidine. In a tt6 mutant line, lignifications as well as levels of the lignin pathway metabolites were much lower than those of QuoA transgenic lines. Unlike QuoA lines, phenolamides and spermidine were not affected in the tt6 line. Taken together, these results suggest that phenolamide pathway plays a major role in directing metabolic intermediates into the lignin pathway. Metabolic perturbations were accompanied by downregulation of five genes associated with branch-point enzymes and upregulation of their corresponding products. These results suggest that gene–metabolite pairs are likely to be co-ordinately regulated at critical branch points. Thus, these perturbations by a gain-of-function approach have uncovered novel properties of the phenylpropanoid metabolic network. PMID:24085580

  13. Electrical Wiring of the Aldehyde Oxidoreductase PaoABC with a Polymer Containing Osmium Redox Centers: Biosensors for Benzaldehyde and GABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artavazd Badalyan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors for the detection of benzaldehyde and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA are reported using aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli immobilized in a polymer containing bound low potential osmium redox complexes. The electrically connected enzyme already electrooxidizes benzaldehyde at potentials below −0.15 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, 1 M KCl. The pH-dependence of benzaldehyde oxidation can be strongly influenced by the ionic strength. The effect is similar with the soluble osmium redox complex and therefore indicates a clear electrostatic effect on the bioelectrocatalytic efficiency of PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. At lower ionic strength, the pH-optimum is high and can be switched to low pH-values at high ionic strength. This offers biosensing at high and low pH-values. A “reagentless” biosensor has been formed with enzyme wired onto a screen-printed electrode in a flow cell device. The response time to addition of benzaldehyde is 30 s, and the measuring range is between 10–150 µM and the detection limit of 5 µM (signal to noise ratio 3:1 of benzaldehyde. The relative standard deviation in a series (n = 13 for 200 µM benzaldehyde is 1.9%. For the biosensor, a response to succinic semialdehyde was also identified. Based on this response and the ability to work at high pH a biosensor for GABA is proposed by coimmobilizing GABA-aminotransferase (GABA-T and PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer.

  14. Role of the NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase NQR and the cytochrome b AIR12 in controlling superoxide generation at the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniek, Catherine; Heyno, Eiri; Kruk, Jerzy; Sparla, Francesca; Trost, Paolo; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2017-04-01

    The quinone reductase NQR and the b-type cytochrome AIR12 of the plasma membrane are important for the control of reactive oxygen species in the apoplast. AIR12 and NQR are two proteins attached to the plant plasma membrane which may be important for generating and controlling levels of reactive oxygen species in the apoplast. AIR12 (Auxin Induced in Root culture) is a single gene of Arabidopsis that codes for a mono-heme cytochrome b. The NADPH quinone oxidoreductase NQR is a two-electron-transferring flavoenzyme that contributes to the generation of O 2 •- in isolated plasma membranes. A. thaliana double knockout plants of both NQR and AIR12 generated more O 2 •- and germinated faster than the single mutant affected in AIR12. To test whether NQR and AIR12 are able to interact functionally, recombinant purified proteins were added to plasma membranes isolated from soybean hypocotyls. In vitro NADH-dependent O 2 •- production at the plasma membrane in the presence of NQR was reduced upon addition of AIR12. Electron donation from semi-reduced menadione to AIR12 was shown to take place. Biochemical analysis showed that purified plasma membrane from soybean hypocotyls or roots contained phylloquinone and menaquinone-4 as redox carriers. This is the first report on the occurrence of menaquinone-4 in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. We propose that NQR and AIR12 interact via the quinone, allowing an electron transfer from cytosolic NAD(P)H to apoplastic monodehydroascorbate and control thereby the level of reactive oxygen production and the redox state of the apoplast.

  15. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  16. Flavonolignan 2,3-dehydrosilydianin activates Nrf2 and upregulates NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in Hepa1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubalová, Lenka; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Biedermann, David; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vrba, Jiří

    2017-06-01

    Silybum marianum (milk thistle) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various liver disorders. This study examined whether the main flavonolignans from S. marianum (i.e. silybin, silychristin, silydianin) and their 2,3-dehydro derivatives (i.e. 2,3-dehydrosilybin, 2,3-dehydrosilychristin, 2,3-dehydrosilydianin) activate the Nrf2 pathway, which regulates the expression of genes encoding many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). After 48h of exposure, 2,3-dehydrosilydianin at concentrations of 25μM and higher significantly elevated the activity of NQO1 in murine hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. In contrast, other tested compounds at non-cytotoxic concentrations had a mild or negligible effect on the NQO1 activity. Using a luciferase reporter assay, 2,3-dehydrosilydianin was found to significantly activate transcription via the antioxidant response element in stably transfected human AREc32 reporter cells. Moreover, 2,3-dehydrosilydianin caused the accumulation of Nrf2 and significantly induced the expression of the Nqo1 gene at both the mRNA and protein levels in Hepa1c1c7 cells. We found that 2,3-dehydrosilydianin also increased to some extent the expression of other Nrf2 target genes, namely of the heme oxygenase-1 gene (Hmox1) and the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm). We conclude that 2,3-dehydrosilydianin activates Nrf2 and induces Nrf2-mediated gene expression in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. GLYCOLATE OXIDASE3, a Glycolate Oxidase Homolog of Yeast l-Lactate Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase, Supports l-Lactate Oxidation in Roots of Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, Martin K.M.; Schmitz, Jessica; Gertzmann, Anke; Florian, Alexandra; Jaspert, Nils; Arif, Muhammad; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Maurino, Veronica G.

    2015-01-01

    In roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), l-lactate is generated by the reduction of pyruvate via l-lactate dehydrogenase, but this enzyme does not efficiently catalyze the reverse reaction. Here, we identify the Arabidopsis glycolate oxidase (GOX) paralogs GOX1, GOX2, and GOX3 as putative l-lactate-metabolizing enzymes based on their homology to CYB2, the l-lactate cytochrome c oxidoreductase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that GOX3 uses l-lactate with a similar efficiency to glycolate; in contrast, the photorespiratory isoforms GOX1 and GOX2, which share similar enzymatic properties, use glycolate with much higher efficiencies than l-lactate. The key factor making GOX3 more efficient with l-lactate than GOX1 and GOX2 is a 5- to 10-fold lower Km for the substrate. Consequently, only GOX3 can efficiently metabolize l-lactate at low intracellular concentrations. Isotope tracer experiments as well as substrate toxicity tests using GOX3 loss-of-function and overexpressor plants indicate that l-lactate is metabolized in vivo by GOX3. Moreover, GOX3 rescues the lethal growth phenotype of a yeast strain lacking CYB2, which cannot grow on l-lactate as a sole carbon source. GOX3 is predominantly present in roots and mature to aging leaves but is largely absent from young photosynthetic leaves, indicating that it plays a role predominantly in heterotrophic rather than autotrophic tissues, at least under standard growth conditions. In roots of plants grown under normoxic conditions, loss of function of GOX3 induces metabolic rearrangements that mirror wild-type responses under hypoxia. Thus, we identified GOX3 as the enzyme that metabolizes l-lactate to pyruvate in vivo and hypothesize that it may ensure the sustainment of low levels of l-lactate after its formation under normoxia. PMID:26246447

  18. A bacterial quercetin oxidoreductase QuoA-mediated perturbation in the phenylpropanoid metabolic network increases lignification with a concomitant decrease in phenolamides in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Sheela; Rai, Amit; Pillai, Bhinu V S; Rodrigues, Amrith; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic perturbations by a gain-of-function approach provide a means to alter steady states of metabolites and query network properties, while keeping enzyme complexes intact. A combination of genetic and targeted metabolomics approach was used to understand the network properties of phenylpropanoid secondary metabolism pathways. A novel quercetin oxidoreductase, QuoA, from Pseudomonas putida, which converts quercetin to naringenin, thus effectively reversing the biosynthesis of quercetin through a de novo pathway, was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. QuoA transgenic lines selected for low, medium, and high expression levels of QuoA RNA had corresponding levels of QuoA activity and hypocotyl coloration resulting from increased anthocyanin accumulation. Stems of all three QuoA lines had increased tensile strength resulting from increased lignification. Sixteen metabolic intermediates from anthocyanin, lignin, and shikimate pathways had increased accumulation, of which 11 paralleled QuoA expression levels in the transgenic lines. The concomitant upregulation of the above pathways was explained by a significant downregulation of the phenolamide pathway and its precursor, spermidine. In a tt6 mutant line, lignifications as well as levels of the lignin pathway metabolites were much lower than those of QuoA transgenic lines. Unlike QuoA lines, phenolamides and spermidine were not affected in the tt6 line. Taken together, these results suggest that phenolamide pathway plays a major role in directing metabolic intermediates into the lignin pathway. Metabolic perturbations were accompanied by downregulation of five genes associated with branch-point enzymes and upregulation of their corresponding products. These results suggest that gene-metabolite pairs are likely to be co-ordinately regulated at critical branch points. Thus, these perturbations by a gain-of-function approach have uncovered novel properties of the phenylpropanoid metabolic network.

  19. No association of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T polymorphism and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development in Turkish subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiz, Hikmet; Bayram, Süleyman; Bekar, Aynur; Akgöllü, Ersin; Ülger, Yakup; Kaya, Berrin Yalinbaş; Sandikçi, Macit; Özdil, Burhan

    2010-01-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the two-electron reduction of numerous quinoid compounds into their less toxic form, thus NQO1 protecting cells against oxidative stress. The gene coding for NQO1 has a single nucleotide polymorphism (C-->T) at nucleotide position 609 (proline to serine substitution at position 187 in amino acid sequence (P187S)) (rs1800566) of the NQO1 cDNA which results in very low enzimatic activity, so it would be expected that individuals with the homologous NQO1 C609T polymorphism would have a susceptibility developing cancer. Previous studies of the association between functional NQO1 C609T polymorphism and several human cancers have had mixed findings but association of NQO1 C609T polymorphism with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development has yet to be investigated. In this study, we aim to evaluate the the association of NQO1 C609T with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development among Turkish population. NQO1 C609T polymorphism was investigated in 167 confirmed subjects with HCC and 167 cancer-free control subjects matched on age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption by using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. There is no association between the allel or genotype of NQO1 C609T polymorphism and HCC development risk in the Turkish subjects examined (p>0.05). Our result demonstrate for the first time that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism is not a genetic susceptibility factor for HCC in the Turkish population. Independent studies are need to validate our findings in a larger series, as well as in patients of different ethnic origins.

  20. Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.

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    Xuan Chen

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.

  1. Effects of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens and its ingredients on cytochrome P450, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH-quinone oxidoreductase in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune-Fang Ueng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (the common rue has been used for various therapeutic purposes, including relief of rheumatism and treatment of circulatory disorder. To elucidate the effects of rue on main drug-metabolizing enzymes, effects of an aqueous extract of the aerial part of rue and its ingredients on cytochrome P450 (P450/CYP, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase were studied in C57BL/6JNarl mice. Oral administration of rue extract to males increased hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities in a dose-dependent manner. Under a 7-day treatment regimen, rue extract (0.5 g/kg induced hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities and protein levels in males and females. This treatment increased hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity only in males. However, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity remained unchanged. Based on the contents of rutin and furanocoumarins of mouse dose of rue extract, rutin increased hepatic Cyp1a activity and the mixture of furanocoumarins (Fmix increased Cyp2b activities in males. The mixture of rutin and Fmix increased Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities. These results revealed that rutin and Fmix contributed at least in part to the P450 induction by rue.

  2. The Mode of Action of Isocyanide in Three Aquatic Organisms, Balanus amphitrite, Bugula neritina and Danio rerio

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2012-09-18

    Isocyanide is a potential antifouling compound in marine environments. In this study, we investigated its mode of action in three aquatic organisms. Two of them, the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, are major marine fouling invertebrates, and the other organism is the non-target species zebrafish Danio rerio. In the swimming larvae of B. neritina, isocyanide did not affect the total attachment rate (≤50 µg ml^(−1)), but it did change the attachment site by increasing the percentage of attachment on the bottom of the container rather than on the wall or air-water inter-surface. Isocyanide binds several proteins in B. neritina as identified via SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS: 1) a 30 kD protein band containing two proteins similar to voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC), which control the direct coupling of the mitochondrial matrix to the energy maintenance of the cytosol and the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria of mammalian cells; and 2) an unknown 39 kD protein. In B. amphitrite cyprids, the isocyanide binding protein were 1) a protein similar to NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, which is the “entry enzyme” of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria; and 2) cytochrome P450. In Danio rerio embryos, isocyanide caused “wavy” notochords, hydrocephalus, pericardial edema, poor blood circulation, and defects in pigmentation and hematopoiesis, which phenocopied copper deficiency. This is the first report on isocyanide binding proteins in fouling organisms, as well as the first description of its phenotype and potential toxicology in zebrafish.

  3. 2-Phenylethylamine, a constituent of chocolate and wine, causes mitochondrial complex-I inhibition, generation of hydroxyl radicals and depletion of striatal biogenic amines leading to psycho-motor dysfunctions in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, T; Mohanakumar, K P

    2010-11-01

    Behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic administration of high doses of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA; 25-75 mg/kg, i.p. for up to 7 days) have been investigated in Balb/c mice. Depression and anxiety, as demonstrated respectively by increased floating time in forced swim test, and reduction in number of entries and the time spent in the open arms in an elevated plus maze were observed in these animals. General motor disabilities in terms of akinesia, catalepsy and decreased swimming ability were also observed in these animals. Acute and sub-acute administration of PEA caused significant, dose-dependent depletion of striatal dopamine, and its metabolites levels. PEA caused dose-dependent generation of hydroxyl radicals in vitro in Fenton's reaction in test tubes, in isolated mitochondrial fraction, and in vivo in the striatum of mice. A significant inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex-I; EC: 1.6.5.3) activity suggests the inhibition in oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria resulting in hydroxyl radical generation. Nissl staining and TH immnunohistochemistry in brain sections failed to show any morphological aberrations in dopaminergic neurons or nerve terminals. Long-term over-consumption of PEA containing food items could be a neurological risk factor having significant pathological relevance to disease conditions such as depression or motor dysfunction. However, per-oral administration of higher doses of PEA (75-125 mg/kg; 7 days) failed to cause such overt neurochemical effects in rats, which suggested safe consumption of food items rich in this trace amine by normal population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rotenone Decreases Hatching Success in Brine Shrimp Embryos by Blocking Development: Implications for Zooplankton Egg Banks.

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    Joseph A Covi

    barrier to the entry of lipophilic compounds and the anaerobic capacity to develop when NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity is inhibited by rotenone.

  5. Peritoneal cavity lavage reduces the presence of mitochondrial damage associated molecular patterns in open abdomen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Quinones, Patricia A; McCarthy, Cameron G; Mentzer, Caleb J; Wenceslau, Camilla F; Holsten, Steven B; Webb, R Clinton; O'Malley, Keith

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs), such as mitochondrial DNA and N-formylated peptides, are endogenous molecules released from tissue after traumatic injury. mtDAMPs are potent activators of the innate immune system. They have similarities with bacteria, which allow mtDAMPs to interact with the same pattern recognition receptors and mediate the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Current recommendations for management of an open abdomen include returning to the operating room every 48 hours for peritoneal cavity lavage until definitive procedure. These patients are often critically ill and develop SIRS. We hypothesized that mitochondrial DAMPs are present in the peritoneal cavity fluid in this setting, and that they accumulate in the interval between washouts. We conducted a prospective pilot study of critically ill adult patients undergoing open abdomen management in the surgical and trauma intensive care units. Peritoneal fluid was collected daily from 10 open abdomen patients. Specimens were analyzed via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), via enzyme immunoassay for DNAse activity and via Western blot analysis for the ND6 subunit of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase, an N-formylated peptide. We observed a reduction in the expression of ND6 the day after lavage of the peritoneal cavity, that was statistically different from the days with no lavage (% change in ND6 expression, postoperative from washout: -50 ± 11 vs. no washout day, 42 ± 9; p abdomen. It is possible that increased frequency of peritoneal cavity lavage may lead to decreased systemic absorption of mtDAMPs, thereby reducing the risk of SIRS. Prospective study, Case Series, Level V.

  6. The mode of action of isocyanide in three aquatic organisms, Balanus amphitrite, Bugula neritina and Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Zhang

    Full Text Available Isocyanide is a potential antifouling compound in marine environments. In this study, we investigated its mode of action in three aquatic organisms. Two of them, the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, are major marine fouling invertebrates, and the other organism is the non-target species zebrafish Danio rerio. In the swimming larvae of B. neritina, isocyanide did not affect the total attachment rate (≤50 µg ml(-1, but it did change the attachment site by increasing the percentage of attachment on the bottom of the container rather than on the wall or air-water inter-surface. Isocyanide binds several proteins in B. neritina as identified via SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS: 1 a 30 kD protein band containing two proteins similar to voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC, which control the direct coupling of the mitochondrial matrix to the energy maintenance of the cytosol and the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria of mammalian cells; and 2 an unknown 39 kD protein. In B. amphitrite cyprids, the isocyanide binding protein were 1 a protein similar to NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, which is the "entry enzyme" of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria; and 2 cytochrome P450. In Danio rerio embryos, isocyanide caused "wavy" notochords, hydrocephalus, pericardial edema, poor blood circulation, and defects in pigmentation and hematopoiesis, which phenocopied copper deficiency. This is the first report on isocyanide binding proteins in fouling organisms, as well as the first description of its phenotype and potential toxicology in zebrafish.

  7. Genome-enabled studies of anaerobic, nitrate-dependent iron oxidation in the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry R Beller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Thiobacillus denitrificans is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium capable of anaerobic, nitrate-dependent U(IV and Fe(II oxidation, both of which can strongly influence the long-term efficacy of in situ reductive immobilization of uranium in contaminated aquifers. We previously identified two c-type cytochromes involved in nitrate-dependent U(IV oxidation in T. denitrificans and hypothesized that c-type cytochromes would also catalyze Fe(II oxidation, as they have been found to play this role in anaerobic phototrophic Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria. Here we report on efforts to identify genes associated with nitrate-dependent Fe(II oxidation, namely (a whole-genome transcriptional studies [using FeCO3, Fe2+, and U(IV oxides as electron donors under denitrifying conditions], (b Fe(II oxidation assays performed with knockout mutants targeting primarily highly expressed or upregulated c-type cytochromes, and (c random transposon-mutagenesis studies with screening for Fe(II oxidation. Assays of mutants for 26 target genes, most of which were c-type cytochromes, indicated that none of the mutants tested were significantly defective in nitrate-dependent Fe(II oxidation. The non-defective mutants included the c1-cytochrome subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III, which has relevance to a previously proposed role for this complex in nitrate-dependent Fe(II oxidation and to current concepts of reverse electron transfer. A transposon mutant with a disrupted gene associated with NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I was ~35% defective relative to the wild-type strain; this strain was similarly defective in nitrate reduction with thiosulfate as the electron donor. Overall, our results indicate that nitrate-dependent Fe(II oxidation in T. denitrificans is not catalyzed by the same c-type cytochromes involved in U(IV oxidation, nor have other c-type cytochromes yet been implicated in the process.

  8. NDUFAF5 Hydroxylates NDUFS7 at an Early Stage in the Assembly of Human Complex I*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Virginie F.; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 45 proteins. One arm lies in the inner membrane, and the other extends about 100 Å into the matrix of the organelle. The extrinsic arm contains binding sites for NADH, the primary electron acceptor FMN, and seven iron-sulfur clusters that form a pathway for electrons linking FMN to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone, which is bound in a tunnel in the region of the junction between the arms. The membrane arm contains four antiporter-like domains, energetically coupled to the quinone site and involved in pumping protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space contributing to the proton motive force. Seven of the subunits, forming the core of the membrane arm, are translated from mitochondrial genes, and the remaining subunits, the products of nuclear genes, are imported from the cytosol. Their assembly is coordinated by at least thirteen extrinsic assembly factor proteins that are not part of the fully assembled complex. They assist in insertion of co-factors and in building up the complex from smaller sub-assemblies. One such factor, NDUFAF5, belongs to the family of seven-β-strand S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. However, similar to another family member, RdmB, it catalyzes the introduction of a hydroxyl group, in the case of NDUFAF5, into Arg-73 in the NDUFS7 subunit of human complex I. This modification occurs early in the pathway of assembly of complex I, before the formation of the juncture between peripheral and membrane arms. PMID:27226634

  9. NDUFAF7 methylates arginine 85 in the NDUFS2 subunit of human complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Virginie F; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2013-11-15

    Complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 44 subunits. One arm is embedded in the inner membrane with the other protruding ∼100 Å into the matrix of the organelle. The extrinsic arm contains binding sites for NADH and the primary electron acceptor FMN, and it provides a scaffold for seven iron-sulfur clusters that form an electron pathway linking FMN to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone, which is bound in the region of the junction between the arms. The membrane arm contains four antiporter-like domains, probably energetically coupled to the quinone site and involved in pumping protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space contributing to the proton motive force. Complex I is put together from preassembled subcomplexes. Their compositions have been characterized partially, and at least 12 extrinsic assembly factor proteins are required for the assembly of the complex. One such factor, NDUFAF7, is predicted to belong to the family of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases characterized by the presence in their structures of a seven-β-strand protein fold. In the present study, the presence of NDUFAF7 in the mitochondrial matrix has been confirmed, and it has been demonstrated that it is a protein methylase that symmetrically dimethylates the ω-N(G),N(G') atoms of residue Arg-85 in the NDUFS2 subunit of complex I. This methylation step occurs early in the assembly of complex I and probably stabilizes a 400-kDa subcomplex that forms the initial nucleus of the peripheral arm and its juncture with the membrane arm.

  10. NDUFAF7 Methylates Arginine 85 in the NDUFS2 Subunit of Human Complex I*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Virginie F.; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 44 subunits. One arm is embedded in the inner membrane with the other protruding ∼100 Å into the matrix of the organelle. The extrinsic arm contains binding sites for NADH and the primary electron acceptor FMN, and it provides a scaffold for seven iron-sulfur clusters that form an electron pathway linking FMN to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone, which is bound in the region of the junction between the arms. The membrane arm contains four antiporter-like domains, probably energetically coupled to the quinone site and involved in pumping protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space contributing to the proton motive force. Complex I is put together from preassembled subcomplexes. Their compositions have been characterized partially, and at least 12 extrinsic assembly factor proteins are required for the assembly of the complex. One such factor, NDUFAF7, is predicted to belong to the family of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases characterized by the presence in their structures of a seven-β-strand protein fold. In the present study, the presence of NDUFAF7 in the mitochondrial matrix has been confirmed, and it has been demonstrated that it is a protein methylase that symmetrically dimethylates the ω-NG,NG′ atoms of residue Arg-85 in the NDUFS2 subunit of complex I. This methylation step occurs early in the assembly of complex I and probably stabilizes a 400-kDa subcomplex that forms the initial nucleus of the peripheral arm and its juncture with the membrane arm. PMID:24089531

  11. NDUFAF5 Hydroxylates NDUFS7 at an Early Stage in the Assembly of Human Complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Virginie F; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2016-07-08

    Complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 45 proteins. One arm lies in the inner membrane, and the other extends about 100 Å into the matrix of the organelle. The extrinsic arm contains binding sites for NADH, the primary electron acceptor FMN, and seven iron-sulfur clusters that form a pathway for electrons linking FMN to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone, which is bound in a tunnel in the region of the junction between the arms. The membrane arm contains four antiporter-like domains, energetically coupled to the quinone site and involved in pumping protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space contributing to the proton motive force. Seven of the subunits, forming the core of the membrane arm, are translated from mitochondrial genes, and the remaining subunits, the products of nuclear genes, are imported from the cytosol. Their assembly is coordinated by at least thirteen extrinsic assembly factor proteins that are not part of the fully assembled complex. They assist in insertion of co-factors and in building up the complex from smaller sub-assemblies. One such factor, NDUFAF5, belongs to the family of seven-β-strand S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. However, similar to another family member, RdmB, it catalyzes the introduction of a hydroxyl group, in the case of NDUFAF5, into Arg-73 in the NDUFS7 subunit of human complex I. This modification occurs early in the pathway of assembly of complex I, before the formation of the juncture between peripheral and membrane arms. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Post-translational modifications near the quinone binding site of mammalian complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2013-08-23

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 44 protein subunits with one arm buried in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion and the orthogonal arm protruding about 100 Å into the matrix. The protruding arm contains the binding sites for NADH, the primary acceptor of electrons flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and a chain of seven iron-sulfur clusters that carries the electrons one at a time from FMN to a coenzyme Q molecule bound in the vicinity of the junction between the two arms. In the structure of the closely related bacterial enzyme from Thermus thermophilus, the quinone is thought to bind in a tunnel that spans the interface between the two arms, with the quinone head group close to the terminal iron-sulfur cluster, N2. The tail of the bound quinone is thought to extend from the tunnel into the lipid bilayer. In the mammalian enzyme, it is likely that this tunnel involves three of the subunits of the complex, ND1, PSST, and the 49-kDa subunit. An arginine residue in the 49-kDa subunit is symmetrically dimethylated on the ω-N(G) and ω-N(G') nitrogen atoms of the guanidino group and is likely to be close to cluster N2 and to influence its properties. Another arginine residue in the PSST subunit is hydroxylated and probably lies near to the quinone. Both modifications are conserved in mammalian enzymes, and the former is additionally conserved in Pichia pastoris and Paracoccus denitrificans, suggesting that they are functionally significant.

  13. Identification of genes associated with the effect of inflammation on the neurotransmission of vascular smooth muscle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shujie; Qiu, Shenlong; Feng, Yiwen; Zhang, Yanping; Qian, Qin; Wan, Zhong; Tang, Jingdong

    2017-04-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) accumulation and hypertrophy are common in vascular disorders, and inflammation has a crucial role in the development of these diseases. To investigate the effect of inflammation on the neurotransmission of VSMC, bioinformatic analysis was performed, following next generation sequencing. Genes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated A7r5 cells and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated A7r5 cells were sequenced via next generation sequencing, and each assay was repeated three times. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using the NOISeq package in R. Subsequently, their potential functions were predicted by functional and pathway enrichment analyses using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online tool. Interaction relationships of the proteins enriched in pathways associated with neurological diseases, the proteins which had interaction relationships with adrenoceptor α 1D ( ADRA1D ) or calcium voltage-gated channel subunit α1 S ( CACNA1S ), separately, were obtained from STRING, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. A total of 2,038 DEGs, including 1,094 upregulated and 944 downregulated genes in the LPS treatment group were identified when compared with the control group. Enrichment analyses showed that NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Core Subunit V2 ( NDUFV2 ) was involved in several neurological diseases, including oxidative phosphorylation, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, NDUFV2 (degree, 20) had a higher degree in the PPI network for DEGs enriched in pathways associated with neurological diseases. In the PPI network for ADRA1D , CACNA1S and the DEGs interacting with them, prohibitin ( PHB ), oxytocin receptor ( OXTR ), collapsin response mediator protein 1 ( CRMP1 ) and dihydropyrimidinase like 2 ( DPYSL2 ) had interaction relationships with both ADRA1D and CACNA1S . To conclude, the

  14. Evidence for an early evolutionary emergence of γ-type carbonic anhydrases as components of mitochondrial respiratory complex I

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    Gray Michael W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity of mitochondrial complex I (CI; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase has increased considerably relative to the homologous complex in bacteria. Comparative analyses of CI composition in animals, fungi and land plants/green algae suggest that novel components of mitochondrial CI include a set of 18 proteins common to all eukaryotes and a variable number of lineage-specific subunits. In plants and green algae, several purportedly plant-specific proteins homologous to γ-type carbonic anhydrases (γCA have been identified as components of CI. However, relatively little is known about CI composition in the unicellular protists, the characterizations of which are essential to our understanding of CI evolution. Results We have performed a tandem mass spectrometric characterization of CI from the amoeboid protozoon Acanthamoeba castellanii. Among the proteins identified were two γCA homologs, AcCa1 and AcCa2, demonstrating that γCA proteins are not specific to plants/green algae. In fact, through bioinformatics searches we detected γCA homologs in diverse protist lineages, and several of these homologs are predicted to possess N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptides. Conclusions The detection of γCAs in CI of Acanthamoeba, considered to be a closer relative of animals and fungi than plants, suggests that γCA proteins may have been an ancestral feature of mitochondrial CI, rather than a novel, plant-specific addition. This assertion is supported by the presence of genes encoding γCAs in the nuclear genomes of a wide variety of eukaryotes. Together, these findings emphasize the importance of a phylogenetically broad characterization of CI for elucidating CI evolution in eukaryotes.

  15. Region-Specific Defects of Respiratory Capacities in the Ndufs4(KO Mouse Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst-Bernhard Kayser

    Full Text Available Lack of NDUFS4, a subunit of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, causes Leigh syndrome (LS, a progressive encephalomyopathy. Knocking out Ndufs4, either systemically or in brain only, elicits LS in mice. In patients as well as in KO mice distinct regions of the brain degenerate while surrounding tissue survives despite systemic complex I dysfunction. For the understanding of disease etiology and ultimately for the development of rationale treatments for LS, it appears important to uncover the mechanisms that govern focal neurodegeneration.Here we used the Ndufs4(KO mouse to investigate whether regional and temporal differences in respiratory capacity of the brain could be correlated with neurodegeneration. In the KO the respiratory capacity of synaptosomes from the degeneration prone regions olfactory bulb, brainstem and cerebellum was significantly decreased. The difference was measurable even before the onset of neurological symptoms. Furthermore, neither compensating nor exacerbating changes in glycolytic capacity of the synaptosomes were found. By contrast, the KO retained near normal levels of synaptosomal respiration in the degeneration-resistant/resilient "rest" of the brain. We also investigated non-synaptic mitochondria. The KO expectedly had diminished capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (state 3 respiration with complex I dependent substrate combinations pyruvate/malate and glutamate/malate but surprisingly had normal activity with α-ketoglutarate/malate. No correlation between oxidative phosphorylation (pyruvate/malate driven state 3 respiration and neurodegeneration was found: Notably, state 3 remained constant in the KO while in controls it tended to increase with time leading to significant differences between the genotypes in older mice in both vulnerable and resilient brain regions. Neither regional ROS damage, measured as HNE-modified protein, nor regional complex I stability, assessed by blue native

  16. Codon usage bias and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene in pisces, aves, and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Arif; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (MT-ND1) gene is a subunit of the respiratory chain complex I and involved in the first step of the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To understand the pattern of compositional properties, codon usage and expression level of mitochondrial ND1 genes in pisces, aves, and mammals, we used bioinformatic approaches as no work was reported earlier. In this study, a perl script was used for calculating nucleotide contents and different codon usage bias parameters. The codon usage bias of MT-ND1 was low but the expression level was high as revealed from high ENC and CAI value. Correspondence analysis (COA) suggests that the pattern of codon usage for MT-ND1 gene is not same across species and that compositional constraint played an important role in codon usage pattern of this gene among pisces, aves, and mammals. From the regression equation of GC12 on GC3, it can be inferred that the natural selection might have played a dominant role while mutation pressure played a minor role in influencing the codon usage patterns. Further, ND1 gene has a discrepancy with cytochrome B (CYB) gene in preference of codons as evident from COA. The codon usage bias was low. It is influenced by nucleotide composition, natural selection, mutation pressure, length (number) of amino acids, and relative dinucleotide composition. This study helps in understanding the molecular biology, genetics, evolution of MT-ND1 gene, and also for designing a synthetic gene.

  17. Oxygen control of nif gene expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae depends on NifL reduction at the cytoplasmic membrane by electrons derived from the reduced quinone pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Roman; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2003-04-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, the flavoprotein, NifL regulates NifA mediated transcriptional activation of the N2-fixation (nif) genes in response to molecular O2 and ammonium. We investigated the influence of membrane-bound oxidoreductases on nif-regulation by biochemical analysis of purified NifL and by monitoring NifA-mediated expression of nifH'-'lacZ reporter fusions in different mutant backgrounds. NifL-bound FAD-cofactor was reduced by NADH only in the presence of a redox-mediator or inside-out vesicles derived from anaerobically grown K. pneumoniae cells, indicating that in vivo NifL is reduced by electrons derived from membrane-bound oxidoreductases of the anaerobic respiratory chain. This mechanism is further supported by three lines of evidence: First, K. pneumoniae strains carrying null mutations of fdnG or nuoCD showed significantly reduced nif-induction under derepressing conditions, indicating that NifL inhibition of NifA was not relieved in the absence of formate dehydrogenase-N or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The same effect was observed in a heterologous Escherichia coli system carrying a ndh null allele (coding for NADH dehydrogenaseII). Second, studying nif-induction in K. pneumoniae revealed that during anaerobic growth in glycerol, under nitrogen-limitation, the presence of the terminal electron acceptor nitrate resulted in a significant decrease of nif-induction. The final line of evidence is that reduced quinone derivatives, dimethylnaphthoquinol and menadiol, are able to transfer electrons to the FAD-moiety of purified NifL. On the basis of these data, we postulate that under anaerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions, NifL inhibition of NifA activity is relieved by reduction of the FAD-cofactor by electrons derived from the reduced quinone pool, generated by anaerobic respiration, that favours membrane association of NifL. We further hypothesize that the quinol/quinone ratio is important for providing the signal to NifL.

  18. Omeprazole induces NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 via aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent mechanisms: Role of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcriptionally induces phase I (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1) and phase II (NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) detoxifying enzymes. The effects of the classical and nonclassical AhR ligands on phase I and II enzymes are well studied in human hepatocytes. Additionally, we observed that the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole (OM), transcriptionally induces CYP1A1 in the human adenocarcinoma cell line, H441 cells via AhR. Whether OM activates AhR and induces the phase II enzyme, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in fetal primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that OM will induce NQO1 in HPMEC via the AhR. The concentrations of OM used in our experiments did not result in cytotoxicity. OM activated AhR as evident by increased CYP1A1 mRNA expression. However, contrary to our hypothesis, OM increased NQO1 mRNA and protein via an AhR-independent mechanism as AhR knockdown failed to abrogate OM-mediated increase in NQO1 expression. Interestingly, OM activated Nrf2 as evident by increased phosphoNrf2 (S40) expression in OM-treated compared to vehicle-treated cells. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown abrogated OM-mediated increase in NQO1 expression. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OM induces NQO1 via AhR-independent, but Nrf2-dependent mechanisms. - Highlights: • We investigated whether omeprazole induces NQO1 in human fetal lung cells. • Omeprazole induces the phase II enzyme, NQO1, in human fetal lung cells. • AhR deficiency fails to abrogate omeprazole-mediated induction of NQO1. • Omeprazole increases phosphoNrf2 (S40) protein expression in human fetal lung cells. • Nrf2 knockdown abrogates the induction of NQO1 by omeprazole in human lung cells.

  19. Omeprazole induces NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 via aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent mechanisms: Role of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy, E-mail: shivanna@bcm.edu

    2015-11-13

    Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcriptionally induces phase I (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1) and phase II (NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) detoxifying enzymes. The effects of the classical and nonclassical AhR ligands on phase I and II enzymes are well studied in human hepatocytes. Additionally, we observed that the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole (OM), transcriptionally induces CYP1A1 in the human adenocarcinoma cell line, H441 cells via AhR. Whether OM activates AhR and induces the phase II enzyme, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in fetal primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that OM will induce NQO1 in HPMEC via the AhR. The concentrations of OM used in our experiments did not result in cytotoxicity. OM activated AhR as evident by increased CYP1A1 mRNA expression. However, contrary to our hypothesis, OM increased NQO1 mRNA and protein via an AhR-independent mechanism as AhR knockdown failed to abrogate OM-mediated increase in NQO1 expression. Interestingly, OM activated Nrf2 as evident by increased phosphoNrf2 (S40) expression in OM-treated compared to vehicle-treated cells. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown abrogated OM-mediated increase in NQO1 expression. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OM induces NQO1 via AhR-independent, but Nrf2-dependent mechanisms. - Highlights: • We investigated whether omeprazole induces NQO1 in human fetal lung cells. • Omeprazole induces the phase II enzyme, NQO1, in human fetal lung cells. • AhR deficiency fails to abrogate omeprazole-mediated induction of NQO1. • Omeprazole increases phosphoNrf2 (S40) protein expression in human fetal lung cells. • Nrf2 knockdown abrogates the induction of NQO1 by omeprazole in human lung cells.

  20. EPR studies of the Mo-enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas: an application of the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to a system containing weakly-coupled paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo J; Barrera, Guillermo I; Rizzi, Alberto C; Moura, José J G; Passeggi, Mario C G; Brondino, Carlos D

    2009-10-01

    Electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes containing paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates are widespread in nature. Despite both the long distances and chemical paths connecting these centers, they can present weak magnetic couplings produced by spin-spin interactions such as dipolar and isotropic exchange. We present here a theoretical model based on the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to analyze the dependence with temperature of EPR spectra of interacting pairs of spin 1/2 centers having different relaxation rates, as is the case of the molybdenum-containing enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas. We analyze the changes of the EPR spectra of the slow relaxing center (Mo(V)) induced by the faster relaxing center (FeS center). At high temperatures, when the relaxation time T(1) of the fast relaxing center is very short, the magnetic coupling between centers is averaged to zero. Conversely, at low temperatures when T(1) is longer, no modulation of the coupling between metal centers can be detected.

  1. Assessment of the contribution of NAD(P)H-dependent quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) to the reduction of vitamin K in wild-type and NQO1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Brian O; Turbyfill, Jared L; Bledsoe, Peggy J; Jaiswal, Anil K; Stafford, Darrel W

    2013-11-15

    NQO1 [NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1; also known as DT-diaphorase] is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyses the two-electron reduction of various quinones including vitamin K. The enzyme may play a role in vitamin K metabolism by reducing vitamin K to vitamin K hydroquinone for utilization in the post-translational γ-glutamyl carboxylation reactions required by several proteins involved in blood coagulation. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of NQO1 to vitamin K reduction and haemostasis in an in vivo model. We examined the contribution of NQO1 to haemostasis by examining survival rates in mice poisoned with the anticoagulant warfarin. Supraphysiological amounts of vitamin K sufficiently reversed the effects of warfarin in both wild-type and NQO1-deficient mice. Additionally, vitamin K reductase activities distinct from VKOR (vitamin K epoxide reductase) and NQO1 were measured in vitro from both wild-type and NQO1-defecient mice. The results of the present study suggest that NQO1 does not play a major role in the production of vitamin K hydroquinone and supports the existence of multiple vitamin K reduction pathways. The properties of a NAD(P)H-dependent vitamin K reductase different from NQO1 are described.

  2. Identification of two Arabidopsis genes encoding a peroxisomal oxidoreductase-like protein and an acyl-CoA synthetase-like protein that are required for responses to pro-auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniewski, Andrew A G; Zhou, Wenxu; Smith, Steven M; Bussell, John D

    2009-03-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB) are metabolised by peroxisomal beta-oxidation to active auxins that inhibit root growth. We screened Arabidopsis mutants for resistance to IBA and 2,4-DB and identified two new 2,4-DB resistant mutants. The mutant genes encode a putative oxidoreductase (SDRa) and a putative acyl-activating enzyme (AAE18). Both proteins are localised to peroxisomes. SDRa is coexpressed with core beta-oxidation genes, but germination, seedling growth and the fatty acid profile of sdra seedlings are indistinguishable from wild type. The sdra mutant is also resistant to IBA, but aae18 is not. AAE18 is the first example of a gene required for response to 2,4-DB but not IBA. The closest relative of AAE18 is AAE17. AAE17 is predicted to be peroxisomal, but an aae17 aae18 double mutant responded similarly to aae18 for all assays. We propose that AAE18 is capable of activating 2,4-DB but IBA activating enzymes remain to be discovered. We present an updated model for peroxisomal pro-auxin metabolism in Arabidopsis that includes SDRa and AAE18.

  3. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Sanderson Cox, Lisa; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-03-01

    The rates of nicotine metabolism differ widely, even after controlling for genetic variation in the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. Genetic variants in an additional nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3, and an obligate microsomal CYP-supportive enzyme, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), were investigated. We examined the impact of FMO3 E158K and POR A503V before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 metabolism group. In 130 nonsmokers of African descent who received 4 mg oral nicotine, FMO3 158K trended toward slower nicotine metabolism in reduced CYP2A6 metabolizers (P=0.07) only, whereas POR 503V was associated with faster CYP2A6 activity (nicotine metabolite ratio) in normal (P=0.03), but not reduced, CYP2A6 metabolizers. Neither FMO3 158K nor POR 503V significantly altered the nicotine metabolic ratio (N=659), cigarette consumption (N=667), or urine total nicotine equivalents (N=418) in smokers of African descent. Thus, FMO3 E158K and POR A503V are minor sources of nicotine metabolism variation, insufficient to appreciably alter smoking.

  4. Indigofera suffruticosa Mill extracts up-regulate the expression of the π class of glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 in rat Clone 9 liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Liu, Chin-San; Li, Chien-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Liu, Te-Chung; Chen, Haw-Wen; Chen, Pei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Ling; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Liu, Kai-Li

    2013-09-01

    Because induction of phase II detoxification enzyme is important for chemoprevention, we study the effects of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill, a medicinal herb, on the expression of π class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in rat Clone 9 liver cells. Both water and ethanolic extracts of I. suffruticosa significantly increased the expression and enzyme activities of GSTP and NQO1. I. suffruticosa extracts up-regulated GSTP promoter activity and the binding affinity of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) with the GSTP enhancer I oligonucleotide. Moreover, I. suffruticosa extracts increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation as well as ARE transcriptional activity. The level of phospho-ERK was augmented by I. suffruticosa extracts, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059 abolished the I. suffruticosa extract-induced ERK activation and GSTP and NQO-1 expression. Moreover, I. suffruticosa extracts, especially the ethanolic extract increased the glutathione level in mouse liver and red blood cells as well as Clone 9 liver cells. The efficacy of I. suffruticosa extracts in induction of phase II detoxification enzymes and glutathione content implies that I. suffruticosa could be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0548 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0548 ref|NP_948279.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit M [Rhodopseudomonas p...alustris CGA009] emb|CAE28379.1| NADH-ubiquinone dehydrogenase chain M [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] NP_948279.1 3.6 26% ...

  6. Avicennia marina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and. NADH dehydrogenase of NADH-ubiquinone (coenzyme. Q) reductase (complex I) were .... phate isomerase, 1 U ml-1 glycerophosphate de-hydrogenase and. 0.2 mM NADH in Tris (pH 7.6) buffer. Activity was monitored by measuring the formation of ...

  7. Kinetic, structural, and EPR studies reveal that aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas does not need a sulfido ligand for catalysis and give evidence for a direct Mo-C interaction in a biological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Teresa; Ferroni, Felix; Thapper, Anders; Marangon, Jacopo; González, Pablo J; Rizzi, Alberto C; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G; Romão, Maria J; Brondino, Carlos D

    2009-06-17

    Aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (DgAOR) is a member of the xanthine oxidase (XO) family of mononuclear Mo-enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. The molybdenum site in the enzymes of the XO family shows a distorted square pyramidal geometry in which two ligands, a hydroxyl/water molecule (the catalytic labile site) and a sulfido ligand, have been shown to be essential for catalysis. We report here steady-state kinetic studies of DgAOR with the inhibitors cyanide, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and arsenite, together with crystallographic and EPR studies of the enzyme after reaction with the two alcohols. In contrast to what has been observed in other members of the XO family, cyanide, ethylene glycol, and glycerol are reversible inhibitors of DgAOR. Kinetic data with both cyanide and samples prepared from single crystals confirm that DgAOR does not need a sulfido ligand for catalysis and confirm the absence of this ligand in the coordination sphere of the molybdenum atom in the active enzyme. Addition of ethylene glycol and glycerol to dithionite-reduced DgAOR yields rhombic Mo(V) EPR signals, suggesting that the nearly square pyramidal coordination of the active enzyme is distorted upon alcohol inhibition. This is in agreement with the X-ray structure of the ethylene glycol and glycerol-inhibited enzyme, where the catalytically labile OH/OH(2) ligand is lost and both alcohols coordinate the Mo site in a eta(2) fashion. The two adducts present a direct interaction between the molybdenum and one of the carbon atoms of the alcohol moiety, which constitutes the first structural evidence for such a bond in a biological system.

  8. Isotropic exchange interaction between Mo and the proximal FeS center in the xanthine oxidase family member aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas on native and polyalcohol inhibited samples: an EPR and QM/MM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María C; Neuman, Nicolás I; Dalosto, Sergio D; González, Pablo J; Moura, José J G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2015-03-01

    Aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (DgAOR) is a homodimeric molybdenum-containing protein that catalyzes the hydroxylation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids and contains a Mo-pyranopterin active site and two FeS centers called FeS 1 and FeS 2. The electron transfer reaction inside DgAOR is proposed to be performed through a chemical pathway linking Mo and the two FeS clusters involving the pyranopterin ligand. EPR studies performed on reduced as-prepared DgAOR showed that this pathway is able to transmit very weak exchange interactions between Mo(V) and reduced FeS 1. Similar EPR studies but performed on DgAOR samples inhibited with glycerol and ethylene glycol showed that the value of the exchange coupling constant J increases ~2 times upon alcohol inhibition. Structural studies in these DgAOR samples have demonstrated that the Mo-FeS 1 bridging pathway does not show significant differences, confirming that the changes in J observed upon inhibition cannot be ascribed to structural changes associated neither with pyranopterin and FeS 1 nor with changes in the electronic structure of FeS 1, as its EPR properties remain unchanged. Theoretical calculations indicate that the changes in J detected by EPR are related to changes in the electronic structure of Mo(V) determined by the replacement of the OHx labile ligand for an alcohol molecule. Since the relationship between electron transfer rate and isotropic exchange interaction, the present results suggest that the intraenzyme electron transfer process mediated by the pyranopterin moiety is governed by a Mo ligand-based regulatory mechanism.

  9. The environmental pollutant and carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone induces cytochrome P450 1A1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in rat lung and kidney, thereby enhancing its own genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborová, Marie; Dracínská, Helena; Mizerovská, Jana; Frei, Eva; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Hudecek, Jirí; Hodek, Petr; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2008-05-02

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a carcinogen occurring in diesel exhaust and air pollution. Using the (32)P-postlabelling method, we found that 3-NBA and its human metabolite, 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), are activated to species forming DNA adducts by cytosols and/or microsomes isolated from rat lung, the target organ for 3-NBA carcinogenicity, and kidney. Each compound generated identical five DNA adducts. We have demonstrated the importance of pulmonary and renal NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) to reduce 3-NBA to species that are further activated by N,O-acetyltransferases and sulfotransferases. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is the essential enzyme for oxidative activation of 3-ABA in microsomes of both organs, while cyclooxygenase plays a minor role. 3-NBA was also investigated for its ability to induce NQO1 and CYP1A1 in lungs and kidneys, and for the influence of such induction on DNA adduct formation by 3-NBA and 3-ABA. When cytosols from rats treated i.p. with 40mg/kg bw of 3-NBA were incubated with 3-NBA, DNA adduct formation was up to 2.1-fold higher than in incubations with cytosols from control animals. This increase corresponded to an increase in protein level and enzymatic activity of NQO1. Incubations of 3-ABA with microsomes of 3-NBA-treated rats led to up to a fivefold increase in DNA adduct formation relative to controls. The stimulation of DNA adduct formation correlated with the potential of 3-NBA to induce protein expression and activity of CYP1A1. These results demonstrate that 3-NBA is capable to induce NQO1 and CYP1A1 in lungs and kidney of rats thereby enhancing its own genotoxic and carcinogenic potential.

  10. Expression of Genes for a Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Binding Oxidoreductase and a Methyltransferase from Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum Is Necessary for Biosynthesis of 10-Methyl Stearic Acid from Oleic Acid in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuntaro Machida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In living organisms, modified fatty acids are crucial for the functions of the cellular membranes and storage lipids where the fatty acids are esterified. Some bacteria produce a typical methyl-branched fatty acid, i.e., 10-methyl stearic acid (19:0Me10. The biosynthetic pathway of 19:0Me10 in vivo has not been demonstrated clearly yet. It had been speculated that 19:0Me10 is synthesized from oleic acid (18:1Δ9 by S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransfer and NADPH-dependent reduction via a methylenated intermediate, 10-methyelene octadecanoic acid. Although the recombinant methyltransferases UmaA and UfaA1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv synthesize 19:0Me10 from 18:1Δ9 and NADPH in vitro, these methyltransferases do not possess any domains functioning in the redox reaction. These findings may contradict the two-step biosynthetic pathway. We focused on novel S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases from Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum that are involved in 19:0Me10 synthesis and selected two candidate proteins, WP_048471942 and WP_048472121, by a comparative genomic analysis. However, the heterologous expression of these candidate genes in Escherichia coli cells did not produce 19:0Me10. We found that one of the candidate genes, WP_048472121, was collocated with another gene, WP_048472120, that encodes a protein containing a domain associated with flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding oxidoreductase activity. The co-expression of these proteins (hereafter called BfaA and BfaB, respectively led to the biosynthesis of 19:0Me10 in E. coli cells via the methylenated intermediate.

  11. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 is activated by transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) versus WWdomain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) in hypoxic microenvironment of bone metastasis from breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinelli, Paola; Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2013-07-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment of bone marrow favours the bone metastasis process. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α is hallmark for hypoxia, correlating with poor prognosis and radio/chemotherapy resistance of primary-breast carcinoma. For bone metastasis, the molecular mechanisms involved in HIF-1α expression and HIF-1 (α/β heterodimer)-transcription factor activity are scarcely known. We studied the role played by HIF-1 in the cross-talk between neoplastic and supportive-microenvironmental cells. Also, WWdomain-containing oxidoreductase (Wwox) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) were taken into consideration evaluating whether these Hippo-pathway effectors affect bone-metastatic phenotype through HIF-1 activity. Considering bone-metastasis specimens, nuclear HIF-1α-TAZ co-localisation occurred in neoplastic and supportive cells, such as fibroblasts and endotheliocytes. Based on these data, the functional importance was verified using 1833-bone metastatic clone under hypoxia: nuclear HIF-1α and TAZ expression increased and co-immunoprecipitated, activating HIF-1-DNA binding and transactivation. In contrast, Wwox localised at perinuclear level in neoplastic cells of bone metastasis, being almost absent in supportive cells, and Wwox-protein expression diminished in hypoxic-1833 cells. Thus, TAZ regulation of HIF-1 activity might be important for bone-secondary growth, participating in metastasis-stroma cross-talk. Further, TAZ and HIF-1α-protein levels seemed correlated. In fact, blocking cyclooxygenase-2 with NS398 in hypoxic-1833 cells, not only HIF-1α decreased but also molecular-mechanism(s) upstream of the Hippo pathway were triggered: LATS-dependent TAZ phosphorylation seemed responsible for TAZ nucleus/cytoplasm translocation and degradation. In the 1833-xenograft model, NS398 largely prevented the outgrowth of bone-metastatic cells, probably related to remarkable-extracellular matrix assembly. We gained clinical insight into

  12. Absolute quantification of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in human tumor cell lines and tissues by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry using both isotopic and non-isotopic internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The peptide fingerprint map of NQO1 has been defined by using TripleTOF. ► Signature peptide of NQO1 can be quickly quantified within 10 min. ► Analysis is performed with non-isotopic analog and compared with isotopic method. ► This method is adequate for NQO1 quantitation from human cancer cells and tissues. -- Abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, DT-diaphorase) is a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for various tumors. Therefore, it is of significance to develop a robust method for the absolute quantification of NQO1. This study aimed to develop and validate a LC–MS/MS based method and to test the appropriateness of using non-isotopic analog peptide as the internal standard (IS) by comparing with a stable isotope labeled (SIL) peptide. The chromatographic performance and mass spectra between the selected signature peptide of NQO1 and the non-isotopic peptide were observed to be very similar. The use of the two internal standards was validated appropriate for the absolute quantification of NQO1, as evidenced by satisfactory validation results over a concentration range of 1.62–162 fmol μL −1 . This method has been successfully applied to the absolute quantification of NQO1 expression in various tumor cell lines and tissues. NQO1 expression in human tumor tissues is much higher than that in the neighboring normal tissues in both the cases of lung and colon cancer. The quantitative results obtained from the isotopic and non-isotopic methods are quite similar, further supporting that the use of non-isotopic analog peptide as internal standard is appropriate and feasible for the quantification of NQO1. By comparing with a classical isotopic IS, the present study indicates that the use of a non-isotopic peptide analog to the proteotypic peptide as the internal standard can get equal accuracy and preciseness in measuring NQO1. The universal applicability of the non-isotopic IS approach for the

  13. Absolute quantification of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in human tumor cell lines and tissues by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry using both isotopic and non-isotopic internal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhiyuan; Wu, Mengqiu; Li, Yingchun; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Huiying; Cheng, Xuefang [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Key Lab of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Xu, Lin [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Guangji, E-mail: guangjiwang@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Key Lab of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Hao, Haiping, E-mail: hhp_770505@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Key Lab of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The peptide fingerprint map of NQO1 has been defined by using TripleTOF. ► Signature peptide of NQO1 can be quickly quantified within 10 min. ► Analysis is performed with non-isotopic analog and compared with isotopic method. ► This method is adequate for NQO1 quantitation from human cancer cells and tissues. -- Abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, DT-diaphorase) is a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for various tumors. Therefore, it is of significance to develop a robust method for the absolute quantification of NQO1. This study aimed to develop and validate a LC–MS/MS based method and to test the appropriateness of using non-isotopic analog peptide as the internal standard (IS) by comparing with a stable isotope labeled (SIL) peptide. The chromatographic performance and mass spectra between the selected signature peptide of NQO1 and the non-isotopic peptide were observed to be very similar. The use of the two internal standards was validated appropriate for the absolute quantification of NQO1, as evidenced by satisfactory validation results over a concentration range of 1.62–162 fmol μL{sup −1}. This method has been successfully applied to the absolute quantification of NQO1 expression in various tumor cell lines and tissues. NQO1 expression in human tumor tissues is much higher than that in the neighboring normal tissues in both the cases of lung and colon cancer. The quantitative results obtained from the isotopic and non-isotopic methods are quite similar, further supporting that the use of non-isotopic analog peptide as internal standard is appropriate and feasible for the quantification of NQO1. By comparing with a classical isotopic IS, the present study indicates that the use of a non-isotopic peptide analog to the proteotypic peptide as the internal standard can get equal accuracy and preciseness in measuring NQO1. The universal applicability of the non-isotopic IS approach for the

  14. OXIDOREDUCTASES FOR BIOANALYSIS AND FOOD CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. CAMARGO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Most well-known enzymatic methods have been employed in the bioanalysis of food, required by law in a number of countries. Food is a complex sample and hence difficult to analyze. In food analysis, there are many different types of sample, such as: clear or turbid, colorless or colored, neutral or acid, liquids, pastes and solids, that can be analyzed by enzymatic methods. The oxidase - peroxidase system may be used for specific analyses. In the reaction catalyzed by the oxidase, hydrogen is transferred from the substrate to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide is formed as an intermediate. Hydrogen peroxide then reacts with a leuco dye in the presence of the enzyme peroxidase and a color develops which is measured in the visible spectrum. This article is a review of two enzymes, peroxidase (POD and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO, pointing out their principal sources, characteristics and applications.

  15. The Goat (Capra hircus) Mammary Gland Mitochondrial Proteome: A Study on the Effect of Weight Loss Using Blue-Native PAGE and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Graziano; Parreira, José R.; Ferlizza, Enea; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Carneiro, Mariana; Renaut, Jenny; Castro, Noemí; Arguello, Anastasio; Capote, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer’s incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland. In addition, we have conducted an investigation of the effects of weight loss in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant) and Palmera (susceptible). The study used Majorera and Palmera dairy goats, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed group fed on wheat straw (restricted diet, so their body weight would be 15–20% reduced by the end of experiment), and a control group fed with an energy-balanced diet. At the end of the experimental period (22 days), mammary gland biopsies were obtained for all experimental groups. The proteomic analysis of the mitochondria enabled the resolution of a total of 277 proteins, and 148 (53%) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins were identified as subunits of the glutamate dehydrogenase complex and the respiratory complexes I, II, IV, V from mitochondria, as well as numerous other proteins with functions in: metabolism, development, localization, cellular organization and biogenesis, biological regulation, response to stimulus, among others, that were mapped in both BN and 2DE gels. The comparative proteomics analysis enabled the identification of several proteins: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit and lamin B1 mitochondrial (up

  16. The Goat (Capra hircus Mammary Gland Mitochondrial Proteome: A Study on the Effect of Weight Loss Using Blue-Native PAGE and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Cugno

    Full Text Available Seasonal weight loss (SWL is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer's incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland. In addition, we have conducted an investigation of the effects of weight loss in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant and Palmera (susceptible. The study used Majorera and Palmera dairy goats, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed group fed on wheat straw (restricted diet, so their body weight would be 15-20% reduced by the end of experiment, and a control group fed with an energy-balanced diet. At the end of the experimental period (22 days, mammary gland biopsies were obtained for all experimental groups. The proteomic analysis of the mitochondria enabled the resolution of a total of 277 proteins, and 148 (53% were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins were identified as subunits of the glutamate dehydrogenase complex and the respiratory complexes I, II, IV, V from mitochondria, as well as numerous other proteins with functions in: metabolism, development, localization, cellular organization and biogenesis, biological regulation, response to stimulus, among others, that were mapped in both BN and 2DE gels. The comparative proteomics analysis enabled the identification of several proteins: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit and lamin B1 mitochondrial

  17. Genome-wide admixture and association study of subclinical atherosclerosis in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Shendre

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a major comorbidity among HIV-infected individuals. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cCIMT is a valid and reliable subclinical measure of atherosclerosis and is known to predict CVD. We performed genome-wide association (GWA and admixture analysis among 682 HIV-positive and 288 HIV-negative Black, non-Hispanic women from the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS cohort using a combined and stratified analysis approach. We found some suggestive associations but none of the SNPs reached genome-wide statistical significance in our GWAS analysis. The top GWAS SNPs were rs2280828 in the region intergenic to mediator complex subunit 30 and exostosin glycosyltransferase 1 (MED30 | EXT1 among all women, rs2907092 in the catenin delta 2 (CTNND2 gene among HIV-positive women, and rs7529733 in the region intergenic to family with sequence similarity 5, member C and regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (FAM5C | RGS18 genes among HIV-negative women. The most significant local European ancestry associations were in the region intergenic to the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 5D gene and NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex assembly factor 1 (ZSCAN5D | NDUF1 pseudogene on chromosome 19 among all women, in the region intergenic to vomeronasal 1 receptor 6 pseudogene and zinc finger protein 845 (VN1R6P | ZNF845 gene on chromosome 19 among HIV-positive women, and in the region intergenic to the SEC23-interacting protein and phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1A (SEC23IP | PPAPDC1A genes located on chromosome 10 among HIV-negative women. A number of previously identified SNP associations with cCIMT were also observed and included rs2572204 in the ryanodine receptor 3 (RYR3 and an admixture region in the secretion-regulating guanine nucleotide exchange factor (SERGEF gene. We report several SNPs and gene regions in the GWAS and admixture analysis, some of which are common across HIV-positive and

  18. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Royland, Joyce E. [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Richards, Judy E. [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C. [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure

  19. Genetics Home Reference: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is characterized by a hormonal imbalance in women that can lead to irregular menstruation, acne, excess body hair (hirsutism), and weight gain. People with moderate cases of ... and disordered steroidogenesis. Hormonal changes in affected males and females lead to ...

  20. Reconstructing a flavodoxin oxidoreductase with early amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Feng; Ji, Hong-Fang; Li, Ting-Xuan; Kang, Shou-Kai; Zhang, Yue-Jie; Zheng, Jue-Fei; Tian, Tian; Jia, Xi-Shuai; Lin, Xing-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2013-06-19

    Primitive proteins are proposed to have utilized organic cofactors more frequently than transition metals in redox reactions. Thus, an experimental validation on whether a protein constituted solely by early amino acids and an organic cofactor can perform electron transfer activity is an urgent challenge. In this paper, by substituting "late amino acids (C, F, M, T, W, and Y)" with "early amino acids (A, L, and V)" in a flavodoxin, we constructed a flavodoxin mutant and evaluated its characteristic properties. The major results showed that: (1) The flavodoxin mutant has structural characteristics similar to wild-type protein; (2) Although the semiquinone and hydroquinone flavodoxin mutants possess lower stability than the corresponding form of wild-type flavodoxin, the redox potential of double electron reduction Em,7 (fld) reached -360 mV, indicating that the flavodoxin mutant constituted solely by early amino acids can exert effective electron transfer activity.

  1. The xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase in human cornea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Filipec, M.; Ardan, Taras

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2001), s. S589 ISSN 0146-0404. [Annual Meeting. 29.04.2001-04.05.2001, Fort Laurdeldade] R&D Projects: GA MZd NG16; GA ČR GA304/00/1635; GA ČR GV307/96/K226 Keywords : human cornea * xanthine oxidase Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  2. Removal of sulfadimethoxine in soil mediated by extracellular oxidoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Sidhu, Sudeep S; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Qingguo

    2015-11-01

    Sulfadimethoxine (SDM) is an antibiotic commonly used in concentrated animal feeding operations and released into the environment via manure application on agricultural lands. Transformation of antibiotics in soil impacts the likelihood of their entry to water bodies, uptake by plants, and thus their effect on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. We conducted experiments to incubate SDM in a sandy loam soil in the presence of humification enzymes commonly found in natural soil, laccase, horseradish peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase. Incubation with the enzymes led to significant reduction in the fraction of SDM extractable from soil, indicating the formation of bound residues. Such transformation was enhanced when the organic matter content in soil is increased or when certain chemical mediators were used along with laccase. The study provided a basis for understanding the environmental fate of sulfonamides and help with the development of remediation methods to mitigate the release of sulfonamides from soil to water.

  3. Psi-screen, an in vitro toxicity test system: applications in the bioassay of perfumes and fragrance chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, David E

    2005-10-01

    The effects of 65 perfume formulations (perfume oils, perfumes, eau de parfum, eau de toilette) on mitochondrial membrane potential (Psim) and mitochondrial respiration have been investigated using a mitochondria-based assay for (Psim, termed Psi-Screen. All the perfume formulations tested are highly active in the Psi-Screen assay, and the major site of inhibition in all cases is NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I). This is confirmed in studies on the inhibition of NADH oxidase and NADH-ubiquinone reductase. Some formulations also inhibit succinate oxidation at either Complex II or Complex III. Evidence for the inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase is presented, as well as for the induction of reactive oxygen species production by perfume inhibition of Complex I. Thus, perfume formulations are multiple inhibitor mixtures which inhibit multiple bioenergetic functions at high dilutions. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to cell toxicity via necrosis and/or apoptosis. Twenty candidate fragrance chemicals were investigated and all inhibited Complex I (5 at <35 microM). Mass screening strategies and high-throughput screening assays are discussed.

  4. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales...

  5. Substrate specificity of the lanthipeptide peptidase ElxP and the oxidoreductase ElxO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Manuel A; Velásquez, Juan E; Garg, Neha; Zhang, Qi; Joyce, Rachel E; Nair, Satish K; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2014-08-15

    The final step in lanthipeptide biosynthesis involves the proteolytic removal of an N-terminal leader peptide. In the class I lanthipeptide epilancin 15X, this step is performed by the subtilisin-like serine peptidase ElxP. Bioinformatic, kinetic, and mass spectrometric analysis revealed that ElxP recognizes the stretch of amino acids DLNPQS located near the proteolytic cleavage site of its substrate, ElxA. When the ElxP recognition motif was inserted into the noncognate lanthipeptide precursor NisA, ElxP was able to proteolytically remove the leader peptide from NisA. Proteolytic removal of the leader peptide by ElxP during the biosynthesis of epilancin 15X exposes an N-terminal dehydroalanine on the core peptide of ElxA that hydrolyzes to a pyruvyl group. The short-chain dehydrogenase ElxO reduces the pyruvyl group to a lactyl moiety in the final step of epilancin 15X maturation. Using synthetic peptides, we also investigated the substrate specificity of ElxO and determined the 1.85 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme.

  6. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Vitamin E--a selective inhibitor of the NADPH oxidoreductase enzyme system in human granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterick, C.J.; Baehner, R.L.; Boxer, L.A.; Jersild, R.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The cellular sites of H 2 O 2 formation in phagocytizing granulocytes have been identified with cerium chloride. A precipitate was visible in phagosomes and on plasma membranes from intact normal cells in the presence of either 0.71 mM NADH or NADPH. X-ray microanalysis permitted identification of cerium deposition within the phagosomes even in the absence of reduced pyridine nucleotides. Catalase ablated the formation of the reaction product. Intact granulocytes obtained from subjects receiving 1600 units of vitamin E daily for 2 weeks exhibited reaction product in the presence of NADH but not NADPH. Intact cells from subjects treated with vitamin E demonstrated diminished numbers of phagocytic vesicles containing reaction product. During phagocytosis the granulocytes treated with vitamin E consumed oxygen but exhibited significantly reduced rates of hydrogen-peroxide-dependent glucose-1- 14 C oxidation to 14 CO 2 . Isolated phagocytic vesicles obtained from granulocytes after ingestion of opsonized lipopolysaccharide-paraffin oil droplets contained reaction product when exposed to 0.71 mM NADPH. No reaction product was evident at 0.71 mM NADH but was evident at 2.0 mM NADH. Isolated phagocytic vesicles from the granulocytes of subjects receiving vitamin E exhibited reaction product only in the presence of NADH. These observations suggest that vitamin E interferes with the electron transport chain apparently required for the oxidation of NADPH to form H 2 O 2 in the phagocytizing granulocyte

  8. Oxidoreductases and cellulases in lichens: possible roles in lichen biology and soil organic matter turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Richard P; Zavarzina, Anna G; Liers, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an Ascomycete) with green algae and/or a cyanobacterium. They dominate on 8 % of the world's land surface, mainly in Arctic and Antarctic regions, tundra, high mountain elevations and as components of dryland crusts. In many ecosystems, lichens are the pioneers on the bare rock or soil following disturbance, presumably because of their tolerance to desiccation and high temperature. Lichens have long been recognized as agents of mineral weathering and fine-earth stabilization. Being dominant biomass producers in extreme environments they contribute to primary accumulation of soil organic matter. However, biochemical role of lichens in soil processes is unknown. Our recent research has demonstrated that Peltigeralean lichens contain redox enzymes which in free-living fungi participate in lignocellulose degradation and humification. Thus lichen enzymes may catalyse formation and degradation of soil organic matter, particularly in high-stress communities dominated by lower plants. In the present review we synthesize recently published data on lichen phenol oxidases, peroxidases, and cellulases and discuss their possible roles in lichen physiology and soil organic matter transformations. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro and in vivo interplay between NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 and flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee-Hilz, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Flavonoids are naturally occurring, health-promoting, bioactive compounds, omnipresent in the human diet. The protective effect of these phytochemicals is accomplished for an important part by modulating the activity of enzyme systems responsible for deactivation of chemical carcinogens, such as

  10. A General Tool for Engineering the NAD/NADP Cofactor Preference of Oxidoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Jackson K B; Werlang, Caroline A; Baumschlager, Armin; Brinkmann-Chen, Sabine; Mayo, Stephen L; Arnold, Frances H

    2017-02-17

    The ability to control enzymatic nicotinamide cofactor utilization is critical for engineering efficient metabolic pathways. However, the complex interactions that determine cofactor-binding preference render this engineering particularly challenging. Physics-based models have been insufficiently accurate and blind directed evolution methods too inefficient to be widely adopted. Building on a comprehensive survey of previous studies and our own prior engineering successes, we present a structure-guided, semirational strategy for reversing enzymatic nicotinamide cofactor specificity. This heuristic-based approach leverages the diversity and sensitivity of catalytically productive cofactor binding geometries to limit the problem to an experimentally tractable scale. We demonstrate the efficacy of this strategy by inverting the cofactor specificity of four structurally diverse NADP-dependent enzymes: glyoxylate reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, xylose reductase, and iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase. The analytical components of this approach have been fully automated and are available in the form of an easy-to-use web tool: Cofactor Specificity Reversal-Structural Analysis and Library Design (CSR-SALAD).

  11. Galactonolactone oxidoreductase from Trypanosoma cruzi employs a FAD cofactor for the synthesis of vitamin C.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Leferink, N.G.H.; Slot, I.G.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas' disease, is unable to salvage vitamin C (l-ascorbate) from its environment and relies on de novo synthesis for its survival. Because humans lack the capacity to synthesize ascorbate, the trypanosomal enzymes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis are

  12. D-glucose:oxygen-1-oxidoreductase by using Aspergillus niger UV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Along with other emerging health consequences, diabetes mellitus is one of the critical threats spreading all over the world with continuity. The investigation of glucose level in diabetic patients requires the key enzyme .... Determination of amino acid residues of the active site. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is ...

  13. Oxidoreductases in liver tissue of animals as a results of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uteshev, A.B.; Makashev, Zh.K.; Uteshev, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Under general X-ray exposure in a dose of 9 Gr, reduction in concentration of a number of cytochromes, catalase activity, cytochrome oxidase of some Krebs cycle dehydrogenases and accumulation of iron in liver of the irradiated animals is observed. This is an indication of conformation alterations of mitochondrial membrane ultrastructure. (author)

  14. WrbA bridges bacterial flavodoxins and eukaryotic NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettrich, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 16 (2007), s. 2301-2305 ISSN 0961-8368 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Protein WrbA Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.135, year: 2007

  15. Energy transducing redox steps of the Na+-pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Oscar; Morgan, Joel E; Nilges, Mark J; Barquera, Blanca

    2010-07-13

    Na(+)-NQR is a unique respiratory enzyme that couples the free energy of electron transfer reactions to electrogenic pumping of sodium across the cell membrane. This enzyme is found in many marine and pathogenic bacteria where it plays an analogous role to the H(+)-pumping complex I. It has generally been assumed that the sodium pump of Na(+)-NQR operates on the basis of thermodynamic coupling between reduction of a single redox cofactor and the binding of sodium at a nearby site. In this study, we have defined the coupling to sodium translocation of individual steps in the redox reaction of Na(+)-NQR. Sodium uptake takes place in the reaction step in which an electron moves from the 2Fe-2S center to FMN(C), while the translocation of sodium across the membrane dielectric (and probably its release into the external medium) occurs when an electron moves from FMN(B) to riboflavin. This argues against a single-site coupling model because the redox steps that drive these two parts of the sodium pumping process do not have any redox cofactor in common. The significance of these results for the mechanism of coupling is discussed, and we proposed that Na(+)-NQR operates through a novel mechanism based on kinetic coupling, mediated by conformational changes.

  16. D-glucose:oxygen-1-oxidoreductase by using Aspergillus niger UV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... type Aspergillus niger was subjected to ultraviolet radiation for enhanced production of glucose oxidase. It was found that ... Optimum production of glucose oxidase from A. niger UV-180-C was carried out by using CSL. (2%), fermentation period .... using Whatman filter paper No. 1 and centrifuged for 15 ...

  17. Modulating oxidoreductase activity modifies the phenolic content of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-03-15

    The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Copper radical oxidases and related extracellular oxidoreductases of wood-decay Agaricomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Kersten; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular peroxide generation, a key component of oxidative lignocellulose degradation, has been attributed to various enzymes including the copper radical oxidases. Encoded by a family of structurally related sequences, the genes are widely distributed among wood decay fungi including three recently completed polypore genomes. In all cases, core catalytic residues...

  19. Isolation and characterization of a thermostable F420:NADPH oxidoreductase from Thermobifida fusca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Hemant; Nguyen, Quoc-Thai; Binda, Claudia; Mattevi, Andrea; Fraaije, Marco W

    2017-01-01

    F420H2-dependent enzymes reduce a wide range of substrates that are otherwise recalcitrant to enzyme-catalyzed reduction, and their potential for applications in biocatalysis has attracted increasingly attention. Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic bacterium and holds high biocatalytic

  20. Reductive methylation to improve crystallization of the putative oxidoreductase Rv0765c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauert, Wilko; Eddine, Ali Nasser; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Weiss, Manfred S.; Janowski, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The M. tuberculosis protein Rv0765c was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. In an attempt to improve the quality of the crystals of Rv0765c, the protein was modified by reductive methylation. The methylated protein crystallized in a new crystal form with profoundly improved diffraction properties. Rv0765c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. It was purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatographic techniques and crystallized. The native protein crystallized in a hexagonal crystal form which diffracted to 7 Å resolution. In an attempt to improve the quality of the Rv0765c crystals, the protein was modified by reductive methylation using dimethylaminoborane and formaldehyde. The modified protein crystallized under different conditions in a tetragonal crystal form, from which diffraction data could be collected to a resolution of 3.2 Å. In both crystal forms of Rv0765c, the asymmetric unit contained two copies of the protein molecule

  1. Modulation of Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductases for Increased Production of Disulfide-Bond-Containing Proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Dubois, Jean-Yves F.; Freudl, Roland; Quax, Wim J.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are important for the correct folding, structural integrity, and activity of many biotechnologically relevant proteins. For synthesis and subsequent secretion of these proteins in bacteria, such as the well-known "cell factory" Bacillus subtilis, it is often the correct formation of

  2. Single molecule activity measurements of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase reveal the existence of two discrete functional states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Rantzau, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    450 enzymes. Measurements and statistical analy-sis of individual catalytic turnover cycles shows POR to sample at least two major functional states. This phenotype may underlie regulatory interactions with different cytochromes P450 but to date remained masked in bulk kinetics. To ensure that we...

  3. Biphasic Kinetic Behavior of E. coli WrbA, an FMNDependent NAD(P)H. Quinone Oxidoreductase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kishko, Iryna; Harish, B.; Zayats, Vasilina; Řeha, David; Tenner, B.; Beri, D.; Gustavsson, T.; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Carey, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2012), s. 1-10 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/1934 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Escheria-coli * DT-diaphorase * dehydrogense * mechanism * enzyme * flavoprotein * flavodoxin * reduction Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  4. Catalase as a sulfide-sulfur oxido-reductase: An ancient (and modern?) regulator of reactive sulfur species (RSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kenneth R; Gao, Yan; DeLeon, Eric R; Arif, Maaz; Arif, Faihaan; Arora, Nitin; Straub, Karl D

    2017-08-01

    Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H 2 O 2 to O 2 and H 2 O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O 2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS). Here we examine catalase metabolism of H 2 S n , the sulfur analog of H 2 O 2 , hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H 2 S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H 2 S n ; SSP4) and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF). Catalase eliminated H 2 S n , but did not anaerobically generate H 2 S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H 2 S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P 50 of 20mmHg. H 2 O 2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H 2 S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az), H 2 O 2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H 2 S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H 2 O 2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H 2 S from dithiothreitol (DTT) in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H 2 S in the presence of O 2 . H 2 S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H 2 S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears to be the first observation of catalase reductase activity independent of peroxide dismutation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity reduces hypertrophy in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway responds to oxidative stress via control of the expression of several antioxidant genes. Recent efforts demonstrate that Nrf2 modulates development of adiposity and adipogenesis. However little is kno...

  6. HiPIP oxido-reductase activity in membranes from aerobically grown cells of the facultative phototroph Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Kofod, Pauli; Zannoni, Davide

    1995-01-01

    The role of the periplasmically located, water-soluble, HiPIP (high-potential iron-sulfur protein) in the respiratory chain of the facultative phototroph Rhodoferax fermentans has been examined. The oxidized HiPIP is reduced by succinate-dependent respiration via the bc 1 complex, this reaction...

  7. The structural and functional basis of catalysis mediated by NAD(PH:acceptor Oxidoreductase (FerB of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Sedláček

    Full Text Available FerB from Paracoccus denitrificans is a soluble cytoplasmic flavoprotein that accepts redox equivalents from NADH or NADPH and transfers them to various acceptors such as quinones, ferric complexes and chromate. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements in solution reported here reveal a head-to-tail dimer with two flavin mononucleotide groups bound at the opposite sides of the subunit interface. The dimers tend to self-associate to a tetrameric form at higher protein concentrations. Amino acid residues important for the binding of FMN and NADH and for the catalytic activity are identified and verified by site-directed mutagenesis. In particular, we show that Glu77 anchors a conserved water molecule in close proximity to the O2 of FMN, with the probable role of facilitating flavin reduction. Hydride transfer is shown to occur from the 4-pro-S position of NADH to the solvent-accessible si side of the flavin ring. When using deuterated NADH, this process exhibits a kinetic isotope effect of about 6 just as does the NADH-dependent quinone reductase activity of FerB; the first, reductive half-reaction of flavin cofactor is thus rate-limiting. Replacing the bulky Arg95 in the vicinity of the active site with alanine substantially enhances the activity towards external flavins that obeys the standard bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism. The new evidence for a cryptic flavin reductase activity of FerB justifies the previous inclusion of this enzyme in the protein family of NADPH-dependent FMN reductases.

  8. Catalase as a sulfide-sulfur oxido-reductase: An ancient (and modern? regulator of reactive sulfur species (RSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Olson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H2O2 to O2 and H2O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS. Here we examine catalase metabolism of H2Sn, the sulfur analog of H2O2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H2S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H2Sn; SSP4 and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF. Catalase eliminated H2Sn, but did not anaerobically generate H2S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H2S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P50 of 20 mmHg. H2O2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H2S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az, H2O2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H2S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H2O2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H2S from dithiothreitol (DTT in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H2S in the presence of O2. H2S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H2S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears to be the first observation of catalase reductase activity independent of peroxide dismutation.

  9. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase and NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial superoxide production in response to oscillatory shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, J. Scott; Davis, Michael E.; Giddens, Don P.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Oscillatory shear stress occurs at sites of the circulation that are vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Because oxidative stress contributes to atherosclerosis, we sought to determine whether oscillatory shear stress increases endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and to define the enzymes responsible for this phenomenon. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static, laminar (15 dyn/cm2), and oscillatory shear stress (+/-15 dyn/cm2). Oscillatory shear increased superoxide (O2.-) production by more than threefold over static and laminar conditions as detected using electron spin resonance (ESR). This increase in O2*- was inhibited by oxypurinol and culture of endothelial cells with tungsten but not by inhibitors of other enzymatic sources. Oxypurinol also prevented H2O2 production in response to oscillatory shear stress as measured by dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex Red fluorescence. Xanthine-dependent O2*- production was increased in homogenates of endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear stress. This was associated with decreased xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) protein levels and enzymatic activity resulting in an elevated ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) to XDH. We also studied endothelial cells lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase. These cells exhibited dramatically depressed O2*- production and had minimal XO protein and activity. Transfection of these cells with p47phox restored XO protein levels. Finally, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, prolonged inhibition of the NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin decreased XO protein levels and prevented endothelial cell stimulation of O2*- production in response to oscillatory shear stress. These data suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase maintains endothelial cell XO levels and that XO is responsible for increased reactive oxygen species production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

  10. Old drug, new indication: Olsalazine sodium reduced serum uric acid levels in mice via inhibiting xanthine oxidoreductase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Niu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia, a long-term purine metabolic disorder, is a well-known risk factor for gout, hypertension and diabetes. In maintaining normal whole-body purine levels, xanthine oxidase (XOD is a key enzyme in the purine metabolic pathway, as it catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and finally to uric acid. Here we used the protein-ligand docking software idock to virtually screen potential XOD inhibitors from 3167 approved small compounds/drugs. The inhibitory activities of the ten compounds with the highest scores were tested on XOD in vitro. Interestingly, all the ten compounds inhibited the activity of XOD at certain degrees. Particularly, the anti-ulcerative-colitis drug olsalazine sodium demonstrated a great inhibitory activity for XOD (IC50 = 3.4 mg/L. Enzymatic kinetic studies revealed that the drug was a hybrid-type inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Furthermore, the drug strikingly decreased serum urate levels, serum/hepatic activities of XOD at a dose-dependent manner in vivo. Thus, we demonstrated a successful hunting process of compounds/drugs for hyperuricemia through virtual screening, supporting a potential usage of olsalazine sodium in the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  11. NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 Expression Sensitizes Malignant Melanoma Cells to the HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Shuya; Arakawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Ayaka; Shigeeda, Wataru; Yasuhira, Shinji; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Akasaka, Toshihide; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway regulates cellular redox homeostasis by transcriptional induction of genes associated with antioxidant synthesis and detoxification in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that KEAP1 mutation elicits constitutive NRF2 activation and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and dacarbazine (DTIC) in human melanomas. The present study was conducted to clarify whether an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, efficiently eliminates melanoma with KEAP1 mutation, as the NRF2 target gene, NQO1, is a key enzyme in 17-AAG bioactivation. In melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines with or without KEAP1 mutations, NQO1 expression and 17-AAG sensitivity are inversely correlated. NQO1 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines despite the presence of wild-type KEAP1, and the NQO1 expression is dependent on NRF2 activation. Because either CDDP or DTIC produces reactive oxygen species that activate NRF2, we determined whether these agents would sensitize NQO1-low melanoma cells to 17-AAG. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the 17-AAG and CDDP combination was detected in four out of five NQO1-low cell lines, but not in the cell line with KEAP1 mutation. These data indicate that 17-AAG could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma with KEAP1 mutation or NQO1 expression.

  12. Improved biocatalysts from a synthetic circular permutation library of the flavin-dependent oxidoreductase old yellow enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ashley B; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Lutz, Stefan

    2013-09-25

    Members of the old yellow enzyme (OYE) family are widely used, effective biocatalysts for the stereoselective trans-hydrogenation of activated alkenes. To further expand their substrate scope and improve catalytic performance, we have applied a protein engineering strategy called circular permutation (CP) to enhance the function of OYE1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus. CP can influence a biocatalyst's function by altering protein backbone flexibility and active site accessibility, both critical performance features because the catalytic cycle for OYE1 is thought to involve rate-limiting conformational changes. To explore the impact of CP throughout the OYE1 protein sequence, we implemented a highly efficient approach for cell-free cpOYE library preparation by combining whole-gene synthesis with in vitro transcription/translation. The versatility of such an ex vivo system was further demonstrated by the rapid and reliable functional evaluation of library members under variable environmental conditions with three reference substrates ketoisophorone, cinnamaldehyde, and (S)-carvone. Library analysis identified over 70 functional OYE1 variants with several biocatalysts exhibiting over an order of magnitude improved catalytic activity. Although catalytic gains of individual cpOYE library members vary by substrate, the locations of new protein termini in functional variants for all tested substates fall within the same four distinct loop/lid regions near the active site. Our findings demonstrate the importance of these structural elements in enzyme function and support the hypothesis of conformational flexibility as a limiting factor for catalysis in wild type OYE.

  13. A di-arginine motif contributes to the ER localization of the type I transmembrane ER oxidoreductase TMX4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Doris; Lynes, Emily; Riemer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    -glycosylated type I membrane protein that localizes to the ER. We also demonstrate that TMX4 contains a single ER-luminal thioredoxin-like domain, which, in contrast with similar domains in other PDIs, is mainly oxidized in living cells. The TMX4 transcript displays a wide tissue distribution, and is strongly...

  14. Density functional theory based QSAR study of ruthenium (II) antitumor drugs and their interactions with xanthine oxidoreductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Paritosh; Das, Dharitri

    2013-01-01

    Transition metal containing drugs have been used intensely for their potential anticancer activities. Platinum drugs have been used successfully for the treatment of cancer. However, these drugs have severe drawbacks including unwanted side effects, drug resistance and ineffectiveness towards some of cancers. Therefore scientists are searching for new drugs to solve these problems, and Ruthenium coordination compounds have been found effective alternatives to platinum coordination drugs

  15. Increased availability of NADH in metabolically engineered baker's yeast improves transaminase-oxidoreductase coupled asymmetric whole-cell bioconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Hägglöf, Cecilia; Weber, Nora

    2016-01-01

    -expressing SADH. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the results demonstrate that the deletion of the GPD1 and GPD2 genes significantly increases activity of the whole-cell biocatalyst, and at the same time reduces the co-substrate demand in a process configuration where only yeast and sugar is added to drive the reactions, i......, there was nearly no formation of (S)-1-phenylethanol when using the control strain with intact GPDs and over-expressing the VAMT-SADH coupling. It was found that a gpd1Δgpd2Δ strain over-expressing SADH had a 3-fold higher reduction rate and a 3-fold lower glucose requirement than the strain with intact GPDs over...

  16. Microbial production of xylitol from xylose and L-arabinose: conversion of L-arabitol to xylitol using bacterial oxidoreductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial production of xylitol, using hemicellulosic biomass such as agricultural residues, is becoming more attractive for reducing its manufacturing cost. L-arabitol is a particular problem to xylitol production from hemicellulosic hydrolyzates that contain both xylose and L-arabinose because it...

  17. The Bioinformatics Report of Mutation Outcome on NADPH Flavin Oxidoreductase Protein Sequence in Clinical Isolates of H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Nasrin; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Moghim, Sharareh; Ghaempanah, Abdol Majid; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2016-05-01

    frxA gene has been implicated in the metronidazole nitro reduction by H. pylori. Alternatively, frxA is expected to contribute to the protection of urease and to the in vivo survival of H. pylori. The aim of present study is to report the mutation effects on the frxA protein sequence in clinical isolates of H. pylori in our community. Metronidazole resistance was proven in 27 of 48 isolates. glmM and frxA genes were used for molecular confirmation of H. pylori isolates. The primer set for detection of whole sequence of frxA gene for the effect of mutation on protein sequence was used. DNA and protein sequence evaluation and analysis were done by blast, Clustal Omega, and T COFFEE programs. Then, FrxA protein sequences from six metronidazole-resistant clinical isolates were analyzed by web-based bioinformatics tools. The result of six metronidazole-resistant clinical isolates in comparison with strain 26695 showed ten missense mutations. The result with the STRING program revealed that no change was seen after alterations in these sequences. According to consensus data involving four methods, residue substitutions at 40, 13, and 141 increase the stability of protein sequence after mutation, while other alterations decrease. Residue substitutions at 40, 43, 141, 138, 169, and 179 are deleterious, while, V7I, Q10R, V34I, and V96I alterations are neutral. As FrxA contribute to survival of bacterium and in regard to the effect of mutations on protein function, it might affect the survival and bacterium phenotype and it need to be studied more. Also, none of the stability prediction tool is perfect; iStable is the best predictor method among all methods.

  18. SINTESIS LAKTOGENIN DARI TETRAHIDROFURAN-3-KARBOKSALDEHIDA DAN 2-ASETIL-γ-BUTIROLAKTON DENGAN KATALIS NATRIUM METOKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffy Julianus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Acetogenin compound known for its activity as anticancer by inhibited the NADHubiquinone reductase contained in the mitochondria. These compounds with high liphophilicity properties have a weakness in solubility with log P 8.44, so modifications to improve the solubility by maintaining a core group of tetrahydrofuran and γ-lactone as well as shortening the alkyl chain is needed. The modified compounds was lactogenin or 3-(3- (tetrahydrofuran-3-yl acryloyl dihydrofuran-2(3H-one that have a log P 0.90 and is expected to have a better solubility properties than acetogenin. Lactogenin synthesis was based on cross-aldol condensation reaction by reacting tetrahyrdofuran-3-carbaldehyde and 2-acetyl-γ-butyrolactone using sodium methoxide as catalyst. The synthesized compounds were red solution with specific smell. The TLC result showed the new products at Rf 0.314. The purity test by gas chromatography showed 74.07% purity. The structure elucidation by infrared and mass spectroscopy showed that the synthesized compound was β-hydroxy lactogenin or 3-(3-hydroxy-3-(tetrahydrofuran-3-yl propanoyl dihydrofuran-2(3H-one. Keywords: NADH-ubiquinone oksidoreduktase, lactogenin, cross-aldol condensation reaction, β-hydroxy lactogenin

  19. Transcriptome of the alternative ethanol production strain Dekkera bruxellensis CBS 11270 in sugar limited, low oxygen cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgeniia A Tiukova

    Full Text Available Dekkera bruxellensis can outcompete Saccharomyces cerevisiae in environments with low sugar concentrations. It is usually regarded as a spoilage yeast but has lately been identified as an alternative ethanol production organism. In this study, global gene expression in the industrial isolate D. bruxellensis CBS 11270 under oxygen and glucose limitation was investigated by whole transcriptome sequencing using the AB SOLiD technology. Among other observations, we noted expression of respiratory complex I NADH-ubiquinone reductase although D. bruxellensis is a Crabtree positive yeast. The observed higher expression of NADH-generating enzymes compared to NAD(+-generating enzymes might be the reason for the previously observed NADH imbalance and resulting Custer effect in D. bruxellensis. Low expression of genes involved in glycerol production is probably the molecular basis for high efficiency of D. bruxellensis metabolism under nutrient limitation. No D. bruxellensis homologs to the genes involved in the final reactions of glycerol biosynthesis were detected. A high number of expressed sugar transporter genes is consistent with the hypothesis that the competitiveness of D. bruxellensis is due to a higher affinity for the limiting substrate.

  20. Stairway to heaven: evaluating levels of biological organization correlated with the successful ascent of natural waterfalls in the Hawaiian stream goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko L Schoenfuss

    Full Text Available Selective pressures generated by locomotor challenges act at the level of the individual. However, phenotypic variation among individuals that might convey a selective advantage may occur across any of multiple levels of biological organization. In this study, we test for differences in external morphology, muscle mechanical advantage, muscle fiber type and protein expression among individuals of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni collected from sequential pools increasing in elevation within a single freshwater stream. Despite predictions from previous laboratory studies of morphological selection, few directional morphometric changes in body shape were observed at successively higher elevations. Similarly, lever arm ratios associated with the main pelvic sucker, central to climbing ability in this species, did not differ between elevations. However, among climbing muscles, the adductor pelvicus complex (largely responsible for generating pelvic suction during climbing contained a significantly greater red muscle fiber content at upstream sites. A proteomic analysis of the adductor pelvicus revealed two-fold increases in expression levels for two respiratory chain proteins (NADH:ubiquinone reductase and cytochrome b that are essential for aerobic respiration among individuals from successively higher elevations. Assessed collectively, these evaluations reveal phenotypic differences at some, but not all levels of biological organization that are likely the result of selective pressures experienced during climbing.

  1. The toxicity of aromatic nitrocompounds to bovine leukemia virus-transformed fibroblasts: the role of single-electron reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cènas, N; Nemeikaitè, A; Dickancaitè, E; Anusevicius, Z; Nivinskas, H; Bironaitè, D

    1995-08-31

    Bovine leukemia virus-transformed lamb embryo fibroblasts (line FLK) possess activity of DT-diaphorase of ca. 260 U/mg protein and similar levels of other NADP(H)-oxidizing enzymes: NADH:oxidase, 359 U/mg; NADPH:oxidase, 43 U/mg; NADH:cytochrome-c reductase, 141 U/mg; NADPH:cytochrome-c reductase, 43 U/mg. In general, the toxicity of aromatic nitrocompounds towards FLK cells increases on increase of single-electron reduction potentials (E1(1)) of nitrocompounds or the log of their reduction rate constants by single-electron-transferring enzymes, microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase (EC 1.6.2.4) and mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone reductase (EC 1.6.99.3). No correlation between the toxicity and reduction rate of nitrocompounds by rat liver DT-diaphorase (EC 1.6.99.2) was observed. The toxicity is not significantly affected by dicumarol, an inhibitor of DT-diaphorase. Nitrocompounds examined were poor substrates for DT-diaphorase, being 10(4) times less active than menadione. Their poor reactivity is most probably determined by their preferential binding to a NADPH binding site, but not to menadione binding site of diaphorase. These data indicate that at comparable activities of DT-diaphorase and single-electron-transferring NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in the cell, the toxicity of nitrocompounds will be determined mainly by their single-electron reduction reactions.

  2. Stairway to Heaven: Evaluating Levels of Biological Organization Correlated with the Successful Ascent of Natural Waterfalls in the Hawaiian Stream Goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Maie, Takashi; Moody, Kristine N.; Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Blob, Richard W.; Schoenfuss, Tonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Selective pressures generated by locomotor challenges act at the level of the individual. However, phenotypic variation among individuals that might convey a selective advantage may occur across any of multiple levels of biological organization. In this study, we test for differences in external morphology, muscle mechanical advantage, muscle fiber type and protein expression among individuals of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni collected from sequential pools increasing in elevation within a single freshwater stream. Despite predictions from previous laboratory studies of morphological selection, few directional morphometric changes in body shape were observed at successively higher elevations. Similarly, lever arm ratios associated with the main pelvic sucker, central to climbing ability in this species, did not differ between elevations. However, among climbing muscles, the adductor pelvicus complex (largely responsible for generating pelvic suction during climbing) contained a significantly greater red muscle fiber content at upstream sites. A proteomic analysis of the adductor pelvicus revealed two-fold increases in expression levels for two respiratory chain proteins (NADH:ubiquinone reductase and cytochrome b) that are essential for aerobic respiration among individuals from successively higher elevations. Assessed collectively, these evaluations reveal phenotypic differences at some, but not all levels of biological organization that are likely the result of selective pressures experienced during climbing. PMID:24386424

  3. Influence of the culture medium pH on the activity of some oxidoreductases in Monilinia laxa (Aderh.&Ruhl) honey parasite on plum

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Manoliu; Elena Tutu; Lacramioara Oprica; Elena Ciornea; Petronela Gradinaru

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of culture medium pH on the peroxidase and catalase activities in Monilinia laxa (Aderh.&Ruhl.) Honey parasite on plum. The fungus was cultivated “in vitro” on Leonian medium, different concentrations of hydrogen ions being achieved by means of appropriate buffers. The peroxidase and catalase activity was determined from mycelium and culture liquid culture at 7 days and 14 days after inoculation. Experiment consisted of three consecutive measuremen...

  4. The ferredoxin-binding site of ferredoxin: Nitrite oxidoreductase. Differential chemical modification of the free enzyme and its complex with ferredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, M M; Hirasawa, M; Kleis-SanFrancisco, S; Lew, E L; Knaff, D B

    1997-07-01

    Spinach (Spinacea oleracea) leaf ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent nitrite reductase was treated with either the arginine-modifying reagent phenyl-glyoxal or the lysine-modifying reagent pyridoxal-5'-phosphate under conditions where only the Fd-binding affinity of the enzyme was affected and where complex formation between Fd and the enzyme prevented the inhibition by either reagent. Modification with [14C]phenylglyoxal allowed the identification of two nitrite reductase arginines, R375 and R556, that are protected by Fd against labeling. Modification of nitrite reductase with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, followed by reduction with NaBH4, allowed the identification of a lysine, K436, that is protected by Fd against labeling. Positive charges are present at these positions in all of the Fd-dependent nitrite reductase for which sequences are available, suggesting that these amino acids are directly involved in electrostatic binding of Fd to the enzyme.

  5. The weathervane model, a functional and structural organization of the two-component alkanesulfonate oxidoreductase SsuD from Xanthomonas citri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegos, V.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, P.S.L.; Balan, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: In Xanthomonas citri, the phytopathogen responsible for the canker citrus disease, we identified in the ssuABCDE operon, genes encoding the alkanesulfonate ABC transporter as well as the two enzymes responsible for oxido reduction of the respective substrates. SsuD and SsuE proteins represent a two-component system that can be assigned to the group of FMNH{sub 2} -dependent monooxygenases. How- ever, despite of the biochemical information about SsuD and SsuE orthologs from Escherichia coli, there is no structural information of how the two proteins work together. In this work, we used ultracentrifugation, SAXS data and molecular modeling to construct a structural/functional model, which consists of eight molecules organized in a weathervane shape. Through this model, SsuD ligand-binding site for NADPH{sub 2} and FMN substrates is clearly exposed, in a way that might allow the protein-protein interactions with SsuE. Moreover, based on molecular dynamics simulations of SsuD in apo state, docked with NADPH{sub 2}, FMN or both substrates, we characterized the residues of the pocket, the mechanism of substrate interaction and transfer of electrons from NADPH{sub 2} to FMN. This is the first report that links functional and biochemical data with structural analyses. (author)

  6. Age-related changes in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase activities in the rabbit cornea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Vejražka, M.; Pláteník, J.; Štípek, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2004), s. 1537-1543 ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : aging * cornea Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.880, year: 2004

  7. Study on radiation-induced deactivation and post-deactivation of some oxidoreductases in dilute aqueous solution and protective effect: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiqing; Ha Hongfei

    1993-01-01

    In this work the radiation-induced deactivation of catalase in dilute aqueous solution was reported. The effects of irradiation atmosphere, temperature and original concentration of catalase in dilute aqueous solutions on the deactivation of catalase were investigated. The protective effect by some additives (CH 3 CH 2 OH, HCOONa and EDTA) to radiation deactivation in dilute aqueous solutions was also studied. Remarkable protective effect by those additives was observed. The mechanism of radiation deactivation and protective effect have been discussed

  8. Flavonolignan 2,3-dehydrosilydianin activates Nrf2 and upregulates NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in Hepa1c1c7 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubalová, L.; Dinkova-Kostova, A.T.; Biedermann, David; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.; Vrba, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, Jun 2017 (2017), s. 115-120 ISSN 0367-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Silybum marianum * Silymarin * Flavonolignans Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.698, year: 2016

  9. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  10. H2O2 production rate in Lactobacillus johnsonii is modulated via the interplay of a heterodimeric flavin oxidoreductase with a soluble 28 Kd PAS domain containing protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B Valladares

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Host and commensals crosstalk, mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS, has triggered a growing scientific interest to understand the mechanisms governing such interaction. However, the majority of the scientific studies published do not evaluate the ROS production by commensals bacteria. In this context we recently showed that Lactobacillus johnsonii N6.2, a strain of probiotic value, modulates the activity of the critical enzymes 2,3-indoleamine dioxygenase via H2O2 production. L. johnsonii N6.2 by decreasing IDO activity, is able to modify the tryptophan/kynurenine ratio in the host blood with further systemic consequences. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2 production is critical to predict the probiotic value of these strains and to optimize bacterial biomass production in industrial processes. We performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes differentially expressed in L. johnsonii N6.2 cells collected from cultures grown under different aeration conditions. Herein we described the biochemical characteristics of a heterodimeric FMN reductase (FRedA/B whose in vitro activity is controlled by LjPAS protein with a typical Per-Arnst-Sim (PAS sensor domain. Interestingly, LjPAS is fused to the FMN reductase domains in other lactobacillaceae. In L. johnsonii, LjPAS is encoded by an independent gene which expression is repressed under anaerobic conditions (>3 fold. Purified LjPAS was able to slow down the FRedA/B initial activity rate when the holoenzyme precursors (FredA, FredB and FMN were mixed in vitro. Altogether the results obtained suggest that LjPAS module regulates the H2O2 production helping the cells to minimize oxidative stress in response to environmental conditions.

  11. Deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in an infant with congenital lactic acidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreadith, R W; Batshaw, M L; Ohnishi, T; Kerr, D; Knox, B; Jackson, D; Hruban, R; Olson, J; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-01-01

    We report the case of an infant with hypoglycemia, progressive lactic acidosis, an increased serum lactate/pyruvate ratio, and elevated plasma alanine, who had a moderate to profound decrease in the ability of mitochondria from four organs to oxidize pyruvate, malate plus glutamate, citrate, and other NAD+-linked respiratory substrates. The capacity to oxidize the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked substrate, succinate, was normal. The most pronounced deficiency was in skeletal muscle, the le...

  12. Crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction studies of the flavoenzyme NAD(P)H:(acceptor) oxidoreductase (FerB) from the soil bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpler, Tomáš; Sedláček, Vojtěch; Marek, Jaromír; Wimmerová, Michaela; Kučera, Igor

    2010-01-01

    The flavin-dependent enzyme FerB from P. denitrificans has been purified and both native and SeMet-substituted FerB have been crystallized. The two variants crystallized in two different crystallographic forms belonging to the monoclinic space group P2 1 and the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2, respectively. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.75 Å resolution for both forms. The flavin-dependent enzyme FerB from Paracoccus denitrificans reduces a broad range of compounds, including ferric complexes, chromate and most notably quinones, at the expense of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactors NADH or NADPH. Recombinant unmodified and SeMet-substituted FerB were crystallized under similar conditions by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with microseeding using PEG 4000 as the precipitant. FerB crystallized in several different crystal forms, some of which diffracted to approximately 1.8 Å resolution. The crystals of native FerB belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 110.1, c = 65.2 Å, β = 118.2° and four protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, whilst the SeMet-substituted form crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 89.2, c = 71.5 Å and two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. Structure determination by the three-wavelength MAD/MRSAD method is now in progress

  13. Differences in activities of antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and prooxidant xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase in the normal corneal epithelium of various mammalia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andonova, Janetta; Pláteník, J.; Vejražka, M.; Štípek, S.; Ardan, Taras; Čejka, Čestmír; Midelfart, A.; Čejková, Jitka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2007), s. 105-112 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/06/1379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Mammalia * Cornea * Epithelium Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  14. Screening of basidiomycete fungi for the quinone-dependent sugar C-2/C-3 oxidoreductase, pyranose dehydrogenase, and properties of the enzyme from Macrolepiota rhacodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volc, Jindřich; Kubátová, Elena; Daniel, G.; Sedmera, Petr; Haltrich, D.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 176, - (2001), s. 178-186 ISSN 0302-8933 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1191 Grant - others:Swedish Council for Forestryamd Agricultural Research (SE) 201.0384/99; Austrian Science Foundation(AT) P11459-MOB Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : pyranose dehydrogenase * pyranose oxidase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.156, year: 2001

  15. Investigation of protein FTT1103 electroactivity using carbon and mercury electrodes. Surface-inhibition approach for disulfide oxidoreductases using silver amalgam powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerková, R.; Hernychová, L.; Dobeš, P.; Vrba, J.; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Bartošík, M.; Vacek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 830, JUN 2014 (2014), s. 23-32 ISSN 0003-2670 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Disulfide bond forming protein * Electrochemical sensing * Membrane proteins Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.513, year: 2014

  16. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). → Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. → We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. → POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. → Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Ana Lúcia; Sena, Filipa V; Batista, Ana P; Oliveira, Tânia F; Athayde, Diogo; Pereira, Manuela M; Brito, José A; Archer, Margarida

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-IIs) have emerged as potential drug targets for a wide range of human disease causative agents. In this work, the NDH-II enzyme from the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, crystallized and a crystallographic data set was collected at a wavelength of 0.873 Å. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 81.8, b = 86.0, c = 269.9 Å, contained four monomers per asymmetric unit and diffracted to a resolution of 3.32 Å. A molecular-replacement solution was obtained and model building and refinement are currently under way.

  18. Ubiquinone binding site of yeast NADH dehydrogenase revealed by structures binding novel competitive- and mixed-type inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Shiba, Tomoo; Oohashi, Takumi; Iwata, So; Yagi, Takao; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Hideto; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi; Hirano, Katsuya

    2018-02-05

    Yeast Ndi1 is a monotopic alternative NADH dehydrogenase. Its crystal structure in complex with the electron acceptor, ubiquinone, has been determined. However, there has been controversy regarding the ubiquinone binding site. To address these points, we identified the first competitive inhibitor of Ndi1, stigmatellin, along with new mixed-type inhibitors, AC0-12 and myxothiazol, and thereby determined the crystal structures of Ndi1 in complexes with the inhibitors. Two separate binding sites of stigmatellin, STG-1 and STG-2, were observed. The electron density at STG-1, located at the vicinity of the FAD cofactor, further demonstrated two binding modes: STG-1a and STG-1b. AC0-12 and myxothiazol are also located at the vicinity of FAD. The comparison of the binding modes among stigmatellin at STG-1, AC0-12, and myxothiazol revealed a unique position for the aliphatic tail of stigmatellin at STG-1a. Mutations of amino acid residues that interact with this aliphatic tail at STG-1a reduced the affinity of Ndi1 for ubiquinone. In conclusion, the position of the aliphatic tail of stigmatellin at STG-1a provides a structural basis for its competitive inhibition of Ndi1. The inherent binding site of ubiquinone is suggested to overlap with STG-1a that is distinct from the binding site for NADH.

  19. Comparative self-assembly studies and self-sorting of two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The propensity for self-assembly of NDI-1 was greater due to symmetrical placement of two amide groups on either arms of this chromophore which allowed -stacking in tandem with hydrogen-bonding, while NDI-2 formed thermally more stable self-assembled fibres possibly due to location of two amide groups in close ...

  20. Main: 1FHF [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oat Peroxidase; Glycine Max Molecule: Seed Coat Peroxidase; Chain: A, B, C; Engineered: Yes Oxidoreductase 1...LFPIVFGVIFDASFTDPRIGASLMRLHFHDCFVQGCDGSVLLNNTDTIESEQDALPNINSIRGLDVVNDIKTAVENSCPDTVSCADILAI

  1. Yeast flavohemoglobin, a nitric oxide oxidoreductase, is located in both the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix: effects of respiration, anoxia, and the mitochondrial genome on its intracellular level and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassanova, Nina; O'Brien, Kristin M; Stahl, Brett T; McClure, Travis; Poyton, Robert O

    2005-03-04

    Yeast flavohemoglobin, YHb, encoded by the nuclear gene YHB1, has been implicated in both the oxidative and nitrosative stress responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous studies have shown that the expression of YHB1 is optimal under normoxic or hyperoxic conditions, yet respiring yeast cells have low levels of reduced YHb pigment as detected by carbon monoxide (CO) photolysis difference spectroscopy of glucose-reduced cells. Here, we have addressed this apparent discrepancy by determining the intracellular location of the YHb protein and analyzing the relationships between respiration, YHb level, and intracellular location. We have found that although intact respiration-proficient cells lack a YHb CO spectral signature, cell extracts from these cells have both a YHb CO spectral signature and nitric oxide (NO) consuming activity. This suggests either that YHb cannot be reduced in vivo or that YHb heme is maintained in an oxidized state in respiring cells. By using an anti-YHb antibody and CO difference spectroscopy and by measuring NO consumption, we have found that YHb localizes to two distinct intracellular compartments in respiring cells, the mitochondrial matrix and the cytosol. Moreover, we have found that the distribution of YHb between these two compartments is affected by the presence or absence of oxygen and by the mitochondrial genome. The findings suggest that YHb functions in oxidative stress indirectly by consuming NO, which inhibits mitochondrial respiration and leads to enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, and that cells can regulate intracellular distribution of YHb in accordance with this function.

  2. The role of conjunctival epithelial cell xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase in oxidative reactions on the ocular surface of dry eye patients with Sjögren´s syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Ardan, Taras; Jirsová, K.; Jechová, G.; Malec, J.; Šimonová, Zuzana; Čejka, Čestmír; Filipec, M.; Dotřelová, D.; Brůnová, B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2007), s. 997-1003 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8828; GA ČR GA304/06/1379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Dry eye * Impression cytology * Oxidative reactions Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.007, year: 2007

  3. Alkaloid Cluster Gene ccsA of the Ergot Fungus Claviceps purpurea Encodes Chanoclavine I Synthase, a Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Containing Oxidoreductase Mediating the Transformation of N-Methyl-Dimethylallyltryptophan to Chanoclavine I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, N.; Olšovská, Jana; Šulc, Miroslav; Tudzynski, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 5 (2010), s. 1822-1830 ISSN 0099-2240 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : BERBERINE BRIDGE ENZYME * BIOSYNTHESIS * IDENTIFICATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2010

  4. Stepwise cyanation of naphthalene diimide for n-channel field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jingjing

    2012-06-15

    Stepwise cyanation of tetrabromonaphthalenediimide (NDI) 1 gave a series of cyanated NDIs 2-5 with the monocyanated NDI 2 and dicyanated NDI 3 isolated. The tri- and tetracyano- NDIs 4 and 5 show intrinsic instability toward moisture because of their extremely low-lying LUMO energy levels. The partially cyanated intermediates can be utilized as air-stable n-type semiconductors with OFET electron mobility up to 0.05 cm 2 V -1 s -1. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0989 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0989 ref|XP_002627763.1| glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase [Ajel...lomyces dermatitidis SLH14081] gb|EEQ75403.1| glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase [Ajellomyces dermatiti...dis SLH14081] gb|EEQ88001.1| glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase [Ajellomyces dermatitidis ER-3] XP_002627763.1 9.8 28% ...

  6. InterProScan Result: FS749907 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidor...eductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  7. InterProScan Result: BY929879 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ldehyde dehydrogenase domain Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidored...uctase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  8. InterProScan Result: FS833302 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidor...eductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  9. InterProScan Result: FS919020 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidored...uctase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  10. InterProScan Result: FS934102 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidor...eductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  11. InterProScan Result: FS926008 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidor...eductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  12. InterProScan Result: FS791501 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidor...eductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  13. InterProScan Result: FS812256 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidor...eductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  14. InterProScan Result: FS789640 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidor...eductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  15. InterProScan Result: FS904114 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidor...eductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  16. InterProScan Result: FS808187 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Function: oxidor...eductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_004463 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004463 gi|27381528 >1uzbA 40 515 6 475 3e-74 ... ref|NP_773057.1| vanillin: NAD ox...idoreductase [Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110] ... dbj|BAC51682.1| vanillin: NAD oxidoreductase ...

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_004463 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004463 gi|27377799 >1uzbA 40 515 5 474 3e-69 ... ref|NP_769328.1| vanillin: NAD ox...idoreductase [Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110] ... dbj|BAC47953.1| vanillin: NAD oxidoreductase ...

  19. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SERUM FERRITIN AND URIC ACID IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Urate forms a coordination complex with Fe(3+) which does not support electron transport. The only enzymatic source of urate is xanthine oxidoreductase. If a major purpose of xanthine oxidoreductase is the production of urate to function as an iron chelator and antioxi...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2378 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2378 ref|ZP_00372308.1| oxidoreductase, putative [Wolbachia endosymbion...t of Drosophila simulans] gb|EAL60174.1| oxidoreductase, putative [Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila simulans] ZP_00372308.1 0.090 26% ...

  1. Reductant-dependent electron distribution among redox sites of laccase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Goldberg, M; Wherland, S

    1978-01-01

    Rhus laccase (monophenol monooxygenase, monophenol,dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) an O2/H2O oxidoreductase containing four copper ions bound to three redox sites (type 1, type 2, and type 3 Cu pair), was titrated anaerobically with several reductants having various...

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_002516 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002516 gi|15600098 >2pia0 10 321 3 317 6e-83 ... ref|NP_253592.1| vanillate O-deme...thylase oxidoreductase [Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... PAO1] gb|AAG08290.1| vanillate O-demethylase ... ... ... oxidoreductase [Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1] pir||G83033 ... vanillate O-demethylase oxidoreduc

  3. Structure of a mitochondrial supercomplex formed by respiratory-chain complexes I and III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudkina, Natalia V.; Eubel, Holger; Keegstra, Wilko; Boekema, Egbert J.; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria are central to the efficient provision of energy for eukaryotic cells. The oxidative-phosphorylation system of mitochondria consists of a series of five major membrane complexes: NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (commonly known as complex I), succinate–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex

  4. Reductant-dependent electron distribution among redox sites of laccase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Goldberg, M; Wherland, S

    1978-01-01

    Rhus laccase (monophenol monooxygenase, monophenol,dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) an O2/H2O oxidoreductase containing four copper ions bound to three redox sites (type 1, type 2, and type 3 Cu pair), was titrated anaerobically with several reductants having various ch...

  5. Gclust Server: 88869 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase involved in competition for nodulation 1 1.00e-40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.23 ...e annotation putative short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase involved in competition for nodulation Number

  6. Gclust Server: 117659 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P)H menadione oxidoreductase 1, dioxin-inducible isoform b ; no annotation 1 1.00e-16 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12...tation NP_001020604.1 NAD(P)H menadione oxidoreductase 1, dioxin-inducible isoform b ; no annotation Number

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0111 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0111 ref|YP_001335322.1| putative oxidoreductase [Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumonia...e MGH 78578] gb|ABR77092.1| putative oxidoreductase [Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae MGH 78578] YP_001335322.1 0.12 29% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-25-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-25-0001 ref|YP_249947.1| putative Fe-S oxidoreductase [Corynebacterium jeikeiu...m K411] emb|CAI36329.1| putative Fe-S oxidoreductase [Corynebacterium jeikeium K411] YP_249947.1 1e-04 28% ...

  9. The hybrid-cluster protein ('prismane protein') from Escherichia coli. Characterization of the hybrid-cluster protein, redox properties of the [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-2S-2O] clusters and identification of an associated NADH oxidoreductase containing FAD and[2Fe-2S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.A.M.; Hagen, W.R.; Dongen, van W.M.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid-cluster proteins ('prismane proteins') have previously been isolated and characterized from strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. These proteins contain two types of Fe/S clusters unique in biological systems: a [4Fe-4S] cubane cluster with spin-admixed S = 3/2 ground-state

  10. Association of a multi-synthetase complex with translating ribosomes in the archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, Medha; Elgamal, Sara; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    -dependent methyltransferase 144, GTP cyclohydrolase 398, DNA topoisomerase VI subunit A 209, DNA topoisomerase VI subunit B 192, Type A Flavoprotein 911, NAD(P)H:rubredoxin oxidoreductase (Fatty acid metabolism) 120, NAD(P)H:rubredoxin oxidoreductase 120, cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase 909, bis(5'-adenosyl......, transcriptional regulator 364, glutamine synthetase 120, N6-adenine-specific DNA methylase 194, ArsR family transcriptional regulator 113, 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase II 280, DNA repair and recombination protein RadA 323, 30S ribosomal protein S6e 106, pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase subunit beta 282...

  11. Characterization and redesign of galactonolactone dehydrogenase, a flavoprotein producing vitamin C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, N.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: aldonolactone oxidoreductases, Arabidopsis thaliana, flavoprotein, galactonolactone dehydrogenase, molecular gatekeeper, oxidase, protein engineering, vanillyl-alcohol oxidase family, vitamin C Redox enzymes are attractive biocatalysts because of their intrinsic (enantio-)selectivity and

  12. Protein-Engineered Radiometal Chelates for Immunotherapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foote, Jefferson

    1999-01-01

    .... We attempted to address this problem by modifying the binding site design, expressing the protein within protease-negative host strains, and subcloning disulfide oxido-reductases into our expression...

  13. Polyphenol oxidase-based luminescent enzyme hydrogel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shaped composite-basedluminescent enzyme hydrogel network as immobilized scaffold for oxido-reductase efficiency on phenolic substrates includingphenol, resorcinol, catechol and quinol was synthesized and characterized through ...

  14. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shaped composite-basedluminescent enzyme hydrogel network as immobilized scaffold for oxido-reductase efficiency on phenolic substrates includingphenol, resorcinol, catechol and quinol was synthesized and characterized through ...

  15. InterProScan Result: BW998924 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 804 Fatty acid desaturase, type 1 Biological Process: lipid metabolic process (GO:0006629)|Molecular Functio...n: oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  16. InterProScan Result: FS784506 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IPR016161 Aldehyde/histidinol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Fun...ction: oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  17. Peptide-Driven Charge-Transfer Organogels Built from Synergetic Hydrogen Bonding and Pyrene-Naphthalenediimide Donor-Acceptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartocci, Silvia; Berrocal, José Augusto; Guarracino, Paola; Grillaud, Maxime; Franco, Lorenzo; Mba, Miriam

    2018-02-26

    The peptide-driven formation of charge transfer (CT) supramolecular gels featuring both directional hydrogen-bonding and donor-acceptor (D-A) complexation is reported. Our design consists of the coassembly of two dipeptide-chromophore conjugates, namely diphenylalanine (FF) dipeptide conveniently functionalized at the N-terminus with either a pyrene (Py-1, donor) or naphthalene diimide (NDI-1, acceptor). UV/Vis spectroscopy confirmed the formation of CT complexes. FTIR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy studies underlined the pivotal role of hydrogen bonding in the gelation process, and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements unraveled the advantage of preorganized CT supramolecular architectures for charge transport over solutions containing non-coassembled D and A molecular systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The evolution of substrate specificity-associated residues and Ca(2+) -binding motifs in EF-hand-containing type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng-Shu; Rasmusson, Allan G

    2016-07-01

    Most eukaryotic organisms, except some animal clades, have mitochondrial alternative electron transport enzymes that allow respiration to bypass the energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. The energy bypass enzymes in plants include the external type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (DHs) of the NDB family, which are characterized by an EF-hand domain for Ca(2+) binding. Here we investigate these plant enzymes by combining molecular modeling with evolutionary analysis. Molecular modeling of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtNDB1 with the yeast ScNDI1 as template revealed distinct similarities in the core catalytic parts, and highlighted the interaction between the pyridine nucleotide and residues correlating with NAD(P)H substrate specificity. The EF-hand domain of AtNDB1 has no counterpart in ScNDI1, and was instead modeled with Ca(2+) -binding signal transducer proteins. Combined models displayed a proximity of the AtNDB1 EF-hand domain to the substrate entrance side of the catalytic part. Evolutionary analysis of the eukaryotic NDB-type proteins revealed ancient and recent reversions between the motif observed in proteins specific for NADH (acidic type) and NADPH (non-acidic type), and that the clade of enzymes with acidic motifs in angiosperms derives from non-acidic-motif NDB-type proteins present in basal plants, fungi and protists. The results suggest that Ca(2+) -dependent external NADPH oxidation is an ancient process, indicating that it has a fundamental importance for eukaryotic cellular redox metabolism. In contrast, the external NADH DHs in plants are products of a recent expansion, mirroring the expansion of the alternative oxidase family. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Towards a systematic analysis of human short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR): Ligand identification and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Chitra; Oerum, Stephanie; Bray, James; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Shafqat, Naeem; Yue, Wyatt; Oppermann, Udo

    2015-06-05

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) constitute a large, functionally diverse branch of enzymes within the class of NAD(P)(H) dependent oxidoreductases. In humans, over 80 genes have been identified with distinct metabolic roles in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, retinoid and steroid hormone metabolism, frequently associated with inherited genetic defects. Besides metabolic functions, a subset of atypical SDR proteins appears to play critical roles in adapting to redox status or RNA processing, and thereby controlling metabolic pathways. Here we present an update on the human SDR superfamily and a ligand identification strategy using differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) with a focused library of oxidoreductase and metabolic ligands to identify substrate classes and inhibitor chemotypes. This method is applicable to investigate structure-activity relationships of oxidoreductases and ultimately to better understand their physiological roles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MicroCommentary: A New Role for Coenzyme F420 in Aflatoxin Reduction by Soil Mycobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Hepatotoxic aflatoxins have found a worthy adversary in two new families of bacterial oxidoreductases. These enzymes use the reduced coenzyme F420 to initiate the degradation of furanocoumarin compounds, including the major mycotoxin products of Aspergillus flavus. Along with pyridoxalamine 5 -phosphate oxidases and aryl nitroreductases, these proteins form a large and versatile superfamily of flavin and deazaflavin-dependent oxidoreductases. F420-dependent members of this family appear to share a common mechanism of hydride transfer from the reduced deazaflavin to the electron-deficient ring systems of their substrates.

  1. Wettability Improvement with Enzymes: Application to Enhanced Oil Recovery under Conditions of the North Sea Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    , proteases and oxidoreductases, provided by Novozymes, have been investigated. Two commercial mixtures containing enzymes: Apollo-GreenZyme™ and EOR-ZYMAX™ have also been applied. The North Sea dead oil and the synthetic sea water were used as test fluids. Internal surface of a carbonate rock has been...... appear to be relatively ambiguous, while carbohydrases and oxidoreductases have the lowest potential for EOR in the light of the present experiments. Suggested mechanisms for wettability improvement for esterases/lipases are adsorption of enzymes onto the mineral and/or formation of additional...

  2. Late-onset form of beta-electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curcoy, A; Olsen, R K J; Ribes, A

    2003-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) or glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) are a group of metabolic disorders due to deficiency of either electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO). We report the clinical features and bioch......Multiple acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) or glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) are a group of metabolic disorders due to deficiency of either electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO). We report the clinical features...

  3. Comparison of the effect of cortisol on aromatase activity and androgen metabolism in two human fibroblast cell lines derived from the same individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, B; Brünner, N; Dombernowsky, P

    1990-01-01

    The effect of preincubation with cortisol on estrogen and androgen metabolism was investigated in human fibroblast monolayers grown from biopsies of genital and non-genital skin of the same person. The activity in the cells of aromatase, 5 alpha-reductase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase...... and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase was investigated by isolating estrone, estradiol, estriol, dihydrotestosterone, androstanedione, androsterone, 3 alpha-androstanediol, testosterone and androstenedione after incubation of the cells with [14C]testosterone or [14C]androstenedione. For experiments...

  4. Cytochrome c2-independent respiratory growth of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Daldal, F

    1988-01-01

    To assess the role of cytochrome c2 as a respiratory electron carrier, we obtained a double mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus defective in cytochrome c2 and in the quinol oxidase260. This mutant was able to grow chemoheterotrophically, indicating that an electron pathway independent of cytochrome c2 was functional between the ubiquinol:cytochrome c2 oxidoreductase and the cytochrome oxidase410.

  5. Quantum chemical analysis of potential anti-Parkinson agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are amine oxidoreductase falvoenzymes that belong to the integral proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane. MAO exists in two distinct isoforms; MAO-A and MAO-B. Inhibition of MAO-A and MAO-B is important for developing antidepressant and antiparkinson agents, respectively.

  6. A physiologically based kinetic model for bacterial sulfide oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, J.B.M.; Graaff, de C.M.; Bosch, van den P.L.F.; Boelee, N.C.; Keesman, K.J.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    In the biotechnological process for hydrogen sulfide removal from gas streams, a variety of oxidation products can be formed. Under natron-alkaline conditions, sulfide is oxidized by haloalkaliphilic sulfide oxidizing bacteria via flavocytochrome c oxidoreductase. From previous studies, it was

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_006526 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006526 gi|56551352 >1czpA 7 89 20 102 3e-08 ... gb|AAV89080.1| vanillate O-demethy...lase oxidoreductase [Zymomonas mobilis subsp. ... mobilis ZM4] ref|YP_162191.1| vanillate O-demethyla

  8. Inversion of stereospecificity of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, Robert H.H. van den; Fraaije, Marco W.; Ferrer, Miriam; Mattevi, Andrea; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    2000-01-01

    Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (VAO) is the prototype of a newly recognized family of structurally related oxidoreductases sharing a conserved FAD-binding domain. The active site of VAO is formed by a cavity where the enzyme is able to catalyze many reactions with phenolic substrates. Among these

  9. Molecular dynamics comparison of E. coli WrbA apoprotein and holoprotein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řeha, David; Balasubramanian, H.; Sinha, Dhiraj; Kukačka, Zdeněk; McSally, J.; Ettrichová, Olga; Novák, Petr; Carey, J.; Ettrich, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2014), s. 2400 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/1934 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : global motions * force field parametrization * binding site volume * electrostatic potential surface * NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.736, year: 2014

  10. Teaching Enzymes to Pre-Service Science Teachers through POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) Method: The Case of Catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Sema Nur; Özkan, Muhlis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to teach enzymes, which are one of the biology subjects in understanding which students have a big difficulty, to pre-service teachers through POE method in the case of catalase, which is an oxidoreductase. Descriptive analysis method was employed in this study in which 38 second grade pre-service teachers attending Uludag…

  11. The effects of storage on the retention of enzyme activity in cryostat sections. A quantitative histochemical study on rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Ouwerkerk, I. J.; Bosch, K. S.; Marx, F.; Kooij, A.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of storage of unfixed cryostat sections from rat liver for 4 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days at -25 degrees C was studied on the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidoreductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (all demonstrated

  12. NQO1 and NFE2L2 polymorphisms, fruit and vegetable intake and smoking and the risk of colorectal adenomas in an endoscopy-based population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, M.J.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Aarts, J.M.G.A.; Laan, W.; Boer, S.Y. de; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Both environment and genetics contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of colorectal neoplasia. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) is a detoxification enzyme that is polymorphic and inducible. We investigated interactions between lifestyle factors and polymorphisms in NQO1 and its key

  13. NQO1 and NFE2L2 polymorphisms, fruit and vegetable intake and smoking, and the risk of colorectal adenomas in an endoscopy-based population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, M.J.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Laan, van der A.; Boer, van S.Y.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Both environment and genetics contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of colorectal neoplasia. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) is a detoxification enzyme that is polymorphic and inducible. We investigated interactions between lifestyle factors and polymorphisms in NQO1 and its key

  14. Sequence Classification: 563500 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|56697798|ref|YP_168168.1| oxido...reductase, zinc-binding dehydrogenase family || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/56697798 ...

  15. Calycosin regulates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis via Nrf2/ARE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment decreased expression levels of caspase-3/-8/-9 and PARP. In addition, DEX treatment significantly suppressed the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as well as its downstream targets, viz, heme oxygenase-1 and quinone oxidoreductase-1. Interestingly, CA treatment reversed this ...

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_000962 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available - Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain H37RV) ... pdb|1LQU|B Chain B, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis... Fpra In ... Complex With Nadph pdb|1LQU|A Chain A, Mycobacterium ... Tuberculosis... By The ... Atomic Resolution Structure Of Fpra, A Mycobacterium ... Tuberculosis...e Atomic ... Resolution Structure Of Fpra, A Mycobacterium ... Tuberculosis Oxidoreductase sp|

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_002755 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available - Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain H37RV) ... pdb|1LQU|B Chain B, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis... Fpra In ... Complex With Nadph pdb|1LQU|A Chain A, Mycobacterium ... Tuberculosis... By The ... Atomic Resolution Structure Of Fpra, A Mycobacterium ... Tuberculosis...e Atomic ... Resolution Structure Of Fpra, A Mycobacterium ... Tuberculosis Oxidoreductase sp|

  18. DNA-based prenatal diagnosis for severe and variant forms of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Andresen, Brage S; Christensen, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid, amino acid, and choline oxidation due to mutations in the genes encoding electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or ETF ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETFQO). So far...

  19. Bisubstrate Kinetics of Glutathione S-Transferase: A Colorimetric Experiment for the Introductory Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Lazaros; Scinto, Krystal V.; Strada, Monica I.; Alper, Benjamin J.

    2018-01-01

    Most biochemical transformations involve more than one substrate. Bisubstrate enzymes catalyze multiple chemical reactions in living systems and include members of the transferase, oxidoreductase, and ligase enzyme classes. Working knowledge of bisubstrate enzyme kinetic models is thus of clear importance to the practicing biochemist. However,…

  20. Optimal cofactor swapping can increase the theoretical yield for chemical production in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Feist, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining cofactor balance is a critical function in microorganisms, but often the native cofactor balance does not match the needs of an engineered metabolic flux state. Here, an optimization procedure is utilized to identify optimal cofactor-specificity "swaps" for oxidoreductase enzymes...

  1. Glutaredoxins in plant development, abiotic stress response, and iron homeostasis: From model organisms to crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant growth, development, and response to environmental stress require the judicious balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are a group of oxidoreductases that participate in the control of ROS and are traditionally defined as redox regulators. New studies suggest the member...

  2. Selected chiral alcohols: Enzymic resolution and reduction of convenient substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurček, Ondřej; Wimmerová, Martina; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 252, - (2008), s. 767-781 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Lipase * Oxido-reductase * Alcohol Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.566, year: 2008

  3. Mutations in the UQCC1-Interacting Protein, UQCC2, Cause Human Complex III Deficiency Associated with Perturbed Cytochrome b Protein Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucker, E.J.; Wanschers, B.F.J.; Szklarczyk, R.; Mountford, H.S.; Wijeyeratne, X.W.; Brand, M.A.M. van den; Leenders, A.M.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Reljic, B.; Compton, A.G.; Frazier, A.E.; Bruno, D.L.; Christodoulou, J.; Endo, H.; Ryan, M.T.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Huynen, M.A.; Thorburn, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is responsible for generating the majority of cellular ATP. Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase) is the third of five OXPHOS complexes. Complex III assembly relies on the coordinated expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes,

  4. Effect of long term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenbiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta; Overvad, Kim

    2008-01-01

    ) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen I (Fral), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (Ah...

  5. Electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency: Functional and molecular aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiff, M; Froissart, R; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft

    2006-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder that can be due to a deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). ETF is a mitochondrial matrix protein consisting of alpha- (30kDa) and beta...

  6. Chemoenzymatic approaches to obtain chiral-centered selenium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondani, Patricia B.; Guilmoto, Nathalie M. A. F.; Dudek, Hanna M.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of chiral-centered selenium compounds is presented. Enantioselective oxidations of these organoselenium compounds were performed using a wide range of biocatalysts, including Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, oxidoreductases-containing Aspergillus terreus and lipase (Cal-B) in the

  7. In vivo reduction-oxidation state of protein disulfide isomerase: the two active sites independently occur in the reduced and oxidized forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Ellgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases of the human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family promote protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while also assisting the retrotranslocation of toxins and misfolded ER proteins to the cytosol. The redox activity of PDI-like proteins is determined by...

  8. Gclust Server: 19842 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 19842 Mlo_mll2617 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(91) 509 probable oxidoreducta...se 5 1.00e-45 0.0 11.11 4.0 0.0 6.45 0.0 Show 19842 Cluster ID 19842 Sequence ID Mlo_mll2617 Link to cluster

  9. Modulation of Stem Cell Differentiation and Myostatin as an Approach to Counteract Fibrosis in Muscle Dystrophy and Regeneration after Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    combination of oral apocynin as NADPH oxidase inhibitor and oral allopurinol as xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, to counteract oxidative stress as a...hematoxylin/eosin, MHC II, dystrophin), and if possible oxidative stress ( xanthine oxido- reductase, NADPH oxidase ) b. Finalize the parallel ongoing study on

  10. Development and mapping of gene-tagged SNP markers in laccases of maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J R; Asp, T; Lu, Y C

    2009-01-01

    Laccases, EC 1.10.3.2 or p-diphenol : dioxygen oxidoreductases, have been proposed to be involved in the oxidative polymerization of monolignols into lignins in plants. While 17 laccases have been identified in Arabidopsis, only five (ZmLac1-5) have so far been identified in maize...

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    DO Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics & Gynecology, RAMS, 3 Mendeleevskaja linija, St. Petersburg, Russia. 199034. Abstract. Early studies recognized that the human extracellular glutathione peroxidase may function as cysteine peroxidase (cysteine:H2O2 oxidoreductase). The aim of the present study was to test.

  12. Coenzyme Q-responsive Leigh's encephalopathy in two sisters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldergem, L. van; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Mauro, S. Di; Sindelar, P.J.; Musumeci, O.; Janssen, A.J.M.; Delberghe, X.; Martin, J.J.; Gillerot, Y.

    2002-01-01

    A 31-year-old woman had encephalopathy, growth retardation, infantilism, ataxia, deafness, lactic acidosis, and increased signals of caudate and putamen on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Muscle biochemistry showed succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex II-III) deficiency. Both clinical

  13. Pro-Oxidant Activity of Flavonoids Induces EpRE-Mediated Gene Expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee-Hilz, Y.Y.; Boerboom, A.M.J.F.; Westphal, A.H.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Flavonoids are important bioactive dietary compounds. They induce electrophile-responsive element (EpRE)-mediated expression of enzymes, such as NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which are major defense enzymes against electrophilic toxicants and oxidative

  14. Characterization of pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris and its application in the C-2 specific conversion of D-galactose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sygmund, Ch.; Kittl, R.; Volc, Jindřich; Halada, Petr; Kubátová, Elena; Haltrich, D.; Peterbauer, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 3 (2008), s. 334-342 ISSN 0168-1656 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) program KONTAKT ČR-Rakousko Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pyranose dehydrogenase * sugar oxidoreductase * galactose coversion Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.748, year: 2008

  15. Cysteine peroxidase activity in rat blood plasma | Razygraev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rat plasma found to be able to accelerate greatly the H2O2-dependent oxidation of cysteine. The activity was a characteristic of a protein fraction precipitated at 30—44% ammonium sulfate saturation, and the specific activity in protein fraction was significantly higher than in plasma. Cysteine:H2O2 oxidoreductase ...

  16. Light-driven enzymatic decarboxylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köninger, Katharina; Grote, Marius; Zachos, Ioannis; Hollmann, F.; Kourist, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Oxidoreductases belong to the most-applied industrial enzymes. Nevertheless, they need external electrons whose supply is often costly and challenging. Recycling of the electron donors NADH or NADPH requires the use of additional enzymes and sacrificial substrates. Interestingly, several

  17. Investigation of a deoxyribozyme as a biofuel cell catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Xu, Shuai; Minteer, Shelley D; Baum, Dana A

    2011-10-12

    We examined the ability of a previously identified peroxidase deoxyribozyme to be employed as a catalyst in biofuel cells, as a possible replacement for oxidoreductase proteins. We constructed a biocathode using a covalently linked version of the peroxidase deoxyribozyme-hemin complex and successfully paired it with a glucose dehydrogenase-modified bioanode for power production.

  18. FUNCTIONAL-ANALYSIS OF THE N-TERMINAL PREPEPTIDES OF WATERMELON MITOCHONDRIAL AND GLYOXYSOMAL MALATE-DEHYDROGENASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEHNERER, M; KEIZERGUNNIK, [No Value; VEENHUIS, M; GIETL, C

    1994-01-01

    Mitochondrial and glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; gMDH; L-malate : NAD(+) oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.37) of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) cotyledons are synthesized with N-terminal cleavable presequences which are shown to specify sorting of the two proteins. The two presequences differ in

  19. Mutational analysis of the N-terminal topogenic signal of watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase using the heterologous host Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietl, Christine; Faber, Klaas Nico; Klei, Ida J. van der; Veenhuis, Marten

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the significance of the N-terminal presequence of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase [gMDH; (S)-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.37] in microbody targeting. The yeast Hansenula polymorpha was used as heterologous host for the in vivo expression of

  20. Why is DsbA such an oxidizing disulfide catalyst?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauschopf, U; Winther, Jakob R.; Korber, P

    1995-01-01

    DsbA, a member of the thioredoxin family of disulfide oxidoreductases, acts in catalyzing disulfide bond formation by donating its disulfide to newly translocated proteins. We have found that the two central residues within the active site Cys-30-Pro-31-His-32-Cys-33 motif are critical in determi...

  1. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... genases, chalcone synthase, lipoxygenase, cellulose synthase, protein kinases, NADH-oxidoreductase, reverse transcriptase and some ethylene forming enzymes). Of particular interest with respect to longevity could be chal- cone synthase, lipoxygenase and cellulose synthase. Chal- cone synthase (Chs) ...

  2. Function, mechanism and structure of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic polymer formed by all higher plants. As the biopolymer lignin is a major constituent of wood, it is highly abundant. Lignin biodegradation, an essential process to complete the Earth's carbon cycle, is initiated by action of several oxidoreductases

  3. Lipid-storage myopathy and respiratory insufficiency due to ETFQO mutations in a patient with late-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R K J; Pourfarzam, M; Morris, A A M

    2004-01-01

    We report a patient with lipid-storage myopathy due to multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). Molecular genetic analysis showed that she was compound heterozygous for mutations in the gene for electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETFQO). Despite a good initial r...

  4. [Signal transduction in plant development: Chemical and biochemical approaches to receptor identification]. Progress report, [May 15, 1993--May 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Progress is reported on studies concerning NAD(P)H-2,6-DMBQ oxidoreductase of Striga asiatica aimed at elucidating basic biochemical parameters of Striga. Reported studies include characterization of the enzyme, development of Striga molecular genetics, and development of a redox model for germination control.

  5. Pyranose dehydrogenases: biochemical features and perspectives of technological applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterbauer, C.; Volc, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 4 (2010), s. 837-848 ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Pyranose dehydrogenase * Sugar oxidoreductase * Regioselectivity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.280, year: 2010

  6. Detection of carriers of the autosomal form of chronic granulomatous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A. J.; van Schaik, M. L.; Roos, D.; Weening, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase catalyzing the respiratory burst in activated phagocytes from healthy individuals is not operative in phagocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). In a microscopic slide test using the dye nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), carriers of X-linked CGD can be

  7. Xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Zhang, Min

    2010-06-22

    A strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas was engineered with a genetic modification to the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene resulting in reduced expression of GFOR enzyme activity. The engineered strain exhibits reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism. It also consumes more xylose and produces more ethanol during mixed sugar fermentation under process-relevant conditions.

  8. Ethanol production using xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Paul V.; McCutchen, Carol M.; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen

    2010-06-22

    Production of ethanol using a strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas with a genetic modification of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene was found to be improved due to greatly reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism synthesized during fermentation.

  9. Steroid metabolism in the hormone dependent MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line and its two hormone resistant subpopulations MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L; Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    and 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase were investigated isolating the following steroids: estriol (E3), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), 3alpha/beta-androstanediol (A-diol), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AND), androstenedion (4-AD) and androstanedione (A-dion). For all...

  10. Production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol by engineered using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) has versatile applications in polymers, cosmetics, foods and medicines. In order to consolidate the functions of glycerol dehydratase gene dhaB and 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase gene dhaT and produce 1,3-PD from glycerol, the genes dhaB and dhaT from Klebsiella pneumoniae were inserted ...

  11. Hydrothermal oxidation of an epoxy resin through the study of two model molecules: N-methyl-acetamide and N,N-di[1(phenoxy)2-hydroxy propyl-3] propyl-amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutonnet-Fromonteil, C.

    2000-01-01

    The study consists in choosing and developing a technology to realize damage experiments of an epoxy resin which is used as coating of embedded nuclear samples. Hydrothermal oxidation is the chosen method. We first identified the chemical composition of the epoxy resin. Then we studied hydrolysis and oxidation of a molecule which contains a function of the epoxy network: N-methyl-acetamide. The comparison between our results and those already existing allowed to validate this degradation method. In a second part, we studied a model molecule of the polymer network: N, N-di[1(phenoxy)2-hydroxy propyl-3] propyl-amine. The hydrolysis temperatures are relatively high: the compound is totally destroyed at 300 deg C. Its oxidation leads to the formation of acetic acid from 220 deg C. In the third study, we determined the best experimental conditions to destroy the epoxy resin. Experiments were performed at different temperatures between 200 deg C and 410 deg C. The degradation rates are classically defined by amounts of constituents in liquid and gaseous phases. (author)

  12. Hydrothermal oxidation of an epoxy resin through the study of two model molecules: N-methyl-acetamide and N,N-di[1(phenoxy)2-hydroxy propyl-3] propyl-amine; Oxydation hydrothermale d'une resine epoxyde au travers de l'etude de deux molecules modeles: le N-methylacetamide et la N,N-di[1-(phenoxy) 2-hydroxy propyl-3] propylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutonnet-Fromonteil, C. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 (France)

    2000-07-01

    The study consists in choosing and developing a technology to realize damage experiments of an epoxy resin which is used as coating of embedded nuclear samples. Hydrothermal oxidation is the chosen method. We first identified the chemical composition of the epoxy resin. Then we studied hydrolysis and oxidation of a molecule which contains a function of the epoxy network: N-methyl-acetamide. The comparison between our results and those already existing allowed to validate this degradation method. In a second part, we studied a model molecule of the polymer network: N, N-di[1(phenoxy)2-hydroxy propyl-3] propyl-amine. The hydrolysis temperatures are relatively high: the compound is totally destroyed at 300 deg C. Its oxidation leads to the formation of acetic acid from 220 deg C. In the third study, we determined the best experimental conditions to destroy the epoxy resin. Experiments were performed at different temperatures between 200 deg C and 410 deg C. The degradation rates are classically defined by amounts of constituents in liquid and gaseous phases. (author)

  13. The role of flavin-containing enzymes in mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and ROS production in respiring Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under heat-shock conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseeva, Irina V; Pyatrikas, Darya V; Stepanov, Alexei V; Fedyaeva, Anna V; Varakina, Nina N; Rusaleva, Tatyana M; Borovskii, Gennadii B; Rikhvanov, Eugene G

    2017-05-31

    Heat shock is known to accelerate mitochondrial ROS production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. But how yeast mitochondria produce ROS under heat-shock condition is not completely clear. Previously, it was shown that ROS production in heat-stressed fermenting yeast cells was accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) increase. In the current investigation the relationship between ROS production and MMP was studied in respiring yeast cells in stationary phase, using diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of flavin-containing proteins, as well as the mutants deleted for NDE1, NDE2 and NDI1 genes, encoding flavin-containing external and internal NADH dehydrogenases. It was shown that heat shock induced a transient burst in mitochondrial ROS production, which was paralleled by MMP rise. ROS production and MMP was significantly suppressed by DPI addition and deletion of NDE1. The effect of DPI on ROS production and MMP rise was specific for respiring cells. The results obtained suggest that the functioning of mitochondrial flavin-binding enzymes, Nde1p for instance, is required for the hyperpolarization of inner mitochondrial membrane and ROS production in respiring S. cerevisiae cells under heat-shock conditions.

  14. Palmitoylated TMX and calnexin target to the mitochondria-associated membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynes, Emily M.; Bui, Michael; Yap, Megan C.

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) is a domain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that mediates the exchange of ions, lipids and metabolites between the ER and mitochondria. ER chaperones and oxidoreductases are critical components of the MAM. However, the localization motifs and mechanisms...... for most MAM proteins have remained elusive. Using two highly related ER oxidoreductases as a model system, we now show that palmitoylation enriches ER-localized proteins on the MAM. We demonstrate that palmitoylation of cysteine residue(s) adjacent to the membrane-spanning domain promotes MAM enrichment...... of the transmembrane thioredoxin family protein TMX. In addition to TMX, our results also show that calnexin shuttles between the rough ER and the MAM depending on its palmitoylation status. Mutation of the TMX and calnexin palmitoylation sites and chemical interference with palmitoylation disrupt their MAM enrichment...

  15. Respiratory electron transfer pathways in plant mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eSchertl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory electron transport chain (ETC couples electron transfer from organic substrates onto molecular oxygen with proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton gradient is used by the ATP synthase complex for ATP formation. In plants, the ETC is especially intricate. Besides the classical oxidoreductase complexes (complex I to IV and the mobile electron transporters cytochrome c and ubiquinone, it comprises numerous alternative oxidoreductases. Furthermore, several dehydrogenases localized in the mitochondrial matrix and the mitochondrial intermembrane space directly or indirectly provide electrons for the ETC. Entry of electrons into the system occurs via numerous pathways which are dynamically regulated in response to the metabolic state of a plant cell as well as environmental factors. This mini review aims to summarize recent finding on respiratory electron transfer pathways in plants and on the involved components and supramolecular assemblies.

  16. The flavo-enzyme xanthine oxidase is under circadian control in the marine alga Gonyaulax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tzu-Shing; Roenneberg, Till

    2002-02-01

    The activity of xanthine oxidoreductases (xanthine oxidase, XO, EC 1.2.3.2 and xanthine dehydrogenase, XDH, EC 1.1.1.204) in partially purified extracts of Gonyaulax polyedra was measured over 24 h both in a light:dark cycle and in constant light. This is the first demonstration of xanthine oxidoreductase in a unicellular alga. The activity of the O2-dependent form (XO) was found to be 15 times higher in light than in darkness. The same time-of-day specific differences persisted in constant light, demonstrating a control of XO by the circadian clock. In contrast, the activity of the NAD-dependent form (XDH) is not under circadian control. Because pharmacological inhibition of XO also blocks the effect of blue light on the Gonyaulax circadian clock, the possible relationship between XO and light reception in this unicellular alga will be discussed.

  17. Immobilisation d'enzymes dans des films de polymère conducteur : le PEDT. Application à la réalisation de biocapteurs ampérométriques pour le dosage du glucose et de composés phénoliques

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano, Silvia

    2002-01-01

    The amperometric biosensors presented in this work are based on immobilization of oxido-reductase enzymes in a conducting polymer deposited on electrode surface. The biosensor performance depends on the immobilization method and the characteristics of the resulting matrix. An electrochemical polymerization technique was used to entrap the enzymes in poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDT) a polythiophene derivative. Potentialities of this technique were demonstrated with two enzymes : glucose...

  18. Benzodiazepines have high-affinity binding sites and induce melanogenesis in B16/C3 melanoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew, E; Laskin, J D; Zimmerman, E A; Weinstein, I B; Hsu, K C; Engelhardt, D L

    1981-01-01

    We found that two markers of differentiation, tyrosinase (monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) activity and melanin synthesis, are induced by diazepam in B16/C3 mouse melanoma cells. We also demonstrated high-affinity binding sites for [3H]diazepam in these cells by radioreceptor assay, and we visualized binding to the cell surface by fluorescence microscopy with a benzodiazepine analog conjugated to a fluorescein-labeled protein. Our studies also showed tha...

  19. Pleiotropic Effects of Biguanides on Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Alena; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kovalčíková, Jana; Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Alán, Lukáš; Zima, Michal; Houštěk, Josef; Mráček, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 7038603. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12726S; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brown adipose tissue * mitochondria * respiratory chain oxidoreductases * mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase * superoxide production * biguanides * metformin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2016

  20. Two-domain laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor: a link between laccases and nitrite reductases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skálová, Tereza; Dohnálek, Jan; Ostergaard, L. H.; Ostergaard, P. R.; Kolenko, Petr; Dušková, Jarmila; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, 3a - Special Issue (2009), s. 3-4 ISSN 1211-5894. [Heart of European Crystallographic Meeting /12./. 24.09.2009-26.09.2009, Třešt´] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : laccase * oxidoreductase * multicopper blue protein Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  1. Monitorando atividades enzimáticas com sondas fluorogênicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline da Costa Silva Gonçalves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Latent fluorogenic probes are essential tools for molecular and chemical biology, providing valuable information about enzymatic activity and occurrence. In this review, a brief outline of fluorophores and latent fluorogenic probes is given. Furthermore, advances and challenges in the development of fluorogenic chemical probes to visualize enzymatic activities (hydrolases and oxidoreductases of biotechnological and biomedical interest are highlighted, including some methodologies for intracellular imaging.

  2. Trypanosoma brucei Mitochondrial Respiratome: Composition and Organization in Procyclic Form

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acestor, N.; Zíková, Alena; Dalley, R. A.; Anupama, A.; Panigrahi, A. K.; Stuart, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 9 (2011), s. 1-14 ISSN 1535-9476 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/09/P563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE * EDITED MESSENGER-RNA * COMPLEX-I * TRYPANOSOMA-BRUCEI * UBIQUINONE OXIDOREDUCTASE * TAP-TAG * PROTEIN INTERACTION * ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE * STATISTICAL-MODEL * MASS-SPECTROMETRY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.398, year: 2011

  3. Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through i...

  4. Translation of tyrosine hydroxylase from poly(A)-mRNA in pheochromocytoma cells is enhanced by dexamethasone.

    OpenAIRE

    Baetge, E E; Kaplan, B B; Reis, D J; Joh, T H

    1981-01-01

    Polysomal poly(A)-mRNA was purified from a clonal cell line of rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) and translated in a reticulocyte cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Tyrosine hydroxylase [tyrosine 3-monooxygenase; L-tyrosine, tetrahyropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating), EC 1.14.16.2] was isolated from other protein by immunoprecipitation and NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight and relative proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase to other proteins synthesi...

  5. Genomic Analysis of Anaerobic Respiration in the Archaeon Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1: Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Trimethylamine N-Oxide as Terminal Electron Acceptors†

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Jochen A.; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An operon, dmsREABCD, encoding a putative regulatory protein, DmsR, a molybdopterin oxidoreductase of the DMSO reductase family (DmsEABC), and...

  6. Expanding roles for GILT in immunity

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura Ciaccia; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT), a thioredoxin-related oxidoreductase, functions in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation by reducing disulfide bonds of endocytosed proteins and facilitating their unfolding and optimal degradation. However, recent reports have greatly expanded our understanding of GILT’s function. Several studies of GILT and antigen processing have shown that the influence of GILT on the peptide re...

  7. Reversible interconversion between sulfo and desulfo xanthine oxidase in a system containing rhodanese, thiosulfate, and sulfhydryl reagent.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishino, T; Usami, C; Tsushima, K

    1983-01-01

    The desulfo form of milk xanthine oxidase (xanthine: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.3.2) was reactivated by incubation with rhodanese (thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase, EC 2.8.1.1), thiosulfate, and sulfhydryl reagent; 50% of full activity was recovered. No further reactivation occurred with additional incubation. It was also found that native enzyme in the sulfo form with full activity was inactivated by incubation with the same system, down to half of full activity and no further inact...

  8. Induction of aldose reductase and sorbitol in renal inner medullary cells by elevated extracellular NaCl.

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnasco, S M; Uchida, S; Balaban, R S; Kador, P F; Burg, M B

    1987-01-01

    Aldose reductase [aldehyde reductase 2; alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.21] catalyzes conversion of glucose to sorbitol. Although its activity is implicated in the progression of ocular and neurological complications of diabetes, the normal function of the enzyme in most cells is unknown. Both aldose reductase activity and substantial levels of sorbitol were previously reported in renal inner medullary cells. In this tissue, the extracellular NaCl concentration normally is high and...

  9. The Assembly Factor SDHAF2 Is Dispensable for Flavination of the Catalytic Subunit of Mitochondrial Complex II in Breast Cancer Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezawork-Geleta, A.; Dong, L.; Rohlena, Jakub; Neužil, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 41 (2016), s. 21414-21420 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02203S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-22823S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : cancer biology * mitochondrial respiratory chain complex * SUCCINATE-UBIQUINONE OXIDOREDUCTASE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  10. Gclust Server: 123078 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 123078 HSA_70995422 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(16) 236 NP_001020605.1 NAD(...P)H menadione oxidoreductase 1, dioxin-inducible isoform c ; no annotation 1 1.00e-35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.5 Show 123078... Cluster ID 123078 Sequence ID HSA_70995422 Link to cluster sequences Cluster Sequences Link t

  11. Purification and characterization of a novel 1,3- propanediol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase (YqhD-1) found in Klebsiella oxytoca M5al was purified to homogeneity with a his-tag on a Ni-NTA column. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa. When YqhD-1 was tested as a ...

  12. AcEST: BP916679 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Rhodo... 34 4.9 tr|A3PLB9|A3PLB9_RHOS1 FAD de... DA G I R A HLHPLN A L AG LH LVTR H Sbjct: 177 DAYVGGDIDRGAGHLHPLNFAIGLARACDAAGVRLHEQSLVTRIVH 222 >tr|A3PL...B9|A3PLB9_RHOS1 FAD dependent oxidoreductase OS=Rhodobacter sphaeroides (strain ATC

  13. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Evaluation of its Sensitivity and Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Razei A; Sorouri R; Aghamollaei H; Mousavi SL

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poising in humans. Rapid and specific detection of these bacteria has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of infection. The aim of this study was to design a specific PCR for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: In this experimental study, oxidoreductase gene from the Campylobacter jejuni was selected for rapid and specific detection. For this purpose, specific primers were designed and charecte...

  14. Metal availability and the expanding network of microbial metabolisms in the Archaean eon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eli K.; Jelen, Benjamin I.; Giovannelli, Donato; Raanan, Hagai; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2017-09-01

    Life is based on energy gained by electron-transfer processes; these processes rely on oxidoreductase enzymes, which often contain transition metals in their structures. The availability of different metals and substrates has changed over the course of Earth's history as a result of secular changes in redox conditions, particularly global oxygenation. New metabolic pathways using different transition metals co-evolved alongside changing redox conditions. Sulfur reduction, sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis appeared between about 3.8 and 3.4 billion years ago. The oxidoreductases responsible for these metabolisms incorporated metals that were readily available in Archaean oceans, chiefly iron and iron-sulfur clusters. Oxygenic photosynthesis appeared between 3.2 and 2.5 billion years ago, as did methane oxidation, nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification. These metabolisms rely on an expanded range of transition metals presumably made available by the build-up of molecular oxygen in soil crusts and marine microbial mats. The appropriation of copper in enzymes before the Great Oxidation Event is particularly important, as copper is key to nitrogen and methane cycling and was later incorporated into numerous aerobic metabolisms. We find that the diversity of metals used in oxidoreductases has increased through time, suggesting that surface redox potential and metal incorporation influenced the evolution of metabolism, biological electron transfer and microbial ecology.

  15. Oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum: tight links to the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmen, Thomas; Lynes, Emily M; Gesson, Kevin; Thomas, Gary

    2010-08-01

    The production of secretory proteins at the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) depends on a ready supply of energy and metabolites as well as the close monitoring of the chemical conditions that favor oxidative protein folding. ER oxidoreductases and chaperones fold nascent proteins into their export-competent three-dimensional structure. Interference with these protein folding enzymes leads to the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER lumen, causing an acute organellar stress that triggers the UPR (unfolded protein response). The UPR increases the transcription of ER chaperones commensurate with the load of newly synthesized proteins and can protect the cell from ER stress. Persistant stress, however, can force the UPR to commit cells to undergo apoptotic cell death, which requires the emptying of ER calcium stores. Conversely, a continuous ebb and flow of calcium occurs between the ER and mitochondria during resting conditions on a domain of the ER that forms close contacts with mitochondria, the MAM (mitochondria-associated membrane). On the MAM, ER folding chaperones such as calnexin and calreticulin and oxidoreductases such as ERp44, ERp57 and Ero1alpha regulate calcium flux from the ER through reversible, calcium and redox-dependent interactions with IP3Rs (inositol 1,4,5-trisphophate receptors) and with SERCAs (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases). During apoptosis progression and depending on the identity of the ER chaperone and oxidoreductase, these interactions increase or decrease, suggesting that the extent of MAM targeting of ER chaperones and oxidoreductases could shift the readout of ER-mitochondria calcium exchange from housekeeping to apoptotic. However, little is known about the cytosolic factors that mediate the on/off interactions between ER chaperones and oxidoreductases with ER calcium channels and pumps. One candidate regulator is the multi-functional molecule PACS-2 (phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein-2). Recent

  16. Directed evolution of xylose isomerase for improved xylose catabolism and fermentation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2012-08-01

    The heterologous expression of a highly functional xylose isomerase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae would have significant advantages for ethanol yield, since the pathway bypasses cofactor requirements found in the traditionally used oxidoreductase pathways. However, nearly all reported xylose isomerase-based pathways in S. cerevisiae suffer from poor ethanol productivity, low xylose consumption rates, and poor cell growth compared with an oxidoreductase pathway and, additionally, often require adaptive strain evolution. Here, we report on the directed evolution of the Piromyces sp. xylose isomerase (encoded by xylA) for use in yeast. After three rounds of mutagenesis and growth-based screening, we isolated a variant containing six mutations (E15D, E114G, E129D, T142S, A177T, and V433I) that exhibited a 77% increase in enzymatic activity. When expressed in a minimally engineered yeast host containing a gre3 knockout and tal1 and XKS1 overexpression, the strain expressing this mutant enzyme improved its aerobic growth rate by 61-fold and both ethanol production and xylose consumption rates by nearly 8-fold. Moreover, the mutant enzyme enabled ethanol production by these yeasts under oxygen-limited fermentation conditions, unlike the wild-type enzyme. Under microaerobic conditions, the ethanol production rates of the strain expressing the mutant xylose isomerase were considerably higher than previously reported values for yeast harboring a xylose isomerase pathway and were also comparable to those of the strains harboring an oxidoreductase pathway. Consequently, this study shows the potential to evolve a xylose isomerase pathway for more efficient xylose utilization.

  17. X-ray Crystal Structure of Arsenite-Inhibited Xanthine Oxidase:[mu]-Sulfido,[mu]-Oxo Double Bridge between Molybdenum and Arsenic in the Active Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Hongnan; Hall, James; Hille, Russ (UCR)

    2012-10-23

    Xanthine oxidoreductase is a molybdenum-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation reaction of sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon centers of a variety of substrates, including purines, aldehydes, and other heterocyclic compounds. The complex of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase has been characterized previously by UV-vis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and the catalytically essential sulfido ligand of the square-pyrimidal molybdenum center has been suggested to be involved in arsenite binding through either a {mu}-sulfido,{mu}-oxo double bridge or a single {mu}-sulfido bridge. However, this is contrary to the crystallographically observed single {mu}-oxo bridge between molybdenum and arsenic in the desulfo form of aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (an enzyme closely related to xanthine oxidase), whose molybdenum center has an oxo ligand replacing the catalytically essential sulfur, as seen in the functional form of xanthine oxidase. Here we use X-ray crystallography to characterize the molybdenum center of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase and solve the structures of the oxidized and reduced inhibition complexes at 1.82 and 2.11 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. We observe {mu}-sulfido,{mu}-oxo double bridges between molybdenum and arsenic in the active sites of both complexes. Arsenic is four-coordinate with a distorted trigonal-pyramidal geometry in the oxidized complex and three-coordinate with a distorted trigonal-planar geometry in the reduced complex. The doubly bridged binding mode is in agreement with previous XAS data indicating that the catalytically essential sulfur is also essential for the high affinity of reduced xanthine oxidoreductase for arsenite.

  18. Electrochemical monitoring of intracellular enzyme activity of single living mammalian cells by using a double-mediator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumae, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells were evaluated by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). - Highlights: • NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity of single cells were evaluated with SECM. • Fe(CN) 6 3− /menadione concentrations were optimized for long-term SECM monitoring. • Menadione affect the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and GSH. • At 100 μM menadione, the Fe(CN) 6 3− generation rate decreased rapidly within 30 min. - Abstract: We evaluated the intracellular NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double-mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The double-mediator system was used to amplify the current response from the intracellular NQO activity and to reduce menadione-induced cell damage. The electron shuttle between the electrode and menadione was mediated by the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple. Generation of ferrocyanide was observed immediately after the addition of a lower concentration (10 μM) of menadione. The ferrocyanide generation rate was constant for 120 min. At a higher menadione concentration (100 μM), the ferrocyanide generation rate decreased within 30 min because of the cytotoxic effect of menadione. We also investigated the relationship between intracellular reactive oxygen species or glutathione levels and exposure to different menadione concentrations to determine the optimal condition for SECM with minimal invasiveness. The present study clearly demonstrates that SECM is useful for the analysis of intracellular enzymatic activities in single cells with a double-mediator system

  19. Electrochemical monitoring of intracellular enzyme activity of single living mammalian cells by using a double-mediator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumae, Yoshiharu [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takahashi, Yasufumi [Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ino, Kosuke [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shiku, Hitoshi, E-mail: shiku@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Matsue, Tomokazu, E-mail: matsue@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-09-09

    Graphical abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells were evaluated by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). - Highlights: • NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity of single cells were evaluated with SECM. • Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3−}/menadione concentrations were optimized for long-term SECM monitoring. • Menadione affect the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and GSH. • At 100 μM menadione, the Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3−} generation rate decreased rapidly within 30 min. - Abstract: We evaluated the intracellular NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double-mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The double-mediator system was used to amplify the current response from the intracellular NQO activity and to reduce menadione-induced cell damage. The electron shuttle between the electrode and menadione was mediated by the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple. Generation of ferrocyanide was observed immediately after the addition of a lower concentration (10 μM) of menadione. The ferrocyanide generation rate was constant for 120 min. At a higher menadione concentration (100 μM), the ferrocyanide generation rate decreased within 30 min because of the cytotoxic effect of menadione. We also investigated the relationship between intracellular reactive oxygen species or glutathione levels and exposure to different menadione concentrations to determine the optimal condition for SECM with minimal invasiveness. The present study clearly demonstrates that SECM is useful for the analysis of intracellular enzymatic activities in single cells with a double-mediator system.

  20. Succination of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Links Mitochondrial Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Adipocyte During Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Allison M; Walla, Michael D; Faccenda, Adam; Martin, Stephanie L; Tanis, Ross M; Piroli, Gerardo G; Adam, Julie; Kantor, Boris; Mutus, Bulent; Townsend, Danyelle M; Frizzell, Norma

    2017-12-01

    Protein succination by fumarate increases in the adipose tissue of diabetic mice and in adipocytes matured in high glucose as a result of glucotoxicity-driven mitochondrial stress. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductase protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is succinated in adipocytes that are matured in high glucose, and in this study we investigated whether succination would alter PDI oxidoreductase activity, directly linking mitochondrial stress and ER stress. Protein succination and the ER stress marker C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were diminished after pharmaceutical targeting of mitochondrial stress with the chemical uncoupler niclosamide in adipocytes matured in high-glucose concentrations. PDI was succinated by fumarate on both CXXC-containing active sites, contributing to reduced enzymatic activity. Succinated PDI decreased reductase activity in adipocytes matured in high glucose, and in db/db epididymal adipose tissue, in association with increased levels of CHOP. PDI succination was increased in fumarase knockdown adipocytes, leading to reduced PDI oxidoreductase activity, increased CHOP levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, confirming the specific role of elevated fumarate levels in contributing to ER stress. In addition, PDI succination and ER stress were decreased, and PDI reductase activity was restored when exposure to chronic high glucose was limited, highlighting the importance of calorie restriction in the improvement of adipocyte metabolic function. These experiments identify PDI succination as a novel biochemical mechanism linking altered mitochondrial metabolism to ER stress in the adipocyte during diabetes. The current study demonstrates that early biochemical changes in mitochondrial metabolism have important implications for the development of adipocyte stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1281-1296.

  1. Structural basis for the enzymatic formation of the key strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefner, André; Sinz, Quirin; Neumaier, Irmgard; Schwab, Wilfried; Skerra, Arne

    2013-06-07

    The last step in the biosynthetic route to the key strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) is catalyzed by Fragaria x ananassa enone oxidoreductase (FaEO), earlier putatively assigned as quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The ripening-induced enzyme catalyzes the reduction of the exocyclic double bond of the highly reactive precursor 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone (HMMF) in a NAD(P)H-dependent manner. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this peculiar reaction, we determined the crystal structure of FaEO in six different states or complexes at resolutions of ≤1.6 Å, including those with HDMF as well as three distinct substrate analogs. Our crystallographic analysis revealed a monomeric enzyme whose active site is largely determined by the bound NAD(P)H cofactor, which is embedded in a Rossmann-fold. Considering that the quasi-symmetric enolic reaction product HDMF is prone to extensive tautomerization, whereas its precursor HMMF is chemically labile in aqueous solution, we used the asymmetric and more stable surrogate product 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (EHMF) and the corresponding substrate (2E)-ethylidene-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (EDHMF) to study their enzyme complexes as well. Together with deuterium-labeling experiments of EDHMF reduction by [4R-(2)H]NADH and chiral-phase analysis of the reaction product EHMF, our data show that the 4R-hydride of NAD(P)H is transferred to the unsaturated exocyclic C6 carbon of HMMF, resulting in a cyclic achiral enolate intermediate that subsequently becomes protonated, eventually leading to HDMF. Apart from elucidating this important reaction of the plant secondary metabolism our study provides a foundation for protein engineering of enone oxidoreductases and their application in biocatalytic processes.

  2. The biochemical diversity of life near and above 100°C in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M W

    1998-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic micro-organisms grow at temperatures above 90 °C with a current upper limit of 113 °C. They are a recent discovery in the microbial world and have been isolated mainly from marine geothermal environments, which include both shallow and deep sea hydrothermal vents. By 16S rRNA analyses they are the most slowly evolving of all extant life forms, and all but two of the nearly 20 known genera are classified as Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria). Almost all hyperthermophiles are strict anaerobes. They include species of methanogens, iron-oxidizers and sulphate reducers, but the majority are obligate heterotrophs that depend upon the reduction of elemental sulphur (S°) to hydrogen sulphide for significant growth. The heterotrophs utilize proteinaceous materials as carbon and energy sources, although a few species are also saccharolytic. A scheme for electron flow during the oxidation of carbohydrates and peptides and the reduction of S° has been proposed. Two S°-reducing enzymes have been purified from the cytoplasm of one hyperthermophile (T(opt) 100 °C) that is able to grow either with and without S°. However, the mechanisms by which S° reduction is coupled to energy conservation in this organism and in obligate S°-reducing hyperthermophiles is not known. In the heterotrophs, sugar fermentation is achieved by a novel glycolytic pathway involving unusual ADP-dependent kinases and ATP synthetases, and novel oxidoreductases that are ferredoxin- rather than NAD(P)-linked. Similarly, peptide fermentation involves several unusual ferredoxin-linked oxidoreductases not found in mesophilic organisms. Several of these oxido-reductases contain tungsten, an element that is rarely used in biological systems. Tungsten is present in exceedingly low concentrations in normal sea water, but hydrothermal systems contain much higher tungsten concentrations, more than sufficient to support hyperthermophilic life. 1998 Society of Applied Microbiology.

  3. AcEST: DK951978 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tic OS=Prun... 327 3e-89 sp|P23262|NHG1_PSEPU Salicylate hydroxylase OS=Pseudomonas putid... 48 5e-05 sp|O06...489|YETM_BACSU Putative oxidoreductase yetM OS=Bacillus su... 47 7e-05 sp|Q53552|NHG2_PSEPU Salicylate...ALMASTYKAYLGVGLGPLSFLTKFRIPH 469 >sp|P23262|NHG1_PSEPU Salicylate hydroxylase OS=Pseudomonas putida GN=nahG ...ALQA 324 Query: 516 YESERVLRAGAIHGMA 563 Y R RA + ++ Sbjct: 325 YYKRRAPRALKVQNLS 340 >sp|Q53552|NHG2_PSEPU Salicylate

  4. Lipid-storage myopathy and respiratory insufficiency due to ETFQO mutations in a patient with late-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R K J; Pourfarzam, M; Morris, A A M

    2004-01-01

    We report a patient with lipid-storage myopathy due to multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). Molecular genetic analysis showed that she was compound heterozygous for mutations in the gene for electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETFQO). Despite a good initial r...... response to treatment, she developed respiratory insufficiency at age 14 years and has required long-term overnight ventilation. Thus, MADD is one of the few conditions that can cause a myopathy with weakness of the respiratory muscles out of proportion to the limb muscles....

  5. Insights on the evolution of mycoparasitism from the genome of Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Clonostachys rosea is a mycoparasitic fungus that can control several important plant diseases. Here we report on the genome sequencing of C. rosea and a comparative genome analysis, in order to resolve the phylogenetic placement of C. rosea and to study the evolution of mycoparasitism as a fungal...... of gene family evolution reveals several distinct differences between the included mycoparasites. C. rosea contains significantly more ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, polyketide synthases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, pectin lyases, glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductases and lytic...

  6. Data on cell viability of human lung fibroblasts treated with polyphenols-rich extract from Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloni, Caroline; Silva Santos, Luciana Fernandes; Martínez, Luana Soares; Salvador, Mirian

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba (Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel) is a Brazilian native berry, which presents high levels of polyphenols. Here we provide data related to the effects of the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba on the cell viability, mitochondrial complex I (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/CoQ oxidoreductase) activity and ATP biosynthesis of human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) treated with amiodarone. The data presented in this article demonstrate that the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba was able to reduce cell death as well as the decrease in complex I activity and ATP biosynthesis caused by amiodarone in MRC-5 cells. PMID:26870757

  7. Light-driven cytochrome P450 hydroxylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Jensen, Poul Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2011-01-01

    Plants are light-driven "green" factories able to synthesize more than 200,000 different bioactive natural products, many of which are high-value products used as drugs (e.g., artemisinin, taxol, and thapsigargin). In the formation of natural products, cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases play...... a key role in catalyzing regio- and stereospecific hydroxylations that are often difficult to achieve using the approaches of chemical synthesis. P450-catalyzed monooxygenations are dependent on electron donation typically from NADPH catalyzed by NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR...

  8. The p450 monooxygenase BcABA1 is essential for abscisic acid biosynthesis in Botrytis cinerea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siewers, V.; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Tudzynski, P.

    2004-01-01

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea is known to produce abscisic acid (ABA), which is thought to be involved in host-pathogen interaction. Biochemical analyses had previously shown that, in contrast to higher plants, the fungal ABA biosynthesis probably does not proceed via carotenoids...... but involves direct cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate and subsequent oxidation steps. We present here evidence that this "direct" pathway is indeed the only one used by an ABA-overproducing strain of B. cinerea. Targeted inactivation of the gene bccpr1 encoding a cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase reduced...

  9. Redox enzymes in the plant plasma membrane and their possible roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berczi, A.; Møller, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    Purified plasma membrane (PM) vesicles from higher plants contain redox proteins with low-molecular-mass prosthetic groups such as flavins (both FMN and FAD), hemes, metals (Cu, Fe and Mn), thiol groups and possibly naphthoquinone (vitamin K-1), all of which are likely to participate in redox...... protein which has been partially purified from plant PM so far is a high-potential and ascorbate-reducible b-type cytochrome. In co-operation with vitamin K-1 and an NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, it may participate in trans-PM electron transport....

  10. Simian Virus 40 depends on ER protein folding and quality control factors for entry into host cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelhaas, Mario; Malmström, Johan; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    Cell entry of Simian Virus 40 (SV40) involves caveolar/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis, vesicular transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), translocation into the cytosol, and import into the nucleus. We analyzed the effects of ER-associated processes and factors on infection and on isolated...... viruses and found that SV40 makes use of the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases, ERp57 and PDI, as well as the retrotranslocation proteins Derlin-1 and Sel1L. ERp57 isomerizes specific interchain disulfides connecting the major capsid protein, VP1, to a crosslinked network of neighbors, thus uncoupling about...

  11. 16th Carbonyl Metabolism Meeting: from enzymology to genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maser Edmund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 16th International Meeting on the Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Carbonyl Metabolism, Castle of Ploen (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, July 10–15, 2012, covered all aspects of NAD(P-dependent oxido-reductases that are involved in the general metabolism of xenobiotic and physiological carbonyl compounds. Starting 30 years ago with enzyme purification, structure elucidation and enzyme kinetics, the Carbonyl Society members have meanwhile established internationally recognized enzyme nomenclature systems and now consider aspects of enzyme genomics and enzyme evolution along with their roles in diseases. The 16th international meeting included lectures from international speakers from all over the world.

  12. Kinetic and docking studies of the interaction of quinones with the quinone reductase active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhigang; Fisher, Derek; Spidel, Jared; Greenfield, Jodi; Patson, Brian; Fazal, Aleem; Wigal, Carl; Moe, Owen A; Madura, Jeffry D

    2003-02-25

    NAD(P)H/quinone acceptor oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1) protects cells from cytotoxic and neoplastic effects of quinones though two-electron reduction. Kinetic experiments, docking, and binding affinity calculations were performed on a series of structurally varied quinone substrates. A good correlation between calculated and measured binding affinities from kinetic determinations was obtained. The experimental and theoretical studies independently support a model in which quinones (with one to three fused aromatic rings) bind in the QR1 active site utilizing a pi-stacking interaction with the isoalloxazine ring of the FAD cofactor.

  13. Nanodisc Films for Membrane Protein Studies by Neutron Reflection: Effect of the Protein Scaffold Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Nicolas; Laursen, Tomas; Barker, Robert; Bavishi, Krutika; M?ller, Birger Lindberg; C?rdenas, Marit?

    2015-01-01

    Nanodisc films are a promising approach to study the equilibrium conformation of membrane bound proteins in native-like environment. Here we compare nanodisc formation for NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) using two different scaffold proteins, MSP1D1 and MSP1E3D1. Despite the increased stability of POR loaded MSP1E3D1 based nanodiscs in comparison to MSP1D1 based nanodiscs, neutron reflection at the silicon?solution interface showed that POR loaded MSP1E3D1 based nanodisc ...

  14. Electronic structure contributions to reactivity in xanthine oxidase family enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Benjamin W; Kirk, Martin L

    2015-03-01

    We review the xanthine oxidase (XO) family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes with a specific emphasis on electronic structure contributions to reactivity. In addition to xanthine and aldehyde oxidoreductases, which catalyze the two-electron oxidation of aromatic heterocycles and aldehyde substrates, this mini-review highlights recent work on the closely related carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) that catalyzes the oxidation of CO using a unique Mo-Cu heterobimetallic active site. A primary focus of this mini-review relates to how spectroscopy and computational methods have been used to develop an understanding of critical relationships between geometric structure, electronic structure, and catalytic function.

  15. Rapid expansion of the protein disulfide isomerase gene family facilitates the folding of venom peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Li, Qing; Jackson, Ronneshia L.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of correct disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum is a crucial step for folding proteins destined for secretion. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play a central role in this process. We report a previously unidentified, hypervariable family of PDIs that represents the most...... diverse gene family of oxidoreductases described in a single genus to date. These enzymes are highly expressed specifically in the venom glands of predatory cone snails, animals that synthesize a remarkably diverse set of cysteine-rich peptide toxins (conotoxins). Enzymes in this PDI family, termed...

  16. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    1978-01-01

    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.9.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  17. Margareta Ryberg (1946-2012): a personal tribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Hans; Björn, Lars Olof; Skagerfält, Britta; Björn, Gunvor

    2012-09-01

    We pay tribute to the life and work of Margareta Ryberg (1946-2012). She was an expert on the different forms of protochlorophyll(ide), their protein partners, and their transformations in angiosperms; on the structural aspects, and the nature of prolamellar bodies, as well as on the localization of light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxido-reductase. She was a great teacher, who also loved gardening and handicraft. But above all, she was a beloved wife, mother, grandmother, and friend who will be deeply missed.

  18. WrpA Is an Atypical Flavodoxin Family Protein under Regulatory Control of the Brucella abortus General Stress Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrou, Julien; Czyż, Daniel M; Willett, Jonathan W; Kim, Hye-Sook; Chhor, Gekleng; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Kim, Youngchang; Crosson, Sean

    2016-04-01

    The general stress response (GSR) system of the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus controls the transcription of approximately 100 genes in response to a range of stress cues. The core genetic regulatory components of the GSR are required for B. abortus survival under nonoptimal growth conditions in vitro and for maintenance of chronic infection in an in vivo mouse model. The functions of the majority of the genes in the GSR transcriptional regulon remain undefined. bab1_1070 is among the most highly regulated genes in this regulon: its transcription is activated 20- to 30-fold by the GSR system under oxidative conditions in vitro. We have solved crystal structures of Bab1_1070 and demonstrate that it forms a homotetrameric complex that resembles those of WrbA-type NADH:quinone oxidoreductases, which are members of the flavodoxin protein family. However, B. abortus WrbA-related protein (WrpA) does not bind flavin cofactors with a high affinity and does not function as an NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in vitro. Soaking crystals with flavin mononucleotide (FMN) revealed a likely low-affinity binding site adjacent to the canonical WrbA flavin binding site. Deletion of wrpA (ΔwrpA) does not compromise cell survival under acute oxidative stress in vitro or attenuate infection in cell-based or mouse models. However, a ΔwrpA strain does elicit increased splenomegaly in a mouse model, suggesting that WrpA modulates B. abortus interaction with its mammalian host. Despite high structural homology with canonical WrbA proteins, we propose that B. abortus WrpA represents a functionally distinct member of the diverse flavodoxin family. Brucella abortus is an etiological agent of brucellosis, which is among the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. The general stress response (GSR) regulatory system of B. abortus controls the transcription of approximately 100 genes and is required for maintenance of chronic infection in a murine model; the majority of GSR-regulated genes

  19. Enzymatic synthesis of 11C-pyruvic acid and 11C-L-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.B.; Spolter, L.; Chang, C.C.; Cook, J.S.; Macdonald, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    L-Lactic acid is formed as the end product of glycolysis under anaerobic conditions in all cells, but this reaction is of special significance in the myocardium. L-Lactic acid is reversibly formed from and is in equilibrium with myocardial pyruvic acid, which is its sole metabolic pathway. 11 C-Pyruvic acid is synthesized from 11 C carbon dioxide using pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and coenzymes. The 11 C-pyruvic acid is then converted to 11 -L-lactic acid by lactic acid dehydrogenase. The availability of 11 C-pyruvic acid and 11 C-L-lactic acid will permit the in vivo investigation of lactate metabolism. (author)

  20. Purification and properties of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from Chaetomium piluliferum induced with p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaś-Wasilewska, M; Trojanowski, J

    1980-01-01

    1. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (protocatechuate : oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.3) was isolated from mycelium of Chaetomium piluliferum induced with p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The enzyme was purified about 80-fold by ammonium sulphate fractionation and DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography, and was homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. The enzyme showed high substrate specificity; its pH optimum was 7.5-8.0, and molecula weight about 76 000 as determined by filtration on Sephadex G-200. The Michaelis constant for protocatechuic acid was 11.1 microM.

  1. Recent Developments of Nanostructured Electrodes for Bioelectrocatalysis of Dioxygen Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Opallo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of nanostructured electrodes for bioelectrocatalytic dioxygen reduction catalysed by two copper oxidoreductases, laccase and bilirubin oxidase, is reviewed. Carbon-based nanomaterials as carbon nanotubes or carbon nanoparticles are frequently used for electrode modification, whereas there are only few examples of biocathodes modified with metal or metal oxide nanoparticles. These nanomaterials are adsorbed on the electrode surface or embedded in multicomponent film. The nano-objects deposited act as electron shuttles between the enzyme and the electrode substrate providing favourable conditions for mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis.

  2. A CRISPR screen identifies a pathway required for paraquat-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Colleen R; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Kong, Hyewon; Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Wang, Tim; Gao, Peng; Sabatini, David M; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2017-12-01

    Paraquat, a herbicide linked to Parkinson's disease, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes cell death. Because the source of paraquat-induced ROS production remains unknown, we conducted a CRISPR-based positive-selection screen to identify metabolic genes essential for paraquat-induced cell death. Our screen uncovered three genes, POR (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase), ATP7A (copper transporter), and SLC45A4 (sucrose transporter), required for paraquat-induced cell death. Furthermore, our results revealed POR as the source of paraquat-induced ROS production. Thus, our study highlights the use of functional genomic screens for uncovering redox biology.

  3. The enzyme kinetics of the NADP-malic enzyme from tobacco leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšlavá, H.; Doubnerová, V.; Müller, Karel; Baťková, Petra; Schnablová, Renáta; Liberda, J.; Synková, Helena; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 10 (2007), s. 1420-1434 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0310 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Univerzity Karlovy(CZ) 428/2004/B-Ch/PrF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : oxidoreductases * enzyme kinetics * NADP- malic enzyme * divalent metal ions * Nicotiana tabacum L. Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2007

  4. Enzymatic removal and disinfection of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Falholt, Per; Gram, Lone

    1997-01-01

    -coated hydroxyapatite. The activity of enzymes against bacterial cells in biofilm was measured by fluorescence microscopy and an indirect conductance test in which evolution of carbon dioxide was measured. Glucose oxidase combined with lactoperoxidase was bactericidal against biofilm bacteria but did not remove...... the biofilm from the substrata. A complex mixture of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes was able to remove bacterial biofilm from steel and polypropylene substrata but did not have a significant bactericidal activity. Combining oxidoreductases with polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes resulted in bactericidal...... activity as well as removal of the biofilm...

  5. Efficient Reduction of Vertebrate Cytoglobins by the Cytochrome b5/Cytochrome b5Reductase/NADH System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdahl, Matthew B; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney E; Corti, Paola; Gladwin, Mark T; Tejero, Jesús

    2017-08-01

    Cytoglobin is a heme-containing protein ubiquitous in mammalian tissues. Unlike the evolutionarily related proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin, cytoglobin shows a six-coordinated heme binding, with the heme iron coordinated by two histidine side chains. Cytoglobin is involved in cytoprotection pathways through yet undefined mechanisms, and it has recently been demonstrated that cytoglobin has redox signaling properties via nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite metabolism. The reduced, ferrous cytoglobin can bind oxygen and will react with NO in a dioxygenation reaction to form nitrate, which dampens NO signaling. When deoxygenated, cytoglobin can bind nitrite and reduce it to NO. This oxidoreductase activity could be catalytic if an effective reduction system exists to regenerate the reduced heme species. The nature of the physiological cytoglobin reducing system is unknown, although it has been proposed that ascorbate and cytochrome b 5 could fulfill this role. Here we describe that physiological concentrations of cytochrome b 5 and cytochrome b 5 reductase can reduce human and fish cytoglobins at rates up to 250-fold higher than those reported for their known physiological substrates, hemoglobin and myoglobin, and up to 100-fold faster than 5 mM ascorbate. These data suggest that the cytochrome b 5 /cytochrome b 5 reductase system is a viable reductant for cytoglobin in vivo, allowing for catalytic oxidoreductase activity.

  6. Ero1alpha requires oxidizing and normoxic conditions to localize to the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilady, Susanna Y; Bui, Michael; Lynes, Emily M; Benson, Matthew D; Watts, Russell; Vance, Jean E; Simmen, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Protein secretion from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires the enzymatic activity of chaperones and oxidoreductases that fold polypeptides and form disulfide bonds within newly synthesized proteins. The best-characterized ER redox relay depends on the transfer of oxidizing equivalents from molecular oxygen through ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) and protein disulfide isomerase to nascent polypeptides. The formation of disulfide bonds is, however, not the sole function of ER oxidoreductases, which are also important regulators of ER calcium homeostasis. Given the role of human Ero1alpha in the regulation of the calcium release by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors during the onset of apoptosis, we hypothesized that Ero1alpha may have a redox-sensitive localization to specific domains of the ER. Our results show that within the ER, Ero1alpha is almost exclusively found on the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM). The localization of Ero1alpha on the MAM is dependent on oxidizing conditions within the ER. Chemical reduction of the ER environment, but not ER stress in general leads to release of Ero1alpha from the MAM. In addition, the correct localization of Ero1alpha to the MAM also requires normoxic conditions, but not ongoing oxidative phosphorylation.

  7. The central role of selenium in the biochemistry and ecology of the harmful pelagophyte, Aureococcus anophagefferens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobler, Christopher J.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Turanov, Anton A.; Zhang, Yan; Doblin, Martina; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-03-07

    The trace element selenium (Se) is required for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid in the genetic code, but its role in the ecology of harmful algal blooms (HABs) is unknown. Here, we examined the role of Se in the biology and ecology of the harmful pelagophyte, Aureococcus anophagefferens, through cell culture, genomic analyses, and ecosystem studies. This organism has the largest and the most diverse selenoproteome identified to date that consists of at least 59 selenoproteins, including known eukaryotic selenoproteins, selenoproteins previously only detected in bacteria, and novel selenoproteins. The A. anophagefferens selenoproteome was dominated by the thioredoxin fold proteins and oxidoreductase functions were assigned to the majority of detected selenoproteins. Insertion of Sec in these proteins was supported by a unique Sec insertion sequence. Se was required for the growth of A. anophagefferens as cultures grew maximally at nanomolar Se concentrations. In a coastal ecosystem, dissolved Se concentrations were elevated before and after A. anophagefferens blooms, but were reduced by >95percent during the peak of blooms to 0.05 nM. Consistent with this pattern, enrichment of seawater with selenite before and after a bloom did not affect the growth of A. anophagefferens, but enrichment during the peak of the bloom significantly increased population growth rates. These findings demonstrate that Se inventories, which can be anthropogenically enriched, can support proliferation of HABs, such as A. anophagefferens through its synthesis of a large arsenal of Se-dependent oxidoreductases that fine-tune cellular redox homeostasis.

  8. Modifiers of free radicals inhibit in vitro the oncogenic actions of x-rays, bleomycin, and the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.; Troll, W.

    1983-01-01

    Using short-term cultures of hamster embryo cells, we have examined the effects of the free-radical scavenger superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) and the enzyme catalase (hydrogen-peroxide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.6) on x-ray-and bleomycin-induced transformation and on the enhancement of radiogenic transformation by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). We find that superoxide dismutase inhibits (i) transformation induced by x-ray and bleomycin and (ii) promotional action of TPA in vitro. The results suggest that the oncogenic action of x-rays and bleomycin and the enhancement of oncogenic transformation by TPA are mediated in part by free radicals. The findings also suggest that superoxide dismutase can serve as an inhibitor of oncogenesis and that its actions, as seen in this in vitro system, are most predominantly on inhibiting late events in the progression of cellular transformation--those associated with promotion

  9. Assessment of ptxD gene as an alternative selectable marker for Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahampun, Hartinio N; López-Arredondo, Damar; Xu, Xing; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Wang, Kan

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial phosphite oxidoreductase gene and chemical phosphite can be used as a selection system for Agrobacterium -mediated maize transformation. Application of phosphite (Phi) on plants can interfere the plant metabolic system leading to stunted growth and lethality. On the other hand, ectopic expression of the ptxD gene in tobacco and Arabidopsis allowed plants to grow in media with Phi as the sole phosphorous source. The phosphite oxidoreductase (PTXD) enzyme catalyzes the conversion of Phi into phosphate (Pi) that can then be metabolized by plants and utilized as their essential phosphorous source. Here we assess an alternative selectable marker based on a bacterial ptxD gene for Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation. We compared the transformation frequencies of maize using either the ptxD/Phi selection system or a standard herbicide bar/bialaphos selection system. Two maize genotypes, a transformation amenable hybrid Hi II and an inbred B104, were tested. Transgene presence, insertion copy numbers, and ptxD transcript levels were analyzed and compared. This work demonstrates that the ptxD/Phi selection system can be used for Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation of both type I and type II callus culture and achieve a comparable frequency as that of the herbicide bar/bialaphos selection system.

  10. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  11. The Effect of Herbicides on Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of herbicides on the hydrogen peroxide generation in vacuolar extracts of red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. was investigated. Belonging to different chemical classes of herbicide compounds have been used. Herbicides differ from each other in the mechanism of effects on plants. Clopyralid (aromatic acid herbicide, derivative of picolinic acid and 2.4-D (phenoxyacetic herbicide, characterized by hormone-like effects, contributed to the formation of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Fluorodifen (nitrophenyl ether herbicide and diuron (urea herbicide also have increased contents H2O2. These compounds inhibit the electron transport, photosynthesis, and photorespiration in sensitive plants. Herbicidal effect of glyphosate (organophosphorus herbicide is due to the inhibition of amino acid synthesis in plant cells. Glyphosate did not affect the content of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Herbicide dependent H2O2-generation did not occur with oxidoreductase inhibitors, potassium cyanide and sodium azide. The results suggest that the formation of ROS in the vacuoles due to activity of oxidoreductases, which could interact with herbicides.

  12. AIF inhibits tumor metastasis by protecting PTEN from oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shao-Ming; Guo, Meng; Xiong, Zhong; Yu, Yun; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) exerts dual roles on cell death and survival, but its substrates as a putative oxidoreductase and roles in tumorigenesis remain elusive. Here, we report that AIF physically interacts with and inhibits the oxidation of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN), a tumor suppressor susceptible for oxidation-mediated inactivation. More intriguingly, we also identify PTEN as a mitochondrial protein and the ectopic expression of mitochondrial targeting sequence-carrying PTEN almost completely inhibits Akt phosphorylation in PTEN-deficient cells. AIF knockdown causes oxidation-mediated inactivation of the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN, with ensuing activation of Akt kinase, phosphorylation of the Akt substrate GSK-3β, and activation of β-catenin signaling in cancer cells. Through its effect on β-catenin signaling, AIF inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of cancer cells in vitro and in orthotopically implanted xenografts. Accordingly, the expression of AIF is correlated with the survival of human patients with cancers of multiple origins. These results identify PTEN as the substrate of AIF oxidoreductase and reveal a novel function for AIF in controlling tumor metastasis. PMID:26415504

  13. The hydroxynitrile lyase from almond: crystal structure and mechanistical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreveny, Ingrid

    2001-09-01

    Cyanogenesis is a defense process of several thousand plant species. Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL), a key enzyme of this process, cleaves a cyanohydrin precursor into hydrocyanic acid and the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. The reverse reaction constitutes an important tool in industrial biocatalysis. Different classes of hydroxynitrile lyases have convergently evolved from FAD-dependent oxidoreductases, α/β hydrolases and alcohol dehydrogenases. The FAD-dependent hydroxynitrile lyases (FAD-HNLs) carry a flavin cofactor whose redox properties appear to be unimportant for catalysis. The high resolution crystal structure of the hydroxynitrile lyase from almond (Prunus amygdalus), PaHNL1, has been determined and constitutes the first 3D structure of an FAD-HNL. The overall fold and the architecture of the active site region showed that PaHNL1 belongs to the glucose-methanol-choline-oxidoreductase family, with closest structural similarity to glucose oxidase. There is strong evidence from the sequence and the reaction product that FAD-dependent hydroxynitrile lyases have evolved from an aryl alcohol oxidizing precursor. Structures of PaHNL1 in complex with its natural substrate mandelonitrile and the competitive inhibitor benzyl alcohol provided insight into the residues involved in catalysis and a mechanism without participation of the cofactor could be suggested. Although the catalytic residues differ between the α/β-hydrolase-type HNLs and PaHNL1, common general features relevant for hydroxynitrile lyase activity could be proposed. (author)

  14. Metagenomic potential for and diversity of N-cycle driving microorganisms in the Bothnian Sea sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasigraf, Olivia; Schmitt, Julia; Jetten, Mike S M; Lüke, Claudia

    2017-08-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle is driven by a plethora of reactions transforming nitrogen compounds between various redox states. Here, we investigated the metagenomic potential for nitrogen cycle of the in situ microbial community in an oligotrophic, brackish environment of the Bothnian Sea sediment. Total DNA from three sediment depths was isolated and sequenced. The characterization of the total community was performed based on 16S rRNA gene inventory using SILVA database as reference. The diversity of diagnostic functional genes coding for nitrate reductases (napA;narG), nitrite:nitrate oxidoreductase (nxrA), nitrite reductases (nirK;nirS;nrfA), nitric oxide reductase (nor), nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), hydrazine synthase (hzsA), ammonia monooxygenase (amoA), hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (hao), and nitrogenase (nifH) was analyzed by blastx against curated reference databases. In addition, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based amplification was performed on the hzsA gene of anammox bacteria. Our results reveal high genomic potential for full denitrification to N 2 , but minor importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation and dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonium. Genomic potential for aerobic ammonia oxidation was dominated by Thaumarchaeota. A higher diversity of anammox bacteria was detected in metagenomes than with PCR-based technique. The results reveal the importance of various N-cycle driving processes and highlight the advantage of metagenomics in detection of novel microbial key players. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Medium- and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase gene and protein families : the SDR superfamily: functional and structural diversity within a family of metabolic and regulatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K L; Jörnvall, H; Persson, B; Oppermann, U

    2008-12-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) constitute a large family of NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreductases, sharing sequence motifs and displaying similar mechanisms. SDR enzymes have critical roles in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, cofactor, hormone and xenobiotic metabolism as well as in redox sensor mechanisms. Sequence identities are low, and the most conserved feature is an alpha/beta folding pattern with a central beta sheet flanked by 2 - 3 alpha-helices from each side, thus a classical Rossmannfold motif for nucleotide binding. The conservation of this element and an active site, often with an Asn-Ser-Tyr-Lys tetrad, provides a platform for enzymatic activities encompassing several EC classes, including oxidoreductases, epimerases and lyases. The common mechanism is an underlying hydride and proton transfer involving the nicotinamide and typically an active site tyrosine residue, whereas substrate specificity is determined by a variable C-terminal segment. Relationships exist with bacterial haloalcohol dehalogenases, which lack cofactor binding but have the active site architecture, emphasizing the versatility of the basic fold in also generating hydride transfer-independent lyases. The conserved fold and nucleotide binding emphasize the role of SDRs as scaffolds for an NAD(P)(H) redox sensor system, of importance to control metabolic routes, transcription and signalling.

  16. Structural insights into substrate and coenzyme preference by SDR family protein Gox2253 from Gluconobater oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bo; Cui, Dongbing; Zhang, Lujia; Jiang, Shuiqin; Machida, Satoru; Yuan, Y Adam; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Gox2253 from Gluconobacter oxydans belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family, and catalyzes the reduction of heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal with NADPH. To develop a robust working platform to engineer novel G. oxydans oxidoreductases with designed coenzyme preference, we adopted a structure based rational design strategy using computational predictions that considers the number of hydrogen bonds formed between enzyme and docked coenzyme. We report the crystal structure of Gox2253 at 2.6 Å resolution, ternary models of Gox2253 mutants in complex with NADH/short-chain aldehydes, and propose a structural mechanism of substrate selection. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that hydrogen bonds could form between 2'-hydroxyl group in the adenosine moiety of NADH and the side chain of Gox2253 mutant after arginine at position 42 is replaced with tyrosine or lysine. Consistent with the molecular dynamics prediction, Gox2253-R42Y/K mutants can use both NADH and NADPH as a coenzyme. Hence, the strategies here could provide a practical platform to engineer coenzyme selectivity for any given oxidoreductase and could serve as an additional consideration to engineer substrate-binding pockets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A novel 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in Rhodococcus sp. P14 for transforming 17β-estradiol to estrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xueying; Wang, Hui; Kan, Jie; Li, Jin; Huang, Tongwang; Xiong, Guangming; Hu, Zhong

    2017-10-01

    17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are a group of oxidoreductase enzymes that exhibit high specificity for 17C reduction/oxidation. However, the mechanism of 17β-HSD in oxidizing steroid hormone 17β-estradiol to estrone in bacterium is still unclear. In this work, a functional bacterium Rhodococcus sp. P14 was identified having rapid ability to oxidize estradiol into estrone in mineral salt medium (MSM) within 6 h. The functional genes encoding NADH-dependent oxidoreductase were successfully detected with the help of bioinformatics, and it was identified that it contained two consensus regions affiliated to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Expression of 17β-HSD could be induced by estradiol in strain P14. The 17β-HSD gene from Rhodococcus sp. P14 was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21. Furthermore, recombinant 17β-HSD-expressing BL21 cells showed a high transformation rate, they are capable of transforming estradiol to estrone up to 94%. The purified His-17β-HSD protein also exhibited high catalyzing efficiency. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence that a novel 17β-HSD in Rhodococcus sp. P14 can catalyze the oxidation of estradiol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Asymmetric chemoenzymatic synthesis of miconazole and econazole enantiomers. The importance of chirality in their biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas-Sánchez, Juan; Busto, Eduardo; Gotor-Fernández, Vicente; Malpartida, Francisco; Gotor, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    A simple and novel chemoenzymatic route has been applied for the first time in the synthesis of miconazole and econazole single enantiomers. Lipases and oxidoreductases have been tested in stereoselective processes; the best results were attained with oxidoreductases for the introduction of chirality in an adequate intermediate. The behaviors of a series of ketones and racemic alcohols in bioreductions and acetylation procedures, respectively, have been investigated; the best results were found with alcohol dehydrogenases A and T, which allowed the production of (R)-2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethanol in enantiopure form under very mild reaction conditions. Final chemical modifications have been performed in order to isolate the target fungicides miconazole and econazole both as racemates and as single enantiomers. Biological evaluation of the racemates and single enantiomers has shown remarkable differences against the growth of several microorganisms; while (R)-miconazole seemed to account for most of the biological activity of racemic miconazole on all the strains tested, both enantiomers of econazole showed considerable biological activities. In this manner, (R)-econazole showed higher values against Candida krusei , while higher values were observed for (S)-econazole against Cryptococcus neoformans, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus niger.

  19. Characterization of energy-conserving hydrogenase B in Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Tiffany A; Liu, Yuchen; Whitman, William B

    2010-08-01

    The Methanococcus maripaludis energy-conserving hydrogenase B (Ehb) generates low potential electrons required for autotrophic CO(2) assimilation. To analyze the importance of individual subunits in Ehb structure and function, markerless in-frame deletions were constructed in a number of M. maripaludis ehb genes. These genes encode the large and small hydrogenase subunits (ehbN and ehbM, respectively), a polyferredoxin and ferredoxin (ehbK and ehbL, respectively), and an ion translocator (ehbF). In addition, a gene replacement mutation was constructed for a gene encoding a putative membrane-spanning subunit (ehbO). When grown in minimal medium plus acetate (McA), all ehb mutants had severe growth deficiencies except the DeltaehbO::pac strain. The membrane-spanning ion translocator (DeltaehbF) and the large hydrogenase subunit (DeltaehbN) deletion strains displayed the severest growth defects. Deletion of the ehbN gene was of particular interest because this gene was not contiguous to the ehb operon. In-gel activity assays and Western blots confirmed that EhbN was part of the membrane-bound Ehb hydrogenase complex. The DeltaehbN strain was also sensitive to growth inhibition by aryl acids, indicating that Ehb was coupled to the indolepyruvate oxidoreductase (Ior), further supporting the hypothesis that Ehb provides low potential reductants for the anabolic oxidoreductases in M. maripaludis.

  20. Expression and purification of his-tagged recombinant mouse zeta-crystallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanya, Mukoma F; Leverenz, Victor R; Giblin, Frank J

    2010-02-01

    Zeta-crystallin is an NADPH-binding protein consisting of four identical 35kD subunits. The protein possesses quinone oxidoreductase activity, and is present in large amounts in the lenses of camelids, certain hystricomorphic rodents, and the Japanese tree frog, and in lower catalytic amounts in certain tissues of various species. In this study, recombinant methods were used to produce substantial quantities of his-tagged recombinant mouse zeta-crystallin, which was then purified to homogeneity. The yield of pure recombinant mouse zeta-crystallin was five times that obtained previously for purification of recombinant guinea pig zeta-crystallin. The quinone oxidoreductase activity of purified his-tagged recombinant mouse zeta-crystallin was comparable to that of purified native guinea pig lens zeta-crystallin, and to that previously reported for recombinant guinea pig zeta-crystallin. The method permits production of substantial amounts of recombinant zeta-crystallin for conducting studies on the biological role of this interesting protein, which exists in such high concentration in the lenses of certain species.

  1. A comparison of the endotoxin biosynthesis and protein oxidation pathways in the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah ePiek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope consists of an inner membrane (IM that surrounds the cytoplasm, and an asymmetrical outer-membrane (OM that forms a protective barrier to the external environment. The OM consists of lipopolysaccahride (LPS, phospholipids, outer membrane proteins (OMPs and lipoproteins. Oxidative protein folding mediated by periplasmic oxidoreductases is required for the correct biogenesis of the protein components, mainly constituents of virulence determinants such as pili, flagella and toxins, of the Gram-negative OM. Recently, periplasmic oxidoreductases have been implicated in LPS biogenesis of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. Differences in OM biogenesis, in particular the transport pathways for endotoxin to the OM, the composition and role of the protein oxidation and isomerisation pathways and the regulatory networks that control them have been found in these two Gram-negative species suggesting that although form and function of the OM is conserved, these conserved pathways have been modified to suit the lifestyle of each organism.

  2. On the structure and function of the phytoene desaturase CRTI from Pantoea ananatis, a membrane-peripheral and FAD-dependent oxidase/isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schaub

    Full Text Available CRTI-type phytoene desaturases prevailing in bacteria and fungi can form lycopene directly from phytoene while plants employ two distinct desaturases and two cis-tans isomerases for the same purpose. This property renders CRTI a valuable gene to engineer provitamin A-formation to help combat vitamin A malnutrition, such as with Golden Rice. To understand the biochemical processes involved, recombinant CRTI was produced and obtained in homogeneous form that shows high enzymatic activity with the lipophilic substrate phytoene contained in phosphatidyl-choline (PC liposome membranes. The first crystal structure of apo-CRTI reveals that CRTI belongs to the flavoprotein superfamily comprising protoporphyrinogen IX oxidoreductase and monoamine oxidase. CRTI is a membrane-peripheral oxidoreductase which utilizes FAD as the sole redox-active cofactor. Oxygen, replaceable by quinones in its absence, is needed as the terminal electron acceptor. FAD, besides its catalytic role also displays a structural function by enabling the formation of enzymatically active CRTI membrane associates. Under anaerobic conditions the enzyme can act as a carotene cis-trans isomerase. In silico-docking experiments yielded information on substrate binding sites, potential catalytic residues and is in favor of single half-site recognition of the symmetrical C(40 hydrocarbon substrate.

  3. Rotenone-sensitive mitochondrial potential in Phytomonas serpens: electrophoretic Ca(2+) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Danuza Nogueira; Barrabin, Hector

    2004-06-07

    Phytomonas sp. are flagellated trypanosomatid plant parasites that cause diseases of economic importance in plantations of coffee, oil palm, cassava and coconuts. Here we investigated Ca(2+) uptake by the vanadate-insensitive compartments using permeabilized Phytomonas serpens promastigotes. This uptake occurs at a rate of 1.13+/-0.23 nmol Ca(2+) mg x protein(-1) min(-1). It is completely abolished by the H(+) ionophore FCCP and by valinomycin and nigericin. It is also inhibited by 2 microM ruthenium red, which, at this low concentration, is known to inhibit the mitochondrial calcium uniport. Furthermore, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and propylgallate, specific inhibitors of the alternative oxidase in plant and parasite mitochondria, are also effective as inhibitors of the Ca(2+) transport. These compounds abolish the membrane potential that is monitored with safranine O. Rotenone, an inhibitor of NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, can also dissipate 100% of the membrane potential. It is suggested that the mitochondria of P. serpens can be energized via oxidation of NADH in a pathway involving the NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase and the alternative oxidase to regenerate the ubiquinone. The electrochemical H(+) gradient can be used to promote Ca(2+) uptake by the mitochondria.

  4. Bactericidal peptidoglycan recognition protein induces oxidative stress in Escherichia coli through a block in respiratory chain and increase in central carbon catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Des R; Kuzma, Marcin; Kowalczyk, Dominik A; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through simultaneous induction of oxidative, thiol and metal stress responses in bacteria. However, metabolic pathways through which PGRPs induce these bactericidal stress responses are unknown. We screened Keio collection of Escherichia coli deletion mutants and revealed that deleting genes for respiratory chain flavoproteins or for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle resulted in increased resistance of E. coli to PGRP killing. PGRP-induced killing depended on the production of hydrogen peroxide, which required increased supply of NADH for respiratory chain oxidoreductases from central carbon catabolism (glycolysis and TCA cycle), and was controlled by cAMP-Crp. Bactericidal PGRP induced a rapid decrease in respiration, which suggested that the main source of increased production of hydrogen peroxide was a block in respiratory chain and diversion of electrons from NADH oxidoreductases to oxygen. CpxRA two-component system was a negative regulator of PGRP-induced oxidative stress. By contrast, PGRP-induced thiol stress (depletion of thiols) and metal stress (increase in intracellular free Zn 2+ through influx of extracellular Zn 2+ ) were mostly independent of oxidative stress. Thus, manipulating pathways that induce oxidative, thiol and metal stress in bacteria could be a useful strategy to design new approaches to antibacterial therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Enzymes as Green Catalysts for Precision Macromolecular Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Shin-ichiro; Uyama, Hiroshi; Kadokawa, Jun-ichi; Kimura, Shunsaku; Kobayashi, Shiro

    2016-02-24

    The present article comprehensively reviews the macromolecular synthesis using enzymes as catalysts. Among the six main classes of enzymes, the three classes, oxidoreductases, transferases, and hydrolases, have been employed as catalysts for the in vitro macromolecular synthesis and modification reactions. Appropriate design of reaction including monomer and enzyme catalyst produces macromolecules with precisely controlled structure, similarly as in vivo enzymatic reactions. The reaction controls the product structure with respect to substrate selectivity, chemo-selectivity, regio-selectivity, stereoselectivity, and choro-selectivity. Oxidoreductases catalyze various oxidation polymerizations of aromatic compounds as well as vinyl polymerizations. Transferases are effective catalysts for producing polysaccharide having a variety of structure and polyesters. Hydrolases catalyzing the bond-cleaving of macromolecules in vivo, catalyze the reverse reaction for bond forming in vitro to give various polysaccharides and functionalized polyesters. The enzymatic polymerizations allowed the first in vitro synthesis of natural polysaccharides having complicated structures like cellulose, amylose, xylan, chitin, hyaluronan, and chondroitin. These polymerizations are "green" with several respects; nontoxicity of enzyme, high catalyst efficiency, selective reactions under mild conditions using green solvents and renewable starting materials, and producing minimal byproducts. Thus, the enzymatic polymerization is desirable for the environment and contributes to "green polymer chemistry" for maintaining sustainable society.

  6. Methanogenic paraffin degradation proceeds via alkane addition to fumarate by 'Smithella' spp. mediated by a syntrophic coupling with hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrik, Boris; Marks, Christopher R; Davidova, Irene A; McInerney, Michael J; Pruitt, Shane; Duncan, Kathleen E; Suflita, Joseph M; Callaghan, Amy V

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic microbial biodegradation of recalcitrant, water-insoluble substrates, such as paraffins, presents unique metabolic challenges. To elucidate this process, a methanogenic consortium capable of mineralizing long-chain n-paraffins (C28 -C50 ) was enriched from San Diego Bay sediment. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated the dominance of Syntrophobacterales (43%) and Methanomicrobiales (26%). Metagenomic sequencing allowed draft genome assembly of dominant uncultivated community members belonging to the bacterial genus Smithella and the archaeal genera Methanoculleus and Methanosaeta. Five contigs encoding homologs of the catalytic subunit of alkylsuccinate synthase (assA) were detected. Additionally, mRNA transcripts for these genes, including a homolog binned within the 'Smithella' sp. SDB genome scaffold, were detected via RT-PCR, implying that paraffins are activated via 'fumarate addition'. Metabolic reconstruction and comparison with genome scaffolds of uncultivated n-alkane degrading 'Smithella' spp. are consistent with the hypothesis that syntrophically growing 'Smithella' spp. may achieve reverse electron transfer by coupling the reoxidation of ETFred to a membrane-bound FeS oxidoreductase functioning as an ETF:menaquinone oxidoreductase. Subsequent electron transfer could proceed via a periplasmic formate dehydrogenase and/or hydrogenase, allowing energetic coupling to hydrogenotrophic methanogens such as Methanoculleus. Ultimately, these data provide fundamental insight into the energy conservation mechanisms that dictate interspecies interactions salient to methanogenic alkane mineralization. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Influence of Populus genotype on gene expression by the wood decay fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jill; Marty, Amber; Mozuch, Michael; Kersten, Philip J; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Sabat, Grzegorz; Azarpira, Ali; Ralph, John; Skyba, Oleksandr; Mansfield, Shawn D; Blanchette, Robert A; Cullen, Dan

    2014-09-01

    We examined gene expression patterns in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium when it colonizes hybrid poplar (Populus alba × tremula) and syringyl (S)-rich transgenic derivatives. A combination of microarrays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed detection of a total of 9,959 transcripts and 793 proteins. Comparisons of P. chrysosporium transcript abundance in medium containing poplar or glucose as a sole carbon source showed 113 regulated genes, 11 of which were significantly higher (>2-fold, P < 0.05) in transgenic line 64 relative to the parental line. Possibly related to the very large amounts of syringyl (S) units in this transgenic tree (94 mol% S), several oxidoreductases were among the upregulated genes. Peptides corresponding to a total of 18 oxidoreductases were identified in medium consisting of biomass from line 64 or 82 (85 mol% S) but not in the parental clone (65 mol% S). These results demonstrate that P. chrysosporium gene expression patterns are substantially influenced by lignin composition. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Anaerobic respiration: In vitro efficacy of Nitazoxanide against mitochondriate Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Farooq, Maria; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protist pathogen that is responsible for serious human and animal infection. Being one of the most frequently isolated protists from the environment, it is likely that it readily encounters microaerophilic environments. For respiration under anaerobic or low oxygen conditions in several amitochondriate protists, decarboxylation of pyruvate is catalyzed by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase instead of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In support, Nitazoxanide, an inhibitor of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, is effective and non-mutagenic clinically against a range of amitochondriate protists, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The overall aim of the present study was to determine in vitro efficacy of Nitazoxanide against Acanthamoeba castellanii. At micromolar concentrations, the findings revealed that Nitazoxanide neither affected A. castellanii growth or viability nor amoeba-mediated host cell monolayer damage in vitro or extracellular proteolytic activities. Similarly, microaerophilic conditions alone had no significant effects. In contrast, microaerophilic conditions together with Nitazoxanide showed amoebicidal effects and inhibited A. castellanii-mediated host cell monolayer damage as well as extracellular proteases. Using encystation assays, it was observed that Nitazoxanide inhibited trophozoite transformation into cysts both under aerophilic and microaerophilic conditions. Furthermore, pre-treatment of cysts with Nitazoxanide inhibited A. castellanii excystation. These findings are important in the identification of potential targets that could be useful against parasite-specific respiration as well as to understand the basic biology of the life cycle of Acanthamoeba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Localizing gene regulation reveals a staggered wood decay mechanism for the brown rot fungus Postia placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Presley, Gerald N.; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Ryu, Jae-San; Menke, Jon R.; Figueroa, Melania; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Schilling, Jonathan S.

    2016-09-12

    The fungi that cause brown rot of wood are essential contributors to biomass recycling in forest ecosystems. Their highly efficient cellulolytic systems, which may have practical applications, apparently depend on a combination of two mechanisms: nonselective oxidation of the lignocellulose by reactive oxygen species (ROS) coupled with hydrolysis of the polysaccharide components by a limited set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Since the production of strongly oxidizing ROS appears incompatible with the operation of GHs, it has been proposed that the fungi regulate ROS production by maintaining concentration gradients of the chelated metal ions they use to generate extracellular oxidants. However, calculations have indicated that this protective mechanism is physically infeasible. We examined a different hypothesis, that expression of ROS and GH components is temporally staggered by brown rot fungi in wood. We sectioned thin wafers of spruce and aspen that had been colonized directionally by Postia placenta and measured expression of relevant genes and some of the encoded enzymes, thus using the spatial distribution of fungal hyphae to resolve a fine-scale temporal sequence. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression for eight oxidoreductases thought to have a role in ROS production and of eight GHs revealed a zone of oxidoreductase upregulation at the hyphal front that persisted about 48 h before upregulation of the GHs. Additional evidence for differential expression was provided by localization of endoglucanase, xylanase, mannanase, and laccase activities in the colonized wood. Our results support a two-step mechanism for brown rot, in which substrate oxidation precedes enzymatic hydrolysis.

  10. Regulation of carbon and electron flow in Propionispira arboris: Relationship of catabolic enzyme levels to carbon substrates fermented during propionate formation via the methylmalony coenzyme a pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.E.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the glucose fermentation pathway and the modulation of catabolic oxidoreductase activities by energy sources (i.e., glucose versus lactate of fumarate) in Propionispira arboris was performed. 14 C radiotracer data show the CO 2 produced from pyruvate oxidation comes exclusively from the C-3 and C-4 positions of glucose. Significant specific activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase were detected, which substantiates the utilization of the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas path for glucose metabolism. The methylmalonyl coenzyme A pathway for pyruvate reduction to propionate was established by detection of significant activities of methylmalonyl coenzyme A transcarboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and fumarate reductase in cell-free extracts and by 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscpic demonstation of randomization of label from [2- 13 C]pyruvate into positions 2 and 3 of propionate. The specific activity of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, malate dehydrogenase, fumarate reductase, and transcarboxylase varied significantly in cells grown on different energy sources. D-Lactate dehydrogenase (non-NADH linked) was present in cells of P. arboris grown on lactate but not in cells grown on glucose or fumarate. These results indicate that growth substrates regulate synthesis of enzymes specific for the methylmalonyl coenzyme A path initial substrate transformation

  11. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa DsbA Family Members: New insightsinto the Enzyme-Substrate Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, F.; Meza, A; Gulmarges, B

    2009-01-01

    Disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA catalyzes disulfide bond formation in proteins secreted to the periplasm and has been related to the folding process of virulence factors in many organisms. It is among the most oxidizing of the thioredoxin-like proteins, and DsbA redox power is understood in terms of the electrostatic interactions involving the active site motif CPHC. The plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa has two chromosomal genes encoding two oxidoreductases belonging to the DsbA family, and in one of them, the canonical motif CPHC is replaced by CPAC. Biochemical assays showed that both X. fastidiosa homologues have similar redox properties and the determination of the crystal structure of XfDsbA revealed substitutions in the active site of X. fastidiosa enzymes, which are proposed to compensate for the lack of the conserved histidine in XfDsbA2. In addition, electron density maps showed a ligand bound to the XfDsbA active site, allowing the characterization of the enzyme interaction with an 8-mer peptide. Finally, surface analysis of XfDsbA and XfDsbA2 suggests that X. fastidiosa enzymes may have different substrate specificities.

  12. Survey of ectomycorrhizal, litter-degrading, and wood-degrading Basidiomycetes for dye decolorization and ligninolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casieri, Leonardo; Anastasi, Antonella; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2010-11-01

    Basidiomycetes are essential in forest ecology, being deeply involved in wood and litter decomposition, humification, and mineralization of soil organic matter. The fungal oxidoreductases involved in these processes are today the focus of much attention with a view to their applications. The ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of 300 isolates of Basidiomycetes were assessed, taking into account the degradation of model dyes in different culture conditions and the production of oxidoreductase enzymes. The tested isolates belong to different ecophysiological groups (wood-degrading, litter-degrading, ectomycorrhizal, and coprophilous fungi) and represent a broad systematic and functional biodiversity among Basidiomycetes occurring in deciduous and evergreen forests of northwest Italy (Piedmont Region). The high number of species tested and the use of different culture conditions allowed the investigation of the degradation activity of several novel species, neglected to date. Oxidative enzyme activities varied widely among all ecophysiological groups and laccases were the most commonly detected enzymes. A large number of isolates (86%), belonging to all ecophysiological groups, were found to be active against at least one model dye; the wood-degrading fungi represented the most efficient group. Noteworthily, also some isolates of litter-degrading and ectomycorrhizal fungi achieved good decolorization yield. The 25 best isolates were then tested against nine industrial dyes commonly employed in textile industries. Three isolates of Bjerkandera adusta efficiently decolorized the dyes on all media and can be considered important candidates for application in textile wastewater treatment.

  13. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Evaluation of its Sensitivity and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razei A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poising in humans. Rapid and specific detection of these bacteria has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of infection. The aim of this study was to design a specific PCR for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: In this experimental study, oxidoreductase gene from the Campylobacter jejuni was selected for rapid and specific detection. For this purpose, specific primers were designed and charecterized by bioinformatics software. Bacterial genome was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and PCR was optimized to obtain a specific product. Specificity of the designed reaction was investigated using six bacterial species. The sensitivity of the PCR reaction was calculated by the serial dilutions method. Results: The designed primer was specific to oxidoreductase gene of Campylobacter jejuni and after optimization, a unique 167-bp band was amplified. This primer was specific to Campylobacter jejuni and did not show any cross reaction with other bacterial genomes. The detection limit of this reaction was 5 pg of genomic DNA. Conclusions: The optimized PCR used in this study was a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for detection of Campylobacter jejuni. For confirmation of this method, detection of C. jejuni from food samples is proposed.

  14. Plastidial NADP-malic enzymes from grasses: unraveling the way to the C4 specific isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigo, Mariana; Alvarez, Clarisa E; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2013-02-01

    Malic enzyme is present in many plant cell compartments such as plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. Particularly relevant is the plastidial isoform that participates in the C(4) cycle providing CO(2) to RuBisCO in C(4) species. This type of photosynthesis is more frequent among grasses where anatomical preconditioning would have facilitated the evolution of the C(4) syndrome. In maize (C(4) grass), the photosynthetic NADP dependent Malic enzyme (ZmC(4)-NADP-ME, l-malate:NADP oxidoreductase, E.C. 1.1.1.40) and the closest related non-photosynthetic isoform (ZmnonC(4)-NADP-ME, l-malate:NADP oxidoreductase, E.C. 1.1.1.40) are both plastidial but differ in expression pattern, kinetics and structure. Features like high catalytic efficiency, inhibition by high malate concentration at pH 7.0, redox modulation and tetramerization are characteristic of the photosynthetic NADP-ME. In this work, the proteins encoded by sorghum (C(4) grass) and rice (C(3) grass) NADP-ME genes, orthologues of the plastidial NADP-MEs from maize, were recombinantly expressed, purified and characterized. In a global comparison, we could identify a small group of residues which may explain the special features of C(4) enzymes. Overall, the present work presents biochemical and molecular data that helps to elucidate the changes that took place in the evolution of C(4) NADP-ME in grasses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Secretome-based Manganese(II) Oxidation by Filamentous Ascomycete Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, C. A.; Purvine, S.; Zink, E.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Chaput, D.; Wu, S.; Santelli, C. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the strongest oxidants in the environment, and Mn(II) oxidation to Mn(III/IV) (hydr)oxides includes both abiotic and microbially-mediated processes. While white-rot Basidiomycete fungi oxidize Mn(II) using laccases and Mn peroxidases in association with lignocellulose degradation, the mechanisms by which filamentous Ascomycete fungi oxidize Mn(II) and a physiological role for Mn(II) oxidation in these organisms remain poorly understood. Through a combination of chemical and in-gel assays, bulk mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ proteomics, we demonstrate enzymatic Mn(II) oxidation in the secretomes of three phylogenetically diverse Ascomycetes that were isolated from Mn-laden sediments. Candidate Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes were species-specific and included bilirubin oxidase and tyrosinase in Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, GMC oxidoreductase in Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a, and FAD-binding oxidoreductases in Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a. These findings were supported by full proteomic characterization of the secretomes, which revealed a lack of Mn, lignin, and versatile peroxidases in these Ascomycetes but a substantially higher proportion of LMCOs and GMC oxidoreductases compared to wood-rot Basidiomycetes. We also identified the potential for indirect enzymatic Mn(II) oxidation by hydroxyl radical, as the secretomes were rich in diverse lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that could participate in Fenton chemistry. A link between Mn(II) oxidation and carbon oxidation analogous to white-rot Basidiomycetes remains unknown in these Ascomycetes. Interestingly, growth rates on rich medium were unaffected by the presence of Mn(II), and the production of Mn(II)-oxidizing proteins in the secretome was constitutive and not inducible by Mn(II). Thus, no physiological benefit of Mn(II) oxidation in these Ascomycetes has yet been identified, and Mn(II) oxidation appears to be a side reaction. Future work will explore the lignin-degrading capacity of

  16. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A; Chobot, Sarah E; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C; Leslie Dutton, P; Discher, Bohdana M

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-08

    This research provides a structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads. 7 figs.

  18. Transcriptome sequencing revealed differences in the response of renal cancer cells to hypoxia and CoCl2 treatment [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Zhigalova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cancer cells are subjected to hypoxic conditions in many tumours. Hypoxia causes alterations in the glycolytic pathway activation through stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Currently, two approaches are commonly used to model hypoxia: an alternative to generating low-oxygen conditions in an incubator, cells can be treated with CoCl2. We performed RNA-seq experiments to study transcriptomes of human Caki-1 cells under real hypoxia and after CoCl2 treatment. Despite causing transcriptional changes of a much higher order of magnitude for the genes in the hypoxia regulation pathway, CoCl2 treatment fails to induce alterations in the glycolysis / gluconeogenesis pathway. Moreover, CoCl2 caused aberrant activation of other oxidoreductases in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism pathways.

  19. Cloning of the sth gene from Azotobacter vinelandii and construction of chimeric soluble pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, B; Björklund, L; French, C E; Wainwright, I; Bruce, N C

    2000-10-01

    The gene encoding the soluble pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase (STH) of Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned and sequenced. This is the third sth gene identified and further defines a new subfamily within the flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. The three STHs identified all lack one of the redox active cysteines that are characteristic for this large family of enzymes, and instead they contain a conserved threonine residue at this position. The recombinant A. vinelandii enzyme was purified to homogeneity and shown to form filamentous structures different from those of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli STH. Chimeric STHs were constructed which showed that the C-terminal region is important for polymer formation. The A. vinelandii STH containing the C-terminal region of P. fluorescens or E. coli STH showed structures resembling those of the STH contributing the C-terminal portion of the protein.

  20. Bio-functionalization of conductive textile materials with redox enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahoush, M.; Behary, N.; Cayla, A.; Nierstrasz, V.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, immobilization of oxidoreductase enzymes on electrically conductive materials has played an important role in the development of sustainable bio-technologies. Immobilization process allows the re-use of these bio-catalysts in their final applications. In this study, different methods of immobilizing redox enzymes on conductive textile materials were used to produce bio-functionalized electrodes. These electrodes can be used for bio-processes and bio-sensing in eco-designed applications in domains such as medicine and pollution control. However, the main challenge facing the stability and durability of these electrodes is the maintenance of the enzymatic activity after the immobilization. Hence, preventing the enzyme’s denaturation and leaching is a critical factor for the success of the immobilization processes.

  1. Novel cyclohexane monooxygenase from Acidovorax sp. CHX100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Diego; Karande, Rohan; Schmid, Andreas; Dobslaw, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Acidovorax sp. CHX100 has a remarkable ability for growth on short cycloalkanes (C5-C8) as a sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions via an uncharacterized mechanism. Transposon mutagenesis of Acidovorax sp. CHX100 revealed a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP450chx) which catalyzed the transformation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol. Primer walking methods categorized CYP450chx as cytochrome P450 class I taking into account its operon structure: monooxygenase, FAD oxidoreductase, and ferredoxin. CYP450chx was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The activity of CYP450chx was demonstrated by means of the indole co-oxidation. Biotransformation capability of CYP450chx was confirmed through the catalysis of cycloalkanes (C5-C8) to their respective cyclic alcohols.

  2. Discoveries of nicotinamide riboside as a nutrient and conserved NRK genes establish a Preiss-Handler independent route to NAD+ in fungi and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieganowski, Pawel; Brenner, Charles

    2004-05-14

    NAD+ is essential for life in all organisms, both as a coenzyme for oxidoreductases and as a source of ADPribosyl groups used in various reactions, including those that retard aging in experimental systems. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were defined as the vitamin precursors of NAD+ in Elvehjem's classic discoveries of the 1930s. The accepted view of eukaryotic NAD+ biosynthesis, that all anabolism flows through nicotinic acid mononucleotide, was challenged experimentally and revealed that nicotinamide riboside is an unanticipated NAD+ precursor in yeast. Nicotinamide riboside kinases from yeast and humans essential for this pathway were identified and found to be highly specific for phosphorylation of nicotinamide riboside and the cancer drug tiazofurin. Nicotinamide riboside was discovered as a nutrient in milk, suggesting that nicotinamide riboside is a useful compound for elevation of NAD+ levels in humans.

  3. A novel enzymatic approach in the production of food with low purine content using Arxula adeninivorans endogenous and recombinant purine degradative enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Dagmara A; Trautwein-Schult, Anke; Cordes, Arno; Bode, Rüdiger; Baronian, Keith; Kunze, Gotthard

    2015-01-01

    The purine degradation pathway in humans ends with uric acid, which has low water solubility. When the production of uric acid is increased either by elevated purine intake or by impaired kidney function, uric acid will accumulate in the blood (hyperuricemia). This increases the risk of gout, a disease described in humans for at least 1000 years. Many lower organisms, such as the yeast Arxula adeninivorans, possess the enzyme, urate oxidase that converts uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate, thus preventing uric acid accumulation. We have examined the complete purine degradation pathway in A. adeninivorans and analyzed enzymes involved. Recombinant adenine deaminase, guanine deaminase, urate oxidase and endogenous xanthine oxidoreductase have been investigated as potential additives to degrade purines in the food. Here, we review the current model of the purine degradation pathway of A. adeninivorans and present an overview of proposed enzyme system with perspectives for its further development.

  4. Using Resurrected Ancestral Proviral Proteins to Engineer Virus Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Delgado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli. Unlike E. coli thioredoxin, however, these ancestral thioredoxins are not efficiently recruited by the bacteriophage T7 for its replisome and therefore prevent phage propagation in E. coli. These results suggest an approach to the engineering of virus resistance. Diseases caused by viruses may have a devastating effect in agriculture. We discuss how the suggested approach could be applied to the engineering of plant virus resistance.

  5. Comparative analysis of spatial organization of laccases from Cerrena maxima and Coriolus zonatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Yu. N.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Morgunova, E. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Mikhaĭlov, A. M.

    2007-09-01

    Laccase (oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) belongs to the multicopper oxidase family. The main function of this enzyme is to perform electron transfer from the oxidized substrate through the mononuclear copper-containing site T1 to the oxygen molecule bound to the site T3 in the trinuclear T2/ T3 cluster. The structures of two new fungal laccases from C. maxima and C. zonatus were solved on the basis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. Both laccases show high structural homology with laccases from other sources. The role of the carbohydrate component of laccases in structure stabilization and formation of ordered protein crystals was demonstrated. In the structures of C. maxima and C. zonatus laccases, two water channels of functional importance were found and characterized. The structural results reported in the present study characterize one of the functional states of the enzyme fixed in the crystal structure.

  6. Laccases: complex architectures for one-electron oxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mot, A C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, R

    2012-12-01

    Laccase (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductase), one of the earliest discovered enzymes, contains four copper ions in two active sites and catalyzes a one-electron oxidation of substrates such as phenols and their derivatives, or aromatic amines, coupled to a four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. The catalytic mechanism has been studied for decades but is still not completely elucidated, especially in terms of the reduction of dioxygen to water. The key structural features of this enzyme are under investigation in several groups using techniques such as X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and site-directed mutagenesis. The high interest in laccases is explained by the large number of biotechnological applications. In this review, the most recent research on the overall structural features as well as on the structures and properties of the active sites are summarized, along with currently proposed mechanisms of reaction.

  7. Yeast Hosts for the Production of Recombinant Laccases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antošová, Zuzana; Sychrová, Hana

    2016-02-01

    Laccases are multi-copper oxidoreductases which catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of substrates during the simultaneous reduction of oxygen to water. These enzymes, originally found in fungi, plants, and other natural sources, have many industrial and biotechnological applications. They are used in the food, textile, pulp, and paper industries, as well as for bioremediation purposes. Although natural hosts can provide relatively high levels of active laccases after production optimization, heterologous expression can bring, moreover, engineered enzymes with desired properties, such as different substrate specificity or improved stability. Hence, diverse hosts suitable for laccase production are reviewed here, while the greatest emphasis is placed on yeasts which are commonly used for industrial production of various proteins. Different approaches to optimize the laccase expression and activity are also discussed in detail here.

  8. A NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase coordinates metabolism with cell division in Caulobacter crescentus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufay, François; Coppine, Jérôme; Mayard, Aurélie; Laloux, Géraldine; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Coupling cell cycle with nutrient availability is a crucial process for all living cells. But how bacteria control cell division according to metabolic supplies remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism that coordinates central metabolism with cell division in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. This mechanism involves the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase GdhZ and the oxidoreductase-like KidO. While enzymatically active GdhZ directly interferes with FtsZ polymerization by stimulating its GTPase activity, KidO bound to NADH destabilizes lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. Both GdhZ and KidO share the same regulatory network to concomitantly stimulate the rapid disassembly of the Z-ring, necessary for the subsequent release of progeny cells. Thus, this mechanism illustrates how proteins initially dedicated to metabolism coordinate cell cycle progression with nutrient availability. PMID:25953831

  9. Effect of tungstate on acetate and ethanol production by the electrosynthetic bacterium Sporomusa ovata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Lizak, Dawid Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    resulted in a 2.9-fold increase in ethanol production by S. ovata during H2:CO2-dependent growth. It also promoted electrosynthesis of ethanol in a S. ovata-driven MES reactor and increased acetate production 4.4-fold compared to unmodified medium. Furthermore, fatty acids propionate and butyrate were...... successfully converted to their corresponding alcohols 1-propanol and 1-butanol by S. ovata during gas fermentation. Increasing tungstate concentration enhanced conversion efficiency for both propionate and butyrate. Gene expression analysis suggested that tungsten-containing aldehyde ferredoxin...... oxidoreductases (AORs) and a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase (FDH) were involved in the improved biosynthesis of acetate, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. AORs and FDH contribute to the fatty acids re-assimilation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, respectively. This study presented here shows...

  10. Oxygen at nanomolar levels reversibly suppresses process rates and gene expression of anammox and denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O2 and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N2-producing processes of anammox and denitrification determine where this loss occurs. We studied experimentally how O2...... at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification were reversibly suppressed, most likely at the enzyme level. Fiftypercent inhibition of N2 and N2O production by denitrification....... This O2 concentration did not suppress the transcription of other dissimilatory nitrogen cycle genes, including nitrate reductase (narG), hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo), and nitrite reductase (nirK). However, taxonomic characterization of transcripts suggested inhibition of narG transcription...

  11. Bioproduction strategies for rare hexose sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumori, Ken

    2002-03-01

    A new strategy for the bioproduction of all ketohexoses was developed using hexitols as intermediates. Biocatalysts used to employ the strategy were D-tagatose 3-epimerase, which epimerizes ketohexoses at the C-3 position, and oxidoreductases, which catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions between ketohexoses and the corresponding hexitols. Arranging all the ketohexoses and hexitols in a symmetric ring and connecting them with 20 biochemical reactions, I was able to construct a design for the bioproduction of all the rare ketohexoses. Various aldose isomerases transform ketohexoses into the corresponding aldohexoses, so the strategy is useful for the bioproduction of all the rare hexose sugars. Furthermore, the design revealed that there are four routes to the L-hexose world from the D-hexose one.

  12. Transient multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency in a newborn female caused by maternal riboflavin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiong, M A; Sim, K G; Carpenter, K

    2007-01-01

    A newborn female presented on the first day of life with clinical and biochemical findings consistent with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). Riboflavin supplementation corrected the biochemical abnormalities 24 h after commencing the vitamin. In vitro acylcarnitine profiling...... in intact fibroblasts both in normal and riboflavin depleted media showed normal oxidation of fatty acids excluding defects in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF), or ETF ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO), or a genetic abnormality in flavin metabolism. In addition, sequencing of the genes encoding ETF...... and ETF:QO in the proband did not reveal any pathogenic mutations. Determination of the maternal riboflavin status after delivery showed that the mother was riboflavin deficient. Repeat testing done two years after the infant's birth and while on a normal diet showed that the mother was persistently...

  13. Molecular rational for riboflavin and CoQ10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    A new PhD project from Health, Aarhus University, shows that there is a molecular rationale for riboflavin and CoQ10 treatment in patients with Riboflavin Responsive Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency. The project was carried out by Nanna Cornelius, a molecular biologist who defended her...... dissertation on 10/07-2013. Riboflavin Responsive Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (RR-MADD), is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of energy metabolism. In most cases, RR-MADD is caused by variations in the gene encoding the Electron Transfer Flavoprotein-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (ETF......-QO) protein. High dosis Riboflavin treatment nearly normalizes the clinical and biochemical symptoms of these patients. Until now, no studies have investigated the molecular effect of riboflavin in the patients. However, in her recently completed PhD project, Nanna Cornelius shows that riboflavin has...

  14. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women’s health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  15. Characterization Of Laccase T-DNA Mutants In Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Asp, Torben; Mansfield, Shawn

    Laccases (P-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2), also termed laccase-like multicopper oxidases, are blue copper-containing oxidases which comprise multigene families in plants. In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 17 laccase genes (LAC1 to LAC17) have been annotated. To identify laccases...... involved in cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis primary stems we have developed homozygous T-DNA mutants for 14 individual laccases. Six laccases are highly expressed in the wild type primary stem, four of which (LAC2, LAC4, LAC12, and LAC17) show correlated gene expression with one to several genes (e...... different and distinct biochemical pathways and that laccases might be involved in polymerization of both polysaccharides and monolignols in the Arabidopsis cell wall....

  16. Kinetics based reaction optimization of enzyme catalysed reduction of formaldehyde to methanol with synchronous cofactor regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marpani, Fauziah Binti; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    regeneration using either glucose dehydrogenase (System I) or xylose dehydrogenase (System II). A mathematical model of the enzyme kinetics was employed to identify the best reaction set-up for attaining optimal cofactor recycling rate and enzyme utilization efficiency. Targeted process optimization......Enzymatic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to methanol (CH3 OH) can be accomplished using a designed set-up of three oxidoreductases utilizing reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADH) as cofactor for the reducing equivalents electron supply. For this enzyme system to function efficiently a balanced...... regeneration of the reducing equivalents during reaction is required. Herein, we report the optimization of the enzymatic conversion of formaldehyde (CHOH) to CH3 OH by alcohol dehydrogenase, the final step of the enzymatic redox reaction of CO2 to CH3 OH, with kinetically synchronous enzymatic cofactor...

  17. Global gene expression in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Kjærgaard, K.; Klemm, Per

    2003-01-01

    It is now apparent that microorganisms undergo significant changes during the transition from planktonic to biofilm growth. These changes result in phenotypic adaptations that allow the formation of highly organized and structured sessile communities, which possess enhanced resistance...... to antimicrobial treatments and host immune defence responses. Escherichia coli has been used as a model organism to study the mechanisms of growth within adhered communities. In this study, we use DNA microarray technology to examine the global gene expression profile of E. coli during sessile growth compared...... the transition to biofilm growth, and these included genes expressed under oxygen-limiting conditions, genes encoding (putative) transport proteins, putative oxidoreductases and genes associated with enhanced heavy metal resistance. Of particular interest was the observation that many of the genes altered...

  18. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    temperature and pressure. A significant number of enzymes carrying out redox reactions (oxidoreductases) requiring molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor – those termed oxidases, monooxygenases and dioxygenases. These enzymes catalyze a range of industrially relevant reactions, such as oxidation of alcohols...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... is the requirement for oxygen, because the transfer of oxygen from the gas-phase (typically air) to the aqueous phase, where the reaction takes place, is notoriously slow due to the low aqueous solubility of oxygen at am-bient conditions. Therefore, vigorous agitation and aeration is required to create a large in...

  19. Research on inert gas narcosis and air velocity effects on metabolic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air velocity on metabolic performance are studied by using high forced airflow in a closed environment as a mechanism to control the concentration of volatile animal wastes. Air velocities between 100 and 200 ft/min are without significant effects on the metabolism of rats. At velocities of 200 ft/min and above, oxygen consumption and CO2 production as well as food consumption increase. In most instances, the changes are on the order of 5-10%. At the same time, the RQ for the animals increases slightly and generally correlates well with oxygen consumption and CO2 production. Experiments on the nature of inert gas narcosis show that halothane and methoxyflurane are rather potent inhibitors of the NADH:O2 oxidoreductase system in rats. These experiments suggest that the mechanism of inert gas narcosis is not mandatorily related to a membrane surface phenomenon.

  20. New insight into the mechanism of mitochondrial cytochrome c function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chertkova, Rita V; Brazhe, Nadezda A; Bryantseva, Tatiana V

    2017-01-01

    We investigate functional role of the P76GTKMIFA83 fragment of the primary structure of cytochrome c. Based on the data obtained by the analysis of informational structure (ANIS), we propose a model of functioning of cytochrome c. According to this model, conformational rearrangements of the P76......GTKMIFA83 loop fragment have a significant effect on conformational mobility of the heme. It is suggested that the conformational mobility of cytochrome c heme is responsible for its optimal orientation with respect to electron donor and acceptor within ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III......) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), respectively, thus, ensuring electron transfer from complex III to complex IV. To validate the model, we design several mutant variants of horse cytochrome c with multiple substitutions of amino acid residues in the P76GTKMIFA83 sequence that reduce its ability to undergo...