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Sample records for n-ethyl-2-2-4-nitrophenyl-1h-benzimidazol-1-yl acetamide 3c

  1. Compound list: acetamide [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available acetamide AAA 00169 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/acetam...ide.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/acetamide.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  2. Acetamide Agar for Differentiation of Nonfermentative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Thomas R.; Rowen, Joyce W.

    1974-01-01

    An acetamide agar medium is described for use in the differentiation of nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria. With few exceptions, indicator reactions were rapid, intense, and clear-cut. PMID:4417708

  3. Dielectric relaxation of ethanol and N-methyl acetamide polar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tures of ethanol (EtOH) and N-methyl acetamide (NMA) dissolved in benzene(i) are studied by studying ... tions as a result of short-range forces produced by hydrogen bonding in solution. But the resulting .... N-methyl acetamide (NMA), ethanol (EtOH) and C6H6 are all good-quality samples puri- fied and distilled through a ...

  4. Removal of potentially genotoxic acetamide and arylsulfonate impurities from crude drugs by molecular imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, György; Fritz, Emelie; Bandarra, Joao; Heggie, William; Sellergren, Börje

    2012-06-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and preliminary testing of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as scavenger resins for removal of the genotoxic impurities (GTI) acetamide and arylsulfonates from active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The MIPs were synthesized as monoliths using acetamide or methyl tosylate respectively as templates. The polymers were crushed and subsequently tested in the batch and chromatographic mode for template recognition and potential removal efficiency. Both the acetamide and the tosylate MIPs exhibited a strong memory effect for their templates and selectivity with respect to model APIs. For instance the MIP for acetamide preferentially retained acetamide over other amides, such as formamide, acrylamide, methacrylamide, benzamide and N-tert-butylacrylamide. Moreover, passing model API crude contaminated with the acetamide through the MIPs led to the quantitative removal of acetamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystal structures of two (±)-exo-N-isobornyl-acetamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanovs, Dmitrijs; Posevins, Daniels; Turks, Maris

    2015-10-01

    The title compounds consist of a bornane skeleton with attached acetamide, C12H21NO (±)-(1) {systematic name: (±)-N-[(1RS,2RS,4RS)-1,7,7-tri-methylbi-cyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]acetamide}, and chloro-acetamide, C12H20ClNO (±)-(2) {systematic name: (±)-2-chloro-N-[(1RS,2RS,4RS)-1,7,7-tri-methylbi-cyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]-acetamide}, functionalities to the 2-exo-position. The crystal structure of the first monoclinic polymorph of (±)-(1) has been reported previously [Ung et al. (2014 ▸). Monatsh. Chem. 145, 983-992]. Compound (±)-(1) crystallizes in the space group P21/n with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit, in contrast to the above-mentioned polymorph which crystallized in the space group C2/c with one mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit. In the title compounds, the bicyclic bornane moieties have normal geometries. In the crystals of both compounds, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, reinforced by C-H⋯O contacts, forming trans-amide chains propagating along the a-axis direction. In the case of compound (±)-(1), neighbouring chains are linked by further C-H⋯O contacts, forming double-chain ribbons along [100].

  6. Electrodeposition of antimony, tellurium and their alloys from molten acetamide mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Peng, X.; Murugan, G.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Vereecken, P.M.; Fransaer, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the electrodeposition of antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te) and their alloys from molten mixtures of acetamide - antimony chloride and tellurium chloride. The binary mixtures of acetamide with SbCl3 and TeCl 4 exhibit eutectic formation with large depressions of freezing points to below room

  7. N-{4-[(2-Methoxyphenylsulfamoyl]phenyl}acetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H16N2O4S, the S atom has a distorted tetrahedral geometry [maximum deviation: O—S—O = 118.25 (7°]. The two aromatic rings make a dihedral angle of 62.67 (10° with each other. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond forms an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal, molecules form centrosymmetric dimers via pairwise N—H...O interactions, forming an R22(8 ring motif, and these dimers are connected by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Furthermore, a weak C—H...π interaction helps to reinforce the crystal structure. The O atom in the acetamide group is disordered over two positions with major and minor occupancies of 0.52 (5 and 0.48 (5, respectively.

  8. Synthesis of N-substituted acetamide derivatives of azinane-bearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxadiazole heterocyclic cores and to evaluate their .... Figure 1: Protocol for synthesis of N-substituted acetamide derivatives of azinane bearing 1,3,4- oxadiazole. Reagents ...... Commission of Pakistan for financial support. Conflict of Interest.

  9. Novit? dal W3C

    OpenAIRE

    Signore, Oreste

    2006-01-01

    Il W3C coordina lo sviluppo del Web, che ? uno spazio universale collaborativo, aperto e fruibile da tutti. Da sempre il W3C ? stato attento alle problematiche dell' accessibilit?. Stanno ora per essere rilasciate le WCAG 2.0, nuova versione delle linee guida per l' accessibilit?.

  10. PPP1R3C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-03-12

    Mar 12, 2015 ... Abstract. DNA methylation is an epigenetic event that occurs frequently in colorectal cancer (CRC). Increased glucose level is a strong risk factor for CRC. Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3C (PPP1R3C) modulates glycogen metabolism, particularly glycogen synthesis. The aim of this study was to ...

  11. Influence of Nanoparticles and Graphite Foam on the Supercooling of Acetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetamide is a promising phase change materials (PCMs for thermal storage,but the large supercooling during the freezing process has limited its application. In this study, we prepared acetamide-SiO2 composites by adding nano-SiO2 into acetamide. This modified PCM was then impregnated into the porous graphite foam forming acetamide-SiO2-graphite foam form-stable composites. These composites were subjected to melting-solidification cycles 50 times; the time-temperature curves were tracked and recorded during these cycles. The time-temperature curves showed that, for the acetamide containing 2 wt. % SiO2, the supercooling phenomenon was eliminated and the material’s performance was stable for 50 cycles. The solidification temperature of the acetamide-SiO2-graphite foam samples was 65°C and the melting temperature was lowered to 65°C. The samples exhibited almost no supercooling and the presence of SiO2 had no significant effect on the melting-solidification temperature. The microscopic supercooling of the acetamide-SiO2 composite was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results indicated that when the content of SiO2 was 1 wt. to 2 wt. %, the supercooling could be reduced to less than 10°C and heat was sufficiently released during solidification. Finally, a set of algorithms was derived using MATLAB software for simulating the crystallization of samples based on the classical nucleation theory. The results of the simulation agreed with the experiment results.

  12. Nanomorphology in thin films of acetamide end-functionalised quaterthiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilmann, Nina; Rösner, Benedikt; Späth, Andreas [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) Department Chemie und Pharmazie, Physikalische Chemie 2 and ICMM, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schmidt, Ute [WITec GmbH, Lise-Meitner-Straße 6, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Fink, Rainer H., E-mail: rainer.fink@fau.de [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) Department Chemie und Pharmazie, Physikalische Chemie 2 and ICMM, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-29

    α,ω-Functionalised oligothiophenes are promising materials for organic field effect transistors due to their high degree of molecular ordering, crystallinity and π-π stacking. We employ several complementary microspectroscopic probes to investigate the formation of thermally evaporated films of 5,5‴-bis(N-acetamido-2-ethyl)-2,2′:5′,2″:5″,2‴quaterthiophene on inert substrates. These films were found to grow in a mixed fashion, featuring layer-by-layer domains with thicknesses of several monolayers and needle-shaped three-dimensional crystals. Detailed analysis of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence microscopy reveals the micro- and nanomorphology of the films. Linear dichroism in the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and polarisation-dependent laser excitation corroborate the findings of AFM, i.e., upright standing molecules in the multilayer regime. The shape of the 3-dimensional crystallites and multilayer domains indicates strongly anisotropic growth favoured by the herringbone-arrangement of the thiophene moieties and additional stabilisation by hydrogen bonding of the acetamide end groups. - Highlights: • Growth study of end-functionalised quaterthiophene on inert substrates is presented. • Complementary nanoprobes were employed to investigate the growth behaviour. • The molecular orientation was revealed by the use of linearly polarised light.

  13. Photoinduced intermolecular dynamics and subsequent fragmentation in VUV-ionized acetamide clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkanovskaja, Marta; Kooser, Kuno; Levola, Helena; Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kukk, Edwin

    2016-09-01

    Photofragmentation of small gas-phase acetamide clusters (CH3CONH2)n (n ≤ 10) produced by a supersonic expansion source has been studied using time-of-flight ion mass spectroscopy combined with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. Fragmentation channels of acetamide clusters under VUV photoionization resulting in protonated and ammoniated clusters formation were identified with the discussion about the preceding intramolecular rearrangements. Acetamide-2,2,2-d3 clusters were also studied in an experiment with a gas discharge lamp as a VUV light source; comparison with the main experiment gave insights into the mechanism of formation of protonated acetamide clusters, indicating that proton transfer from amino group plays a dominant role in that process. Geometry of the acetamide dimer was discussed and the most stable arrangement was concluded to be achieved when subunits of the dimer are connected via two N—H⋯O —C hydrogen bonds. Also, the influence of the photon energy on the stability of the clusters and their fragmentation channels has been examined.

  14. 40 CFR 721.267 - N-[2-[(substituted dinitrophenyl)azo]diallylamino-4- substituted phenyl] acetamide (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...] acetamide (generic name). 721.267 Section 721.267 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... generically as N- diallylamino-4-substituted phenyl] acetamide (PMN P-95-513) is subject to reporting under... section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as specified...

  15. Photofragmentation of gas-phase acetic acid and acetamide clusters in the vacuum ultraviolet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berholts, Marta; Myllynen, Hanna; Kooser, Kuno; Itälä, Eero; Granroth, Sari; Levola, Helena; Laksman, Joakim; Oghbaiee, Shabnam; Oostenrijk, Bart; Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kukk, Edwin

    2017-11-01

    Photofragmentation of gas-phase acetamide and acetic acid clusters produced by a supersonic expansion source has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the partial ion yield (PIY) technique combined with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Appearance energies of the clusters and their fragments were experimentally determined from the PIY measurements. The effect of clusterization conditions on the formation and fragmentation of acetic acid clusters was investigated. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations were performed on both samples' dimers to find their neutral and ionized geometries as well as proton transfer energy barriers leading to the optimal geometries. In the case of the acetamide dimer, the reaction resulting in the production of ammoniated acetamide was probed, and the geometry of the obtained ion was calculated.

  16. Synthesis and local anaesthetic activity of 2-substituted-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-acetamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Dharam Paul; Coumar, Mohane S; Singh, Babita; Ismail, Mohammed Muhiyiden Mohammed; Zambare, Girish Nilkanth; Bodhankar, Subhash Laxmanrao

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of 2-substituted-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)acetamide oxalates (6a, 6b) and the evaluation of their in vivo local anaesthetic activities are described. The compounds 6a and 6b were obtained starting from 4-acetamidophenol and 1-naphthol, respectively. The in vivo local anesthetic activity was evaluated by infiltration anaesthesia, sciatic nerve block and corneal anaesthesia models. N-(2-Diethylaminoethyl)-2-(naphthalen-1-yloxy)acetamide oxalate (6b) was found to have potency, onset and duration of action comparable to that of lidocaine (2) (lidocaine hydrochloride, CAS 6108-05-0). Procaine (1) (procaine hydrochloride, CAS 51-05-8) was also used for comparison. Dissociation constants (pKa) of compounds 5a and 5b (2-substituted-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)acetamide) have been determined to be 8.9 and 8.6, respectively.

  17. Comparison of glycerol, lactamide, acetamide and dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectants of Japanese white rabbit spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Okuda, Yasushi; Seita, Yasunari; Hisamatsu, Shin; Sonoki, Shigenori; Shino, Masao; Masaoka, Toshio; Inomata, Tomo

    2006-08-01

    The rabbit is considered to be a valuable laboratory animal. We compared glycerol, lactamide, acetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectants in egg-yolk diluent of ejaculated Japanese white rabbit spermatozoa for improvement of sperm cryopreservation methods. Rabbit semen was frozen with 1.0 M glycerol, lactamide, acetamide, or DMSO in plastic straws. Forward progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of the post-thaw spermatozoa were examined. The rate of forward progressive motile spermatozoa in lactamide (37.8 +/- 3.0%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than in glycerol (17.0 +/- 3.3%). In addition, the rates of sperm plasma membrane integrity in lactamide and acetamide (35.9 +/- 3.3% and 30.2 +/- 3.0%, respectively) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than in glycerol (17.0 +/- 2.6%). The results indicate that 1.0 M lactamide and acetamide have higher cryoprotective effects than 1.0 M glycerol for cryopreservation of Japanese white rabbit spermatozoa.

  18. Crystal structures of two (±)-exo-N-isobornyl­acetamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanovs, Dmitrijs; Posevins, Daniels; Turks, Maris

    2015-01-01

    The title compounds consist of a bornane skeleton with attached acetamide, C12H21NO (±)-(1) {systematic name: (±)-N-[(1RS,2RS,4RS)-1,7,7-tri­methylbi­cyclo­[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]acetamide}, and chloro­acetamide, C12H20ClNO (±)-(2) {systematic name: (±)-2-chloro-N-[(1RS,2RS,4RS)-1,7,7-tri­methylbi­cyclo­[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]­acetamide}, functionalities to the 2-exo-position. The crystal structure of the first monoclinic polymorph of (±)-(1) has been reported previously [Ung et al. (2014 ▸). Monatsh. Chem. 145, 983–992]. Compound (±)-(1) crystallizes in the space group P21/n with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, in contrast to the above-mentioned polymorph which crystallized in the space group C2/c with one mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. In the title compounds, the bicyclic bornane moieties have normal geometries. In the crystals of both compounds, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, reinforced by C—H⋯O contacts, forming trans-amide chains propagating along the a-axis direction. In the case of compound (±)-(1), neighbouring chains are linked by further C—H⋯O contacts, forming double-chain ribbons along [100]. PMID:26594386

  19. 40 CFR 721.275 - Halogenated-N-(2-propenyl)-N-(substituted phenyl) acetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant... identified generically as halogenated-N-(2-propenyl)-N-(substituted phenyl) acetamide (P-83-1085) is subject... section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. The following recordkeeping requirements...

  20. Amino and Acetamide Functional Group Effects on the Ionization and Fragmentation of Sugar Chains in Positive-Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Sugahara, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the influence of amino (-NH2) and acetamide (-NHCOCH3, -NAc) groups in sugar chains on their ionization and fragmentation, cycloamyloses (cyclodextrins, CyDs) and lacto-oligosaccharide are analyzed by MALDI TOF/TOF and ESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry. CyD derivatives substituted by amino or acetamide groups are ideal analytes to extract the function group effects, which are amino-CyD with one hexosamine (HexNH2) and acetamide-CyD with one N-acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc). Interestingly, the relative ion intensities and isotope-like patterns in their product ion spectra depend on the functional groups and ion forms of sugar chains. Consequently, the results indicate that a proton (H+) localizes on the amino group of the amino sugar, and that the proton (H+) induces their fragmentation. Sodium cation (Na+) attachment is independent from amino group and exerts no influence on their fragmentation patterns in amino group except for mono- and disaccharide fragment ions because there is the possibility of the reducing end effect. In contrast, a sodium cation localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in acetamide-CyDs because the chemical species with HexNAc are stable. Thus, their ions with HexNAc are abundant. These results are consistent with the fragmentation of lacto-neo- N-tetraose and maltotetraose, suggesting that a sodium cation generally localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in sugar chains.

  1. Simple preparation of new N-aryl-N-(3-indolmethyl acetamides and their spectroscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Henao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To prepare new indolic molecules and characterize them by spectroscopic methods. Materials and methods: All reagentswere purchased from Aldrich, commercial grade. The purity of the products and the composition of the reaction mixtures were monitoredby thin layer chromatography over Silufol UV254 0.25 mm-thick chromatoplates. Product isolation and purification were performed bycolumn chromatography (SiO2, using ethyl acetate-petroleum ether mixtures as eluents. Results. The synthesis of new N-aryl-N-(3-indolmethyl acetamides based on first step iminization reaction of indol-3-carbaldehyde is accomplished. The structures of the C-3substituted indoles were confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR studies supported by inverse-detected 2D NMR experiments and alsothrough monocrystal X-ray diffraction. Conclusions. An efficient, economic, and fast synthetic route was designed to the construction ofthe N-aryl-N-(3-indolmethyl acetamides, structural analogues of some alkaloids.

  2. Design, synthesis and evaluation of benzofuran-acetamide scaffold as potential anticonvulsant agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakya Ashok K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-(2-(benzoyl/4-chlorobenzoyl-benzofuran- 3-yl-2-(substituted-acetamide derivatives (4a-l, 5a-l was synthesized in good yield. All synthesized compounds were in agreement with elemental and spectral data. The anticonvulsant activity of all synthesized compounds was assessed against the maximal electroshock induced seizures (MES model in mice. Neurotoxicity was evaluated using the rotarod method. The majority of compounds exhibited anticonvulsant activity at a dose of 30 mg kg-1 body mass during 0.5-4 h, indicating their ability to prevent seizure spread at low doses. Relative to phenytoin, [N-(2-(4-chlorobenzoylbenzofuran-3-yl-2-(cyclohexyl( methyl amino-acetamide] (5i and [N-(2-(4-chlorobenzoylbenzofuran-3-yl-2-(4-methylpiperidin-1- yl-acetamide] (5c demonstrated comparable relative anticonvulsant potency of 0.74 and 0.72, respectively, whereas [(N-(2-(4-chlorobenzoylbenzofuran-3-yl-2-(4-(furan-2-carbonyl-piperazin-1-yl-acetamide] (5f exhibited the lowest relative potency of 0.16. The ALD50 of tested compounds ranged from 1.604 to 1.675 mmol kg-1 body mass. The ED50 of synthesized compounds ranged from 0.055 to 0.259 mmol kg-1 (~23.4 to 127.6 mg kg-1 body mass. The pharmacophore mapping of the examined compounds on standard drugs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, ralitolin and carbamazepine strongly suggests that these compounds may exert their anticonvulsant activity via the same established mechanism as that of known drugs.

  3. Synthesis, Antibacterial Evaluation and QSAR of α-Substituted-N4-Acetamides of Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. Qandil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six α-substituted N4-acetamide derivatives of ciprofloxacin (CIPRO and norfloxacin (NOR were synthesized and assayed for antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The derivatives were primarily more active against Gram-positive bacteria. The CIPRO derivatives, CD-7 (Ar = 3-chlorophenyl, CD-9 (Ar = 2-pyrimidyl and CD-10 (α-phenyl, Ar = 2-pyrimidyl, exhibited lower MIC values, 0.4–0.9 μM, against Staphylococcus aureus than CIPRO, while only compound CD-10 exhibited better activity, 0.1 μM, against Bacillus subtilis than CIPRO. In addition, compounds CD-5 (Ar = 2-methoxyphenyl, CD-6 (α-phenyl, Ar = 2-methoxyphenyl, CD-7 (Ar = 3-Chlorophenyl, CD-8 (α-phenyl, Ar = 3-chlorophenyl and CD-9 (Ar = 2-pyrimidyl showed MIC values below 1.0 μM against this strain. The NOR derivatives showed lower activity than NOR itself against Staphylococcus aureus, although ND-6 (α-phenyl, Ar = 2-methoxyphenyl and ND-7 (Ar = 3-chlorophenyl showed MIC values less than 2 μM. Two NOR derivatives, ND-7 and ND-6, exhibited MIC values of 0.7 and 0.6, respectively, which were comparable to that of NOR against Bacillus subtilis, while compounds ND-8 (α-phenyl, Ar = 3-chlorophenyl and ND-10 (α-phenyl, Ar = 2-pyrimidyl exhibited MIC values less than 1.0 μM against the same strain. QSAR revealed that while polarity is the major contributing factor in the potency against Staphylococcus aureus, it is balanced by lipophilicity and electron density around the acetamide group. On the other hand, electron density around the introduced acetamide group is the major determining factor in the activity against Bacillus subtilis, with a lesser and variable effect for lipophilicity.

  4. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of plant growth regulator 1-naphthalene acetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, C.; Padmaja, L.; Hubert Joe, I.

    2010-02-01

    FT Raman and IR spectra of the biologically active molecule, 1-naphthalene acetamide (NA) have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers of NA have been calculated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) method. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMFF). The downshifting of NH 2 stretching wavenumber indicates the formation of intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The NBO analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the molecule.

  5. Oxidation Reactivity Channels for 2-(Pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-acetamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pailloux, Sylvie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Binyamin, Iris [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Kim, Sung-jun [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Deck, Lorraine M. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Duesler, Eileen N. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Paine, Robert T. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic routes to 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylacetamide and 2-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-acetamide are described along with results from the chemical oxidation of these compounds with peracetic acid, m-chloroperbenzoic acid, and OXONE. In each case, oxidations generate four products in varying amounts depending on the oxidant and reaction conditions. Each product has been characterized by spectroscopic methods and the molecular structures of several of the new compounds have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  6. The high energy source 3C 273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonmontigny, Corinna

    1990-01-01

    The properties of 3C 273 are reviewed and an attempt is made to find an answer to the question why 3C 273 is the only extragalactic source so far, which was detected at energies greater than or equal to 50 MeV.

  7. Elucidation of Structural Elements for Selectivity across Monoamine Transporters: Novel 2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide (Modafinil) Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okunola-Bakara, Oluyomi; Cao, Jianjing; Kopajtic, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide (modafinil, (±)-1) is a unique dopamine uptake inhibitor that binds the dopamine transporter (DAT) differently than cocaine and may have potential for the treatment of psychostimulant abuse. To further investigate structural requirements for this divergent...

  8. Crystal structures of N-(4-chlorophenyl-2-[(4,6-diaminopyrimidin-2-ylsulfanyl]acetamide and N-(3-chlorophenyl-2-[(4,6-diaminopyrimidin-2-ylsulfanyl]acetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Subasri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds, C12H12ClN5OS, (I, and C12H12ClN5OS, (II, are 2-[(diaminopyrimidin-2-ylsulfanyl]acetamides. Compound (II, crystallizes with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. In each of the molecules, in both (I and (II, an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond forms an S(7 ring motif. The pyrimidine ring is inclined to the benzene ring by 42.25 (14° in (I, and by 59.70 (16 and 62.18 (15° in molecules A and B, respectively, of compound (II. In the crystal of (I, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(8 ring motif. The dimers are linked via bifurcated N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated layers parallel to the ac plane. In the crystal of (II, the A molecules are linked through N—H...O and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (100. The B molecules are also linked by N—H...O and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, also forming layers parallel to (100. The parallel layers of A and B molecules are linked via N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  9. Conformational analysis of acetamide in the ground and lowest excited electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukachev, N. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Godunov, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    For acetamide molecule (CH3CONH2) in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) electronic states calculations of equilibrium geometry parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies and barriers to conformational transitions (also conformer energy differences in excited states) using following ab initio methods: MP2, CCSD(T), CASSCF, CASPT2 and MRCI were performed. One-, two- and three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) sections by different large amplitude motions (LAM) coordinates were calculated by means of MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ (S0) and CASPT2/cc-pVTZ (S1, T1). As a result of electronic excitation, both CCON and CNH2 fragments become pyramidal. On 2D PES sections by torsion (CN) and inversion coordinates there are six minima forming three pairs of enantiomers. Using PES sections different anharmonic vibrational problems were solved and the frequencies of large amplitude vibrations were estimated.

  10. N-{4-[(2-Meth-oxy-phen-yl)sulfamo-yl]phen-yl}acetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saba; Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf; Adnan, Ahmad; Akkurt, Mehmet

    2011-01-08

    In the title compound, C(15)H(16)N(2)O(4)S, the S atom has a distorted tetra-hedral geometry [maximum deviation: O-S-O = 118.25 (7)°]. The two aromatic rings make a dihedral angle of 62.67 (10)° with each other. An intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond forms an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, mol-ecules form centrosymmetric dimers via pairwise N-H⋯O inter-actions, forming an R(2) (2)(8) ring motif, and these dimers are connected by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Furthermore, a weak C-H⋯π inter-action helps to reinforce the crystal structure. The O atom in the acetamide group is disordered over two positions with major and minor occupancies of 0.52 (5) and 0.48 (5), respectively.

  11. 3C in Maize and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Blaise; Jamge, Suraj; Stam, Maike

    2018-01-01

    With Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C), the relative interaction frequency of one chromosomal fragment with another can be determined. The technique is especially suited for unraveling the 3D organization of specific loci when focusing on aspects such as enhancer-promoter interactions or other topological conformations of the genome. 3C has been extensively used in animal systems, among others providing insight into gene regulation by distant cis-regulatory elements. In recent years, the 3C technique has been applied in plant research. However, the complexity of plant tissues prevents direct application of existing protocols from animals. Here, we describe an adapted protocol suitable for plant tissues, especially Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays.

  12. Analyzing polarization swings in 3C 279

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiehlmann S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quasar 3C 279 is known to exhibit episodes of optical polarization angle rotation. We present new, well-sampled optical polarization data for 3C 279 and introduce a method to distinguish between random and deterministic electric vector position angle (EVPA variations. We observe EVPA rotations in both directions with different amplitudes and find that the EVPA variation shows characteristics of both random and deterministic cases. Our analysis indicates that the EVPA variation is likely dominated by a random process in the low brightness state of the jet and by a deterministic process in the flaring state.

  13. L3+C air shower array

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Photo 01: a view of the L3+C air shower array; 50 scintillators on the roof of the SX-hall above L3. Photo 02: view of one of the detectors of the array.Photo 04: detectors seen against the background of the LEP Point 2 facilities.

  14. Changes in concentrations of triazine and acetamide herbicides by bank filtration, ozonation, and chlorination in a public water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Thurman, E.M.; Lindsey, M.E.; Lee, E.C.; Smith, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The changes in triazine and acetamide concentrations in water during natural and artificial treatment by bank filtration, ozonation, filtration, and chlorination were measured at the well field and drinking water treatment plant of Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. The city's groundwater supply is affected by induced infiltration and transport of triazines and acetamide herbicides from the Platte River in late spring and early summer. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of infiltration and treatment on the presence of triazines and acetamides in drinking water. Samples of river water, well water, and public supply water at various stages of water treatment were collected from 1997-1999 during spring-runoff when the presence of herbicides in the Platte River is largest. In 1999, parent compounds were reduced by 76% of the concentration present in river water (33% by bank filtration, 41% by ozonation, and 1.5% by chlorination). Metabolites of herbicides for which analytical techniques existed were reduced by 21% (plus 26% by bank filtration, minus 23% by ozonation, and minus 24% by chlorination). However, increases in concentrations of specific metabolite compounds were identified after bank filtration and ozonation. After bank filtration, increases in cyanazine amide, cyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine acid were identified. After ozonation, concentrations of deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, didealkylatrazine, atrazine amide-I, hydroxydeethylatrazine, hydroxydeisopopylatrazine, deethylcyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine increased. Concentrations of cyanazine acid and ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acids of acetamides decreased during ozonation. Our findings suggest that bank filtration and ozonation of water in part can shift the assessment of risk to human health associated with the consumption of the water from the parent compounds to their degradation products.

  15. Electrochemical behavior of rhodium acetamidate immobilized on a carbon paste electrode: a hydrazine sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Eric de S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of rhodium acetamidate immobilized in carbon paste electrode and the consequences for sensor construction were evaluated. The electrode showed good stability and redox properties. Two reversible redox couples with midpoint potentials between 0.15 and 0.55 V vs SCE were observed. However, peak resolution in voltammetric studies was very dependent on the supporting electrolyte. The correlation between coordinating power of the electrolyte and peak potential suggests that the electrolyte can coordinate through the axial position of the complexes. Furthermore, the axial position may be also the catalytic site, as a catalytical response was observed for hydrazine oxidation. A good linear response range for hydrazine was fit by the equation i = 23.13 (± 0.34 c , where i = current in mA and c = concentration in mol dm-3 in the range of 10-5 up to 10-2 mol dm-3. The low applied potential (<300 mV indicates a good device for hydrazine sensor, minimizing interference problems. The short response time (~1 s may be useful in flow injection analysis. Furthermore, this system was very stable presenting good repeatability even after 30 measurements with a variance of 0.5 %.

  16. N-hydroxy-substituted 2-aryl acetamide analogs: A novel class of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Utsab; Kumar, Prachi; Agarwal, Aakanksha; Kesharwani, Ajay; Gupta, Satish K; Katti, Seturam B

    2017-10-01

    An in silico method has been used to discover N-hydroxy-substituted 2-aryl acetamide analogs as a new class of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Based on the molecular requirements of the binding pocket of catalytic active site, two molecules (compounds 2 and 4b) were designed as fragments. These were further synthesized and biologically evaluated. In vitro potency along with docking studies highlighted compound 4b as an active fragment which was further used to synthesize new leads as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Finally, six promising compounds (compounds 5b, 5c, 5e, 6-2c, 6-3b, and 6-5b) were identified by integrase inhibition assay (>50% inhibition). Based on in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity in a reporter gene-based cell assay system, compounds 5d, 6s, and 6k were found as novel HIV-1 integrase inhibitors due to its better selectivity index. Additionally, docking study revealed the importance of H-bond as well as hydrophobic interactions with Asn155, Lys156, and Lys159 which were required for their anti-HIV-1 activity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. (Acetonitrile){2-[bis-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl-κ(2)N)amino-κN]-N-(2,6-dimethyl-phen-yl)acetamide-κO}(perchlorato-κO)zinc (acetonitrile){2-[bis-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl-κ(2)N)amino-κN]-N-(2,6-dimethyl-phen-yl)acetamide-κO}zinc tris-(perchlorate)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Astrand, Ove Alexander Høgmoen; Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Kristoffersen, Kenneth Aase; Rongved, Pål

    2013-01-01

    .... In the first complex, the metal ion is coordinated by the N,N',N'',O-tetra-dentate acetamide ligand and an acetonitrile N atom, generating an approximate trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry...

  18. Use of 6-acetamide-1-thiachromane-1-oxide to inhibit microbiologic contamination of oil products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasyrev, I.M.; Dzhalolov, S.S.; Kim, L.M.; Mamadzhanova, N.

    1981-01-01

    Use of above named product (I) is suggested to inhibit microbiologic contamination of petroleum products. I is derived by oxidation of 6-acetamide-1-thiachromane (II) with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in an icy CH/sub 3/COOH (II) with subsequent release of I by the known method. Example (g) a three-necked flask equipped with a mechanical mixer, droplet funnel and reverse cooler 1.5 of II is added to 15-20 ml of III. After mixing, 0.24 of 30% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is added. Temperature reaction mixture is 20-50/sup 0/. Agitation is continued for 2 hours. Contents of flask are poured on ice, distill the essential mass of III in a vacuum at 20/sup 0/, and periodically adding water, concentrate it to a small volume toward the end, adding a 20% solution of KOH, and then extract CC1/sub 4/ 4-5 times. The extract is washed with H/sub 2/O, and dried with MgSO/sub 4/. (Figures and formulas for derived products are provided in text). The tests carried on inhibiting properties of I were done in the known manner. The test culture utilized were pure fungal Cladosporium resinal cultures and Psendomas aeruginosa bacteria. Fungal cultures were grown in a nutritive media, containing (%) mineralized agar and H/sub 2/O. Media were poured in a thin layer into Petrie dishes; after agar had cooled, culture was added, and then indentations made in the agar for oil samples. Cultures were exposed in a thermostat at 28-32/sup 0/ and relative air moisture of 95-100% for 28-35 days. Bacteria were grown in liquid media with petroleum products in conical flasks that were corked. Provides formulas for raising bacteria. Transformer oil was utilized for the tests. Also given are inhibition levels by the above product.

  19. The Suzaku view of 3C 382

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambruna, R. M.; Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Ballo, L.; Gliozzi, M.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2011-06-01

    We present a long (116 ks) Suzaku observation of the broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG) 3C 382 acquired in 2007 April. A Swift BAT spectrum in 15-200 keV from the 58 month survey is also analyzed, together with an archival XMM-Newton EPIC exposure of 20 ks obtained one year after Suzaku. Our main result is the finding with Suzaku of a broad Fe K line with a relativistic profile consistent with emission from an accretion disk at tens of gravitational radii from the central black hole. The XIS data indicate emission from highly ionized iron and allow us to set tight, albeit model-dependent, constraints on the inner and outer radii of the disk reflecting region, r in ~= 10 rg and r out ~= 20 rg , respectively, and on the disk inclination, i ~= 30°. Two ionized reflection components are possibly observed, with similar contributions of ~10% to the total continuum—a highly ionized one, with logξ ~= 3 erg s-1 cm, which successfully models the relativistic line, and a mildly ionized one, with logξ ~= 1.5 erg s-1 cm, which models the narrow Fe Kα and high energy hump. When both these components are included, there is no further requirement for an additional blackbody soft excess below 2 keV. The Suzaku data confirm the presence of a warm absorber previously known from grating studies. After accounting for all the spectral features, the intrinsic photon index of the X-ray continuum is Γ x ~= 1.8 with a cutoff energy at ~200 keV, consistent with Comptonization models and excluding jet-related emission up to these energies. Comparison of the X-ray properties of 3C 382 and other BLRGs to Seyferts recently observed with Suzaku and BAT confirms the idea that the distinction between radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nucleus at X-rays is blurred. The two classes form a continuum distribution in terms of X-ray photon index, reflection strength, and Fe K line width (related to the disk emission radius), with BLRGs clustered at one end of the distribution. This points to a

  20. HST And VLA Polarimetry Of 3C 264 And 3C 66B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, C. Alexander; Perlman, E. S.; Georganopoulos, M.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Biretta, J. A.

    2006-09-01

    We present new VLA A- and B-array radio polarimetry at 22.5 GHz, and images at 8.4GHz of 3C 264, a low luminosity FR I in Abell 1367. We also present high resolution VLA A-array polarimetry of the jet of 3C 66B, both at 22.5 GHz and 43 GHz. This is the latest addition to an ongoing study of these objects, which includes optical polarimetry in several bands and multiband imaging with HST, and X-ray observations with Chandra. We find further evidence for the hypothesis that 3C 264 falls into the category of low luminosity BL Lac objects (Rector, Stocke & Perlman, 1999) in significant variability of the polarization position angle in the core of this object in only 4 years (Lara et al, 2003). This variability, together with our measured value of its optical spectral index of alpha = 0.77, and a previously derived viewing angle of < 50 degrees (Baum et al, 1997; Lara et al, 2003), puts a fairly strong constraint on the classification of 3C 264 as a low luminosity BL Lac. We also present matched resolution HST and VLA data for both of these objects, allowing for direct morphological comparisons to be made, as well as full resolution radio to optical spectral index maps.

  1. Sim3C: simulation of Hi-C and Meta3C proximity ligation sequencing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaere, Matthew Z; Darling, Aaron E

    2017-11-15

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) and Hi-C DNA sequencing methods have rapidly advanced our understanding of the spatial organization of genomes and metagenomes. Many variants of these protocols have been developed, each with their own strengths. Currently there is no systematic means for simulating sequence data from this family of sequencing protocols, potentially hindering the advancement of algorithms to exploit this new datatype. We describe a computational simulator that, given simple parameters and reference genome sequences, will simulate Hi-C sequencing on those sequences. The simulator models the basic spatial structure in genomes that is commonly observed in Hi-C and 3C datasets, including the distance-decay relationship in proximity ligation, differences in the frequency of interaction within and across chromosomes, and the structure imposed by cells. A means to model the 3D structure of randomly generated topologically associating domains (TADs) is provided. The simulator considers several sources of error common to 3C and Hi-C library preparation and sequencing methods, including spurious proximity ligation events and sequencing error. We have introduced the first comprehensive simulator for 3C and Hi-C sequencing protocols. We expect the simulator to have use in testing of Hi-C data analysis algorithms, as well as more general value for experimental design, where questions such as the required depth of sequencing, enzyme choice, and other decisions can be made in advance in order to ensure adequate statistical power with respect to experimental hypothesis testing.

  2. Comparative study of N-[(4-methoxyphenyl (morpholin-4-ylmethyl]acetamide (MMPA and N-[morpholin-4-yl(phenylmethyl]acetamide (MPA as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in sulfuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamal Abdul Nasser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two Mannich bases namely, N-[(4-methoxyphenyl(morpholin-4-ylmethyl]acetamide (MMPA and N-[morpholin-4-yl(phenylmethyl]acetamide (MPA were synthesized and their influence on the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M H2SO4 was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The weight loss measurements showed that these inhibitors have excellent inhibiting effect at a concentration of 0.01 M. The inhibitor efficiency was found to depend on both concentration and molecular structure of the inhibitor. Both the compounds have been found to be relatively good inhibitors. Potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the studied inhibitors represent a mixed-type, predominantly cathodic control. An equivalent circuit is suggested based on an analysis of EIS data. The negative value of standard free energy of adsorption in the presence of inhibitor suggests spontaneous adsorption of inhibitors on the mild steel surface. The activation energy of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters were calculated to elaborate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. The Temkin isotherm was found to provide an accurate description of the adsorption behavior of the inhibitors. Surface analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM shows a significant morphological improvement on the mild steel surface with the addition of inhibitors. FT-IR spectra revealed the interaction between inhibitor molecules and mild steel surface.

  3. Multiwavelength Variability Analysis of 3C 279

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Patiño-Álvarez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a multifrequency analysis of the variability in the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 from 2008 to 2014. Our multiwavelength datasets range from 1 mm to gamma-rays, with additional optical polarimetry. Cross-correlation analysis shows a significant correlation between the UV continuum emission, the optical and NIR bands, at a delay consistent with zero, implying co-spatial emission regions. We also find a correlation between the UV continuum and the 1 mm data, which implies that the dominant process in producing the UV continuum is synchrotron emission. Based on the behavior of the gamma-ray light curve with respect to other bands, we identified three different activity periods. During period A we find a significant correlation at zero delay between the UV continuum and the gamma-rays, implying co-spatial emission regions which points toward synchrotron self-Compton as dominant gamma-ray emission mechanism. During period C we find a delay between the UV continuum and the gamma-rays, as well as a correlation at zero delay between X-rays and gamma-rays, both results implying that external inverse Compton is the dominant gamma-ray emission mechanism. During period B there are multiple flares in the bands from 1 mm to UV, however, none of these show a counterpart in the gamma-rays band. We propose that this is caused by an increase in the gamma-ray opacity due to electron-positron pair production.

  4. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-07-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. © The Author 2014

  5. Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of different 1,3,4-oxadiazole and acetamide derivatives of ethyl nipecotate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Nafeesa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new series of N-substituted derivatives of 2-[(5-{1-[(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl]-3-piperidinyl}-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylsulfanyl]acetamide (6a-w has been designed and synthesized with multifunctional moieties. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and anti-enzymatic potential supported by % hemolytic activity. The synthesized compound 5-(1-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-3-piperidinyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (3 was stirred with synthesized electrophiles as N-aryl/alkyl/aralkyl-2-bromoacetamide (5a-w in an aprotic solvent under basic conditions to acquire the target molecules, 6a-w. The spectral analytical techniques of IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C-NMR were utilized for structural elucidation of synthesized molecules. The antibacterial screening against certain bacterial strains of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria rendered compound 6i as good inhibitor of gram-negative bacterial strains. The enzyme inhibition revealed low potential against lipoxygenase (LOX enzyme. The hemolytic study provided valuable information about cytotoxic behavior of synthesized molecules. Keywords: 1,3,4-Oxadiazole, Acetamide, Antibacterial activity, Hemolytic activity, Lipoxygenase inhibition

  6. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  7. Monitoring 2-phenylethanamine and 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide sulfate in doping controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gerd; Dib, Josef; Tretzel, Laura; Piper, Thomas; Bosse, Christina; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    2-Phenylethanamine (phenethylamine, PEA) represents the core structure of numerous drugs with stimulant-like properties and is explicitly featured as so-called specified substance on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. Due to its natural occurrence in humans as well as its presence in dietary products, studies concerning the ability of test methods to differentiate between an illicit intake and the renal elimination of endogenously produced PEA were indicated. Following the addition of PEA to the Prohibited List in January 2015, retrospective evaluation of routine doping control data of 10 190 urine samples generated by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nitrogen phosphorus-specific detection (GC-MS/NPD) was performed. Signals for PEA at approximate concentrations > 500 ng/mL were observed in 31 cases (0.3%), which were subjected to a validated isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) test method for accurate quantification of the target analyte. Further, using elimination study urine samples collected after a single oral administration of 250 mg of PEA hydrochloride to two healthy male volunteers, two tentatively identified metabolites of PEA were observed and evaluated concerning their utility as discriminative markers for PEA intake. The ID-LC-MS/MS approach was extended to allow for the simultaneous detection of PEA and 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide sulfate (M1), and concentration ratios of M1 and PEA were calculated for elimination study urine samples and a total of 205 doping control urine samples that returned findings for PEA at estimated concentrations of 50-2500 ng/mL. Urine samples of the elimination study with PEA yielded concentration ratios of M1/PEA up to values of 9.4. Notably, the urinary concentration of PEA did increase with the intake of PEA only to a modest extent, suggesting a comprehensive metabolism of the orally administered substance. Conversely, doping control

  8. Collective dynamic dipole moment and orientation fluctuations, cooperative hydrogen bond relaxations, and their connections to dielectric relaxation in ionic acetamide deep eutectics: Microscopic insight from simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit; Mukherjee, Biswaroop

    2016-08-28

    The paper reports a detailed simulation study on collective reorientational relaxation, cooperative hydrogen bond (H-bond) fluctuations, and their connections to dielectric relaxation (DR) in deep eutectic solvents made of acetamide and three uni-univalent electrolytes, lithium nitrate (LiNO3), lithium bromide (LiBr), and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4). Because cooperative H-bond fluctuations and ion migration complicate the straightforward interpretation of measured DR timescales in terms of molecular dipolar rotations for these conducting media which support extensive intra- and inter-species H-bonding, one needs to separate out the individual components from the overall relaxation for examining the microscopic origin of various timescales. The present study does so and finds that reorientation of ion-complexed acetamide molecules generates relaxation timescales that are in sub-nanosecond to nanosecond range. This explains in molecular terms the nanosecond timescales reported by recent giga-Hertz DR measurements. Interestingly, the simulated survival timescale for the acetamide-Li(+) complex has been found to be a few tens of nanosecond, suggesting such a cation-complexed species may be responsible for a similar timescale reported by mega-Hertz DR measurements of acetamide/potassium thiocyanate deep eutectics near room temperature. The issue of collective versus single particle relaxation is discussed, and jump waiting time distributions are determined. Dependence on anion-identity in each of the cases has been examined. In short, the present study demonstrates that assumption of nano-sized domain formation is not required for explaining the DR detected nanosecond and longer timescales in these media.

  9. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwell, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Universite Paris Est Creteil and Universite Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France); Benilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Es-Sebbar, Et. [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Universite Paris Est Creteil and Universite Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France); Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Champion, Norbert [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France); Leach, Sydney, E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France)

    2012-01-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the VUV photoionization of acetamide in the 8-24 eV photon energy range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron/ion coincidence measurements are performed using synchrotron radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide is determined by TPEPICO measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VUV induced fragmentation pathways of acetamide are assigned and discussed. - Abstract: A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1{sup 2}A Prime ) = (9.71 {+-} 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1{sup 2}A Double-Prime , was determined to be Almost-Equal-To 10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH{sub 3}, NH{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, CO, HCCO and NH{sub 2}CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed.

  10. 17 CFR 270.3c-1 - Definition of beneficial ownership for certain 3(c)(1) funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Covered Company, the value of all securities owned by the Covered Company of all issuers that are Section... AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3c-1... Covered Company means a company that is an investment company, a Section 3(c)(1) Company or a Section 3(c...

  11. Analysis list: Nr3c1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nr3c1 Adipocyte,Blood,Breast,Embryo,Embryonic fibroblast,Liver,Neural + mm9 http://...dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.5.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscie...ncedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Breast.tsv,http:

  12. Analysis list: NR3C1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NR3C1 Blood,Bone,Breast,Liver,Others,Prostate,Uterus + hg19 http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR3C1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR3C1.5.t...sv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR3C1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/hg19/colo/NR3C1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/c...olo/NR3C1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NR3C1.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  13. Thermal phase diagram of acetamide-benzoic acid and benzoic acid-phthalimide binary systems for solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rohitash, E-mail: dootrohit1976@gmail.com [Defence Laboratory Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-2912567520 (India); Department of Physics & Center for Solar Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-291-2449045 (India); Kumar, Ravindra [Defence Laboratory Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-2912567520 (India); Dixit, Ambesh, E-mail: ambesh@iitj.ac.in [Department of Physics & Center for Solar Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-291-2449045 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Thermal properties of Acetamide (AM) – Benzoic acid (BA) and Benzoic acid (BA) – Phthalimide (PM) binary eutectic systems are theoretically calculated using thermodynamic principles. We found that the binary systems of AM-BA at 67.6 : 32.4 molar ratio, BA-PM at 89.7 : 10.3 molar ratio form eutectic mixtures with melting temperatures ~ 54.5 °C and 114.3 °C respectively. Calculated latent heat of fusion for these eutectic mixtures are 191 kJ/kg and 146.5 kJ/kg respectively. These melting temperatures and heat of fusions of these eutectic mixtures make them suitable for thermal energy storage applications in solar water heating and solar cooking systems.

  14. Novel energy saving strategy for separating acetic acid - water in extractive distillation with N-methyl acetamide as entrainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinqiang; Peng, Changjun; Liu, Honglai

    2017-09-01

    The design of homogeneous extractive distillation for acetic acid (AA) dehydration with N-methyl acetamide (NMA) as entrainer was investigated. It belongs to the classification of 0.0-1. The main challenge is that NMA and AA will lead to another pinch point, probably leading to energy cost and total annual cost (TAC) increase. Through analyzing thermodynamic insight, we have proposed a new strategy: low recycling entrainer purity for the extractive distillation of class 0.0-1 with no univolatility line existing. The strategy could save energy cost by avoiding the approach of the pinch point between AA and NMA. We have run sequence iterative optimization method for the process optimization. The total eleven variables are optimized. Results show that energy consumption and TAC are reduced by 50.6% and 52.1%, respectively. The results also reveal that a suitable shift of the feed tray locations improves the efficiency of the separation, even when less entrainer is used.

  15. Synthesis of N-(6-Arylbenzo[d]thiazole-2-acetamide Derivatives and Their Biological Activities: An Experimental and Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Gull

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of N-(6-arylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-ylacetamides were synthesized by C-C coupling methodology in the presence of Pd(0 using various aryl boronic pinacol ester/acids. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for various biological activities like antioxidant, haemolytic, antibacterial and urease inhibition. In bioassays these compounds were found to have moderate to good activities. Among the tested biological activities screened these compounds displayed the most significant activity for urease inhibition. In urease inhibition, all compounds were found more active than the standard used. The compound N-(6-(p-tolylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-ylacetamide was found to be the most active. To understand this urease inhibition, molecular docking studies were performed. The in silico studies showed that these acetamide derivatives bind to the non-metallic active site of the urease enzyme. Structure-activity studies revealed that H-bonding of compounds with the enzyme is important for its inhibition.

  16. Backing of 2-(diethylamino-N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl-acetamide with molecular, electronic and docking studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Deva Anban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the anaesthetic compound 2-(diethylamino-N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl-acetamide (DEAL was optimized with the B3LYP-6-311+G (d, p density functional theory method. Hyper conjugative interactions revealed the bioactivity of the molecule by natural bond orbital analysis. The current–potential curves were noted at well-defined scan rates by cyclic voltammetry. The solvation free energy was calculated by applying the solvation model on density. Molecular docking simulations were carried out to understand the pharmacokinetic behaviour of the drug. Besides, total energy levels of HOMO-LUMO orbitals, Mulliken atomic charges, natural population analysis and polarizability properties of the molecule were calculated. We found that the secondary amide increases the stability of this molecule. The π → π∗ interactions increase the biological activity of the compound, leading to a very high stabilization.

  17. Glycine decarboxylase in C3, C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Stefanie; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo

    2016-06-01

    The glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) plays a central role in photorespiration. GDC is localized in the mitochondria and together with serine hydroxymethyltransferase it converts two molecules of glycine to one molecule of serine, CO2 and NH3. Overexpression of GDC subunits in the C3 species Arabidopsis thaliana can increase the metabolic flux through the photorespiratory pathway leading to enhanced photosynthetic efficiency and consequently to an enhanced biomass production of the transgenic plants. Changing the spatial expression patterns of GDC subunits was an important step during the evolution of C3-C4 intermediate and likely also C4 plants. Restriction of the GDC activity to the bundle sheath cells led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New redshift determinations for three 3C radio sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldi, V.

    2017-01-01

    I report the new redshift determinations of three radio sources 3C 196.1, 3C 268.2 and 3C 303.1 by using GMOS/Gemini North long-slit optical spectroscopy. The details of the observations are summarized in the following table (the B600 grating was used for the three observations): Object | RA(J2000) | DEC(J2000) | Date of obs. | width-slit(arcsec) | PA(deg) | Exp.Time(sec) 3C 196.1 | 8:15:27.8 | -03:08:27 | Mar 2012 | 0.5 | 50 | 2560 3C 268.2| |12:00:59.1 | 31:33:28 | Feb 2011 | 0.5 | 165 | 2576 3C 303.1 | 14:43:14.5 | 77:07:28 | Feb 2012 | 1 | 145 | 2560 The three of the sources have extended regions of ionized gas that do not obey a spherical distribution.

  19. Poliovirus protease 3C(pro) kills cells by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    2000-01-20

    The tetracycline-based Tet-Off expression system has been used to analyze the effects of poliovirus protease 3C(pro) on human cells. Stable HeLa cell clones that express this poliovirus protease under the control of an inducible, tightly regulated promoter were obtained. Tetracycline removal induces synthesis of 3C protease, followed by drastic morphological alterations and cellular death. Degradation of cellular DNA in nucleosomes and generation of apoptotic bodies are observed from the second day after 3C(pro) induction. The cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, occurs after induction of 3C(pro), indicating caspase activation by this poliovirus protease. The 3C(pro)-induced apoptosis is blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our findings suggest that the protease 3C is responsible for triggering apoptosis in poliovirus-infected cells by a mechanism that involves caspase activation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Design and synthesis of potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors with (S)-tetrahydrofuran-tertiary amine-acetamide as P2-ligand: Structure-activity studies and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaoguang; Yang, Zhiheng; Zhu, Mei; Dong, Biao; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Guoning; Wang, Juxian; Wang, Yucheng

    2017-09-08

    The design, synthesis, and SAR study of a new series of HIV-1 protease inhibitors incorporating stereochemically defined tetrahydrofuran-tertiary amine-acetamide P2-ligand are described. Various substituent effects on the tertiary amine P2-ligand and phenylsulfonamide P2'-ligand were investigated to maximize the ligand-binding site interactions in the protease active site. Most of inhibitors displayed low nanomolar to subnanomolar inhibitory potency. Inhibitor 20e containing N-(S-tetrahydrofuran)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)acetamide as P2-ligand along with 4-methoxylphenylsulfonamide as P2'-ligand displayed the most potent enzyme inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.35 nM) and remarkably low cytotoxicity (CC50 = 305 μM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Complement C3c as a Biomarker in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Experimental data indicates an important role of the innate immune system in cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF. Complement is a central effector pathway of the innate immune system. Animals lacking parts of the complement system are protected from adverse remodeling. Based on these data, we hypothesized that peripheral complement levels could be a good marker for adverse remodeling and prognosis in patients with HF. Methods and Results. Since complement activation converges on the complement factor C3, we measured serum C3c, a stable C3-conversion product, in 197 patients with stable systolic HF. Subgroups with normal and elevated C3c levels were compared. C3c levels were elevated in 17% of the cohort. Patients with elevated C3c levels exhibited a trend to better survival, slightly higher LVEF, and lower NTpro-BNP values in comparison to patients with normal C3c values. No differences were found regarding NYHA functional class. Significantly more patients with elevated C3c had preexisting diabetes. The prevalence of CAD, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation was not increased in patients with elevated C3c. Conclusion. Elevated C3c levels are associated with less adverse remodeling and improved survival in patients with stable systolic heart failure.

  2. Why Are C3-C4 Intermediate Species Rare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. E.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    While C3-C4 intermediate photosynthesis is thought to represent the evolutionary bridge between C3 and C4 photosynthesis, C3-C4 intermediate species are ecologically rare in comparison to both C3 and C4 species. Here, we report results from a laboratory experiment, field observations, and model simulations that suggest a new explanation for the ecological rarity of C3-C4 intermediate species. In the laboratory experiment, we combined gas exchange and fluorescence to characterize the temperature response of photosynthesis in three closely-related species in the genus Flaveria that are representatives of the C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 photosynthetic pathways. The leaf temperature that maximized the quantum yield for CO2 assimilation (Topt(ΦCO2)) was 24.9 ± 0.7°C in Flaveria robusta (C3), 29.8 ± 1.0°C in F. chloraefolia (C3-C4), and 35.7 ± 0.8°C in F. bidentis (C4), and was linearly related to the temperature sensitivity of the coupling between CO2 assimilation and electron transport (d(ΦCO2/ ΦPSII)/dT)). While F. chloraefolia does not simultaneously occur with F. robusta and F. bidentis in naturally-assembled communities, this C3-C4 intermediate species does occur with other C3 and C4 species. During the growing season in two of these mixed-photosynthetic-type communities, leaf temperatures for F. chloraefolia were similar to the Topt(ΦCO2) determined in the laboratory. A model of maximum potential carbon gain suggests that competitive coexistence of C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 species could be dependent on a temperature regime that highlights the distinct relative advantages of the C3-C4 intermediate pathway. In combination, these results suggest that the relative temperature sensitivity of the C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 photosynthetic pathways combined with environmental variation in temperature may help to explain why C3-C4 intermediate species are generally rare.

  3. Electronic and thermoelectric properties of atomically thin C3Si3/C and C3Ge3/C superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Pi, Xiaodong; Liu, Yong; Yang, Deren

    2018-01-01

    The nanostructuring of graphene into superlattices offers the possibility of tuning both the electronic and thermal properties of graphene. Using classical and quantum mechanical calculations, we have investigated the electronic and thermoelectric properties of the atomically thin superlattice of C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) formed by the incorporation of Si (Ge) atoms into graphene. The bandgap and phonon thermal conductivity of C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) are 0.54 (0.51) eV and 15.48 (12.64) W m‑1 K‑1, respectively, while the carrier mobility of C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) is 1.285 × 105 (1.311 × 105) cm2 V‑1 s‑1 at 300 K. The thermoelectric figure of merit for C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) can be optimized via the tuning of carrier concentration to obtain the prominent ZT value of 1.95 (2.72).

  4. LOFT 3C cable tray and ladder seismic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, W.R.

    1979-03-26

    The LOFT 3C cable tray and ladder were analyzed for LOCE and Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) seismic loads by using equivalent static loads. Design changes were recommended to alleviate overstress conditions.

  5. 3,6-O-[N-(2-Aminoethyl)-acetamide-yl]-chitosan exerts antibacterial activity by a membrane damage mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feilong; Dang, Qifeng; Liu, Chengsheng; Yan, Jingquan; Wang, Teng; Fan, Bing; Cha, Dongsu; Li, Xiaoli; Liang, Shengnan; Zhang, Zhenzhen

    2016-09-20

    A novel chitosan derivative, 3,6-O-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-acetamide-yl]-chitosan (AACS), was successfully prepared to improve water solubility and antibacterial activity of chitosan. AACS had good antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.25mg/mL, against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Cell membrane integrity, electric conductivity and NPN uptake tests showed that AACS caused quickly increasing the release of intracellular nucleic acids, the uptake of NPN, and the electric conductivity by damaging membrane integrity. On the other hand, hydrophobicity, cell viability and SDS-PAGE experiments indicated that AACS was able to reduce the surface hydrophobicity, the cell viability and the intracellular proteins through increasing membrane permeability. SEM observation further confirmed that AACS could kill bacteria via disrupting their membranes. All results above verified that AACS mainly exerted antibacterial activity by a membrane damage mechanism, and it was expected to be a new food preservative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. N-{4-[(2-Meth­oxy­phen­yl)sulfamo­yl]phen­yl}acetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saba; Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf; Adnan, Ahmad; Akkurt, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H16N2O4S, the S atom has a distorted tetra­hedral geometry [maximum deviation: O—S—O = 118.25 (7)°]. The two aromatic rings make a dihedral angle of 62.67 (10)° with each other. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond forms an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules form centrosymmetric dimers via pairwise N—H⋯O inter­actions, forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif, and these dimers are connected by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Furthermore, a weak C—H⋯π inter­action helps to reinforce the crystal structure. The O atom in the acetamide group is disordered over two positions with major and minor occupancies of 0.52 (5) and 0.48 (5), respectively. PMID:21522993

  7. Synthesis, Structural Elucidation, and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some New Molecules Derived from Coumarin, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole, and Acetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Rasool

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the reported biological activities of coumarin, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and acetamides, some new compounds incorporating these moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their biological potential against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the present work, 4-chlororesorcinol (1 and ethyl acetoacetate (2 were mixed in a strong acidic medium to synthesize 6-chloro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene (3 which was subjected to the intermolecular cyclization after consecutive three steps to synthesize 5-[(6-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy]methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-thiol (6. A series of acetamoyl electrophiles, 8a–o, were synthesized from aralkyl/alkyl/aryl amines, 7a–o, in an aqueous basic medium. The final compounds, 9a–o, were synthesized by the reaction of compounds 6 and 8a–o in DMF/NaH. The synthesized compounds were structurally elucidated by spectral data analysis of IR, 1H-NMR, and EIMS. The most of the synthesized compounds remained moderate to excellent antibacterial agents. The molecules, 9e, 9j, and 9k, were the most efficient ones against all the five bacterial strains taken into account.

  8. Photochemical degradation of the plant growth regulator 2-(1-naphthyl) acetamide in aqueous solution upon UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Eliana Sousa; Wong-Wah-Chung, Pascal; Burrows, Hugh D; Sarakha, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The photochemical degradation of 2-(1-naphthyl) acetamide (NAD) in aqueous solution using simulated sunlight excitation as well as UV light within the 254-300 nm range was investigated to obtain an insight into the transformation mechanism that could occur under environmental conditions. Several photoproducts were identified using HPLC/MS/MS techniques. The degradation quantum yield was found to be independent of the excitation wavelength, but showed a dependence of oxygen concentration. This increased by a factor of approximately 3 from aerated to oxygen-free solutions. There is a clear involvement of both triplet and singlet excited states in NAD photoreactivity. The participation of singlet oxygen as a significant route in NAD degradation was ruled out by comparison with the behavior using Rose Bengal as a photosensitizer. A mechanistic pathway implying hydroxylation process through NAD radical cation species as well as an oxidation reaction by molecular oxygen is proposed. The photochemical behavior of NAD appears to mainly involve the aromatic moieties without any participation of the amide side chain. Toxicity tests clearly show that the generated primary photoproducts are responsible for a significant increase in the toxicity. However, upon prolonged irradiation this toxicity tends to decrease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. Indole-3-acetamide-dependent auxin biosynthesis: a widely distributed way of indole-3-acetic acid production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Thomas; Hoffmann, Maik; Hentrich, Mathias; Pollmann, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    During the course of evolution plants have evolved a complex phytohormone-based network to regulate their growth and development. Herein auxins have a pivotal function, as they are involved in controlling virtually every aspect related to plant growth. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major endogenous auxin of higher plants that is already known for more than 80 years. In spite of the long-standing interest in this topic, IAA biosynthesis is still only partially uncovered. Several pathways for the formation of IAA have been proposed over the past years, but none of these pathways are yet completely defined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the indole-3-acetamide (IAM)-dependent pathway of IAA production in plants and to discuss the properties of the involved proteins and genes, respectively. Their evolutionary relationship to known bacterial IAM hydrolases and other amidases from bacteria, algae, moss, and higher plants is discussed on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, we report on the transcriptional regulation of the Arabidopsis AMI1 gene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical Periodicity Analysis of 3C 446 using Period04

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... All the data of the blazar 3C446 at 8, 4.8, 14 and 22 GHz, presented in publications from 1977 to 2006, have been compiled to generate light curves. The light curves show violent activity of 3C446. Using Period04 analysis method, we have found that there is a period of 7.2 yr, which is consistent with the ...

  11. MERLIN observations of the unusual superluminal quasar 3C395

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikia, D.J. (Nuffield Radio Astronomy Labs., Jodrell Bank (UK) Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Poona Univ. Campus, Pune (India)); Muxlow, T.W.B. (Nuffield Radio Astronomy Labs., Jodrell Bank (UK)); Junor, W. (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We present MERLIN observations at 73, 18 and 6 cm of the quasar 3C395 (1901 + 319) which has a superluminal component moving towards a stationary knot located at a distance of 15.8 mas from the VLBI core. The observations help to clarify the radiostructure of 3C395 on scales ranging from a few tens to a few hundreds of milliarcsec. They show evidence of a highly curved jet-like structure extending beyond the stationary VLBI component. The radio images of 3C395 are consistent with a two-sided structure inclined at a small angle to the line-of-sight, with the approaching jet being decelerated and distorted within {approx} 15 mas of the nucleus. (author).

  12. 3C-digital PCR for quantification of chromatin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meijun; Wang, Liang

    2016-12-06

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) is a powerful and widely used technique for detecting the physical interactions between chromatin regions in vivo. The principle of 3C is to convert physical chromatin interactions into specific DNA ligation products, which are then detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). However, 3C-qPCR assays are often complicated by the necessity of normalization controls to correct for amplification biases. In addition, qPCR is often limited to a certain cycle number, making it difficult to detect fragment ligations with low frequency. Recently, digital PCR (dPCR) technology has become available, which allows for highly sensitive nucleic acid quantification. Main advantage of dPCR is its high precision of absolute nucleic acid quantification without requirement of normalization controls. To demonstrate the utility of dPCR in quantifying chromatin interactions, we examined two prostate cancer risk loci at 8q24 and 2p11.2 for their interaction target genes MYC and CAPG in LNCaP cell line. We designed anchor and testing primers at known regulatory element fragments and target gene regions, respectively. dPCR results showed that interaction frequency between the regulatory element and MYC gene promoter was 0.7 (95% CI 0.40-1.10) copies per 1000 genome copies while other regions showed relatively low ligation frequencies. The dPCR results also showed that the ligation frequencies between the regulatory element and two EcoRI fragments containing CAPG gene promoter were 1.9 copies (95% CI 1.41-2.47) and 1.3 copies per 1000 genome copies (95% CI 0.76-1.92), respectively, while the interaction signals were reduced on either side of the promoter region of CAPG gene. Additionally, we observed comparable results from 3C-dPCR and 3C-qPCR at 2p11.2 in another cell line (DU145). Compared to traditional 3C-qPCR, our results show that 3C-dPCR is much simpler and more sensitive to detect weak chromatin interactions. It may eliminate

  13. A mechanistic study of fragmentation of deprotonated N,2-diphenyl-acetamides in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhihua; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Jichao; Pan, Yuanjiang; Sun, Cuirong; Zeng, Su

    2014-08-15

    Exploring the fragmentation mechanism of amide ions in mass spectrometry has attracted great interest because of the desire to analyze the amino acid sequences of peptides and proteins. However, the collision-induced dissociation (CID) mechanism of deprotonated small amides has been rarely studied in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The fragmentation of deprotonated N,2-diphenylacetamides exhibited some characteristic fragment ions, which are not derived from the conventional cleavage route. Therefore, clarification of their fragmentation mechanism is very important and useful for structural analysis of related amides and peptides. All CID experiments were carried out using an electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode. In addition, the accurate masses of fragments were measured on an ESI quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer in negative ion mode. Deuterium-labeled 2-phenyl-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)acetamide was synthesized and its ESI fragmentation spectrum had been obtained. Theoretical calculations were carried out by the density functional theory (DFT) method at the B3LYP level of theory with the 6-31G++(d,p) basis set. Deprotonated N,2-diphenylacetamides mainly generate four kinds of ions in CID: benzyl anion, aniline anion, phenyl-ethenone anion and isocyanato-benzene anion bearing respective substituent groups. The benzyl anion and the aniline anion can be generated by direct decomposition. The phenyl-ethenone anion and the isocyanato-benzene anion were proposed to be yielded from proton transfer within an ion-neutral complex, and the intensities of two competitive product ions are well correlated with the substituent constants. The mechanism was also supported by theoretical calculations. The characteristic fragment ions of deprotonated N,2-diphenylacetamides were proposed to be produced via an ion-neutral complex mechanism, which was proved by deuterium-labeling experiments, theoretical

  14. Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): Time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit, E-mail: ranjit@bose.res.in [Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata, West Bengal 700098 (India)

    2015-01-21

    Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2}) and urea (NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2} + (1 − f)NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ∼120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (∼207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (∼70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (α{sub 2}) and new non-Gaussian (γ) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems.

  15. Electrochemical preparation of few layer-graphene nanosheets via reduction of oriented exfoliated graphene oxide thin films in acetamide-urea-ammonium nitrate melt under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilimon, V.S.; Sampath, S., E-mail: sampath2562@gmail.co

    2011-01-31

    Electrochemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide, prepared from pre-exfoliated graphite, in acetamide-urea-ammonium nitrate ternary eutectic melt results in few layer-graphene thin films. Negatively charged exfoliated graphene oxide is attached to positively charged cystamine monolyer self-assembled on a gold surface. Electrochemical reduction of the oriented graphene oxide film is carried out in a room temperature, ternary molten electrolyte. The reduced film is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), conductive AFM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Ternary eutectic melt is found to be a suitable medium for the regulated reduction of graphene oxide to reduced graphene oxide-based sheets on conducting surfaces.

  16. W3C head Berners-Lee to be knighted

    CERN Multimedia

    Gross, G

    2004-01-01

    "Tim Berners-Lee, credited with inventing the World Wide Web and now director of the World Wide Web Consortium, will be named a knight commander, Order of the British Empire, by Queen Elizabeth II, the W3C announced Wednesday" (1 page)

  17. Discovery of a faint optical jet in 3C 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Sorensen, A. N.

    1995-01-01

    the optical condensation A of the galaxy, which includes the bright 4" radio knot, is found to be 12 % polarized with the electric field vectors perpendicular to the jet. These findings indicate that 3C 120 contains the 6th known extragalactic optical synchrotron jet, quite similar in its properties...

  18. 27 CFR 21.37 - Formula No. 3-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Authorized Uses § 21.37 Formula No. 3-C. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Five... resin coatings. 016.Other coatings. 021.Cellulose plastics. 022.Non-cellulose plastics, including resins... products. 579.Other chemicals. 590.Synthetic resins. (3) As a fuel: 611.Automobile and supplementary fuels...

  19. The Double–Double Radio Galaxy 3C293

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the results of radio continuum observations at frequencies ranging from ∼ 150–5000 MHz of the misaligned double–double radio galaxy (DDRG) 3C293 (J1352+3126) using the GMRT and the VLA, and estimate the time-scale of interruption of jet activity to be less than ∼ 0.1 Myr.

  20. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  1. A decade of 3C technologies: insights into nuclear organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, E.; de Laat, W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development of chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and the subsequent genomic variants thereof have enabled the analysis of nuclear organization at an unprecedented resolution and throughput. The technology relies on the original and, in hindsight, remarkably

  2. Biglycan is a novel binding partner of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3c (FGFR3c) in the human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, S B; Nielsen, J; Jørgensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    identified FGF1, FGF2, and FGF9 as the best candidates for natural ligands of FGFR3c in the testis. In addition, we screened non-FGF proteins and found that a proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) contains a sequence homologous to the FGFR3c binding site on FGF1, and is expressed in peritubular cells adjacent to FGFR3...... in spermatocytic seminoma, thought to originate from clonal expansion of spermatogonia. In this study we aimed to characterize potential binding partners of FGFR3, and specifically its mesenchymal "c" splice isoform, in human spermatogonia. Based on expression patterns and homology to the binding site, we...

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of a New Mannich Base N-[Morpholino(phenyl)methyl]acetamide and Its Cobalt(II), Nickel(II) and Copper(II) Metal Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Muruganandam; K. Krishnakumar

    2012-01-01

    A new Mannich base N-[morpholino(phenyl)methyl]acetamide (MBA), was synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Chelates of MBA with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV spectral studies. MBA was found to act as a bidentate ligand, bonding through the carbonyl oxygen of acetamide group and CNC nitrogen of morpholine moiety in all the complexes. Based on the magnetic moment values and UV-Visible spectral data, tetrac...

  4. BeppoSAX Observations of 3C 279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraschi, L.; Celotti, A.; Fossati, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Pian, E.; Treves, A.; Raiteri, C.; Villata, M.; Bassani, L.; Cappi, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Comastri, A.; Frontera, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Grandi, P.; Molendi, S.; Palumbo, G.; Perola, C.; Salvati, M.; Tanzi, E.G.; Urry, C.M

    1999-01-01

    We report on BeppoSAX AO1 Core Program observations of 3C 279, performed in January 1997. 3C 279 was found in a low state, with constant X-ray flux in the 5 observations. The spectra obtained with the LECS and MECS instruments combining the 5 observations are well fitted by a single power law with energy spectral index {alpha} = 0.64 {+-} 0.03 and Galactic absorption. The source is weakly detected by the PDS instrument. Comparison with simultaneous {gamma}-ray data obtained by EGRET and with previous multifrequency measurements shows that the X-ray emission is well correlated with the {gamma}-ray emission over long timescales.

  5. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    KAUST Repository

    Schwell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3, NH 2, NH 3, CO, HCCO and NH 2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Homan, D. C.; Agudo, I.; Kellermann, K. I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lister, M. L.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been monitored since 1995 as part of the 2cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring observations conducted with the VLBA. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of VLBA observations of 3C 111 and from 18 years of radio flux density monitoring observations conducted at the University of Michigan. A major radio flux-density outburst of 3C 111 occurred in 1996 and was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a forward and a backward-shock, which both evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the workflow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradients are revealed; trailing components are formed in the wake of the primary perturbation as a result of Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities from the interaction of the jet with the external medium. The jet-medium interaction is further scrutinized by the linear-polarization signature of jet components traveling along the jet and passing a region of steep pressure/density gradients.

  7. Multiwavelength and Polarimetric Analysis of the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars 3C 273 and 3C 279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sunil; Patiño-Álvarez, Victor; Chavushyan, Vahram; Schlegel, Eric M.; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; León-Tavares, Jonathan; Carrasco, Luis; Valdés, José; Carramiñana, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This poster presents results of multiwavelength analyses of 3C 273 and 3C 279. The main goals were to identify the gamma-ray emission region and dominant high-energy emission processes. Our methodology consisted of analyzing light curves from radio to gamma-rays over 6 - 8 years and polarimetric, spectral and line emission behavior.In 3C 279, we found that the emission from millimeter to ultraviolet was simultaneous and therefore co-spatial. We identified two active states where different high-energy emission processes were dominant. We found multiwavelength flaring events consistent with component ejections and shocks. We proposed that the gamma-ray emission region changed over time based on observations of both simultaneous and delayed gamma-rays emission with respect to low-energy emission during different time-frames.In 3C 273, we identified a non-thermal flare related to a component ejection and a thermal flare related to accretion. From reverberation mapping we found that the broad line region dynamical behavior over time possibly affects the derived supermassive black hole mass.In both objects we found that the gamma-ray spectral index was variable, and a trend of harder spectral index with higher gamma-ray luminosity. From the identification of different dominant high-energy emission processes, we concluded that the dominant high-energy emission mechanism changes with time. Overall, we concluded that similar results from both objects points to behavior that is potentially common to flat spectrum radio quasars. Increasing the sample size of objects analyzed with similar methodologies will provide more results to confirm or refine our conclusions.

  8. 2-Amino-N-{4-[5-(2-phenanthrenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-phenyl} Acetamide (OSU-03012), a Celecoxib Derivative, Directly Targets p21-Activated Kinase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonardo M. Porchia; Marcy Guerra; Yu-Chieh Wang; Yunlong Zhang; Allan V. Espinosa; Motoo Shinohara; Samuel K. Kulp; Lawrence S. Kirschner; Motoyasu Saji; Ching-Shih Chen; Matthew D. Ringel

    2007-01-01

    ...). We hypothesized that reduced PAK activity was involved in the effects of 2-amino- N -{4-[5-(2-phenanthrenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1 H -pyrazol-1-yl]-phenyl} acetamide (OSU-03012), a previously characterized PDK1 inhibitor derived from celecoxib...

  9. Experience with Server Self Service Center (S3C)

    CERN Multimedia

    Sucik, J

    2009-01-01

    CERN has a successful experience with running Server Self Service Center (S3C) for virtual server provisioning which is based on Microsoft® Virtual Server 2005. With the introduction of Windows Server 2008 and its built-in hypervisor based virtualization (Hyper-V) there are new possibilities for the expansion of the current service. This paper describes the architecture of the redesigned virtual Server Self Service based on Hyper-V which provides dynamically scalable virtualized resources on demand as needed and outlines the possible implications on the future use of virtual machines at CERN.

  10. Angular Structure of FrII Radio Sources 3C169.1 and 3C263 at Decameter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashchishin, R. V.; Shepelev, V. A.; Lozinskyy, A. B.; Lytvynenko, O. A.

    The radio galaxy 3C169.1 and the quasar 3C263, located at nearly the same distance with red shift z>0.6, have similar morphological and spectral characteristics. The maps of the sources obtained at decimeter and centimeter wavelengths have shown they are FRII radio sources with steep spectra and approximately equal angular sizes. The very first investigation of the sources structure at decameter wavelengths is presented in the report. Observations were made using a network of the URAN decameter interferometers with baselines 42 to 950 km and with maximum angular resolution of arcsec order of magnitude. The models of the image of these sources based on visibility functions measured have been obtained at frequencies of 20 and 25 MHz. They were composed of elliptical components with Gaussian brightness distribution. To facilitate the comparison of these lowfrequency models with high-frequency radio images, the latter were converted to the similar models by fitting the Gaussian components to lobes and hot spots selected at the maps. Comparison of the models revealed changes in a structure of the sources caused by the frequency decrease.

  11. Linear integrated optics in 3C silicon carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Francesco; Politi, Alberto

    2017-05-15

    The development of new photonic materials that combine diverse optical capabilities is needed to boost the integration of different quantum and classical components within the same chip. Amongst all candidates, the superior optical properties of cubic silicon carbide (3C SiC) could be merged with its crystalline point defects, enabling single photon generation, manipulation and light-matter interaction on a single device. The development of photonics devices in SiC has been limited by the presence of the silicon substrate, over which thin crystalline films are heteroepitaxially grown. By employing a novel approach in the material fabrication, we demonstrate grating couplers with coupling efficiency reaching -6 dB, sub-µm waveguides and high intrinsic quality factor (up to 24,000) ring resonators. These components are the basis for linear optical networks and essential for developing a wide range of photonics component for non-linear and quantum optics.

  12. Milliarcsecond polarization structure of the superluminal quasar 3C 273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.H.; Kollgaard, R.I.; Brown, L.F.; Gabuzda, D.C.; Wardle, J.F. C. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A 2 x 10 marcsec-resolution determination is presented for the total intensity and linear polarization structures of the superluminal quasar 3C 273 at 5 GHz. Substantial polarized flux was detected from several superluminal components of the jet, whose fractional polarization increased symmetrically with distance from the core; the most distant component is highly polarized and exhibits a highly ordered magnetic field. Within a few marcsec of the core, the inferred magnetic field orientation varies rapidly with position along the jet. The primarily longitudinal magnetic field orientation is concluded to become established within 20 marcsec of the core. A highly disorganized magnetic field is the most plausible explanation for the low degree of polarization in the innermost regions of the jet. 48 refs.

  13. 3C 279 - The case for 'superluminal' expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W. D.; Counselman, C. C., III; Geller, R. B.; Shapiro, I. I.; Wittels, J. J.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Knight, C. A.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Clark, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    The compact extragalactic radio source 3C 279 was observed with the Haystack-Goldstone interferometer (wavelength approximately 3.8 cm) during six separate sessions spread between October 1970 and April 1972. The fringe amplitudes from each of these observation sessions were consistent with a two-component model of the brightness distribution of the source. The position angle of the line joining the components remained at 38 + or - 2 deg, while the angular separation between the components increased nearly linearly at the rate of 0.5 + or 0.1 milliarcsec/yr during this period. The corresponding apparent expansion speed is (21 + or - 4)c, for H = 50 km/s per Mpc and q = 0.05

  14. Multifrequency observations of the superluminal quasar 3C 345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Roellig, T. P. L.; Bregman, J. D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Lester, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the continuum properties of the superluminal quasar 3C 345, on the basis of radio, optical, IR, and X-ray frequency monitorings, as well as by means of simultaneous multifrequency spectra extending from the radio through the X-ray bands. Radio outbursts, which appear to follow IR-optical outbursts by about one year, first occur at the highest frequencies, as expected from optical depth effects; the peak flux is nevertheless often reached at several frequencies at once. The beginning of outbursts, as defined by mm-measurements, corresponds to the appearance of the three known 'superluminal' components. An increase in the X-ray flux during 1979-1980 corresponds to increased radio flux, while the IR flux changes in the opposite sense.

  15. Isotope effect in superconducting Rb3C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A. P.; Kortan, A. R.; Rosseinsky, M. J.; Duclos, S. J.; Mujsce, A. M.; Haddon, R. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Makhija, A. V.; Zahurak, S. M.; Lyons, K. B.

    1992-02-01

    The effect of isotopic substitution of C-13 for C-12 in Rb2C60 on both Tc and their high-energy intramolecular phonon modes as probed by Raman scattering is reported. It is found that the Raman A(g) and H9(g) modes near 1450/cm shift by 85 percent of the expected amount, consistent with the mass spectrum of the samples. It is also found that Tc shifts by 75 +/- 10 percent of that expected for alpha = 0.5, i.e., alpha = 0.37 +/- 0.05. This constitutes strong evidence that superconductivity in Rb3C60 is driven primarily by phonon-mediated pairing involving carbon vibrations, but with significant Coulomb interaction effects.

  16. Multifrequency Study of the Blazar 3C 454.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhuiyolitzin Villicaña-Pedraza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to multi-frequency studying of the blazar 3C 454.3. The study includes spectroscopic and photometric observations in the optical, IR, and gamma-ray bands. We investigate whether a correlation exists in the light curves at different wavelengths. We have carried out observations of the optical spectrum (from 4000 to 7000 Angstroms between 2007 and 2009, and identified MgII [2800 Angstroms] and FeII emission line features. We have obtained optical magnitudes and color indices of the quasar and performed a correlation between the optical, IR, and gamma-ray light curves. We have found statistically significant correlations between the light curves at different wavelengths.

  17. 17 CFR 270.3c-4 - Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1940 § 270.3c-4 Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act. The term common trust fund as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(c)(3)) shall include a common trust fund which is maintained by a bank which is a member of an affiliated group, as defined in section...

  18. Kirkwood-Buff analysis of aqueous N-methylacetamide and acetamide solutions modeled by the CHARMM additive and Drude polarizable force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bin; Lopes, Pedro E M; Roux, Benoît; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2013-08-28

    Kirkwood-Buff analysis was performed on aqueous solutions of N-methylacetamide and acetamide using the Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics additive and Drude polarizable all-atom force fields. Comparison of a range of properties with experimental results, including Kirkwood-Buff integrals, excess coordination numbers, solution densities, partial molar values, molar enthalpy of mixing, showed both models to be well behaved at higher solute concentrations with the Drude model showing systematic improvement at lower solution concentrations. However, both models showed difficulties reproducing experimental activity derivatives and the excess Gibbs energy, with the Drude model performing slightly better. At the molecular level, the improved agreement of the Drude model at low solute concentrations is due to increased structure in the solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. The present results indicate that the explicit inclusion of electronic polarization leads to improved modeling of dilute solutions even when those properties are not included as target data during force field optimization.

  19. Convergent synthesis of new N -substituted 2-{[5-(1H -indol-3-ylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]sulfanyl}acetamides as suitable therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Rubab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract A series of N-substituted 2-{[5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]sulfanyl}acetamides (8a-w was synthesized in three steps. The first step involved the sequential conversion of 2-(1H-indol-3-ylacetic acid (1 to ester (2 followed by hydrazide (3 formation and finally cyclization in the presence of CS2 and alcoholic KOH yielded 5-(1H-indole-3-yl-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (4. In the second step, aryl/aralkyl amines (5a-w were reacted with 2-bromoacetyl bromide (6 in basic medium to yield 2-bromo-N-substituted acetamides (7a-w. In the third step, these electrophiles (7a-w were reacted with 4 to afford the target compounds (8a-w. Structural elucidation of all the synthesized derivatives was done by 1H-NMR, IR and EI-MS spectral techniques. Moreover, they were screened for antibacterial and hemolytic activity. Enzyme inhibition activity was well supported by molecular docking results, for example, compound 8q exhibited better inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase, while 8g and 8b exhibited comparatively better inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase, respectively. Similarly, compounds 8b and 8c showed very good antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, which was very close to that of ciprofloxacin, a standard antibiotic used in this study. 8c and 8l also showed very good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well. Almost all compounds showed very slight hemolytic activity, where 8p exhibited the least. Therefore, the molecules synthesized may have utility as suitable therapeutic agents.

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1LDBC-1IE3C [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1LDBC-1IE3C 1LDB 1IE3 C C MKNNGGARVVVIGA-GFVGASYVFALMNQGIAD-EIVLI...-PHERVIGSGTILDTARFRFLLGEYFSVAP--QNVHAYIIGEHGDT-ELPVWSQAYIGV-MPIDLERIFVNVRDAAYQIIEKK---GATYYGIAMGLARVTRAILH--...-NEN-AILTVSAYLDGLYGERDVYIGVPAVINRNGIREVIE-IELNDDEKNR-------FHHSAATLKSVLARAFTRALA CA 384 1IE3 C 1IE3C FSGEDATPALEGA

  1. Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Blazar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, E.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Dultzin, D.; Martínez, O.; Pérez-Camargo, B.; Torrealba, J.

    2010-10-01

    We performed an optical spectroscopic monitoring of the blazar 3C 454.3 from September 2003 to July 2008. Sixteen optical spectra were obtained during different runs, which constitute the first spectroscopic monitoring done in the rest-frame UV region (z=0.859). An overall flux variation of the MgII (λ2800 Å) by a factor ˜3 was observed, while the corresponding UV continuum (Fcont at λ3000 Å) changed by a factor ˜14. The MgII emission lines respond proportionally to the continuum variations when the source is in a low-activity state. In contrast, near the optical outbursts detected in 2005 and 2007, the MgII emission lines showed little response to the continuum flux variations. During the monitored period the UV FeII flux changed by a factor ˜ 6 and correlated with Fcont (r=0.92). A negative correlation between EW(MgII) and Fcont was found, i.e. the so-called "Intrinsic Baldwin Effect".

  2. Anisotropies in the HI gas distribution toward 3C 196

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The local Galactic Hi gas was found to contain cold neutral medium (CNM) filaments that are aligned with polarized dust emission. These filaments appear to be dominated by the magnetic field and in this case turbulence is expected to show distinct anisotropies. Aims: We use the Galactic Effelsberg-Bonn Hi Survey (EBHIS) to derive 2D turbulence spectra for the Hi distribution in direction to 3C 196 and two more comparison fields. Methods: Prior to Fourier transform we apply a rotational symmetric 50% Tukey window to apodize the data. We derive average as well as position angle dependent power spectra. Anisotropies in the power distribution are defined as the ratio of the spectral power in orthogonal directions. Results: We find strong anisotropies. For a narrow range in position angle, in direction perpendicular to the filaments and the magnetic field, the spectral power is on average more than an order of magnitude larger than parallel. In the most extreme case the anisotropy reaches locally a factor of 130. Anisotropies increase on average with spatial frequency as predicted by Goldreich & Sridhar (1995, ApJ, 438, 763), at the same time the Kolmogorov spectral index remains almost unchanged. The strongest anisotropies are observable for a narrow range in velocity and decay with a power law index close to -8/3, almost identical to the average isotropic spectral index of -2.9 Faraday depth.

  3. Observations of Titan 3C-4 Transtage Fragmentation Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, Heather; Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Cardona, T.; Krisko, P.; Lederer, S.

    2013-01-01

    The fragmentation of a Titan 3C-4 Transtage (1968-081) on 21 February 1992 is one of only two known break-ups in or near geosynchronous orbit. The original rocket body and 24 pieces of debris are currently being tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The rocket body (SSN# 3432) and several of the original fragments (SSN# 25000, 25001, 30000, and 33511) were observed in survey mode during 2004-2010 using the 0.6-m Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile using a broad R filter. This paper will present a size distribution for all calibrated magnitude data acquired on MODEST. Size distribution plots will also be shown using historical models for small fragmentation debris (down to 10 cm) believed to be associated with the Titan break-up. In November 2010, visible broadband photometry (Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI) was acquired with the 0.9-m Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile on several Titan fragments (SSN# 25001, 33509, 33510) and the parent rocket body. Color index data will be used to determine the fragment brightness distribution and how the data compares to spacecraft materials measured in the laboratory using similar photometric measurement techniques. In 2012, the SSN added 16 additional fragments to the catalogue. MODEST acquired magnitude data on ten Titan fragments in late 2012 and early 2013. The magnitude distribution of all the observed fragments are analyzed as a function of time. In order to better characterize the breakup fragments spectral measurements were acquired on the original rocket body and five Titan fragments using the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The telescopic spectra are compared with laboratory acquired spectra of materials (e.g., Aluminum and various paints) and categorized based on known absorption features for spacecraft materials.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of a New Mannich Base N-[Morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide and Its Cobalt(II, Nickel(II and Copper(II Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muruganandam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Mannich base N-[morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide (MBA, was synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Chelates of MBA with cobalt(II, nickel(II and copper(II ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV spectral studies. MBA was found to act as a bidentate ligand, bonding through the carbonyl oxygen of acetamide group and CNC nitrogen of morpholine moiety in all the complexes. Based on the magnetic moment values and UV-Visible spectral data, tetracoordinate geometry for nitrato complexes and hexacoordinate geometry for sulphato complexes were assigned. The antimicrobial studies show that the Co(II nitrato complex is more active than the other complexes.

  5. Decreasing Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 3C (EIF3C) Suppresses Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Lines Through Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weipeng; Li, Xichuan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen; Jia, Yongsheng; Yuan, Shunzong; Huang, Yong; Shi, Yehui; Tong, Zhongsheng

    2017-08-30

    BACKGROUND Translation initiation is the rate limiting step of protein synthesis and is highly regulated. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3C (EIF3C), an oncogene overexpressed in several human cancers, plays an important role in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of EIF3C in breast cancer tissues from 42 patients. We investigated whether EIF3C silencing decreases breast cancer cell proliferation as assessed by colony formation assay, and whether EIF3C gene knockdown induces apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometry analysis. We utilized the stress and apoptosis signaling antibody array kit, while p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, p-Smad2, p-p38 MAPK, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-7 were explored between EIF3C-siRNA and controls. Furthermore, the effects of EIF3C gene knockdown in mTOR pathway were analyzed by western blotting for different cell lines. RESULTS In EIF3C-positive tumors, 32 out of 42 showed significantly higher frequencies of high grade group by immunoreactivity (p=0.0016). BrdU incorporation after four days of cell plating was significantly suppressed in MDA-MB-231 cells by EIF3C knockdown compared with controls, with average changes of 7.8-fold (p<0.01). Clone number was significantly suppressed in MDA-MB-231 cells by EIF3C knockdown compared with controls (p<0.05). Cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the EIF3C-siRNA group when compared with the cells that were transfected with scrambled siRNA (3.51±0.0842 versus 13.24±0.2307, p<0.01). The mTOR signaling pathway was involved in decreasing EIF3C translational efficiency. CONCLUSIONS Unveiling the mechanisms of EIF3 action in tumorigenesis may help identify attractive targets for cancer therapy.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nucleobase-modified analogs of the anticancer compounds 3'-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrdlicka, Patrick J; Jepsen, Jan S; Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A series of nucleobase-modified analogs of the anticancer compounds 3'-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd) were designed to overcome the strict substrate specificity of the activating uridine-cytidine kinase. EUrd, ECyd and target nucleosides were obtained using a short...

  7. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official..., abuse, and corruption in Commission programs, including on the part of Commission employees, contractors...

  8. Electrochemical reduction of oxygen on gold and boron-doped diamond electrodes in ambient temperature, molten acetamide-urea-ammonium nitrate eutectic melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilimon, V.S.; Venkata Narayanan, N.S. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Sampath, S., E-mail: sampath@ipc.iisc.ernet.i [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2010-08-01

    The electrochemical reduction of oxygen has been studied on gold, boron-doped diamond (BDD) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in a ternary eutectic mixture of acetamide (CH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2}), urea (NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}) and ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), chronoamperometry and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry techniques have been employed to follow oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The mechanism for the electrochemical reduction of oxygen on polycrystalline gold involves 2-step, 2-electron pathways of O{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and further reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O. The first 2-electron reduction of O{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} passes through superoxide intermediate by 1-electron reduction of oxygen. Kinetic results suggest that the initial 1-electron reduction of oxygen to HO{sub 2} is the rate-determining step of ORR on gold surfaces. The chronoamperometric and RDE studies show a potential dependent change in the number of electrons on gold electrode. The oxygen reduction reaction on boron-doped diamond (BDD) seems to proceed via a direct 4-electron process. The reduction of oxygen on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode is a single step, irreversible, diffusion limited 2-electron reduction process to peroxide.

  9. Activity coefficients and thermodynamic parameters for RbCl/CsCl + amide (acetamide, propanamide, and n-butanamide) + water system at 298.15 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng; Fan, Peng; Wang, Jianji; Zhuo, Kelei

    2005-10-22

    Electromotive force (emf) of the chemical cell without liquid-junction K-ISE | RbCl/CsCl ( m(E)) | ISE-Cl and K-ISE | RbCl/CsCl (m(E)), amide (m(N)) | ISE-Cl, have been measured at 298.15 K, where m(E)=(0.005 to 0.5) mol kg(-1) and m(N)= (0.05 to 3.0) mol kg(-1). The activity coefficients of RbCl/CsCl in amide (acetamide, propanamide, and n-butanamide) + water mixture can be obtained from these electromotive force data and in the mean time the Gibbs free energy interaction parameters of RbCl/CsCl + amide pair in water, g(EN), as well as the salt constant, k(S), can be evaluated. The results show that both g(EN)>0, k(S)>0 at 298.15 K, and all the activity coefficients of electrolyte in amide + water mixture increase with increasing the m(N), but it is a little complicated for the dependence of activity coefficients on m(E). These thermodynamic parameters were discussed in terms of a model of the structural interaction and electrostatic interaction and the dependence of them on the number of carbon atoms in amide as well as the radius of metal ions were interpreted by the group additivity principle.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of a novel cooling compound: 2-(4-methylphenoxy)-N-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-N-(2-thienylmethyl)acetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanewsky, Donald S; Arthur, Amy J; Liu, Hanghui; Chi, Bert; Markison, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    A toxicological evaluation of a novel cooling agent, 2-(4-methylphenoxy)- N -(1 H -pyrazol-3-yl)- N -(2-thienylmethyl) acetamide (S2227; CAS 1374760-95-8), was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S2227 undergoes rapid oxidative metabolism in vitro , and in rat and dog pharmacokinetic studies is rapidly converted to its component carboxylic acid and secondary amine. S2227 was not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro , and did not induce micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in vivo . The secondary amine hydrolysis product, N -(2-thienylmethyl)-1 H -pyrazol-3-amine (M179), was also evaluated for genotoxicity. In subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for S2227 was 100 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested) when administered by oral gavage for 90 consecutive days. Furthermore, S2227 demonstrated a lack of maternal toxicity, as well as adverse effects on fetal morphology at the highest dose tested, providing a NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg/day for both maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development when administered orally during gestation to pregnant rats.

  11. Evaluation of Stability of Complexes of Inner Transition Metal Ions with 2-Oxo-1-pyrrolidine Acetamide and Role of Systematic Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BEST FIT models were used to study the complexation of inner transition metal ions like Y(III, La(III, Ce(III, Pr(III, Nd(III, Sm(III, Gd(III, Dy(III and Th(IV with 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide at 30 °C in 10%, 20, 30, 40, 50% and 60% v/v dioxane-water mixture at 0.2 M ionic strength. Irving Rossotti titration method was used to get titration data. Calculations were carried out with PKAS and BEST Fortran IV computer programs. The expected species like L, LH+, ML, ML2 and ML(OH3, were obtained with SPEPLOT. Stability of complexes has increased with increasing the dioxane content. The observed change in stability can be explained on the basis of electrostatic effects, non electrostatic effects, solvating power of solvent mixture, interaction between ions and interaction of ions with solvents. Effect of systematic errors like effect of dissolved carbon dioxide, concentration of alkali, concentration of acid, concentration of ligand and concentration of metal have also been explained here.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of branched and conformationally restricted analogs of the anticancer compounds 3'-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrdlicka, Patrick J; Andersen, Nicolai K; Jepsen, Jan S

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of branched and conformationally restricted analogs of the anticancer nucleosides 3'-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd) is presented. Molecular modeling and (1)H NMR coupling constant analysis revealed that the furanose rings of all analogs except the LNA analog...... are conformationally biased towards South conformation, and are thus mimicking the structure of ECyd. All target nucleosides were devoid of anti-HIV or anticancer activity.......The synthesis of branched and conformationally restricted analogs of the anticancer nucleosides 3'-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd) is presented. Molecular modeling and (1)H NMR coupling constant analysis revealed that the furanose rings of all analogs except the LNA analog...

  13. Creating and facilitating change for Person-Centred Coordinated Care (P3C): The development of the Organisational Change Tool (P3C-OCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, Jane; Lloyd, Helen; Sugavanam, Thavapriya; Close, James; Byng, Richard

    2017-11-15

    Person Centred Coordinated Care (P3C) is a UK priority for patients, carers, professionals, commissioners and policy makers. Services are developing a range of approaches to deliver this care with a lack of tools to guide implementation. A scoping review and critical examination of current policy, key literature and NHS guidelines, together with stakeholder involvement led to the identification of domains, subdomains and component activities (processes and behaviours) required to deliver P3C. These were validated through codesign with stakeholders via a series of workshops and cognitive interviews. Six core domains of P3C were identified as follows: (i) my goals, (ii) care planning, (iii) transitions, (iv) decision making (v), information and communication and (vi) organizational support activities. These were populated by 29 core subdomains (question items). A number of response codes (components) to each question provide examples of the processes and activities that can be actioned to achieve each core subdomain of P3C. The P3C-OCT provides a coherent approach to monitoring progress and supporting practice development towards P3C. It can be used to generate a shared understanding of the core domains of P3C at a service delivery level, and support reorganization of care for those with complex needs. The tool can reliably detect change over time, as demonstrated in a sample of 40 UK general practices. It is currently being used in four UK evaluations of new models of care and being further developed as a training tool for the delivery of P3C. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. In situ direct photoproduction of ketenes from substituted coumarins isolated in solid argon: The case of N-(2-oxo-2 H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuş, N.; Breda, S.; Fausto, R.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the infrared spectrum of N-(2-oxo-2 H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide (3-acetamidocoumarin; 3AC) isolated in solid argon, at 10 K, was obtained and assigned. In consonance with the relative energies of the three conformers predicted theoretically, only the most stable form was observed experimentally. This conformer is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds and is similar to the structural unit of 3AC found in crystalline phase. Upon in situ UV ( λ > 215 nm) irradiation of the matrix-isolated compound, the characteristic IR intense band due to the antisymmetric stretching vibration of the ketene ( sbnd C dbnd C dbnd O) group was observed, indicating occurrence of the ring-opening isomerization reaction to the open-ring ketene isomeric of 3AC. In consonance with the theoretical structural predictions for the most stable isomers of this photoproduct, the experimental data indicates that it is produced in the E arrangement of the (O dbnd )C sbnd C dbnd C sbnd C( dbnd C dbnd O) fragment. There were also experimental indications pointing to occurrence of a second photoreaction channel, corresponding to decarbonylation. On the other hand, contrarily to what is generally observed for α-pyrones derivatives, including unsubstituted coumarin, no photochemical production of Dewar isomer of 3AC was observed. This last result, follows the trend observed for 2-pyrone-3-carboxylate, and seems to be a quite general rule for matrix-isolated α-pyrones bearing relatively volumous substituents at the position 3, as a consequence of the unfavorable relaxation of the matrix around the guest molecule that would be required to accommodate the Dewar isomers of these compounds, whose structure deviates strongly from planarity, thus mismatching the primarily occupied matrix sites.

  15. 3C-SiC/ZnS heterostructured nanospheres with high photocatalytic activity and enhancement mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 3C-SiC/n-type ZnS heterostructured nanospheres synthesized hydrothermally deliver enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light excitation. The heterostructured catalysts consisting of 3C-SiC and ZnS nanocrystals with a mean size being less than 5 nm exhibit extended light absorption to the visible range. The proper band structure of the 3C-SiC and ZnS nanocrystals and intrinsic electric field induced by the heterojunction promote separation of photoexcited electrons and holes in the ZnS and 3C-SiC nanocrystals resulting in the increased photocatalytic efficiency. The associated mechanism is studied and proposed.

  16. Mex3c mutation reduces adiposity partially through increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changjie; Jiao, Yan; Zhao, Qingguo; Lu, Baisong

    2014-06-01

    MEX3C is an RNA-binding protein with unknown physiological function. We have recently reported that a Mex3c mutation in mice causes growth retardation and reduced adiposity, but how adiposity is reduced remains unclear. Herein, we show that homozygous Mex3c gene trap mice have increased physical activity. The Mex3c mutation consistently conferred full protection from diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. In ob/ob mice with leptin deficiency, the Mex3c mutation also increased physical activity and improved glucose and lipid profiles. Expressing cre in the neurons of Mex3c gene trap mice, an attempt to partially restoring neuronal Mex3c expression, significantly increased white adipose tissue deposition, but had no effects on body length. Our data suggest that one way in which Mex3c regulates adiposity is through controlling physical activity, and that neuronal Mex3c expression could play an important role in this process. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. The Web Consortium - W3C leading the evolution of the Web Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Founded in October 1994 to lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its inter- operability.Today,W3C has over 420 Members and nearly 60 full- time staff around the world who contribute to the development of W3C specifications and software.

  18. Multi-Frequency VLBA Studies of the Parsec-Scale Jets in 3C 66A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... phase-referencing observation results of 3C 66A and 3C 66B, including high resolution maps and relative position measurements. The resulting images show similar morphology with that presented in previous works. We find core shift variations in both sources, indicating some physical condition changes in the jets.

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BLCA-3C7UA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BLCA-3C7UA 1BLC 3C7U A A -----KELNDLEKKYNAHIGVYALDTKSG-KEVKFNSDKRFAYASTSKAINSAILL...1BLC A 1BLCA DTKSG-KEVKF ...1BLC A 1BLCA VPYNK--LNKKV...1BLC A 1BLCA SGQAITYASRN ...1BLC A 1BLCA VYPKGQSEPIV

  20. Sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of Cr3C2–NiCr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Cr3C2–NiCr cermets are used as metal cutting tools due to their relatively high hardness and low sin- tering temperatures. In this study, a powder mixture consisting of 75 wt% Cr3C2–25 wt% NiCr was sintered at four different temperatures and characterized for its microstructure and mechanical properties.

  1. Doping and stability of 3C-SiC: from thinfilm to bulk growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokubavicius, V.; Sun, J.; Linnarsson, M. K.

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) could pave the way for development of advanced electronic and optoelectronic devices. It could be an excellent substrate for growth of nitride and epitaxial graphene layers. Boron doped 3C-SiC films could reach up to 60% efficiency and pave the way for a new solar c...

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE: a radioiodinated imidazopyridine-3-acetamide for the study of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites (PBBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattner, Filomena; Katsifis, Andrew [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, PMB 1 Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia); Mardon, Karine [The University of Queensland, Centre for Studies in Drug Disposition, Brisbane (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    The study aims to evaluate the iodinated imidazopyridine, N',N'-diethyl-6-Chloro-(4'-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide ([{sup 123}I]-CLINDE) as a tracer for the study of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites (PBBS). In vitro studies were performed using membrane homogenates and sections from kidney, adrenals, and brain cortex of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and incubated with [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE. For in vivo studies, the rats were injected with [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE. In competition studies, PBBS-specific drugs PK11195 and Ro 5-4864 and the CBR specific drug Flumazenil were injected before the radiotracer. In vitro binding studies in adrenal, kidney, and cortex mitochondrial membranes indicated that [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE binds with high affinity to PBBS, K{sub d} = 12.6, 0.20, and 3.84 nM, respectively. The density of binding sites was 163, 5.3, and 0.34 pmol/mg protein, respectively. In vivo biodistribution indicated high uptake in adrenals (5.4), heart (1.5), lungs (1.5), kidney (1.5) %ID/g at 6 h p.i. In the central nervous system (CNS), the olfactory bulbs displayed the highest uptake; up to six times the activity in blood. Pre-administration of unlabeled CLINDE, PK11195 and Ro 5-4864 (1 mg/kg) reduced the uptake of [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE by 70-55% in olfactory bulbs. In the kidney and heart, a reduction of 60-80% ID/g was observed, while an increase was observed in the adrenals requiring 10 mg/kg for significant displacement. Flumazenil had no effect on uptake in peripheral organs and brain. Metabolite analysis indicated >90% of the radioactivity in the above tissues was intact [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE. [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE displays high and selective uptake for the PBBS and warrants further development as a probe for imaging PBBS using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). (orig.)

  3. Radiosynthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of [(18)F]F-DPA, A Novel Pyrazolo[1,5a]pyrimidine Acetamide TSPO Radioligand, in Healthy Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas; Krzyczmonik, Anna; Forsback, Sarita; Picón, Francisco R López; Kirjavainen, Anna K; Takkinen, Jatta; Rajander, Johan; Cacheux, Fanny; Damont, Annelaure; Dollé, Frédéric; Rinne, Juha O; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Solin, Olof

    2017-01-12

    Many neurological conditions result in the overexpression of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), today recognized as a biomarker for microglial activation and neuroinflammation imaging. The pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine acetamides are a particularly attractive class of TSPO-specific ligands, prompting the development of several positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. This includes F-DPA, a recently reported fluorinated ligand (K i = 1.7 nM), wherein the fluorine atom is directly linked to the phenyl moiety without the presence of an alkyl or alkoxy spacer chain. Reported here is the preparation of [(18)F]F-DPA using [(18)F]Selectfluor bis(triflate) and the preliminary evaluation of [(18)F]F-DPA in healthy rats. Its metabolic profile and biodistribution in rats are compared with that of [(18)F]DPA-714, a closely related structure. [(18)F]F-DPA was synthesized by electrophilic fluorination using [(18)F]Selectfluor bis(triflate), [(18)F]DPA-714 was synthesized by conventional nucleophilic fluorination. The biodistribution of both radiotracers was compared in Sprague Dawley rats. Radiometabolites of both radiotracers in plasma and brain homogenates were analyzed by radioTLC. The radiochemical yield of [(18)F]F-DPA was 15 ± 3 % and the specific activity was 7.8 ± 0.4 GBq/μmol. The radiochemical purity exceeded 99 %. The in vivo time activity curves of [(18)F]F-DPA demonstrate rapid entry into the brain and a concentration equilibrium at 20-30 min after injection. The metabolic profiles at 90 min after radiotracer injection in the plasma show that unchanged [(18)F]F-DPA and [(18)F]DPA-714 account for 28.3 ± 6.4 and 11.1 ± 2.6 % of the remaining radioactivity, respectively. In the brain, unchanged [(18)F]F-DPA accounts for 93.5 ± 2.8 % of the radioactivity; whereas for [(18)F]DPA-714, this value is 53.6 ± 1.6 %. [(18)F]Selectfluor bis(triflate) was successfully used to label F-DPA with fluorine-18. The labeling

  4. Inclusion of 1-naphthylacetic acid and 2-(1-naphthyl)acetamide into three typical multiresidue methods for LC/MS/MS analysis of tomatoes and zucchini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Ana; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-01-01

    In spite of high plant growth regulator application rates, little has been reported in the literature on determination of their residues in fruits and vegetables. This would be useful in monitoring good manufacturing practices and overall safety through the enforcement of maximum residue levels (MRLs). The present work describes method validation for the determination of 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and 2(1-naphthyl)acetamide (NAAm) in tomato and zucchini using the mini-Luke, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and acetate-buffered quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) methods. Samples were spiked at two different levels: 50 and 100 pg/kg for NAA and 20 and 100 pg/kg for NAAm. These compounds were analyzed within the same chromatographic run with LC coupled to triple quadrupole MS (LC/(QqQ)MS/MS) in positive and negative electrospray ionization [ESI(+) and ESI(-)] modes for NAAm and NAA, respectively. For analyte confirmation, LC/ESI(-)QTOF-MS was also investigated given that NAA has only one multiple reaction monitoring transition (185.1-*140.9 m/z). These three common methods were used to determine linearity, recoveries, precision (RSD), matrix effects, repeatability, and reproducibility (n = 5) for the selected matrixes. In terms of the Directorate-General for Health and Consumers (DG-SANCO) guidelines, only insignificant differences were found for the multiresidue methods tested, regardless of the commodity. Matrix-matched calibration was used, and LODs were below 10.1 pg/kg for NAA and 6.0 pg/kg for NAAm, which were lower than the MRLs established in current European Union legislation for these compounds. Obtained recoveries for NAA ranged from 87 to 107% with RSD values below 10% for mini-Luke, 83 to 107% with RSD 0.996) for all methods used. Good repeatability and reproducibility in terms of RSD were obtained (11.3-17.8%) for these analytical methods. The results were acceptable within the studied ranges for both analytes in all methods. As these

  5. Separation of native and truncated forms of poliovirus protease 3C produced in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Polgár, L; ERDÉLYI, F.; Hajnal, E; Löw, M.; Gráf, L; Korant, B D

    1993-01-01

    Poliovirus protease 3C is a cysteine enzyme that is essential for the processing of the viral precursor polyprotein containing structural proteins and enzymes, including the protease itself. We have constructed the plasmid pSD/PV3C which produced protease 3C as inclusion bodies when expressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to the full-length protease, a truncated form was also generated, starting from an internal initiation site (Met-27). The enzyme was renatured by dilution of a 6 M guanid...

  6. Structural and Morphological Investigation of Pendeo-Epitaxy 3C-SiC on Si Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeung C.; Capano, Michael A.

    2008-05-01

    Successful pendeo-epitaxy growth of cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) on off-axis Si(001) substrates was achieved. The structural and morphological characteristics of pendeo-epitaxy 3C-SiC were strongly affected by underlying stripes and seed layer thickness. Stripes perpendicular to the Si substrate off-axis provide about three times faster lateral growth rate compared with parallel oriented stripes. Root-mean-square (RMS) measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM) indicate that the surface morphology of Pendeo-epitaxy 3C-SiC films remarkably improves with increasing seed layer thickness: from 9.8 nm for 3 μm thickness to 0.5 nm for 10 μm thickness. These effects on pendeo-epitaxy 3C-SiC are discussed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and AFM investigation.

  7. Methyl Chloride Measurements in the Taylor Dome M3C1 Ice Core, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes methyl chloride (CH3CI) measurements made on air extracted from 62 samples from the Taylor Dome M3C1 ice core in East Antarctica. CH3CI was...

  8. Type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes mellitus secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Phil A; Bellin, Melena D; Andersen, Dana K; Bradley, David; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Forsmark, Christopher E; Goodarzi, Mark O; Habtezion, Aida; Korc, Murray; Kudva, Yogish C; Pandol, Stephen J; Yadav, Dhiraj; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases defined by persistent hyperglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form, is characterised initially by impaired insulin sensitivity and subsequently by an inadequate compensatory insulin response. Diabetes can also develop as a direct consequence of other diseases, including diseases of the exocrine pancreas. Historically, diabetes due to diseases of the exocrine pancreas was described as pancreatogenic or pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus, but recent literature refers to it as type 3c diabetes. It is important to note that type 3c diabetes is not a single entity; it occurs because of a variety of exocrine pancreatic diseases with varying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia. The most commonly identified causes of type 3c diabetes are chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, haemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and previous pancreatic surgery. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance of type 3c diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and highlight several important knowledge gaps. PMID:28404095

  9. Enhanced ferromagnetism in a Mn(3)C(12)N(12)H(12) sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyi; Sun, Qiang

    2015-02-23

    Based on a recent experimental study on the Ni3 C12 S12 sheet [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 2462] and a theoretical study on the Mn3 C12 S12 sheet [Nanoscale- 2013, 5, 10404], by using density functional theory combined with a thermodynamic model, it is shown that when sulfur atoms are replaced by NH groups the resulting Mn3 C12 N12 H12 sheet can exhibit strong ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature of 450 K. The enhanced ferromagnetism is due to two main factors: the reduced lattice constant and nitrogen is more effective in mediating magnetic couplings through p-d exchange interactions. Furthermore, it is also confirmed that the Mn3 C12 N12 H12 sheet is kinetically and thermally stable, and displays half metallicity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Optical Periodicity Analysis of 3C 446 using Period04 Fei Guo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a very convenient interactive interface to fit periodically. We collected the ... the frequency as shown in Table 1 to calculate the period. We got the period ... Optical Periodicity Analysis of 3C 446 using Period04. 287. Table 1. Results in 8, 4.8, 14 and 22 GHz of 3C446. Wave. Frequency (c/d) Amplitude (mag). S/N. Period (yr).

  11. Focusing of 3C144 Source Radiation by the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanin, V. V.; Derevjagin, V. G.; Kravetz, R. O.

    The research of solar corona by the compact cosmic source radiation was made on URAN-4 radio telescope. In the period from June 6 to June 20 2012 the flow of Crab nebula was measured on the 20 MHz and 25 MHz frequencies. During the eclipse we observe the great increase of 3C144 flow, which is compare with the flow of 3C461 source. Data and results of measurement analysis is presented.

  12. Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaire,M.; Chernaia, M.; Malcolm, B.; James, M.

    1994-01-01

    The picornavirus family includes several pathogens such as poliovirus, rhinovirus (the major cause of the common cold), hepatitis A virus and the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Picornaviral proteins are expressed by direct translation of the genomic RNA into a single, large polyprotein precursor. Proteolysis of the viral polyprotein into the mature proteins is assured by the viral 3C enzymes, which are cysteine proteinases. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the 3C proteinase from hepatitis A virus (HAV-3C). The overall architecture of HAV-3C reveals a fold resembling that of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, which is consistent with earlier predictions. Catalytic residues include Cys 172 as nucleophile and His 44 as general base. The 3C cleavage specificity for glutamine residues is defined primarily by His 191. The overall structure suggests that an inter-molecular (trans) cleavage releases 3C and that there is an active proteinase in the polyprotein.

  13. N-[4-(Ethylsulfamoylphenyl]acetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeveria Rehman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H14N2O3S, crystallized with two molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. The terminal methyl group of the ethylsulfonamide moiety in molecule B is disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.61 (1:0.39 (1. Both molecules have L-shaped conformations. In molecule A, the dihedral angles between the benzene ring and its ethylsulfonamide and methylamide substituents are 83.5 (3 and 13.34 (18°, respectively. Equivalent values for molecule B are 87.9 (3 and 6.32 (16°, respectively. The C—S—N—C torsion angles are 66.5 (3° for A and −64.4 (3° for B, indicating similar twists about the S—N bonds, but in opposite senses. In the crystal, the A molecules are linked by pairs of Ns—H...O (s = sulfonamide hydrogen bonds, generating inversion dimers containing R22(8 rings, while the B molecules are linked by Ns—H...O hydrogen bonds into C(10 [100] chains. Finally, Na—H...O (a = amide hydrogen bonds link the A-molecule dimers and B-molecule chains into a three-dimensional network.

  14. [{sup 18}F]D.P.A.-714: a novel fluorine-18-labelled pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine acetamide for imaging the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors with PET - radiosynthesis on a zymate-xp robotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, F.; Damont, A.; Hinnen, F.; Kuhnast, B.; Chauveau, F.; Van camp, N.; Hantraye, P.; Tavitian, B. [Servvice Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, 91 - Orsay (France); James, M.; Creelman, A.; Fulton, R.; Kassiou, M. [Sydney Univ., Brain and Mind Research Institute, NSW (Australia); Vercouillie, J.; Guilloteau, D. [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, 37 (France); Vercouillie, J.; Guilloteau, D. [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France); Selleri, S.; Kassiou, M. [Sydney Univ., Discipline of Medical Radiations, Sciences and School of Chemistry, NSW (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    {sup 11}C D.P.A.-713 (N,N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-[{sup 11}C]methoxy-phenyl)-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]acetamide) is a recently developed carbon-11-labelled (half life: 20.4 min)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine acetamide for the in vivo imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (P.B.R. or translocator protein (18 kDa, T.S.P.O.)). Preliminary results obtained in a rodent-model demonstrates that {sup 11}C D.P.A.-713 showed a high potential to in vivo image neuro-inflammation and additionally, this radioligand allowed a higher contrast between the lesioned area and the corresponding area in the intact contralateral hemisphere when compared to the radioligand of reference. D.P.A-714 (N,N-diethyl-2-[2-[4-(2-fluoro-ethoxy)phenyl] -5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]acetamide), a chemically closely related derivative of D.P.A.-713, had been designed with a fluorine atom in its structure, allowing ultimate labelling with fluorine-18, a longer-lived positron-emitter (half life:109.8 min) and today one of the most attractive PET isotopes for radiopharmaceutical chemistry. D.P.A.-714 as well as its corresponding tosylated derivative have been re-synthesized in 2 chemicals steps from D.P.A.-713. D.P.A.-714 has then been labelled at its aromatic fluoro-ethoxy group from the corresponding tosyl-derivative using the K{sup 18}FF-kryptofix{sub 222} (in CH{sub 3}CN (3 mL) at 85 degrees C for 5 min or D.M.S.O. (600 {mu}L) at 130 degrees C for 5 min). {sup 18}FD.P.A.-714 was then purified using semi preparative X terra reverse phase H.P.L.C., adequately formulated for i.v. injection and was found to be > 95% chemically and radiochemically pure. The total synthesis time was less than 90 min and the specific radioactivities at the end of the radiosynthesis ranged from 1 to 3 Ci/micro-mole. (N.C.)

  15. Nonacarbonyl-1κ3C,2κ3C,3κ3C-μ-bis(diphenylarsinomethane-1:2κ2As:As'-[tris(2-chloroethyl phosphite-3κP]-triangulo-triruthenium(0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar bin Shawkataly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title triangulo-triruthenium(0 compound, [Ru3(C25H22As2(C6H12Cl3O3P(CO9], the bis(diphenylarsinomethane ligand bridges an Ru—Ru bond and the monodentate phosphine ligand bonds to the third Ru atom. Both the arsine and phosphine ligands are equatorial with respect to the Ru3 triangle. In addition, each Ru atom carries one equatorial and two axial terminal carbonyl ligands. In the crystal packing, the molecules are linked by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional framework. Weak intermolecular C—H...π interactions further stabilize the crystal structure.

  16. Selective sp3 C-H alkylation via polarity-match-based cross-coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chip; Liang, Yufan; Evans, Ryan W.; Li, Ximing; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2017-07-01

    The functionalization of carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds is one of the most attractive strategies for molecular construction in organic chemistry. The hydrogen atom is considered to be an ideal coupling handle, owing to its relative abundance in organic molecules and its availability for functionalization at almost any stage in a synthetic sequence. Although many C-H functionalization reactions involve C(sp3)-C(sp2) coupling, there is a growing demand for C-H alkylation reactions, wherein sp3 C-H bonds are replaced with sp3 C-alkyl groups. Here we describe a polarity-match-based selective sp3 C-H alkylation via the combination of photoredox, nickel and hydrogen-atom transfer catalysis. This methodology simultaneously uses three catalytic cycles to achieve hydridic C-H bond abstraction (enabled by polarity matching), alkyl halide oxidative addition, and reductive elimination to enable alkyl-alkyl fragment coupling. The sp3 C-H alkylation is highly selective for the α-C-H of amines, ethers and sulphides, which are commonly found in pharmaceutically relevant architectures. This cross-coupling protocol should enable broad synthetic applications in de novo synthesis and late-stage functionalization chemistry.

  17. VLBI monitoring of the superluminal quasar 3C 273, 1977-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, S. C.; Cohen, M. H.; Biretta, J. A.; Pearson, T. J.; Seielstad, G. A.; Walker, R. C.; Simon, R. S.; Linfield, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    The compact ratio structure of the quasar 3C 273 has been monitored with a VLBI array at 5.0 and 10.7 GHz at six-month intervals during 1977-1982. THe VLBI monitoring observations, data reduction, calibration, and mapping techniques are described, and hybrid maps from the monitoring program are presented along with a brief discussion of the main features. Results on the source kinematics (superluminal motion of the knots and their time evolution) are given, and synchro-Compton models of the knots are presented and limits to their Doppler factors (delta) derived from X-ray measurements. The constraints on jet geometry provided by the combined measurements of delta and v/c are considered. For the core, the inhomogeneous jet model of Koenigl (1981) is compared with the available data. The relation between 3C 273 and the similar superluminal source 3C 345 is discussed.

  18. Lowest instrumented vertebra selection in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody; Zhang, Yanqun

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not post-op curve behaviour differs due to different choices of lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) with reference to lumbar apical vertebra (LAV) in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis. METHODS: We reviewed all the AIS cases surgically treated...... in our institution from 2002 through 2008. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) patients with Lenke 3C or 6C scoliosis who were treated with posterior pedicle screw-only constructs; (2) 2-year radiographic follow-up. All the included patients were categorized into three groups based on the relative...... surgery. No significant differences were found in thoracic or lumbar correction rate, global coronal balance and incidence rate of trunk shift among the three groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis, post-op lumbar curve behaviour differs due to different choices of LIV...

  19. al3c: high-performance software for parameter inference using Approximate Bayesian Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, Alexander H; Marjoram, Paul; Chen, Gary K

    2015-11-01

    The development of Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) algorithms for parameter inference which are both computationally efficient and scalable in parallel computing environments is an important area of research. Monte Carlo rejection sampling, a fundamental component of ABC algorithms, is trivial to distribute over multiple processors but is inherently inefficient. While development of algorithms such as ABC Sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) help address the inherent inefficiencies of rejection sampling, such approaches are not as easily scaled on multiple processors. As a result, current Bayesian inference software offerings that use ABC-SMC lack the ability to scale in parallel computing environments. We present al3c, a C++ framework for implementing ABC-SMC in parallel. By requiring only that users define essential functions such as the simulation model and prior distribution function, al3c abstracts the user from both the complexities of parallel programming and the details of the ABC-SMC algorithm. By using the al3c framework, the user is able to scale the ABC-SMC algorithm in parallel computing environments for his or her specific application, with minimal programming overhead. al3c is offered as a static binary for Linux and OS-X computing environments. The user completes an XML configuration file and C++ plug-in template for the specific application, which are used by al3c to obtain the desired results. Users can download the static binaries, source code, reference documentation and examples (including those in this article) by visiting https://github.com/ahstram/al3c. astram@usc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Fermi-liquid behavior in the electrical resistivity of K[sub 3]C[sub 60] and Rb[sub 3]C[sub 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palstra, T.T.M.; Hebard, A.F.; Haddon, R.C.; Littlewood, P.B. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States))

    1994-08-01

    We report on the electrical resistivity of K[sub 3]C[sub 60] and Rb[sub 3]C[sub 60] thin films. These films, grown at elevated temperatures, are highly textured and consist of large single-crystal grains. The films exhibit metallic behavior up to 500 K, with residual resistivities of 1.2 m[Omega] cm. The low-temperature ([ital T]) resistivity exhibits a [ital T][sup 2] dependence. We suggest that it is dominated by electron-electron interactions, and we find quantitative agreement not only with estimates based on the electron density and the bandwidth, but also with other narrow band systems. The electron-phonon interactions only become important for the resistivity above room temperature, because these phonons correspond to high-frequency vibrations of the C[sub 60] molecule. Nevertheless, virtual excitations of these same high-energy phonons are responsible for the superconductivity. Using similar criteria of conventional organic superconductors, we find that these materials are dominated at all temperatures by electron-phonon interactions.

  1. Bilayers of Ni3C12S12 and Pt3C12S12: graphene-like 2D topological insulators tunable by electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Orlando J.; Lima, Érika N.; Chacham, Hélio

    2017-11-01

    In the present work we predict, through first-principles calculations, that bilayers of the recently synthesized Ni3 C12 S12 and Pt3 C12 S12 layered materials are topological insulators upon electron doping, and that their topological insulator properties can be modulated by the application of electric fields with magnitudes achievable in devices. The electronic structures of both bilayers are characterized by spin–orbit split graphene-like bands, with gap magnitudes that are three orders of magnitude larger than graphene’s. In ribbon geometries, chiral edge modes develop at each side with band dispersions similar to that of Kane–Mele graphene model. Surprisingly, the edge states’ spin-propagation locking occurs even for very thin ribbons. We also find that the response of the electronic structure of both materials to applied electric fields are similar to both graphene and the Kane–Mele model with a Rashba term. All these findings indicate that these bilayer systems can be considered as large-spin–orbit graphene analogues with a strong sensitivity to applied electric fields.

  2. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and hemolytic activity of 2-[[5-alkyl/aralkyl substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]thio]-N-[4-(4-morpholinylphenyl]acetamide derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Gul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 2,5-Disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds are one of the most attractive classes for researchers due to their pharmacological activities. In the current research, a new series of 2-[[5-alkyl/aralkyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]thio]-N-[4-(4-morpholinylphenyl]acetamides (6a–m were prepared by converting different aryl/aralkyl organic acids (1a–m successively into corresponding esters (2a–m, hydrazides (3a–m and 5-aryl/aralkyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-thiols (4a–m. Finally, the target compounds 6a–m were synthesized by stirring 5-aryl/aralkyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-thiols (4a–m with 2-bromo-N-[4-(4-morpholinylphenyl]acetamide (5 in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF and sodium hydride (NaH. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated through IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral data. The compounds were also screened for antimicrobial and hemolytic activity and most of them were found to be active against the selected microbial species at variable extent relative to reference standards. The compounds, 6d and 6f were active against the selected panel of microbes and the former was the most potent one. This series showed less toxicity and may be considered for further biological screening and application trial except 6h and 6l, possessing higher cytotoxicity.

  3. Synthesis of WC powder through microwave heating of WO3-C mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnami, Amir Karimzadeh; Hoseinpur, Arman; Sakaki, Masoud; Bafghi, Mohammad Sh.; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

    2017-02-01

    A simple, easy, and low-cost process for the fabrication of tungsten carbide (WC) powder through microwave heating of WO3-C mixtures was developed. Thermodynamic calculations and experimental investigations were carried out for WO3-C and W-C systems, and a formation mechanism was proposed. In the results, for the synthesis of WC, the use of over stoichiometric amount of C together with a specially assembled experimental setup (which effectively retains heat in the system) is necessary. The WC powder is successfully obtained by heating WO3:5C mixture for 900 s in a domestic microwave oven.

  4. VLBI limits on the proper motion of the 'core' of the superluminal quasar 3C345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, N.; Herring, T. A.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Corey, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    VLBI (very-long-baseline interferometry) observations between 1971 and 1983 have been used to determine the positions of the 'core' of the quasar 3C345 relative to the more distant compact quasar NRAO512 with a fractional uncertainty as small as two parts in a hundred million. The core of 3C345 appears stationary in right ascension to within 20 arc microsec/yr, a subluminal bound corresponding to 0.7c. The apparent velocities of the jets are superluminal, up to 14c in magnitude.

  5. Structure of nanocrystalline Ti3C2 MXene using atomic pair distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenyang; Beidaghi, Majid; Naguib, Michael; Mashtalir, Olha; Gogotsi, Yury; Billinge, Simon J L

    2014-03-28

    The structures of nanocrystalline pristine, potassium hydroxide and sodium acetate intercalated new two-dimensional materials Ti3C2 MXenes were studied using the x-ray atomic pair distribution function technique. Pristine MXene has a hexagonal structure with a=b=3.0505(5)  Å, c=19.86(2)  Å (S.G. P63/mmc No. 194). Both hydroxyl and fluoride terminating species are present. The intercalation of K+ or Na+ ions expands the Ti3C2 layers perpendicular to the planes but shrinks the in-plane a and b lattice parameters.

  6. Identification of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from photoluminescence spectra of 3C-SiC nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Fen; Guo, Jun-Hong; Huang, Zhi-Chun; Gu, Jian-Sen; Feng, Li-Ren; Liu, Li-Zhe

    2017-09-01

    The identification of intracellular pH (pHi) during carcinogenesis progression plays a crucial role in the studies of biochemistry, cytology, and clinical medicine. In this work, 3C-SiC nanocrystals (NCs), which can effectively monitor the pH environment by using the linear relation between photoluminescence intensity and surface OH- and H+ concentration, are adapted as fluorescent probes for monitoring carcinogenesis progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Our results demonstrated that 3C-SiC NCs are compatible with living cells and have low cytotoxicity. The pHi measurements in different carcinogenesis environments indicate the validity and sensitivity of this technology in identifying nasopharyngeal carcinoma in application.

  7. Relation of structure and superconducting transition temperatures in A3C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R. M.; Ramirez, A. P.; Rosseinsky, M. J.; Murphy, D. W.; Haddon, R. C.; Zahurak, S. M.; Makhija, A. V.

    1991-08-01

    The preparation of a series of single-phase, isostructural fcc superconductors with composition A3C60 (where A is K, Rb, Cs, or a mixture of these) is reported, and it is shown that Tc increases monotonically with the size of the unit cell. Extended Hueckel band-structure calculations also show a monotonic increase in the density of states at the Fermi level, N(Ev), with lattice parameter. The primary implication of these results is that all A3C60 superconductors have the same structure and that changes in Tc can be accounted for by changes in N(Ev).

  8. REM observations confirm a rapid outburst of the blazar 3C 273

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ammando, F.; Fugazza, D.; Covino, S.; Molinari, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Giommi, P.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Pian, E.; Raiteri, C. M.; Romano, P.; Tavani, M.; Treves, A.; Vercellone, S.; Villata, M.

    2010-01-01

    The AGILE satellite detected a significant gamma-ray flare from 3C 273 between 2010-01-06 16:50 UT and 2010-01-08 07:50 UT (ATel #2376). The robotic 60-cm REM telescope located at La Silla (Chile), following a periodical monitoring program, observed automatically the field of the blazar 3C 273 in the first part of January 2010. Optical images were obtained using ROSS on 2010 January 1, 7, 8, 9 and 10 in the V, R, and I bands.

  9. Model Research On Synthesis Of Al2O3-C Layers By MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawka A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available These are model studies whose aim is to obtain information that would allow development of new technology for synthesizing monolayers of Al2O3-C with adjusted microstructure on cemented carbides. The Al2O3-C layer will constitute an intermediate layer on which the outer layer of Al2O3 without carbon is synthesized. The purpose of the intermediate layer is to block the cobalt diffusion to the synthesized outer layer of Al2O3 and to stop the diffusion of air oxygen to the substrate during the synthesis of the outer layer. This layer should be thin, continuous, dense and uniform in thickness.

  10. Creep properties of simulated heat-affected zone of HR3C austenitic steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Kuchařová, Květa; Kvapilová, Marie; Svoboda, Milan; Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 128, JUN (2017), s. 238-247 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : HR3C steel * Welding * Heat affected zone * Creep * Microstructure * Fractography Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  11. Soft X-ray Variability of the Bright Quasar 3C273

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    By encouraging this discovery, we try to analyze the four ROSAT PSPC data sets of. 3C273 which were not included in the investigation by Leach et al. (1995) in order to search any periodic long-term soft X-ray variation. We present the observation in section 2, an analysis and the results in section 3, and discussion and ...

  12. CVD growth and characterization of 3C-SiC thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    5000 V (Morkoc et al 1994; Casady and Johnson 1996). Most of these developments have occurred in the hexa- gonal polytypes of SiC. The rapid development of 6H- and 4H-SiC substrates has resulted in the progress of device development in these materials. While homoepi- taxial growth of 3C-SiC has not developed ...

  13. WSRT AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF HI IN THE DIRECTION OF 3C-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHWARZ, UJ; GOSS, WM; KALBERLA, PM; BENAGLIA, P

    Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI observations combined with Effelsberg 100 m antenna observations have been made of the galactic supernova remnant 3C 10 (Tycho) with an angular resolution similar or equal to 50 '' and a velocity resolution of 0.62 km s(-1) and with the VLA with resolutions of

  14. Contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in a C3/C4 mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spatial and temporal variations of soil respiration were studied from May 2004 to June 2005 in a C3/C4 mixed grassland of Japan. The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration. The highest soil respiration rate of ...

  15. Contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in a C3/C4 mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The spatial and temporal variations of soil respiration were studied from May 2004 to June 2005 in a C3/C4 mixed grassland of Japan. The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration. The highest soil respiration rate of.

  16. Progetto GLAST, studio fotometrico del Quasar 3C 454.3 con il telescopio remoto UAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciardi, G.; Pucciarelli, A.

    2009-02-01

    A photometric B,V,R study of the QSO 3C 454.3 was performed with the UAI Remote Telescope by the Skylive network. The object showed an extraordinary episode of fast variability on June 10.5, 2008, reaching mV = 14.5 +/- 0.02.

  17. New Ti3C2 aerogel as promising negative electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Zhang, Mingyi; Zhang, Xitian; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2017-10-01

    Novel 3D Ti3C2 aerogel has been first synthesized by a simple EDA-assisted self-assembly process. Its inside are channels and pores structure. The interconnected aerogel structure could efficiently restrain restacking of Ti3C2 flakes. Thus, it exhibits a large specific surface area as high as 176.3 m2 g-1. The electrochemical performances have been measured. The Ti3C2 aerogel achieves a quite high areal capacitance of 1012.5 mF cm-2 for the mass loading of 15 mg at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 in 1 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has been assembled by using the Ti3C2 aerogel electrode as the negative electrode and electrospinning carbon nanofiber film as the positive electrode. The device can deliver a high energy density of 120.0 μWh cm-2 and a maximum power density of 26123 μW cm-2. A lamp panel with nineteen red light-emitting diodes has been powered by two ASCs in series.

  18. Effect of the method for producing Cu–Cr3C2 bulk composites on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 5. Effect of the method for producing Cu–Cr 3 C 2 bulk composites on the structure and properties ... A composite obtained bythe MPC of the powders synthesized using solid-phase mechano synthesis (MS) (copper, chromium and graphite) had thehighest ...

  19. Identification of γ-ray emission from 3C 345 and NRAO 512

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzel, F. K.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; D'Ammando, F.; Burnett, T. H.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Cheung, C. C.; Fegan, S. J.; Casandjian, J. M.; Reyes, L. C.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Agudo, I.; Bravo Calle, O. J. A.; Carosati, D.; Casas, R.; Gómez, J. L.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Larionov, V. M.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Marscher, A. P.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Roca-Sogorb, M.; Ros, J. A.; Sigua, L. A.; Spiridonova, O.; Troitsky, I. S.; Vlasyuk, V. V.; Lobanov, A. P.; Zensus, J. A.

    2011-08-01

    For more than 15 years, since the days of the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO; 1991-2000), it has remained an open question why the prominent blazar 3C 345 was not reliably detected at γ-ray energies ≥ 20 MeV. Recently a bright γ-ray source (0FGL J1641.4+3939/1FGL J1642.5+3947), potentially associated with 3C 345, was detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi. Multiwavelength observations from radio bands to X-rays (mainly GASP-WEBT and Swift) of possible counterparts (3C 345, NRAO 512, B3 1640 + 396) were combined with 20 months of Fermi-LAT monitoring data (August 2008 - April 2010) to associate and identify the dominating γ-ray emitting counterpart of 1FGL J1642.5+3947. The source 3C 345 is identified as the main contributor for this γ-ray emitting region. However, after November 2009 (15 months), a significant excess of photons from the nearby quasar NRAO 512 started to contribute and thereafter was detected with increasing γ-ray activity, possibly adding flux to 1FGL J1642.5+3947. For the same time period and during the summer of 2010, an increase of radio, optical and X-ray activity of NRAO 512 was observed. No γ-ray emission from B3 1640 + 396 was detected.

  20. Methyl Bromide Measurements in the Taylor Dome M3C1 Ice Core, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set includes methyl bromide (CH3Br) measurements made on air extracted from 70 samples from the Taylor Dome M3C1 ice core. CH3Br was measured in air from...

  1. Re-Analysis of QPO in 3C 273 Light Curve P. Mohan1,∗ , A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008) in the X-ray light curve of 3C 273 with a periodicity of ∼3300 s ... spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ). Lachowicz et al. (2009) have ... on first row), w avelet contour plot. (first plot on second row), global w avelet pow er spectrum. (second plot on second row), m ulti-harmonic analysis of variance. (third plot on second row). –.

  2. Improved real-time dosimetry using the radioluminescence signal from Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Sidsel Marie Skov; Andersen, Claus Erik; Aznar, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    15th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry Location: Delft Univ Technol, Delft, NETHERLANDS Date: JUL 08-13, 2007 Abstract: Carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3:C) is a highly sensitive luminescence material for ionizing radiation dosimetry, and it is well established that the optically...

  3. Far-infrared/millimetre emission in 3C sources - Dust in radio galaxies and quasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreani, P; Fosbury, RAE; van Bemmel, [No Value; Freudling, W; Bemmel, I. M. van

    We present far-infrared and millimetric observations of a sample of 3C objects. Millimetre data were taken at 1.25 mm with the IRAM 30 m antenna feeding the MPIfR bolometer array. Mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) photometry were carried out with the ISOCAM and ISOPHOT cameras on the ISO

  4. THE SUPERLUMINAL CHARACTER OF THE COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM QUASAR 3C-216

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VENTURI, T; PEARSON, TJ; BARTHEL, PD; HERBIG, T

    We report the results of fourth epoch VLBI observations at 4990.99 MHz, with a resolution of approximately 1 mas, of the compact steep-spectrum quasar 3C 216. Superluminal motion in this object is confirmed. Although a constant superluminal expansion at upsilon(app) = 3.9c +/- 0.6 is not ruled out,

  5. 17 CFR 270.3c-2 - Definition of beneficial ownership in small business investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of beneficial... 1940 § 270.3c-2 Definition of beneficial ownership in small business investment companies. For the... State legislature to promote and assist the growth and development of the economy within such State on a...

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of tripeptidyl alpha-ketoamides as human rhinovirus 3C protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Hui; Lamar, Jason; Victor, Frantz; Snyder, Nancy; Johnson, Robert; Heinz, Beverly A; Wakulchik, Mark; Wang, Q May

    2003-10-20

    We describe herein the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of tripeptidyl alpha-ketoamides as human rhinovirus (HRV) 3C protease inhibitors. The most potent inhibitor discussed in this manuscript, 4I, exhibited impressive enzyme inhibitory activity as well as antiviral activity against HRV-14.

  7. Simultaneous observations of the quasar 3C 273 with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Beckmann, V.; Bourban, G.

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRAL has observed the bright quasar 3C 273 on 3 epochs in January 2003 as one of the first observations of the open programme. The observation on January 5 was simultaneous with RXTE and XMM-Newton observations. We present here a first analysis of the continuum emission as observed by these 3...

  8. 5-Dimethylamino-1-phenylchromeno[2,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Holzer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound was prepared by treatment of 5-fluoro-1-phenylchromeno [2,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one with aqueous dimethylamine. Detailed spectroscopic data (1H NMR, 13C NMR, 15N NMR, IR, MS are presented.

  9. A jet-induced outflow of warm gas in 3C 293

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emonts, BHC; Morganti, R; Tadhunter, CN; Oosterloo, TA; Holt, J; van der Hulst, JM

    2005-01-01

    Using long-slit emission-line spectra we detect a fast outflow of ionized gas, with velocities up to 1000 km s(-1), in the nearby powerful radio galaxy 3C 293 (z = 0.045). The fast outflow is located about 1 kpc east of the nucleus, in a region of enhanced radio emission due to the presence of a

  10. The corona of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohfink, A. M.; Ogle, P.; Tombesi, F.

    2015-01-01

    -UVOT data, we find indications that the compactness of the corona allows only a small fraction of the total UV/optical flux to be Comptonized. Our analysis of the reprocessed emission show that 3C 390.3 only has a small amount of reflection (R ~ 0.3), and of that the vast majority is from distant neutral...

  11. Fast optical brightening of the blazar 3C 454.3 (2251+158)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaqulov, D. O.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    With reference to ATel #5411, the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) reports on the recent observation of a strong optical brightening of the gamma-loud quasar 3C 454.3. This is one of the 28 blazars for which the GASP performs a long-term, multiwavelength monitoring.

  12. Sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of Cr3C2–NiCr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cr3C2–NiCr cermets are used as metal cutting tools due to their relatively high hardness and low sintering temperatures. In this study, a powder mixture consisting of 75 wt% ... Author Affiliations. A Özer1 Y K Tür1. Department of Material Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey ...

  13. Optical Monitoring of 3C 66A in 1994–2008

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3C 66A is one of the most interesting blazar. Our monitoring was carried out with a 1.56-m telescope of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) from 13 December 1994 to 9 November 2008. Some peaks and gradual brightening of the source up to three times were observed.

  14. A thin layer fiber-coupled luminescence dosimeter based on Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, F.A.; Greilich, Steffen; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a fiber-coupled luminescent Al2O3:C dosimeter probe with high spatial resolution (0.1 mm). It is based on thin layers of Al2O3:C crystal powder and a UV-cured acrylate monomer composition. The fabrication of the thin layers is described in detail. No influence of the intr......In this paper we present a fiber-coupled luminescent Al2O3:C dosimeter probe with high spatial resolution (0.1 mm). It is based on thin layers of Al2O3:C crystal powder and a UV-cured acrylate monomer composition. The fabrication of the thin layers is described in detail. No influence...... of the introduced polymer host matrix on the dosimetric properties was observed. Depth-dose measurements with the new detectors in a 142.66 MeV proton and 270.55 MeV/u carbon ion beam are presented as example applications. We used an RL protocol with saturated crystals allowing for time-effective measurements...... of the protons measured with this new detector deviated by less than 1% from the reference value. For both ion types, the stem effect contributed less than 0.8% of the RL signal....

  15. Temperature dependence of the Al2O3:C response in medical luminescence dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years, attention has been given to applications of Al2O3:C in space and medical dosimetry. One such application is in vivo dose verification in radiotherapy of cancer patients and here we investigate the temperature effects on the radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated...

  16. The Angular Structure of Quasar 3C 47 in the Decameter Waveband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozinskiy, A. B.; Lozinskiy, R. A.; Ivantishin, O. L.; Romanchev, Y. V.; Rashkovskiy, S. L.; Shepelev, V. A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Vashchishin, R. V.; Litvinenko, O. A.

    The quasar 3C47 was observed with the URAN network at decameter wavelengths. A model of its angular structure consisting of four components was fitted. Lobes of the source are enlarged significantly in the range if compare with their high frequency dimensions. The hot spots emission is detected at low frequencies but a radio core is disappeared completely due to its flat spectrum.

  17. 3C3R modified PBL pediatric teaching of Chinese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haihong; Qian, Jihong; Wang, Lianwen; Yuan, Xiaojun; Chen, Yi; Wu, Weilan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Kun

    2013-01-01

    A Content, Context, Connection and Researching, Reasoning, Reflecting (3C3R) model is a conceptual framework for problem-based learning (PBL) problem design. We introduced the 3C3R-PBL method into a pediatric teaching plan, and evaluated its effectiveness and feasibility. The 3C3R model was applied in a pediatric problem design teaching plan "why the lips turn purple when a baby is crying". All students were assigned either into a traditional PBL course or into a 9-step 3C3R model PBL course (3C3R-PBL). The performance outcomes of both groups were compared. For the PBL group, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 for content, context, and problem design connection, was 90.8%, 80.3%, and 64.5% respectively, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 71.4%, and 28.6%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 was 81.6%, 55.3%, and 40.8%, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 100%, and 57.1%. The learning difficulty was not considered high with only 31.6% of students and 42.9% of tutors rating the task as difficult. For the 3C3R-PBL group, the proportion of students scoring content, context, and connection, ≥4 was 100%, 98.4%, and 90.5%, while for tutors it was 100%, 100%, 83.3%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 was 95.2%, 88.9%, and 76.2%, while for tutors it was 100% for all 3 R components. Students and tutors were convinced by the content, case context, research process and reasoning process of both teaching plans, while scores for connection and reflecting were significantly improved when the PBL plan was amended by a 3C3R model (pPBL teaching plan for Chinese students.

  18. Inflammation characteristics in bladder pain syndrome ESSIC type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logadottir, Yr; Delbro, Dick; Lindholm, Catharina; Fall, Magnus; Peeker, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    Interstitial cystitis is regarded as a heterogenous syndrome with two distinguishable forms: the non-ulcer and the classic form of interstitial cystitis, the latter with Hunner's lesions; or bladder pain syndrome type 3C and non-Hunner bladder pain syndrome, respectively. A cohort of 379 patients diagnosed with interstitial cystitis was studied. Nitric oxide release from the bladder was measured using a chemiluminescence nitric oxide analyzer. Bladder biopsies from the patients and healthy controls were analyzed by routine histopathological examination. Biopsies from a subset of patients and controls were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry and cytokine gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis had considerably higher levels of nitric oxide as compared with non-Hunner bladder pain syndrome/non-ulcer interstitial cystitis patients and healthy individuals, and showed histologically a chronic inflammation in the bladder mucosa, with abundant mast cell infiltration in all layers of the bladder wall. No inflammation was noted in non-Hunner bladder pain syndrome/non-ulcer interstitial cystitis patients. The isoenzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, the catalyst in the nitric oxide production, was strongly expressed in the inflammatory cells in the bladder mucosa of bladder pain syndrome type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis patients. In addition, the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-17A messenger ribonucleic acid, and of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 messenger ribonucleic acid showed significantly increased levels in bladder pain syndrome type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis compared with healthy controls. Bladder pain syndrome type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis is a distinct inflammatory disease and in many aspects shares features of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. These findings could open up novel research avenues with

  19. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fan, E-mail: f.li.1@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Pérez-Tomás, Amador [ICN2 – Institut Catala de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Myronov, Maksym [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fisher, Craig [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Leadley, David [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mawby, Phil [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen is fully activated by 1175 °C annealing for 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} doped 3C-SiC. • Free donor concentration is found to readily saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. • 3C-SiC is found to have complete donor thermal ionization above 150 K. • Donor in 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} nitrogen implanted 3C-SiC has an energy level ∼15 meV. • The SiO{sub 2} cap is found to have a bigger influence on low and medium doped samples. - Abstract: A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO{sub 2} layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO{sub 2} cap.

  20. A CHANDRA SNAPSHOT SURVEY FOR 3C RADIO GALAXIES WITH REDSHIFTS BETWEEN 0.3 AND 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Harris, D. E.; Paggi, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Liuzzo, E. [Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Bonafede, A. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    This paper contains an analysis of short Chandra observations of 19 3C sources with redshifts between 0.3 and 0.5 not previously observed in the X-rays. This sample is part of a project to obtain Chandra data for all of the extragalactic sources in the 3C catalog. Nuclear X-ray intensities as well as any X-ray emission associated with radio jet knots, hotspots, or lobes have been measured in three energy bands: soft, medium, and hard. Standard X-ray spectral analysis for the four brightest nuclei has also been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in the current sample with the exception of 3C 435A. There is one compact steep spectrum source while all the others are FR II radio galaxies. X-ray emission from two galaxy clusters (3C 19 and 3C 320), from six hotspots in four radio galaxies (3C 16, 3C 19, 3C 268.2, 3C 313), and extended X-ray emission on kiloparsec scales in 3C 187 and 3C 313, has been detected.

  1. Multimodal interaction with W3C standards toward natural user interfaces to everything

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new standards for multimodal interaction published by the W3C and other standards bodies in straightforward and accessible language, while also illustrating the standards in operation through case studies and chapters on innovative implementations. The book illustrates how, as smart technology becomes ubiquitous, and appears in more and more different shapes and sizes, vendor-specific approaches to multimodal interaction become impractical, motivating the need for standards. This book covers standards for voice, emotion, natural language understanding, dialog, and multimodal architectures. The book describes the standards in a practical manner, making them accessible to developers, students, and researchers. Comprehensive resource that explains the W3C standards for multimodal interaction clear and straightforward way; Includes case studies of the use of the standards on a wide variety of devices, including mobile devices, tablets, wearables and robots, in applications such as assisted livi...

  2. On the 2007 July flare of the blazar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisellini, Gabriele; Foschini, Luigi; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Pian, Elena

    2007-11-01

    In 2007 July, the blazar 3C 454.3 underwent a flare in the optical, reaching R ~ 13 on July 19. Then the optical flux decreased by one magnitude, being R ~ 14 when the source was detected by the gamma-ray satellite AGILE, which observed the source on July 24-30. At the same time, the Swift satellite performed a series of snapshots. We can construct the simultaneous spectral energy distribution using optical, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray data. These show that an increased gamma-ray flux is accompanied by a weaker optical/X-ray flux with respect to the flare observed in the spring of 2005 by INTEGRAL and Swift. This confirms earlier suggestions about the behaviour of the jet of 3C 454.3.

  3. Nonlinear bias analysis and correction of microwave temperature sounder observations for FY-3C meteorological satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Taiyang; Lv, Rongchuan; Jin, Xu; Li, Hao; Chen, Wenxin

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear bias analysis and correction of receiving channels in Chinese FY-3C meteorological satellite Microwave Temperature Sounder (MWTS) is a key technology of data assimilation for satellite radiance data. The thermal-vacuum chamber calibration data acquired from the MWTS can be analyzed to evaluate the instrument performance, including radiometric temperature sensitivity, channel nonlinearity and calibration accuracy. Especially, the nonlinearity parameters due to imperfect square-law detectors will be calculated from calibration data and further used to correct the nonlinear bias contributions of microwave receiving channels. Based upon the operational principles and thermalvacuum chamber calibration procedures of MWTS, this paper mainly focuses on the nonlinear bias analysis and correction methods for improving the calibration accuracy of the important instrument onboard FY-3C meteorological satellite, from the perspective of theoretical and experimental studies. Furthermore, a series of original results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and significance of the methods.

  4. Preparation of a 1 mg/cm sup 2 sup 1 sup 3 C target

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J P; García, A; Komives, A; Stoner, J O

    1999-01-01

    We give a description for the production of sup 1 sup 3 C foils and the preparation of an approximately 1-mg/cm sup 2 thick target. A recent experiment to measure the mass of sup 3 sup 6 Ca, via the sup 4 sup 0 Ca( sup 4 He, sup 8 He) sup 3 sup 6 Ca reaction, required precise determination of the accelerated beam energy and calibration of the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometer to achieve the most accurate value for the sup 3 sup 6 Ca mass. A 1 mg/cm sup 2 sup 1 sup 3 C target was essential for these purposes. Target preparation and performance along with some preliminary results will be discussed.

  5. A new Dirac cone material: a graphene-like Be3C2 monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Yuan, Shijun; Li, Yunhai; Shi, Li; Wang, Jinlan

    2017-05-04

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones exhibit rich physics and many intriguing properties, but the search for new 2D Dirac materials is still a current hotspot. Using the global particle-swarm optimization method and density functional theory, we predict a new stable graphene-like 2D Dirac material: a Be3C2 monolayer with a hexagonal honeycomb structure. The Dirac point occurs exactly at the Fermi level and arises from the merging of the hybridized pz bands of Be and C atoms. Most interestingly, this monolayer exhibits a high Fermi velocity in the same order of graphene. Moreover, the Dirac cone is very robust and retains even included spin-orbit coupling or external strain. These outstanding properties render the Be3C2 monolayer a promising 2D material for special electronics applications.

  6. Fe{sub 3}C/Fe nanoparticles with urea: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaobai [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin, 132022 (China); Zhang, Daguang [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, the First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021 China (China); Ren, Xiaozhen; Gao, Jiajia [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Han, Yu [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002 China (China); Chen, Xiaodong [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Shi, Zhan [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Yang, Hua [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Fe{sub 3}C/Fe nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol–gel method. Using urea as carbon source and reduce agent in the reaction process. The CTAB works as the surfactant and the bromine contained in CTAB plays a catalytic role. Appropriate choices of the amount of urea and CTAB, reaction temperature and time are very important to obtain high-quality of products. Above 650 °C, the precursor gel turned into the nanocomposites composed of iron carbide and iron. Their structures and magnetic properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The possible formation mechanism of as-prepared nanostructures is discussed. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}C/Fe composites were synthetized by sol–gel method. • Their structure, magnetic properties are researched by XRD, VSM and TEM. • The possible formation mechanisms of the composites is discussed.

  7. Precipitation Retrievals in typhoon domain combining of FY3C MWHTS Observations and WRF Predicted Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieying, HE; Shengwei, ZHANG; Na, LI

    2017-02-01

    A passive sub-millimeter precipitation retrievals algorithm is provided based on Microwave Humidity and Temperature Sounder (MWHTS) onboard the Chinese Feng Yun 3C (FY-3C) satellite. Using the validated global reference physical model NCEP/WRF/VDISORT), NCEP data per 6 hours are downloaded to run the Weather Research and Forecast model WRF, and derive the typical precipitation data from the whole world. The precipitation retrieval algorithm can operate either on land or on seawater for global. To simply the calculation procedure and save the training time, principle component analysis (PCA) was adapted to filter out the redundancy caused by scanning angle and surface effects, as well as system noise. According to the comparison and validation combing with other precipitation sources, it is demonstrated that the retrievals are reliable for surface precipitation rate higher than 0.1 mm/h at 15km resolution.

  8. Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton Liu Liu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C. 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short- time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum with a ...

  9. Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short-time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum ...

  10. Chandra Observations of the Nuclei of Radio Galaxies: 3C 295 and Hydra A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; McNamara, B. R.; David, L. P.; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The angular resolution available with Chandra allows us to isolate the X-ray emission from the nucleus of many radio galaxies and obtain their spectra. As expected from unification schemes, spectra so far obtained can best be interpreted as heavily absorbed power laws. We present the spectral parameters so derived for 3C 295 and Hydra A and compare them to data obtained at other wavelengths.

  11. Self-assembled Ti3C2Tx MXene film with high gravimetric capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Minmin; Li, Zhaojin; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaohui

    2015-09-11

    Binder-free MXene films comprising Ti3C2Tx nanoflakes in a face-to-face fashion, achieved by a simple dropping-mild baking approach, exhibit high gravimetric capacitances up to 499 F g(-1) with excellent cyclability and rate performances. The entire electrode system including Ni-foam and MXene film shows volumetric capacitances in the range of 84-226 F cm(-3) depending on the loadings of MXene as active material.

  12. GASP detection of a fast optical brightening of the blazar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Larionov, V. M.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Nilsson, K.; Pasanen, M.; Carosati, D.

    2009-12-01

    With reference to the recent very strong gamma-ray activity of the blazar 3C 454.3 detected by Fermi-GST and AGILE (ATel #2322), the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) reports on a simultaneous fast optical brightening of the source. After the mild activity registered in August-October 2009 (R ~ 14.5-15), the optical brightness decreased to R ~ 15-15.2 in November.

  13. Fermi LAT detection of renewed and strong GeV activity from blazar 3C 279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutini, Sara

    2015-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed an intense gamma-ray flare from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279, also known as 3FGL J1256.1-0547 (Acero et al. 2015, APJS, 218, 23), with radio coordinates R.A.: 194.0465271 deg, Dec: -5.7893119 deg (J2000.0; Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  14. Parsec-scale jet properties of the gamma-ray quasar 3C 286

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, T.; Lao, B.-Q.; Zhao, W.; Mohan, P.; Cheng, X.-P.; Cui, Y.-Z.; Zhang, Z.-L.

    2017-04-01

    The quasar 3C 286 is one of two compact steep-spectrum sources detected by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. Here, we investigate the radio properties of the parsec(pc)-scale jet and its (possible) association with the gamma-ray emission in 3C 286. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) images at various frequencies reveal a one-sided core-jet structure extending to the south-west at a projected distance of ˜1 kpc. The component at the jet base showing an inverted spectrum is identified as the core, with a mean brightness temperature of 2.8 × 109 K. The jet bends at about 600 pc (in projection) away from the core, from a position angle of -135° to -115°. Based on the available VLBI data, we inferred the proper-motion speed of the inner jet as 0.013 ± 0.011 mas yr-1 (βapp = 0.6 ± 0.5), corresponding to a jet speed of about 0.5 c at an inclination angle of 48° between the jet and the line of sight of the observer. The brightness temperature, jet speed and Lorentz factor are much lower than those of gamma-ray-emitting blazars, implying that the pc-scale jet in 3C 286 is mildly relativistic. Unlike blazars in which gamma-ray emission is in general thought to originate from the beamed innermost jet, the location and mechanism of gamma-ray emission in 3C 286 may be different as indicated by the current radio data. Multiband spectrum fitting may offer a complementary diagnostic clue of the gamma-ray production mechanism in this source.

  15. Chromosome conformation capture (from 3C to 5C) and its ChIP-based modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Alexey; Eivazova, Elvira; Priozhkova, Iryna; Lipinski, Marc; Razin, Sergey; Vassetzky, Yegor

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) methodology was developed to study spatial organization of long genomic regions in living cells. Briefly, chromatin is fixed with formaldehyde in vivo to cross-link interacting sites, digested with a restriction enzyme and ligated at a low DNA concentration so that ligation between cross-linked fragments is favored over ligation between random fragments. Ligation products are then analyzed and quantified by PCR. So far, semi-quantitative PCR methods were widely used to estimate the ligation frequencies. However, it is often important to estimate the ligation frequencies more precisely which is only possible by using the real-time PCR. At the same time, it is equally necessary to monitor the specificity of PCR amplification. That is why the real-time PCR with TaqMan probes is becoming more and more popular in 3C studies. In this chapter, we describe the general protocol for 3C analysis with the subsequent estimation of ligation frequencies by using the real-time PCR technology with TaqMan probes. We discuss in details all steps of the experimental procedure paying special attention to weak points and possible ways to solve the problems. A special attention is also paid to the problems in interpretation of the results and necessary control experiments. Besides, in theory, we consider other approaches to analysis of the ligation products used in frames of the so-called 4C and 5C methods. The recently developed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-loop assay representing a combination of 3C and ChIP is also discussed.

  16. Energy dependence of the sup 8 Be + sup 1 sup 3 C interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Rudchik, A T; Budzanowski, A; Szczurek, A; Chernievsky, V K; Mokhnach, A V; Ziman, V A; Koshchy, E I; Kliczewski, S; Siudak, R; Skwirczynska, I; Turkiewicz, J

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of the sup 9 Be( sup 1 sup 2 C, sup 1 sup 3 C) sup 8 Be reaction were measured at the beam energy of E sub l sub a sub b ( sup 1 sup 2 C) = 65 MeV for the transitions to the ground, 3.09 MeV (1/2 sup +) and 3.68 MeV (3/2 sup -) + 3.85 MeV (5/2 sup +) excited states of the sup 1 sup 3 C nucleus. These data together with experimental data at the energies of E sub l sub a sub b ( sup 1 sup 2 C) = 12, 15 MeV and E sub l sub a sub b ( sup 9 Be) = 20 MeV were analyzed within the coupled reaction channels (CRC) model. The elastic and inelastic scattering as well as one- and two-step transfers were included in the coupled channel scheme. It was found that n- and alpha-transfers dominate in these reactions. The energy dependence of the OM potential for the sup 8 Be + sup 1 sup 3 C channel was deduced. A good description of all sets of experimental data was achieved.

  17. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Hora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a–c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account.

  18. Effects of temperature and ionization density in medical luminescence dosimetry using Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler

    2007-01-01

    A new system containing small crystals of aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al2O3:C) attached to optical fiber cables has recently been introduced. During irradiation, the system monitors the radioluminescence (RL) from the crystals and after irradiation, an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL......–called “target radius” to be between 30 and 150 nm and associated this radius with a charge migration distance in the crystal.......A new system containing small crystals of aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al2O3:C) attached to optical fiber cables has recently been introduced. During irradiation, the system monitors the radioluminescence (RL) from the crystals and after irradiation, an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL......) signal can be read out by stimulating the crystal with light. This thesis applies the initial part and the total area of the resulting OSL decay curve for dosimetry measurements and investigates the effects of temperature and proton energy, i.e. ionization density, on the RL and OSL signals from Al2O3:C...

  19. An unusually prolonged outburst in the blazar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vol'vach, A. E.; Larionov, M. G.; Vol'vach, L. N.; Larionov, G. M.

    2017-11-01

    Data from long-term multi-frequency monitoring of the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) and blazar 3C 454.3 are analyzed. An unusually prolonged outburst in 2013-2017 had a duration that was twice the possible orbital period of the companion of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) located at the center of the host galaxy. It is proposed that the shape and duration of this outburst in 3C 454.3 could be the result of a coincidence between the plane of the accretion disk (AD) and the orbital plane of the companion. As a consequence, a prolonged energy release with enhanced intensity can be observed as the companion passes through the dense medium of the AD of the central SMBH. The presence of a 1.55-year orbital period in the variations of the emission of 3C 454.3 during this outburst also supports this hypothesis, as opposed to the possibility that the outburst was due to variations in γ and the Doppler factor. Small-scale flux-density fluctuations can arise during the outburst due to matter inhomogeneities with characteristic scales of about 1015 cm or more in the AD of the central SMBH and surrounding areas.

  20. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, A. S.; Tonietti, P. O.; Taniwaki, S. A.; Asano, K. M.; Maiorka, P.; Richtzenhain, L. J.; Brandão, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus) have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a–c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account. PMID:27243037

  1. Excess Galactic Molecular Absorption Toward the Radio Galaxy 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Reynolds, C. S.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Behar, E.

    2017-06-01

    We show the combined spectral analysis of Chandra high-energy transmission grating and XMM-Newton reflection-grating spectrometer observations of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111. This source is known to show excess neutral absorption with respect to the one estimated from 21 cm radio surveys of atomic H i in the Galaxy. However, previous works were not able to constrain the origin of such an absorber as local to our Milky Way or intrinsic to the source (z = 0.0485). The high signal-to-noise grating spectra allow us to constrain the excess absorption as being due to intervening gas in the Milky Way, and we estimate a time-averaged total column density of {N}{{H}}=(7.4+/- 0.1)× {10}21 cm-2, a factor of two higher than the tabulated H i value. We recommend using the total average Galactic column density estimated here when studying 3C 111. The origin of the extra Galactic absorption of {N}{{H}}=4.4× {10}21 cm-2 is likely due to molecular gas associated with the Taurus molecular cloud complex toward 3C 111, which is our nearest star-forming region. We also detect a weak (EW = 16 ± 10 eV) and narrow (FWMH radio galaxy and the Galactic interstellar medium, if used as a background source.

  2. 3C-Silicon Carbide Microresonators for Timing and Frequency Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham S. Wood

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the drive to miniaturise and integrate reference oscillator components, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS resonators are excellent candidates to replace quartz crystals. Silicon is the most utilised resonator structural material due to its associated well-established fabrication processes. However, when operation in harsh environments is required, cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC is an excellent candidate for use as a structural material, due to its robustness, chemical inertness and high temperature stability. In order to actuate 3C-SiC resonators, electrostatic, electrothermal and piezoelectric methods have been explored. Both electrothermal and piezoelectric actuation can be accomplished with simpler fabrication and lower driving voltages, down to 0.5 V, compared to electrostatic actuation. The vibration amplitude at resonance can be maximised by optimising the design and location of the electrodes. Electrical read out of the resonator can be performed with electrostatic or piezoelectric transduction. Finally, a great deal of research has focused on tuning the resonant frequency of a 3C-SiC resonator by adjusting the DC bias applied to the electrodes, with a higher (up to 160-times tuning range for electrothermal tuning compared to piezoelectric tuning. Electrothermal tuning lowers the frequency, while piezoelectric tuning can be used to raise the frequency.

  3. X-Ray/Optical Variability of AKN 120 and 3C 120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, K.

    2004-01-20

    Using the Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment (RXTE), we have observed both the Seyfert 1 galaxy Akn 120 and the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. Monitoring observations spanning 2 years plus intensive stares spanning several days have been obtained for both objects. These data have allowed us to construct the power density spectrum (PDS) for each object. Covering more than 4 decades in temporal frequency, the PDS for 3C 120 represents the first such measurement for a radio loud galaxy. The PDS for 3C 120 shows a steep power law at high frequencies, which turns over at low frequencies. Akn 120 also has a power law shape in its PDS. Using the PDS of Cygnus X-1, we estimate the masses for both of these objects. Optical data and cross correlation functions are also presented for Akn 120. The long-term light curve of Akn 120 shows a strong correlation with optical data, with zero time lag.

  4. Isothermal transformation behavior in 12%Cr-0.3%C steel; 12%Cr-0.3%C ko ni okeru koon hentai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, M. [Japan Casting and Forging Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan); Tsuchiyama, T.; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univearsity, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    In order to get fine grain of large martensitic stainless steels products, it is available to use the isothermal transformation before the austenitizing. When 12%Cr-0.3%C steel is subjected to the full solution treatment and following isothermal transformation at 900-1,020K, it is observed that the microstructures are affected by the isothermal ageing temperature. The microstructure transformed isothermally at 1,020K is the full eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate homogeneously. On the other hand, the microstructure transformed at 900K is the mixed heterogeneous structure: the eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate densely around the edge of prior austenite grains and the ferrite structure where carbides hardly precipitate in the center of prior austenite grains. These phenomena are concerned with the decreasing in carbon content in the untransformed austenite as the eutectoid transformation progresses. The amount of decreasing in carbon at 900K is larger than at 1,020K, which causes the shortage of carbon in austenite in the last period of isothermal transformation. In the case of the isothermal transformation at 900K, the reason of why there are the ferrite structures with no carbide in the center of prior austenite grains is that the massive transformation is induced by the shortage of carbon in untransformed austenite. (author)

  5. Test results for the Oasis 3C high performance water-pumping windmill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, D.M. [DME Engineering, Midland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The WINDTech International, L.L.C. Oasis 3C, a 3 m diameter, high-performance water-pumping windmill, was tested at the DME Engineering Wind Test Site just south of Midland, Texas from August through December, 1996. This machine utilizes a 3:1 gearbox with rotating counterweights, similar to a conventional oilfield pumping unit, driven by a multibladed rotor. The rotating counterweight system balances most of the pumping loads and reduces gear loads and starting torque by a factor of at least two and often by a factor of four or more. The torque reduction substantially extends gear and bearing life, and reduces wind speeds required for starting by 30 to 50% or more. The O3C was tested pumping from a quiescent fluid depth of 12.2 m (40 ft) from a 28.3 m (93 ft)-deep well, with additional pumping depth simulated using a pressure regulator valve system. A 9.53 cm (3.75 in.) diameter Harbison-Fischer seal-less single-acting piston pump was used to eliminate pump seal friction as a variable, and standard O3C stroke lengths of 30.5 and 15.2 cm (12 and 6 inches) were used. The regulator spring was set to give a maximum stroke rate of 33 strokes per minute. The water pumped was returned to the well after flowing through a settling tank. The tests were performed in accordance with AWEA WECS testing standards. Instrumentation provided 16 channels of data to accurately measure machine performance, including starting wind speeds, flow rates, O3C azimuth, tail furl angle, wind direction tracking errors, RPM, sucker rod loads, and other variables. The most significant performance data is summarized herein. A mathematical model of machine performance was developed that fairly accurately predicts performance for each of three test conditions. The results verify that the O3C is capable of pumping water at wind speeds from 30% to more than 50% lower than comparable un-counterbalanced units.

  6. 75 FR 10026 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms W-2, W-2c, W-2AS, W-2GU, W-2VI, W-3, W-3c, W-3cPR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms W-2, W-2c, W-2AS, W-2GU, W-2VI, W-3, W-3c, W-3cPR, W-3PR, and W-3SS AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... comments concerning Forms W-2, W-2c, W-2AS, W-2GU, W-2VI, W-3, W-3c, W- 3cPR, W-3PR, and W-3SS. DATES...

  7. The host galaxy of the gravitational wave recoiling black hole candidate 3C186

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaberge, Marco

    2017-08-01

    We discovered a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling black hole (BH) candidate in our HST WFC3 snapshot images of the radio-loud QSO 3C186. These events are expected to happen as a result of BH-BH mergers. This extremely energetic phenomenon leads to the production of an intense field of GWs, which in most cases are emitted anisotropically. As a result, the merged black hole may receive a kick and be displaced from the center of the host galaxy with velocities that can be as high as 4000 km/s. Depending on the relative orientation of the kick with respect to the line-of-sight, if the BH is active we expect to observe an offset QSO. Furthermore, the broad lines may be offset with respect to the narrow lines, which are emitted in the frame of the host. 3C186 shows all of the predicted observational features of a such an event. Spectra show offsets between narrow and broad emission lines of 2100km/s, and our HST image clearly shows that the QSO is offset by 1.3 with respect to the isophotal center of the host galaxy. Scenarios alternative to the GW kick as the origin for the observed features are unlikely, but still viable. Only HST allows us to obtain spatially resolved information, high sensitivity and stable PSF to better investigate the host galaxy properties. We will use ACS and WFC3 to obtain deep images and study the morphology of the host galaxy. We will unambiguously establish whether the host galaxy of 3C186 underwent a major merger and we will be able to set accurate constraints on the age of the merger. The proposed observations will have a tremendous impact on our knowledge of supermassive BH mergers and the associated emission of gravitational waves.

  8. 3C-SiC nanocrystal growth on 10° miscut Si(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deokar, Geetanjali, E-mail: gitudeo@gmail.com [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); D' Angelo, Marie; Demaille, Dominique [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); Cavellin, Catherine Deville [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); Faculté des Sciences et Technologie UPEC, 61 av. De Gaulle, Créteil F-94010 (France)

    2014-04-01

    The growth of 3C-SiC nano-crystal (NC) on 10° miscut Si(001) substrate by CO{sub 2} thermal treatment is investigated by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopies. The vicinal Si(001) surface was thermally oxidized prior to the annealing at 1100 °C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere. The influence of the atomic steps at the vicinal SiO{sub 2}/Si interface on the SiC NC growth is studied by comparison with the results obtained for fundamental Si(001) substrates in the same conditions. For Si miscut substrate, a substantial enhancement in the density of the SiC NCs and a tendency of preferential alignment of them along the atomic step edges is observed. The SiC/Si interface is abrupt, without any steps and epitaxial growth with full relaxation of 3C-SiC occurs by domain matching epitaxy. The CO{sub 2} pressure and annealing time effect on NC growth is analyzed. The as-prepared SiC NCs can be engineered further for potential application in optoelectronic devices and/or as a seed for homoepitaxial SiC or heteroepitaxial GaN film growth. - Highlights: • Synthesis of 3C-SiC nanocrystals epitaxied on miscut-Si using a simple technique • Evidence of domain matching epitaxy at the SiC/Si interface • SiC growth proceeds along the (001) plane of host Si. • Substantial enhancement of the SiC nanocrystal density due to the miscut • Effect of the process parameters (CO{sub 2} pressure and annealing duration)

  9. AN HST PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE LARGE-SCALE JET OF 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Sparks, William B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Anderson, Jay; Marel, Roeland van der; Biretta, John; Chiaberge, Marco; Norman, Colin [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Tony Sohn, Sangmo [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Perlman, Eric, E-mail: meyer@stsci.edu [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of −0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ < 2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kiloparsec scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer and Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.

  10. PROTON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FROM EXTENDED JETS OF PKS 0637–752 AND 3C 273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Wrijupan; Gupta, Nayantara, E-mail: wriju.phys@gmail.com [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2016-02-01

    Many powerful radio quasars are associated with large-scale jets, exhibiting bright knots as shown by high-resolution images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The radio-optical flux component from these jets can be attributed to synchrotron radiation by accelerated relativistic electrons while the IC/CMB model, by far, has been the most popular explanation for the observed X-ray emission from these jets. Recently, the IC/CMB X-ray mechanism has been strongly disfavored for 3C 273 and PKS 0637–752 since the anomalously hard and steady gamma-ray emission predicted by such models violates the observational results from Fermi-LAT. Here we propose the proton synchrotron origin of the X-ray–gamma-ray flux from the knots of PKS 0637–752 with a reasonable budget in luminosity, by considering synchrotron radiation from an accelerated proton population. Moreover, for the source 3C 273, the optical data points near 10{sup 15} Hz could not be fitted using electron synchrotron. We propose an updated proton synchrotron model, including the optical data from HST, to explain the common origin of optical-X-ray–gamma-ray emission from the knots of quasar 3C 273 as an extension of the work done by Kundu and Gupta. We also show that TeV emission from large-scale quasar jets, in principle, can arise from proton synchrotron, which we discuss in the context of knot wk8.9 of PKS 0637–752.

  11. Preliminary validation of the refractivity from the new radio occultation sounder GNOS/FY-3C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mi; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Guang-Lin; Bi, Yan-Meng; Liu, Yan; Bai, Wei-Hua; Meng, Xiang-Guang; Du, Qi-Fei; Sun, Yue-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    As a new member of the space-based radio occultation sounders, the GNOS (Global Navigation Satellite System Occultation Sounder) mounted on Fengyun-3C (FY-3C) has been carrying out atmospheric sounding since 23 September 2013. GNOS takes approximately 800 daily measurements using GPS (Global Positioning System) and Chinese BDS (BeiDou navigation satellite) signals. In this work, the atmospheric refractivity profiles from GNOS were compared with the ones obtained from the co-located ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis. The mean bias of the refractivity obtained through GNOS GPS (BDS) was found to be approximately -0.09 % (-0.04 %) from the near surface to up to 46 km. While the average standard deviation was approximately 1.81 % (1.26 %), it was as low as 0.75 % (0.53 %) in the range of 5-25 km, where best sounding results are usually achieved. Further, COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) and MetOp/ GRAS (GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding) radio occultation data were compared with the ECMWF reanalysis; the results thus obtained could be used as reference data for GNOS. Our results showed that GNOS/FY-3C meets the design requirements in terms of accuracy and precision of the sounder. It possesses a sounding capability similar to COSMIC and MetOp/GRAS in the vertical range of 0-30 km, though it needs further improvement above 30 km. Overall, it provides a new data source for the global numerical weather prediction (NWP) community.

  12. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Virus 3C Protease Mutant L127P: Implications for FMD Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckette, Michael; Clark, Benjamin A; Smith, Justin D; Turecek, Traci; Martel, Erica; Gabbert, Lindsay; Pisano, Melia; Hurtle, William; Pacheco, Juan M; Barrera, José; Neilan, John G; Rasmussen, Max

    2017-11-15

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) afflicts livestock in more than 80 countries, limiting food production and global trade. Production of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines requires cytosolic expression of the FMDV 3C protease to cleave the P1 polyprotein into mature capsid proteins, but the FMDV 3C protease is toxic to host cells. To identify less-toxic isoforms of the FMDV 3C protease, we screened 3C mutants for increased transgene output in comparison to wild-type 3C using a Gaussia luciferase reporter system. The novel point mutation 3C(L127P) increased yields of recombinant FMDV subunit proteins in mammalian and bacterial cells expressing P1-3C transgenes and retained the ability to process P1 polyproteins from multiple FMDV serotypes. The 3C(L127P) mutant produced crystalline arrays of FMDV-like particles in mammalian and bacterial cells, potentially providing a practical method of rapid, inexpensive FMD vaccine production in bacteria. IMPORTANCE The mutant FMDV 3C protease L127P significantly increased yields of recombinant FMDV subunit antigens and produced virus-like particles in mammalian and bacterial cells. The L127P mutation represents a novel advancement for economical FMD vaccine production. Copyright © 2017 Puckette et al.

  13. Precise orbit determination of the Fengyun-3C satellite using onboard GPS and BDS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Li, Wenwen; Shi, Chuang; Jiang, Kecai; Guo, Xiang; Dai, Xiaolei; Meng, Xiangguang; Yang, Zhongdong; Yang, Guanglin; Liao, Mi

    2017-11-01

    The GNSS Occultation Sounder instrument onboard the Chinese meteorological satellite Fengyun-3C (FY-3C) tracks both GPS and BDS signals for orbit determination. One month's worth of the onboard dual-frequency GPS and BDS data during March 2015 from the FY-3C satellite is analyzed in this study. The onboard BDS and GPS measurement quality is evaluated in terms of data quantity as well as code multipath error. Severe multipath errors for BDS code ranges are observed especially for high elevations for BDS medium earth orbit satellites (MEOs). The code multipath errors are estimated as piecewise linear model in 2{°}× 2{°} grid and applied in precise orbit determination (POD) calculations. POD of FY-3C is firstly performed with GPS data, which shows orbit consistency of approximate 2.7 cm in 3D RMS (root mean square) by overlap comparisons; the estimated orbits are then used as reference orbits for evaluating the orbit precision of GPS and BDS combined POD as well as BDS-based POD. It is indicated that inclusion of BDS geosynchronous orbit satellites (GEOs) could degrade POD precision seriously. The precisions of orbit estimates by combined POD and BDS-based POD are 3.4 and 30.1 cm in 3D RMS when GEOs are involved, respectively. However, if BDS GEOs are excluded, the combined POD can reach similar precision with respect to GPS POD, showing orbit differences about 0.8 cm, while the orbit precision of BDS-based POD can be improved to 8.4 cm. These results indicate that the POD performance with onboard BDS data alone can reach precision better than 10 cm with only five BDS inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit satellites and three MEOs. As the GNOS receiver can only track six BDS satellites for orbit positioning at its maximum channel, it can be expected that the performance of POD with onboard BDS data can be further improved if more observations are generated without such restrictions.

  14. Optical variability of the blazar 3C 454.3 during 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen-Thorn V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optical variability of the blazar 3C 454.3 during 2007-2010 has been studied using the results of multicolor (BVRIJHK observations. The existence of two variable synchrotron sources was found. The first is responsible for the flux variability of small amplitude, the second – for the flares. In each flare the relative SED of variable source was found to be constant but spectral indexes were different in different flares. This fact points to impossibility to explain the global variability only by geometrical reasons. The observed color variability is due to a superposition of the variable and constant components with different SEDs.

  15. Superluminal motion in the double-lobed quasar 3C263

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zensus, J. A.; Hough, D. H.; Porcas, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of superluminal motion in the quasar 3C263 is reported. The milliarcsecond structure of this source consists of two nearly unresolved components whose separation is increasing at a rate of 0.06 + or - 0.02 marcsec/yr. This corresponds to an expansion speed of 2.7 + or - 0.9 c (H/0/ = 55 km/s/Mpc, q/0/ = 0.05). This quasar is the weakest superluminal source found so far, and there are indications that superluminal motion occurs frequently in this class of object.

  16. Temperature coefficients for in vivo RL and OSL dosimetry using Al2O3 : C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Damkjaer, S.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A radiotherapy dosimetry system based on radiolurninescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from small carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals attached to optical-fiber cables has been developed. To quantify the influence of temperature variations on clinical RL and OSL...... with both it-radiation temperature, stimulation temperature, and OSL integration time. Typically, the temperature coefficients are of the order of 0.2%/K, and these thermal effects are therefore large enough to be of importance for clinical measurements. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  17. X-ray Emission from the Radio Jet in 3C 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, D. E.; Hjorth, J.; Sadun, A. C.

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-ray emission from a radio knot at a projected distance of 25" from the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy, 3C 120. The data were obtained with the ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI). Optical upper limits for the knot preclude a simple power law extension of the radio...... spectrum and we calculate some of the physical parameters for thermal bremsstrahlung and synchrotron self-Compton models. We conclude that no simple model is consistent with the data but if the knot contains small regions with flat spectra, these could produce the observed X-rays (via synchrotron emission...

  18. Selective sp3 C-H Aerobic Oxidation enabled by Deca-tungstate Photocatalysis in Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, Gabriele; Govaerts, Sebastian; Wang, Ying; Ravelli, Davide; Koolman, Hannes; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Djuric, Stevan; Noel, Timothy

    2018-02-16

    A mild and selective sp3 C-H aerobic oxidation enabled by deca-tungstate photocatalysis has been developed. The reaction can be significantly improved in a microflow reactor enabling the safe use of oxygen and the enhanced irradiation of the reaction mixture. Our method allows for the oxidation of both activated and unactivated C-H bonds (30 examples). The ability to selectively oxidize natural scaffolds, such as (-)-ambroxide, pregnenolone acetate, (+)-sclareolide and artemisinin exemplifies the utility of this new method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fermi LAT detection of strong GeV activity from the blazar 3C 279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyl, Pfesesani van; Ojha, Roopesh

    2018-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed an intense gamma-ray flare from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279, also known as 3FGL J1256.1-0547 (Acero et al. 2015, ApJS, 218, 23), with radio coordinates R.A.: 12h56m11.1665s, Dec: -05d47m21.523s (J2000.0; Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  20. Galactic-scale Feedback Observed in the 3C 298 Quasar Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A.; Murray, Norman; Armus, Lee; Larkin, James E.; Mieda, Etsuko

    2017-12-01

    We present high angular resolution multiwavelength data of the 3C 298 radio-loud quasar host galaxy (z = 1.439) taken using the W.M. Keck Observatory OSIRIS integral field spectrograph (IFS) with adaptive optics, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3, and the Very Large Array (VLA). Extended emission is detected in the rest-frame optical nebular emission lines Hβ, [O III], Hα, [N II], and [S II], as well as in the molecular lines CO (J = 3‑2) and (J = 5‑4). Along the path of the relativistic jets of 3C 298, we detect conical outflows in ionized gas emission with velocities of up to 1700 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and an outflow rate of 450–1500 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 extended over 12 kpc. Near the spatial center of the conical outflow, CO (J = 3‑2) emission shows a molecular gas disk with a rotational velocity of ±150 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and total molecular mass ({M}{{{H}}2}) of 6.6+/- 0.36× {10}9 {M}ȯ . On the blueshifted side of the molecular disk, we observe broad extended emission that is due to a molecular outflow with a rate of 2300 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and depletion timescale of 3 Myr. We detect no narrow Hα emission in the outflow regions, suggesting a limit on star formation of 0.3 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2. Quasar-driven winds are evacuating the molecular gas reservoir, thereby directly impacting star formation in the host galaxy. The observed mass of the supermassive black hole is {10}9.37{--9.56} {M}ȯ , and we determine a dynamical bulge mass of {M}{bulge}=1{--}1.7× {10}10\\tfrac{R}{1.6 {kpc}} {M}ȯ . The bulge mass of 3C 298 lies 2–2.5 orders of magnitude below the expected value from the local galactic bulge—supermassive black hole mass ({M}{bulge}{--}{M}{BH}) relationship. A second galactic disk observed in nebular emission is offset from the quasar by 9 kpc, suggesting that the system is an intermediate-stage merger. These results show that galactic-scale negative feedback is occurring early in the merger

  1. Photoluminescent Ti3 C2 MXene Quantum Dots for Multicolor Cellular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qi; Zhang, Huijie; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Zifeng; Huang, Yang; Huang, Yan; Deng, Qihuang; Zhou, Jie; Du, Shiyu; Huang, Qing; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-04-01

    The fabrication of photoluminescent Ti3 C2 MXene quantum dots (MQDs) by a facile hydrothermal method is reported, which may greatly extend the applications of MXene-based materials. Interestingly, the as-prepared MQDs show excitation-dependent photoluminescence spectra with quantum yields of up to ≈10% due to strong quantum confinement. The applications of MQDs as biocompatible multicolor cellular imaging probes and zinc ion sensors are demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Optical outburst and mm activity of 3C 345 observed by the GASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Carosati, D.; Ros, J. A.; Casas, R.; Bravo, O.; Melnichuk, D.; Gurwell, M. A.

    2009-10-01

    The GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) reports on the recent observation of a strong optical brightening of the blazar 3C 345. This is one of the 28 sources for which the GASP performs a long-term, multiwavelength monitoring. After a faint state (R ~ 17) observed in mid 2009, the brightness started to increase in July, and in August a sharp flare led to a peak of R = 16.09 +/- 0.01 on August 20; this was followed by a fast dimming and subsequent steep rebrightening up to R = 15.75 +/- 0.01 on September 20.

  3. Precise orbit determination of the Fengyun-3C satellite using onboard GPS and BDS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Li, Wenwen; Shi, Chuang; Jiang, Kecai; Guo, Xiang; Dai, Xiaolei; Meng, Xiangguang; Yang, Zhongdong; Yang, Guanglin; Liao, Mi

    2017-04-01

    The GNSS Occultation Sounder instrument onboard the Chinese meteorological satellite Fengyun-3C (FY-3C) tracks both GPS and BDS signals for orbit determination. One month's worth of the onboard dual-frequency GPS and BDS data during March 2015 from the FY-3C satellite is analyzed in this study. The onboard BDS and GPS measurement quality is evaluated in terms of data quantity as well as code multipath error. Severe multipath errors for BDS code ranges are observed especially for high elevations for BDS medium earth orbit satellites (MEOs). The code multipath errors are estimated as piecewise linear model in 2° × 2° grid and applied in precise orbit determination (POD) calculations. POD of FY-3C is firstly performed with GPS data, which shows orbit consistency of approximate 2.7 cm in 3D RMS (root mean square) by overlap comparisons; the estimated orbits are then used as reference orbits for evaluating the orbit precision of GPS and BDS combined POD as well as BDS-based POD. It is indicated that inclusion of BDS geosynchronous orbit satellites (GEOs) could degrade POD precision seriously. The precisions of orbit estimates by combined POD and BDS-based POD are 3.4 and 30.1 cm in 3D RMS when GEOs are involved, respectively. However, if BDS GEOs are excluded, the combined POD can reach similar precision with respect to GPS POD, showing orbit differences about 0.8 cm, while the orbit precision of BDS-based POD can be improved to 8.4 cm. These results indicate that the POD performance with onboard BDS data alone can reach precision better than 10 cm with only five BDS inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit satellites and three MEOs. As the GNOS receiver can only track six BDS satellites for orbit positioning at its maximum channel, it can be expected that the performance of POD with onboard BDS data can be further improved if more observations are generated without such restrictions.

  4. Probing the Parsec-scale Accretion Flow of 3C 84 with Millimeter Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Plambeck, R. L.; Bower, G. C.; Rao, Ramprasad; Marrone, D. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Doeleman, S.S.; Fish, V. L.; Johnson, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of Faraday rotation toward radio source 3C 84, the active galactic nucleus in NGC1275 at the core of the Perseus Cluster. The rotation measure (RM), determined from polarization observations at wavelengths of 1.3 and 0.9 mm, is (8.7 +/- 2.3) x 10^5 radians/m^2, among the largest ever measured. The RM remained relatively constant over a 2 year period even as the intrinsic polarization position angle wrapped through a span of 300 degrees. The Faraday rotation is likely t...

  5. De novo Transcriptome Assembly and Comparison of C3, C3-C4, and C4 Species of Tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Lauterbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available C4 photosynthesis is a carbon-concentrating mechanism that evolved independently more than 60 times in a wide range of angiosperm lineages. Among other alterations, the evolution of C4 from ancestral C3 photosynthesis requires changes in the expression of a vast number of genes. Differential gene expression analyses between closely related C3 and C4 species have significantly increased our understanding of C4 functioning and evolution. In Chenopodiaceae, a family that is rich in C4 origins and photosynthetic types, the anatomy, physiology and phylogeny of C4, C2, and C3 species of Salsoleae has been studied in great detail, which facilitated the choice of six samples of five representative species with different photosynthetic types for transcriptome comparisons. mRNA from assimilating organs of each species was sequenced in triplicates, and sequence reads were de novo assembled. These novel genetic resources were then analyzed to provide a better understanding of differential gene expression between C3, C2 and C4 species. All three analyzed C4 species belong to the NADP-ME type as most genes encoding core enzymes of this C4 cycle are highly expressed. The abundance of photorespiratory transcripts is decreased compared to the C3 and C2 species. Like in other C4 lineages of Caryophyllales, our results suggest that PEPC1 is the C4-specific isoform in Salsoleae. Two recently identified transporters from the PHT4 protein family may not only be related to the C4 syndrome, but also active in C2 photosynthesis in Salsoleae. In the two populations of the C2 species S. divaricata transcript abundance of several C4 genes are slightly increased, however, a C4 cycle is not detectable in the carbon isotope values. Most of the core enzymes of photorespiration are highly increased in the C2 species compared to both C3 and C4 species, confirming a successful establishment of the C2 photosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, a function of PEP-CK in C2 photosynthesis

  6. In vivo sup 1 sup 3 C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, J

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. sup 1 sup 3 C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance sup 1 sup 3 C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in th...

  7. RAiSE III: 3C radio AGN energetics and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Krause, Martin G. H.

    2018-03-01

    Kinetic jet power estimates based exclusively on observed monochromatic radio luminosities are highly uncertain due to confounding variables and a lack of knowledge about some aspects of the physics of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We propose a new methodology to calculate the jet powers of the largest, most powerful radio sources based on combinations of their size, lobe luminosity, and shape of their radio spectrum; this approach avoids the uncertainties encountered by previous relationships. The outputs of our model are calibrated using hydrodynamical simulations and tested against independent X-ray inverse-Compton measurements. The jet powers and lobe magnetic field strengths of radio sources are found to be recovered using solely the lobe luminosity and spectral curvature, enabling the intrinsic properties of unresolved high-redshift sources to be inferred. By contrast, the radio source ages cannot be estimated without knowledge of the lobe volumes. The monochromatic lobe luminosity alone is incapable of accurately estimating the jet power or source age without knowledge of the lobe magnetic field strength and size, respectively. We find that, on average, the lobes of the Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (3C) have magnetic field strengths approximately a factor three lower than the equipartition value, inconsistent with equal energy in the particles and the fields at the 5σ level. The particle content of 3C radio lobes is discussed in the context of complementary observations; we do not find evidence favouring an energetically dominant proton population.

  8. Mechanically activated synthesis of nanocrystalline ternary carbide Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakeri, M. [Materials Science Department, Islamic Azad University (Saveh branch), Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: M_zakeri@iau-saveh.ac.ir; Rahimipour, M.R. [Ceramic Department, Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanmohammadian, A. [Materials Science Department, Islamic Azad University (Saveh branch), Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-09-25

    In this investigation, Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C ternary carbide was synthesized from the elemental powders of 3Mo/3Fe/C by mechanical milling and subsequent heat treatment. Structural and morphological evolutions of powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that no phase transformation occurs during milling. A nanostructure Mo (Fe) solid solution obtained after 30 h of milling. With increasing milling time to 70 h no change takes place except grain size reduction to 9 nm and strain enhancement to 0.86%. Milled powders have spheroid shape and very narrow size distribution about 2 {mu}m at the end of milling. Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C was synthesized during annealing of 70 h milled sample at 700 deg. C. Undesired phases of MoOC and Fe{sub 2}C form at 1100 deg. C. No transformation takes place during annealing of 10 h milled sample at 700 deg. C. Mean grain size and strain get to 69 nm and 0.23% respectively with annealing of 70 h milled sample at 1100 deg. C.

  9. Giant THz photoconductivity and possible non-equilibrium superconductivity in metallic K3C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrano, M.; Cantaluppi, A.; Nicoletti, D.; Kaiser, S.; Perucchi, A.; Lupi, S.; Di Pietro, P.; Pontiroli, D.; Riccò, M.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-01-01

    The non-equilibrium control of emergent phenomena in solids is an important research frontier, encompassing effects like the optical enhancement of superconductivity 1 . Recently, nonlinear excitation 2 , 3 of certain phonons in bilayer cuprates was shown to induce superconducting-like optical properties at temperatures far above Tc 4,5,6. This effect was accompanied by the disruption of competing charge-density-wave correlations7,8, which explained some but not all of the experimental results. Here, we report a similar phenomenon in a very different compound. By exciting metallic K3C60 with mid-infrared optical pulses, we induce a large increase in carrier mobility, accompanied by the opening of a gap in the optical conductivity. Strikingly, these same signatures are observed at equilibrium when cooling metallic K3C60 below the superconducting transition temperature (Tc = 20 K). Although optical techniques alone cannot unequivocally identify non-equilibrium high-temperature superconductivity, we propose this scenario as a possible explanation of our results. PMID:26855424

  10. The effect of hydrogen/deuterium introduction on photoluminescence of 3C-SiC crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.K.; Steckl, A.J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Nanoelectronics Lab.; Zavada, J.M. [Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wilson, R.G. [Hughes Research Labs., Malibu, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The effect of the incorporation and annealing of deuterium in 3C-SiC on its photoluminescence is reported. A 3C-SiC crystal has been implanted with 100 kev deuterium and subsequently annealed at temperatures between 1015 C and 1220 C for 1 to 5 minutes. SIMS depth profiles indicate hydrogen is strongly trapped by defects generated through ion bombardment, but a gradual damage repairing occurs during annealing. Photoluminescence was measured with 488 nm Ar laser excitation for sample temperatures from 89 K to 400 K. The PL peak wavelength of 540 nm at room temperature has shifted to 538 nm at 89 K. The peak PL intensity decreases with measurement temperature while its full width at half maximum (FWHM) exhibits an increasing trend. PL data were taken at five annealing stages. The post-implantation peak PL intensity and its integrated area increase initially with annealing temperature and time. After the final annealing at 1218 C for 2 minute, PL intensity and its integrated area exhibit a decrease in level.

  11. Factors of Nonlinear-ultrasonic Detection and Its Application to HR3C Fireside Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the discussion of the factors influencing the nonlinear ultrasonic testing, the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation of HR3C fireside corrosion was investigated using nonlinear ultrasonic testing. The results show that the number of pulse string is no more than 2df/c and the installation of Hanning window is helpful to reduce the disturbance of the system, in addition, the rough surface of the sample has a significant impact on the nonlinear parameter β. The nonlinear coefficient demonstrates a phased growth trend as corrosion time prolongs. At the initial stage of corrosion(within 50h,there are small increments within 20% in the nonlinear coefficient, however,the nonlinear coefficient β is increased obviously with the duration time to 150h. Compared with un-corroded sample, the amplification in the sample corroded for 200h reaches to 260%. The monotonous varieties in nonlinear coefficient are consistent with the aggravation of corrosion damage,hence,it is feasible to nondestructively evaluate HR3C fireside corrosion by means of ultrasonic nonlinear testing.

  12. Semantic validation of standard-based electronic health record documents with W3C XML schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinner, C; Janzek-Hawlat, S; Sibinovic, S; Duftschmid, G

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine whether W3C XML Schema provides a practicable solution for the semantic validation of standard-based electronic health record (EHR) documents. With semantic validation we mean that the EHR documents are checked for conformance with the underlying archetypes and reference model. We describe an approach that allows XML Schemas to be derived from archetypes based on a specific naming convention. The archetype constraints are augmented with additional components of the reference model within the XML Schema representation. A copy of the EHR document that is transformed according to the before-mentioned naming convention is used for the actual validation against the XML Schema. We tested our approach by semantically validating EHR documents conformant to three different ISO/EN 13606 archetypes respective to three sections of the CDA implementation guide "Continuity of Care Document (CCD)" and an implementation guide for diabetes therapy data. We further developed a tool to automate the different steps of our semantic validation approach. For two particular kinds of archetype prescriptions, individual transformations are required for the corresponding EHR documents. Otherwise, a fully generic validation is possible. In general, we consider W3C XML Schema as a practicable solution for the semantic validation of standard-based EHR documents.

  13. 3C-SiC microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances at radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaesung; Zamani, Hamidrera; Rajgopal, Srihari; Zorman, Christian A.; X-L Feng, Philip

    2017-07-01

    We report on the design, modeling, fabrication and measurement of single-crystal 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances operating at radio frequencies (RF). These microdisk resonators (center-clamped on a vertical stem pedestal) offer multiple flexural-mode resonances with frequencies dependent on both disk and anchor dimensions. The resonators are made using a novel fabrication method comprised of focused ion beam nanomachining and hydroflouic : nitric : acetic (HNA) acid etching. Resonance peaks (in the frequency spectrum) are detected through laser-interferometry measurements. Resonators with different dimensions are tested, and multimode resonances, mode splitting, energy dissipation (in the form of quality factor measurement) are investigated. Further, we demonstrate a feedback oscillator based on a passive 3C-SiC resonator. This investigation provides important guidelines for microdisk resonator development, ranging from an analytical prediction of frequency scaling law to fabrication, suggesting RF microdisk resonators can be good candidates for future sensing applications in harsh environments.

  14. Optical-IR Polarimetry of the Blazar 3C 273: Orthogonal Synchrotron Components during a Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, B. J.; Cross, L. L.; Hough, J. H.; Bailey, J. A.; Wills, D.

    2000-12-01

    3C 273 usually exhibits low optical polarization, 8 days during the 1988 February flare. The complex polarization wavelength-dependence and its night-to-night variation are well described by the combination of two simple synchrotron spectra, with power-law polarized flux-density and approximately orthogonal wavelength-independent polarization position angles. The steeper component shows polarization approximately transverse to the projected VLBI jet direction. The variations in polarized flux-density, spectral index and position angle, account for the observed night-to-night variability, and track each other with no discernable time-lag. These results suggest an origin in two nearly co-spatial components, the flatter spectrum one arising in the compressed magnetic field of a transverse shock, and the other arising from electrons accelerated just outside the shocked region, where the dominant magnetic field is parallel to the jet. The highest measured polarization was 4.0+/-0.5% in L' band (3.8μ m). The largest polarization that would have been observed in the presence of just the strongest synchrotron component (i.e., no cancellation of polarization) was 6.4% (H-band). This would put 3C 273 clearly in the blazar category. We thank the staff of UKIRT and McDonald observatories for observational support, and the PATT for the allocation of telescope time. The research at Univ. Texas was supported by NASA LTSA grant number NAG5-3431 to B.J.W.

  15. High-order ionospheric effects on electron density estimation from Fengyun-3C GPS radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhai; Jin, Shuanggen

    2017-03-01

    GPS radio occultation can estimate ionospheric electron density and total electron content (TEC) with high spatial resolution, e.g., China's recent Fengyun-3C GPS radio occultation. However, high-order ionospheric delays are normally ignored. In this paper, the high-order ionospheric effects on electron density estimation from the Fengyun-3C GPS radio occultation data are estimated and investigated using the NeQuick2 ionosphere model and the IGRF12 (International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 12th generation) geomagnetic model. Results show that the high-order ionospheric delays have large effects on electron density estimation with up to 800 el cm-3, which should be corrected in high-precision ionospheric density estimation and applications. The second-order ionospheric effects are more significant, particularly at 250-300 km, while third-order ionospheric effects are much smaller. Furthermore, the high-order ionospheric effects are related to the location, the local time, the radio occultation azimuth and the solar activity. The large high-order ionospheric effects are found in the low-latitude area and in the daytime as well as during strong solar activities. The second-order ionospheric effects have a maximum positive value when the radio occultation azimuth is around 0-20°, and a maximum negative value when the radio occultation azimuth is around -180 to -160°. Moreover, the geomagnetic storm also affects the high-order ionospheric delay, which should be carefully corrected.

  16. Preliminary validation of refractivity from a new radio occultation sounder GNOS/FY-3C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, M.; Zhang, P.; Yang, G. L.; Bi, Y. M.; Liu, Y.; Bai, W. H.; Meng, X. G.; Du, Q. F.; Sun, Y. Q.

    2015-09-01

    As a new member of space-based radio occultation sounder, the GNOS (Global Navigation Satellite System Occultation Sounder) mounted on FY-3C has been carrying out the atmospheric sounding since 23 September 2013. GNOS takes a daily measurement up to 800 times with GPS (Global Position System) and Chinese BDS (BeiDou navigation satellite) signals. The refractivity profiles from GNOS are compared with the co-located ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) analyses in this paper. Bias and standard deviation have being calculated as the function of altitude. The mean bias is about 0.2 % from the near surface to 35 km. The average standard deviation is within 2 % while it is down to about 1 % in the range 5-30 km where best soundings are usually made. To evaluate the performance of GNOS, COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) and GRAS/METOP-A (GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding) data are also compared to ECMWF analyses as the reference. The results show that GNOS/FY-3C meets the requirements of the design well. It possesses a sounding capability similar to COSMIC and GRAS in the vertical range of 0-30 km, though it needs improvement in higher altitude. Generally, it provides a new data source for global NWP (numerical weather prediction) community.

  17. Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of 2D Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)

    KAUST Repository

    Alhabeb, Mohamed

    2017-08-25

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to this promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Here we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti3C2Tx and suggest the optimal processes for the desired application.

  18. Spatially resolved electron tunneling spectroscopy on single crystalline Rb{sub 3}C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess, P.; Hubler, U. [Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Behler, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California--Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Thommen-Geiser, V.; Lang, H.P.; Guentherodt, H. [Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    1996-03-01

    A Rb{sub 3}C{sub 60} single crystal ({ital T}{sub {ital c}}=30.5 K) is investigated in the superconducting state at 2.8 K by scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). STS data reveals a spatial variation of the superconducting energy gap {Delta} on a scale of 50 nm ({Delta}=2.6{endash}5.2 meV; 2{Delta}/{ital k}{sub {ital BT}}{sub {ital c}}=2.0{endash}4.0). This behavior is attributed to varying stoichiometry on the sample surface. An investigation of a Rb{sub 3}C{sub 60} facet shows that {ital I}({ital V}) characteristics even vary on molecular scale. {ital I}({ital V}) curves acquired between fullerene molecules exhibit a nonvanishing slope at zero bias whereas {ital I}({ital V}) characteristics measured above molecules exhibit vanishing slope at zero bias. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  19. A Machine Learning Approach for Improving the Detection Capabilities at 3C Seismic Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggelsen, Carsten; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    We apply and evaluate a recent machine learning method for the automatic classification of seismic waveforms. The method relies on Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBN) and supervised learning to improve the detection capabilities at 3C seismic stations. A time-frequency decomposition provides the basis for the required signal characteristics we need in order to derive the features defining typical "signal" and "noise" patterns. Each pattern class is modeled by a DBN, specifying the interrelationships of the derived features in the time-frequency plane. Subsequently, the models are trained using previously labeled segments of seismic data. The DBN models can now be compared against in order to determine the likelihood of new incoming seismic waveform segments to be either signal or noise. As the noise characteristics of seismic stations varies smoothly in time (seasonal variation as well as anthropogenic influence), we accommodate in our approach for a continuous adaptation of the DBN model that is associated with the noise class. Given the difficulty for obtaining a golden standard for real data (ground truth) the proof of concept and evaluation is shown by conducting experiments based on 3C seismic data from the International Monitoring Stations, BOSA and LPAZ.

  20. Demographic aspects in cervical vertebral bodies' size and shape (C3-C7): a skeletal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, David; Masharawi, Youssef; Salame, Khalil; Slon, Viviane; Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on the skeletal remains of individuals of known sex, age, and ethnic origin. The vertebral bodies of levels C3-C7 were measured and analyzed. Whereas many studies were performed on the size and shape of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spines, few have focused on the cervical vertebral bodies. Thus, there is insufficient data in the literature on the anatomy of the cervical spine, especially based on large study populations. To establish a large database on cervical vertebral bodies' size and shape and analyze their association with demographic parameters. The population studied was composed of 277 individuals, adult males and females of African American (AA) and European American (EA) origin. The skeletal remains are housed at the Hamman-Todd Osteological collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, OH). A 3-D digitizer was used to measure the size and shape of the C3-C7 vertebral bodies. Descriptive statistics were carried out for all measurements. t Test and one-way analysis of variance were performed to assess differences in vertebral bodies' size and shape between different demographical groups (by age, sex, and ethnicity). The vertebral bodies and foramina are significantly wider, more elongated, and higher in males compared to females. AA females and males manifest significantly greater vertebral bodies (width and length) in the upper and midcervical region (vertebrae C3-C5) than EA females and males. Nevertheless, the heights of the C3 and C4 vertebral bodies are significantly smaller among the AA population, regardless of sex. The vertebral foramina's width does not differ significantly between the two ethnic groups, independent of sex, whereas they tend to be elongated in the EA group (significant for C3, C5, C7). For most vertebrae, no significant differences were found in the superior facets' length between AA and EA males and females. Cervical vertebral bodies become wider and more

  1. A facile synthesis of new 5-aryl-thiophenes bearing sulfonamide moiety via Pd(0-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross coupling reactions and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide: As potent urease inhibitor, antibacterial agent and hemolytically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnaza Noreen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a convenient approach for the synthesis of thiophene sulfonamide derivatives (3a–3k via Suzuki cross coupling reaction. This method of synthesis involved the reactions of various aryl boronic acids and esters with 5-bromthiophene-2-sulfonamide (2 under mild and suitable temperature conditions. The compounds synthesized in the present study were subjected to urease inhibition and hemolytic activities. The substitution pattern and the electronic effects of different functional groups (i.e., Cl, CH3, OCH3, F etc. available on the aromatic ring are found to have significant effect on the overall results. The compound 5-Phenylthiophene-2-sulfonamide 3a showed the highest urease inhibition activity with IC50 value ∼ 30.8 μg/mL compared with the thiourea (used as standard having IC50 value ∼ 43 μg/mL. Moreover, almost all of the compounds were examined for the hemolytic activity against triton X-100 with positive results obtained in most of the cases. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the derivatives of 5-arylthiophene-2-sulfonamide and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide were also investigated during the course of the study.

  2. Enzymatic in situ formed hydrogel from gelatin-tyramine and chitosan-4-hydroxylphenyl acetamide for the co-delivery of human adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-derived growth factor towards vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Thuy Ba; Abueva, Celine D G; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2017-02-24

    An injectable, in situ forming hydrogel system capable of co-delivering human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was investigated as a new system for tissue engineering, envisaged to support vascularization. The system consists of tyramine-conjugated gelatin and hydroxyphenyl acetamide chitosan derivative. Both are soluble and stable at physiologic conditions, which is a key factor for retaining viable cells and active growth factor. In situ gelation involved enzymatic crosslinking using horseradish peroxidase as a catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. Gel formation occurred within 30-90 s by controlling the concentration of polymers. PDGF release showed adequate release kinetics within the intended period of time and hADSC showed good compatibility with the hydrogel formulation based on the in vitro assay and subcutaneous implantation into BALB/c-nu/nu nude female mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed viability of delivered hADSC. Histological analysis showed no immune reaction and confirmed blood vessel formation. The results implicate the hydrogel as a promising delivery vehicle or carrier of both cell and growth factor, which support vascularization for tissue engineering applications.

  3. Atomic probe microscopy of 3C SiC films grown on 6H SiC substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckl, A. J.; Roth, M. D.; Powell, J. A.; Larkin, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The surface of 3C SiC films grown on 6H SiC substrates has been studied by atomic probe microscopy in air. Atomic-scale images of the 3C SiC surface have been obtained by STM which confirm the 111 line type orientation of the cubic 3C layer grown on the 0001 plane type surface of the hexagonal 6H substrate. The nearest-neighbor atomic spacing for the 3C layer has been measured to be 3.29 +/- 0.2 A, which is within 7 percent of the bulk value. Shallow terraces in the 3C layer have been observed by STM to separate regions of very smooth growth in the vicinity of the 3C nucleation point from considerably rougher 3C surface regions. These terraces are oriented at right angles to the growth direction. Atomic force microscopy has been used to study etch pits present on the 6H substrate due to high temperature HCl cleaning prior to CVD growth of the 3C layer. The etch pits have hexagonal symmetry and vary in depth from 50 nm to 1 micron.

  4. OneWeb: web content adaptation platform based on W3C Mobile Web Initiative guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco O. Martínez P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  Restrictions regardingnavigability and user-friendliness are the main challenges the Mobile Web faces to be accepted worldwide. W3C has recently developed the Mobile Web Initiative (MWI, a set of directives for the suitable design and presentation of mobile Web interfaces. This article presents the main features and functional modules of OneWeb, an MWI-based Web content adaptation platform developed by Mobile Devices Applications Development Interest Group’s  (W@PColombia research activities, forming part of the Universidad de Cauca’s Telematics Engineering Group.Some performance measurementresults and comparison with other Web content adaptation platforms are presented. Tests have shown suitable response times for Mobile Web environments; MWI guidelines were applied to over twenty Web pages selected for testing purposes.  

  5. Thermally assisted OSL from deep traps in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeris, G.S., E-mail: gpolymer@ceti.g [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' ATHENA' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); ISIK University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, 34980-Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); Raptis, S.; Afouxenidis, D. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' ATHENA' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' ATHENA' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    The present work suggests an alternative experimental method in order to not only measure the signal of the deep traps in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C without heating the sample to temperatures greater than 500 {sup o}C, but also use this signal for high dose level dosimetry purposes as well. This method consists of photo transfer OSL measurements performed at elevated temperatures using the blue LEDs (470 nm, FWHM 20 nm) housed at commercial Riso TL/OSL systems, after the sample was previously heated up to 500 {sup o}C in order to empty its main TL dosimetric trap. The influence of this procedure on specific features such as glow curve shape and sensitivity of the main TL glow peak was also studied.

  6. Superluminal motion in the double-lobed quasar 3C 245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, D. H.; Readhead, A. C. S.

    1987-01-01

    VLBI observations of 3C 245 obtained at 10.7 GHz with the Mark III array at five epochs in 1981-1986 are reported. The data-reduction and model-fitting procedures are explained, and the results are presented in tables, graphs, and maps along with previously published data on 11 other superluminal sources. The central component of the quasar is found to have an apparent transverse velocity of (3.1 + or - 1.4) c/h, assuming H0 = 100h km/s Mpc and q0 = 0.5. From the apparent source orientation (based on R, variability, apparent curvature, and projected linear size) it is inferred that the apparent transverse velocity is anticorrelated with the angle to the line of sight, as predicted by relativistic-beaming models of superluminal motion.

  7. Soft X-ray observations of the supernova remnants HB 3 and 3C 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, C. M. F.; Tuohy, I. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    1980-01-01

    The HEAO 1 A-2 low energy detectors have discovered soft X-ray emission from a source positionally coincident with the supernova remnant HB 3. The flux in the energy range 0.3-2.2 keV is about 6 x 10 to the -11th ergs per sq cm s. The spectral data are fitted to a hydrogen thermal bremsstrahlung model, and the physical parameters of the supernova remnant are estimated. The age derived is about 21,000 years, and the initial blast energy is about 3.1 x 10 to the 50th ergs. Upper limits to the soft X-ray flux and the luminosity of the supernova remnant 3 C 58 are also derived.

  8. Orbit determination using real tracking data from FY3C-GNOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chao; Lu, Chuanfang; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Huoping

    2017-08-01

    China is currently developing the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, also known as BDS. The nominal constellation of BDS (regional), which had been able to provide preliminary regional positioning and navigation functions, was composed of fourteen satellites, including 5 GEO, 5 IGSO and 4 MEO satellites, and was realized by the end of 2013. Global navigation satellite system occultation sounder (GNOS) on board the Fengyun3C (FY3C) satellite, which is the first BDS/GPS compatible radio occultation (RO) sounder in the world, was launched on 23 September 2013. The GNOS instrument is capable of tracking up to 6 BeiDou satellites and more than 8 GPS satellites. We first present a quality analysis using 1-week onboard BDS/GPS measurements collected by GNOS. Satellite visibility, multipath combination and the ratio of cycle slips are analyzed. The analysis of satellite visibility shows that for one week the BDS receiver can track up to 6 healthy satellites. The analysis of multipath combinations (MPC) suggests more multipath present for BDS than GPS for the CA code (B1 MPC is 0.597 m, L1 MPC is 0.326 m), but less multipath for the P code (B2 MPC is 0.421 m, L2 MPC is 0.673 m). More cycle slips occur for the BDS than for the GPS receiver as shown by the ratio of total satellites/cycle slips observed over a 24 h period. Both the maximum value and average of the ratio of cycle slips based on BDS measurements is 72/50.29, which is smaller than 368/278.71 based on GPS measurements. Second, the results of reduced dynamic orbit determination using BDS/GPS code and phase measurements, standalone BDS SPP (Single Point Positioning) kinematic solution and real-time orbit determination using BDS/GPS code measurements are presented and analyzed. Using an overlap analysis, the orbit consistency of FY3C-GNOS is about 3.80 cm. The precision of BDS only solutions is about 22 cm. The precision of FY3C-GNOS orbit with the Helmert variance component estimation are improved slightly after

  9. Toward the Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide O: An Enantioselective Synthesis of C3-C8 Fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Minho; Lee, Duckhyung [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    The methyl ester 4, a C3-C8 fragment of am-phidinolide O (1), was prepared enantioselectively via 11 steps in 14% overall yields. The diastereoselective Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of 5 via the corresponding (E)-enolate intermediate was used as a key step in order to implement the C4 and C5 chiral centers. Retrosynthetic analysis was described in Figure 1. Amphi-dinolide O (1) might be assembled from two intermediates 2 and 3 via esterification and ring closing metathesis as key steps. Intermediate 4, a precursor to 3 as well as the target molecule in this paper, involves the γ,δ-unsaturated ester moiety along with α,β-chiral substituents with anti-stereochemical relationship.

  10. Equipartition Jet Model for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy 3C120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siek Hyung

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The motion of 3C120 Jet relative to the core is reasonably uniform and the VLBI scale jet connects outwards to a VLA ˜ 100 kpc scale. We measured the jet width variation from the center and found some indication of a power law which indicates the jet expands roughly with a constant opening angle and a constant flow velocity, Vf \\cong c, from subparsec scales to ˜ 100 kpc. With such a constant flow velocity and based on other physical parameters deduced from observed emission characteristics of the jet, we have established an equipartition jet model which might accommodate the basic parameters of the jet on subparsec scales, with which one can fit the radio intensities over all the scale of the jet even to ˜ 100 kpc.

  11. Probing the connection between the accretion disk, outflows and the jet in 3C111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Recent XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of 3C111 demonstrated the presence of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) with v~0.1c and their relation with the accretion disk. Independent studies found that X-ray dips are followed by ejection of superluminal radio knots, therefore providing a proof of the disk-jet connection. We acquired evidence that UFOs are preferentially present between X-ray dips and new knots, possibly indicating also a link between disk outflows and the jet. The goal of this XMM-Newton proposal is to confirm this evidence. Given the strong correlation with X-rays, we will use an ongoing optical monitoring campaign to trigger a 90ks observation within two days of a dip to detect a UFO and we request a possible additional 60ks >15 days after to compare with the non-dipped state.

  12. Thermodynamics analysis of diffusion in spark plasma sintering welding Cr3C2 and Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jinyong; Leng, Xiaoxuan; Lei, Liwen; Fu, Zhengyi

    2017-03-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) welding of chromium carbide (Cr3C2) and nickel (Ni) was used to investigate the atomic diffusion caused by bypassing current. It was found that the diffusion coefficient with bypassing current was enhanced by almost 3.57 times over that without bypassing current. Different from the previous researches, the thermodynamics analysis conducted herein showed that the enhancement included a current direction-independent part besides the known current direction-dependent part. A local temperature gradient (LTG) model was proposed to explain the current direction-independent effect. Assuming that the LTG was mainly due to the interfacial electric resistance causing heterogeneous Joule heating, the theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental results both in the present and previous studies. This new LTG model provides a reasonable physical meaning for the low-temperature advantage of SPS welding and should be useful in a wide range of applications.

  13. The 3C 279 Campaign of Winter 1999: A Gamma-Optical Correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Sobrito, M.; DeFrancesco, G.; Ostorero, L.; Tosti, G.; Kurtanidze, O.; Nikolashvili, M.; Takalo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the gamma-optical campaign of January-February 1999 on 3C 279. During this period we obtained good optical sampling of the source, the best ever for a gamma-bright OVV quasar. Its large and fast variations have been compared with the gamma-ray fluxes obtained simultaneously by Energy Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). Despite rather poor counting statistics in the gamma-ray data, a fair correlation is found, with the gamma variations following those in the optical by 3-4 days. This is the first time such a significant day-scale correlation has been observed between the optical and gamma emissions from a OVV quasar. Its implications are currently under study.

  14. Fe3C/Fe nanoparticles with urea: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobai; Zhang, Daguang; Ren, Xiaozhen; Gao, Jiajia; Han, Yu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shi, Zhan; Yang, Hua

    2016-12-01

    Fe3C/Fe nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol-gel method. Using urea as carbon source and reduce agent in the reaction process. The CTAB works as the surfactant and the bromine contained in CTAB plays a catalytic role. Appropriate choices of the amount of urea and CTAB, reaction temperature and time are very important to obtain high-quality of products. Above 650 °C, the precursor gel turned into the nanocomposites composed of iron carbide and iron. Their structures and magnetic properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The possible formation mechanism of as-prepared nanostructures is discussed.

  15. RADIOASTRON OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUASAR 3C273: A CHALLENGE TO THE BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE LIMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kardashev, N. S.; Voitsik, P. A.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Lisakov, M. M.; Sokolovsky, K. V. [Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Lobanov, A. P.; Zensus, J. A.; Anderson, J. M.; Bach, U.; Kraus, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 (Germany); Johnson, M. D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gurvits, L. I. [Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Jauncey, D. L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Sciences, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Ghigo, F. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Rt. 28/92, Green Bank, WV 24944-0002 (United States); Ghosh, T.; Salter, C. J. [Arecibo Observatory, NAIC, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico, PR 00612 (United States); Petrov, L. Yu. [Astrogeo Center, 7312 Sportsman Drive, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States); Romney, J. D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    Inverse Compton cooling limits the brightness temperature of the radiating plasma to a maximum of 10{sup 11.5} K. Relativistic boosting can increase its observed value, but apparent brightness temperatures much in excess of 10{sup 13} K are inaccessible using ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at any wavelength. We present observations of the quasar 3C 273, made with the space VLBI mission RadioAstron on baselines up to 171,000 km, which directly reveal the presence of angular structure as small as 26 μas (2.7 light months) and brightness temperature in excess of 10{sup 13} K. These measurements challenge our understanding of the non-thermal continuum emission in the vicinity of supermassive black holes and require a much higher Doppler factor than what is determined from jet apparent kinematics.

  16. The L3+C detector, a unique tool-set to study cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Banerjee, S; Bähr, J; Betev, B L; Bourilkov, D; Bottai, S; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Cartacci, A M; Chemarin, M; Chen, G; Chen He Sheng; Chiarusi, T; Dai Chang Jiang; Ding, L K

    2002-01-01

    The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, has been employed for the study of cosmic ray muons. The muon spectrometer of L3 consists of a set of high-precision drift chambers installed inside a magnet with a volume of about 1000 m**3 and a field of 0.5 T. Muon momenta are measured with a resolution of a few percent at 50 GeV. The detector is located under 30 m of overburden. A scintillator air shower array of 54 m by 30 m is installed on the roof of the surface hall above L3 in order to estimate the energy and the core position of the shower associated with a sample of detected muons. Thanks to the unique properties of the L3+C detector, muon research topics relevant to various current problems in cosmic ray and particle astrophysics can be studied.

  17. Radioluminescence in Al2O3: C - analytical and numerical simulation results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, V.; Lawless, J.; Chen, R.

    2009-01-01

    used to provide a quantitative description of the thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence processes in Al2O3 : C. Using appropriate sets of trapping parameters for the kinetic model, the RL signal along with the occupancies of the relevant traps and centres are simulated numerically....... The set of differential equations is also solved analytically by assuming dynamic balance during sample irradiation. Analytical expressions are obtained for the concentrations of traps and centres in the material during irradiation with short irradiation pulses, by assuming that quasi-steady conditions...... hold during irradiation. Several experimentally observed characteristics of the RL signals are explained by using the model. Good quantitative agreement is found between the analytical expressions and the numerical solutions of the model for short irradiation pulses....

  18. The 3C111 Jet: X-ray Variability, Spectrum & Broadband SED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Eric

    2017-08-01

    The discovery of X-ray emission from AGN jets is a touchstone of the Chandra mission. Their X-ray emission processes have become the source of much debate, with implications for both jet physics and cluster feedback models. 3C111 has an extraordinary 2-arcminute long jet that is seen in X-ray, near-IR and radio. At least 8 knots, plus both approaching and receding hotspots and lobes, are seen in the Chandra image. We request additional Chandra, HST and NuSTAR observations, to follow up on possible evidence of variability in two knots, pin down the knots' X-ray spectrum and SED, detect the jet above 10 keV, and study the morphology and X-ray spectrum of the extended lobes. These observations will place the tightest constraints yet on the physics of this fascinating system.

  19. Probing the Parsec-scale Accretion Flow of 3C 84 with Millimeter Wavelength Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plambeck, R. L.; Bower, G. C.; Rao, Ramprasad; Marrone, D. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Doeleman, S. S.; Fish, V. L.; Johnson, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report the discovery of Faraday rotation toward radio source 3C 84, the active galactic nucleus in NGC 1275 at the core of the Perseus Cluster. The rotation measure (RM), determined from polarization observations at wavelengths of 1.3 and 0.9 mm, is (8.7 ± 2.3)× 105 rad m-2, among the largest ever measured. The RM remained relatively constant over a 2 yr period even as the intrinsic polarization position angle wrapped through a span of 300°. The Faraday rotation is likely to originate either in the boundary layer of the radio jet from the nucleus or in the accretion flow onto the central black hole. The accretion flow probably is disk-like rather than spherical on scales of less than a parsec, otherwise the RM would be even larger.

  20. Transient neuronal populations are required to guide callosal axons: a role for semaphorin 3C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Niquille

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum (CC is the main pathway responsible for interhemispheric communication. CC agenesis is associated with numerous human pathologies, suggesting that a range of developmental defects can result in abnormalities in this structure. Midline glial cells are known to play a role in CC development, but we here show that two transient populations of midline neurons also make major contributions to the formation of this commissure. We report that these two neuronal populations enter the CC midline prior to the arrival of callosal pioneer axons. Using a combination of mutant analysis and in vitro assays, we demonstrate that CC neurons are necessary for normal callosal axon navigation. They exert an attractive influence on callosal axons, in part via Semaphorin 3C and its receptor Neuropilin-1. By revealing a novel and essential role for these neuronal populations in the pathfinding of a major cerebral commissure, our study brings new perspectives to pathophysiological mechanisms altering CC formation.

  1. Mesophyll Chloroplast Investment in C3, C4 and C2 Species of the Genus Flaveria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stata, Matt; Sage, Tammy L; Hoffmann, Natalie; Covshoff, Sarah; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Sage, Rowan F

    2016-05-01

    The mesophyll (M) cells of C4 plants contain fewer chloroplasts than observed in related C3 plants; however, it is uncertain where along the evolutionary transition from C3 to C4 that the reduction in M chloroplast number occurs. Using 18 species in the genus Flaveria, which contains C3, C4 and a range of C3-C4 intermediate species, we examined changes in chloroplast number and size per M cell, and positioning of chloroplasts relative to the M cell periphery. Chloroplast number and coverage of the M cell periphery declined in proportion to increasing strength of C4 metabolism in Flaveria, while chloroplast size increased with increasing C4 cycle strength. These changes increase cytosolic exposure to the cell periphery which could enhance diffusion of inorganic carbon to phosphenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a cytosolic enzyme. Analysis of the transcriptome from juvenile leaves of nine Flaveria species showed that the transcript abundance of four genes involved in plastid biogenesis-FtsZ1, FtsZ2, DRP5B and PARC6-was negatively correlated with variation in C4 cycle strength and positively correlated with M chloroplast number per planar cell area. Chloroplast size was negatively correlated with abundance of FtsZ1, FtsZ2 and PARC6 transcripts. These results indicate that natural selection targeted the proteins of the contractile ring assembly to effect the reduction in chloroplast numbers in the M cells of C4 Flaveria species. If so, efforts to engineer the C4 pathway into C3 plants might evaluate whether inducing transcriptome changes similar to those observed in Flaveria could reduce M chloroplast numbers, and thus introduce a trait that appears essential for efficient C4 function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Swift Monitoring of 3C 454.3 During a Prolonged Low Gamma-ray State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone, Stefano; Romano, P.

    2013-04-01

    The blazar 3C 454.3 is a well-known, extremely variable flat-spectrum radio quasar which exhibited the most intense gamma-ray flares detected up to now. Thanks to the Swift innovative and unique pointing strategy, it has been possible to monitor this source in the UV and X-ray energy bands on time-scales comparable to the ground-based optical and radio ones. The long-term multi-wavelength light-curves allowed us to obtain detailed information on time-lags between the flux emission in different energy bands, to investigate the properties of the jet during the most intense gamma-ray flares, and to study the radiation mechanisms responsible for the emission at different frequencies. In particular we found that, during extreme gamma-ray flares, the harder-when-brighter correlation noted during low and intermediate gamma-ray states does not hold anymore, leading to an achromatic increase of the X-ray flux, interpreted in terms of a balance of the synchrotron self-Compton contribution with respect to the external Compton on the disc radiation. We present our new results of an on-going Swift monitoring of 3C 454.3 during a prolonged low gamma-ray state. Our monitoring allows us to extend our study of a poorly sampled region of the X-ray spectral index vs. flux diagram, where a clear correlation between the two quantities (if any) is unclear, and improve our current understanding of this spectral trend in terms of the relative contribution of different emission components.

  3. A HARD GAMMA-RAY FLARE FROM 3C 279 IN 2013 DECEMBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Diltz, Chris; Böttcher, Markus [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Buckley, David, E-mail: vaidehi@iiap.res.in [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2016-01-20

    The blazar 3C 279 exhibited twin γ-ray flares of similar intensity in 2013 December and 2014 April. In this work, we present a detailed multi-wavelength analysis of the 2013 December flaring event. Multi-frequency observations reveal the uncorrelated variability patterns with X-ray and optical–UV fluxes peaking after the γ-ray maximum. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) at the peak of the γ-ray activity shows a rising γ-ray spectrum but a declining optical–UV flux. This observation along with the detection of uncorrelated variability behavior rules out the one-zone leptonic emission scenario. We, therefore, adopt two independent methodologies to explain the SED: a time-dependent lepto-hadronic modeling and a two-zone leptonic radiative modeling approach. In the lepto-hadronic modeling, a distribution of electrons and protons subjected to a randomly orientated magnetic field produces synchrotron radiation. Electron synchrotron is used to explain the IR to UV emission while proton synchrotron emission is used to explain the high-energy γ-ray emission. A combination of both electron synchrotron self-Compton emission and proton synchrotron emission is used to explain the X-ray spectral break seen during the later stage of the flare. In the two-zone modeling, we assume a large emission region emitting primarily in IR to X-rays and γ-rays to come primarily from a fast-moving compact emission region. We conclude by noting that within a span of four months, 3C 279 has shown the dominance of a variety of radiative processes over each other and this reflects the complexity involved in understanding the physical properties of blazar jets in general.

  4. Larsen syndrome with C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopesh Kumar, V R; Madhguiri, Venkatesh S; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M; Gundamaneni, Sudheer Kumar; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a clinical case report with a review of relevant literature. To describe a case of Larsen syndrome with C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation in a middle-aged female patient and to discuss management strategies. Spondyloptosis of the cervical spine is relatively rare and is caused by trauma, destruction of the vertebral bodies by tumors, or tuberculosis. Such gross vertebral displacement is usually associated with significant neurological deficits. Larsen syndrome is characterized by multiple joint displacements and can, very rarely, be associated with nontraumatic spondyloptosis of the cervical vertebra. A single case report of C1-C2 joint laxity causing atlantoaxial dislocation in a patient with Larsen syndrome is available in literature. No reports of any patient (with Larsen syndrome or nonsyndromic) who had both cervical spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation are available in literature. A 36-year-old female presented with chronic neck pain, bilateral hand deformity, and mild spasticity involving all 4 limbs. Cervical radiograph, computed tomographic scan, and magnetic resonance image revealed C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation. A combined ventral decompression of subaxial spine and instrumentation from C2 to C5, followed by posterior C1-C2 distraction arthroplasty and lateral mass stabilization of the subaxial spine up to C6, was done. The cervical deformity was corrected, and the patient remains symptom free. Patients with spondyloptosis of the cervical spine can rarely present with chronic neck pain and minimal neurological deficits. An additional pathology, such as atlantoaxial dislocation, can add to the complexity. Circumferential stabilization and fusion would be required in such cases to achieve a good outcome. Larsen syndrome is a rare cause of nontraumatic cervical displacements.

  5. Probing the Disk-Jet Connection of the Radio Galaxy 3C120 Observed With Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Jun; Reeves, James N.; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Markowitz, Alex G.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Arimoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tsubuku, Yoshihiro; Ushio, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Shin; Gallo, Luigi C.; Madejski, Greg M.; Terashima, Yuichi; Isobe, Naoki; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /NASA, Goddard /Garching, Max Planck

    2007-01-03

    Broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are a rare type of radio-loud AGN, in which the broad optical permitted emission lines have been detected in addition to the extended jet emission. Here we report on deep (40ksec x 4) observations of the bright BLRG 3C 120 using Suzaku. The observations were spaced a week apart, and sample a range of continuum fluxes. An excellent broadband spectrum was obtained over two decades of frequency (0.6 to 50 keV) within each 40 ksec exposure. We clearly resolved the iron K emission line complex, finding that it consists of a narrow K{sub {alpha}} core ({sigma} {approx_equal} 110 eV or an EW of 60 eV), a 6.9 keV line, and an underlying broad iron line. Our confirmation of the broad line contrasts with the XMM-Newton observation in 2003, where the broad line was not required. The most natural interpretation of the broad line is iron K line emission from a face-on accretion disk which is truncated at {approx} 10 r{sub g}. Above 10 keV, a relatively weak Compton hump was detected (reflection fraction of R {approx_equal} 0.6), superposed on the primary X-ray continuum of {Lambda} {approx_equal} 1.75. Thanks to the good photon statistics and low background of the Suzaku data, we clearly confirm the spectral evolution of 3C 120, whereby the variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy. More strikingly, we discovered that the variability is caused by a steep power-law component of {Lambda} {approx_equal} 2.7, possibly related to the non-thermal jet emission. We discuss our findings in the context of similarities and differences between radio-loud/quiet objects.

  6. The 2009 December Gamma-ray Flare of 3C 454.3: The Multifrequency Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacciani, L.; Vittorini, V.; Tavani, M.; Fiocchi, M. T.; Vercellone, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Sakamoto, T.; Pian, E.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Sasada, M.; Itoh, R.; Yamanaka, M.; Uemura, M.; Striani, E.; Fugazza, D.; Tiengo, A.; Krimm, H. A.; Stroh, M. C.; Falcone, A. D.; Curran, P. A.; Sadun, A. C.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Lin, C. S.; Larionov, V. M.; Leto, P.; Takalo, L. O.; Berdyugin, A.; Gurwell, M. A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Chen, A. W.; Donnarumma, I.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Pucella, G.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Costa, E.; De Paris, G.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Ferrari, A.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Marisaldi, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Rubini, A.; Sabatini, S.; Soffitta, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zanello, D.; Colafrancesco, S.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.

    2010-06-01

    During the month of 2009 December, the blazar 3C 454.3 became the brightest gamma-ray source in the sky, reaching a peak flux F ~ 2000 × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 for E > 100 MeV. Starting in 2009 November intensive multifrequency campaigns monitored the 3C 454 gamma-ray outburst. Here, we report on the results of a two-month campaign involving AGILE, INTEGRAL, Swift/XRT, Swift/BAT, and Rossi XTE for the high-energy observations and Swift/UVOT, KANATA, Goddard Robotic Telescope, and REM for the near-IR/optical/UV data. GASP/WEBT provided radio and additional optical data. We detected a long-term active emission phase lasting ~1 month at all wavelengths: in the gamma-ray band, peak emission was reached on 2009 December 2-3. Remarkably, this gamma-ray super-flare was not accompanied by correspondingly intense emission in the optical/UV band that reached a level substantially lower than the previous observations in 2007-2008. The lack of strong simultaneous optical brightening during the super-flare and the determination of the broadband spectral evolution severely constrain the theoretical modeling. We find that the pre- and post-flare broadband behavior can be explained by a one-zone model involving synchrotron self-Compton plus external Compton emission from an accretion disk and a broad-line region. However, the spectra of the 2009 December 2-3 super-flare and of the secondary peak emission on 2009 December 9 cannot be satisfactorily modeled by a simple one-zone model. An additional particle component is most likely active during these states.

  7. Feeding and Feedback in the Powerful Radio Galaxy 3C 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Ueda, Y.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Williams, B. J.; Stawarz, L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of a 200-kilosecond observation of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120, performed with the high-energy transmission grating spectrometer on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We find (i) a neutral absorption component intrinsic to the source with a column density of log N (sub H) equals 20.67 plus or minus 0.05 square centimeters; (ii) no evidence for a warm absorber (WA) with an upper limit on the column density of just log N (sub H) less than 19.7 square centimeters, assuming the typical ionization parameter log xi approximately equal to 2.5 ergs per second per centimeter; the WA may instead be replaced by (iii) a hot emitting gas with a temperature kT approximately equal to 0.7 kiloelectronvolts observed as soft X-ray emission from ionized Fe L-shell lines, which may originate from a kiloparsec-scale shocked bubble inflated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) wind or jet with a shock velocity of about 1000 kilometers per second determined by the emission line width; (iv) a neutral Fe K alpha line and accompanying emission lines indicative of a Compton-thick cold reflector with a low reflection fraction R approximately equal to 0.2, suggesting a large opening angle of the torus; (v) a highly ionized Fe XXV emission feature indicative of photoionized gas with an ionization parameter log xi equal to 3.75 (sup plus 0.38) (sub minus 0.27) ergs per second per centimeter and a column density of log N (sub H) greater than 22 square centimeters localized within approximately 2 pc from the X-ray source; and (vi) possible signatures of a highly ionized disk wind. Together with previous evidence for intense molecular line emission, these results indicate that 3C 120 is likely a late-state merger undergoing strong AGN feedback.

  8. Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO Ternary Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO nanocomposites were synthesized via the decomposition of a mixture of Ti3C2 (a novel two-dimensional carbide and cupric nitrate under an argon atmosphere. The morphology and structures of the obtained samples were characterized. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis indicate that the sample is composed of Ti3C2, anatase-TiO2, and CuO. Scanning electron microscopy images show that CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of Ti3C2. The particles size increased with an increase in the cupric nitrate content. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange shows that the Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO nanocomposite has good photocatalytic degradation efficiency. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of the Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO nanocomposites was proposed. The data indicated that CuO and Ti3C2 effectively promote the separation of photoelectrons from vacancies.

  9. Controlling the optical properties of monocrystalline 3C-SiC heteroepitaxially grown on silicon at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Gerard; Myronov, Maksym

    2017-11-01

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) offers an alternative wide bandgap semiconductor to conventional materials such as hexagonal silicon carbide (4H-SiC) or gallium nitride (GaN) for the detection of UV light and can offer a closely lattice matched virtual substrate for subsequent GaN heteroepitaxy. As 3C-SiC can be heteroepitaxially grown on silicon (Si) substrates its optical properties can be manipulated by controlling the thickness and doping concentrations. The optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers have been characterized by measuring the transmission of light through suspended membranes. Decreasing the thickness of the 3C-SiC epilayers is shown to shift the absorbance edge to lower wavelengths, a result of the indirect bandgap nature of silicon carbide. This property, among others, can be exploited to fabricate very low-cost, tuneable 3C-SiC based UV photodetectors. This study investigates the effect of thickness and doping concentration on the optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers grown at low temperatures by a standard Si based growth process. The results demonstrate the potential photonic applications of 3C-SiC and its heterogeneous integration into the Si industry.

  10. First synthesis of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} nanowhiskers by low-temperature vaccum carburization from precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yongzhong, E-mail: jyzcd@163.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong City, 643000 (China); Zhang, Zhengquan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong City, 643000 (China); Ye, Faming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong City, 643000 (China); Deyang Haohua Qingping Linkuang Co. Ltd., Deyang City, 618000 (China); Liu, Dongliang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Ruisong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong City, 643000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    To assist a widespread application of chromium carbide (Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}), it is important to synthesize Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} nanowhiskers and but there are almost no related reports. In this letter, we first reported a low-lost synthesis of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} nanowhiskers at 800 °C by vacuum carburization process using precursor powders as raw materials without Fe/Co/Ni catalysts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirm that Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} nanowhiskers have a single-phase orthorhombic structure. A homogeneous chemical composition can be obtained in the calcining product from precursor, which reduces significantly the synthesis temperature. Morphological studies using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} nanowhiskers have a clean and smooth surface with a diameter size of ∼50 nm. - Highlights: • Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} nanowhiskers were first synthesized at 800 °C by a novel LVCP method. • A homogeneous chemical composition from precursor reduces synthesis temperature. • Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} nanowhiskers have a single-phase structure and a diameter size of ∼50 nm.

  11. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF 3C RADIO SOURCES WITH z < 0.3. II. COMPLETING THE SNAPSHOT SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Harris, D. E.; O' Dea, C. P. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kharb, P.; Axon, D. [Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Baum, S. A. [Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, F. D.; Sparks, W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martine Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Grandi, P.; Torresi, E. [INAF-IASF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e fisica Cosmica di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Risaliti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We report on the second round of Chandra observations of the 3C snapshot survey developed to observe the complete sample of 3C radio sources with z < 0.3 for 8 ks each. In the first paper, we illustrated the basic data reduction and analysis procedures performed for the 30 sources of the 3C sample observed during Chandra Cycle 9, while here we present the data for the remaining 27 sources observed during Cycle 12. We measured the X-ray intensity of the nuclei and of any radio hot spots and jet features with associated X-ray emission. X-ray fluxes in three energy bands, i.e., soft, medium, and hard, for all the sources analyzed are also reported. For the stronger nuclei, we also applied the standard spectral analysis, which provides the best-fit values of the X-ray spectral index and absorbing column density. In addition, a detailed analysis of bright X-ray nuclei that could be affected by pile-up has been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in our sample except for 3C 319. Among the current sample, there are two compact steep spectrum radio sources, two broad-line radio galaxies, and one wide angle tail radio galaxy, 3C 89, hosted in a cluster of galaxies clearly visible in our Chandra snapshot observation. In addition, we also detected soft X-ray emission arising from the galaxy cluster surrounding 3C 196.1. Finally, X-ray emission from hot spots has been found in three FR II radio sources and, in the case of 3C 459, we also report the detection of X-ray emission associated with the eastern radio lobe as well as X-ray emission cospatial with radio jets in 3C 29 and 3C 402.

  12. Role of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase in the renal 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Edwin K; Gillespie, Delbert G; Mi, Zaichuan; Cheng, Dongmei; Bansal, Rashmi; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2014-07-01

    Energy depletion increases the renal production of 2',3'-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP that opens mitochondrial permeability transition pores) and 2',3'-cAMP is converted to 2'-AMP and 3'-AMP, which in turn are metabolized to adenosine. Because the enzymes involved in this "2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway" are unknown, we examined whether 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) participates in the renal metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP. Western blotting and real-time PCR demonstrated expression of CNPase in rat glomerular mesangial, preglomerular vascular smooth muscle and endothelial, proximal tubular, thick ascending limb and collecting duct cells. Real-time PCR established the expression of CNPase in human glomerular mesangial, proximal tubular and vascular smooth muscle cells; and the level of expression of CNPase was greater than that for phosphodiesterase 4 (major enzyme for the metabolism of 3',5'-cAMP). Overexpression of CNPase in rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells increased the metabolism of exogenous 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP. Infusions of 2',3'-cAMP into isolated CNPase wild-type (+/+) kidneys increased renal venous 2'-AMP, and this response was diminished by 63% in CNPase knockout (-/-) kidneys, whereas the conversion of 3',5'-cAMP to 5'-AMP was similar in CNPase +/+ vs. -/- kidneys. In CNPase +/+ kidneys, energy depletion (metabolic poisons) increased kidney tissue levels of adenosine and its metabolites (inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) without accumulation of 2',3'-cAMP. In contrast, in CNPase -/- kidneys, energy depletion increased kidney tissue levels of 2',3'-cAMP and abolished the increase in adenosine and its metabolites. In conclusion, kidneys express CNPase, and renal CNPase mediates in part the renal 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Dissecting the contribution of EBNA3C domains important for EBV-induced B-cell growth and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Hem Chandra; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Lu, Jie; Aj, Mahadesh Prasad; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Robertson, Erle S

    2015-10-06

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gammaherpes virus which is linked to pathogenesis of several human lymphatic malignancies. The EBV essential latent antigen EBNA3C is critical for efficient conversion of primary human B-lymphocytes to lymphoblastic cell lines and for continued LCL growth. EBNA3C, an EBV latent antigen with oncogenic potential can bind and regulate the functions of a wide range of cellular transcription factors. In our current reverse genetics study, we deleted the full length EBNA3C, and independently the RBP-Jκ and Nm23-H1 binding sites within EBNA3C using BACmid recombinant engineering methodology. Our experiments demonstrated that deletion of the EBV EBNA3C open reading frame (ORF) and more specifically the residues 621-675 which binds Nm23H1 and SUMO-1 showed a significant reduction in the ability of the cells to proliferate. Furthermore, they exhibited lower infectivity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also showed that recombinant EBV with deletions of the EBNA3C ORF, as well as a recombinant with residues 621-675 within EBNA3C ORF deleted had diminished abilities to activate CD40. Our study also revealed that the full length (1-992) and 621-675 aa deletions of EBNA3C when compared to wild type EBV infected PBMCs had differential expression patterns for the phosphorylation of MAP kinases specifically p38, JNK and ERK. Regulation of β-catenin also differed among wild type and EBNA3C deleted mutants. These temporal differences in signaling activities of these recombinant viruses in PBMCs is likely important in defining their functional importance in EBV-mediated B-cell transformation.

  14. Al2O3:C as a sensitive OSL dosemeter for rapid assessment of environmental photon dose rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Markey, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Al2O3:C single crystals as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeters for rapid assessment of the environmental photon dose rate is proposed. It is shown that Al2O3:C possesses higher OSL sensitivity than TL sensitivity. In TL measurements thermal quenching is a major problem...... and the energy response (equal to that of quartz) make Al2O3:C ideal for measuring the environmental dose rates in connection with luminescence dating and retrospective dosimetry using natural materials and ceramics. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  15. Solvothermal synthesis of discrete cages and extended networks comprising {Cr(III)3O(O2CR)3(oxime)3}2- (R = H, CH3, C(CH3)3, C14H9) building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houton, Edel; Comar, Priyanka; Pitak, Mateusz B.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of a family of related Cr(iii) cages are reported. Each member comprises {Cr(iii)3O(O2CR1)3(R2-sao)3}2- (R1 = H, CH3, C(CH3)3, C14H9; R2 = Me, Ph, tBu, C10H8) triangles linked by Na+ cations, resulting in either the discrete complexes [H3O][...

  16. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3C(O)O2 radicals. Kinetics of their reaction with NO2 and kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the product CF3C(O)O2NO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T.J.; Sehested, J.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1994-01-01

    decomposition CF3C(O)O2NO2. The rate of decomposition of CF3C(O)O2NO2 was independent of the total pressure of N2 diluent over the range 100-700 Torr and was fit by the expression k-1 = (1.9(-1.5)+7.6) x 10(16) exp[(-14000 +/- 480)/T] s-1. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of CFC replacements...

  17. Star-jet Interactions and Gamma-ray Outbursts from 3C454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khangulyan, D. V.; Barkov, M. V.; Bosch-Romon, V.; Aharonian, F. A.; Dorodnitsyn, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a model to explain the ultra-bright GeV gamma-ray flares observed from the blazar 3C454.3. The model is based on the concept of a relativistic jet interacting with compact gas condensations produced when a star (a red giant) crosses the jet close to the central black hole. The study includes an analytical treatment of the evolution of the envelope lost by the star within the jet, and calculations of the related high-energy radiation. The model readily explains the day-long that varies on timescales of hours, GeV gamma-ray flare from 3C454.3, observed during 2010 November on top of a plateau lasting weeks. In the proposed scenario, the plateau state is caused by a strong wind generated by the heating of the stellar atmosphere due to nonthermal particles accelerated at the jet-star interaction region. The flare itself could be produced by a few clouds of matter lost by the red giant after the initial impact of the jet. In the framework of the proposed scenario, the observations constrain the key model parameters of the source, including the mass of the central black hole: Blackhole Mass is approx. equal to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass, the total jet power: L(j) is approx. equal to 10(exp 48) erg s(exp -1), and the Doppler factor of the gamma-ray emitting clouds: Delta is approx. equal to 20. Whereas we do not specify the particle acceleration mechanisms, the potential gamma-ray production processes are discussed and compared in the context of the proposed model.We argue that synchrotron radiation of protons has certain advantages compared to other radiation channels of directlyaccelerated electrons. An injected proton distribution varies as E(exp -1) or harder below the relevant energies would be favored to alleviate the tight energetic constraints and to avoid the violation of the observational low-energy constraints.

  18. RANCANGAN SILABUS MATA KULIAH WEB BERFILOSOFI WEB STANDARDS CURRICULUM W3C (STUDI KASUS KURIKULUM PRODI SISTEM INFORMASI UDINUS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lalang Erawan; Suharnawi Suharnawi

    2014-01-01

    .... Kajian ini membuat usulan  rancangan silabus yang baru dengan menggunakan pedoman penyusunan materi dari kurikulum standar web yang dikembangkan oleh organisasi web dunia W3C khususnya salah satu kelompok yang bernaung...

  19. Three-dimensional graphene anchored Fe2O3@C core-shell nanoparticles as supercapacitor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Miao; Sha, Junwei; Miao, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (rGO) anchored carbon-coated Fe2O3 core-shell nanoparticles (Fe2O3@C-rGO) has been developed successfully through a simple one-pot hydrothermal process followed by a further annealing treatment. The 3D Fe2O3@C-rGO nanocomposite consists of carbon-coated...... Fe2O3 nanoparticle clusters (Fe2O3@C) and rGO nanosheets. The homogenously distributed and intercalated Fe2O3@C nanoparticles between rGO nanosheets form a highly conductive 3D carbon network with rGO, and present a hierarchical pore size structure, enabling fast ion and electron transport, as well...

  20. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental NR3C1: Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R; Papandonatos, George D; Salisbury, Amy L; Phipps, Maureen G; Huestis, Marilyn A; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F; Marsit, Carmen J; Lester, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral Scale was administered 7 times over the 1st postnatal month; methylation of placental NR3C1 was assessed via bisulfite pyrosequencing. Increased placental NR3C1 methylation was associated with increased infant attention and self-regulation, and decreased lethargy and need for examiner soothing over the 1st postnatal month. A causal steps approach revealed that NR3C1 methylation and MSDP were independently associated with lethargic behavior. Although preliminary, results highlight the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in elucidating pathways to neurobehavioral alterations from MSDP. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Depression history, depressive symptoms, and incident dementia: the 3C Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Hermine; Dufouil, Carole; Auriacombe, Sophie; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Ritchie, Karen; Tzourio, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether depression assessed by different markers predicts the risk of incident dementia in elderly individuals. Data was derived from the 3C cohort study conducted in community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over, randomly recruited from electoral rolls of three French areas and followed up for four years (1999-2001 through 2004) with assessments every 2 years. The study sample comprised 7989 dementia-free individuals (mean age, 74.0 years; 61% women) assessed at baseline for current or past Major Depressive Episodes (MDE) based on MDE module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, self-reported lifetime treated depression, and level of depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were applied to examine the risk of incident dementia associated with these markers of depression. MDE and self-reported lifetime treated depression did not increase incident dementia risk. Conversely, high level of depressive symptoms at baseline was associated with a 50% increased risk of dementia (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% Confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.2). This result was driven by a five-fold increased risk of vascular dementia (HR, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.2-10.7; p depressive symptoms is predictive of vascular dementia within a few years. This close temporal association suggests that depression is less a risk factor for than a prodromal symptom of vascular dementia.

  2. The Global Jet Structure of the Archetypical Quasar 3C 273

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Akiyama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A key question in the formation of the relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs is the collimation process of their energetic plasma flow launched from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH. Recent observations of nearby low-luminosity radio galaxies exhibit a clear picture of parabolic collimation inside the Bondi accretion radius. On the other hand, little is known of the observational properties of jet collimation in more luminous quasars, where the accretion flow may be significantly different due to much higher accretion rates. In this paper, we present preliminary results of multi-frequency observations of the archetypal quasar 3C 273 with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA at 1.4, 15, and 43 GHz, and Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN at 1.6 GHz. The observations provide a detailed view of the transverse structure resolved on a broad range of spatial scales from sub-parsec to kilo parsecs, allowing us to profile the jet width as a function of the distance from the core for the first time in jets of bright quasars. We discovered a transition from a parabolic stream to a conical stream, which has been seen in much lower-luminosity radio galaxies. The similarity in the profile to the much lower-powered radio galaxy M87 suggests the universality of jet collimation among AGNs with different accretion rates.

  3. A rare case of 3C disease: Ritscher–Schinzel syndrome presenting with recurrent talipes equinovarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Elmas, Muhsin; Erginoğlu, Sadık Emre; Yeşil, Murat

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Club foot (CF) is characterized by multiple deformities such as varus, adductus and internal rotation of the forefoot. It is well-known and a frequent congenital disorder. CF can concurrently be seen with several diseases but it can rarely manifest as a component of any other syndrome. Ritscher–Schinzel syndrome, or cranio-cerebello-cardiac syndrome, is rarely seen and has autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by cranio-facial, cerebellar and cardiac abnormalities. We report a case diagnosed as Ritscher–Schinzel syndrome concurrent with persistent CF. PRESENTATION OF CASE A two-year-old boy with persistent CF and concurrent congenital hip dysplasia. Despite successful serial casting and subsequent achilloplasty a clinical relapse was observed in our patient. After a detailed phenotypic evaluation, genetical tests and imaging technique the patient was diagnosed 3C Ritscher–Schinzel syndrome. DISCUSSION A comprehensive literature review did not show any reports about concurrent hip dysplasia and clubfoot in Ritscher–Schinzel syndrome. We report that CF may be associated with rare genetical abnormalities. CONCLUSION With this report we would like to raise awareness about the possible association of persistent CF with this rare genetical disorder, Ritscher–Schinzel syndrome. It should be included in differential diagnosis of patients with persistent CF. PMID:25434475

  4. A rare case of 3C disease: Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome presenting with recurrent talipes equinovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Elmas, Muhsin; Erginoğlu, Sadık Emre; Yeşil, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Club foot (CF) is characterized by multiple deformities such as varus, adductus and internal rotation of the forefoot. It is well-known and a frequent congenital disorder. CF can concurrently be seen with several diseases but it can rarely manifest as a component of any other syndrome. Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome, or cranio-cerebello-cardiac syndrome, is rarely seen and has autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by cranio-facial, cerebellar and cardiac abnormalities. We report a case diagnosed as Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome concurrent with persistent CF. A two-year-old boy with persistent CF and concurrent congenital hip dysplasia. Despite successful serial casting and subsequent achilloplasty a clinical relapse was observed in our patient. After a detailed phenotypic evaluation, genetical tests and imaging technique the patient was diagnosed 3C Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome. A comprehensive literature review did not show any reports about concurrent hip dysplasia and clubfoot in Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome. We report that CF may be associated with rare genetical abnormalities. With this report we would like to raise awareness about the possible association of persistent CF with this rare genetical disorder, Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome. It should be included in differential diagnosis of patients with persistent CF. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A hadronic minute-scale GeV flare from quasar 3C 279?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, M.; Nalewajko, K.; Hayashida, M.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2017-05-01

    The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 is a known γ-ray variable source that has recently exhibited minute-scale variability at energies >100 MeV. One-zone leptonic models for blazar emission are severely constrained by the short time-scale variability that implies a very compact emission region at a distance of hundreds of Schwarzschild radii from the central black hole. Here, we investigate a hadronic scenario where GeV γ-rays are produced via proton synchrotron radiation. We also take into account the effects of the hadronically initiated electromagnetic cascades (EMC). For a γ-ray emitting region in rough equipartition between particles and kG magnetic fields, located within the broad-line region (BLR), the development of EMC redistributes the γ-ray luminosity to softer energy bands and eventually leads to broad-band spectra that differ from the observed ones. Suppression of EMC and energy equipartition are still possible, if the γ-ray emitting region is located beyond the BLR, is fast moving with Doppler factor (>70) and contains strong magnetic fields (>100 G). Yet, these conditions cannot be easily met in parsec-scale jets, thus disfavouring a proton synchrotron origin of the Fermi-LAT flare.

  6. 3C 273 with NuSTAR: Unveiling the Active Galactic Nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Fürst, Felix; Walton, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a 244 ks NuSTAR observation of 3C 273 obtained during a cross-calibration campaign with the Chandra, INTEGRAL, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories. We show that the spectrum, when fit with a power-law model using data from all observatories except INTEGRAL over the 1......-78 keV band, leaves significant residuals in the NuSTAR data between 30 and 78 keV. The NuSTAR 3-78 keV spectrum is well. described by an exponentially cutoff power law (Γ = 1.646± 0.006, Ecutoff = 202-34 +51 keV) with a weak reflection component from cold, dense material. There is also evidence......-energy power. law is consistent with the presence of a beamed jet, which begins to dominate over emission from the inner accretion flow at 30-40 keV. Modeling the jet locally (in the NuSTAR + INTEGRAL band) as a power. law, we find that the coronal component is fit by ΓAGN = 1.638 ± 0.045, Ecutoff = 47 ± 15 ke...

  7. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized.

  8. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  9. Probing the Radio Counterpart of Gamma-ray Flaring Region in 3C 84

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The radio source 3C 84 associated with the radio/giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1275 is one of the best targets to probe the radio counterpart of the γ-ray emitting region. Although this source shows clear time variability in γ-ray bands, no clear correlation in radio light curve was found on the timescale of –ray variability. The location of the γ-ray flaring region has been an open question. In this proceeding, we firstly review our previous findings from radio observations. Next we present our new results based on the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA data at 43 GHz. We discover the limb-brightened structure in the “restarted” jet associated with the 2005 radio outburst. In 1990s, the jet structure was rather ridge-brightening than limbbrightening, despite the observations were done with similar angular resolution. This indicates that the radio jet morphology in terms of the transverse structure has been indeed changed recently. This change in the morphology shows an interesting agreement with the time variation of the γ-ray flux density, i.e., the γ-ray flux density in 1990s was more than 7 times lower than the current one. We argue the possibility that the transition from ridge-brightening to limb-brightening is related to the γ-ray time variability.

  10. Color variations of the blazar 3C 454.3 in 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Efimova, N. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Arkharov, A. A.; Hagen-Thorn, E. I.; Gomez, C. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Takalo, L. O.; Sillanpää, A.

    2009-06-01

    We present an analysis of multicolor ( U BV RI JH K) observations of the blazar 3C 454.3 made in 2004-2006. We used the light curves compiled at the Turin Observatory from coordinated observations in the framework of the WEBT program. We consider color variations in two time intervals, when an unprecedented strong outburst occurred (2004-2005), and when the object was in a post-eruptive state and a low-amplitude brightness increase was observed (2006). The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the variable component remained the same within each of these intervals, but differed between them. In both cases, this SED followed a power law after correction for extinction, suggesting the variable component has a synchrotron nature. We conclude that the variations in the optical and IR were due to the same variable source. The object’s unusual color behavior (the brighter, the redder) was due to an increasing contribution from a variable component that was redder than the constant component (big blue bump).

  11. MXene Ti3C2: An Effective 2D Light-to-Heat Conversion Material

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2017-03-25

    MXene, a new series of 2D material, has been steadily advancing its applications to a variety of fields, such as catalysis, supercapacitor, molecular separation, electromagnetic wave interference shielding. This work reports a carefully designed aqueous droplet light heating system along with a thorough mathematical procedure, which combined leads to a precise determination of internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of a variety of nanomaterials. The internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of MXene, more specifically Ti3C2, was measured to be 100%, indicating a perfect energy conversion. Furthermore, a self-floating MXene thin membrane was prepared by simple vacuum filtration and the membrane, in the presence of a rationally chosen heat barrier, produced a light-to-water-evaporation efficiency of 84% under one sun irradiation, which is among the state of art energy efficiency for similar photothermal evaporation system. The outstanding internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency and great light-to-water evaporation efficiency reported in this work suggest that MXene is a very promising light-to-heat conversion material and thus deserves more research attention toward practical applications.

  12. Optimization of self-interstitial clusters in 3C-SiC with genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyunseok; Kaczmarowski, Amy; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2017-08-01

    Under irradiation, SiC develops damage commonly referred to as black spot defects, which are speculated to be self-interstitial atom clusters. To understand the evolution of these defect clusters and their impacts (e.g., through radiation induced swelling) on the performance of SiC in nuclear applications, it is important to identify the cluster composition, structure, and shape. In this work the genetic algorithm code StructOpt was utilized to identify groundstate cluster structures in 3C-SiC. The genetic algorithm was used to explore clusters of up to ∼30 interstitials of C-only, Si-only, and Si-C mixtures embedded in the SiC lattice. We performed the structure search using Hamiltonians from both density functional theory and empirical potentials. The thermodynamic stability of clusters was investigated in terms of their composition (with a focus on Si-only, C-only, and stoichiometric) and shape (spherical vs. planar), as a function of the cluster size (n). Our results suggest that large Si-only clusters are likely unstable, and clusters are predominantly C-only for n ≤ 10 and stoichiometric for n > 10. The results imply that there is an evolution of the shape of the most stable clusters, where small clusters are stable in more spherical geometries while larger clusters are stable in more planar configurations. We also provide an estimated energy vs. size relationship, E(n), for use in future analysis.

  13. Extremely high polarization in the 2010 outburst of blazar 3C 454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasada, Mahito; Kino, Masaru [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yasuda, Hajimu; Itoh, Ryosuke; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Ikejiri, Yuki; Ohsugi, Takashi; Komatsu, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Nagae, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, Masayuki [Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, 17-1 Kitakazan-ohmine-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Nakaya, Hidehiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sato, Shuji, E-mail: sasada@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The gamma-ray-detected blazar 3C 454.3 exhibits dramatic flux and polarization variations in the optical and near-infrared bands. In 2010 December, the object emitted a very bright outburst. We monitored it for approximately four years (including the 2010 outburst) by optical and near-infrared photopolarimetry. During the 2010 outburst, the object emitted two rapid, redder brightenings, at which the polarization degrees (PDs) in both bands increased significantly and the bands exhibited a frequency-dependent polarization. The observed frequency-dependent polarization leads us to propose that the polarization vector is composed of two vectors. Therefore, we separate the observed polarization vectors into short- and long-term components that we attribute to the emissions of the rapid brightenings and the outburst that varied the timescale of days and months, respectively. The estimated PD of the short-term component is greater than the maximum observed PD and is close to the theoretical maximum PD. We constrain the bulk Lorentz factors and inclination angles between the jet axis and the line of sight from the estimated PDs. In this case, the inclination angle of the emitting region of short-term component from the first rapid brightening should be equal to 90°, because the estimated PD of the short-term component was approximately equal to the theoretical maximum PD. Thus, the Doppler factor at the emitting region of the first rapid brightening should be equal to the bulk Lorentz factor.

  14. The Solar Flare of the 14th of July 2000 (L3+C detector results)

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Dela Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Dglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grabosch, H J; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herv, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, A; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Rembeczki, S; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schöneich, B; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, G; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yeh, S C; Yu, Z Q; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhu, Q Q; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M; Zwart, A N M

    2006-01-01

    Several experiments have reported observations on possible correlations between the flux of high energy muons and intense solar flares. If confirmed, these observations would have significant implications for acceleration processes in the heliosphere able to accelerate protons and other ions to energies of at least tens of GeV. The solar flare of the 14 July 2000 offers a unique opportunity for the L3+C experiment to search for a correlated enhancement in the flux of muons using the L3 precision muon spectrometer. Its capabilities for observing a directional excess in the flux of muons above 15 GeV (corresponding to primary proton energies above 40 GeV) are presented along with observations made on the 14th of July 2000. We report an excess which appeared at a time coincident with the peak increase of solar protons observed at lower energies. The probability that the excess is a background fluctuation is estimated to be 1%. No similar excess of the muon flux was observed up to 1.5 hours after the solar flare ...

  15. MXene Ti3C2: An Effective 2D Light-to-Heat Conversion Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Shi, Le; Wang, Peng

    2017-04-25

    MXene, a new series of 2D material, has been steadily advancing its applications to a variety of fields, such as catalysis, supercapacitor, molecular separation, electromagnetic wave interference shielding. This work reports a carefully designed aqueous droplet light heating system along with a thorough mathematical procedure, which combined leads to a precise determination of internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of a variety of nanomaterials. The internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of MXene, more specifically Ti3C2, was measured to be 100%, indicating a perfect energy conversion. Furthermore, a self-floating MXene thin membrane was prepared by simple vacuum filtration and the membrane, in the presence of a rationally chosen heat barrier, produced a light-to-water-evaporation efficiency of 84% under one sun irradiation, which is among the state of art energy efficiency for similar photothermal evaporation system. The outstanding internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency and great light-to-water evaporation efficiency reported in this work suggest that MXene is a very promising light-to-heat conversion material and thus deserves more research attention toward practical applications.

  16. BeiDou Geostationary Satellite Code Bias Modeling Using Fengyun-3C Onboard Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kecai; Li, Min; Zhao, Qile; Li, Wenwen; Guo, Xiang

    2017-10-27

    This study validated and investigated elevation- and frequency-dependent systematic biases observed in ground-based code measurements of the Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite system, using the onboard BeiDou code measurement data from the Chinese meteorological satellite Fengyun-3C. Particularly for geostationary earth orbit satellites, sky-view coverage can be achieved over the entire elevation and azimuth angle ranges with the available onboard tracking data, which is more favorable to modeling code biases. Apart from the BeiDou-satellite-induced biases, the onboard BeiDou code multipath effects also indicate pronounced near-field systematic biases that depend only on signal frequency and the line-of-sight directions. To correct these biases, we developed a proposed code correction model by estimating the BeiDou-satellite-induced biases as linear piece-wise functions in different satellite groups and the near-field systematic biases in a grid approach. To validate the code bias model, we carried out orbit determination using single-frequency BeiDou data with and without code bias corrections applied. Orbit precision statistics indicate that those code biases can seriously degrade single-frequency orbit determination. After the correction model was applied, the orbit position errors, 3D root mean square, were reduced from 150.6 to 56.3 cm.

  17. Original Article. Protection studies of new bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino-N-(pyridin-3yl acetamide derivatives (HNK-series oximes against acute poisoning by dichlorvos (DDVP in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pravin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The available antidotal therapy against acute poisoning by organophosphates involves the use of atropine alone or in combination with one of the oximes, e.g. 2-PAM, Obidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6. Each of these oximes has some limitation, raising the question of the universal antidotal efficacy against poisoning by all OPs/nerve agents. In the present study, newly synthesized bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino-N-(pyridin-3yl acetamide derivatives (HNK-series oximes were evaluated for their antidotal efficacy against DDVP intoxicated Swiss mice, in terms of the Protection Index (PI and AChE reactivation in brain and serum. The inhibition concentration (IC50 was determined in brain and serum after optimizing the time point for maximum inhibition (60 min post DDVP exposure. AChE reactivation efficacy of the HNK series was evaluated at IC50 and compared with 2-PAM. HNK-102 showed a ~2 times better Protection Index (PI as compared to 2-PAM against DDVP toxicity. IC50 at 60 min DDVP post exposure was found to be approximately one fifth and one half of the LD50 dose for brain and serum AChE, respectively. Out of three HNK oximes, HNK-102 & 106 at 0.20 LD50 dose significantly reactivated DDVP intoxicated brain AChE (p<0.05 as compared to 2-PAM at double IC50 dose of DDVP. In light of double PI and higher AChE reactivation, HNK 102 was found to be a better oxime than 2-PAM in the treatment of acute poisoning by DDVP.

  18. A theoretical investigation into the cooperativity effect between the H∙∙∙O and H∙∙∙F⁻ interactions and electrostatic potential upon 1:2 (F⁻:N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide) ternary-system formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-Ping; Wang, Yan-Hong; Shi, Wen-Jing; Song, Shu-Qin; Tang, Hai-Fei

    2013-12-01

    The cooperativity effects between the O/N-H∙∙∙F(-) anionic hydrogen-bonding and O/N-H∙∙∙O hydrogen-bonding interactions and electrostatic potentials in the 1:2 (F(-):N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide (signed as "ha")) ternary systems are investigated at the B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G** levels. A comparison of the cooperativity effect in the "F(-)∙∙∙ha∙∙∙ha" and "FH∙∙∙ha(-)∙∙∙ha" systems is also carried out. The result shows that the increase of the H∙∙∙O interaction energy in the O-H∙∙∙O-H, N-H∙∙∙O-H or N-H∙∙∙O = C link is more notable than that in the O-H∙∙∙O = C contact upon ternary-system formation. The cooperativity effect is found in the complex formed by the O/N-H∙∙∙F(-) and O/N-H∙∙∙O interactions, while the anti-cooperativity effect is present in the system with only the O/N-H∙∙∙F(-) H-bond or the "FH∙∙∙ha(-)∙∙∙ha" complex by the N(-)∙∙∙H-F contact. Atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis and shift of electron density confirm the existence of cooperativity. The most negative surface electrostatic potential (V(S,min)) correlates well with the interaction energy E' int.(ha∙∙∙F-) and synergetic energy E(syn.), respectively. The relationship between the change of V(S,min) (i.e., ΔV(S,min)) and E(syn.) is also found.

  19. Novel derivative of aminobenzenesulfonamide (3c) induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through ROS generation and inhibits cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khayal, Khayal; Alafeefy, Ahmed; Vaali-Mohammed, Mansoor-Ali; Mahmood, Amer; Zubaidi, Ahmed; Al-Obeed, Omar; Khan, Zahid; Abdulla, Maha; Ahmad, Rehan

    2017-01-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 3rd most common type of cancer worldwide. New anti-cancer agents are needed for treating late stage colorectal cancer as most of the deaths occur due to cancer metastasis. A recently developed compound, 3c has shown to have potent antitumor effect; however the mechanism underlying the antitumor effect remains unknown. 3c-induced inhibition of proliferation was measured in the absence and presence NAC using MTT in HT-29 and SW620 cells and xCELLigence RTCA DP instrument. 3c-induced apoptotic studies were performed using flow cytometry. 3c-induced redox alterations were measured by ROS production using fluorescence plate reader and flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry; NADPH and GSH levels were determined by colorimetric assays. Bcl2 family protein expression and cytochrome c release and PARP activation was done by western blotting. Caspase activation was measured by ELISA. Cell migration assay was done using the real time xCELLigence RTCA DP system in SW620 cells and wound healing assay in HT-29. Many anticancer therapeutics exert their effects by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we demonstrate that 3c-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is reversed by the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that 3c acts via increased production of ROS in HT-29 cells. This was confirmed by the direct measurement of ROS in 3c-treated colorectal cancer cells. Additionally, treatment with 3c resulted in decreased NADPH and glutathione levels in HT-29 cells. Further, investigation of the apoptotic pathway showed increased release of cytochrome c resulting in the activation of caspase-9, which in turn activated caspase-3 and -6. 3c also (i) increased p53 and Bax expression, (ii) decreased Bcl2 and BclxL expression and (iii) induced PARP cleavage in human colorectal cancer cells. Confirming our observations, NAC significantly inhibited induction of apoptosis, ROS production, cytochrome c

  20. Methylation of NR3C1 and SLC6A4 and internalizing problems. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Lisette J; van Oort, Floor V A; Verhulst, Frank C; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Riese, Harriëtte

    2015-07-15

    The relationship between early adverse life events and later internalizing problems could be mediated by DNA methylation. Adversity has been associated with higher methylation levels in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in adolescents. We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations of NR3C1 and SLC6A4 methylation with adolescents׳ clinical diagnoses of internalizing disorders and internalizing symptom scores. In a population sample (mean age=16.2) we measured DNA methylation in three regions of NR3C1 (NR3C1_1, N=454; NR3C1_2, N=904; NR3C1_3, N=412) and one region of SLC6A4 (N=939) at baseline. Internalizing problems were operationalized as clinical DSM-IV diagnoses, assessed at 3 year follow-up with a diagnostic interview, and internalizing symptom scores, assessed with Self-Report questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Only NR3C1_1 methylation was positively associated with risk of lifetime internalizing disorders, and with symptom scores at follow-up. However, after accounting for baseline symptom scores there was only a tendency for association with internalizing symptom scores at follow-up. There was no association between SLC6A4 methylation and risk of lifetime internalizing disorders. SLC6A4 methylation and internalizing symptom scores showed a tendency for association, also after accounting for baseline symptom scores. There was no repeated measure of DNA methylation to study causality between methylation and internalizing problems. Gene expression data were not available. Although the role of gene methylation in the development of internalizing problems remains unclear, our findings suggest that gene methylation, particularly of NR3C1, may be involved in the development of internalizing problems in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Raheem; Shah, Majid Ali; Tufail, Soban

    2016-01-01

    stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious....... Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications....

  2. The relationship between the GJB3 c.538C>T variant and hearing phenotype in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shasha; Huang, Bangqing; Wang, Guojian; Kang, Dong Yang; Zhang, Xin; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Dai, Pu

    2017-11-01

    Mutations in GJB3 were originally shown to underlie an autosomal dominant form of non-syndromic deafness in Chinese patients and the c.538C>T (p.R180*) variants caused high-frequency hearing loss. But after that, few reports have reported this mutation. This study investigated the relationship between the GJB3 c.538C>T variant and hearing phenotype in Chinese to assist with risk assessment and genetic counseling for hearing loss patients and their families. The study enrolled 5700 patients with hearing loss and 4600 normal subjects. Deafness gene mutations were distinguished using a gene chip. The GJB3 c.538C>T variant rate was calculated from the results. Of the 5700 patients, 23 (0.40%) carried a GJB3 c.538C>T heterozygous variant; of these, 11 patients had other gene (GJB2/SLC26A4) mutations simultaneously. Most patients had moderate to profound hearing loss. All 23 patients were sporadic cases and had no family history of deafness. Of the 4600 normal individuals, 11 (0.24%) had GJB3 c.538C>T heterozygous variant. There was no statistical difference in incidence between the two groups. Our results showed that the GJB3 c.538C>T variant has a very low incidence in the Chinese population, and there was no clear evidence to support a role of the GJB3 c.538C>T variant in the autosomal dominant form of non-syndromic deafness. Our findings suggested that GJB3 c.538C>T does not contribute to hearing loss, and this conclusion will assist with genetic counseling and risk prediction for deafness related to the GJB3 c.538C>T variant. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Efeito do glicerol, etilenoglicol, acetamida e leite desnatado na criopreservação de espermatozóides eqüinos Effects of glycerol, ethylene glycol, acetamide, and dried skim milk in cryopreservation of equine sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Juliani

    2008-10-01

    acetamide 2.5%; T3 - methyl cellulose 0.5%, raffinose 0.15g, and acetamide 3.5%; T4 - methyl cellulose 0.5%, raffinose 0.15g, and acetamide 5%; T5 - glycerol 5% and 2.4g of dried skim milk; T6 - glycerol 1%, ethylene glycol 4%, and 2.4g of dried skim milk; T7 - ethylene glycol 5% and 2.4g of dried skim milk. After collection, Kenney extender was added to the semen 1:1, and centrifuged at 400 x g for 12 minutes. Sperm pellets were diluted to reach 100x10(6 cells/ml. Spermatozoa were frozen in 0.5ml straws 3cm above the nitrogen level, during 10 minutes. Thawing of samples was done at 75°C for seven seconds followed by immersion of the straw in a water bath at 37°C for 30 seconds. Post-thaw total and progressive motilities and sperm vigor were evaluated. Sperm membrane integrities of the tail and caput, respectively, were evaluated by the hypoosmotic swelling test and fluorescent dyes. T1 showed the highest post-thaw total and progressive motilities (38.4% and 33.8%, respectively. No significant difference was found among treatments for vigor and hypoosmotic swelling test. T5, T6, and T7 showed higher post-thaw values for sperm membrane integrity. It may be concluded that the association of cryoprotectants used in this experiment did not result in better cryoprotectant effect than 5% glycerol for equine semen cryopreservation.

  4. IS GNB3 C825T POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE STATUS OF POLISH ATHLETES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sawczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The GNB3 gene encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins that are key components of intracellular signal transduction between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and intracellular effectors and might be considered as a potential candidate gene for physical performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare frequency distribution of the common C to T polymorphism at position 825 (C825T of the GNB3 gene between athletes and nonathletic controls of the Polish population as well as to compare the genotype distribution and allele frequency of C825T variants within a group of athletes, i.e. between athletes of sports of different metabolic demands and competitive levels. Methods: The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes. Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. Results: The χ2 test revealed no statistical differences between the endurance-oriented athletes and the control group or between sprint/strength athletes and the control group across the GNB3 825C/T genotypes. There were no male-female genotype or allele frequency differences in controls or in either strength/power or endurance-oriented athletes. No statistically significant differences in either allele frequencies or genotype distribution were noted between the top-elite, elite or sub-elite of endurance-oriented and strength/power athletes and the control group. Conclusions: No association between elite status of Polish athletes and the GNB3 C825T polymorphic site has been found.

  5. Comparison of Ejection Events in the Jet and Accretion Disc Outflows in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Markowtiz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a comparison of the parameters of accretion disc outflows and the jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 on sub-pc scales. We make use of published X-ray observations of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) and new 43 GHz VLBA images to track the jet knots ejection. We find that the superluminal jet coexists with the mildly relativistic outflows on sub-pc scales, possibly indicating a transverse stratification of a global flow. The two are roughly in pressure equilibrium, with the UFOs potentially providing additional support for the initial jet collimation. The UFOs are much more massive than the jet, but their kinetic power is probably about an order of magnitude lower, at least for the observations considered here. However, their momentum flux is equivalent and both of them are powerful enough to exert a concurrent feedback impact on the surrounding environment. A link between these components is naturally predicted in the context of MHD models for jet/outflow formation. However, given the high radiation throughput of AGNs, radiation pressure should also be taken into account. From the comparison with the long-term 2-10 keV RXTE light curve we find that the UFOs are preferentially detected during periods of increasing flux. We also find the possibility to place the UFOs within the known X-ray dips-jet ejection cycles, which has been shown to be a strong proof of the disc-jet connection, in analogue with stellar-mass black holes. However, given the limited number of observations presently available, these relations are only tentative and additional spectral monitoring is needed to test them conclusively.

  6. Monitoring an Internal Shock Collision in Action in 3C 264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen

    2017-08-01

    3C264 is a nearby radio galaxy with a prominent optical jet. Recent HST observations (May 2014) have revealed not only the fastest-ever superluminal speed (on kpc scales) of 7c for knot B, but also that knot B is in the very early stages of a collision with slow-moving downstream knot C (Meyer et al. 2015, Nature). This remarkable discovery represents the first strong evidence for the internal shock model for particle acceleration, a mechanism proposed to explain sources as diverse as gamma-ray bursts, microquasars, and jetted AGN. While a popular theoretical framework, such a collision has never actually been observed directly in any astrophysical object. Our recent HST imaging has captured the collision in its incipient stages, thus we have a unique opportunity to monitor a major shock collision as it unfolds. We propose 2 epochs of WFC3/UVIS (near-UV, B, and I band) imaging to monitor the optical-UV spectral energy distribution for the colliding knots and continue spatial proper motion measurements of the jet over the next 2-3 years. We also request 1 orbit of polarimetry in F606W with ACS/WFC in each epoch to monitor the polarization structure in the jet for changes as a result of the collision. The collision is expected to manifest in brightening and hardening of the optical spectrum and increasing polarization over the next several years, and our observations will allow us to evaluate the applicability, efficiency and physical characterization of the internal shock mechanism.

  7. Early Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observations of the Quasar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Battelino, M.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Donato, D.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Focke, W. B.; Foschini, L.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hartman, R. C.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kuehn, F.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Rahoui, F.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sambruna, R.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-07-01

    This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope, covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable γ-ray emission with an average flux of ~3 × 10-6 photons cm-2 s-1, for energies >100 MeV. The γ-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a timescale of about 3 days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor δ>8, consistent with the values inferred from Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations of superluminal expansion (δ ~ 25). The observed γ-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power law, but instead steepens strongly above ~2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power law with photon indices of ~2.3 and ~3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high-luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2 GeV could be due to γ-ray absorption via photon-photon pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host active galactic nucleus, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close (lsim100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.

  8. Multiwavelength Observations of 3C 454.3. II. The AGILE 2007 December Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, I.; Pucella, G.; Vittorini, V.; D'Ammando, F.; Vercellone, S.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Perri, M.; Chen, W. P.; Smart, R. L.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Mori, Y.; Tosti, G.; Impiombato, D.; Takahashi, T.; Sato, R.; Tavani, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Chen, A. W.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Pacciani, L.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Boffelli, F.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cocco, V.; Contessi, T.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; De Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorini, M.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Marisaldi, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Porrovecchio, G.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Rubini, A.; Sabatini, S.; Scalise, E.; Soffitta, P.; Striani, E.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Pittori, C.; Santolamazza, P.; Verrecchia, F.; Giommi, P.; Antonelli, L. A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Salotti, L.

    2009-12-01

    We report on the second Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) multiwavelength campaign of the blazar 3C 454.3 during the first half of 2007 December. This campaign involved AGILE, Spitzer, Swift, Suzaku, the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) consortium, the Rapid Eye Mount (REM), and the Multicolor Imaging Telescopes for Survey and Monstrous Explosions (MITSuME) telescopes, offering a broadband coverage that allowed for a simultaneous sampling of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) emissions. The two-week AGILE monitoring was accompanied by radio to optical monitoring by WEBT and REM, and by sparse observations in mid-infrared and soft/hard X-ray energy bands performed by means of Target of Opportunity observations by Spitzer, Swift, and Suzaku, respectively. The source was detected with an average flux of ~250 × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 above 100 MeV, typical of its flaring states. The simultaneous optical and γ-ray monitoring allowed us to study the time lag associated with the variability in the two energy bands, resulting in a possible lsimone-day delay of the γ-ray emission with respect to the optical one. From the simultaneous optical and γ-ray fast flare detected on December 12, we can constrain the delay between the γ-ray and optical emissions within 12 hr. Moreover, we obtain three spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with simultaneous data for 2007 December 5, 13, and 15, characterized by the widest multifrequency coverage. We found that a model with an external Compton on seed photons by a standard disk and reprocessed by the broad-line regions does not describe in a satisfactory way the SEDs of 2007 December 5, 13, and 15. An additional contribution, possibly from the hot corona with T = 106 K surrounding the jet, is required to account simultaneously for the softness of the synchrotron and the hardness of the IC emissions during those epochs.

  9. A peculiar multiwavelength flare in the blazar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok C.; Mangalam, Arun; Wiita, Paul J.; Kushwaha, P.; Gaur, H.; Zhang, H.; Gu, M. F.; Liao, M.; Dewangan, G. C.; Ho, L. C.; Mohan, P.; Umeura, M.; Sasada, M.; Volvach, A. E.; Agarwal, A.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Bachev, R.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Semkov, E.; Strigachev, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    The blazar 3C 454.3 exhibited a strong flare seen in γ-rays, X-rays and optical/near-infrared bands during 2009 December 3-12. Emission in the V and J bands rose more gradually than did the γ-rays and soft X-rays, though all peaked at nearly the same time. Optical polarization measurements showed dramatic changes during the flare, with a strong anticorrelation between optical flux and degree of polarization (which rose from ˜3 to ˜20 per cent) during the declining phase of the flare. The flare was accompanied by large rapid swings in polarization angle of ˜170°. This combination of behaviours appears to be unique. We have cm-band radio data during the same period but they show no correlation with variations at higher frequencies. Such peculiar behaviour may be explained using jet models incorporating fully relativistic effects with a dominant source region moving along a helical path or by a shock-in-jet model incorporating three-dimensional radiation transfer if there is a dominant helical magnetic field. We find that spectral energy distributions at different times during the flare can be fit using modified one-zone models where only the magnetic field strength and particle break frequencies and normalizations need change. An optical spectrum taken at nearly the same time provides an estimate for the central black hole mass of ˜2.3 × 109 M⊙. We also consider two weaker flares seen during the ˜200 d span over which multiband data are available. In one of them, the V and J bands appear to lead the γ-ray and X-ray bands by a few days; in the other, all variations are simultaneous.

  10. Results and Analysis of BDS Precise Orbit Determination with the Enhancement of Fengyun-3C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZENG Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global navigation satellite system occultation sounder (GNOS Fengyun-3C was launched successfully on September 23, 2013, which carried GPS/BDS receiver for the first time. This provides the convenience to study the enhancement results of low earth orbiter satellite (LEO to BDS precise orbit determination (POD. First the data characteristics and code observation noise of GNOS are analyzed. Then the enhancement experiments in the case of global and regional ground observation stations layout are processed with four POD schemes: BDS single system, GPS/BDS double system, BDS single system with GNOS observations, GPS/BDS double system with GNOS observations. The precision of BDS orbits and clock are compared via overlapping arcs. Results show that in the case of global station layout the along directional precision of GEO satellite has the biggest improvement, with the improvement percentage 60%. Then the precision of cross direction and the along direction of remaining satellites shows the second biggest improvement. The orbit precision of only BDS POD in part of arcs some satellite even suffers a slight decline. The root mean square (RMS of overlapping clock difference of visible arcs in GPS/BDS POD experiments is improved 0.1 ns level. As to the experiments of regional station layout with 7 ground observation stations, the orbit and clock overlapping precision and orbit predicting precision are analyzed. Results show that the predicting precision of BDS GEO satellites in the along direction is improved 85%. The remaining also has a substantial improvement, with the average percentage 21.7%. RMS of overlapping clock difference of visible arcs is improved 0.5 ns level.

  11. Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC by using C{sub 60} as a carbon source; Untersuchungen zum epitaktischen Wachstum von 3C-SiC bei Verwendung einer C{sub 60}-Kohlenstoffquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Sascha

    2006-01-15

    Within this work epitaxial 3C-SiC-films were grown on Si(001) substrates and on ion beam synthesized 3C-SiC(001) pseudo substrates. A rather new process was used which is based on the simultaneous deposition of C60 and Si. In order to set up the necessary experimental conditions an ultra-high vacuum chamber has been designed and built. A RHEED system was used to examine SiC film growth in-situ. Using the described technique 3C-SiC films were grown void-free on Si(001) substrates. Deposition rates of C60 and Si were chosen adequately to maintain a Si:C ratio of approximately one during the deposition process. It was shown that stoichiometric and epitaxial 3C-SiC growth with the characteristic relationship (001)[110]Si(001)[110]3C-SiC could be achieved. TEM investigations revealed that the grown 3C-SiC films consist of individual grains that extend from the Si substrate to the film surface. Two characteristic grain types could be identified. The correlation between structure and texture of void-free grown 3C-SiC films and film thickness was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pole figure measurements showed that thin films only contain first-order 3C-SiC twins. With higher film thickness also second-order twins are found which are located as twin lamellae in grain type 2. Improvement of polar texture with increasing film thickness couldn't be observed in the investigated range of up to 550 nm. On ion beam synthesized 3C-SiC pseudo substrates homoepitaxial 3C-SiC growth could be demonstrated for the first time by using a C{sub 60} carbon source. In respect to the crystalline quality of the grown films the surface quality of the used substrates was identified as a crucial factor. Furthermore a correlation between the ratio of deposition rates of C{sub 60} and Si and 3C-SiC film quality could be found. Under silicon-rich conditions, i.e. with a Si:C ratio of slightly greater one, homoepitaxial 3C-SiC layer-by-layer growth can be achieved. Films grown under these

  12. Reibergrama para la evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorta-Contreras Alberto Juan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El diagrama de las razones de Reiber o reibergrama cobra cada día mayores usos para la caracterización de la síntesis intratecal de proteínas. El reibergrama fue definido para las clases mayores de inmunoglobulinas pero luego ha sido utilizado para evaluar otras proteínas basado en la teoría de la difusión molecular/velocidad de flujo del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR. MÉTODO: El C3c, producto de la degradación del factor del complemento C3 y con una masa molecular de 145 KDa, se acerca a las características moleculares de la IgG para las leyes de la difusión de Fick. Se asume las constantes de la IgG en la fórmula de Reiber para evaluar la síntesis intratecal de C3c así como su correspondiente reibergrama. Se estudiaron 27 pacientes y 27 controles a los que se les dosificó albúmina y C3c en suero y LCR por inmunodifusión radial. RESULTADOS: Con el reibergrama propuesto para el C3c se evaluaron estos pacientes. Se comprueba la validez de este reibergrama para distintas condiciones de barrera con o sin síntesis intratecal de C3c. CONCLUSION: El reibergrama y su fórmula correspondiente propuesto para la C3c puede ser usado para la evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c.

  13. Treatment of prostate carcinoma with (galectin-3)-targeted HPMA copolymer-(G3-C12)-5-Fluorouracil conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Zhou; He, Shuang; Fan, Tingting; Jin, Yun; Zhu, Xi; Chen, Chunhui; Zhang, Zhi-rong; Huang, Yuan

    2012-03-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), over-expressed on a variety of human tumor cells, is a potential binding site for targeted metastatic prostate cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to develop a G3-C12-mediated drug delivery system based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers targeting to Gal-3-expressed human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells. 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), an anti-tumor agent, was selected as a model drug. G3-C12, a binding peptide, which specifically binds to the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of Gal-3, was attached to HPMA copolymers as a targeting moiety. Compared with non-targeted conjugates (P-Fu), Gal-3-targeted HPMA copolymer-(G3-C12)-5-Fu conjugates (P-(G3-C12)-Fu) displayed a superior intracellular internalization followed by enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis-induction. Subsequently, the in vitro migration study on PC-3 cells indicated that P-(G3-C12)-Fu was able to efficiently inhibit the cell migration ability after wounding. On PC-3 tumor-bearing mice model, G3-C12-modified copolymers showed a higher tumor accumulation coupled with a faster clearance from blood circulation than non-modified ones. Finally, Gal-3-targeted conjugates significantly improved the anti-tumor activity of 5-Fu in nude mice bearing PC-3 tumor xenografts. Consequently, G3-C12 would be a promising targeting moiety for cell-specific prostate cancer therapy in future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutation of a conserved tryptophan residue in the CBM3c of a GH9 endoglucanase inhibits activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, So Hyeong; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Han, Sung Ok

    2016-11-01

    The presence of the family of 3c cellulose binding module (CBM3c) is important for the catalytic activity of family 9 endoglucanases such as the EngZ from Clostridium cellulovorans. To determine the role of CBM3c in catalytic activity, we made a tryptophan to alanine substitution because tryptophan can bind strongly to both substrates and other amino acids. The conserved tryptophan substitution (W483A) did not influence substrate binding, but it reduced enzyme activity to 10-14% on both amorphous and crystalline cellulose. CBM3c is directly involved in the endoglucanase reaction independent of substrate binding. EngZ W483A was also inactivated independent of substrate concentrations. Specially, EngZ W483A restored its catalytic base activity (31.6±1.2U/nM) which is similar to the wild-type (29.4±0.3U/nM) on Avicel in the presence of 50mM sodium azide which is instead of catalytic base reaction. These results suggest that CBM3c is deeply involved in the cellulolytic reaction, specifically at the catalytic base region. Moreover, EngZ W483A was also easily denatured by DTT, an outer disulfide bond breaker, compared to the wild-type. CBM3c could influence the surface stability. These features of CBM3c result from the hydrophobic interaction of tryptophan with the catalytic domain that is unrelated to substrate binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinematics of the active region of the quasar 3C 345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveyenko, L. I.; Sivakon', S. S.

    2013-08-01

    The fine structure of the quasar 3C 345 in polarized emission at 7 mm and 2 cm has been investigated. The kinematics is shown to correspond to an anticentrifuge: the thermal plasma of the surrounding space accretes onto the disk, flows to the center, and is ejected in the form of a rotating bipolar outflow that carries away the excess angular momentum as it accumulates. The bipolar outflow consists of a high-velocity central jet surrounded by a low-velocity component. The low-velocity flows are the rotating hollow tubes ejected from the peripheral part of the disk with a diameter ˜Ø1 = 2.2 pc and from the region Ø2 = 1 pc. The high-velocity jet with a diameter Ø3 = 0.2 pc is ejected from the central part of the disk, while the remnant falls onto the forming central body. The ejection velocity of the high-velocity flow is v ⩾ 0.06 c. At a distance up to ˜1 pc, the jet accelerates to an apparent velocity v ˜ 8 c. Further out, uniform motion is observed within ˜2 pc following which deceleration occurs. The jet structure corresponding to a conical diverging helix with an increasing pitch is determined by gasdynamic instability. The counterjet structure is a mirror reflection of the nearby part of the jet. The brightness temperature of the fragment of the high-velocity flow at the exit from the counterjet nozzle is T b ≈ (1012-1013) K. The disk inclined at an angle of 60° to the plane of the sky shadows the jet ejector region. Ring currents observed in the tangential directions as parallel chains of components are excited in the rotating flows. The magnetic fields of the rotating bipolar outflow and the disk are aligned and oriented along the rotation axis. The translational motions of the jet and counterjet are parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field, which determines their acceleration or deceleration. The quasar core is surrounded by a thermal plasma. The sizes of the HII region reach ˜30 pc. The electron density decreases with increasing

  16. Inverse Compton X-ray emission from the superluminal quasar 3C 345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, S. C.; Wehrle, A. E.; Urry, C. M.; Gilmore, D. M.; Barton, E. J.; Kjerulf, B. C.; Zensus, J. A.; Rabaca, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    In quasars with strong radio cores, the inverse-Compton process is believed to be the dominant source X-ray emission. For objects with parsec-scale radio jets, simple models have predicted that components in the jet emerging from the quasar nucleus generate the observed X-ray emission. We have tested this hypothesis in detail for the quasar 3C 345 using a ROSAT X-ray observation in 1990 July, together with quasi-simultaneous very long base interferometry (VLBI) imaging of the parsec-scale jet at five frequencies. The ROSAT spectrum is well fitted by a power law with index alpha = -0.96 +/- -0.13, consistent with models in which the X-ray emission results from inverse-Compton scattering of radio radiation from high-energy electrons in compact components. We show that the radio properties of brightest `knot' in the jet (`C5') can be fitted with a homogeneous sphere model whose parameters require bulk relativistic motion of the emitting material; otherwise the predicted model whose parameters require bulk relativistic motion of the emitting material; otherwise the predicted inverse-Compton X-ray emission exceeds the observed flux. If C5 is the origin of the X-ray emission, then it has a Doppler factor delta = 7.5((sup +3 sub -2)). If the nucleus or other components contribute to the X-ray emission, then this becomes a firm lower limit to delta. The inhomogeneous jet model of Koenigl is a good fit both to the barely resolved (less than 1 pc) flat-spectrum nucleus in the radio, and also to the ROSAT X-ray spectrum. The synchrotron and inverse-Compton emitting fluid moves down a narrow cone (opening angle 2 phi approximately 5 deg) nucleus relativistically, with delta approximately 4.6. Doppler factors for the nucleus and C5, derived from our ROSAT observation, provide evidence for bulk relativistic motion in the jet. By combining these constraints with well-known superluminal motion of jet components, we can deduce geometry. For epoch 1990.5 we infer the Lorentz factor

  17. An Outburst Scenario for the X-ray Spectral Variability in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Garcia, J.; Lohfink, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a combined Suzaku and Swift BAT broad-band E=0.6-200 keV spectral analysis of three 3C 111 observations obtained in 2010. The data are well described with an absorbed power-law continuum and a weak (R approximately equal to 0.2) cold reflection component from distant material. We constrain the continuum cutoff at E(sub C) approximately equal to 150- 200 keV, which is in accordance with X-ray Comptonization corona models and supports claims that the jet emission is only dominant at much higher energies. Fe XXVI Ly alpha emission and absorption lines are also present in the first and second observations, respectively. The modelling and interpretation of the emission line is complex and we explore three possibilities. If originating from ionized disc reflection, this should be emitted at r(sub in) greater than or equal to 50 r(sub g) or, in the lamp-post configuration, the illuminating source should be at a height of h greater than or equal to 30 r(sub g) over the black hole. Alternatively, the line could be modeled with a hot collisionally ionized plasma with temperature kT = 22.0(sup +6.1)(sub -3.2) keV or a photo-ionized plasma with logXi=4.52(sup +0.10)(sub -0.16) erg per second cm, and column density N(sub H) greater than 3×10(sup 23) per square centimeter. However, the first and second scenarios are less favored on statistical and physical grounds, respectively. The blue-shifted absorption line in the second observation can be modelled as an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) with ionization parameter logXi=4.47(sup +0.76) (sub -0.04) erg per second cm, column density NH=(5.3(sup +1.8)(sub -1.3))×10(sup 22) per square centimeter and outflow velocity v(sub out) = 0.104+/-0.006c. Interestingly, the parameters of the photoionized emission model remarkably match those of the absorbing UFO, supporting the possibility that the same material could be responsible for both emission and absorption. We suggest an outburst scenario in which an accretion disc wind

  18. An outburst scenario for the X-ray spectral variability in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, C. S.; García, J.; Lohfink, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a combined Suzaku and Swift BAT broad-band E = 0.6-200 keV spectral analysis of three 3C 111 observations obtained in 2010. The data are well described with an absorbed power-law continuum and a weak (R ≃ 0.2) cold reflection component from distant material. We constrain the continuum cutoff at EC ≃ 150-200 keV, which is in accordance with X-ray Comptonization corona models and supports claims that the jet emission is only dominant at much higher energies. Fe XXVI Lyα emission and absorption lines are also present in the first and second observations, respectively. The modelling and interpretation of the emission line is complex and we explore three possibilities. If originating from ionized-disc reflection, this should be emitted at rin ≥ 50 rg or, in the lamp-post configuration, the illuminating source should be at a height of h ≥ 30 rg above the black hole. Alternatively, the line could be modelled with a hot collisionally ionized plasma with temperature kT = 22.0^{+6.1}_{-3.2} keV or a photoionized plasma with log ξ = 4.52^{+0.10}_{-0.16} erg s-1 cm and column density NH > 3 × 1023 cm-2. However, the first and second scenarios are less favoured on statistical and physical grounds, respectively. The blueshifted absorption line in the second observation can be modelled as an ultrafast outflow (UFO) with ionization parameter log ξ = 4.47^{+0.76}_{-0.04} erg s-1 cm, column density N_H = (5.3^{+1.8}_{-1.3})× 10^{22} cm-2 and outflow velocity vout = 0.104 ± 0.006c. Interestingly, the parameters of the photoionized emission model remarkably match those of the absorbing UFO, supporting the possibility that the same material could be responsible for both emission and absorption. We suggest an outburst scenario in which an accretion disc wind, initially lying out of the line of sight and observed in emission, then crosses our view to the source and it is observed in absorption as a mildly relativistic UFO.

  19. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Ullah

    Full Text Available Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications.

  20. Transcriptional regulation by Barhl1 and Brn-3c in organ-of-Corti-derived cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Richa; Jones, Chris M; Banfi, Sandro; Dawson, Sally J

    2005-11-30

    Barhl1 and Brn-3c have been identified as transcription factors that are essential for survival and maintenance of hair cells of the inner ear. Little is known about the mechanism of how Brn-3c or Barhl1 may regulate transcription in the inner ear. In this study, the transcriptional function of both Brn-3c and Barhl1 was investigated in the organ-of-Corti-derived cell lines, OC-1 and OC-2. We examined regulatory domains in these transcription factors by linking regions of Barhl1 and Brn-3c to the DNA binding domain of the heterologous transcription factor GAL4 and assayed their effect on a heterologous promoter containing GAL4 DNA binding sites by co-transfection into OC-1 and OC-2 cell lines. Brn-3c was found to contain an independent N-terminal activation domain that is sufficient to activate gene transcription in the organ of corti derived cell lines. Barhl1 on the other hand was found to act as a transcriptional repressor with repressive activity not restricted to a particular domain of Barhl1. In addition, we analyzed the effect of Barhl1 on the promoters of the neurotrophin genes NT-3 and BDNF in OC-1 and OC-2 cell lines. However, Barhl1 was not found to directly regulate neurotrophin promoter constructs in these cells.

  1. Origin of X-rays in the low state of the FSRQ 3C 273: evidence of inverse Compton emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Nibedita; Gupta, Alok C.; Wiita, Paul J.; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Duorah, Kalpana

    2017-08-01

    We analyse the 2.5-10 keV X-ray spectra of the luminous quasar 3C 273 and simultaneous observations in UV wavelengths from XMM-Newton between 2000 and 2015. The lowest flux level ever was observed in 2015. The continuum emission from 3C 273 is generally best described by an absorbed power-law but during extremely low states the addition of fluorescence from the K-shell iron line improves the fit. We study the spectral evolution of the source during its extended quiescent state and also examine connections between the X-ray and ultraviolet emissions, which have been seen in some, but not all, previous work. We detect a possible anticorrelation between these two bands during the low state that characterized 3C 273 for most of this period; however, this was not present during a flaring state. A harder-when-brighter trend for the X-ray spectrum was observed in these long-term observations of 3C 273 for the first time. We suggest that the X-ray emission in 3C 273 is the result of inverse Compton scattering of soft UV seed photons (emitted from the local environment of the AGN), most likely in a thermal corona. We can explain the significant temporal variation of the spectral continuum as an outcome of changing optical depth of the Comptonizing medium, along the lines of the wind-shock model proposed by Courvoisier and Camenzind.

  2. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Raheem; Shah, Majid Ali; Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications.

  3. Retrospective assessment of environmental dose rates using optically stimulated luminescence from Al2O3:C and quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Banerjee, D.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    radionuclide concentrations. It is concluded that the excellent OSL characteristics of Al2O3:C are attractive for use in short-term evaluations of the environmental dose rates. Depth dose profiles were also measured in bricks, after irradiation in the laboratory with Cs-137 gamma rays, using (1).Al2O3:C single...... of the initial accident radiation was lower than that of Cs-137 gamma rays.......As part of our continuing work on assessing the usefulness of natural and artificial dosemeters in retrospective accident dosimetry, the natural photon dose rates within bricks have been measured using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Al2O3:C single crystal dosemeters. These were...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LOFAR Bootes and 3C295 field sources (van Weeren+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weeren, R. J.; Williams, W. L.; Tasse, C.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Rafferty, D. A.; van der Tol, S.; Heald, G.; White, G. J.; Shulevski, A.; Best, P.; Intema, H. T.; Bhatnagar, S.; Reich, W.; Steinmetz, M.; van Velzen, S.; Ensslin, T. A.; Prandoni, I.; de Gasperin, F.; Jamrozy, M.; Brunetti, G.; Jarvis, M. J.; McKean, J. P.; Wise, M. W.; Ferrari, C.; Harwood, J.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Hoeft, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Horellou, C.; Wucknitz, O.; Bonafede, A.; Mohan, N. R.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Klockner, H.-R.; van Bemmel, I. M.; Merloni, A.; Chyzy, K. T.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brouw, W. N.; Bruggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; de Vos, M.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eisloffel, J.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Griessmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Horandel, J.; van der Horst, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Jackson, N. J.; Juette, E.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mevius, M.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Offringa, A. R.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey, V. N.; Pietka, G.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Renting, A.; Rowlinson, A.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Stewart, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Zarka, P.

    2017-04-01

    The Bootes and 3C 295 fields were simultaneously observed on 2012 April 12 as part of a multi-beam observation with the LOFAR LBA stations. The idea behind the multi-beam setup is that we use the 3C 295 observations as a calibrator field to transfer the gain amplitudes to the (target) Bootes field. The total integration time on both fields was 10.25 hr. Complete frequency coverage was obtained between 54 and 70 MHz for both fields, while non-contiguous frequency coverage was obtained between 30 and 54 MHz for the 3C 295 only. All four correlation products were recorded. By default, the frequency band was divided into sub-bands, each 195.3125 kHz wide. Each sub-band was further divided in 64 channels and the integration time was 1 s. (1 data file).

  5. Sensitization by UV light of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C polycrystalline detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meira B, L. C.; Rubio F, H.; Neres de A, E. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CNEN, Laboratorio de Dosimetria Termoluminicente, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Santos, A., E-mail: hrf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CNEN, Laboratorio de Microesferas Gel, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    This paper describes an increase in sensitivity to gamma and beta radiation on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C polycrystalline detector, which has been produced by a sol-gel process, following previous exposure to ultraviolet light. The increased sensitivity of the detector as a function of the exposure time and ultraviolet wavelength was studied. Since the main luminescent centers have emission peaks at different wavelengths, selective measurements of thermoluminescent emission intensity were done, in order to investigate the possible conversion of centers as a result of the exposition to ultraviolet light. Experimental results indicate that the nature and parameters of the luminescent centers in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C sol-gel material can be very different of those in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C single crystal. (author)

  6. A 3??C global RCP8.5 emission trajectory cancels benefits of European emission reductions on air quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fortems-Cheiney; Foret, G.; G. Siour; Vautard, R.; Szopa, S.; Dufour, G.; Colette, A.; Lacressonniere, G.; M. Beekmann

    2017-01-01

    Despite the international agreement to reduce global warming to below 2??C, the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions submitted for the COP21 would lead to a global temperature rise of about 3??C. The relative consequences of such a one-degree additional warming have not yet been investigated for regional air quality. Here we found that a?+?3??C global pollutant emission trajectory with respect to pre-industrial climate (reached along the 2040?2069 period under a RCP8.5 scenario) would...

  7. Ion beam synthesis and characterization of large area 3C-SiC pseudo substrates for homo- and heteroepitaxy; Ionenstrahlsynthese und Charakterisierung grossflaechiger 3C-SiC-Pseudosubstrate fuer die Homo- und Heteroepitaxie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlen, Maik

    2006-12-15

    In this work, large area epitaxial 3C-SiC films on Si(100) and Si(111) were formed by ion beam synthesis and subsequently characterized for their structural and crystalline properties. These SiC/Si structures are meant to be used as SiC pseudosubstrates for the homo- and heteroepitaxial growth of other compound semiconductors. The suitability of these pseudosubstrates for this purpose was tested using various epitaxial systems and thin film growth methods. For this the homoepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC employing C{sub 60}-MBE and the heteroepitaxial growth of hexagonal GaN films grown by MOCVD and IBAMBA was studied in detail. The comparison of the structural and crystalline properties with data from literature enabled a qualified judgement of the potential of the 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates as an alternative substrate for the epitaxial growth of such films. These new 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates also enabled studies of other little known epitaxial systems: For the first time hexagonal ZnO films on (111) oriented pseudosubstrates were grown using PLD. The method if IBAMBE enabled the growth of cubic GaN layers on (100)-oriented pseudosubstrates. (orig.)

  8. High-Temperature (1200-1400°C) Dry Oxidation of 3C-SiC on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y. K.; Li, F.; Jennings, M. R.; Fisher, C. A.; Pérez-Tomás, A.; Thomas, S.; Hamilton, D. P.; Russell, S. A. O.; Mawby, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    In a novel approach, high temperatures (1200-1400°C) were used to oxidize cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) grown on silicon substrate. High-temperature oxidation does not significantly affect 3C-SiC doping concentration, 3C-SiC structural composition, or the final morphology of the SiO2 layer, which remains unaffected even at 1400°C (the melting point of silicon is 1414°C). Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOS-C) and lateral channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFET) were fabricated by use of the high-temperature oxidation process to study 3C-SiC/SiO2 interfaces. Unlike 4H-SiC MOSFET, there is no extra benefit of increasing the oxidation temperature from 1200°C to 1400°C. All the MOSFET resulted in a maximum field-effect mobility of approximately 70 cm2/V s.

  9. Major alterations in transcript profiles between C3-C4 and C4 photosynthesis of an amphibious species Eleocharis baldwinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Taiyu; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Lin, Yongjun

    2014-09-01

    Engineering C4 photosynthetic metabolism into C3 crops is regarded as a major strategy to increase crop productivity, and clarification of the evolutionary processes of C4 photosynthesis can help the better use of this strategy. Here, Eleocharis baldwinii, a species in which C4 photosynthesis can be induced from a C3-C4 state under either environmental or ABA treatments, was used to identify the major transcriptional modifications during the process from C3-C4 to C4. The transcriptomic comparison suggested that in addition to the major differences in C4 core pathway, the pathways of glycolysis, citrate acid metabolism and protein synthesis were dramatically modified during the inducement of C4 photosynthetic states. Transcripts of many transporters, including not only metabolite transporters but also ion transporters, were dramatically increased in C4 photosynthetic state. Many candidate regulatory genes with unidentified functions were differentially expressed in C3-C4 and C4 photosynthetic states. Finally, it was indicated that ABA, auxin signaling and DNA methylation play critical roles in the regulation of C4 photosynthesis. In summary, by studying the different photosynthetic states of the same species, this work provides the major transcriptional differences between C3-C4 and C4 photosynthesis, and many of the transcriptional differences are potentially related to C4 development and therefore are the potential targets for reverse genetics studies.

  10. The effect of grain size and phosphorous-doping of polycrystalline 3C-SiC on infrared reflectance spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooyen, I.J. van, E-mail: Isabella.vanRooyen@inl.gov [Fuel Performance and Design Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Engelbrecht, J.A.A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Henry, A.; Janzen, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping 58183 (Sweden); Neethling, J.H. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Rooyen, P.M. van [Philip M van Rooyen Network Consultants, Midlands Estates (South Africa)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR is investigated as a technique to measure grain size and P-doping of polycrystalline SiC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared plasma minima can be used to determine doping levels in 3C-SiC for doping levels greater than 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A linear relationship is found between FWHM and the inverse of grain size of 3C-SiC irrespective of P-doping level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is further found that {omega}{sub p} is not influenced by the grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P-doping level has no significant effect on the linear relationship between grain size and surface roughness. - Abstract: The effect of P-doping and grain size of polycrystalline 3C-SiC on the infrared reflectance spectra is reported. The relationship between grain size and full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggest that the behavior of the 3C-SiC with the highest phosphorous doping level (of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} at. cm{sup -3}) is different from those with lower doping levels (<6.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} at. cm{sup -3}). It is also further demonstrated that the plasma resonance frequency ({omega}{sub p}) is not influenced by the grain size.

  11. Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1 Variants Associate with the Muscle Strength and Size Response to Resistance Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett I Ash

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1 polymorphisms associate with obesity, muscle strength, and cortisol sensitivity. We examined associations among four NR3C1 polymorphisms and the muscle response to resistance training (RT. European-American adults (n = 602, 23.8±0.4yr completed a 12 week unilateral arm RT program. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC assessed isometric strength (kg and MRI assessed biceps size (cm2 pre- and post-resistance training. Subjects were genotyped for NR3C1 -2722G>A, -1887G>A, -1017T>C, and +363A>G. Men carrying the -2722G allele gained less relative MVC (17.3±1.2vs33.5±6.1% (p = 0.010 than AA homozygotes; men with -1887GG gained greater relative MVC than A allele carriers (19.6±1.4vs13.2±2.3% (p = 0.016. Women carrying the -1017T allele gained greater relative size (18.7±0.5vs16.1±0.9% (p = 0.016 than CC homozygotes. We found sex-specific NR3C1 associations with the muscle strength and size response to RT. Future studies should investigate whether these associations are partially explained by cortisol's actions in muscle tissue as they interact with sex differences in cortisol production.

  12. A comparison of BCF-12 organic scintillators and Al2O3:C crystals for real-time medical dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Andersen, Claus Erik; Lindvold, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Radioluminescence (RL) from aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals and organic scintillators such as the blue-emitting BCF-12 can be used for precise real-time dose rate measurements during radiation therapy of cancer patients. Attaching the dosimeters to thin light-guiding fiber cables enables in vi...

  13. [Cloning and expression of 3C protease gene from foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Sun, Pu; Sun, Jiachuan; Liu, Zaixin

    2008-03-01

    The 3C protease from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV 3Cpro) is critical for viral pathogenesis, has vital roles in both processing of the polyprotein precursor and RNA replication, and is a potential anti-viral drug target. In the study, 3C gene of FMDV from serotype Asia I was obtained through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and subcloned into baculovirus transfer vector pMelBac-B. The recombinant transfer plasmid and linearized baculovirus DNA were co-transfected into sf9 insect cell, and the recombinant baculovirus were screened by plaque cloning and PCR identification. After amplification of recombinant baculovirus on cell passages, the recombinant virus were seeded on sf9 cell with 10 multiplicity of infection (MOI), and cells were harvested 72 hours after infection. The expressing product of 3C gene in insect cells was detected by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. The result demonstrated that the 3C gene was successfully expressed in insect cells. The product was a 23 kDa protein and could be recognized by anti-FMDV serum in western blot. The results provide a basis for research of the assembly of FMDV empty capsids in vitro and the design of antivirus drug.

  14. 75 FR 67086 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Opinion and Order Denying Request for Review Under Section 3(c) of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Opinion and Order Denying Request for Review Under Section 3(c) of the... opinion and order pursuant to section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), that Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC's...

  15. Direct sp(3)C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinolines by merging photoredox catalysis with nucleophilic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhu-Jia; Xuan, Jun; Xia, Xu-Dong; Ding, Wei; Guo, Wei; Chen, Jia-Rong; Zou, You-Quan; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2014-04-07

    Sequence catalysis merging photoredox catalysis (PC) and nucleophilic catalysis (NC) has been realized for the direct sp(3) C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ). The reaction was performed under very mild conditions and afforded products in 50-91% yields. A catalytic asymmetric variant was proved to be successful with moderate enantioselectivities (up to 83 : 17 er).

  16. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electroca...

  17. Hubble Space Telescope and VLA observations of two optical continuum knots in the jet of 3C 380

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dea, CP; De Vries, W; Biretta, JA; Baum, SA

    We present Nubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 broadband red and linear ramp filter (isolating redshifted [O II] lambda 3727) observations and subarcsecond-resolution 15, 22, and 43 GHz VLA observations of the radio-loud quasar 3C 380. We confirm the report of de Vries et ai. that

  18. Fine mapping of the soybean aphid resistance genes Rag6 and Rag3c from glycine soja 85-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2001. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management of aphids. Two novel aphid-resistant loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from the Glycine soja accession 85-32, were previously detected in a 1...

  19. AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.3 level 3 collated (L3C) global 4km sea surface temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.3 (PFV53) L3C Sea Surface Temperature data set is a collection of global, twice-daily (Day and Night) 4km sea surface temperature...

  20. Methylation of NR3C1 and SLC6A4 and internalizing problems. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, Lisette J.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Riese, Harriette

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between early adverse life events and later internalizing problems could be mediated by DNA methylation. Adversity has been associated with higher methylation levels in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in adolescents.

  1. Síntesis intratecal de C3c e inmunoglobulinas en niños con meningoencefalitis bacteriana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bárbara Padilla-Docal; Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras; Raisa Bu Coifiu-Fanego; Elena Noris-García; Hermes Fundora-Hernández; Jesus Callol-Barroso; Marlen González-Hernández

    2008-01-01

    .... El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer si el sistema de complemento puede estar involucrado en la lisis de las bacterias productoras de meningoencefalitis a través de la liberación de C3c al líquido cefalorraquídeo...

  2. Poly(4-vinylpyridine efficiently catalyzed one-pot four-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Albadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient one-pot synthesis of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles via four-component reaction of phenyl hydrazine, ethyl acetoacetate, malononitrile and aromatic aldehydes, catalyzed by poly(4-vinylpyridine is reported. This method provides many advantages such as, atom-economy, easy work up, clean procedure, short reaction times and high yields of products.

  3. Switchable transport strategy to deposit active Fe/Fe3C cores into hollow microporous carbons for efficient chromium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Guo, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Hua; Li, Wen-Cui; Sun, Tao; Lu, An-Hui

    2013-11-25

    Magnetic hollow structures with microporous shell and highly dispersed active cores (Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles) are rationally designed and fabricated by solution-phase switchable transport of active iron species combined with a solid-state thermolysis technique, thus allowing selective encapsulation of functional Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles in the interior cavity. These engineered functional materials show high loading (≈54 wt%) of Fe, excellent chromium removal capability (100 mg g(-1)), fast adsorption rate (8766 mL mg(-1) h(-1)), and easy magnetic separation property (63.25 emu g(-1)). During the adsorption process, the internal highly dispersed Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles supply a driving force for facilitating Cr(VI) diffusion inward, thus improving the adsorption rate and the adsorption capacity. At the same time, the external microporous carbon shell can also efficiently trap guest Cr(VI) ions and protect Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles from corrosion and subsequent leaching problems. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental "NR3C1": Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene ("NR3C1") was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral…

  5. The Mechanical and Electrical Effects of MEMS Capacitive Pressure Sensor Based 3C-SiC for Extreme Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the mechanical and electrical effects on 3C-SiC and Si thin film as a diaphragm for MEMS capacitive pressure sensor operating for extreme temperature which is 1000 K. This work compares the design of a diaphragm based MEMS capacitive pressure sensor employing 3C-SiC and Si thin films. A 3C-SiC diaphragm was bonded with a thickness of 380 μm Si substrate, and a cavity gap of 2.2 μm is formed between the wafers. The MEMS capacitive pressure sensor designs were simulated using COMSOL ver 4.3 software to compare the diaphragm deflection, capacitive performance analysis, von Mises stress, and total electrical energy performance. Both materials are designed with the same layout dimensional with different thicknesses of the diaphragm which are 1.0 μm, 1.6 μm, and 2.2 μm. It is observed that the 3C-SiC thin film is far superior materials to Si thin film mechanically in withstanding higher applied pressures and temperatures. For 3C-SiC and Si, the maximum von Mises stress achieved is 148.32 MPa and 125.48 MPa corresponding to capacitance value which is 1.93 pF and 1.22 pF, respectively. In terms of electrical performance, the maximum output capacitance of 1.93 pF is obtained with less total energy of 5.87 × 10−13 J, thus having a 50% saving as compared to Si.

  6. Deconvoluting simulated metagenomes: the performance of hard- and soft- clustering algorithms applied to metagenomic chromosome conformation capture (3C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Z. DeMaere

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Chromosome conformation capture, coupled with high throughput DNA sequencing in protocols like Hi-C and 3C-seq, has been proposed as a viable means of generating data to resolve the genomes of microorganisms living in naturally occuring environments. Metagenomic Hi-C and 3C-seq datasets have begun to emerge, but the feasibility of resolving genomes when closely related organisms (strain-level diversity are present in the sample has not yet been systematically characterised. Methods We developed a computational simulation pipeline for metagenomic 3C and Hi-C sequencing to evaluate the accuracy of genomic reconstructions at, above, and below an operationally defined species boundary. We simulated datasets and measured accuracy over a wide range of parameters. Five clustering algorithms were evaluated (2 hard, 3 soft using an adaptation of the extended B-cubed validation measure. Results When all genomes in a sample are below 95% sequence identity, all of the tested clustering algorithms performed well. When sequence data contains genomes above 95% identity (our operational definition of strain-level diversity, a naive soft-clustering extension of the Louvain method achieves the highest performance. Discussion Previously, only hard-clustering algorithms have been applied to metagenomic 3C and Hi-C data, yet none of these perform well when strain-level diversity exists in a metagenomic sample. Our simple extension of the Louvain method performed the best in these scenarios, however, accuracy remained well below the levels observed for samples without strain-level diversity. Strain resolution is also highly dependent on the amount of available 3C sequence data, suggesting that depth of sequencing must be carefully considered during experimental design. Finally, there appears to be great scope to improve the accuracy of strain resolution through further algorithm development.

  7. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. II. The footprints of AGN feedback on the ISM of 3C 236

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiano, A.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Tremblay, G.; Neri, R.; Fuente, A.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.

    2013-01-01

    Context. There is growing observational evidence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on the interstellar medium (ISM) of radio-quiet and radio-loud galaxies. While AGN feedback is expected to be more common at high-redshift objects, studying local universe galaxies helps to better characterize the different manifestations of AGN feedback. Aims: Molecular line observations can be used to quantify the mass and energy budget of the gas affected by AGN feedback. We study the emission of molecular gas in 3C 236, a Faranoff-Riley type 2 (FR II) radio source at z ~ 0.1, and search for the footprints of AGN feedback. The source 3C 236 shows signs of a reactivation of its AGN triggered by a recent minor merger episode. Observations have also previously identified an extreme H i outflow in this source. Methods: The IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) was used to study the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in 3C 236 by imaging with high spatial resolution (0.6″) the emission of the 2-1 line of 12CO in the nucleus of the galaxy. We searched for outflow signatures in the CO map. We also derived the star-formation rate (SFR) in 3C 236 using data available from the literature at UV, optical, and IR wavelengths, to determine the star-formation efficiency (SFE) of molecular gas. Results: The CO emission in 3C 236 comes from a spatially resolved ~1.4″(2.6 kpc-) diameter disk characterized by a regular rotating pattern. Within the limits imposed by the sensitivity and velocity coverage of the CO data, we do not detect any outflow signatures in the cold molecular gas. The disk has a cold gas mass M(H2) ~ 2.1 × 109 M⊙. Based on CO we determine a new value for the redshift of the source zCO = 0.09927 ± 0.0002. The similarity between the CO and H i profiles indicates that the deep H i absorption in 3C 236 can be accounted for by a rotating H i structure. This restricts the evidence of H i outflow to only the most extreme velocities. In the light of the new

  8. Characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosemeters for photon dosimetry using OSL technique; Caracterizacao de dosimetros de Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C para dosimetria de fotons utilizando a tecnica OSL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villani, D.; Almeida, S.B.; Campos, L.L., E-mail: dvillani@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The optically stimulated dosimetry (OSL) has gained prominence in clinical and academic applications in Brazil. In this paper, we present results of the characterization OSL dosimeters Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C (TLD-500) manufactured by Rexon™ Components and TLD Systems in a RISØ reader, model TL/OSL-DA-20 for dosimetry of high-energy photon beams. All reader parameters, and its variations were evaluated. (author)

  9. Characterization of the N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C)–Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neave, Antje S.; Sarup, Sussi; Seidelin, Michel

    2005-01-01

    of cellular proliferation, NI3C caused an accumulation of HCT-116 cells in the G2/M phase, in contrast to I3C, which led to an accumulation of the colon cells in G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, NI3C delays the G1-S phase transition of synchronized HCT-116 cells. The indole-mediated cell-cycle arrest may be related......Recent results have shown that indole-3-carbinol (I3C) inhibits the cellular growth of human cancer cell lines. In some cruciferous vegetables, another indole, N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), is found beside I3C. Knowledge about the biological effects of NI3C is limited. The aim of the present...... study was to show the effect of NI3C on cell growth of two human colon cancer cell lines, DLD-1 and HCT-116. For the first time it is shown that NI3C inhibits cellular growth of DLD-1 and HCT-116 and that NI3C is a more potent inhibitor of cell proliferation than I3C. In addition to the inhibition...

  10. (3- (trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamides and N

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manjunatha K, Poojary B, Lobo P, Fernandes J and. Kumari N 2010 Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45 5225. 13. Li Y, Liu J, Zhang H, Yang X and Liu Z 2006 Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16 2278. 14. Hamada N and Sharshira E 2011 Molecules 16 2304. 15. Loetchutinat C, Chau F and Mankhetkorn S 2003 Chem. Pharm. Bull. 51 728. 16.

  11. N-[4-(4-Chlorobenzenesulfonamidophenylsulfonyl]acetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H13ClN2O5S2, the dihedral angles between the central benzene ring and the pendant chlorobenzene ring and the N-acetyl group are 82.35 (5 and 79.71 (6°, respectively, and the overall conformation of the molecule approximates to a U shape. Both the C—S—N—C conformations are gauche, but with opposite senses [torsion angles = −59.29 (15 and 63.68 (16°]. An intramolecular C—H...O interaction generates an S(6 ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds generate R22(20 loops. A second N—H...O hydrogen bond links the dimers into (101 layers.

  12. C3c intrathecal synthesis evaluation in patients with multiple sclerosis Evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Padilla-Docal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, inflammatory and progressive disease of the central nervous system in which local inflammatory injuries of the brain white matter appears, being the most outstanding feature the myeline loss (demyelination. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the complement system might be involved in the MS immunopathogeny favouring the mechanism intervening in the myelin destruction. METHOD: Samples of sera and CSF from twelve patients with a diagnosis of MS obtained at the moment of the admission to the hospital at the beginning of the break out, were collected. Levels of C3c and albumin in sera and in CSF were quantified using radial immunodiffusion plates. RESULTS: High values over 80% of intrathecal synthesis were obtained except in one of the patients. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal synthesis of C3c and its liberation to the CSF means that the activation of the complement system in any of the two ways has taken place, and that once performed its biological functions, has suffered a degradation process.INTRODUCCIÓN: La esclerosis múltiple (EM es una enfermedad crónica, inflamatoria y progresiva del sistema nervioso central que cursa con la aparición de lesiones inflamatorias focales en la sustancia blanca cerebral, en las que lo más llamativo es la pérdida de mielina (desmielinización. OBJETIVO: Conocer si el sistema de complemento puede estar involucrado en la inmunopatogenia de la EM favoreciendo los mecanismos que median la destrucción de la mielina. MÉTODO: Se colectaron muestras de suero y LCR de doce pacientes con diagnóstico de EM obtenidas en el momento del ingreso al inicio del brote. Se cuantificaron los niveles de C3c y albúmina en suero y en LCR en placas de inmunodifusión radial. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron altos valores que superan el 80% de síntesis intratecal, menos en uno de los pacientes. CONCLUSION: La síntesis intratecal de C3c y su liberación al LCR significa que ha sucedido la activaci

  13. Synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridines – sequential versus multicomponent reaction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Palka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward synthesis of 6-substituted 1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridines and the corresponding 5-oxides is presented. Hence, microwave-assisted treatment of 5-chloro-1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethylpyrazole-4-carbaldehyde with various terminal alkynes in the presence of tert-butylamine under Sonogashira-type cross-coupling conditions affords the former title compounds in a one-pot multicomponent procedure. Oximes derived from (intermediate 5-alkynyl-1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes were transformed into the corresponding 1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine 5-oxides by silver triflate-catalyzed cyclization. Detailed NMR spectroscopic investigations (1H, 13C, 15N and 19F were undertaken with all obtained products.

  14. Thermal Conductivity Degradation and Microstructural Damage Characterization in Low-Dose Ion Beam-Irradiated 3C-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vinay S.; Riyad, M. Faisal; Du, Xinpeng; Wei, Changdong; Tyburska-Püschel, Beata; Zhao, Ji-Cheng; Khafizov, Marat

    2017-12-01

    This study assesses the impact of low-dose and low-temperature irradiation on the properties of cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC). 3C-SiC was irradiated with Kr ions to different fluences at 420 K (147 °C). Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the impact of irradiation-induced defects on vibrational modes and time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) was used to measure thermal conductivity. We observe a noticeable reduction in thermal conductivity with increasing fluence. Analysis of Raman spectra reveals the longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) modes with noticeable peak broadening of LO mode with increasing dosage. We also notice a decrease of ratio of peak intensities of LO and TO modes in irradiated samples. We observe a correlation between the thermal conductivity reduction and the decrease in the peak intensity ratio and attribute this to the accumulation of charged vacancy defects.

  15. Spin-glass transition in Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with Ni3C − type structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujieda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal shaped nanoparticles about 60 nm in size were successfully synthesized in tetraethylene glycol solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone. By the analysis of the electron diffraction pattern, these were identified as a single crystal of Ni carbide with Ni3C − type structure. Their magnetization curve at 5 K was not completely saturated under a magnetic field of 5 T. The thermomagnetization curves after zero-field cooling and after field cooling exhibited the magnetic cooling effect at low temperatures. Furthermore, the 2nd order nonlinear term of AC magnetic susceptibility exhibited a negative divergence at about 17 K. It is concluded that Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with the Ni3C − type structure exhibit spin-glass transition at low temperatures.

  16. A generalized stoichiometric model of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 photosynthetic metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellasio, C.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of suppressing photorespiration in crops to maximize assimilation and yield is stimulating considerable interest among researchers looking to bioengineer carbon-concentrating mechanisms into C3 plants. However, detailed quantification of the biochemical activities in the bundle sheath is lacking. This work presents a general stoichiometric model for C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 assimilation (SMA) in which energetics, metabolite traffic, and the different decarboxylating enzymes (NAD-depende...

  17. Estimating Land Surface Temperature from Feng Yun-3C/MERSI Data Using a New Land Surface Emissivity Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchen Meng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is a key parameter for a wide number of applications, including hydrology, meteorology and surface energy balance. In this study, we first proposed a new land surface emissivity (LSE scheme, including a lookup table-based method to determine the vegetated surface emissivity and an empirical method to derive the bare soil emissivity from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS broadband emissivity (BBE product. Then, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA reanalysis data and the Feng Yun-3C/Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (FY-3C/MERSI precipitable water vapor product were used to correct the atmospheric effects. After resolving the land surface emissivity and atmospheric effects, the LST was derived in a straightforward manner from the FY-3C/MERSI data by the radiative transfer equation algorithm and the generalized single-channel algorithm. The mean difference between the derived LSE and field-measured LSE over seven stations is approximately 0.002. Validation of the LST retrieved with the LSE determined by the new scheme can achieve an acceptable accuracy. The absolute biases are less than 1 K and the STDs (RMSEs are less than 1.95 K (2.2 K for both the 1000 m and 250 m spatial resolutions. The LST accuracy is superior to that retrieved with the LSE determined by the commonly used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI threshold method. Thus, the new emissivity scheme can be used to improve the accuracy of the LSE and further the LST for sensors with broad spectral ranges such as FY-3C/MERSI.

  18. Poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetes enhances functional and compositional alterations of small, dense HDL3c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Rosso, Leonardo; Lhomme, Marie; Meroño, Tomas; Dellepiane, Ana; Sorroche, Patricia; Hedjazi, Lyamine; Zakiev, Emile; Sukhorukov, Vasily; Orekhov, Alexander; Gasparri, Julieta; Chapman, M John; Brites, Fernando; Kontush, Anatol

    2017-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) possesses multiple biological activities; small, dense HDL3c particles displaying distinct lipidomic composition exert potent antiatherogenic activities which can be compromised in dyslipidemic, hyperglycemic insulin-resistant states. However, it remains indeterminate (i) whether such functional HDL deficiency is related to altered HDL composition, and (ii) whether it originates from atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, or both. In the present work we analyzed compositional characteristics of HDL subpopulations and functional activity of small, dense HDL3c particles in treatment-naïve patients with well-controlled (n=10) and poorly-controlled (n=8) type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in normolipidemic age- and sex-matched controls (n=11). Our data reveal that patients with both well- and poorly-controlled T2D displayed dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation associated with altered HDL composition. Such compositional alterations in small, dense HDL subfractions were specifically correlated with plasma HbA1c levels. Further analysis using a lipidomic approach revealed that small, dense HDL3c particles from T2D patients with poor glycemic control displayed additional modifications of their chemical composition. In parallel, antioxidative activity of HDL3c towards oxidation of low-density lipoprotein was diminished. These findings indicate that defective functionality of small, dense HDL particles in patients with T2D is not only affected by the presence of atherogenic dyslipidemia, but also by the level of glycemic control, reflecting compositional alterations of HDL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Síntesis intratecal de C3c e inmunoglobulinas en niños con meningoencefalitis bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Padilla-Docal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas constituyen una fuente importante de morbilidad, mortalidad y discapacidad en diferentes regiones del mundo. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer si el sistema de complemento puede estar involucrado en la lisis de las bacterias productoras de meningoencefalitis a través de la liberación de C3c al líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se estudiaron siete pacientes con edad promedio de 3 años, que ingresaron en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, a los que se les realizó una punción lumbar diagnóstica y se les aislaron los gérmenes siguientes: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae y Haemophilus influenzae. La cuantificación de los niveles de C3c, albúmina e inmunoglobulinas mayores en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo se realizó en placas de inmunodifusión radial. Los resultados obtenidos fueron recogidos en un reibergrama. El total de los pacientes estudiados mostraron síntesis intratecal del componente C3c del sistema de complemento. Este hecho evidenció la activación de este sistema en alguna de sus vías y que una vez cumplidas sus funciones biológicas, ha sufrido un proceso de degradación y liberación al LCR en forma de C3c.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of NR3C1 gene and recurrent depressive disorder in population of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecka, Elżbieta; Szemraj, Janusz; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Przybyłowska-Sygut, Karolina; Gałecki, Piotr; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Depressive disorder is a disease characterized by disturbances in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Abnormalities include the increased level of glucocorticoids (GC) and changes in sensitivity to these hormones. The changes are related to glucocorticoid receptors gene (NR3C1) variants. The NR3C1 gene is suggested to be a candidate gene affecting depressive disorder risk and management. The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms within the NR3C1 gene and their role in the susceptibility to recurrent depressive disorder (rDD). 181 depressive patients and 149 healthy ethnically matched controls were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Statistical significance between rDD patients and controls was observed for the allele and genotype frequencies at three loci: BclI, N363S, and ER22/23EK. The presence of C allele, CC, and GC genotype of BclI polymorphism, G allele and GA genotype for N363S and ER22/23EK variants respectively were associated with increased rDD risk. Two haplotypes indicated higher susceptibility for rDD, while haplotype GAG played a protective role with OR(dis) 0.29 [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-0.64]. Data generated from this study support the earlier results that genetic variants of the NR3C1 gene are associated with rDD and suggest further consideration on the possible involvement of these variants in etiology of the disease.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tribromomethane CHBr3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB4213_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tribromomethane CHBr3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB4213_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloroethene C2HCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB5131_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloroethene C2HCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB5131_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  3. Implications for Damage Recognition during Dpo4-Mediated Mutagenic Bypass of m1G and m3C Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechkoblit, Olga; Delaney, James C.; Essigmann, John M.; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2012-01-01

    DNA is susceptible to alkylation damage by a number of environmental agents that modify the Watson-Crick edge of the bases. Such lesions, if not repaired, may be bypassed by Y-family DNA polymerases. The bypass polymerase Dpo4 is strongly inhibited by 1-methylguanine (m1G) and 3-methylcytosine (m3C), with nucleotide incorporation opposite these lesions being predominantly mutagenic. Further, extension following insertion of both correct and incorrect bases, introduces additional base substitution and deletion errors. Crystal structures of the Dpo4 ternary extension complexes with correct and mismatched 3′-terminal primer bases opposite the lesions reveal that both m1G and m3C remain positioned within the DNA template/primer helix. However, both correct and incorrect pairing partners exhibit pronounced primer terminal nucleotide distortion, being primarily evicted from the DNA helix when opposite m1G or misaligned when pairing with m3C. Our studies provide insights into mechanisms related to hindered and mutagenic bypass of methylated lesions and models associated with damage recognition by repair demethylases. PMID:21645853

  4. Implications for Damage Recognition during Dpo4-Mediated Mutagenic Bypass of m1G and m3C Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechkoblit, Olga; Delaney, James C.; Essigmann, John M.; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MIT); (MSKCC)

    2012-05-08

    DNA is susceptible to alkylation damage by a number of environmental agents that modify the Watson-Crick edge of the bases. Such lesions, if not repaired, may be bypassed by Y-family DNA polymerases. The bypass polymerase Dpo4 is strongly inhibited by 1-methylguanine (m1G) and 3-methylcytosine (m3C), with nucleotide incorporation opposite these lesions being predominantly mutagenic. Further, extension after insertion of both correct and incorrect bases, introduces additional base substitution and deletion errors. Crystal structures of the Dpo4 ternary extension complexes with correct and mismatched 3'-terminal primer bases opposite the lesions reveal that both m1G and m3C remain positioned within the DNA template/primer helix. However, both correct and incorrect pairing partners exhibit pronounced primer terminal nucleotide distortion, being primarily evicted from the DNA helix when opposite m1G or misaligned when pairing with m3C. Our studies provide insights into mechanisms related to hindered and mutagenic bypass of methylated lesions and models associated with damage recognition by repair demethylases.

  5. Improved real-time dosimetry using the radioluminescence signal from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damkjaer, S.M.S. [Radiation Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)], E-mail: sidsel.damkjaer@risoe.dk; Andersen, C.E. [Radiation Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Aznar, M.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-02-15

    Carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) is a highly sensitive luminescence material for ionizing radiation dosimetry, and it is well established that the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C can be used for absorbed-dose measurements. During irradiation, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C also emits prompt radioluminescence (RL) which allows for real-time dose verification. The RL-signal is not linear in the absorbed dose due to sensitivity changes and the presence of shallow traps. Despite this the signal can be processed to obtain a reliable dose rate signal in real time. Previously a simple algorithm for correcting the RL-signal has been published and here we report two improvements: a better and more stable calibration method which is independent of a reference dose rate and a correction for the effect of the shallow traps. Good agreement was found between reference doses and doses derived from the RL-signal using the new algorithm (the standard deviation of the residuals were {approx}2% including phantom positioning errors). The RL-algorithm was found to greatly reduce the influence of shallow traps in the range from 0 to 3 Gy and the RL dose-rate measurements with a time resolution of 0.1 s closely matched dose-rate changes monitored with an ionization chamber.

  6. Hot-corrosion Behavior of HR3C Pre-coated Alkali Metal Sulphate in SO2 Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviors of HR3C pre-coated alkali metal sulphate in SO2 atmosphere at different temperatures were investigated by means of XRD,SEM (EDS and EMPA in order to discuss the corrosion resistance mechanism to SO2 of HR3C.The results show that the corrosion kinetic curves follow parabolic law.The corrosion products are mainly composed of (Fe,Cr oxides,minor compound oxides with spinel structure as well as (Fe,Ni sulfides.The increment in SO2 content increases significantly the oxide films in thickness,and deteriorates the adhesion to the oxide scale and matrix.In addition,the porosities in the corrosion affected zone (the interface between the oxide films and the matrix increase and a CrS belt exits in the interface between the oxide layer and the corrosion affected zone.The analysis shows that the corrosion of HR3C in SO2 environment is resulted from the oxidation,sulfidation of the alloy,moreover,the sulfation of metallic oxides and the formation of ternary composed alkali metal sulfate as well as the dissolution of Fe in melted salt also contribute to the corrosion.

  7. DISCOVERY OF γ-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STRONGLY LOBE-DOMINATED QUASAR 3C 275.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Neng-Hui; Xin, Yu-Liang; Li, Shang; Jiang, Wei; Liang, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Fan, Yi-Zhong [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Chen, Liang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Bai, Jin-Ming, E-mail: liaonh@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2015-07-20

    We systematically analyze the 6 year Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on lobe-dominated quasars (LDQs) in the complete LDQ sample from the Revised third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (3CRR) survey and report the discovery of high-energy γ-ray emission from 3C 275.1. The γ-ray emission of 3C 207 is confirmed and significant variability of the light curve is identified. We do not find statistically significant γ-ray emission from other LDQs. 3C 275.1 is the known γ-ray quasar with the lowest core dominance parameter (i.e., R = 0.11). We also show that both the northern radio hotspot and parsec jet models can reasonably reproduce the γ-ray data. The parsec jet model, however, is favored by the potential γ-ray variability on a timescale of months. We suggest that some dimmer γ-ray LDQs will be detected in the future and LDQs could contribute non-ignorably to the extragalactic γ-ray background.

  8. Study on the effect of atmospheric plasma processing using gas mixture on 3C-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zulaika; Zaaba, S. K.; Nasir, N. F. Mohd; Mustaffa, M. T.; Arcena, Mayvinne; Zakaria, A.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric plasma processing are widely used for improving surfaces properties. Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) is one of the material used as biosensor for their biocompatibility properties. In this work, we present the results of atmospheric plasma processing treatments using gas mixture on 3C-SiC surface. The 3C-SiC samples were treated at different duration and flow rate. Helium/Nitrogen and Argon/Nitrogen gas mixtures were used as plasma treatments and its effect on the surface was investigated. A significant increment of surface wettability were observed after plasma exposition. Investigation by surface morphological measurements was performed by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Contact angle measurement results showed a decreased in contact angle with increasing of treatment time and flow rate, and Argon/Nitrogen mixture promote more wettability compared to Helium/Nitrogen mixture. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 24 May 2017.

  9. Spectroscopic phonon and extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements on 3C-SiC/Si (001) epifilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Devki N.; Wan, Linyu; Tin, Chin-Che; Lin, Hao-Hsiung; Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies are reported to assess the vibrational and structural properties of 3C-SiC/Si (001) epilayers grown by chemical vapor deposition in a vertical reactor configuration. While the phonon features are evaluated using high resolution infrared reflectance (IRR) and Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS) - the local inter-atomic structure is appraised by synchrotron radiation extended x-ray absorption fine structure (SR-EXAFS) method. Unlike others, our RSS results in the near backscattering geometry revealed markedly indistinctive longitudinal- and transverse-optical phonons in 3C-SiC epifilms of thickness d theory is utilized to explain the observed atypical IRR spectra in 3C-SiC/Si (001) epifilms. High density intrinsic defects present in films and/or epilayer/substrate interface are likely to be responsible for (a) releasing misfit stress/strains, (b) triggering atypical features in IRR spectra, and (c) affecting observed local structural traits in SR-EXAFS.

  10. Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58 by MAGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Coto Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulsar wind nebula (PWN 3C 58 is one of the historical very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV gamma-ray source candidates. It has been compared to the Crab Nebula due to their morphological similarities. This object was detected by Fermi-LAT with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. We analyzed 81 hours of 3C 58 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes and we detected VHE gamma-ray emission for the first time at TeV energies with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. According to our results 3C 58 is the least luminous PWN ever detected at VHE and the one with the lowest flux at VHE to date. We compare our results with the expectations of time-dependent models in which electrons up-scatter photon fields. The best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and Far Infrared (FIR comparable to CMB photon fields. Hadronic contribution from the hosting supernova remnant (SNR requires unrealistic energy budget given the density of the medium, disfavoring cosmic ray acceleration in the SNR as origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission.

  11. Transcriptomic analyses of RNA-binding proteins reveal eIF3c promotes cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tangjian; Li, Shengli; Chen, Di; Chen, Bing; Yu, Tao; Zhao, Fangyu; Wang, Qifeng; Yao, Ming; Huang, Shenglin; Chen, Zhiao; He, Xianghuo

    2017-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play fundamental roles in the RNA life cycle. The aberrant expression of RBPs is often observed in human disease, including cancer. In this study, we screened for the expression levels of 1542 human RBPs in The Cancer Genome Atlas liver hepatocellular carcinoma samples and found 92 consistently upregulated RBP genes in HCC compared with normal samples. Additionally, we undertook a Kaplan-Meier analysis and found that high expression of 15 RBP genes was associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC. Furthermore, we found that eIF3c promotes HCC cell proliferation in vitro as well as tumorigenicity in vivo. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that high eIF3c expression is positively associated with KRAS, vascular endothelial growth factor, and Hedgehog signaling pathways, all of which are closely associated with specific cancer-related gene sets. Our study provides the basis for further investigation of the molecular mechanism by which eIF3c promotes the development and progression of HCC. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Ancient Origin of cGAS-STING Reveals Mechanism of Universal 2',3' cGAMP Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzusch, Philip J; Wilson, Stephen C; Lee, Amy S Y; Berger, James M; Doudna, Jennifer A; Vance, Russell E

    2015-09-17

    In humans, the cGAS-STING immunity pathway signals in response to cytosolic DNA via 2',3' cGAMP, a cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) second messenger containing mixed 2'-5' and 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds. Prokaryotes also produce CDNs, but these are exclusively 3' linked, and thus the evolutionary origins of human 2',3' cGAMP signaling are unknown. Here we illuminate the ancient origins of human cGAMP signaling by discovery of a functional cGAS-STING pathway in Nematostella vectensis, an anemone species >500 million years diverged from humans. Anemone cGAS appears to produce a 3',3' CDN that anemone STING recognizes through nucleobase-specific contacts not observed in human STING. Nevertheless, anemone STING binds mixed-linkage 2',3' cGAMP indistinguishably from human STING, trapping a unique structural conformation not induced by 3',3' CDNs. These results reveal that human mixed-linkage cGAMP achieves universal signaling by exploiting a deeply conserved STING conformational intermediate, providing critical insight for therapeutic targeting of the STING pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Voltage-sensing phosphatase reveals temporal regulation of TRPC3/C6/C7 channels by membrane phosphoinositides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Okamura, Yasushi; Abe, Kihachiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Masayuki X

    2012-01-01

    TRPC3/C6/C7 channels, a subgroup of classical/canonical TRP channels, are activated by diacylglycerol produced via activation of phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled receptors. Recognition of the physiological importance of these channels has been steadily growing, but the mechanism by which they are regulated remains largely unknown. We recently used a membrane-resident danio rerio voltage-sensing phosphatase (DrVSP) to study TRPC3/C6/C7 regulation and found that the channel activity was controlled by PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-DAG signaling in a self-limiting manner (Imai Y et al., the Journal of Physiology, 2012). In this addendum, we present the advantages of using DrVSP as a molecular tool to study PtdIns(4,5)P(2) regulation. DrVSP should be readily applicable for studying phosphoinositide metabolism-linked channel regulation as well as lipid dynamics. Furthermore, in comparison to other modes of self-limiting ion channel regulation, the regulation of TRPC3/C6/C7 channels seems highly susceptible to activation signal strength, which could potentially affect both open duration and the time to peak activation and inactivation. Dysfunction of such self-limiting regulation may contribute to the pathology of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and brain, as these channels are broadly distributed and affected by numerous neurohormonal agonists.

  14. Optical monitoring of BL Lac object S5 0716+714 and FSRQ 3C 273 from 2000 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-Hai; Fan, Jun-hui; Tao, Jun; Qian, Bo-Chen; Costantin, Denise; Xiao, Hu-Bing; Pei, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Chao

    2017-09-01

    Context. Using the 1.56 m telescope at the Shanghai Observatory (ShAO), China, we monitored two sources, BL Lac object S5 0716+714 and flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) 3C 273. For S5 0716+714, we report 4969 sets of CCD (Charge-coupled Device) photometrical optical observations (1369 for V band, 1861 for R band and 1739 for I band) in the monitoring time from Dec. 4, 2000 to Apr. 5, 2014. For 3C 273, we report 460 observations (138 for V band, 146 for R band and 176 for I band) in the monitoring time from Mar. 28, 2006 to Apr. 9, 2014. Aims: The observations provide us with a large amount of data to analyze the short-term and long-term optical variabilities. Based on the variable timescales, we can estimate the central black hole mass and the Doppler factor. An abundance of multi-band observations can help us to analyze the relations between the brightness and spectrum. Methods: We use Gaussian fitting to analyze the intra-day light curves and obtain the intra-day variability (IDV) timescales. We use the discrete correlation function (DCF) method and Jurkevich method to analyze the quasi-periodic variability. Based on the VRI observations, we use the linear fitting to analyze the relations between brightness and spectrum. Results: The two sources both show IDV properties for S5 0716+714. The timescales are in the range from 17.3 min to 4.82 h; for 3C 273, the timescale is ΔT = 35.6 min. Based on the periodic analysis methods, we find the periods PV = 24.24 ± 1.09 days, PR = 24.12 ± 0.76 days, PI = 24.82 ± 0.73 days for S5 0716+714, and P = 12.99 ± 0.72, 21.76 ± 1.45 yr for 3C 273. The two sources displayed the "bluer-when-brighter" spectral evolution properties. Conclusions: S5 0716+714 and 3C 273 are frequently studied objects. The violent optical variability and IDV may come from the jet. Gaussian fitting can be used to analyze IDVs. The relations between brightness (flux density) and spectrum are strongly influenced by the frequency. A table of the

  15. N-[(3aR*,3bS*-1,3b,7,7-Tetramethyl-3a,3b,4,5,6,7,7a,7b-octahydro-3H-cyclopenta[3,4]cyclobuta[1,2]benzen-3a-yl]acetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ait Elhad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H27NO, is built up from a four-membered ring to which a six- and a five-membered ring are fused. The cyclohexane ring has a chair conformation, while the cyclopentene ring has an envelope conformation, with the C atom substituted by the acetamide group as the flap. The dihedral angles between the mean plane of the central cyclobutane ring and the mean planes of the cyclopentene and cyclohexane rings are 62.52 (2 and 61.06 (11°, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the b-axis direction.

  16. The loss of NH2O• from the N-hydroxyacetamide radical cation CH3C(=O)NHOH•+: An ion-catalysed rearrangement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobst, K.J.; Burgers, P.C.; Ruttink, P.J.A.; Terlouw, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    A previous study [Ch. Lifshitz, P.J.A. Ruttink, G. Schaftenaar, J.K. Terlouw, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 1 (1987) 61] shows that metastable N-hydroxyacetamide ions CH3C(=O)NHOH+ (HA-1) do not dissociate into CH3C=O++NHOH by direct bond cleavage but rather yield CH3C=O++NH2O. The tandem mass

  17. High-T C superconductivity in Cs3C60 compounds governed by local Cs-C60 Coulomb interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, Dale R.; Fiory, Anthony T.

    2017-04-01

    Unique among alkali-doped A 3C60 fullerene compounds, the A15 and fcc forms of Cs3C60 exhibit superconducting states varying under hydrostatic pressure with highest transition temperatures at T\\text{C}\\text{meas}   =  38.3 and 35.2 K, respectively. Herein it is argued that these two compounds under pressure represent the optimal materials of the A 3C60 family, and that the C60-associated superconductivity is mediated through Coulombic interactions with charges on the alkalis. A derivation of the interlayer Coulombic pairing model of high-T C superconductivity employing non-planar geometry is introduced, generalizing the picture of two interacting layers to an interaction between charge reservoirs located on the C60 and alkali ions. The optimal transition temperature follows the algebraic expression, T C0  =  (12.474 nm2 K)/ℓζ, where ℓ relates to the mean spacing between interacting surface charges on the C60 and ζ is the average radial distance between the C60 surface and the neighboring Cs ions. Values of T C0 for the measured cation stoichiometries of Cs3-x C60 with x  ≈  0 are found to be 38.19 and 36.88 K for the A15 and fcc forms, respectively, with the dichotomy in transition temperature reflecting the larger ζ and structural disorder in the fcc form. In the A15 form, modeled interacting charges and Coulomb potential e2/ζ are shown to agree quantitatively with findings from nuclear-spin relaxation and mid-infrared optical conductivity. In the fcc form, suppression of T\\text{C}\\text{meas} below T C0 is ascribed to native structural disorder. Phononic effects in conjunction with Coulombic pairing are discussed.

  18. Observation of magnetic domain and bubble structures in magnetoelectric S r3C o2F e24O41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, H.; Kawase, H.; Kurushima, K.; Kotani, A.; Kimura, T.; Mori, S.

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic domain and bubble structures in the Z-type hexaferrite S r3C o2F e24O41 were investigated using Lorentz microscopy. This hexaferrite exhibits a room-temperature magnetoelectric effect that is attributed to its transverse conical spin structure (TC phase). Upon heating, the TC phase transforms into a ferrimagnetic phase with magnetic moments in the hexagonal a b plane between 410 and 480 K (FM2 phase) and into another ferrimagnetic phase with moments parallel to the c axis between 490 and 680 K (FM1 phase). Accordingly, in this study, the magnetic domain structures in S r3C o2F e24O41 were observed to change dramatically with temperature. In the TC phase, irregular fine magnetic domains were observed after cooling the specimen from the FM2 to TC phase. In the FM1 phase, striped magnetic domain walls with pairs of bright and dark contrast were formed parallel to the c axis. Upon applying an external magnetic field, the striped magnetic domain walls transformed into magnetic bubbles. The topology of the magnetic bubbles was dependent on the angle between the external magnetic field (H ) direction and the easy c axis. Namely, magnetic bubbles with the topological number N =1 (type I) were created for H ∥c , whereas magnetic bubbles with N =0 (type II) were created when the magnetic field was tilted from the c axis by 5∘. We attribute the high magnetocrystalline anisotropy of S r3C o2F e24O41 to the emergence of magnetic bubbles in the FM1 phase.

  19. Direct assimilation of Chinese FY-3C Microwave Temperature Sounder-2 radiances in the global GRAPES system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Liu, Guiqing

    2016-07-01

    FengYun-3C (FY-3C) is an operational polar-orbiting satellite carrying the new-generation microwave sounding instruments in China. This paper describes the assimilation of the FY-3C Microwave Temperature Sounder-2 (MWTS-2) radiances in the Global and Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration. A quality control (QC) procedure for the assimilation of MWTS-2 radiance is proposed. Extensive monitoring before assimilation shows that MWTS-2 observations exhibit a clear striping pattern. A technique combining principal component analysis (PCA) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is applied to the observations to remove the striping noise. Cloudy field-of-views (FOVs) are identified by applying the Visible and InfrarRed Radiometer (VIRR) cloud fraction threshold of 76 %. Other QC steps are conducted in the follow order: (i) coastal FOVs are removed, (ii) eight outmost FOVs are not used, (iii) channel 5 data over sea ice and land are not used, (iv) channel 6 observations are not used if the terrain altitudes are higher than 500 m, and (v) outliers with large differences between observations and model simulations are removed. Approximately 83, 75, 40, and 40 % of the observations are removed by the proposed QC for channels 5-8, respectively. After QC, the global biases and standard deviations are reduced significantly. The assimilation of the MWTS-2 radiances shows a positive impact when the control experiment assimilates only conventional observations. The experiments also show that the analysis and forecast errors are slightly reduced when the striping noise is removed from the observations. The quality control scheme of extracting the striping noise may contribute to the analysis and forecast accuracy. The impact of MWTS-2 is neutral when the conventional data and other satellite data are all assimilated.

  20. Development of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) nanostructured coatings; Desenvolvimento de revestimentos nanostruturados de Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Cecilio Alvares da

    2012-07-01

    This study is divided in two parts. The first part is about the preparation of nanostructured Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powders by high energy milling followed by characterization of the milled and the as received powder. Analyses of some of the data obtained were done using a theoretical approach. The second part of this study is about the preparation and characterization of coatings prepared with the nanostructured as well as the as received Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powders. The high temperature erosion-oxidation (E-O) behavior of the coatings prepared with the two types of powders has been compared based on a technological approach. The average crystallite size of the Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powder decreased rapidly from 145 nm to 50 nm in the initial stages of milling and thereafter decreased slowly to a steady state value of around 10 nm with further increase in milling time. This steady state corresponds to the beginning of a dynamic recovery process. The maximum lattice strain ({epsilon} = 1,17%) was observed in powders milled for 16 hours, and this powders critical crystallite size was 28 nm. In contrast, the lattice parameter attained a minimum for powders milled for 16 hours. Upon reaching the critical crystallite size, the dislocation density attained a steady state regime and all plastic deformation introduced in the material there after was in the form of events occurring at the grain boundaries, due mainly to grain boundary sliding. The deformation energy stored in the crystal lattice of the Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powders milled for different times was determined from enthalpy variation measurements. These results indicated that the maximum enthalpy variation ({delta}H = 722 mcal) also occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. In a similar manner, the maximum specific heat variation ({delta}C{sub p} = 0,278 cal/gK) occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. The following mechanical properties of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) coatings

  1. Two birds, one stone: dual targeting of the cancer cell surface and subcellular mitochondria by the galectin-3-binding peptide G3-C12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Lian; Li, Li-Jia; Yang, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Huang, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Active tumor-targeting approaches using specific ligands have drawn considerable attention over the years. However, a single ligand often fails to simultaneously target the cancer cell surface and subcellular organelles, which limits the maximum therapeutic efficacy of delivered drugs. We describe a polymeric delivery system modified with the G3-C12 peptide for sequential dual targeting. In this study, galectin-3-targeted G3-C12 peptide was conjugated onto the N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer for the delivery of D(KLAKLAK)2 (KLA) peptide. G3-C12-HPMA-KLA exhibited increased receptor-mediated internalization into galectin-3-overexpressing PC-3 cells. Furthermore, G3-C12 peptide also directed HPMA-KLA conjugates to mitochondria. This occurred because the apoptosis signal triggered the accumulation of galectin-3 in mitochondria, and the G3-C12 peptide that specifically bound to galectin-3 was trafficked along with its receptor intracellularly. As a result, G3-C12-HPMA-KLA disrupted the mitochondrial membrane, increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced cytochrome c release, which ultimately resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity. An in vivo study revealed that the G3-C12 peptide significantly enhanced the tumor accumulation of the KLA conjugate. In addition, G3-C12-HPMA-KLA exhibited the best therapeutic efficacy and greatly improved the animal survival rate. Our work demonstrates that G3-C12 is a promising ligand with dual-targeting functionality.

  2. MEX3C interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 2 and involves in miR-451a exosomal sorting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lu

    Full Text Available Some RNA species, especially microRNAs, are non-randomly sorted into exosomes, but how selectivity of RNA exosomal sorting is achieved is unknown. We found that all three variants of RNA-binding ubiquitin E3 ligase (MEX3C-MEX3C-1, MEX3C-2, and MEX3C-3 -interact with adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP-2, a cargo adaptor in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. MEX3C's C-terminal RING finger domain and the hnRNP K homology (KH domain shared by the three MEX3C variants are both necessary for MEX3C/AP-2 interaction. MEX3C associates with the endolysosomal compartment through an endocytosis-like process. siRNA-mediated inhibition of the MEX3C or AP-2 complex substantially decreased exosomal but not cellular microRNA miR-451a expression. Exosomal sorting is ceramide-dependent but not ESCRT-dependent in microRNA miR-451a. That RNA-binding protein associates with membrane trafficking machinery, and that its involvement in exosomal microRNA expression, suggest the existence of a mechanism for specific recruiting of RNA molecules to endosomes for subsequent exosomal sorting.

  3. Pressure-induced transformation of 6H hexagonal to 3C Perovskite structure in PbMnO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Kengo; Azuma, Masaki; Hirai, Shigeto; Belik, Alexei A; Kojitani, Hiroshi; Akaogi, Masaki; Takano, Mikio; Shimakawa, Yuich

    2009-03-02

    A tetragonal perovskite PbMnO(3) was obtained by treating the 6H hexagonal perovskite phase at 15 GPa and 1273 K. Structural analysis using synchrotron X-ray diffraction suggested that PbMnO(3) crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group P4/mmm, unlike PbTiO(3) and PbVO(3) which have a polar structure in space group P4mm. Iodometric titration revealed the presence of the oxygen deficiency of x = 0.06 for PbMnO(3-x). The hexagonal 6H and the 3C perovskite phases exhibited antiferromagnetic ordering at 155 and 20 K, respectively.

  4. Reproducibility of optically stimulated luminescence measurements from single grains of Al2O3: C and annealed quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truscott, A.J.; Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured some aspects concerning the performance of a new instrument for the measurement of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from single sand-sized grains. The instrument uses a solid-state laser to stimulate OSL from each grain individually. These grains are placed in a regular grid...... of nine-by-nine holes, which are drilled in the sample disc, We report on tests carried out to determine the precision with which the laser beam can be directed at individual grains in these holes. Single grains of aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) (90-180 mum) and annealed quartz (90-120 mum) were used to test...

  5. Fe Emission And Ionized Excess Absorption in the Luminous Quasar 3C109 With XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miniutti, Giovanni; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Ballantyne, D.R.; /Arizona U.; Allen, S.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Ross,; /Holy Cross Coll.

    2006-06-09

    We report results from an XMM-Newton observation of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 109 (z=0.3056). Previous ASCA data revealed the presence of a broad iron line from the accretion disc with which the XMM-Newton spectrum is fully consistent. However, although improving the ASCA constraints on the line parameters, the quality of the data is not high enough to distinguish between an untruncated accretion disc extending down to small radii close to the black hole and a scenario in which the innermost 20-30 gravitational radii are missing. For this reason, our results are model-dependent and the hard data can be modeled equally well by considering an absorption scenario in which a large column of neutral gas partially covers the X-ray continuum source. However, the absorber would have to comprise hundreds/thousands very compact clouds close to the X-ray source, which seems rather extreme a requirement. The 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosity of 3C 109 is of the order of 2-3 x 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} regardless of the adopted model. A recent black hole mass estimate of {approx} 2 x 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}} implies that L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} > 1. If partial covering is excluded, the observed reflection fraction (of the order of unity), steep photon index (1.86), and Fe line equivalent width (about 100 eV) all suggest to exclude that the X-ray continuum is strongly beamed indicating that the large Eddington ratio is associated with a radiatively efficient accretion process and making it unlikely that the innermost accretion disc is replaced by a thick radiatively inefficient medium such as in advection-dominated accretion models. We also confirm previous findings on the detection of low energy absorption in excess of the Galactic value, where we find excellent agreement with previous results obtained in X-rays and at other wavelengths (optical and infrared). The better quality of the XMM-Newton data enables us to attribute the excess absorption to slightly ionized gas in

  6. What does leaf wax δD from a mixed C3/C4 vegetation region tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiming V.; Larsen, Thomas; Leduc, Guillaume; Andersen, Nils; Blanz, Thomas; Schneider, Ralph R.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope values (δD) of sedimentary terrestrial leaf wax such as n-alkanes or n-acids have been used to map and understand past changes in rainfall amount in the tropics because δD of precipitation is commonly assumed as the first order controlling factor of leaf wax δD. Plant functional types and their photosynthetic pathways can also affect leaf wax δD but these biological effects are rarely taken into account in paleo studies relying on this rainfall proxy. To investigate how biological effects may influence δD values we here present a 37,000-year old record of δD and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) measured on four n-alkanes (n-C27, n-C29, n-C31, n-C33) from a marine sediment core collected off the Zambezi River mouth. Our paleo δ13C records suggest that each individual n-alkanes had different C3/C4 proportional contributions. n-C29 was mostly derived from a C3 dicots (trees, shrubs and forbs) dominant vegetation throughout the entire record. In contrast, the longer chain n-C33 and n-C31 were mostly contributed by C4 grasses during the Glacial period but shifted to a mixture of C4 grasses and C3 dicots during the Holocene. Strong correlations between δD and δ13C values of n-C33 (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.75, n = 58) and n-C31 (R2 = 0.48, n = 58) suggest that their δD values were strongly influenced by changes in the relative contributions of C3/C4 plant types in contrast to n-C29 (R2 = 0.07, n = 58). Within regions with variable C3/C4 input, we conclude that δD values of n-C29 are the most reliable and unbiased indicator for past changes in rainfall, and that δD and δ13C values of n-C31 and n-C33 are sensitive to C3/C4 vegetation changes. Our results demonstrate that a robust interpretation of palaeohydrological data using n-alkane δD requires additional knowledge of regional vegetation changes from which n-alkanes are synthesized, and that the combination of δD and δ13C values of multiple n-alkanes can help to differentiate

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of dihydropyrano-[2,3-c]pyrazoles as a new class of PPARγ partial agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Jensen, Jakob Feldthusen; Sørensen, Mikael S.

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a well-known target for thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drugs. In this paper, we present the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives as a novel family of PPARγ partial agonists. Two analogues...... was developed for the identification of ligand binding interactions in PPARγ. In combination with cell-based transactivation experiments, the flexible alignment model provides an excellent analytical tool to evaluate and visualize the effect of ligand chemical structure with respect to receptor binding mode...

  8. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}:C/CdS p-n junction by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arato, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia-Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cardenas, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia-Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); O' Brien, J.J.; Liu, J. [Center for Nanoscience, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri-63121 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri-63121 (United States); Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia-Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)], E-mail: bkrishnan@fime.uanl.mx

    2009-02-02

    In this paper, we report laser irradiated carbon doping of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films and formation of a p-n junction photovoltaic structure using these films. A very thin carbon layer was evaporated on to chemical bath deposited Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of approximately 0.5 {mu}m in thickness. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were prepared from a solution containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 27 deg. C for 5 h and the films obtained were highly resistive. These C/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were irradiated by an expanded laser beam of diameter approximately 0.5 cm (5 W power, 532 nm Verdi laser), for 2 min at ambient atmosphere. Morphology and composition of these films were analyzed. These films showed p-type conductivity due to carbon diffusion (Sb{sub 2} S{sub 3}:C) by the thermal energy generated by the absorption of laser radiation. In addition, these thin films were incorporated in a photovoltaic structure Ag/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}:C/CdS/ITO/Glass. For this, CdS thin film of 50 nm in thickness was deposited on a commercially available ITO coated glass substrate from a chemical bath containing CdCl{sub 2}, sodium citrate, NH{sub 4}OH and thiourea at 70 deg. C . On the CdS film, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/C layers were deposited. This multilayer structure was subjected to the laser irradiation, C/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} side facing the beam. The p-n junction formed by p-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}:C and n-type CdS showed V{sub oc} = 500 mV and J{sub sc} = 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2} under illumination by a tungsten halogen lamp. This work opens up a new method to produce solar cell structures by laser assisted material processing.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATION AT LOW TEMPERATURES ON THE DIELECTRIC PARAMETERS OF 3C-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A.A. Engelbrecht; G. Deyzel; E. Minnaar; W.E. Goosen; I. J. van Rooyen

    2014-04-01

    3C-SiC wafers were irradiated with neutrons of various fluences and at low (200 - 400 ?C) irradiation temperatures. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectra were obtained for the samples, and the spectra used to extract the dielectric parameters for each specimen, using statistical curve-fitting procedures. Analysis of all data revealed trends in reflectance peak heights as well as in the dielectric parameters. The surface roughness of the irradiated samples was measured by atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and certain trends could be ascribed to surface roughness.

  10. The influence of neutron-irradiation at low temperatures on the dielectric parameters of 3C-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Deyzel, G.; Minnaar, E.G.; Goosen, W.E. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Rooyen, I.J. van [Fuel Performance and Design Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    3C-SiC wafers were irradiated with neutrons of various fluences and at low (200–400 °C) irradiation temperatures. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectra were obtained for the samples, and the spectra used to extract the dielectric parameters for each specimen, using statistical curve-fitting procedures. Analysis of all data revealed trends in reflectance peak heights as well as in the dielectric parameters. The surface roughness of the irradiated samples was measured by atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and certain trends could be ascribed to surface roughness.

  11. Phototransferred thermoluminescence from alpha-Al sub 2 O sub 3 :C using blue light emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Bulur, E

    1999-01-01

    Phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) from alpha-Al sub 2 O sub 3 :C single crystals was studied using a blue light emitting diode (LED) for phototransfer of charges from deep traps to the main dosimetry trap. The dose response was found to be linear in the region from approx 5 mGy to approx 5 Gy. It was observed that the corresponding deep traps were located near 500 deg. C and heating to temperatures >600 deg. C removes the PTTL effect induced by the light from the blue LED. The thermal activation energy of the source traps involved in the PTTL production was calculated as 3.23 eV.

  12. SATCOM antenna siting study on a P-3C using the NEC-BSC V3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensman, D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The location of a UHF SATCOM antenna on a P-3C aircraft is studied using the NEC-Basic Scattering Code V3.1 (NEC-BSC3). The NEC-BSC3 is a computer code based on the uniform theory of diffraction. The code is first validated for this application using scale model measurements. In general, the comparisons are good except in 10 degree regions near the nose and tail of the aircraft. Patterns for various antenna locations are analyzed to achieve a prescripted performance.

  13. A coupled RL and transport model for mixed-field proton irradiation of Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Jain, Mayank

    2008-01-01

    Our main approach for in vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy treatment and clinical imaging techniques is based on the radioluminescence and optically Stimulated luminescence response from Al2O3:C crystals attached to optical fibres. In contrast to high-energy photon beams, high-LET effects, geometry...... effects and inelastic hadronic scattering occur in proton therapy dosimetry. To investigate these aspects in relation to our system, we have combined simulation of particle transportation with a luminescence generation code based on track structure theory. The model was found to qualitatively reproduce...

  14. Fe3C-based oxygen reduction catalysts: synthesis, hollow spherical structures and applications in fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    of the catalyst. At high pyrolytic temperatures of 700–800 °C, simultaneous formation of Fe3Cnanoparticles and encasing graphitic layers occur within the morphological confinement of the microspheres. With negligible surface nitrogen or iron functionality, the thus-obtained catalysts exhibit superior ORR activity...... and stability. A new ORR active phase of Fe3C nanoparticles encapsulated by thin graphitic layers is proposed. The activity and durability of the catalysts are demonstrated in both Nafion-based low temperature and acid doped polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells....

  15. Optical fibre dosemeter systems for clinical applications based on radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence from Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, C.J.; Andersen, C.E.; Aznar, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Optical fibre dosemeter systems based on radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals were developed for in vivo real-time dose rate and absorbed dose measurements in radiotherapy and mammography. A technique was also developed...... for making ultra-small dosemeter probes that can easily be placed inside patients in radiation treatment. These probes have shown excellent properties in both head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment and in mammography. The dose-response of the OSL signal for the new optical fibre...

  16. Observation of a VHE Cosmic-Ray Flare-Signal with the L3+C Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Aziz, T; Bähr, J; Banerjee, S; Becattini, F; Bellucci, L; Betev, B L; Blaising, J J; Bobbink, G J; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Cartacci, A; Chemarin, M; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chiarusi, T; Coignet, G; Ding, L K; Duran, I; Eline, A; El Mamouni, H; Faber, G; Fay, J; Filthaut, F; Ganguli, S N; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Groenstege, H; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gurtu, A; Haller, Ch; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, A; Hofer, H; Hoferjun, H; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; Kantserov, V; Kawakami, S; Kittel, W; König, A C; Kok, E; Kuang, H H; Kuijpers, J; Ladron de Guevara, P; Le Coultre, P; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Li, L; Li, Z C; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Lu, Y S; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Nowak, H; Parriaud, J -F; Pauss, F; Petersen, B; Pieri, M; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Qing, C R; Ramelli, R; Ranieri, R; Ravindran, K C; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, S; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schotanus, D J; Shen, C Q; Spillantini, P; Sulanke, H; Tang, X W; Timmermans, C; Tonwar, S C; Trowitzsch, G; Unger, M; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vogt, H; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Wijk, R van; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yang, C G; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yu, Z Q; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, Q Q; Zhuang, H L; Zwart, A N M

    2010-01-01

    The data collected by the L3+C muon spectrometer at the CERN Large Electron-Positron collider, LEP, have been used to search for short duration signals emitted by cosmic point sources. A sky survey performed from July to November 1999 and from April to November 2000 has revealed one single flux enhancement (chance probability = 2.6X10^{-3}) between the 17th and 20th of August 2000 from a direction with a galactic longitude of (265.02+-0.42)^° and latitude of (55.58+-0.24)^°. The energy of the detected muons was above 15 GeV.

  17. A search for flaring Very-High-Energy cosmic-ray sources with the L3+C muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiarusi, T; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Dglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, H; Grabosch, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberría, M I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, i; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M; Kuang, H H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmitt, V; Schöneich, B; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R F; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J

    2006-01-01

    The L3+C muon detector at the Cern electron-position collider, LEP, is used for the detection of very-high-energy cosmic \\gamma-ray sources through the observation of muons of energies above 20, 30, 50 and 100 GeV. Daily or monthly excesses in the rate of single-muon events pointing to some particular direction in the sky are searched for. The periods from mid July to November 1999, and April to November 2000 are considered. Special attention is also given to a selection of known \\gamma-ray sources. No statistically significant excess is observed for any direction or any particular source.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tribromomethane CHBr3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1112, LB4219_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tribromomethane CHBr3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1112, LB4219_V)' providing data by calculation of mass density in the single-phase region(s) from low-pressure dilatometric measurements of the molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. MAGIC upper limits to the VHE gamma-ray flux of 3C 454.3 in high emission state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bartko, H.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bretz, T.; Britvitch, I.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Curtef, V.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Los Reyes, R.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, M.; de Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Dominguez, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrero, A.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Huber, S.; Jogler, T.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Meyer, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Otte, N.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sartori, P.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shore, S. N.; Sidro, N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tluczykont, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Venturini, A.; Vitale, V.; Wagner, R. M.; Wittek, W.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.; Vercellone, S.; Donnarumma, I.; D'Ammando, F.; Tavani, M.

    2009-04-01

    Aims: We report upper limits to the very high energy flux (E>100 GeV) of the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 454.3 (z=0.859) derived by the Cherenkov telescope MAGIC during the high states of July/August and November/December 2007. We compare the upper limits derived in both time slots with the available quasi-simultaneous MeV-GeV data from the AGILE γ-ray satellite and interpret the observational results in the context of leptonic emission models. Methods: The source was observed with the MAGIC telescope during the active phases of July-August 2007 and November-December 2007 and the data were analyzed with the MAGIC standard analysis tools. For the periods around the ends of July and November, characterized by the most complete multifrequency coverage, we constructed the spectral energy distributions using our data together with nearly simultaneous multifrequency (optical, UV, X-ray and GeV) data. Results: Only upper limits can be derived from the MAGIC data. The upper limits, once corrected for the expected absorption by the extragalactic background light, together with nearly simultaneous multifrequency data, allow us to constrain the spectral energy distribution of 3C 454.3. The data are consistent with the model expectations based on inverse Compton scattering of the ambient photons from the broad line region by relativistic electrons, which robustly predicts a sharp cut-off above 20-30 GeV.

  20. A generalized stoichiometric model of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 photosynthetic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    The goal of suppressing photorespiration in crops to maximize assimilation and yield is stimulating considerable interest among researchers looking to bioengineer carbon-concentrating mechanisms into C3 plants. However, detailed quantification of the biochemical activities in the bundle sheath is lacking. This work presents a general stoichiometric model for C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 assimilation (SMA) in which energetics, metabolite traffic, and the different decarboxylating enzymes (NAD-dependent malic enzyme, NADP-dependent malic enzyme, or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) are explicitly included. The SMA can be used to refine experimental data analysis or formulate hypothetical scenarios, and is coded in a freely available Microsoft Excel workbook. The theoretical underpinnings and general model behaviour are analysed with a range of simulations, including (i) an analysis of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 in operational conditions; (ii) manipulating photorespiration in a C3 plant; (iii) progressively upregulating a C2 shuttle in C3 photosynthesis; (iv) progressively upregulating a C4 cycle in C2 photosynthesis; and (v) manipulating processes that are hypothesized to respond to transient environmental inputs. Results quantify the functional trade-offs, such as the electron transport needed to meet ATP/NADPH demand, as well as metabolite traffic, inherent to different subtypes. The SMA refines our understanding of the stoichiometry of photosynthesis, which is of paramount importance for basic and applied research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Erosion-oxidation behavior of thermal sprayed Ni20Cr alloy and WC and Cr3C2 cermet coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Terui Kunioshi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus to conduct high temperature erosion-oxidation studies up to 850 °C and with particle impact velocities up to 15 m.s-1 was designed and constructed in the Corrosion Laboratories of IPEN. The erosion-oxidation behavior of high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF sprayed alloy and cermet coatings of Ni20Cr, WC 20Cr7Ni and Cr3C2 Ni20Cr on a steel substrate has been studied. Details of this apparatus and the erosion-oxidation behavior of these coatings are presented and discussed. The erosion-oxidation behavior of HVOF coated Cr3C2 25(Ni20Cr was better than that of WC 20Cr7Ni, and the erosion-oxidation regimes have been identified for these coatings at particle impact velocity of 3.5 m.s-1, impact angle of 90° and temperatures in the range 500 to 850 °C.

  2. Preparation of Ti3C2 and Ti2C MXenes by fluoride salts etching and methane adsorptive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanfan; Zhou, Aiguo; Chen, Jinfeng; Jia, Jin; Zhou, Weijia; Wang, Libo; Hu, Qianku

    2017-09-01

    Here we reported the preparation of Ti3C2 MXene and Ti2C MXene by etching Ti3AlC2 and Ti2AlC with various fluoride salts in hydrochloric acid (HCl), including lithium fluoride (LiF), sodium fluoride (NaF), potassium fluoride (KF), and ammonium fluoride (NH4F). As-prepared Ti2C was further delaminated by urea, dimethylsulfoxide or ammonium hydroxide. Based on theoretical calculation and XPS results, the type of positive ions (Li+, Na+, K+, or NH4+) in etchant solution affect the surface structure of prepared MXene, which, in turn, affects the methane adsorption properties of MXene. The highest methane adsorption capacity is 8.5 cm3/g for Ti3C2 and 11.6 cm3/g for Ti2C. MXenes made from LiF and NH4F can absorb methane under high pressure and can keep methane under normal pressure, these MXenes may have important application on capturing methane or other hazardous gas molecules. MXenes made from NaF and KF can absorb methane under high pressure and release methane under low pressure. They can have important application in the adsorb storage of nature gas.

  3. Crystal and electronic structure of Y{sub 5}Al{sub 3}C{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotyrba, Martin R.; Nesper, Reinhard [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1-5/10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Cuervo-Reyes, Eduardo [Reliability Science and Technology, EMPA Duebendorf, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    The novel ternary aluminum carbide Y{sub 5}Al{sub 3}C{sub 4} was synthesized using lithium metal as flux at high temperature (1523 K). Single-crystal structure determination of the title compound revealed a new structure type with the Wyckoff-sequence jhg2da. Y{sub 5}Al{sub 3}C{sub 4} crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/mbm (no. 127) with Z = 2 and lattice parameters a = 10.8442(11) and c = 3.5234(4) Aa. The compound has metallic appearance and shows remarkable structural features at the border between intermetallics and Zintl phases. The electronic band structure and the electron localization function (ELF) were calculated, both of which support the view of the infinite {sup 1}{sub ∞}[C-(Al-C)-]{sup 6-} chain as a Zintl-type anion containing aluminum and carbon. Surface cuts of the ELF also disclose intermetallic features such as yttrium-assisted Al-Al (or multicenter) bonds in the aluminum substructure. Possible views of the charge partitioning are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Difference in C3-C4 metabolism underlies tradeoff between growth rate and biomass yield in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanfen; Beck, David A C; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2016-07-19

    Two variants of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 demonstrated a trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield. In addition, growth rate and biomass yield were also affected by supplementation of growth medium with different amounts of cobalt. The metabolism changes relating to these growth phenomena as well as the trade-off were investigated in this study. (13)C metabolic flux analysis was used to generate a detailed central carbon metabolic flux map with both absolute and normalized flux values. The major differences between the two variants occurred at the formate node as well as within C3-C4 inter-conversion pathways. Higher relative fluxes through formyltetrahydrofolate ligase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and malic enzyme led to higher biomass yield, while higher relative fluxes through pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase led to higher growth rate. These results were then tested by phenotypic studies on three mutants (null pyk, null pck mutant and null dme mutant) in both variants, which agreed with the model prediction. In this study, (13)C metabolic flux analysis for two strain variants of M. extorquens AM1 successfully identified metabolic pathways contributing to the trade-off between cell growth and biomass yield. Phenotypic analysis of mutants deficient in corresponding genes supported the conclusion that C3-C4 inter-conversion strategies were the major response to the trade-off.

  5. Associations between the GNB3 C825T polymorphism and obesity-related metabolic risk factors in Korean obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, K D; Kim, K K; Suh, H S; Hwang, I C

    2014-11-01

    It is important to identify a 'metabolically unhealthy obese' subset with higher cardiovascular risk among obese individuals. We investigated the associations between the GNB3 C825T polymorphism and obesity-related metabolic risk factors among Korean obese women. This study was a sub-investigation of a double-blind randomized controlled trial that examined the additive effect of or list at on weight loss with sibutramine. A sample of 111 obese women were divided into T-carriers (CT/TT) or a homozygous CC group, according to the presence of the 825T allele at GNB3. These groups were compared to determine their associations with obesity-related metabolic risk factors, i.e., fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin/insulin resistance, and abdominal fat amounts. The allele frequencies of the GNB3 polymorphism were C allele = 59.5% and T allele = 40.5%. The T allele was found to be significantly associated with greater visceral fat and higher serum lipids, and these significances remained robust after adjusting for potential covariates. The GNB3 825T polymorphism is significantly associated with greater visceral fat and higher serum lipids in Korean obese women and it suggests that the GNB3 C825T is a determinant of obesity-related metabolic traits in this population.

  6. Multi-frequency studies of the non-stationary radiation of the blazar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vol'Vach, A. E.; Vol'Vach, L. N.; Kut'kin, A. M.; Larionov, M. G.; Villata, M.; Panteri, K. M.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Savolainen, P.; Tammi, G.; Aller, A. F.; Aller, H. D.; Sergeev, S. G.; Doroshenko, V. T.; Efimov, Yu. S.; Klimanov, S. A.; Nazarov, S. V.; Borman, G. V.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Fedorova, E. V.; Vavilova, I. B.; Chesnok, N. G.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term monitoring data at five radio frequencies from 4.8 to 37 GHz obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Metsahovi Radio Observatory of Aalto University, and the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory are used to analyze variations of the flux of the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) 3C 454.3. The dynamical characteristics of the three latest powerful flares from 2004 to 2010 are analyzed in detail. Observations in the gamma-ray (0.1-300 GeV), X-ray (2-10 kev, 15-50 keV), and optical are also used. Delays in the development of flares at different frequencies are derived. An empirical frequency dependence for the delays of flares from the gamma-ray to the radio is determined, which can be fit using a logarithmic low and remains the same from flare to flare. The physical characteristics of the central region of the AGN 3C 454.3 are used to estimate the size of its Strömgren sphere, taking into account the relevant mechanisms for heating and cooling the medium, as well as the adopted laws for the variation of the density and temperature with distance from the source of ionization. A model for the location of the radiation regions in the jet at various frequency ranges during the development of flares is proposed.

  7. Clues on high-energy emission mechanism from blazar 3C 454.3 during 2015 August flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Zahir; Sahayanathan, S.; Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Misra, Ranjeev; Iqbal, Naseer

    2017-09-01

    We perform a detailed spectral study of a recent flaring activity from the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ), 3C 454.3, observed simultaneously in optical, UV, X-ray and γ-ray energies during 2015 August 16-28. The source reached its peak γ-ray flux of (1.9 ± 0.2) × 10-05 ph cm-2 s-1 on August 22. The time-averaged broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) is obtained for three time periods, namely 'flaring state', covering the peak γ-ray flux; 'post-flaring state', immediately following the peak flare and 'quiescent state', separated from the flaring event and following the post-flaring state. The SED corresponding to the flaring state is investigated using different emission models involving synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) and external Compton (EC) mechanisms. Our study suggests that the X-ray and γ-ray emission from 3C 454.3 cannot be attributed to a single emission mechanism and instead, one needs to consider both SSC and EC mechanisms. Moreover, the target photon energy responsible for the EC process corresponds to an equivalent temperature of 564 K, suggesting that the flare location lies beyond the broad line emitting region of the FSRQ. The SED fitting of the other two flux states further supports these inferences.

  8. A SEARCH FOR WATER IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF HAT-P-26b USING LDSS-3C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Gilbert, Gregory J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Line, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: kbs@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of a physically diverse set of transiting exoplanets is an important and necessary step toward establishing the physical properties linked to the production of obscuring clouds or hazes. It is those planets with identifiable spectroscopic features that can most effectively enhance our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and metallicity. The newly commissioned LDSS-3C instrument on Magellan provides enhanced sensitivity and suppressed fringing in the red optical, thus advancing the search for the spectroscopic signature of water in exoplanetary atmospheres from the ground. Using data acquired by LDSS-3C and the Spitzer Space Telescope, we search for evidence of water vapor in the transmission spectrum of the Neptune-mass planet HAT-P-26b. Our measured spectrum is best explained by the presence of water vapor, a lack of potassium, and either a high-metallicity, cloud-free atmosphere or a solar-metallicity atmosphere with a cloud deck at ∼10 mbar. The emergence of multi-scale-height spectral features in our data suggests that future observations at higher precision could break this degeneracy and reveal the planet’s atmospheric chemical abundances. We also update HAT-P-26b’s transit ephemeris, t{sub 0} = 2455304.65218(25) BJD{sub TDB}, and orbital period, p = 4.2345023(7) days.

  9. The characteristics and antigenic properties of recently emerged subclade 3C.3a and 3C.2a human influenza A(H3N2) viruses passaged in MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yipu; Wharton, Stephen A; Whittaker, Lynne; Dai, Mian; Ermetal, Burcu; Lo, Janice; Pontoriero, Andrea; Baumeister, Elsa; Daniels, Rodney S; McCauley, John W

    2017-05-01

    Two new subclades of influenza A(H3N2) viruses became prominent during the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The HA glycoproteins of these viruses showed sequence changes previously associated with alterations in receptor-binding properties. To address how these changes influence virus propagation, viruses were isolated and propagated in conventional MDCK cells and MDCK-SIAT1 cells, cells with enhanced expression of the human receptor for the virus, and analysed at each passage. Gene sequence analysis was undertaken as virus was passaged in conventional MDCK cells and MDCK-SIAT1 cells. Alterations in receptor recognition associated with passage of virus were examined by haemagglutination assays using red blood cells from guinea pigs, turkeys and humans. Microneutralisation assays were performed to determine how passage-acquired amino acid substitutions and polymorphisms affected virus antigenicity. Viruses were able to infect MDCK-SIAT1 cells more efficiently than conventional MDCK cells. Viruses of both the 3C.2a and 3C.3a subclades showed greater sequence change on passage in conventional MDCK cells than in MDCK-SIAT1 cells, with amino acid substitutions being seen in both HA and NA glycoproteins. However, virus passage in MDCK-SIAT1 cells at low inoculum dilutions showed reducing infectivity on continued passage. Current H3N2 viruses should be cultured in the MDCK-SIAT1 cell line to maintain faithful replication of the virus, and at an appropriate multiplicity of infection to retain infectivity. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 75 FR 68021 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Tier-1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Tier-1 Environmental... Tier-1 Environmental Assessment (Tier-1 EA) that evaluates the impacts of the 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Project. Based on the Tier-1 EA, the FRA has prepared a draft finding of no significant impact...

  11. Reusable ionic liquid-catalyzed oxidative coupling of azoles and benzylic compounds via sp(3) C-N bond formation under metal-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Chenjiang; Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Yadong; Abdukadera, Ablimit; Wang, Bin; Li, He; Ma, Xuecheng; Zhang, Zengpeng

    2015-07-14

    The heterocyclic ionic liquid-catalyzed direct oxidative amination of benzylic sp(3) C-H bonds via intermolecular sp(3) C-N bond formation for the synthesis of N-alkylated azoles under metal-free conditions is reported for the first time. The catalyst 1-butylpyridinium iodide can be recycled and reused with similar efficacies for at least eight cycles.

  12. Aldol elaboration of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ones, masked precursors to acylpyridones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C. F. Jones

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A core 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-4-one scaffold is elaborated at C-3(Me by base-mediated aldol condensation to give new 3-alkenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-4-ones, which are masked forms related to the acylpyridone natural products.

  13. Precision of RL/OSL medical dosimetry with fiber-coupled Al2O3:C: Influence of readout delay and temperature variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik; Morgenthaler Edmund, Jens; Damkjær, Sidsel Marie Skov

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals attached to 15 m optical fiber cables can be used for online in vivo dosimetry during, for example, remotely afterloaded brachytherapy. Radioluminescence (RL) is generated spontaneously in Al2O3:C during irradiation, and this scintillator-like signal...

  14. Time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence of Al2O3:C for ion beam therapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukihara, Eduardo G.; Doull, Brandon A.; Ahmed, Md; Brons, Stephan; Tessonnier, Thomas; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the time-resolved (TR) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Al2O3:C detectors and investigate methodologies to improve the accuracy of these detectors in ion beam therapy dosimetry, addressing the reduction in relative response to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles common to solid-state detectors. Al2O3:C OSL detectors (OSLDs) were exposed to proton, 4He, 12C and 16O beams in 22 particle/energy combinations and read using a custom-built TR-OSL reader. The OSL response {{r}\\text{OSL}} , relative to 60Co gamma dose to water, and the ratio between the UV and blue OSL emission bands of Al2O3:C (UV/blue ratio) were determined as a function of the LET. Monte-Carlo simulations with the multi-purpose interaction and transport code FLUKA were used to estimate the absorbed doses and particle energy spectra in the different irradiation conditions. The OSL responses {{r}\\text{OSL}} varied from 0.980 (0.73 keV μm-1) to 0.288 (120.8 keV μm-1). The OSL UV/blue ratio varied by a factor of two in the investigated LET range, but the variation for 12C beams was only 11%. OSLDs were also irradiated at different depths of carbon ion spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs), where it was shown that doses could be obtained with an accuracy of  ±2.0% at the entrance channel and within the SOBP using correction factors calculated based on the OSL responses obtained in this study. The UV/blue ratio did not allow accurate estimation of the dose-averaged LET for 12C SOBPs, although the values obtained can be explained with the data obtained in this study and the additional information provided by the Monte-Carlo simulations. The results demonstrate that accurate OSLD dosimetry can be performed in ion beam therapy using appropriate corrections for the OSL response.

  15. Effects of temperature and ionization density in medical luminescence dosimetry using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenthaler Edmund, J.

    2007-11-15

    A new system containing small crystals of aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) attached to optical fiber cables has recently been introduced. During irradiation, the system monitors the radioluminescence (RL)from the crystals and after irradiation, an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal can be read out by stimulating the crystal with light. This thesis applies the initial part and the total area of the resulting OSL decay curve for dosimetry measurements and investigates the effects of temperature and proton energy, i.e. ionization density, on the RL and OSL signals from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C. In the temperature study, it was found that the OSL signal depends on both irradiation and stimulation temperature while the RL signal is effected only by the irradiation temperature. The initial OSL signal is increasing with temperature whereas the total OSL area is decreasing. Therefore, if the irradiation temperature is kept constant, one can find an integration time which provides an OSL signal independent of stimulation temperature. Overall, the RL and OSL signals vary between -0.2 to 0.6% per C. Thermal effects were simulated with a band structure model and indicated that the temperature effects are caused by the combined efforts of energetic shallow traps and thermal excitation from intermediate states in deeper traps. In the study of ionization density, we investigated protons with energies between 10 and 60 MeV (4.57 to 1.08 keV/mum in water). Experimentally, we observed that the initial OSL signalprovided a signal independent of linear energy transfer (LET) for allenergies at 0.3 Gy. The total OSL area showed an LET dependent behavior atall doses and energies. We used track structure theory (TST) to give possible explanations for the LET dependence of the OSL signal. From these calculations, we found that the initial OSL signal is, in general, not LET independent which makes Al2O3:C unsuitable for OSL proton dosimetry. The initial OSL

  16. Temperature response of photosynthesis in C3, C4, and CAM plants: temperature acclimation and temperature adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Hikosaka, Kouki; Way, Danielle A

    2014-02-01

    Most plants show considerable capacity to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics to their growth temperatures (temperature acclimation). The most typical case is a shift in the optimum temperature for photosynthesis, which can maximize the photosynthetic rate at the growth temperature. These plastic adjustments can allow plants to photosynthesize more efficiently at their new growth temperatures. In this review article, we summarize the basic differences in photosynthetic reactions in C3, C4, and CAM plants. We review the current understanding of the temperature responses of C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis, and then discuss the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis in each photosynthetic type. Finally, we use the published data to evaluate the extent of photosynthetic temperature acclimation in higher plants, and analyze which plant groups (i.e., photosynthetic types and functional types) have a greater inherent ability for photosynthetic acclimation to temperature than others, since there have been reported interspecific variations in this ability. We found that the inherent ability for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis was different: (1) among C3, C4, and CAM species; and (2) among functional types within C3 plants. C3 plants generally had a greater ability for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis across a broad temperature range, CAM plants acclimated day and night photosynthetic process differentially to temperature, and C4 plants was adapted to warm environments. Moreover, within C3 species, evergreen woody plants and perennial herbaceous plants showed greater temperature homeostasis of photosynthesis (i.e., the photosynthetic rate at high-growth temperature divided by that at low-growth temperature was close to 1.0) than deciduous woody plants and annual herbaceous plants, indicating that photosynthetic acclimation would be particularly important in perennial, long-lived species that

  17. String completion of an SU(3)c ⊗ SU(3)L ⊗ U(1)X electroweak model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea; Valle, J. W. F.; Vaquera-Araujo, C. A.

    2016-08-01

    The extended electroweak SU(3)c ⊗ SU(3)L ⊗ U(1)X symmetry framework ;explaining; the number of fermion families is revisited. While 331-based schemes can not easily be unified within the conventional field theory sense, we show how to do it within an approach based on D-branes and (un)oriented open strings, on Calabi-Yau singularities. We show how the theory can be UV-completed in a quiver setup, free of gauge and string anomalies. Lepton and baryon numbers are perturbatively conserved, so neutrinos are Dirac-type, and their lightness results from a novel TeV scale seesaw mechanism. Dynamical violation of baryon number by exotic instantons could induce neutron-antineutron oscillations, with proton decay and other dangerous R-parity violating processes strictly forbidden.

  18. RANCANGAN SILABUS MATA KULIAH WEB BERFILOSOFI WEB STANDARDS CURRICULUM W3C (STUDI KASUS KURIKULUM PRODI SISTEM INFORMASI UDINUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalang Erawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan kurikulum program studi Sistem Informasi Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Udinus menimbulkan konsekuensi perlunya mengkaji ulang materi perkuliahan beberapa mata kuliah yang diselenggarakan. Salah satu mata kuliah tersebut adalah mata kuliah web yang terdiri dari Pemrograman Web dan Pemrograman Web Lanjut. Kajian ini membuat usulan  rancangan silabus yang baru dengan menggunakan pedoman penyusunan materi dari kurikulum standar web yang dikembangkan oleh organisasi web dunia W3C khususnya salah satu kelompok yang bernaung dibawahnya yaitu Web Education Group. Kajian menggunakan metode eksplorasi kualitatif yang mempelajari dan mengolah kurikulum standar web untuk digunakan sesuai kebutuhan mata kuliah web prodi Sistem Informasi Fasilkom Udinus. Kata Kunci: kurikulum, sistem informasi, pemrograman web, standar web

  19. Sample dependent correlation between TL and LM-OSL in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, G.I. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. Athena, Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Democritus University of Thrace, Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Polymeris, G.S. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. Athena, Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Stefanaki, E.C.; Afouxenidis, D. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. Athena, Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. Athena, Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)], E-mail: tnestor@ceti.gr; Kitis, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C single crystals are known to exhibit different, sample dependent, glow-curve shapes. The relation between the Thermoluminescence (TL) traps and the linear modulated optically stimulation luminescence (LM-OSL) traps is of high importance. In the present work a correlation study is attempted using 23 single crystals with dimensions between 400 and 500{mu}m. The correlation study involved two steps. In the first step, both TL glow curves and LM-OSL decay curves are deconvoluted and a one-to-one correlation between TL peaks and LM-OSL components is attempted. In the second step the TL glow-curves are corrected for thermal quenching, the corrected curves are deconvoluted and a new correlation between TL and LM-OSL individual components is performed.

  20. Optical properties of hybrid T3Pyr/SiO2/3C-SiC nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rossi, Francesca; Melucci, Manuela; Manet, Ilse; Attolini, Giovanni; Favaretto, Laura; Zambianchi, Massimo; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2012-12-17

    A new class of nanostructured hybrid materials is developed by direct grafting of a model thiophene-based organic dye on the surface of 3C-SiC/SiO2 core/shell nanowires. TEM-EDX analysis reveals that the carbon distribution is more spread than it would be, considering only the SiC core size, suggesting a main contribution from C of the oligothiophene framework. Further, the sulfur signal found along the treated wires is not detected in the as-grown samples. In addition, the fluorescent spectra are similar for the functionalized nanostructures and T3Pyr in solution, confirming homogeneous molecule grafting on the nanowire surface. Chemical and luminescence characterizations confirm a homogeneous functionalization of the nanowires. In particular, the fluorophore retains its optical properties after functionalization.

  1. Cr3C2-NiCr HVOF-Sprayed Coatings: Microstructure and Properties Versus Powder Characteristics and Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudenziati, Maria; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Medici, Marcello; Dalbagni, Gregorio; Caliari, Marco

    2010-03-01

    Two 75%Cr3C2-25%NiCr feedstock powders with the same size distribution but different production process were characterized and found quite different in terms of morphology and phase composition. The powders were sprayed in a HVOF Diamond Jet (Sulzer Metco DJ-2600) torch with five different values of the oxygen-to-hydrogen ratio in order to assess the influence of this parameter on the microstructure and properties of the coatings. The results show that the closed and dense microstructure of one powder (Woka 7302) results in coatings with lower amount of decarburization, less oxide formation and higher toughness compared to coatings from the other powder (Praxair 1375). It was found that the O2/H2 ratio impacts mainly on the Young’s modulus, which almost doubled by changing the ratio from 0.40 to 0.50, and on toughness, but does not notably affect the Vickers hardness.

  2. Optical properties of functionalized Ti3C2T2 (T = F, O, OH MXene: First-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Berdiyorov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Role of surface termination on the dielectric and optical properties of Ti3C2T2 (T = F, O, OH MXene is studied using first-principles density functional theory. The results show that the surface functionalization has a significant impact on the optical properties of the MXene. For example, in the visible range of the spectrum, the oxidized sample shows larger absorption, whereas surface fluorination results in weaker absorption as compared to pristine MXene. In the ultraviolet energy range, all functional groups lead to the enhancement of both absorption and reflectivity of the material. Dielectric properties of MXene are also sensitive to the surface functionalization. Our findings demonstrate the importance of surface termination on the optical properties of the MXene.

  3. Direct synthesis of Fe3 C-functionalized graphene by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis for oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yunjie; Cleemann, Lars N; Xing, Wei; Bjerrum, Niels J; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3 C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Low-energy ion bombardment to tailor the interfacial and mechanical properties of polycrystalline 3C-silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Fang; Li, Carolina H.; Pisano, Albert P.; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya [Department of Chemical Engineering and Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 and Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of polycrystalline 3C-silicon carbide (poly-SiC) films is found to be a promising surface modification method to tailor the mechanical and interfacial properties of poly-SiC. The film average stress decreases as the ion energy and the bombardment time increase. Furthermore, this treatment is found to change the strain gradient of the films from positive to negative values. The observed changes in stress and strain gradient are explained by ion peening and thermal spikes models. In addition, the poly-SiC films show a significant enhancement in corrosion resistance by this treatment, which is attributed to a reduction in surface energy and to an increase in the compressive stress in the near-surface region.

  5. THE MOST INTENSIVE GAMMA-RAY FLARE OF QUASAR 3C 279 WITH THE SECOND-ORDER FERMI ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Katsuaki; Hayashida, Masaaki, E-mail: asanok@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: mahaya@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2015-07-20

    The very short and bright flare of 3C 279 detected with Fermi-Large Area Telescope in 2013 December is tested by a model with stochastic electron acceleration by turbulences. Our time-dependent simulation shows that the very hard spectrum and asymmetric light curve are successfully reproduced by changing only the magnetic field from the value in the steady period. The maximum energy of electrons drastically grows with the decrease of the magnetic field, which yields a hard photon spectrum as observed. Rapid cooling due to the inverse-Compton scattering with the external photons reproduces the decaying feature of the light curve.The inferred energy density of the magnetic field is much less than the electron and photon energy densities. The low magnetic field and short variability timescale are unfavorable for the jet acceleration model from the gradual Poynting flux dissipation.

  6. NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Bollenbacher, J. M.; Brenneman, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from $kT_e=330\\pm 30$ keV in the low flux data to $231^{+50}_{-88}$ keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet......-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts $\\sim 10$% of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable...... relativistic Fe K$\\alpha$ line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk....

  7. Multi-wavelength Observations of the Flaring Gamma-ray Blazar 3C 66A in 2008 October

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; Davis, D. S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nestoras, I.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; de la Calle Perez, I.; Dickherber, R.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Gurwell, M. A.; Larionov, V. M.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Aller, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Chen, W. P.; Berduygin, A.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Bachev, R.; Beltrame, P.; Benítez, E.; Buemi, C. S.; Dashti, J.; Calcidese, P.; Capezzali, D.; Carosati, D.; Da Rio, D.; Di Paola, A.; Diltz, C.; Dolci, M.; Dultzin, D.; Forné, E.; Gómez, J. L.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Halkola, A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Hovatta, T.; Hsiao, H.-Y.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kimeridze, G. N.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Leto, P.; Ligustri, R.; Lindfors, E.; Lopez, J. M.; Marscher, A. P.; Mommert, M.; Mujica, R.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nilsson, K.; Palma, N.; Pasanen, M.; Roca-Sogorb, M.; Ros, J. A.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sadun, A. C.; Saino, J.; Sigua, L. A.; Sillanää, A.; Sorcia, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Turchetti, R.; Umana, G.; Belloni, T.; Blake, C. H.; Bloom, J. S.; Angelakis, E.; Fumagalli, M.; Hauser, M.; Prochaska, J. X.; Riquelme, D.; Sievers, A.; Starr, D. L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ungerechts, H.; Wagner, S.; Zensus, J. A.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; VERITAS Collaboration; GASP-WEBT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    The BL Lacertae object 3C 66A was detected in a flaring state by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and VERITAS in 2008 October. In addition to these gamma-ray observations, F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, PAIRITEL, MDM, ATOM, Swift, and Chandra provided radio to X-ray coverage. The available light curves show variability and, in particular, correlated flares are observed in the optical and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band. The resulting spectral energy distribution can be well fitted using standard leptonic models with and without an external radiation field for inverse Compton scattering. It is found, however, that only the model with an external radiation field can accommodate the intra-night variability observed at optical wavelengths.

  8. Multiwavelength Observations of 3C 454.3. III. Eighteen Months of Agile Monitoring of the "Crazy Diamond"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Vittorini, V.; Donnarumma, I.; Pucella, G.; Tavani, M.; Ferrari, A.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Romano, P.; Krimm, H.; Tiengo, A.; Chen, A. W.; Giovannini, G.; Venturi, T.; Giroletti, M.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Lister, M. L.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; De Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Fornari, F.; Froysland, T.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, F.; Giuliani, A.; Marisaldi, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pacciani, L.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Sabatini, S.; Soffitta, P.; Striani, E.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Salotti, L.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Bachev, R.; Beltrame, P.; Benítez, E.; Böttcher, M.; Buemi, C. S.; Calcidese, P.; Capezzali, D.; Carosati, D.; Chen, W. P.; Da Rio, D.; Di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Dultzin, D.; Forné, E.; Gómez, J. L.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Halkola, A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Hovatta, T.; Hsiao, H.-Y.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Leto, P.; Ligustri, R.; Lindfors, E.; Lopez, J. M.; Marscher, A. P.; Mujica, R.; Nikolashvili, M.; Nilsson, K.; Mommert, M.; Palma, N.; Pasanen, M.; Roca-Sogorb, M.; Ros, J. A.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sadun, A. C.; Saino, J.; Sigua, L.; Sorcia, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Turchetti, R.; Umana, G.

    2010-03-01

    We report on 18 months of multiwavelength observations of the blazar 3C 454.3 (Crazy Diamond) carried out in the period 2007 July-2009 January. In particular, we show the results of the AGILE campaigns which took place on 2008 May-June, 2008 July-August, and 2008 October-2009 January. During the 2008 May-2009 January period, the source average flux was highly variable, with a clear fading trend toward the end of the period, from an average γ-ray flux F E>100 MeV >~ 200 × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 in 2008 May-June, to F E>100 MeV ~ 80 × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 in 2008 October-2009 January. The average γ-ray spectrum between 100 MeV and 1 GeV can be fit by a simple power law, showing a moderate softening (from ΓGRID ~ 2.0 to ΓGRID ~ 2.2) toward the end of the observing campaign. Only 3σ upper limits can be derived in the 20-60 keV energy band with Super-AGILE, because the source was considerably off-axis during the whole time period. In 2007 July-August and 2008 May-June, 3C 454.3 was monitored by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The RXTE/Proportional Counter Array (PCA) light curve in the 3-20 keV energy band shows variability correlated with the γ-ray one. The RXTE/PCA average flux during the two time periods is F 3-20 keV = 8.4 × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, and F 3-20 keV = 4.5 × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, respectively, while the spectrum (a power law with photon index ΓPCA = 1.65 ± 0.02) does not show any significant variability. Consistent results are obtained with the analysis of the RXTE/High-Energy X-Ray Timing Experiment quasi-simultaneous data. We also carried out simultaneous Swift observations during all AGILE campaigns. Swift/XRT detected 3C 454.3 with an observed flux in the 2-10 keV energy band in the range (0.9-7.5) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1 and a photon index in the range ΓXRT = 1.33-2.04. In the 15-150 keV energy band, when detected, the source has an average flux of about 5 mCrab. GASP-WEBT monitored 3C 454.3 during the whole 2007-2008 period in the radio

  9. Peeling off effects in vertically aligned Fe3C filled carbon nanotubes films grown by pyrolysis of ferrocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Filippo S.; Medranda, Daniel; Ivaturi, Sameera; Wang, Jiayu; Guo, Jian; Lan, Mu; Wen, Jiqiu; Wang, Shanling; He, Yi; Mountjoy, Gavin; Willis, Maureen A. C.; Xiang, Gang

    2017-06-01

    We report the observation of an unusual self-peeling effect which allows the synthesis of free standing vertically aligned carbon nanotube films filled with large quantities of Fe3C and small quantities of γ-Fe crystals. We demonstrate that this effect depends on the interplay of three main factors: (1) the physical interactions between the chosen substrate surface and grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which is fixed by the composition of the used substrate (111 SiO2/Si or quartz), (2) the CNT-CNT Van der Waals interactions, and (3) the differential thermal contraction between the grown CNT film and the used substrate, which is fixed by the cooling rate differences between the grown film and the used quartz or Si/SiO2 substrates. The width and stability of these films are then further increased to cm-scale by addition of small quantities of toluene to the ferrocene precursor.

  10. Cytotoxicity of new duplex drugs linking 3'-C-ethynylcytidine and 5-fluor-2'-deoxyuridine against human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Sarah; Niessner, Heike; Sinnberg, Tobias; Venturelli, Sascha; Berger, Alexander; Ikenberg, Kristian; Villanueva, Jessie; Meier, Friedegund; Garbe, Claus; Busch, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Melanoma is an increasingly common and potentially fatal malignancy of the skin and some mucous membranes. As no cure exists for metastatic disease, there is an urgent need for novel drugs. 2'-Deoxy-5-fluorouridylyl-(3'-5')-3'-C-ethynylcytidine [5-FdU(3'-5')ECyd] and 3'-C-ethynylcytidinylyl-(5' → 1-O)-2-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerylyl-(3-O → 5')-2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine [ECyd-lipid-5-FdU] represent cytostatic active duplex drugs, which can be metabolized into various active antimetabolites. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of these heterodinucleoside phosphate analogs, their corresponding monomers ECyd and 5-FdU and combinations thereof on six metastatic melanoma cell lines and six ex vivo patient-derived melanoma cells in comparison to current standard cytostatic agents and the BRAF V600E inhibitor Vemurafenib. In vitro (real-time)-proliferation assays demonstrated that 5-FdU(3'-5')ECyd and ECyd-lipid-5-FdU had a high cytotoxic efficacy causing 75% melanoma cell death at concentrations in the nanomolar and micromolar range. Cytotoxicity was conducted by induction of DNA cleavage indicating apoptotic cells. Chicken embryotoxicity demonstrated that the duplex drugs were less toxic than 5-FdU at 0.01 μM. In vivo the duplex drug 5-FdU(3'-5')ECyd was efficacious in the murine LOX IMVI melanoma xenograph model on administration of 11.2 mg/kg/injection every fourth day. Both duplex drugs are promising novel cytostatic agents for the treatment of malignant melanoma meriting clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  11. Sublingual targeting of STING with 3'3'-cGAMP promotes systemic and mucosal immunity against anthrax toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tara L; Jee, Junbae; Kim, Eunsoo; Steiner, Haley E; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Boyaka, Prosper N

    2017-04-25

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a zoonotic bacterial pathogen affecting humans and livestock worldwide. The current human anthrax vaccine, anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), is an injected vaccine with a cumbersome administration schedule and fails to promote mucosal immunity. Bacterial enterotoxins, which stimulate production of the cyclic nucleotide cAMP are effective experimental mucosal vaccine adjuvants, but their inherent toxicity has precluded their use in humans. We investigated whether cyclic dinucleotides that target Stimulator of Interferon Gamma Genes (STING) in mammalian cells could represent an alternative to bacterial enterotoxins as adjuvant for sublingual immunization and promotion of mucosal immunity and secretory IgA responses in addition to systemic immunity. We found that sublingual immunization of mice with Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) and the STING ligand 3'3'-cGAMP promotes PA-specific serum IgG Ab responses of the same magnitude as those induced after immunization with PA and the experimental adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). Interestingly, this STING ligand also promoted serum anti-PA IgA and IgA-producing cells in the bone marrow. Furthermore, the saliva of mice immunized with the STING ligand exhibited similar levels of PA-specific IgA Abs as groups immunized with CT as adjuvant. The adjuvant activity of 3'3'-cGAMP was associated with mixed Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses. This STING ligand also induced rapid IFN-β and IL-10 responses in sublingual tissues and cervical lymph nodes, and TGF-β responses in the cervical lymph nodes, which could contribute to promoting IgA responses after sublingual immunization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reactions of Monomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH and CO with orwithout H2:An Experimental and Computational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkema, Evan L.; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Andersen,Richard A.

    2006-09-07

    Addition of CO to [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, Cp'2CeH, intoluene yields the cis (Cp'2Ce)2(mu-OCHCHO), in which the cis enediolategroup bridges the two metallocene fragments. The cis enediolatequantitatively isomerizes intramolecularly to the trans-enediolate inC6D6 at 100oC over seven months. When the solvent is pentane,Cp'2Ce(OCH2)CeCp'2 forms, in which the oxomethylene group or theformaldehyde dianion bridges the two metallocene fragments. The cisenediolate is suggested to form by insertion of CO into the Ce-C bond ofCp'2Ce(OCH2)CeCp'2 generating Cp'2CeOCH2COCeCp'2. The stereochemistry ofthe cis-enediolate is determined by a 1,2-hydrogen shift in the OCH2COfragment that has the OC(H2) bond anti periplanar relative to the carbenelone pair. The bridging oxomethylene complex reacts with H2, but not withCH4, to give Cp'2CeOMe, which is also the product of the reaction betweenCp'2CeH and a mixture of CO and H2. The oxomethylene complex reacts withCO to give the cis enediolate complex. DFT calculations on C5H5 modelmetallocenes show that the reaction of Cp2CeH with CO and H2 to giveCp2CeOMe is exoergic by 50 kcal mol-1. The net reaction proceeds by aseries of elementary reactions that occur after the formyl complex,Cp2Ce(eta-2 CHO), is formed by further reaction with H2. The key pointthat emerges from the calculated potential energy surface is thebifunctional nature of the metal formyl in which the carbon atom behavesas a donor and acceptor. Replacing H2 by CH4 increases the activationenergy barrier by 17 kcal mol-1.

  13. The humanized anti-human AMHRII mAb 3C23K exerts an anti-tumor activity against human ovarian cancer through tumor-associated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougherara, Houcine; Némati, Fariba; Nicolas, André; Massonnet, Gérald; Pugnière, Martine; Ngô, Charlotte; Le Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Leary, Alexandra; Alexandre, Jérôme; Meseure, Didier; Barret, Jean-Marc; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pèlegrin, André; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Prost, Jean-François; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Decaudin, Didier

    2017-11-21

    Müllerian inhibiting substance, also called anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of AMH type II receptor-positive tumor cells, such as human ovarian cancers (OCs). On this basis, a humanized glyco-engineered monoclonal antibody (3C23K) has been developed. The aim of this study was therefore to experimentally confirm the therapeutic potential of 3C23K in human OCs. We first determined by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and cytofluorometry analyses the expression of AMHRII in patient's tumors and found that a majority (60 to 80% depending on the detection technique) of OCs were positive for this marker. We then provided evidence that the tumor stroma of OC is enriched in tumor-associated macrophages and that these cells are responsible for 3C23K-induced killing of tumor cells through ADCP and ADCC mechanisms. In addition, we showed that 3C23K reduced macrophages induced-T cells immunosuppression. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of 3C23K alone and in combination with a carboplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy in a panel of OC Patient-Derived Xenografts. In those experiments, we showed that 3C23K significantly increased the proportion and the quality of chemotherapy-based in vivo responses. Altogether, our data support the potential interest of AMHRII targeting in human ovarian cancers and the evaluation of 3C23K in further clinical trials.

  14. Vacancy effects on the formation of helium and krypton cavities in 3-C-SiC irradiated and annealed at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Hang; Liu, Wenbo; Li, Tao; He, Chaohui; Yun, Di; Jiang, Weilin; Devaraj, Arun; Edwards, Danny J.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Zhiguang

    2017-02-27

    Polycrystalline 3C-SiC was sequentially irradiated at 400 and 750°C with 120 keV He2+ and 4 MeV Kr15+ ions to 1017 and 41016 cm-2, respectively. The Kr15+ ions penetrated the entire depth of the He2+ ion implantation region. Three areas of He2+, Kr15+ and He2+ + Kr15+ ion implanted 3C-SiC were created through masked overlapping irradiations. The sample was subsequently annealed at 1600°C in vacuum and characterized using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Compared to the He2+ ion only implanted 3C-SiC, helium cavities in the He2+ and Kr15+ co-implanted 3C-SiC had a smaller size but higher density. At 25 dpa, presence of He in the co-implanted 3C-SiC significantly promoted cavity growth; much smaller voids were formed in the Kr15+ ion only irradiated 3C-SiC at the same dose. In addition, local Kr migration and trapping at cavities occurred, but long-range Kr diffusion in 3C-SiC was not observed up to 1600°C.

  15. Galectin-3C inhibits tumor growth and increases the anticancer activity of bortezomib in a murine model of human multiple myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mirandola

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 is a human lectin involved in many cellular processes including differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, neoplastic transformation, and metastasis. We evaluated galectin-3C, an N-terminally truncated form of galectin-3 that is thought to act as a dominant negative inhibitor, as a potential treatment for multiple myeloma (MM. Galectin-3 was expressed at varying levels by all 9 human MM cell lines tested. In vitro galectin-3C exhibited modest anti-proliferative effects on MM cells and inhibited chemotaxis and invasion of U266 MM cells induced by stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1α. Galectin-3C facilitated the anticancer activity of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor approved by the FDA for MM treatment. Galectin-3C and bortezomib also synergistically inhibited MM-induced angiogenesis activity in vitro. Delivery of galectin-3C intravenously via an osmotic pump in a subcutaneous U266 cell NOD/SCID mouse model of MM significantly inhibited tumor growth. The average tumor volume of bortezomib-treated animals was 19.6% and of galectin-3C treated animals was 13.5% of the average volume of the untreated controls at day 35. The maximal effect was obtained with the combination of galectin-3C with bortezomib that afforded a reduction of 94% in the mean tumor volume compared to the untreated controls at day 35. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that inhibition of galectin-3 is efficacious in a murine model of human MM. Our results demonstrated that galectin-3C alone was efficacious in a xenograft mouse model of human MM, and that it enhanced the anti-tumor activity of bortezomib in vitro and in vivo. These data provide the rationale for continued testing of galectin-3C towards initiation of clinical trials for treatment of MM.

  16. Precessão do jato de 3C120: simulações hidrodinâmicas 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, A.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Raga, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    Observações com técnicas de interferometria com longa linha de base têm mostrado a existência de um jato relativístico com componentes superluminais na região central de 3C 120. Estas componentes são ejetadas em distintas direções no plano do céu e com diferentes velocidades aparentes. Estas características foram interpretadas em trabalhos anteriores como efeitos da precessão do jato relativístico. Neste trabalho, realizamos simulações tri-dimensionais do jato de 3C 120 utilizando os parâmetros de precessão determinados em trabalhos anteriores e variando as características iniciais do jato e meio ambiente, tais como densidade numérica e temperatura. Todas as simulações foram feitas com o código hidrodinâmico YGUAZÚ-A, assumindo-se um jato adiabático descrito por uma equação de estado relativística. Pelo fato de estarmos utilizando um código hidrodinâmico, nós assumimos que a intensidade do campo magnético e a distribuição de partículas, necessários para se calcular a emissão sincrotron, são proporcionais à pressão hidrodinâmica. Comparação entre dois cenários distintos, nos quais o material do jato é ejetado com velocidade constante (jato contínuo) e com velocidade modulada por um padrão sinusoidal no tempo (jato intermitente), é apresentada e discutida. Para jatos que apresentam fenômenos de precessão e intermitência, com amplitude de variação na velocidade de injeção maior que dez por cento da velocidade média de injeção, a hipótese balística, controlada pela intermitencia, é mais provável. Por outro lado, para jatos com precessão mas sem intermitência (ou com amplitude de variabilidade em velocidade mais baixa que no caso anterior), o efeito da precessão na morfologia do jato não é desprezível. Portanto, de um modo geral, ambos efeitos (precessão e movimentos balísticos) devem estar concorrendo para afetar a morfologia dos jatos superluminais.

  17. X-ray structure at 1.75 resolution of a norovirus 3C protease linked to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Jon [University of Southampton, England; Coates, Leighton [ORNL; Hussey, Robert [University of Southampton, England

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized universally as the most important cause of human epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a 3C cysteine protease that cleaves a 200kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional proteins. Here we describe the X-ray structure of the Southampton norovirus 3C protease (SV3CP) bound to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor (MAPI) which has been refined at 1.75 resolution, following initial MAD phasing with a selenomethionine derivative. The inhibitor, acetyl-Glu-Phe-Gln-Leu-Gln-X, based on a 3C protease cleavage recognition sequences in the 200kDa polyprotein substrate, reacts covalently through its propenylethylester group (X) with the active site nucleophile, Cys 139. The 3C protease-inhibitor structure permits, for the first time, the identification of substrate recognition and binding groups and provides important new information for the development of antiviral prophylactics.

  18. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from SNPP/VIIRS (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) based on retrievals from the...

  19. AN ENERGY-CONSERVING, PARTICLE-DOMINATED, TIME-DEPENDENT MODEL OF 3C 58 AND ITS OBSERVABILITY AT HIGH ENERGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Diego F.; Martin Rodriguez, Jonatan [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Torre C5, 2a planta, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Cillis, Analia N. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67-Suc. 28 (C1428ZAA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-01-20

    We present a time-dependent spectral model of the nebula 3C 58 and compare it with available data. The model is for a leptonic nebula in which particles are subject to synchrotron, inverse Compton, self-synchrotron Compton, adiabatic, and bremsstrahlung processes. We find that 3C 58 is compatible with being a particle-dominated nebula, with a magnetic field of 35 {mu}G. A broken power-law injection fits well the multi-frequency data, with a break energy at about 40 GeV. We find that 3C 58 is not expected to appear in VERITAS or MAGIC II, unless the local IR background is a factor of {approx}20 off Galactic models' averages. For cases in which the cosmic microwave background dominates the inverse Compton contribution, we find that 3C 58 will not be visible either for the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  20. Retention and damage in 3C-β SiC irradiated with He and H ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deslandes, Alec, E-mail: alec.deslandes@csiro.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, New South Wales 2232 (Australia); Guenette, Mathew C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, New South Wales 2232 (Australia); Thomsen, Lars [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Lumpkin, Gregory R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, New South Wales 2232 (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    3C-β SiC was implanted with He and H ions using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Regions of damage were created at various depths by applying a sample stage bias of 5 kV, 10 kV, 20 kV or 30 kV. Raman spectroscopy results indicate that He irradiation leads to more damage compared to H irradiation, as observed via increased disordered C and Si signals, as well as broadening of the SiC peaks. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) results indicate significant change to the SiC structure and that surface oxidation has occurred following irradiation, with the degree of change varying dependent on impinging He fluence. The distributions of implanted species were measured using elastic recoil detection analysis. Despite the varying degree and depth of damage created in the SiC by the He ion irradiations, the retained H distribution was observed to not be affected by preceding He implantation.

  1. Mott Transition in the A 15 Phase of Cs3 C60 : Absence of a Pseudogap and Charge Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloul, H.; Wzietek, P.; Mito, T.; Pontiroli, D.; Aramini, M.; Riccò, M.; Itie, J. P.; Elkaim, E.

    2017-06-01

    We present a detailed NMR study of the insulator-to-metal transition induced by an applied pressure p in the A 15 phase of Cs3 C60 . We evidence that the insulating antiferromagnetic (AFM) and superconducting (SC) phases coexist only in a narrow p range. At fixed p , in the metallic state above the SC transition Tc, the 133Cs and 13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation data are seemingly governed by a pseudogaplike feature. We prove that this feature, also seen in the 133Cs NMR shift data, is rather a signature of the Mott transition which broadens and smears out progressively for increasing (p ,T ). The analysis of the variation of the quadrupole splitting νQ of the 133Cs NMR spectrum precludes any cell symmetry change at the Mott transition and only monitors a weak variation of the lattice parameter. These results open an opportunity to consider theoretically the Mott transition in a multiorbital three-dimensional system well beyond its critical point.

  2. Carbon isotopic evidence from paleosols for mixed C 3/C 4 vegetation in the Bogota Basin, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Germán; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2002-04-01

    Pollen reconstructions in the Bogota basin (Colombia) indicate the expansion of tropical high-altitude grassland (paramo) at the expense of Andean forests during glacial intervals. The carbon isotopic composition (δ 13C) of soil organic matter (SOM) can be a useful indicator of changes in vegetation affecting grasslands because it distinguishes between two groups of grasses (C 3 and C 4) adapted to different ecological environments. Values of SOM δ 13C were determined in four weathering profiles containing both modern (Holocene) soils and paleosols formed during the Last Glacial Stage. These profiles are located along an altitudinal transect in the Bogota basin, extending from 2550 to 3100 m. Values of SOM δ 13C in the topsoil horizons reflect those of the native C 3 vegetation that currently dominates the ecosystems in the Colombian Andes. Although C 4 grasses are currently negligible in the basin, elevated SOM δ 13C values indicative of C 4 plants were found in two Holocene soils. Environmental changes or ancient agricultural activities could explain the increased abundance of these plants in the basin during the late Holocene. Isotopic values in the studied paleosols revealed the presence of a mixed C 3/C 4 vegetation in the basin during the Last Glacial Stage, thus indicating the expansion of C 4 grasses. We hypothesized that lowered pCO 2 and possibly reduced rainfall resulted in the colonization of the tropical Andes by lowland C 4 grasses despite of prevailing cooler temperatures.

  3. Inhibition of SARS-CoV 3C-like Protease Activity by Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available SARS-CoV is the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS. The virally encoded 3C-like protease (3CLPro has been presumed critical for the viral replication of SARS-CoV in infected host cells. In this study, we screened a natural product library consisting of 720 compounds for inhibitory activity against 3CLPro. Two compounds in the library were found to be inhibitive: tannic acid (IC50 = 3 µM and 3-isotheaflavin-3-gallate (TF2B (IC50 = 7 µM. These two compounds belong to a group of natural polyphenols found in tea. We further investigated the 3CLPro-inhibitory activity of extracts from several different types of teas, including green tea, oolong tea, Puer tea and black tea. Our results indicated that extracts from Puer and black tea were more potent than that from green or oolong teas in their inhibitory activities against 3CLPro. Several other known compositions in teas were also evaluated for their activities in inhibiting 3CLPro. We found that caffeine, (—-epigallocatechin gallte (EGCg, epicatechin (EC, theophylline (TP, catechin (C, epicatechin gallate (ECg and epigallocatechin (EGC did not inhibit 3CLPro activity. Only theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF3 was found to be a 3CLPro inhibitor. This study has resulted in the identification of new compounds that are effective 3CLPro inhibitors.

  4. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2002-01-01

    An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

  5. Relative Timing of X-ray, UV, and Optical Dips in the Radio Galaxy 3C 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Williamson, Karen E.

    2017-08-01

    We have recently completed a year-long program to monitoring the FR 1 radio galaxy 3C 120 at optical, UV, and X-ray bands with the Swift satellite. The light curves reveal several sharp dips in the X-ray, UV, and optical flux. During this period, a number of superluminal knots appeared in the jet, as seen in our approximately monthly 43 GHz VLBA images. The relative timing of the flux minima at the different bands provides information on the locations of the emission sites in the accretion disk-corona system. The relationship between the dips and delayed passage of new knots through the stationary core, situated about 0.5 pc downstream of the black hole, sheds light on the disk-jet connection. The presentation will compare the results of the authors' analysis of the data with the expectations of various theoretical models for the inner disk-corona.This research was supported in part by NASA through the Swift and Fermi guest investigator programs, grants NNX16AN69G and NNX14AQ58G.

  6. FEM3C, An improved three-dimensional heavy-gas dispersion model: User`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.T.

    1994-03-01

    FEM3C is another upgraded version of FEM3 (a three-dimensional Finite Element Model), which was developed primarily for simulating the atmospheric dispersion of heavier-than-air gas (or heavy gas) releases, based on solving the fully three-dimensional, time-dependent conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species of an inert gas or a pollutant in the form of vapor/droplets. A generalized anelastic approximation, together with the ideal gas law for the density of the gas/air mixture, is invoked to preclude sound waves and allow large density variations in both space and time. Thee numerical algorithm utilizes a modified Galerkin finite element method to discretize spatially the time-dependent conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species. A consistent pressure Poisson equation is formed and solved separately from the time-dependent equations, which are sequentially solved and integrated in time via a modified forward Euler method. The model can handle instantaneous source, finite-duration, and continuous releases. Also, it is capable of treating terrain and obstructions. Besides a K-theory model using similarity functions, an advanced turbulence model based on solving the k - {var_epsilon} transport equations is available as well. Imbedded in the code are also options for solving the Boussinesq equations. In this report, an overview of the model is given, user`s guides for using the model are provided, and example problems are presented to illustrate the usage of the model.

  7. The strongest ever gamma-ray source in the sky: the December 2009 flare of 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacciani, Luigi; Vittorini, Valerio; Sakamoto, Takanori; Elena, Pian; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Raiteri, Claudia Maria; Villata, Massimo; Striani, Edoardo; Vercellone, Stefano; D'Ammando, Filippo; Fugazza, Dino; Tiengo, Andrea; Tavani, Marco; Trispec BLAZAR Team; AGILE Collaboration; Swift Collaboration; Gasp-Webt Collaboration; Fabiani, Sergio

    In December 2009 the instruments aboard AGILE satellite detected a giant gamma-ray flare from the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 454.3, reaching a peak flux of 2000.E-8 ph/cm2/s (E > 100M eV ) for one day, and showing a flux in excess of 800.E-8 ph/cm2/s for almost two weeks. AGILE observed spectral hardening of the source during the major flare. Before, during and after the giant flare, the source were monitored in radio, optical, x-ray, as well as in gamma-ray. The gamma-ray activity is not accompanied by a comparable increase in optical flux, as instead observed in the previous high activity periods of the source. The x-ray flux increased as expected, but started to fade one week earlier than the gamma-ray. We report the measurements obtained with kanata, the GASP-WEBT, REM, GRT, Swift, Rossi, and AGILE. Based the observed variability and spectra, we will discuss on the nature of the high gamma-ray activity, and on the jet physics, focusing on the giant flare, and on the similarities and differences with respect to the high activity periods observed in the last two years for the source.

  8. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE QUASAR 3C 279 MEASURED WITH 1.3 mm VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Akiyama, Kazunori; Honma, Mareki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Algaba, Juan C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Bower, Geoffrey C.; Dexter, Matt [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Brinkerink, Christiaan [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Chamberlin, Richard [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Freund, Robert [Arizona Radio Observatory, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Friberg, Per [James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Gurwell, Mark A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jorstad, Svetlana G. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Krichbaum, Thomas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent, E-mail: rslu@haystack.mit.edu [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); and others

    2013-07-20

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of {approx}1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127 Degree-Sign {+-} 3 Degree-Sign ), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of {approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 {mu}as (5-7 light months) resolution.

  9. Ab-initio modeling of oxygen on the surface passivation of 3C-SiC nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, J.L.; Trejo, A.; Calvino, M.; Carvajal, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIME-Culhuacan, Av. Santa Ana 1000, 04430, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Irisson, M., E-mail: irisson@ipn.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIME-Culhuacan, Av. Santa Ana 1000, 04430, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-08-15

    In this work the effect of OH on the electronic states of H-passivated 3C-SiC nanostructures, was studied by means of Density Functional Theory. We compare the electronic band structure for a [1 1 1]-oriented nanowire with total H, OH passivation and a combination of both. Also the electronic states of a porous silicon carbide case (PSiC) a C-rich pore surface in which the dangling bonds on the surface are saturated with H and OH was studied. The calculations show that the surface replacement of H with OH radicals is always energetically favorable and more stable. In all cases the OH passivation produced a similar effect than the H passivation, with electronic band gap of lower energy value than the H-terminated phase. When the OH groups are attached to C atoms, the band gap feature is changed from direct to indirect. The results indicate the possibility of band gap engineering on SiC nanostructures through the surface passivation species.

  10. Study of fracture properties of 0.3C-CrMoV (ESR) ultrahigh strength steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, M.R.; Suresh, K.R.; Sreekumar, K.; Sinha, P.P.; Ballal, N.B.; Rao, P.K.

    2005-03-15

    The fracture properties of a new ultrahigh strength low alloy steel 0.3C-CrMoV(ESR), developed primarily as a cost effective material for space launch vehicle applications, have been evaluated through two different methods. The steel was processed through electroslag remelting (ESR) with inoculation using niobium to produce 4 tonne ingots, which were forged and rolled into plates. The fracture toughness of this steel has been evaluated by testing compact tension specimens and surface cracked tension specimens following the procedures in ASTM E-399 and ASTM E-740 respectively. The steel, after quenching and tempering, has a 0.2% proof strength of 1470 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 1725 MPa and fracture toughness of 96 MPa m. It has high residual strength also in the presence of surface cracks of 5 x 2 mm size. The microstructure consists of fine grains in the annealed condition and lath martensite in the hardened condition. After tempering, fine carbide precipitates distributed along the lath boundaries and within the laths were observed. (author)

  11. Refinement of the Multiple Exostoses Locus (EXT2) to a 3-cM Interval on Chromosome 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Wim; Ramlakhan, Sarvan; Van Hul, Wim; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Raskind, Wendy H.; Hofstede, Floris C.; Reyniers, Edwin; Wells, Dan E.; de Vries, Bert; Conrad, Ernest U.; Hill, April; Zalatayev, Dmitry; Weissenbach, Jean; Wagner, Michael J.; Bakker, Egbert; Halley, Dicky J. J.; Willems, Patrick J.

    1995-01-01

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by the formation of multiple exostoses on the long bones. EXT is genetically heterogeneous, with at least three loci involved: one (EXT1) in the Langer-Giedion region on 8q23-q24, a second (EXT2) in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 11, and a third (EXT3) on chromosome 19p. In this study, linkage analysis in seven extended EXT families, all linked to the EXT2 locus, refined the localization of the EXT2 gene to a 3-cM region flanked by D11S1355 and D11S1361/D11S554. This implies that the EXT2 gene is located at the short arm of chromosome 11, in band 11p11-p12. The refined localization of EXT2 excludes a number of putative candidate genes located in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 11 and facilitates the process of isolating the EXT2 gene. PMID:7668264

  12. Does total disc arthroplasty in C3/C4-segments change the kinematic features of axial rotation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowski, Martin Michael; Wagner, Markus; Weiland, Jan; Dörner, Jochen; Raab, Björn Werner; Dathe, Henning; Gezzi, Riccardo; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Nägerl, Hans

    2013-06-21

    We analyze how kinematic properties of C3/C4-segments are modified after total disc arthroplasty (TDA) with PRESTIGE(®) and BRYAN(®) Cervical Discs. The measurements were focused on small ranges of axial rotation (TDA. External parameters: constant axially directed pre-load, constant flexional/extensional and lateral-flexional pre-torque. The applied axial torque and IHA-direction did not run parallel. The IHA-direction was found to be rotated backwards and largely independent of the rotational angle, amount of axial pre-load, size of pre-torque, and TDA. In the intact segments pre-flexion/extension hardly influenced IHA-positions. After TDA, IHA-position was shifted backwards significantly (BRYAN-TDA: ≈8mm; PRESTIGE-TDA: ≈6mm) and in some segments laterally as well. Furthermore it was significantly shifted ventrally by pre-flexion and dorsally by pre-extension. The rate of lateral IHA-migration increased significantly after BRYAN-TDA during rightward or leftward rotations. In conclusion after the TDA the IHA-positions shifted backwards with significant increase in variability of the IHA-positions after the BRYAN-TDA more than in PRESTIGE-TDA. The TDA-procedure altered the segment kinematics considerably. TDA causes additional translations of the vertebrae, which superimpose the kinematics of the adjacent levels. The occurrence of adjacent level disease (ALD) is not excluded after the TDA for kinematical reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Steady-state Spectral Model for Electron Acceleration and Cooling in Blazar Jets: Application to 3C 279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tiffany R.; Finke, Justin D.; Becker, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a new theoretical model to describe the emitting region in a blazar jet. We adopt a one-zone leptonic picture and construct the particle transport equation for a plasma blob experiencing low-energy, monoenergetic particle injection, energy-dependent particle escape, shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration, synchrotron radiation, and external Compton radiation from the dust torus and broad-line region (BLR). We demonstrate that a one-zone leptonic model is able to explain the IR though γ -ray spectrum for 3C 279 in 2008–2009. We determine that the BLR seed photons cannot be adequately described by a single average distribution, but rather we find that a stratified BLR provides an improvement in the estimation of the distance of the emitting region from the black hole. We calculate that the jet is not always in equipartition between the particles and magnetic field and find that stochastic acceleration provides more energy to the particles than does shock acceleration, where the latter is also overshadowed by adiabatic losses. We further introduce a novel technique to implement numerical boundary conditions and determine the global normalization for the electron distribution, based on analysis of stiff ordinary differential equations. Our astrophysical results are compared with those obtained by previous authors.

  14. ALMA polarization observations of the particle accelerators in the hotspot of the radio galaxy 3C 445

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orienti, M.; Brunetti, G.; Nagai, H.; Paladino, R.; Mack, K.-H.; Prieto, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array polarization observations at 97.5 GHz of the southern hotspot of the radio galaxy 3C 445. The hotspot structure is dominated by two bright components enshrouded by diffuse emission. Both components show fractional polarization between 30 and 40 per cent, suggesting the presence of shocks. The polarized emission of the western component has a displacement of about 0.5 kpc outward with respect to the total intensity emission and may trace the surface of a front shock. Strong polarization is observed in a thin strip marking the ridge of the hotspot structure visible from radio to optical. No significant polarization is detected in the diffuse emission between the main components, suggesting a highly disordered magnetic field likely produced by turbulence and instabilities in the downstream region that may be at the origin of the extended optical emission observed in this hotspot. The polarization properties support a scenario in which a combination of both multiple and intermittent shock fronts due to jet dithering and spatially distributed stochastic second-order Fermi acceleration processes are present in the hotspot complex.

  15. OneWeb: plataforma de adaptación de contenidos web basada en las recomendaciones del W3C Mobile Web Initiative OneWeb: web content adaptation platform based on W3C Mobile Web Initiative guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosquera P. Fabián L.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  

    Las limitaciones con respecto a la experiencia de navegabilidad y facilidad de uso constituyen los principales obstáculos que enfrenta la web móvil para lograr una amplia aceptación mundial. Recientemente el W3C ha desarrollado una iniciativa conocida como Mobile Web Initiative (MWI, la cual define un conjunto de directrices para el diseño y presentación adecuada de interfaces web dirigidas a dispositivos móviles. El presente artículo describe las principales características y los módulos funcionales de OneWeb, una plataforma de adaptación de contenidos basada en las recomendaciones de MWI, desarrollada por el Grupo de Interés en el Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Móviles para Dispositivos Móviles - W@PColombia, adscrito al Grupo de Ingeniería Telemática de la Universidad del Cauca. Adicionalmente se presentan medidas de rendimiento y una comparación con sistemas de adaptación de contenido que operan actualmente. De manera experimental se obtuvieron tiempos de respuesta satisfactorios para entornos web móviles y se logró el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de MWI sobre un conjunto de veinte páginas de prueba.

     

     

    Restrictions regardingnavigability and user-friendliness are the main challenges the Mobile Web faces to be accepted worldwide. W3C has recently developed the Mobile Web Initiative (MWI, a set of directives for the suitable design

  16. Structural and biochemical characterization of the C3?C4 intermediate Brassica gravinae and relatives, with particular reference to cellular distribution of Rubisco

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of its CO2 compensation concentration, Brassica gravinae Ten. has been reported to be a C3?C4 intermediate. This study investigated the structural and biochemical features of photosynthetic metabolism in B. gravinae. The cellular distribution of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was also examined in B. gravinae, B. napus L. (C3), Raphanus sativus L. (C3), and Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. (C3?C4) by immunogold electron microscopy to elucidate Rubisco expr...

  17. A Modified HR3C Austenitic Heat-Resistant Steel for Ultra-supercritical Power Plants Applications Beyond 650 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, P.; Yang, Z.; Zhou, Y. L.; Huang, J. Y.; Yin, H. F.; Dang, Y. Y.; Zhao, X. B.; Lu, J. T.; Yan, J. B.; You, C. Y.

    2018-02-01

    A modified HR3C austenitic steel has been designed by optimizing the chemical composition. Compared with a commercial HR3C alloy, the modified steel has comparable oxidation resistance, yield strength, and plasticity, but higher creep rupture strength and impact toughness after long-term thermal exposure. The results suggest that the modified alloy is a promising candidate for the applications of ultra-supercritical power plants operating beyond 650 °C.

  18. The synthetic human beta-defensin-3 C15 peptide exhibits antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, both alone and in combination with dental disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Bum; Kim, A Reum; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major etiologic agent of human dental caries that forms biofilms on hard tissues in the human oral cavity, such as tooth and dentinal surfaces. Human β-defensin-3 (HBD3) is a 45-amino-acid natural antimicrobial peptide that has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. A synthetic peptide consisting of the C-terminal 15 amino acids of HBD3 (HBD3-C15) was recently shown to be sufficient for its antimicrobial activity. Thus, clinical applications of this peptide have garnered attention. In this study, we investigated whether HBD3-C15 inhibits the growth of the representative cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans and its biofilm formation. HBD3-C15 inhibited bacterial growth, exhibited bactericidal activity, and attenuated bacterial biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. HBD3-C15 potentiated the bactericidal and anti-biofilm activity of calcium hydroxide (CH) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), which are representative disinfectants used in dental clinics, against S. mutans. Moreover, HBD3-C15 showed antimicrobial activity by inhibiting biofilm formation by S. mutans and other dentinophilic bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus gordonii, which are associated with dental caries and endodontic infection, on human dentin slices. These effects were observed for HBD3-C15 alone and for HBD3-C15 in combination with CH or CHX. Therefore, we suggest that HBD3-C15 is a potential alternative or additive disinfectant that can be used for the treatment of oral infectious diseases, including dental caries and endodontic infections.

  19. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit [Division of Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751023 (India); Kundu, Chanakya N. [School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar (India); Verma, Subhash C. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Choudhuri, Tathagata, E-mail: tatha@ils.res.in [Division of Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751023 (India); Department of Biotechnology, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati, Santiniketan, Bolpur (India)

    2014-01-05

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways.

  20. Electrospinning Hetero-Nanofibers of Fe3 C-Mo2 C/Nitrogen-Doped-Carbon as Efficient Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huanlei; Zhang, Wenbiao; Shi, Zhangping; Che, Minwei; Yu, Xiang; Tang, Yi; Gao, Qingsheng

    2017-06-22

    Heterostructured electrocatalysts with multiple active components are expected to synchronously address the two elementary steps in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which require varied hydrogen-binding strength on the catalyst surface. Herein, electrospinning followed by a pyrolysis is introduced to design Fe3 C-Mo2 C/nitrogen-doped carbon (Fe3 C-Mo2 C/NC) hetero-nanofibers (HNFs) with tunable composition, leading to abundant Fe3 C-Mo2 C hetero-interfaces for synergy in electrocatalysis. Owing to the strong hydrogen binding on Mo2 C and the relatively weak one on Fe3 C, the hetero-interfaces of Fe3 C-Mo2 C remarkably promote HER kinetics and intrinsic activity. Additionally, the loose and porous N-doped carbon matrix, as a result of Fe-catalyzed carbonization, ensures the fast transport of electrolytes and electrons, thus minimizing diffusion limitation. As expected, the optimized Fe3 C-Mo2 C/NC HNFs afforded a low overpotential of 116 mV at a current density of -10 mA cm(-2) and striking kinetics metrics (onset overpotential: 42 mV, Tafel slope: 43 mV dec(-1) ) in 0.5 m H2 SO4 , outperforming most recently reported noble-metal-free electrocatalysts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Imaging of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor in tumor: in vitro binding and in vivo biodistribution of N-benzyl-N-[{sup 11}C]methyl-2- (7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl) acetamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Kumata, Katsushi; Yanamoto, Kazuhiko; Hatori, Akiko [Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takei, Makoto; Nakamura, Yukio [Tokyo Nuclear Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo 141-8686 (Japan); Koike, Sachiko; Ando, Koichi [Heavy-ion Radiobiology Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazutoshi [Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Zhang, Ming-Rong [Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: zhang@nirs.go.jp

    2009-10-15

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate N-benzyl-N-[{sup 11}C]methyl-2- (7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl) acetamide ([{sup 11}C]DAC) as a novel peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand for tumor imaging. Methods: [{sup 11}C]DAC was synthesized by the reaction of a desmethyl precursor with [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I. In vitro uptake of [{sup 11}C]DAC was examined in PBR-expressing C6 glioma and intact murine fibrosarcoma (NFSa) cells. In vivo distribution of [{sup 11}C]DAC was determined using NFSa-bearing mice and small-animal positron emission tomography (PET). Results: [{sup 11}C]DAC showed specific binding to PBR in C6 glioma cells, a standard cell line with high PBR expression. Specific binding of [{sup 11}C]DAC was also confirmed in NFSa cells, a target tumor cell line in this study. Results of PET experiments using NFSa-bearing mice, showed that [{sup 11}C]DAC was taken up specifically into the tumor, and pretreatment with PK11195 abolished the uptake. Conclusions: [{sup 11}C]DAC was taken up into PBR-expressing NFSa. [{sup 11}C]DAC is a promising PET ligand that can be used for imaging PBR in tumor-bearing mice.

  2. Surface modified MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} multilayers by aryl diazonium salts leading to large-scale delamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongbing [College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210098 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 211167 (China); Zhang, Jianfeng, E-mail: jfzhang_sic@163.com [College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210098 (China); Wu, Yuping; Huang, Huajie; Li, Gaiye; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Zhuyin [College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210098 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • A novel and simple method to delaminate MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} multilayers. • Surface modification using aryl diazonium salts induced swelling that conversely weakened the bonds between MXene layers. • The grafting of phenylsulfonic acid groups on MXene surfaces resulted in excellent water dispersibility. - Abstract: Herein we report a simple and facile method to delaminate MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} multilayers by the assistance of surface modification using aryl diazonium salts. The basic strategy involved the preparation of layered MAX Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2} and the exfoliation of Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2} into Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} multilayers, followed by Na{sup +} intercalation and surface modification using sulfanilic acid diazonium salts. The resulting chemically grafted Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} flakes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the presence of the surface organic species. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy revealed that surface-modified MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} sheets disperse well in water and the solutions obey Lambert–Beer’s law. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to demonstrate the morphology and structure of delaminating MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} flakes. The results indicated that chemical modification for MXene multilayers by aryl diazonium salts induced swelling that conversely weakened the bonds between MX layers, hence leading to large-scale delamination of multilayered MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2}via mild sonication. Advantages of the present approach rely not only on the simplicity and efficiency of the delamination procedure but also on the grafting of aryl groups to MXene surfaces, highly suitable for further applications of the newly discovered two-dimensional materials.

  3. Independent evolution of tetraloop in enterovirus oriL replicative element and its putative binding partners in virus protein 3C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviatkin, Andrei A.; Tcelykh, Irina O.; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Gmyl, Anatoly P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Enteroviruses are small non-enveloped viruses with a (+) ssRNA genome with one open reading frame. Enterovirus protein 3C (or 3CD for some species) binds the replicative element oriL to initiate replication. The replication of enteroviruses features a low-fidelity process, which allows the virus to adapt to the changing environment on the one hand, and requires additional mechanisms to maintain the genome stability on the other. Structural disturbances in the apical region of oriL domain d can be compensated by amino acid substitutions in positions 154 or 156 of 3C (amino acid numeration corresponds to poliovirus 3C), thus suggesting the co-evolution of these interacting sequences in nature. The aim of this work was to understand co-evolution patterns of two interacting replication machinery elements in enteroviruses, the apical region of oriL domain d and its putative binding partners in the 3C protein. Methods To evaluate the variability of the domain d loop sequence we retrieved all available full enterovirus sequences (>6, 400 nucleotides), which were present in the NCBI database on February 2017 and analysed the variety and abundance of sequences in domain d of the replicative element oriL and in the protein 3C. Results A total of 2,842 full genome sequences was analysed. The majority of domain d apical loops were tetraloops, which belonged to consensus YNHG (Y = U/C, N = any nucleotide, H = A/C/U). The putative RNA-binding tripeptide 154–156 (Enterovirus C 3C protein numeration) was less diverse than the apical domain d loop region and, in contrast to it, was species-specific. Discussion Despite the suggestion that the RNA-binding tripeptide interacts with the apical region of domain d, they evolve independently in nature. Together, our data indicate the plastic evolution of both interplayers of 3C-oriL recognition. PMID:29018627

  4. The high activity of 3C 454.3 in autumn 2007. Monitoring by the WEBT during the AGILE detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Chen, W. P.; Hsiao, W.-S.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Nilsson, K.; Larionov, V. M.; Gurwell, M. A.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Böttcher, M.; Buemi, C. S.; Calcidese, P.; Charlot, P.; D'Ammando, F.; Donnarumma, I.; Forné, E.; Frasca, A.; Fuhrmann, L.; Gómez, J. L.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kimeridze, G. N.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lanteri, L.; Latev, G.; Le Campion, J.-F.; Lee, C.-U.; Leto, P.; Lin, H.-C.; Marchili, N.; Marilli, E.; Marscher, A. P.; Nesci, R.; Nieppola, E.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Ohlert, J.; Ovcharov, E.; Principe, D.; Pursimo, T.; Ragozzine, B.; Sadun, A. C.; Sigua, L. A.; Smart, R. L.; Strigachev, A.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavani, M.; Thum, C.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Uckert, K.; Umana, G.; Valcheva, A.; Vercellone, S.; Volvach, A.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2008-07-01

    Context: The quasar-type blazar 3C 454.3 underwent a phase of high activity in summer and autumn 2007 that was intensively monitored in the radio-to-optical bands by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT). The γ-ray satellite Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero (AGILE) detected this source first in late July, and then in November-December 2007. Aims: We present the multifrequency data collected by the WEBT and collaborators during the second AGILE observing period, complemented by contemporaneous data from the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) onboard the Swift satellite. The aim is to trace in detail the behaviour of the synchrotron emission from the blazar jet, and to investigate the contribution from the thermal emission component. Methods: Optical data from about twenty telescopes have been homogeneously calibrated and carefully assembled to construct an R-band light curve containing about 1340 data points over 42 days. This extremely well-sampled optical light curve allows us to follow the dramatic flux variability of the source in detail. In addition, we show radio-to-UV spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at different epochs, which represent different brightness levels. Results: In the considered period, the source varied by 2.6 mag over two weeks in the R band. Many episodes of fast (i.e. intranight) variability were observed, most notably on December 12, when a flux increase of about 1.1 mag in 1.5 h was detected, followed by a steep decrease of about 1.2 mag in 1 h. The contribution by the thermal component is difficult to assess, due to the uncertainties in the Galactic, and possibly also intrinsic, extinction in the UV band. However, polynomial fitting of radio-to-UV SEDs reveals an increasing spectral bending towards fainter states, suggesting a UV excess likely due to the thermal emission from the accretion disc. Conclusions: Once the AGILE data are completely analysed, the low-frequency observations presented in this letter will offer

  5. Decomposition reaction rate of BCl3-C3H6(propene)-H2 in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Su, Kehe; Liu, Yan; Ren, Hongjiang; Zeng, Qingfeng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Litong

    2012-07-05

    The decomposition reaction rate in the BCl(3)-C(3)H(6)-H(2) gas phase reaction system in preparing boron carbides was investigated based on the most favorable reaction pathways proposed by Jiang et al. [Theor. Chem. Accs. 2010, 127, 519] and Yang et al. [J. Theor. Comput. Chem. 2012, 11, 53]. The rate constants of all the elementary reactions were evaluated with the variational transition state theory. The vibrational frequencies for the stationary points as well as the selected points along the minimum energy paths (MEPs) were calculated with density functional theory at the B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level and the energies were refined with the accurate model chemistry method G3(MP2). For the elementary reaction associated with a transition state, the MEP was obtained with the intrinsic reaction coordinates, while for the elementary reaction without transition state, the relaxed potential energy surface scan was employed to obtain the MEP. The rate constants were calculated for temperatures within 200-2000 K and fitted into three-parameter Arrhenius expressions. The reaction rates were investigated by using the COMSOL software to solve numerically the coupled differential rate equations. The results show that the reactions are, consistent with the experiments, appropriate at 1100-1500 K with the reaction time of 30 s for 1100 K, 1.5 s for 1200 K, 0.12 s for 1300 K, 0.011 s for 1400 K, or 0.001 s for 1500 K, for propene being almost completely consumed. The completely dissociated species, boron carbides C(3)B, C(2)B, and CB, have very low concentrations, and C(3)B is the main product at higher temperatures, while C(2)B is the main product at lower temperatures. For the reaction time 1 s, all these concentrations approach into a nearly constant. The maximum value (in mol/m(3)) is for the highest temperature 1500 K with the orders of -13, -17, and -23 for C(3)B, C(2)B, and CB, respectively. It was also found that the logarithm of the overall reaction rate and reciprocal

  6. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus 3C-Like Protease-Mediated Nucleocapsid Processing: Possible Link to Viral Cell Culture Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaru-Ampornpan, Peera; Jengarn, Juggragarn; Wanitchang, Asawin; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2017-01-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe diarrhea and high mortality rates in newborn piglets, leading to massive losses to the swine industry worldwide during recent epidemics. Intense research efforts are now focusing on defining viral characteristics that confer a growth advantage, pathogenicity, or cell adaptability in order to better understand the PEDV life cycle and identify suitable targets for antiviral or vaccine development. Here, we report a unique phenomenon of PEDV nucleocapsid (N) cleavage by the PEDV-encoded 3C-like protease (3Cpro) during infection. The identification of the 3Cpro cleavage site at the C terminus of N supported previous observations that PEDV 3Cpro showed a substrate requirement slightly different from that of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3Cpro and revealed a greater flexibility in its substrate recognition site. This cleavage motif is present in the majority of cell culture-adapted PEDV strains but is missing in emerging field isolates. Remarkably, reverse-genetics-derived cell culture-adapted PEDVAVCT12 harboring uncleavable N displayed growth retardation in Vero E6-APN cells compared to the wild-type virus. These observations altogether shed new light on the investigation and characterization of the PEDV nucleocapsid protein and its possible link to cell culture adaptation. Recurrent PEDV outbreaks have resulted in enormous economic losses to swine industries worldwide. To gain the upper hand in combating this disease, it is necessary to understand how this virus replicates and evades host immunity. Characterization of viral proteins provides important clues to mechanisms by which viruses survive and spread. Here, we characterized an intriguing phenomenon in which the nucleocapsids of some PEDV strains are proteolytically processed by the virally encoded main protease. Growth retardation in recombinant PEDV carrying uncleavable N suggests a replication advantage provided by the cleavage

  7. Gas rotation, shocks and outflow within the inner 3 kpc of the radio galaxy 3C 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Schnorr-Müller, Allan

    2017-08-01

    We present optical integral field spectroscopy - obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph - of the inner 4.0 × 5.8 kpc2 of the narrow line radio galaxy 3C 33 at a spatial resolution of 0.58 kpc. The gas emission shows three brightest structures: a strong knot of nuclear emission and two other knots at ≈1.4 kpc south-west and north-east of the nucleus along the ionization axis. We detect two kinematic components in the emission lines profiles, with a 'broader component' (with velocity dispersion σ ≥ 150 km s - 1 ) being dominant within an ˜1 kpc wide strip ('the nuclear strip') running from the south-east to the north-west, perpendicular to the radio jet, and a narrower component (σ ≤ 100 km s - 1 ) dominating elsewhere. Centroid velocity maps reveal a rotation pattern with velocity amplitudes reaching ˜± 350 km s - 1 in the region dominated by the narrow component, while residual blueshifts and redshifts relative to rotation are observed in the nuclear strip, where we also observe the highest values of the [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα and [O I]/Hα line ratios, and an increase of the gas temperature (˜18 000 K), velocity dispersion and electron density (˜500 cm - 3 ). We interpret these residuals and increased line ratios as due to a lateral expansion of the ambient gas in the nuclear strip due to shocks produced by the passage of the radio jet. The effect of this expansion in the surrounding medium is very small, as its estimated kinetic power represents only 2.6 × 10-5 - 3.0 × 10-5 of the AGN bolometric luminosity. A possible signature of inflow is revealed by an increase in the [O I]/Hα ratio values and velocity dispersions in the shape of two spiral arms extending to 2.3 kpc north-east and south-west from the nucleus.

  8. Roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C Species in Fe-N/C Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Sa, Young Jin; Jeong, Hu Young; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2017-03-22

    Iron and nitrogen codoped carbons (Fe-N/C) have emerged as promising nonprecious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). While Fe-Nx sites have been widely considered as active species for Fe-N/C catalysts, very recently, iron and/or iron carbide encased with carbon shells (Fe-Fe3C@C) has been suggested as a new active site for the ORR. However, most of synthetic routes to Fe-N/C catalysts involve high-temperature pyrolysis, which unavoidably yield both Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C species, hampering the identification of exclusive role of each species. Herein, in order to establish the respective roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C sites we rationally designed model catalysts via the phase conversion reactions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. The resulting catalysts selectively contained Fe-Nx, Fe-Fe3C@C, and N-doped carbon (C-Nx) sites. It was revealed that Fe-Nx sites dominantly catalyze ORR via 4-electron (4 e(-)) pathway, exerting a major role for high ORR activity, whereas Fe-Fe3C@C sites mainly promote 2 e(-) reduction of oxygen followed by 2 e(-) peroxide reduction, playing an auxiliary role.

  9. Constraining the Single-degenerate Channel of Type Ia Supernovae with Stable Iron-group Elements in SNR 3C 397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Pranav; Kashyap, Rahul; Fisher, Robert; Timmes, Frank; Townsley, Dean; Byrohl, Chris

    2017-05-01

    Recent Suzaku X-ray spectra of supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397 indicate enhanced stable iron group element abundances of Ni, Mn, Cr, and Fe. Seeking to address key questions about the progenitor and explosion mechanism of 3C 397, we compute nucleosynthetic yields from a suite of multidimensional hydrodynamics models in the near-Chandrasekhar-mass, single-degenerate paradigm for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Varying the progenitor white dwarf (WD) internal structure, composition, ignition, and explosion mechanism, we find that the best match to the observed iron peak elements of 3C 397 are dense (central density ≥6 × 109 g cm-3), low-carbon WDs that undergo a weak, centrally ignited deflagration, followed by a subsequent detonation. The amount of 56Ni produced is consistent with a normal or bright normal SNe Ia. A pure deflagration of a centrally ignited, low central density (≃2 × 109 g cm-3) progenitor WD, frequently considered in the literature, is also found to produce good agreement with 3C 397 nucleosynthetic yields, but leads to a subluminous SN Ia event, in conflict with X-ray line width data. Additionally, in contrast to prior work that suggested a large supersolar metallicity for the WD progenitor for SNR 3C 397, we find satisfactory agreement for solar- and subsolar-metallicity progenitors. We discuss a range of implications our results have for the single-degenerate channel.

  10. Theoretical study of structure, bonding, and electronic behavior of novel sandwich complexes Os3(C6H6) n ( n = 1, 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, K.; Zhao, C. B.; Huang, W. D.

    2017-11-01

    The correlations between structural and electronic properties of the monolayer cluster Os3 and sandwich complexes of Os3(C6H6) n ( n = 1, 2) were studied with density functional theory. Every Os adopts η2 fashion to coordinate with C6H6 in Os3(C6H6), while every Os adopts η2 and η1 fashion to coordinate with below and above C6H6 rings in Os3(C6H6)2. η2 fashion is σ donation and π back bond, and η1 fashion belong to σ bond. The first binding energy between Os3 and below C6H6 ring is-114.23 kJ/mol, which is weaker than the second binding energy with-174.16 kJ/mol between Os3(C6H6) and above C6H6 ring. The reason is that the change of spin multiplicity is different, which leads the symmetry of Os3(C6H6)2 to be broken.

  11. The acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration to temperature in the C3 -C4 intermediate Salsola divaricata: induction of high respiratory CO2 release under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandin, Anthony; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E; Cousins, Asaph B

    2014-11-01

    Photosynthesis in C(3) -C(4) intermediates reduces carbon loss by photorespiration through refixing photorespired CO(2) within bundle sheath cells. This is beneficial under warm temperatures where rates of photorespiration are high; however, it is unknown how photosynthesis in C(3) -C(4) plants acclimates to growth under cold conditions. Therefore, the cold tolerance of the C(3) -C(4) Salsola divaricata was tested to determine whether it reverts to C(3) photosynthesis when grown under low temperatures. Plants were grown under cold (15/10 °C), moderate (25/18 °C) or hot (35/25 °C) day/night temperatures and analysed to determine how photosynthesis, respiration and C(3) -C(4) features acclimate to these growth conditions. The CO(2) compensation point and net rates of CO(2) assimilation in cold-grown plants changed dramatically when measured in response to temperature. However, this was not due to the loss of C(3) -C(4) intermediacy, but rather to a large increase in mitochondrial respiration supported primarily by the non-phosphorylating alternative oxidative pathway (AOP) and, to a lesser degree, the cytochrome oxidative pathway (COP). The increase in respiration and AOP capacity in cold-grown plants likely protects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria and photodamage in chloroplasts by consuming excess reductant via the alternative mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Glycerol-bonded 3C-SiC nanocrystal solid films exhibiting broad and stable violet to blue-green emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Xiong, S J; Wu, X L; Li, T H; Chu, Paul K

    2010-04-14

    We have produced glycerol-bonded 3C-SiC nanocrystal (NC) films, which when excited by photons of different wavelengths, produce strong and tunable violet to blue-green (360-540 nm) emission as a result of the quantum confinement effects rendered by the 3C-SiC NCs. The emission is so intense that the emission spots are visible to the naked eyes. The light emission is very stable and even after storing in air for more than six months, no intensity degradation can be observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and absorption fine structure measurements indicate that the Si-terminated NC surfaces are completely bonded to glycerol molecules. Calculations of geometry optimization and electron structures based on the density functional theory for 3C-SiC NCs with attached glycerol molecules show that these molecules are bonded on the NCs causing strong surface structural change, while the isolated levels in the conduction band of the bare 3C-SiC NCs are replaced with quasi-continuous bands that provide continuous tunability of the emitted light by changing the frequencies of exciting laser. As an application, we demonstrate the potential of using 3C-SiC NCs to fabricate full-color emitting solid films by incorporating porous silicon.

  13. Preliminary Microstructural and Microscratch Results of Ni-Cr-Fe and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings on Magnesium Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Lupescu, S.; Benchea, M.; Vizureanu, P.

    2017-06-01

    Thermal coatings have a large scale application in aerospace and automotive field, as barriers improving wear mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. In present research, there have been used two types of coatings, Ni-Cr-Fe, respectively Cr3C2-NiCr which were deposited on magnesium based alloys (pure magnesium and Mg-30Y master alloy). There have been investigated the microstructural aspects through scanning electronic microscopy and XRD analysis and also a series of mechanical characteristics through microscratch and indentation determinations. The results revealed the formation of some adherent layers resistant to the penetration of the metallic indenter, the coatings did not suffer major damages. Microstructural analysis highlighted the formation of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr3Ni2, Cr7Ni3, FeNi3, Cr-Ni phases. Also, the apparent coefficient of friction for Ni-Cr-Fe coatings presents superior values than Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  14. Towards gauge coupling unification in left-right symmetric SU (3 )c×SU (3 )L×SU (3 )R×U (1 )X theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, Chandan; Patra, Sudhanwa; Reig, Mario; Valle, José W. F.; Vaquera-Araujo, C. A.

    2017-07-01

    We consider the possibility of gauge coupling unification within the simplest realizations of the SU (3 )c×SU (3 )L×SU (3 )R×U (1 )X gauge theory. We present a first exploration of the renormalization group equations governing the "bottom-up" evolution of the gauge couplings in a generic model with free normalization for the generators. Interestingly, we find that for a SU (3 )c×SU (3 )L×SU (3 )R×U (1 )X symmetry breaking scale MX as low as a few TeV one can achieve unification in the presence of leptonic octets. We briefly comment on possible grand unified theory frameworks which can embed the SU (3 )c×SU (3 )L×SU (3 )R×U (1 )X model as well as possible implications, such as lepton flavor violating physics at the LHC.

  15. Lactobacillus crispatus strain SJ-3C-US induces human dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and confers an anti-inflammatory phenotype to DCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Solat; Hadjati, Jamshid; Motevaseli, Elahe; Mirzaei, Reza; Farashi Bonab, Samad; Ansaripour, Bita; Khoramizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the most predominant species in the healthy vagina microbiota. Nevertheless, the interactions between this commensal bacterium and the immune system are largely unknown. Given the importance of the dendritic cells (DCs) in the regulation of the immunity, this study was performed to elucidate the influence of vaginal isolated L. crispatus SJ-3C-US from healthy Iranian women on DCs, either directly by exposure of DCs to ultraviolet-inactivated (UVI) and heat-killed (HK) L. crispatus SJ-3C-US or indirectly to its cell-free supernatant (CFS), and the outcomes of immune response. In this work we showed that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US induced strong dose-dependent activation of dendritic cells and production of high levels of IL-10, whereas IL-12p70 production was induced at low level in an inverse dose-dependent manner. This stimulation skewed T cells polarization toward CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) Treg cells and production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) test. The mode of bacterial inactivation did not affect the DCs activation pattern, upon encounter with L. crispatus SJ-3C-US. Moreover, while DCs stimulated with CFS showed moderate phenotypic maturation and IL-10 production, it failed to skew T cells polarization toward CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and production of IL-10. This study showed that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US confers an anti-inflammatory phenotype to DCs through up-regulation of anti-inflammatory/regulatory IL-10 cytokine production and induction of CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T cells at optimal dosage. Our findings suggest that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US could be a potent candidate as protective probiotic against human immune-mediated pathologies, such as chronic inflammation, vaginitis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. IMPACT OF DIELECTRIC PARAMETERS ON THE REFLECTIVITY OF 3C-SiC WAFERS WITH A ROUGH SURFACE MORPHOLOGY IN THE RESTSTRAHLEN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A.A. Engelbrecht; E. Janzén; A. Henry; I.J. van Rooyen

    2014-04-01

    A layer-on-substrate model is used to obtain the infrared reflectance for 3C-SiC with a rough surface morphology. The effect of varying dielectric parameters of the “damaged layer” on the observed reflectivity of the 3C-SiC in the reststrahlen region is assessed. Different simulated reflectance spectra are obtained to those if the dielectric parameters of the “substrate” were varied. Most notable changes in the shape of the simulated reststrahlen peak are observed for changes in the high frequency dielectric constant, the phonon damping constant, the phonon frequencies and “thickness” of damaged surface layer.

  17. Ti3C2 MXene co-catalyst on metal sulfide photo-absorbers for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jingrun; Gao, Guoping; Li, Fa-Tang; Ma, Tian-Yi; Du, Aijun; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Scalable and sustainable solar hydrogen production through photocatalytic water splitting requires highly active and stable earth-abundant co-catalysts to replace expensive and rare platinum. Here we employ density functional theory calculations to direct atomic-level exploration, design and fabrication of a MXene material, Ti3C2 nanoparticles, as a highly efficient co-catalyst. Ti3C2 nanoparticles are rationally integrated with cadmium sulfide via a hydrothermal strategy to induce a super high visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of 14,342 μmol h−1 g−1 and an apparent quantum efficiency of 40.1% at 420 nm. This high performance arises from the favourable Fermi level position, electrical conductivity and hydrogen evolution capacity of Ti3C2 nanoparticles. Furthermore, Ti3C2 nanoparticles also serve as an efficient co-catalyst on ZnS or ZnxCd1−xS. This work demonstrates the potential of earth-abundant MXene family materials to construct numerous high performance and low-cost photocatalysts/photoelectrodes. PMID:28045015

  18. Protection of guinea pigs and swine by a recombinant adenovirus expressing O serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus whole capsid and 3C protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengjun; Bao, Huifang; Cao, Yimei; Sun, Pu; Guo, Jianhun; Li, Pinghua; Bai, Xingwen; Chen, Yingli; Xie, Baoxia; Li, Dong; Liu, Zaixin; Xie, Qingge

    2008-12-19

    Two recombinant adenoviruses were constructed expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and 3C/3CD proteins in replicative deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector. Guinea pigs vaccinated with 1-3 x 10(8)TCID(50) Ad-P12x3C recombinant adenovirus were completely protected against 10,000GID(50) homologous virulent FMDV challenge 25 days post vaccination (dpv). Ad-P12x3CD vaccinated guinea pigs were only partially protected. Swine were vaccinated once with 1x10(9)TCID(50) Ad-P12x3C hybrid virus and challenged 28 days later. Three of four vaccinated swine were completely protected against 200 pig 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) of homologous FMDV challenge, and vaccinated pigs developed specific cellular and humoral immune responses. The immune effect of Ad-P12x3C in swine further indicated that the recombinant adenovirus was highly efficient in transferring the foreign gene. This approach may thus be a very hopeful tool for developing FMD live virus vector vaccine.

  19. Interaction between F2 gas with the pristine and 3C-doped(4, 4 armchair boron phosphide nanotubes: a DFT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaei-Sameti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the structure, quantum and NQR (Nuclear quadrupole resonanceparameters of F2 gas adsorption on the pristine and 3C-doped (4,4 armchair models of boron phosphide nanotubes (BPNTs have been investigated in the framework of density functional theory. For this purpose, at the first step, four models for F2 adsorption on the inner and outer surfaces of pristine and 3C-doped BPNTS are considered and then all structures are optimized by using Gaussian 03 program package. The optimized structures are used to calculate the quantum and NQR parameters. The calculated results reveal that the adsorption energy of pristine and 3C-doped models of BPNTs are exothermic and adsorption process is a physisorption process due to the weak Van der Waals interaction. The substitution of three carbons with three B atoms of nanotube decreases significantly the adsorption energies. The F2 adsorption and 3C-doping decrease the band gap, global hardness, and ionization potential of the pristine BPNTs. The calculated NQR parameters of all the models show that CQ and &etaQ values of the first layer are larger than those of the other layers.

  20. Validated physical models and parameters of bulk 3C-SiC aiming for credible technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitopoulos, A.; Lophitis, N.; Gyftakis, K. N.; Perkins, S.; Antoniou, M.

    2017-10-01

    The cubic form of SiC (β- or 3C-) compared to the hexagonal α-SiC polytypes, primarily 4H- and 6H-SiC, has lower growth cost and can be grown heteroepitaxially in large area silicon (Si) wafers which makes it of special interest. This in conjunction with the recently reported growth of improved quality 3C-SiC, make the development of devices an imminent objective. However, the readiness of models that accurately predict the material characteristics, properties and performance is an imperative requirement for attaining the design and optimization of functional devices. The purpose of this study is to provide and validate a comprehensive set of models alongside with their parameters for bulk 3C-SiC. The validation process revealed that the proposed models are in a very good agreement to experimental data and confidence ranges were identified. This is the first piece of work achieving that for 3C-SiC. Considerably, it constitutes the necessary step for finite element method simulations and technology computer aided design.

  1. Identification of high-risk Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in lineage I (serotype 1/2a, 1/2c, 3a and 3c) using multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparison...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of new electron-withdrawing moiety thieno[2,3-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-based molecules for small molecule solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Lei; Pan, Hongbin; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2013-01-01

    –π–donor–π–acceptor type end-capped with thieno[2,3-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) units for small molecule solar cells have been prepared through coupling of dithienosilole and TPD units bridged with thienylene and bithienylene. They are soluble in common organic solvents and show an interesting absorption. These small...

  3. Lattice thermal transport in L a3C u3X4 compounds (X =P ,As ,Sb ,Bi ) : Interplay of anharmonicity and scattering phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Tribhuwan; Polanco, Carlos A.; Lindsay, Lucas; Parker, David S.

    2017-06-01

    Thermal conductivities of L a3C u3X4 (X =P ,As ,Sb ,Bi ) compounds are examined using first-principles density functional theory and Boltzmann transport methods. We observe a trend of increasing lattice thermal conductivity (κl) with increasing atomic mass, challenging our expectations, as lighter mass systems typically have larger sound speeds and weaker intrinsic scattering. In particular, we find that L a3C u3P4 has the lowest κl, despite having larger sound speed and the most restricted available phase space for phonon-phonon scattering, an important criterion for estimating and comparing κl among like systems. The origin of this unusual behavior lies in the strength of the individual anharmonic phonon scattering matrix elements, which are much larger in L a3C u3P4 than in the heavier L a3C u3B i4 system. Our finding provides insights into the interplay of harmonic and anharmonic properties of complex, low-thermal-conductivity compounds, of potential use for thermoelectric and thermal barrier coating applications.

  4. A green and efficient protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives via a one-pot, four component reaction by grinding method

    OpenAIRE

    Ambethkar, Sethurajan; Padmini, Vediappen; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai

    2014-01-01

    An efficient grinding protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives from acetylene ester, hydrazine hydrate, aryl aldehydes and malononitrile under solvent free conditions has been achieved with excellent yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were deduced by spectroscopic techniques and the compounds were further evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  5. A green and efficient protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives via a one-pot, four component reaction by grinding method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethurajan Ambethkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient grinding protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives from acetylene ester, hydrazine hydrate, aryl aldehydes and malononitrile under solvent free conditions has been achieved with excellent yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were deduced by spectroscopic techniques and the compounds were further evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  6. Influence of GNB3 C825T polymorphism on the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Sheng-Yu; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Xiao Jie; Cui, Guang-Cheng; Yu, En-Qing; Xu, Xian-Feng; Li, Ping; Xiao, Jian-Qi; Wei, Dong-Mei; Zang, Yin-Yin

    2015-02-01

    We performed the present meta-analysis in order to evaluate the influence of a common polymorphism (C825T, rs5443 C>T) in the GNB3 gene on the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). A relevant literature was searched using the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, CBM and CNKI databases without any language restrictions. STATA Version 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas USA) was used for this meta-analysis. Odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Our findings suggested that the GNB3 C825T polymorphism was significantly correlated with a higher response rate to antidepressants in MDD patients under the allele and dominant models. Furthermore, we found significant associations between GNB3 C825T polymorphisms and antidepressant-induced remission in MDD patients. Ethnicity-stratified analysis indicated that GNB3 C825T polymorphisms may be strongly related to the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of MDD among Asians, but not in Caucasians (all P>0.05). Our findings provide empirical evidence that GNB3 C825T polymorphisms may be correlated with the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of MDD, especially among Asians patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemisorbed and physisorbed structures for 1,10-phenanthroline and dipyrido[3,2-a : 2 ',3 '-c]phenazine on au(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cafe, P.F.; Larsen, Allan G.; Yang, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of 1,10-phenanthroline (PHEN) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (DPPZ) on Au(111) are recorded using both in situ and ex situ techniques. The images of PHEN depict regimes of physisorption and chemisorption, whereas DPPZ is only physisorbed. All physi...

  8. Radiosynthesis of 9{sup 9mT}c(CO){sup 3C}linafloxacin Dithiocarbamate and Its Biological Evaluation as a Potential staphylococcus aureus Infection Radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Khan, Mohammad Rafiullah; Ali, Syed Mohammad [Univ. of Peshawar/Univ. of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2011-12-15

    Clinafloxacin dithiocarbamate (CNND) was radiolabeled with technetium 99m ({sup 99mT}c) using [{sup 99mT}c(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2O}){sub 3]}{sup +a}nd assessed for its radiochemical stability in saline and serum, its in vitro binding with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and biodistribution in female nude mice (FNM) artificially infected with live and heat killed MRSA. In normal saline (NS) the {sup 99mT}c(CO){sub 3c}linafloxacin dithiocarbamate ({sup 99mT}c(CO){sub 3C}NND) showed radiochemical stability with a maximum value of 99.10{+-}0.20% and remained stable up to 4 h (92.65{+-}0.18%). In human serum at 37.deg.C within 16 h of incubation, 14.85% side products as a result of de tagging developed. Incubation with MRSA gave saturated binding with a maximum value of 72.75{+-}1.20%. Almost six fold higher uptake was seen in the infected and normal muscle. The {sup 99mT}c (CO){sub 3C}NND complex showed a normal route of excretion from the body of the FNM model. The higher stability in NS, HS, saturated in vitro binding with a live strain of MRSA and six fold higher uptake in the target organ showed the {sup 99mT}c(CO){sub 3C}NND complex to be a potential MRSA infection radiotracer.

  9. 3CD, but not 3C, cleaves the VP1/2A site efficiently during Aichi virus polyprotein processing through interaction with 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jun; Ishikawa, Kumiko; Taniguchi, Koki

    2012-02-01

    Picornavirus genomes are translated into a single large polyprotein, which is processed by virus-encoded proteases into individual functional proteins. 3C of all picornaviruses is a protease, and the leader (L) and 2A proteins of some picornaviruses are also involved in polyprotein processing. Aichi virus (AiV), which is associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans, is a member of the genus Kobuvirus of the family Picornaviridae. The AiV L and 2A proteins have already been shown to exhibit no protease activity. In this study, we investigated AiV polyprotein processing by 3C and 3CD using a cell-free translation system. 3C and 3CD were capable of processing the polyprotein in trans; 3C, however, cleaved the VP1/2A site inefficiently, while 3CD cleaved this site almost completely. Mammalian two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed an interaction between 2A and 3CD. Using a 3CD mutant and various 2A mutants of substrate proteins, we showed a clear correlation between the 2A-3CD interaction and the VP1/2A cleavage by 3CD. Thus, this study suggests that tight interaction of 3CD with the 2A region of a precursor protein is required for efficient cleavage at the VP1/2A site. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybridizing polypyrrole chains with laminated and two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx toward high-performance electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuan; He, Man; Zhou, Yuming; Zhong, Xi; Fan, Lidan; Huang, Tingyuan; Liao, Qiang; Wang, Yongjuan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, multilayer sandwich heterostructural Ti3C2Tx MXenes decorated with polypyrrole chains have been synthesized successfully via HF etching treatment and in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization approach. The hybrids were investigated as EM wave absorbers for the first time. It is found that the composites consisting of 25 wt% Ti3C2Tx/PPy hybrids in a paraffin matrix exhibit a minimum reflection loss of -49.2 dB (∼99.99% absorption) at the thickness of 3.2 mm and a maximum effective absorption bandwidth of 4.9 GHz (12.4-17.3 GHz) corresponding to an absorber thickness of 2.0 mm. Additionally, a broad effective absorption bandwidth of 13.7 GHz (4.3-18.0 GHz) can be reached up by adjusting the thickness from 1.5 to 5.0 mm. Furthermore, the highest effective absorption bandwidth of 5.7 GHz can be reached when the mass fraction is 15 wt%. The enhanced comprehensive electromagnetic wave absorption has close correlation with the well-designed heterogeneous multilayered microstructure, generated heterogeneous interfaces, conductive paths, surface functional groups, localized defects and synergistic effect between laminated Ti3C2Tx and conductive polypyrrole network, which significantly improve impedance matching and attenuation abilities. The superior absorbing performance together with strong absorption and broad bandwidth endows the Ti3C2Tx/PPy hybrids with the potential prospect to be advanced EM wave absorbers.

  11. W3C director Tim Berners-Lee to be Knighted by Queen Elizabeth web inventor recognized for contributions to internet development

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web and director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), will be made a Knight Commander, Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth" (1/2 page).

  12. Fine mapping of the soybean aphid-resistance genes Rag6 and Rag3c from Glycine soja 85-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichen; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wen, Zixiang; Gu, Cuihua; An, Yong-Qiang Charles; Bales, Carmille; DiFonzo, Chris; Song, Qijian; Wang, Dechun

    2017-12-01

    Rag6 and Rag3c were delimited to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 and a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Structural variants in the exons of candidate genes were identified. The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2000. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management strategy for aphids. Two novel aphid-resistance loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from Glycine soja 85-32, were previously detected in a 10.5-cM interval on chromosome 8 and a 7.5-cM interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Defining the exact genomic position of these two genes is critical for improving the effectiveness of marker-assisted selection for aphid resistance and for identification of the functional genes. To pinpoint the locations of Rag6 and Rag3c, four populations segregating for Rag6 and Rag3c were used to fine map these two genes. The availability of the Illumina Infinium SoySNP50K/8K iSelect BeadChip, combined with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers discovered through the whole-genome re-sequencing of E12901, facilitated the fine mapping process. Rag6 was refined to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 with four candidate genes, including three clustered nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes and an amine oxidase encoding gene. Rag3c was refined to a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16 with 11 candidate genes, two of which are a LRR gene and a lipase gene. Moreover, by sequencing the whole-genome exome-capture of the resistant source (E12901), structural variants were identified in the exons of the candidate genes of Rag6 and Rag3c. The closely linked SNP markers and the candidate gene information presented in this study will be significant resources for integrating Rag6 and Rag3c into elite cultivars and for future functional genetics studies.

  13. Mutating the CX3C Motif in the G Protein Should Make a Live Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Safer and More Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyoglu-Barnum, S; Todd, S O; Meng, J; Barnum, T R; Chirkova, T; Haynes, L M; Jadhao, S J; Tripp, R A; Oomens, A G; Moore, M L; Anderson, L J

    2017-05-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and is the single most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract infections in young children, yet no highly effective treatment or vaccine is available. Through a CX3C chemokine motif (182CWAIC186) in the G protein, RSV binds to the corresponding chemokine receptor, CX3CR1. Since RSV binding to CX3CR1 contributes to disease pathogenesis, we investigated whether a mutation in the CX3C motif by insertion of an alanine, A186, within the CX3C motif, mutating it to CX4C (182CWAIAC187), which is known to block binding to CX3CR1, might decrease disease. We studied the effect of the CX4C mutation in two strains of RSV (A2 and r19F) in a mouse challenge model. We included RSV r19F because it induces mucus production and airway resistance, two manifestations of RSV infection in humans, in mice. Compared to wild-type (wt) virus, mice infected with CX4C had a 0.7 to 1.2 log10-fold lower virus titer in the lung at 5 days postinfection (p.i.) and had markedly reduced weight loss, pulmonary inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus production, and airway resistance after challenge. This decrease in disease was not dependent on decrease in virus replication but did correspond to a decrease in pulmonary Th2 and inflammatory cytokines. Mice infected with CX4C viruses also had higher antibody titers and a Th1-biased T cell memory response at 75 days p.i. These results suggest that the CX4C mutation in the G protein could improve the safety and efficacy of a live attenuated RSV vaccine.IMPORTANCE RSV binds to the corresponding chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, through a CX3C chemokine motif (182CWAIC186) in the G protein. RSV binding to CX3CR1 contributes to disease pathogenesis; therefore, we investigated whether a mutation in the CX3C motif by insertion of an alanine, A186, within the CX3C motif, mutating it to CX4C (182CWAIAC187), known to block binding to CX3CR1, might decrease disease. The effect of this

  14. Molecular Landscape of the Ribosome Pre-initiation Complex during mRNA Scanning: Structural Role for eIF3c and Its Control by eIF5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Obayashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During eukaryotic translation initiation, eIF3 binds the solvent-accessible side of the 40S ribosome and recruits the gate-keeper protein eIF1 and eIF5 to the decoding center. This is largely mediated by the N-terminal domain (NTD of eIF3c, which can be divided into three parts: 3c0, 3c1, and 3c2. The N-terminal part, 3c0, binds eIF5 strongly but only weakly to the ribosome-binding surface of eIF1, whereas 3c1 and 3c2 form a stoichiometric complex with eIF1. 3c1 contacts eIF1 through Arg-53 and Leu-96, while 3c2 faces 40S protein uS15/S13, to anchor eIF1 to the scanning pre-initiation complex (PIC. We propose that the 3c0:eIF1 interaction diminishes eIF1 binding to the 40S, whereas 3c0:eIF5 interaction stabilizes the scanning PIC by precluding this inhibitory interaction. Upon start codon recognition, interactions involving eIF5, and ultimately 3c0:eIF1 association, facilitate eIF1 release. Our results reveal intricate molecular interactions within the PIC, programmed for rapid scanning-arrest at the start codon.

  15. The pleiotropic mouse phenotype extra-toes spotting is caused by translation initiation factor Eif3c mutations and is associated with disrupted sonic hedgehog signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Derek E.; Luetkemeier, Erin S.; Bao, Xiaozhong; Loftus, Stacie K.; Mackem, Susan; Yang, Yingzi; Pavan, William J.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2011-01-01

    Polydactyly is a common malformation and can be an isolated anomaly or part of a pleiotropic syndrome. The elucidation of the mutated genes that cause polydactyly provides insight into limb development pathways. The extra-toes spotting (Xs) mouse phenotype manifests anterior polydactyly, predominantly in the forelimbs, with ventral hypopigmenation. The mapping of XsJ to chromosome 7 was confirmed, and the interval was narrowed to 322 kb using intersubspecific crosses. Two mutations were identified in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit C (Eif3c). An Eif3c c.907C>T mutation (p.Arg303X) was identified in XsJ, and a c.1702_1758del mutation (p.Leu568_Leu586del) was identified in extra-toes spotting-like (Xsl), an allele of XsJ. The effect of the XsJ mutation on the SHH/GLI3 pathway was analyzed by in situ hybridization analysis, and we show that Xs mouse embryos have ectopic Shh and Ptch1 expression in the anterior limb. In addition, anterior limb buds show aberrant Gli3 processing, consistent with perturbed SHH/GLI3 signaling. Based on the occurrence of Eif3c mutations in 2 Xs lines and haploinsufficiency of the XsJ allele, we conclude that the Xs phenotype is caused by a mutation in Eif3c, a component of the translation initiation complex, and that the phenotype is associated with aberrant SHH/GLI3 signaling.—Gildea, D. E., Luetkemeier, E. S., Bao, X., Loftus, S. K., Mackem, S., Yang, Y., Pavan, W. J., Biesecker, L. G. The pleiotropic mouse phenotype extra-toes spotting is caused by translation initiation factor Eif3c mutations and is associated with disrupted sonic hedgehog signaling. PMID:21292980

  16. Cytotoxic effect of co-expression of human hepatitis A virus 3C protease and bifunctional suicide protein FCU1 genes in a bicistronic vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarov, Alexey; Demidyuk, Ilya; Safina, Dina; Roschina, Marina; Shubin, Andrey; Lunina, Nataliya; Karaseva, Maria; Kostrov, Sergey

    2017-08-01

    Recent reports on various cancer models demonstrate a great potential of cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine suicide system in cancer therapy. However, this approach has limited success and its application to patients has not reached the desirable clinical significance. Accordingly, the improvement of this suicide system is an actively developing trend in gene therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore the cytotoxic effect observed after co-expression of hepatitis A virus 3C protease (3C) and yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion protein (FCU1) in a bicistronic vector. A set of mono- and bicistronic plasmid constructs was generated to provide individual or combined expression of 3C and FCU1. The constructs were introduced into HEK293 and HeLa cells, and target protein synthesis as well as the effect of 5-fluorocytosine on cell death and the time course of the cytotoxic effect was studied. The obtained vectors provide for the synthesis of target proteins in human cells. The expression of the genes in a bicistronic construct provide for the cytotoxic effect comparable to that observed after the expression of genes in monocistronic constructs. At the same time, co-expression of FCU1 and 3C recapitulated their cytotoxic effects. The combined effect of the killer and suicide genes was studied for the first time on human cells in vitro. The integration of different gene therapy systems inducing cell death (FCU1 and 3C genes) in a bicistronic construct allowed us to demonstrate that it does not interfere with the cytotoxic effect of each of them. A combination of cytotoxic genes in multicistronic vectors can be used to develop pluripotent gene therapy agents.

  17. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia; Paramasivam, Saravanan; Ren, Junyuan; Al-Khalil, Tara; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Belsham, Graham J; Curry, Stephen; Lomonossoff, George P; Parida, Satya; Paton, David; Li, Yanmin; Wilsden, Ginette; Ferris, Nigel; Owens, Ray; Kotecha, Abhay; Fry, Elizabeth; Stuart, David I; Charleston, Bryan; Jones, Ian M

    2013-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown to be efficient but linkage of the cognate 3C protease to the C-terminus reduces expression significantly. Inactivation of the 3C enzyme in a P1-2A-3C cassette allows expression and intermediate levels of 3C activity resulted in efficient processing of the P1-2A precursor into the structural proteins which assembled into empty capsids. Expression was independent of the insect host cell background and leads to capsids that are recognised as authentic by a range of anti-FMDV bovine sera suggesting their feasibility as an alternate vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microstructure and wear behaviors of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-WS2 high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Fan, Ji-Wei; He, Xiang-Ming; Shi, Shi-Hong; Fu, Ge-Yan; Wang, Ming-Di; Chen, Shu-Fa

    2012-02-01

    The high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 coating and wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2 coating were fabricated on 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel by laser cladding. Phase constitutions and microstructures were investigated, and the tribological properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc wear tester under dry sliding condition at room-temperature (17 °C), 300 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Results indicated that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2 coating consisted of Cr7C3 primary phase and γ-(Fe,Ni)/Cr7C3 eutectic colony, while the coating added with WS2 was mainly composed of Cr7C3 and (Cr,W)C carbides, with the lubricating WS2 and CrS sulfides as the minor phases. The wear tests showed that the friction coefficients of two coatings both decrease with the increasing temperature, while the both wear rates increase. The friction coefficient of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 is lower than the coating without WS2 whatever at room-temperature, 300 °C, 600 °C, but its wear rate is only lower at 300 °C. It is considered that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 composite coating has good combination of anti-wear and friction-reducing capabilities at room-temperature up to 300 °C.

  19. CVD growth of (001) and (111)3C-SiC epilayers and their interface reactivity with pradeodymium oxide dielectric layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, R.

    2006-07-24

    In this work, growth and characterisation of 3C-SiC thin films, investigation of oxidation of thus prepared layers and Pr-silicate and AlON based interface with SiC have been studied. Chemical vapor deposition of 3C-SiC thin films on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates has been investigated. Prior to the actual SiC growth, preparation of initial buffer layers of SiC was done. Using such a buffer layer, epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC has been achieved on Si(111) and Si(001) substrates. The temperature of 1100 C and 1150 C has been determined to be the optimal temperature for 3C-SiC growth on Si (111) and Si(001) substrates respectively. The oxidation studies on SiC revealed that a slow oxidation process at moderate temperatures in steps was useful in reducing and suppressing the g-C at the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. Clean, graphite-free SiO{sub 2} has been successfully grown on 3C-SiC by silicon evaporation and UHV anneal. For the application of high-k Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on silicon carbide, plausible interlayer, Pr-Silicate and AlON, have been investigated. Praseodymium silicate has been prepared successfully completely consuming the SiO2 and simultaneously suppressing the graphitic carbon formation. A comparatively more stable interlayer using AlON has been achieved. This interlayer mainly consists of stable phases of AlN along with some amount of Pr-aluminates and CN. Such layers act as a reaction barrier between Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC, and simultaneously provide higher band offsets. (orig.)

  20. Determination of differential dose rates in a mixed beta and gamma field using shielded Al2O3:C : Results of Monte Carlo modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M.C.; Nathan, R.; Murray, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    most of the beta radiation to reach the chip); the other in a beta-thick package (which would absorb most beta radiation, hence leaving the chip to record only gamma radiation). The design of the encapsulation is developed using Monte Carlo simulations, and this approach is also used to investigate......Mixed beta and gamma heterogeneous radiation fields are found in many circumstances, ranging from retrospective dosimetry to medical therapy treatments. It can be very important to provide a direct measurement of the contribution to dose rate from beta particles and gamma rays separately...... outline the results of our modelling of the most appropriate encapsulation for Al2O3: C luminescence dosimeters when used to measure the dose rate from natural radiation fields. We consider a configuration where one Al2O3: C chip of a pair is enclosed in a beta-thin light-tight package (which would allow...