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Sample records for myopic astigmatism corrected

  1. Matched population comparison of visual outcomes and patient satisfaction between 3 modalities for the correction of low to moderate myopic astigmatism

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    Ganesh S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sri Ganesh, Sheetal Brar, Archana Pawar Phacorefractive Department, Nethradhama Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Purpose: To compare toric implantable collamer lens (T-ICL, femto-LASIK, and ReLEx SMILE for the treatment of low to moderate myopic astigmatism in terms of long-term visual and refractive outcomes and predictability of astigmatic correction.Materials and methods: The study included 30 eyes from 30 patients between the age groups of 21 and 40 years, undergoing bilateral surgery with any of the three procedures – T-ICL, femto-LASIK, or ReLEx SMILE – for correction of myopic astigmatism within the range of −3 to −8 D spherical equivalent (SE, with a minimum astigmatism of −0.75 D. Patients were followed up at day 1, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year.Results: At 1 year, the mean cylinder reduced to −0.21±0.28, −0.17±0.36, and −0.22±0.28 D in the T-ICL, femto-LASIK, and ReLEx SMILE group, respectively. The predictability of astigmatism correction was comparable, with no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups (P>0.05. A total of 97% of eyes in ReLEx SMILE achieved a uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better, compared to T-ICL (93% and FS-LASIK (90%. However, gain in lines of corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA was maximum in T-ICL group (60%. Four eyes in the femto-LASIK group had loss of CDVA by one line. Three eyes required exchange due to high vault and rotation of the T-ICL, which did not affect the final outcome.Conclusion: All 3 modalities were effective for myopic astigmatism at the end of 1 year. Quality of vision and patient satisfaction with T-ICL and ReLEx SMILE were similar and better than FS-LASIK. However, slight chances of postoperative rotation and exchange exist with T-ICL, which warrant thorough preoperative planning. Keywords: toric implantable collamer lens, femtosecond LASIK, ReLEx SMILE, myopic astigmatism

  2. LASIK versus photorefractive keratectomy for high myopic (> 3 diopter) astigmatism.

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    Katz, Toam; Wagenfeld, Lars; Galambos, Peter; Darrelmann, Benedikt Große; Richard, Gisbert; Linke, Stephan Johannes

    2013-12-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, predictability, and vector analysis indices of LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for correction of high cylinder of greater than 3 diopters (D) in myopic eyes. The efficacy, safety, and predictability of LASIK or PRK performed in 114 consecutive randomly selected myopic eyes with an astigmatism of greater than 3 D were retrospectively analyzed at the 2- to 6-month follow-up visits. Vector analysis of the cylindrical correction was compared between the treatment groups. A total of 57 eyes receiving PRK and 57 eyes receiving LASIK of 114 refractive surgery candidates were enrolled in the study. No statistically significant difference in efficacy [efficacy index = 0.76 (±0.32) for PRK vs 0.74 (±0.19) for LASIK (P = .82)], safety [safety index = 1.10 (±0.26) for PRK vs 1.01 (±0.17) for LASIK (P = .121)], or predictability [achieved astigmatism PRK- and 54% of LASIK-treated eyes, and PRK- and 89% of LASIK-treated eyes (P = .218)] was demonstrated. Using Alpins vector analysis, the surgically induced astigmatism and difference vector were not significantly different between the surgery methods, whereas the correction index showed a slight and significant advantage of LASIK over PRK (1.25 for PRK and 1.06 for LASIK, P LASIK and PRK are comparably safe, effective, and predictable procedures for excimer laser correction of high astigmatism of greater than 3 D in myopic eyes. Predictability of the correction of the cylindrical component is lower than that of the spherical equivalent. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Single-Step Transepithelial PRK vs Alcohol-Assisted PRK in Myopia and Compound Myopic Astigmatism Correction

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    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J.; Cieslinska, Iwona; Mosquera, Samuel A.; Verma, Shwetabh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK), where both the epithelium and stroma are removed in a single-step, is a relatively new procedure of laser refractive error correction. This study compares the 3-month results of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism correction by tPRK or conventional alcohol-assisted PRK (aaPRK). This prospective, nonrandomized, case?control study recruited 148 consecutive patients; 93 underwent tPRK (173 eyes) and 55 aaPRK (103 eyes). Refractive r...

  4. Comparative study of Epi-LASIK and LASIK for myopic astigmatism

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    Jiao Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the effects of epipolis laser in situ keratomileusis(Epi-LASIKand laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKfor treatment of myopic astigmatism. METHODS: For treatment of myopic astigmatism, 32 patients(64 eyestreated by Epi-LASIK and 63 patients(126 eyesreceived LASIK. By their degree of astigmatism, the eyes were divided into Group Ⅰ(-0.25~-2.75DC and Group Ⅱ(-3.0~-5.0DC. During the 6-month follow-up, the early effects of the two operations were observed and compared in terms of uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, residual astigmatism, corneal healing, intraocular pressure(IOP, corneal topography. RESULTS: In Group Ⅱ, UCVA better than 20/20 was achieved in 87.5% of the eyes subjected to Epi-LASIK and in 63.3% of the eyes subjected to LASIK, with significant difference between them(χ2=4.055, Pt=2.672, Pt=2.234, PCONCLUSION: For treatment of high astigmatism(≥-3.00D, Epi-LASIK is more effective and predictive than LASIK.

  5. Single-Step Transepithelial PRK vs Alcohol-Assisted PRK in Myopia and Compound Myopic Astigmatism Correction.

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    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J; Cieslinska, Iwona; Mosquera, Samuel A; Verma, Shwetabh

    2016-02-01

    Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK), where both the epithelium and stroma are removed in a single-step, is a relatively new procedure of laser refractive error correction. This study compares the 3-month results of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism correction by tPRK or conventional alcohol-assisted PRK (aaPRK).This prospective, nonrandomized, case-control study recruited 148 consecutive patients; 93 underwent tPRK (173 eyes) and 55 aaPRK (103 eyes). Refractive results, predictability, safety, and efficacy were evaluated during the 3-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE).Mean preoperative MRSE was -4.30 ± 1.72 D and -4.33 ± 1.96 D, respectively (P = 0.87). The 3-month follow-up rate was 82.1% in the tPRK group (n = 145) and 86.4% in aaPRK group (n = 90), P = 0.81. Postoperative UDVA was 20/20 or better in 97% and 94% of eyes, respectively (P = 0.45). In the tPRK and aaPRK groups, respectively, 13% and 21% of eyes lost 1 line of CDVA, and 30% and 31% gained 1 or 2 lines (P = 0.48). Mean postoperative MRSE was -0.14 ± 0.26 D in the tPRK group and -0.12 ± 0.20 D in the aaPRK group (P = 0.9). The correlation between attempted versus achieved MRSE was equally high in both groups.Single-step transepithelial PRK and conventional PRK provide very similar results 3 months postoperatively. These procedures are predictable, effective, and safe for correction of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism.

  6. [Clinical analysis of real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation for myopic astigmatism].

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    Jie, Li-ming; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lin

    2013-08-01

    To assess the safety, efficacy, stability and changes in cylindrical degree and axis after real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation for the correction of myopic astigmatism. Retrospective case series. This observational case study comprised 136 patients (249 eyes) with myopic astigmatism in a 6-month trial. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the pre-operative cylindrical degree: Group 1, -0.75 to -1.25 D, 106 eyes;Group 2, -1.50 to -2.25 D, 89 eyes and Group 3, -2.50 to -5.00 D, 54 eyes. They were also grouped by pre-operative astigmatism axis:Group A, with the rule astigmatism (WTRA), 156 eyes; Group B, against the rule astigmatism (ATRA), 64 eyes;Group C, oblique axis astigmatism, 29 eyes. After femtosecond laser flap created, real-time iris recognized excimer ablation was performed. The naked visual acuity, the best-corrected visual acuity, the degree and axis of astigmatism were analyzed and compared at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Static iris recognition detected that eye cyclotorsional misalignment was 2.37° ± 2.16°, dynamic iris recognition detected that the intraoperative cyclotorsional misalignment range was 0-4.3°. Six months after operation, the naked visual acuity was 0.5 or better in 100% cases. No eye lost ≥ 1 line of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA). Six months after operation, the naked vision of 227 eyes surpassed the BSCVA, and 87 eyes gained 1 line of BSCVA. The degree of astigmatism decreased from (-1.72 ± 0.77) D (pre-operation) to (-0.29 ± 0.25) D (post-operation). Six months after operation, WTRA from 157 eyes (pre-operation) decreased to 43 eyes (post-operation), ATRA from 63 eyes (pre-operation) decreased to 28 eyes (post-operation), oblique astigmatism increased from 29 eyes to 34 eyes and 144 eyes became non-astigmatism. The real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation can compensate deviation from eye cyclotorsion, decrease

  7. Effect of Mitomycin C on Myopic versus Astigmatic Photorefractive Keratectomy

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    Ashwag A. Almosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Long-term mitomycin C (MMC effects on photorefractive keratectomy (PRK were compared in simple myopic and astigmatic patients. Methods. In this observational cohort study, subjects were selected based on preoperative and postoperative data collected from medical records; they were divided into simple myopia with/without MMC and myopic astigmatism with/without MMC groups. Haze, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, subjective refraction, and K-reading were evaluated at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results. One hundred fifty-nine eyes of 80 subjects (34 women and 46 men; mean age, 26.81 ± 7.74 years; range, 18–53 years; spherical powers, −0.50 to −8.00 DS; and cylindrical powers, −0.25 to −5.00 DC were enrolled. One year postoperatively, the simple myopia with/without MMC groups showed no difference in UCVA (P=0.187, BCVA (P=0.163, or spherical equivalent (P=0.163 and a significant difference (P=0.0495 in K-reading; the haze formation difference was nonsignificant (P=0.056. Astigmatic groups with/without MMC showed a significant difference in K-reading (P<0.0001. MMC groups had less haze formation (P<0.0001. Conclusion. PRK with intraoperative MMC application showed excellent visual outcomes. MMC’s effect on astigmatic patients was significantly better with acceptable safety and minimal side effects.

  8. Safety, efficacy, and predictability of laser in situ keratomileusis to correct myopia or myopic astigmatism with a 750 Hz scanning-spot laser system.

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    Tomita, Minoru; Watabe, Miyuki; Yukawa, Satoshi; Nakamura, Nobuo; Nakamura, Tadayuki; Magnago, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to correct myopia or myopic astigmatism using the Amaris 750S 750 Hz excimer laser. Private LASIK center, Tokyo, Japan. Case series. Patients with myopia or myopic astigmatism (spherical equivalent -0.50 to -11.63 diopters [D]), a corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/20 or better, and an estimated residual bed thickness of 300 μm or more had LASIK using the aspheric aberration-free ablation profile of the 750 Hz scanning-spot laser and the Femto LDV Crystal Line femtosecond laser for flap creation. Study parameters included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), CDVA, manifest refraction, astigmatism, and higher-order aberrations (HOAs). The study included 1280 eyes (685 patients). At 3 months, 96.6% of eyes had a UDVA of 20/20 or better and 99.1% had 20/32 or better; 94.1% of eyes were within ± 0.50 D of the intended correction and 98.9% were within ± 1.00 D; 89.7% of eyes had no residual cylinder and 96.0% had a postoperative astigmatism of less than 0.50 D. All eyes had a postoperative CDVA of 20/20 or better. The HOAs increased postoperatively (PLaser in situ keratomileusis with the 750 Hz scanning-spot laser was safe, effective, and predictable. No specific clinical side effects that might be associated with a high repetition rate occurred. Mr. Magnago is an employee of Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety, Efficacy, Predictability and Stability Indices of Photorefractive Keratectomy for Correction of Myopic Astigmatism with Plano-Scan and Tissue-Saving Algorithms

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    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the safety, efficacy and predictability of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK [Tissue-saving (TS versus Plano-scan (PS ablation algorithms] of Technolas 217z excimer laser for correction of myopic astigmatismMethods: In this retrospective study one hundred and seventy eyes of 85 patients (107 eyes (62.9% with PS and 63 eyes (37.1% with TS algorithm were included. TS algorithm was applied for those with central corneal thickness less than 500 µm or estimated residual stromal thickness less than 420 µm. Mitomycin C (MMC was applied for 120 eyes (70.6%; in case of an ablation depth more than 60 μm and/or astigmatic correction more than one diopter (D. Mean sphere, cylinder, spherical equivalent (SE refraction, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA were measured preoperatively, and 4 weeks,12 weeks and 24 weeks postoperatively.Results: One, three and six months postoperatively, 60%, 92.9%, 97.5% of eyes had UCVA of 20/20 or better, respectively. Mean preoperative and 1, 3, 6 months postoperative SE were -3.48±1.28 D (-1.00 to -8.75, -0.08±0.62D, -0.02±0.57 and -0.004± 0.29, respectively. And also, 87.6%, 94.1% and 100% were within ±1.0 D of emmetropia and 68.2, 75.3, 95% were within ±0.5 of emmetropia. The safety and efficacy indices were 0.99 and 0.99 at 12 weeks and 1.009 and 0.99 at 24 weeks, respectively. There was no clinically or statistically significant difference between the outcomes of PS or TS algorithms or between those with or without MMC in either group in terms of safety, efficacy, predictability or stability. Dividing the eyes with subjective SE≤4 D and SE≥4 D postoperatively, there was no significant difference between the predictability of the two groups. There was no intra- or postoperative complication.Conclusion: Outcomes of PRK for correction of myopic astigmatism showed great promise with both PS and TS algorithms.

  10. Evaluation of iris recognition system for wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis for myopic astigmatism.

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    Ghosh, Sudipta; Couper, Terry A; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Jhanji, Vishal; Taylor, Hugh R; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using an iris recognition system for the correction of myopic astigmatism. Centre for Eye Research Australia, Melbourne Excimer Laser Research Group, and Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A comparative analysis of wavefront-guided LASIK was performed with an iris recognition system (iris recognition group) and without iris recognition (control group). The main parameters were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, amount of residual cylinder, manifest spherical equivalent (SE), and the index of success using the Alpins method of astigmatism analysis 1 and 3 months postoperatively. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Preoperatively, the mean SE was -4.32 diopters (D) +/- 1.59 (SD) in the iris recognition group (100 eyes) and -4.55 +/- 1.87 D in the control group (98 eyes) (P = .84). At 3 months, the mean SE was -0.05 +/- 0.21 D and -0.20 +/- 0.40 D, respectively (P = .001), and an SE within +/-0.50 D of emmetropia was achieved in 92.0% and 85.7% of eyes, respectively (P = .07). At 3 months, the UCVA was 20/20 or better in 90.0% and 76.5% of eyes, respectively. A statistically significant difference in the amount of astigmatic correction was seen between the 2 groups (P = .00 and P = .01 at 1 and 3 months, respectively). The index of success was 98.0% in the iris recognition group and 81.6% in the control group (P = .03). Iris recognition software may achieve better visual and refractive outcomes in wavefront-guided LASIK for myopic astigmatism.

  11. Changes in higher order aberrations after wavefront-guided PRK for correction of low to moderate myopia and myopic astigmatism: two-year follow-up.

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    Wigledowska-Promienska, D; Zawojska, I

    2007-01-01

    To assess efficacy, safety, and changes in higher order aberrations after wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in comparison with conventional PRK for low to moderate myopia with myopic astigmatism using a WASCA Workstation with the MEL 70 G-Scan excimer laser. A total of 126 myopic or myopic-astigmatic eyes of 112 patients were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1, the study group; and Group 2, the control group. Group 1 consisted of 78 eyes treated with wavefront-guided PRK. Group 2 consisted of 48 eyes treated with spherocylindrical conventional PRK. Two years postoperatively, in Group 1, 5% of eyes achieved an uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 0.05; 69% achieved a UCVA of 0.00; 18% of eyes experienced enhanced visual acuity of -0.18 and 8% of -0.30. In Group 2, 8% of eyes achieved a UCVA of 0.1; 25% achieved a UCVA of 0.05; and 67% achieved a UCVA of 0.00 according to logMAR calculation method. Total higher-order root-mean square increased by a factor 1.18 for Group 1 and 1.6 for Group 2. There was a significant increase of coma by a factor 1.74 in Group 2 and spherical aberration by a factor 2.09 in Group 1 and 3.56 in Group 2. The data support the safety and effectiveness of the wavefront-guided PRK using a WASCA Workstation for correction of low to moderate refractive errors. This method reduced the number of higher order aberrations induced by excimer laser surgery and improved uncorrected and spectacle-corrected visual acuity when compared to conventional PRK.

  12. Refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx through a small incision (SMILE for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism: current perspectives

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    Ağca A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alper Ağca,1 Ahmet Demirok,2 Yusuf Yıldırım,1 Ali Demircan,1 Dilek Yaşa,1 Ceren Yeşilkaya,1 İrfan Perente,1 Muhittin Taşkapılı1 1Beyoğlu Eye Research and Training Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE is an alternative to laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. SMILE can be performed for the treatment of myopia ≤-12 D and astigmatism ≤5 D. The technology is currently only available in the VisuMax femtosecond laser platform. It offers several advantages over LASIK and PRK; however, hyperopia treatment, topography-guided treatment, and cyclotorsion control are not available in the current platform. The working principles, potential advantages, and disadvantages are discussed in this review. Keywords: SMILE, small-incision lenticule extraction, femtosecond laser, laser in situ keratomileusis, corneal biomechanics

  13. Wavefront-guided laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy in low myopia, myopic astigmatism and high myopia

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    Seyed Javad Hashemian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the safety, efficacy, predictability, stability and complications of wavefront-guided laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy(LASEKin low myopia, myopic astigmatism and high myopia correction.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 416 eyes were assigned to 3 groups: 159 eyes with low myopia(LMand mean refractive spherical equivalent(MRSEof -3.68±1.33 dioptre(D; 161 eyes with myopic astigmatism(MAand MRSE of -5.99±2.24D and mean cylinder of 2.41±1.07D; and 96 eyes with high myopia(HMand MRSE of -7.41±0.80D. After an epithelial flap creation, a wavefront-based excimer laser ablation was performed. Safety, efficacy, predictability and stability were evaluated at day 10, 2, 6 and 12mo postoperatively.RESULTS:At 12mo, the MRSE was -0.36±0.31D in LM group, 0.15±0.41D in MA group and 0.58±0.68D in HM group. The uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAwas 20/20 in 90.60% of patients in LM group, 78.90% in MA group and 67% in HM group. Efficacy indices were 0.98, 1.04 and 0.92 in LM, MA and HM groups, respectively. Safety indices were 1.00, 1.07 and 1.05 in LM, MA and HM respectively. Five eyes(3.1%in the LM group gained 1 line. Forty-four eyes(27.3%in MA gained 1-3 lines and eighteen eyes(19.2%of HM group gained 1-2 lines of BSCVA. Only 2 eyes in LM group developed corneal haze. There were not statistically significant differences in efficacy and safety indices amongst three groups. CONCLUSION: Wavefront-guided LASEK is an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of LM, MA, and HM.although in myopic astigmatism the predictability, efficacy and safety indices had been better.

  14. Vector analysis of high (≥3 diopters) astigmatism correction using small-incision lenticule extraction and laser in situ keratomileusis.

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    Chan, Tommy C Y; Wang, Yan; Ng, Alex L K; Zhang, Jiamei; Yu, Marco C Y; Jhanji, Vishal; Cheng, George P M

    2018-06-13

    To compare the astigmatic correction in high myopic astigmatism between small-incision lenticule extraction and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using vector analysis. Hong Kong Laser Eye Center, Hong Kong. Retrospective case series. Patients who had correction of myopic astigmatism of 3.0 diopters (D) or more and had either small-incision lenticule extraction or femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK were included. Only the left eye was included for analysis. Visual and refractive results were presented and compared between groups. The study comprised 105 patients (40 eyes in the small-incision lenticule extraction group and 65 eyes in the femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK group.) The mean preoperative manifest cylinder was -3.42 D ± 0.55 (SD) in the small-incision lenticule extraction group and -3.47 ± 0.49 D in the LASIK group (P = .655). At 3 months, there was no significant between-group difference in uncorrected distance visual acuity (P = .915) and manifest spherical equivalent (P = .145). Ninety percent and 95.4% of eyes were within ± 0.5 D of the attempted cylindrical correction for the small-incision lenticule extraction and LASIK group, respectively (P = .423). Vector analysis showed comparable target-induced astigmatism (P = .709), surgically induced astigmatism vector (P = .449), difference vector (P = .335), and magnitude of error (P = .413) between groups. The absolute angle of error was 1.88 ± 2.25 degrees in the small-incision lenticule extraction group and 1.37 ± 1.58 degrees in the LASIK group (P = .217). Small-incision lenticule extraction offered astigmatic correction comparable to LASIK in eyes with high myopic astigmatism. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients.

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    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Heidari, Zahra; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Hashemi, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients in an academic hospital. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 376 eyes of 188 patients who were referred to Farabi Eye Hospital for refractive surgery. Preoperative examinations including refraction and corneal topography were performed for all candidates to measure refractive and corneal astigmatism. Ocular residual astigmatism was calculated using vector analysis. Pearson's correlation and ANOVA analysis were used to evaluate the strength of the association between different types of astigmatism. Both eyes were defined as cluster and the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis were performed. Mean age of 119 women (63.3%) and 69 men (36.7%) was 27.8 ± 5.7 years. Mean refractive error based on spherical equivalent was -3.59 ± 1.95D (range, -0.54 to -10.22D). Mean refractive and corneal astigmatism was 1.97 ± 1.3D and 1.85 ± 1.01D, respectively. Mean amount of ORA was 0.65 ± 0.36D.There was a significant correlation between ORA and refractive astigmatism(r=0.23, pcorrelation between ORA and corneal astigmatism (r=0.13, p=0.014). There was a significant correlation between J0 and J45 values of ORA and corneal astigmatism (pcorrelation between ORA and refractive astigmatism, refractive and corneal astigmatism and a weak correlation between ORA and corneal astigmatism in refractive surgery candidates. Identifying the type of astigmatism and preoperative measurement of ocular residual astigmatism is highly recommended prior to any refractive surgery, especially in cases with significant astigmatism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE VISUAL OUTCOME AND PATIENT COMFORT IN LASIK AND PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY IN LOW-TO-MODERATE MYOPIC ASTIGMATISM PATIENTS

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    Ashok Kumar P; Ananda Babu M; Radha Priyadharshini R; Jeevitha A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To evaluate visual outcomes following LASIK and Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) in low-to-moderate myopia and/or myopic astigmatism in age and refractive error matched eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Of a total 30 patients aged ≥21 years, 20 (40 eyes) underwent LASIK and 10 (20 eyes) underwent PRK for low-to-moderate myopia or myopic astigmatism. LASIK was performed with the Alcon wave light 500 and PRK with the alcohol application for epithelial removal. All abl...

  17. Surgical correction of postoperative astigmatism

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    Lindstrom Richard

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The photokeratoscope has increased the understanding of the aspheric nature of the cornea as well as a better understanding of normal corneal topography. This has significantly affected the development of newer and more predictable models of surgical astigmatic correction. Relaxing incisions effectively flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. The net change in spherical equivalent is, therefore, negligible. Poor predictability is the major limitation of relaxing incisions. Wedge resection can correct large degrees of postkeratoplasty astigmatism, Resection of 0.10 mm of tissue results in approximately 2 diopters of astigmatic correction. Prolonged postoperative rehabilitation and induced irregular astigmatism are limitations of the procedure. Transverse incisions flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. Semiradial incisions result in two times the amount of flattening in the meridian of the incision compared to the meridian 90 degrees away. Combination of transverse incisions with semiradial incisions describes the trapezoidal astigmatic keratotomy. This procedure may correct from 5.5 to 11.0 diopters dependent upon the age of the patient. The use of the surgical keratometer is helpful in assessing a proper endpoint during surgical correction of astigmatism.

  18. Amblyopia in astigmatic infants and toddlers.

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    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Miller, Joseph M

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether reduced astigmatism-corrected acuity for vertical (V) and/or horizontal (H) gratings and/or meridional amblyopia (MA) are present before 3 years of age in children who have with-the-rule astigmatism. Subjects were 448 children, 6 months through 2 years of age with no known ocular abnormalities other than with-the-rule astigmatism, who were recruited through Women, Infants and Children clinics on the Tohono O'odham reservation. Children were classified as non-astigmats (2.00 diopters) based on right eye non-cycloplegic autorefraction measurements (Welch Allyn SureSight). Right eye astigmatism-corrected grating acuity for V and H stimuli was measured using the Teller Acuity Card procedure while children wore cross-cylinder lenses to correct their astigmatism or plano lenses if they had no astigmatism. Astigmatism-corrected acuity for both V and H gratings was significantly poorer in the astigmats than in the non-astigmats, and the reduction in acuity for astigmats was present for children in all three age groups examined (6 months to <1 year, 1 to <2 years, and 2 to <3 years). There was no significant difference in V-H grating acuity (no evidence of MA) for the astigmatic group as a whole, or when data were analyzed for each age group. Even in the youngest age group, astigmats tested with astigmatism correction showed reduced acuity for both V and H gratings, which suggests that astigmatism is having a negative influence on visual development. We found no evidence of orientation-related differences in astigmatism-corrected grating acuity, indicating either that MA does not develop before 3 years of age, or that most of the astigmatic children had a type of astigmatism, i.e., hyperopic, that has proven to be less likely than myopic or mixed astigmatism to result in MA.

  19. Results of Intraoperative Manual Cyclotorsion Compensation for Myopic Astigmatism in Patients Undergoing Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE).

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    Ganesh, Sri; Brar, Sheetal; Pawar, Archana

    2017-08-01

    To study the safety, efficacy, and outcomes of manual cyclotorsion compensation in small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for myopic astigmatism. Eligible patients with myopia from -1.00 to -10.00 diopters (D) spherical equivalent with a minimum astigmatism of 0.75 D undergoing SMILE were included. Intraoperative cyclotorsion compensation was performed by gently rotating the cone and aligning the 0° to 180° limbal marks with the horizontal axis of the reticule of the right eye piece of the microscope of the femtosecond laser after activating the suction. In this study, 81 left eyes from 81 patients were analyzed for vector analysis of astigmatism. The mean cyclotorsion was 5.64° ± 2.55° (range: 2° to 12°). No significant differences were found for surgically induced astigmatism, difference vector, angle of error (AE), correction index, magnitude of error, index of success (IOS), and flattening index between 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively (P > .05). The eyes were categorized into low (≤ 1.50 D, n = 37) and high (> 1.50 D, n = 44) cylinder groups. At 3 months, intergroup analysis showed a comparable correction index of 0.97 for the low and 0.93 for the high cylinder groups, suggesting a slight undercorrection of 3% and 7%, respectively (P = .14). However, the AE and IOS were significantly lower in the high compared to the low cylinder group (P = .032 and .024 for AE and IOS, respectively), suggesting better alignment of the treatment in the high cylinder group. However, the mean uncorrected distance visual acuity of both groups was comparable (P = .21), suggesting good visual outcomes in the low cylinder group despite a less favorable IOS. Manual compensation may be a safe, feasible, and effective approach to refine the results of astigmatism with SMILE, especially in higher degrees of cylinders. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):506-512.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. [Astigmatic keratotomy with the femtosecond laser: correction of high astigmatisms after keratoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, D; Bühren, J; Klaproth, O K; Bauch, A S; Derhartunian, V; Kohnen, T

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel technique for the correction of postoperative astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty with the use of the femtosecond laser creating astigmatic keratotomies (femto-AK) in the scope of a retrospective case series. Clinical data of ten eyes of nine patients with high residual astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty undergoing paired femto-AK using a 60-kHz femtosecond laser (IntraLase™, AMO) were analyzed. A new software algorithm was used to create paired arcuate cuts deep into the donor corneal button with different cut angles. Target values were refraction, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity, topographic data (Orbscan®, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA), and corneal wavefront analysis using Visual Optics Lab (VOL)-Pro 7.14 Software (Sarver and Associates). Vector analysis was performed using the Holladay, Cravy and Koch formula. Statistical analysis was performed to detect significances between visits using Student's t test. All procedures were performed without any major complications. The mean follow-up was 13 months. The mean patient age was 48.7 years. The preoperative mean uncorrected visual acuity (logMAR) was 1.27, best corrected visual acuity 0.55, mean subjective cylinder -7.4 D, and mean topometric astigmatism 9.3 D. The postoperative mean uncorrected visual acuity (logMAR) was 1.12, best corrected visual acuity 0.47, mean subjective cylinder -4.1 D, and mean topometric astigmatism 6.5 D. Differences between corneal higher order aberrations showed a high standard deviation and were therefore not statistically significant. Astigmatic keratotomy using the femtosecond laser seems to be a safe and effective tool for the correction of higher corneal astigmatisms. Due to the biomechanical properties of the cornea and missing empirical data for the novel femto-AK technology, higher numbers of patients are necessary to develop optimal treatment nomograms.

  1. Changes in falling risk depending on induced axis directions of astigmatism on static posture

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Yeob; Moon, Byeong-Yeon; Cho, Hyun Gug

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess the changes in falling risk depending on the induced axis direction of astigmatism using cylindrical lenses in a static posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects (10 males, 10 females; mean age, 23.4 ? 2.70?years) fully corrected by subjective refraction participated. To induce myopic simple astigmatism conditions, cylindrical lenses of +0.50, +1.00, +1.50, +2.00, +3.00, +4.00, and +5.00 D were used. The direction of astigmatic axes were induced under five conditions...

  2. Does correcting astigmatism with toric lenses improve driving performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J; Banton, Thomas; Record, Steven; Grabman, Jesse H; Hawkins, Ronald J

    2015-04-01

    Driving is a vision-based activity of daily living that impacts safety. Because visual disruption can compromise driving safety, contact lens wearers with astigmatism may pose a driving safety risk if they experience residual blur from spherical lenses that do not correct their astigmatism or if they experience blur from toric lenses that rotate excessively. Given that toric lens stabilization systems are continually improving, this preliminary study tested the hypothesis that astigmats wearing toric contact lenses, compared with spherical lenses, would exhibit better overall driving performance and driving-specific visual abilities. A within-subject, single-blind, crossover, randomized design was used to evaluate driving performance in 11 young adults with astigmatism (-0.75 to -1.75 diopters cylinder). Each participant drove a highly immersive, virtual reality driving simulator (210 degrees field of view) with (1) no correction, (2) spherical contact lens correction (ACUVUE MOIST), and (3) toric contact lens correction (ACUVUE MOIST for Astigmatism). Tactical driving skills such as steering, speed management, and braking, as well as operational driving abilities such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and foot and arm reaction time, were quantified. There was a main effect for type of correction on driving performance (p = 0.05). Correction with toric lenses resulted in significantly safer tactical driving performance than no correction (p driving safety from no correction (p = 0.118). Operational tests differentiated corrected from uncorrected performance for both spherical (p = 0.008) and toric (p = 0.011) lenses, but they were not sensitive enough to differentiate toric from spherical lens conditions. Given previous research showing that deficits in these tactical skills are predictive of future real-world collisions, these preliminary data suggest that correcting low to moderate astigmatism with toric lenses may be important to driving safety. Their

  3. Optical treatment reduces amblyopia in astigmatic children who receive spectacles before kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M

    2009-05-01

    To examine the effect of spectacle correction of astigmatism during preschool on best-corrected recognition visual acuity (VA), grating VA, and meridional amblyopia (difference between acuity for vertical versus horizontal gratings) once the children reach kindergarten. Comparative case series. Seventy-three astigmatic (right eye > or =1.50 diopters [D] cylinder) Native American (Tohono O'odham) children 5 to 7 years of age. All had with-the-rule astigmatism. In 28 children, the astigmatism was simple myopic, compound myopic, or mixed (M/MA), and in 45 children, it was simple or compound hyperopic (HA). Thirty-nine children (Treated Group) had spectacle correction of refractive error, prescribed for full-time wear, in preschool (0.8-2.4 years before testing). Thirty-four children (Untreated Group) had no prior correction. Comparison of Treated versus Untreated Groups for mean best-corrected right-eye recognition VA, measured with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart and the Lea Symbols chart, for grating VA, measured with modified Teller acuity card stimuli, and for meridional amblyopia, based on grating acuity results. Mean ETDRS VA was significantly better in the Treated Group (20/37) than in the Untreated Group (20/48; P<0.003), but the difference between mean Lea Symbols VA in the Treated Group (20/33) and in the Untreated Group (20/38) was not significant. No significant Treated versus Untreated Group differences were found for either vertical or horizontal grating acuity. Meridional amblyopia differed between the M/MA group, which showed better acuity for vertical than for horizontal gratings, and the HA group, which showed better acuity for horizontal than for vertical gratings. However, in neither the M/MA group nor the HA group was there a significant difference in magnitude of meridional amblyopia in the Treated versus the Untreated Group. Spectacle correction during the preschool years results in a significant improvement in best-corrected

  4. [Interlamellar sectoral keratoplasty in the surgical correction of astigmatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, M A; Beliaev, V S; Dushin, N V; Kravchinina, V V; Barashkov, V I; Gonchar, P A

    1996-01-01

    A new original method of interlamellar sectorial keratoplasty is proposed for surgical correction of astigmatism. Eleven operations were carried out in 8 patients (11 eyes) with astigmatism of 4 to 7.0 diopters. Vision acuity without correction was 0.6 to 1.0 in 5 patients (7 eyes, 63.6%). In 2 patients (2 eyes, 18.2%) vision acuity without correction was 0.3 to 0.5 diopters, and in 2 more patients (2 eyes, 18.2%) it was from 0.1 to 0.3 diopters, that is, equal to the maximal vision acuity with the optimal correction. The refraction effect stabilized in 3-4 months. The highest refraction effect attained was 7.0 diopters. The patients were followed up for 3 months to 4 years. Clinical analysis of the operations confirmed the efficacy and reliability of the method and stability of refraction. Interlamellar sectorial keratoplasty is recommended for surgical correction of astigmatism.

  5. Toric intraocular lens implantation versus astigmatic keratotomy to correct astigmatism during phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Khatik, Mukesh; Sharma, Namrata; Sehra, Sri Vatsa; Maharana, Parfulla K; Ghatak, Urmimala; Agarwal, Tushar; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Chawla, Bhavana

    2014-05-01

    To compare toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and astigmatic keratotomy (AK) in correction of astigmatism during phacoemulsification. Tertiary care hospital. Prospective randomized trial. Consecutive patients with visually significant cataract and moderate astigmatism (1.25 to 3.00 diopters [D]) were randomized into 2 groups. Temporal clear corneal 2.75 mm phacoemulsification with toric IOL implantation was performed in the toric IOL group and with 30-degree coupled AK at the 7.0 mm optic zone in the keratotomy group. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, refraction, keratometry, topography, central corneal thickness, and endothelial cell density were evaluated preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The study enrolled 34 eyes (34 patients), 17 in each group. There was no difference in UDVA or CDVA between the 2 groups at any follow-up visit. The mean preoperative and postoperative refractive cylinder was 2.00 D ± 0.49 (SD) and 0.33 ± 0.17 D, respectively, in the toric IOL group and 1.95 ± 0.47 D and 0.57 ± 0.41 D, respectively, in the keratotomy group (P=.10). The mean residual astigmatism at 3 months was 0.44 ± 1.89 @ 160 in the toric IOL group and 0.77 ± 1.92 @ 174 in the keratotomy group (P=.61). All eyes in the toric IOL group and 14 eyes (84%) in the keratotomy group achieved a residual refractive cylinder of 1.00 D or less (P=.17). Toric IOL implantation was comparable to AK in eyes with moderate astigmatism having phacoemulsification. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Defocus and twofold astigmatism correction in HAADF-STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnaya, M.E.; Van den Broek, W.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    A new simultaneous autofocus and twofold astigmatism correction method is proposed for High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The method makes use of a modification of image variance, which has already been used before as an image quality measure for different types of microscopy, but its use is often justified on heuristic grounds. In this paper we show numerically that the variance reaches its maximum at Scherzer defocus and zero astigmatism. In order to find this maximum a simultaneous optimization of three parameters (focus, x- and y-stigmators) is necessary. This is implemented and tested on a FEI Tecnai F20. It successfully finds the optimal defocus and astigmatism with time and accuracy, compared to a human operator. -- Research highlights: → A new simultaneous defocus and astigmatism correction method is proposed. → The method does not depend on the image Fourier transform. → The method does not require amorphous area of the sample. → The method is tested numerically as well, as for the real-world application.

  7. Optical analysis for simplified astigmatic correction of non-imaging focusing heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, K.K. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Off Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    In the previous work, non-imaging focusing heliostat that consists of m x n facet mirrors can carry out continuous astigmatic correction during sun-tracking with the use of only (m + n - 2) controllers. For this paper, a simplified astigmatic correction of non-imaging focusing heliostat is proposed for reducing the number of controllers from (m + n - 2) to only two. Furthermore, a detailed optical analysis of the new proposal has been carried out and the simulated result has shown that the two-controller system can perform comparably well in astigmatic correction with a much simpler and more cost effective design. (author)

  8. Spherical equivalent refractive error in preschool children from a population with a high prevalence of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M

    2007-02-01

    To describe spherical equivalent (sph eq) refractive errors in preschool members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements were obtained for 819 three- and four-year-old Tohono O'odham children, with follow-up measurements in 146 after 4 to 8 years. Mean sph eq was significantly more hyperopic in the astigmatic group than in the non-astigmatic group (1.24 vs. 0.87 D). At follow-up, prevalence of hyperopic sph eq and hyperopic astigmatism had significantly decreased, and prevalence of emmetropic/myopic sph eq and myopic astigmatism had significantly increased. The decrease in mean sph eq was similar in astigmats and non-astigmats. Astigmatism did not change over time. Most preschool children in this highly astigmatic population are hyperopic, with astigmats showing higher mean hyperopic sph eq than non-astigmats. Astigmats and non-astigmats show a similar decrease in amount of hyperopic sph eq over follow-up of 4 to 8 years.

  9. Small incision corneal refractive surgery using the small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) procedure for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism: results of a 6 month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekundo, Walter; Kunert, Kathleen S; Blum, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    This 6 month prospective multi-centre study evaluated the feasibility of performing myopic femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) through a small incision using the small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) procedure. Prospective, non-randomised clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS; Ninety-one eyes of 48 patients with myopia with and without astigmatism completed the final 6 month follow-up. The patients' mean age was 35.3 years. Their preoperative mean spherical equivalent (SE) was −4.75±1.56 D. A refractive lenticule of intrastromal corneal tissue was cut utilising a prototype of the Carl Zeiss Meditec AG VisuMax femtosecond laser system. Simultaneously two opposite small ‘pocket’ incisions were created by the laser system. Thereafter, the lenticule was manually dissected with a spatula and removed through one of incisions using modified McPherson forceps. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) after 6 months, objective and manifest refraction as well as slit-lamp examination, side effects and a questionnaire. Six months postoperatively the mean SE was −0.01 D±0.49 D. Most treated eyes (95.6%) were within ±1.0 D, and 80.2% were within ±0.5 D of intended correction. Of the eyes treated, 83.5% had an UCVA of 1.0 (20/20) or better, 53% remained unchanged, 32.3% gained one line, 3.3% gained two lines of BSCVA, 8.8% lost one line and 1.1% lost ≥2 lines of BSCVA. When answering a standardised questionnaire, 93.3% of patients were satisfied with the results obtained and would undergo the procedure again. SMILE is a promising new flapless minimally invasive refractive procedure to correct myopia.

  10. Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and contralateral eye comparison of topography-guided myopic LASIK with two different refraction treatment strategies. Private clinical ophthalmology practice. A total of 100 eyes (50 patients) in consecutive cases of myopic topography-guided LASIK procedures with the same refractive platform (FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers) were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A) and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (topography-modified treatment refraction; group B). All cases were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for the following parameters: refractive error, best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), topography (Placido-disk based) and tomography (Scheimpflug-image based), wavefront analysis, pupillometry, and contrast sensitivity. Follow-up visits were conducted for at least 12 months. Mean refractive error was -5.5 D of myopia and -1.75 D of astigmatism. In group A versus group B, respectively, the average UDVA improved from 20/200 to 20/20 versus 20/16; post-operative CDVA was 20/20 and 20/13.5; 1 line of vision gained was 27.8% and 55.6%; and 2 lines of vision gained was 5.6% and 11.1%. In group A, 27.8% of eyes had over -0.50 diopters of residual refractive astigmatism, in comparison to 11.7% in group B ( P Topography-modified refraction (TMR): topographic adjustment of the amount and axis of astigmatism treated, when different from the clinical refraction, may offer superior outcomes in topography-guided myopic LASIK. These findings may change the current clinical paradigm of the optimal subjective refraction utilized in laser vision correction.

  11. Visual performance in cataract patients with low levels of postoperative astigmatism: full correction versus spherical equivalent correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann RP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Lehmann1, Diane M Houtman21Lehmann Eye Center, Nacogdoches, TX, 2Alcon Research Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: To evaluate whether visual performance could be improved in pseudophakic subjects by correcting low levels of postoperative astigmatism.Methods: An exploratory, noninterventional study was conducted using subjects who had been implanted with an aspheric intraocular lens and had 0.5–0.75 diopter postoperative astigmatism. Monocular visual performance using full correction was compared with visual performance using spherical equivalent correction. Testing consisted of high- and low-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reading acuity and speed using the Radner Reading Charts.Results: Thirty-eight of 40 subjects completed testing. Visual acuities at three contrast levels (100%, 25%, and 9% were significantly better using full correction than when using spherical equivalent correction (all P < 0.001. For contrast sensitivity testing under photopic, mesopic, and mesopic with glare conditions, only one out of twelve outcomes demonstrated a significant improvement with full correction compared with spherical equivalent correction (at six cycles per degree under mesopic without glare conditions, P = 0.046. Mean reading speed was numerically faster with full correction across all print sizes, reaching statistical significance at logarithm of the reading acuity determination (logRAD 0.2, 0.7, and 1.1 (P , 0.05. Statistically significant differences also favored full correction in logRAD score (P = 0.0376, corrected maximum reading speed (P < 0.001, and logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution/logRAD ratio (P < 0.001.Conclusions: In this study of pseudophakic subjects with low levels of postoperative astigmatism, full correction yielded significantly better reading performance and high- and low-contrast visual acuity than spherical equivalent correction, suggesting that cataractous patients may benefit from surgical

  12. Excimer laser correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenda, Adrian; Martinović, Zeljka Karaman; Kalauz, Miro

    2012-06-01

    The broad acceptance of "spot scanning" or "flying spot" excimer lasers in the last decade has enabled the domination of corneal ablative laser surgery over other refractive surgical procedures for the correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism. This review outlines the most important reasons why the ablative laser correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism for many years lagged behind that of myopia. Most of today's scanning laser systems, used in the LASIK and PRK procedures, can safely and effectively perform low, moderate and high hyperopic and hyperopic astigmatic corrections. The introduction of these laser platforms has also significantly improved the long term refractive stability of hyperopic treatments. In the future, further improvements in femtosecond and nanosecond technology, eye-tracker systems, and the development of new customized algorithms, such as the ray-tracing method, could additionally increase the upper limit for the safe and predictable corneal ablative laser correction ofhyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism.

  13. Astigmatism and myopia in Tohono O'odham Native American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelker, J Daniel; Miller, Joseph M; Sherrill, Duane L; Harvey, Erin M

    2013-11-01

    To describe change in spherical equivalent (M) in a longitudinal sample of Tohono O'odham students ages 3 to 18 years and to test the hypothesis that astigmatism creates complex cues to emmetropization, resulting in increased change in M in the direction of increasing myopia and increased occurrence of myopia. Subjects were 777 Tohono O'odham Native American children on whom cycloplegic right eye autorefraction was measured on at least two study encounters between ages 3 and 18 years (first encounter prior to age 5.5 years, final encounter ≥3 years later). Regression lines were fit to individual subjects' longitudinal M data to estimate rate of change in M (regression slope, D/yr). Regression was also used to predict if a subject would be myopic (≤-0.75 D M) by age 18 years. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relation between M slope and magnitude of baseline M and astigmatism. Chi-square analyses were used to assess the relation between predicted myopia onset and magnitude of baseline M and astigmatism. Mean M slope was significantly more negative for hyperopes (M ≥ +2.00) than for myopes (M ≤ -0.75) or for subjects neither hyperopic nor myopic (NHM, M > -0.75 and < +2.00), but there was no significant difference between the myopic and NHM groups. Chi-square analysis indicated that final myopia status varied across level of baseline astigmatism. Subjects with high astigmatism were more likely to be predicted to have significant myopia by age 18 years. The association between greater shift in M towards myopia with age in subjects who were hyperopic at baseline is consistent with continued emmetropization in the school years. Results regarding predicted myopia development imply that degradation of image quality due to refractive astigmatism creates complex cues to emmetropization, resulting in increased occurrence of myopia.

  14. Correction of low corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Pia; Pastore, Marco Rocco; Zanei, Andrea; Umari, Ingrid; Messai, Meriem; Negro, Corrado; Tognetto, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and aspheric monofocal IOL implantation with limbal relaxing incisions (LRI) to manage low corneal astigmatism (1.0-2.0 D) in cataract surgery. A prospective randomized comparative clinical study was performed. There were randomly recruited 102 eyes (102 patients) with cataracts associated with corneal astigmatism and divided into two groups. The first group received toric IOL implantation and the second one monofocal IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcomes considered were: visual acuity, postoperative residual astigmatism, endothelial cell count, the need for spectacles, and patient satisfaction. To determine the postoperative toric axis, all patients who underwent the toric IOL implantation were further evaluated using an OPD Scan III (Nidek Co, Japan). Follow-up lasted 6mo. The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) demonstrated statistically significant improvement after surgery in both groups. At the end of the follow-up the UCVA was statistically better in the patients with toric IOL implants compared to those patients who underwent implantation of monofocal IOL plus LRI. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was of 0.4 D for the toric IOL group and 1.1 D for the LRI group (P<0.01). No difference was observed in the postoperative endothelial cell count between the two groups. The two surgical procedures demonstrated a significant decrease in refractive astigmatism. Toric IOL implantation was more effective and predictable compared to the limbal relaxing incision.

  15. Functional outcomes and patient satisfaction after laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of myopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahzib, N.G.; Bootsma, S.J.; Eggink, F.A.G.J.; Nabar, V.A.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine subjective patient satisfaction and self-perceived quality of vision after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to correct myopia and myopic astigmatism. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. METHODS: A validated

  16. Correction of low corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Leon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate and compare aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL implantation and aspheric monofocal IOL implantation with limbal relaxing incisions (LRI to manage low corneal astigmatism (1.0-2.0 D in cataract surgery.METHODS:A prospective randomized comparative clinical study was performed. There were randomly recruited 102 eyes (102 patients with cataracts associated with corneal astigmatism and divided into two groups. The first group received toric IOL implantation and the second one monofocal IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcomes considered were:visual acuity, postoperative residual astigmatism, endothelial cell count, the need for spectacles, and patient satisfaction. To determine the postoperative toric axis, all patients who underwent the toric IOL implantation were further evaluated using an OPD Scan III (Nidek Co, Japan. Follow-up lasted 6mo.RESULTS: The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA demonstrated statistically significant improvement after surgery in both groups. At the end of the follow-up the UCVA was statistically better in the patients with toric IOL implants compared to those patients who underwent implantation of monofocal IOL plus LRI. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was of 0.4 D for the toric IOL group and 1.1 D for the LRI group (P<0.01. No difference was observed in the postoperative endothelial cell count between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The two surgical procedures demonstrated a significant decrease in refractive astigmatism. Toric IOL implantation was more effective and predictable compared to the limbal relaxing incision.

  17. Correction of High Astigmatism after Penetrating Keratoplasty with Toric Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nuzzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After penetrating keratoplasty (PK, high astigmatism is often induced, being frequently about 4–6 dpt. According to the entity and typology of astigmatism, different methods of correction can be used. Selective suture removal, relaxing incisions, wedge resections, compression sutures, photorefractive keratectomy, and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis can reduce corneal astigmatism and ametropia, but meanwhile they can cause a reduction in the corneal integrity and cause an over- or undercorrection. In case of moderate-to-high regular astigmatisms, the authors propose a toric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL implantation to preserve the corneal integrity (especially in PK after herpetic corneal leukoma keratitis. We evaluated a 45-year-old patient who at the age of 30 was subjected to PK in his left eye due to corneal leukoma herpetic keratitis, which led to high astigmatism (7.50 dpt cyl. 5°. The patient was subjected to phacoemulsification and customized toric multifocal IOL implantation in his left eye. The correction of PK-induced residual astigmatism with a toric IOL implantation is an excellent choice but has to be evaluated in relation to patient age, corneal integrity, longevity graft, and surgical risk. It seems to be a well-tolerated therapeutic choice and with good results.

  18. CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE VISUAL OUTCOME AND PATIENT COMFORT IN LASIK AND PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY IN LOW-TO-MODERATE MYOPIC ASTIGMATISM PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To evaluate visual outcomes following LASIK and Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK in low-to-moderate myopia and/or myopic astigmatism in age and refractive error matched eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Of a total 30 patients aged ≥21 years, 20 (40 eyes underwent LASIK and 10 (20 eyes underwent PRK for low-to-moderate myopia or myopic astigmatism. LASIK was performed with the Alcon wave light 500 and PRK with the alcohol application for epithelial removal. All ablations were performed using the same excimer laser system. One surgeon operated all patients by using an excimer laser (Alcon wave light 500 system. Age and refractive error matched patients were divided in two groups. Preoperative and one year postoperative uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity and manifest refractions were recorded to compare the outcomes of both the procedures. Outcome measures to assess the patient comfort levels in both groups include postoperative pain and quality of vision. Other outcome measures to assess the wound healing includes intraoperative complications, corneal haze and corneal reepithelialisation. RESULTS Sixty eyes of 30 patients were found matched regarding age and refractive error. In PRK group, among 10 patients, 5 (50% were males and 5 (50% were females, whereas in Lasik group, males were 12 (60% and 8 (40% were female patients. Mean preoperative MRSE was -4.06 ± 1.00 Dioptres (D for LASIK versus -4.50 ± 1.25 D for PRK. Complete flap healing was achieved by postoperative day 4 in 86.9% of LASIK eyes versus complete reepithelialisation in 92.4% of PRK eyes. Using Fisher exact test, a significantly higher percentage of LASIK eyes compared to PRK eyes achieved 20/15 or better at 1 month (35.8% vs. 17.8%, P=0.031, 3 months (69.3% vs. 49.3%, P=0.004, 6 months (79.1% vs. 59.9%, P0.50 D occurred in 12.4% of LASIK eyes within the 3- and 12-month interval versus 25.7% of PRK eyes (P=0.04. Patients in both groups were happy

  19. Aspheric photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and myopic astigmatism with the SCHWIND AMARIS laser: 2 years postoperative outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M.; Padroni, Sara; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate mid-term refractive outcomes and higher order aberrations of aspheric PRK for low, moderate and high myopia and myopic astigmatism with the AMARIS excimer laser system (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions GmbH, Kleinostheim, Germany). Methods This prospective longitudinal study evaluated 80 eyes of 40 subjects who underwent aspheric PRK. Manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE) of up to −10.00 diopters (D) at the spectacle plane with cylinder up to 3.25 was treated. Refractive outcomes and corneal wavefront data (6 mm pupil to the 7th Zernike order) were evaluated out to 2 years postoperatively. Statistical significance was indicated by P  0.05, both cases). There was a statistical increase in postoperative coma (+0.12 μm) and spherical aberration (+0.14 μm) compared to preoperatively (P < 0.001, both cases). Conclusion Aspheric PRK provides excellent visual and refractive outcomes with induction in individual corneal aberrations but not overall corneal aberrations.

  20. Night driving simulation in a randomized prospective comparison of Visian toric implantable collamer lens and conventional PRK for moderate to high myopic astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Steven; Tanzer, David; Sanders, Donald R; Sanders, Monica; Brown, Mitch; Kaupp, Sandor E

    2010-05-01

    To compare changes in simulated night driving performance after Visian Toric Implantable Collamer Lens (TICL; STAAR Surgical) implantation and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of moderate to high myopic astigmatism. This prospective, randomized study consisted of 43 eyes implanted with the TICL (20 bilateral cases) and 45 eyes receiving conventional PRK (VISX Star S3 excimer laser) with mitomycin C (22 bilateral cases) for moderate to high myopia (-6.00 to -20.00 diopters[D] sphere) measured at the spectacle plane and 1.00 to 4.00 D of astigmatism. As a substudy, 27 eyes of 14 TICL patients and 41 eyes of 21 PRK patients underwent a simulated night driving test. The detection and identification distances of road signs and hazards with the Night Driving Simulator (Vision Sciences Research Corp) were measured with and without a glare source before and 6 months after each procedure. No significant difference was noted in the pre- to postoperative Night Driving Simulator in detection distances with and without the glare source between the TICL and PRK groups. The differences in identification distances without glare were significantly better for business and traffic road signs and pedestrian hazards in the TICL group relative to the PRK group whereas with glare, only the pedestrian hazards were significantly better. A clinically relevant change of Night Driving Simulator performance (>0.5 seconds change in ability to identify tasks postoperatively) was significantly better in the TICL group (with and without glare) for all identification tasks. The TICL performed better than conventional PRK in the pre- to postoperative Night Driving Simulator testing with and without a glare source present. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segments for Astigmatism Correction after Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

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    Júlio C. D. Arantes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the change in corneal astigmatism after intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS implantation in keratoconus patients with previous deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. Design was a longitudinal, retrospective, interventional study. The study included 25 eyes of 24 patients with keratoconus who had DALK performed at least two years prior to ICRS implantation. All patients had a clear corneal graft with up to 8.00 D of corneal astigmatism and intolerance to contact lenses. The studied parameters were age, sex, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, maximum keratometry (K1, minimum keratometry (K2, spherical equivalent, and astigmatism. There was a statistically significant decrease in the postintervention analysis as follows: 3.5 D reduction in K1 (p<0.001; 1.53 D in K2 (p=0.005; and 2.52 D (p<0.001 in the average K. The spherical equivalent reduced from −3.67 D (±2.74 to −0.71 D (±2.35 (p<0.001. The topographic astigmatism reduced from 3.87 D preoperatively to 1.90 D postoperatively (p<0.001. The CDVA improved from 0.33 (±0.10 to 0.20 (±0.09, p<0.001. ICRS implantation is a useful option for the correction of astigmatism after DALK as it yields significant visual, topographic, and refractive results.

  2. Efficacy and safety of cross-cylinder photorefractive keratectomy versus single method in medium-high astigmatism: a randomized clinical trial.

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    Sedghipour, Mohammad R; Lotfi, Afshin; Sadeghilar, Ayaz; Banan, Saeeid

    2012-09-07

    BACKGROUND: To compare efficacy and safety of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) by cross-cylinder with single methods in medium-high astigmatism. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial study PARTICIPANTS: Fifty patients with medium-high compound myopic astigmatism were enrolled between September 2007 and September 2008. METHODS: PRK was performed on 100 eyes of 50 patients with compound myopic astigmatism. Each patient underwent PRK by cross-cylinder approach in one eye and single method on the contralateral eye. Vector analysis was used to assess astigmatic results. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Improvement of visual acuity (snelen chart), refraction, aberrometry. RESULTS: Uncorrected visual acuity (UCCA) equal to 20/40 or better after six months, was achieved in 98% of eyes in the cross-cylinder method versus 96% in single method.. Mean preoperative spherical equivalent(SE) was -5.2 ±2.1 D in the cross-cylinder method versus -5.1 ±0.5 D in the single method. At six months, the mean SE was - 0.5±0.4 D and -0.6±0.3 D, respectively. Mean IOS was 0.4±0.3 in the cross-cylinder group and 0.4±0.4 in the single group. Mean postoperative absolute change in total root-mean-square higher order aberrations in the cross-cylinder group and single group were 0.16 pm and 0.17 pm, respectively. Any of the mentioned differences didn't appear to be statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both PRK methods appeared to be safe and effective in correcting medium-high astigmatism. © 2012 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Associations between anisometropia, amblyopia, and reduced stereoacuity in a school-aged population with a high prevalence of astigmatism.

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    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Harvey, Erin M

    2008-10-01

    To describe the relation between magnitude of anisometropia and interocular acuity difference (IAD), stereoacuity (SA), and the presence of amblyopia in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Refractive error (cycloplegic autorefraction confirmed by retinoscopy), best corrected monocular visual acuity (VA; Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR charts), and best corrected SA (Randot Preschool Stereoacuity Test) were measured in 4- to 13-year-old Tohono O'odham children (N = 972). Anisometropia was calculated in clinical notation (spherical equivalent and cylinder) and in two forms of vector notation that take into account interocular differences in both axis and cylinder magnitude. Astigmatism >or= 1.00 D was present in one or both eyes of 415 children (42.7%). Significant increases in IAD and presence of amblyopia (IAD >or= 2 logMAR lines) occurred, with >or=1 D of hyperopic anisometropia and >or=2 to 3 D of cylinder anisometropia. Significant decreases in SA occurred with >or=0.5 D of hyperopic, myopic, or cylinder anisometropia. Results for vector notation depended on the analysis used, but also showed disruption of SA at lower values of anisometropia than were associated with increases in IAD and presence of amblyopia. Best corrected IAD and presence of amblyopia are related to amount and type of refractive error difference (hyperopic, myopic, or cylindrical) between eyes. Disruption of best corrected random dot SA occurs with smaller interocular differences than those producing an increase in IAD, suggesting that the development of SA is particularly dependent on similarity of the refractive error between eyes.

  4. Visual Motor and Perceptual Task Performance in Astigmatic Students

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    Erin M. Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if spectacle corrected and uncorrected astigmats show reduced performance on visual motor and perceptual tasks. Methods. Third through 8th grade students were assigned to the low refractive error control group (astigmatism < 1.00 D, myopia < 0.75 D, hyperopia < 2.50 D, and anisometropia < 1.50 D or bilateral astigmatism group (right and left eye ≥ 1.00 D based on cycloplegic refraction. Students completed the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI and Visual Perception (VMIp. Astigmats were randomly assigned to testing with/without correction and control group was tested uncorrected. Analyses compared VMI and VMIp scores for corrected and uncorrected astigmats to the control group. Results. The sample included 333 students (control group 170, astigmats tested with correction 75, and astigmats tested uncorrected 88. Mean VMI score in corrected astigmats did not differ from the control group (p=0.829. Uncorrected astigmats had lower VMI scores than the control group (p=0.038 and corrected astigmats (p=0.007. Mean VMIp scores for uncorrected (p=0.209 and corrected astigmats (p=0.124 did not differ from the control group. Uncorrected astigmats had lower mean scores than the corrected astigmats (p=0.003. Conclusions. Uncorrected astigmatism influences visual motor and perceptual task performance. Previously spectacle treated astigmats do not show developmental deficits on visual motor or perceptual tasks when tested with correction.

  5. Three-year results of small incision lenticule extraction and wavefront-guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of high myopia and myopic astigmatism.

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    Xia, Li-Kun; Ma, Jing; Liu, He-Nan; Shi, Ce; Huang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    To compare and calculate the 3-year refractive results, higher-order aberrations (HOAs), contrast sensitivity (CS) and dry eye parameters after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and wavefront-guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) for correction of high myopia and myopic astigmatism. In this prospective, non-randomized comparative study, 78 eyes with spherical equivalent (SE) of -8.11±1.09 diopters (D) received a SMILE surgery, and 65 eyes with SE of -8.05±1.12 D received a wavefront-guided FS-LASIK surgery with the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) for flap cutting. Visual acuity, manifest refraction, CS, HOAs, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and tear break-up time (TBUT) were evaluated during a 3-year follow-up. The difference of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) postoperatively was achieved at 1mo and at 3mo, whereas the difference of the mean UDVA between two groups at 3y were not statistically significant ( t =-1.59, P =0.13). The postoperative change of SE was 0.89 D in the FS-LASIK group ( t =5.76, P =0.00), and 0.14 D in the SMILE group ( t =0.54, P =0.59) from 1mo to 3y after surgery. At 3-year postoperatively, both HOAs and spherical aberrations in the SMILE group were obviously less than those in the FS-LASIK group ( P =0.00), but the coma root mean square (RMS) was higher in the SMILE group (0.59±0.26) than in the FS-LASIK group (0.29±0.14, P =0.00). The mesopic CS values between two groups were not statistically significant at 3y postoperatively. Compared with the FS-LASIK group, lower OSDI scores and longer TBUT values were found in the SMILE group at 1mo and 3mo postoperatively. With regard to safety, no eye lost any line of CDVA in both groups at 3y after surgery. Both SMILE and wavefront-guided FS-LASIK procedures provide good visual outcomes. Both procedures are effective and safe, but SMILE surgery achieve more stable long-term refractive outcome and better

  6. Clinical Outcomes of SMILE With a Triple Centration Technique and Corneal Wavefront-Guided Transepithelial PRK in High Astigmatism.

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    Jun, Ikhyun; Kang, David Sung Yong; Reinstein, Dan Z; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Archer, Timothy J; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae-Im

    2018-03-01

    To comparatively investigate the clinical outcomes, vector parameters, and corneal aberrations of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) with a triple centration technique and corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of high astigmatism. This retrospective, comparative case series study included 89 eyes (89 patients) that received treatment for myopia with high astigmatism (≥ 2.50 diopters) using SMILE with a triple centration technique (SMILE group; 45 eyes) and corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial PRK (transepithelial PRK group; 44 eyes). Visual acuity measurement, manifest refraction, slit-lamp examination, autokeratometry, corneal topography, and evaluation of corneal wavefront aberration were performed preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The safety, efficacy, vector parameters, and corneal aberrations at 6 months after surgery were compared between the two groups. At 6 months after surgery, the transepithelial PRK and SMILE groups exhibited comparable mean uncorrected distance visual acuities (-0.06 ± 0.07 and -0.05 ± 0.07 logMAR, respectively), safety, efficacy, and predictability of refractive and visual outcomes. There was a slight but statistically significant difference in the correction index between the transepithelial PRK and SMILE groups (0.96 ± 0.11 and 0.91 ± 0.10, respectively). Whereas the transepithelial PRK group exhibited increased corneal spherical aberration and significantly reduced corneal coma and trefoil, no changes in aberrometric values were noted in the SMILE group. Both SMILE with a triple centration technique and corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial PRK are effective and provide predictable outcomes for the correction of high myopic astigmatism, although slight undercorrection was observed in the SMILE group. The triple centration technique was helpful in astigmatism correction by SMILE. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(3):156-163.]. Copyright 2018

  7. Optical quality of hyperopic and myopic phakic intraocular lenses

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    Cari Pérez-Vives

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess and compare the optical quality of the myopic and hyperopic implantable collamer lens (ICL from its wavefront aberrations for different powers and pupil diameters. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Material and Methods: The wavefront aberrations of two myopic (−3 and −6 diopters (D and two hyperopic V4b ICLs (+3 and +6D were measured in vitro. To assess and compare the optical quality of different powers of ICLs, we analyzed the root mean square (RMS of total higher order aberrations (HOAs, trefoil, coma, tetrafoil, secondary astigmatism, and spherical aberration at 3- and 4.5-mm pupil. In addition, the point spread functions (PSFs of each ICL evaluated were calculated from the wavefront aberrations at 3- and 4.5-mm pupil. Statistical Analysis: A Student′s t-test for unpaired data was used for comparison between myopic and hyperopic ICLs. Results: Myopic ICLs showed negative spherical aberration, in contrast hyperopic ICLs showed positive spherical aberration, which increases when the ICL power increases, due to the innate optical properties of the lens. All ICLs evaluated had negligible amounts of other aberrations. We did not find statistical significant differences in any Zernike coefficient RMS values analyzed between myopic and hyperopic ICLs at 3- and 4.5-mm pupil (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Myopic and hyperopic ICLs provide good and comparable optical quality for low to moderate refractive error. The ICLs evaluated showed values of wavefront aberrations clinically negligible to affect the visual quality after implantation.

  8. [Comparative clinical study of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis with versus without iris recognition for myopia or myopic astigmatism].

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    Wang, Wei-qun; Zhang, Jin-song; Zhao, Xiao-jin

    2011-10-01

    To explore the postoperative visual acuity results of wavefront-guided LASIK with iris recognition for myopia or myopic astigmatism and the changes of higher-order aberrations and contrast sensitivity function (CSF). Series of prospective case studies, 158 eyes (85 cases) of myopia or myopic astigmatism were divided into two groups: one group underwent wavefront-guided LASIK with iris recognition (iris recognition group); another group underwent wavefront-guided LASIK treatment without iris recognition through the limbus maring point (non-iris recognition group). To comparative analyze the postoperative visual acuity, residual refraction, the RMS of higher-order aberrations and CSF of two groups. There was no statistical significance difference between two groups of the average uncorrected visual acuity (t = 0.039, 0.058, 0.898; P = 0.844, 0.810, 0.343), best corrected visual acuity (t = 0.320, 0.440, 1.515; P = 0.572, 0.507, 0.218), and residual refraction [spherical equivalent (t = 0.027, 0.215, 0.238; P = 0.869, 0.643, 0.626), spherical (t = 0.145, 0.117, 0.038; P = 0.704, 0.732, 0.845) and cylinder (t = 1.676, 1.936, 0.334; P = 0.195, 0.164, 0.563)] at postoperative 10 days, 1 month and 3 month. The security index of iris recognition group at postoperative 3 month was 1.06 and non-iris recognition group was 1.03; the efficacy index of iris recognition group is 1.01 and non-iris recognition group was 1.00. Postoperative 3 month iris recognition group 93.83% eyes and non-iris recognition group of 90.91% eyes spherical equivalent within ± 0.50 D (χ(2) = 0.479, P = 0.489), iris recognition group of 98.77% eyes and non-iris recognition group of 97.40% eyes spherical equivalent within ± 1.00 D (Fisher test, P = 0.613). There was no significance difference between the two groups of security, efficacy and predictability. Non-iris recognition group postoperative 1 month and postoperative 3 months 3-order order aberrations root mean square value (RMS) higher than the

  9. Three-year results of small incision lenticule extraction and wavefront-guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of high myopia and myopic astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Kun Xia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare and calculate the 3-year refractive results, higher-order aberrations (HOAs, contrast sensitivity (CS and dry eye parameters after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE and wavefront-guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK for correction of high myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomized comparative study, 78 eyes with spherical equivalent (SE of -8.11±1.09 diopters (D received a SMILE surgery, and 65 eyes with SE of -8.05±1.12 D received a wavefront-guided FS-LASIK surgery with the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany for flap cutting. Visual acuity, manifest refraction, CS, HOAs, ocular surface disease index (OSDI and tear break-up time (TBUT were evaluated during a 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: The difference of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA postoperatively was achieved at 1mo and at 3mo, whereas the difference of the mean UDVA between two groups at 3y were not statistically significant (t=-1.59, P=0.13. The postoperative change of SE was 0.89 D in the FS-LASIK group (t=5.76, P=0.00, and 0.14 D in the SMILE group (t=0.54, P=0.59 from 1mo to 3y after surgery. At 3-year postoperatively, both HOAs and spherical aberrations in the SMILE group were obviously less than those in the FS-LASIK group (P=0.00, but the coma root mean square (RMS was higher in the SMILE group (0.59±0.26 than in the FS-LASIK group (0.29±0.14, P=0.00. The mesopic CS values between two groups were not statistically significant at 3y postoperatively. Compared with the FS-LASIK group, lower OSDI scores and longer TBUT values were found in the SMILE group at 1mo and 3mo postoperatively. With regard to safety, no eye lost any line of CDVA in both groups at 3y after surgery. CONCLUSION: Both SMILE and wavefront-guided FS-LASIK procedures provide good visual outcomes. Both procedures are effective and safe, but SMILE surgery achieve more stable long

  10. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) at 193 nm using an erodible mask: new developments and clinical progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Seiler, Theo; Carey, Joseph P.; Friedman, Marc D.; Johnsson, N. M. F.; King, Michael C.; Muller, David F.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports on our progress using an erodible mask to perform photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of myopic astigmatism. We describe modifications to the mask, the mask eye cup and the surgical microscope aimed at simplifying the procedure and improving the ergonomics of the hardware. We report the clinical results of the post-op exam for 20 patients who have undergone PRK for myopic astigmatism under a Phase IIA study. The results compare favorably with an earlier Phase IIA study for performing PRK with a computer-controlled iris. Most important, the clinical data show the absence of any significant corneal haze and no significant decrease in spectacle corrected visual acuity. Although more long term follow-up is needed, the preliminary results support the safety and effectiveness of using an erodible mask to perform PRK for myopic astigmatism.

  11. Prevalence rates and epidemiological risk factors for astigmatism in Singapore school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.

  12. INTRAOCULAR CORRECTION OF PRESBYOPIA BY MONOVISION IN PATIENTS WITH CATARACT AND CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM

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    E. I. Belikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the results of intraocular correction of presbyopia by monovision in patients with cataract and primary corneal astigmatism and conduct a comparative analysis of these outcomes with the results of binocular multifocal IOLs implantation. Patients and methods. There were 21 patients with bilateral cataract surgery performed using toric monofocal intraocular lenses (monovision group in the study. The indications for the operation were: 1 primary corneal astigmatism ≥ 1.0D in patients with cataract, 2 inability to conduct excimer laser correction. Reduction of spectacle dependence by monovision was discussed during preoperative conversation. The age of patients range from 32 to 65 years. Target refraction: Emetronopia on the dominant eye (DG and myopia at 1.0–2.0 D in the non-dominant eye (NDG. Evaluation included measurement of uncorrected visual acuity, refraction, stereopsis, contrast sensitivity and patient satisfaction. The results were compared with the outcomes of binocular multifocal Iols implantation in 22 patients (44 eyes. Results. The spherical component decreased from 3.39±2.63D to 0.34±0.24D, cylinder decreased from 3.05±1.47D to 0.44±0,35D (P <0.01 in the monovision group three months after surgery . The deviation from target refraction was 0.30±0.35D. The mean difference between postoperative refraction on the two eyes was 1.92±0.57D. Postoperative corrected visual acuity significantly exceeded preoperative parameters. In 18 patients (88% the stereoscopic visual acuity did not exceed 60 seconds and corresponded to the age norm, in 3 patients (12% it was at the level of 80–100 arc seconds. In patients with multifocal IOLs, the stereovision values were identical (Ferrer-Blasco T. et al, 2008. Conclusion. The monovision is an effective method of reducing dependence on additional correction in patients with cataract and corneal astigmatism. Refractive outcomes, binocular visual acuity, predictability and

  13. Development of a nomogram for femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy for astigmatism after keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Ryan M; Sharma, Anushree; Huang, David; Yu, Fei; Goldich, Yakov; Rootman, David; Yoo, Sonia; Cabot, Florence; Jun, Jason; Zhang, Lijun; Aldave, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    To develop a nomogram for femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy (AK) to treat post-keratoplasty astigmatism. Three academic medical centers. Retrospective interventional case series. A review of post-keratoplasty femtosecond laser AK was performed. Uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, manifest refraction, and keratometry were recorded preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The location, length, depth, and diameter of the AK incisions were recorded, and the surgically induced astigmatic correction was related to these variables using regression analysis. One hundred forty femtosecond laser AK procedures were performed after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) (n = 129) or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) (n =11), with 89 procedures (80 PKP, 9 DALK) included in the analysis. The mean CDVA improved from 20/59 (0.47 logMAR ± 0.38 [SD]) preoperatively to 20/45 (0.35 ± 0.31 logMAR) postoperatively (P = .013) (n = 46). The mean keratometric astigmatism decreased from 8.26 ± 2.90 diopters (D) preoperatively to 3.62 ± 2.59 D postoperatively (P AK to treat post-keratoplasty astigmatism was generated using regression analysis. Femtosecond laser AK significantly improved UDVA and CDVA and significantly reduced keratometric astigmatism and refractive cylinder after keratoplasty. The nomogram generated should improve the accuracy of post-keratoplasty femtosecond laser AK. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Customized toric intraocular lens implantation for correction of extreme corneal astigmatism due to corneal scarring

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    R Bassily

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available R Bassily, J LuckOphthalmology Department, Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath, UKAbstract: A 76-year-old woman presented with decreased visual function due to cataract formation. Twenty-five years prior she developed right sided corneal ulceration that left her with 10.8 diopters (D of irregular astigmatism at 71.8° (steep axis. Her uncorrected visual acuity was 6/24 and could only ever wear a balanced lens due to the high cylindrical error. Cataract surgery was planned with a custom designed toric intraocular lens (IOL with +16.0 D sphere inserted via a wound at the steep axis of corneal astigmatism. Postoperative refraction was -0.75/+1.50 × 177° with a visual acuity of 6/9 that has remained unchanged at six-week follow-up with no IOL rotation. This case demonstrates the value of high power toric IOLs for the correction of pathological corneal astigmatism.Keywords: intraocular lens, corneal ulceration, visual acuity, scarring

  15. Lente de contato de material híbrido em pacientes com ceratocone e astigmatismo miópico composto Hybrid material contact lens in keratoconus and myopic astigmatism patients

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    Fernando Leal

    2007-03-01

    óculos, exceto para a freqüência B (3 cpg, maior nos usuários de óculos. As aberrações de alta ordem analisadas apresentaram diminuição estatisticamente significante, quando comparados os pacientes sem e com uso de lentes de contato, com exceção da aberração esférica e do coma. CONCLUSÃO: A lente de contato de material híbrido, quando utilizada por portadores de ceratocone e astigmatismo miópico composto, propiciaram desempenho visual e conforto satisfatórios, em níveis que não diferiram, das lentes de contato rígidas-gás-permeáveis nos dois grupos de pacientes.PURPOSE: To evaluate comfort and visual performance in relation to two different used contact lens types: hybrid material (HM and rigid-gas-permeable (RGP, in patients with regular myopic astigmatism and with keratoconus. METHODS: A randomized, double masked, prospective study of 22 patients with the diagnosis of myopic astigmatism (8 with myopic astigmatism and 14 with keratoconus was conducted. Fifteen patients were female and 7 were male, and mean age was: 32.13 ± 8.12 years. In one of the eyes a rigid-gas-permeable contact lens was adapted (DK 30, and in the other a hybrid material contact lens was adapted (DK 23. All patients were submitted to the following tests: measurement of comfort level by means of the analogical visual scale, tear break-up time, best corrected visual acuity with the Bailey-Lovie scale adapted for 4 meters, functional acuity contrast test (FACT and wavefront analysis. RESULTS: In relation to comfort, there was no association with the evaluated contact lens type (p=0.350. There was a variation in comfort level during the first 7 days. The visual acuity increased between the 7th and the 15th day of adaptation. Visual acuity stabilized right after this period. The visual acuity did not show differences in relation to the studied lens type. It was verified that there was no difference in the tear break-up time (p=0.989 in relation to the studied lenses type and

  16. Higher-order aberrations and best-corrected visual acuity in Native American children with a high prevalence of astigmatism.

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    Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in children from a highly astigmatic population differ from population norms and whether HOAs are associated with astigmatism and reduced best-corrected visual acuity. Subjects were 218 Tohono O'odham Native American children 5-9 years of age. Noncycloplegic HOA measurements were obtained with a handheld Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS). Signed (z06s to z14s) and unsigned (z06u to z14u) wavefront aberration Zernike coefficients Z(3,-3) to Z(4,4) were rescaled for a 4 mm diameter pupil and compared to adult population norms. Cycloplegic refraction and best-corrected logMAR letter visual acuity (BCVA) were also measured. Regression analyses assessed the contribution of astigmatism (J0) and HOAs to BCVA. The mean root-mean-square (RMS) HOA of 0.191 ± 0.072 μm was significantly greater than population norms (0.100 ± 0.044 μm). All unsigned HOA coefficients (z06u to z14u) and all signed coefficients except z09s, z10s, and z11s were significantly larger than population norms. Decreased BCVA was associated with astigmatism (J0) and spherical aberration (z12u) but not RMS coma, with the effect of J0 about 4 times as great as z12u. Tohono O'odham children show elevated HOAs compared to population norms. Astigmatism and unsigned spherical aberration are associated with decreased acuity, but the effects of spherical aberration are minimal and not clinically significant. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for astigmatism

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    Jun-Hua Hao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for the treatment of astigmatism. METHODS:Totally 203 cases(406 eyesof laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKin the treatment of compound myopic astigmatism patients were operated from November 2011 to November 2012 in our hospital. They were divided into two groups. One was observation group using iris localization and the other was control group using routine operation. Patients in the observation group of 100 cases(200 eyes, aged 18-43 years old, spherical diopter was -1.25 to -8.75D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. In control group, 103 patients(206 eyes, aged 19-44 years old, spherical diopter was -1.75-9.50D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. The patients in the observation group before the application of WaveScan aberrometer check for iris image, spherical lens, cylindrical lens and astigmatism axis data operation, only single application of iris location, without using wavefront aberration guided technology, laser cutting patterns for conventional LASIK model, spherical, cylindrical mirror and astigmatism axis data source to preoperative wavefront aberration results. The control group received routine LASIK. It was applicated comprehensive optometry optometry respectively to examine astigmatism and axial, based on the computer analysis during the preoperative, 1wk after the operation, and 6mo. Analysis of using SPSS 17 statistical software, it was independent-sample t test between the two groups of residual astigmatism and astigmatism axis. RESULTS:Postoperative residual astigmatism, the observation group was significantly better than the control group. Astigmatism axial measurement after operation, the observation group was significantly less than that of the control group. Postoperative visual acuity at 6mo, the observation group was better than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: For patients who cannot

  18. Optimization of nonimaging focusing heliostat in dynamic correction of astigmatism for a wide range of incident angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kok-Keong

    2010-05-15

    To overcome astigmatism has always been a great challenge in designing a heliostat capable of focusing the sunlight on a small receiver throughout the year. In this Letter, a nonimaging focusing heliostat with a dynamic adjustment of facet mirrors in a group manner has been analyzed for optimizing the astigmatic correction in a wide range of incident angles. This what is to the author's knowledge a new heliostat is not only designed to serve the purpose of concentrating sunlight to several hundreds of suns, but also to significantly reduce the variation of the solar flux distribution with the incident angle.

  19. Femtosecond laser corneal refractive surgery for the correction of high myopic anisometropic amblyopia in juveniles

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    Jing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effects of femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK and small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE to correct high myopic anisometropic amblyopia in juvenile patients. METHODS: From November 2013 to January 2015, 33 amblyopic patients with high myopic anisometropic amblyopia were studied. FS-LASIK (30 eyes or SMILE (3 eyes was performed in the amblyopic eyes. Visual acuity, refraction, contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity and complications were evaluated. Patients completed follow-up examinations at 3d, 1mo, 3mo and the last follow-up time (mean 8.17±3.23mo after surgery. RESULTS: The mean age at surgery was 9.04±3.04y (range 6-16y. The mean spherical equivalent in the amblyopic eyes was significantly decreased from -10.00±2.39 D preoperatively to -0.06±1.06 D at 1mo, -0.19±1.33 D at 3mo and -0.60±1.43 D at approximately 8mo postoperatively (P<0.05 for all. The mean myopic anisometropia was significantly decreased from -9.45±2.33 D preoperatively to +0.37±1.48 D at 1mo, -0.46±1.47 D at 3mo and -0.09±1.83 D at approximately 8mo (P<0.05 for all. The logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR for uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and CDVA, respectively of the amblyopic eye improved from 1.74±0.35 and 0.98±0.63 preoperatively to 0.45±0.31 and 0.41±0.33 at approximately 8mo after surgery, respectively. The logMAR CDVA at 3d, 1, 3 and 8mo postoperatively improved by means of 1.42, 2.22, 2.96, and 4.39 lines, and a gain of more than two lines accounted for 45%, 50%, 74% and 86% of all patients, respectively. The contrast sensitivity of both amblyopic eyes and dominant eyes at 0.5, 2, 8 cycles per degree was significantly improved postoperatively (P<0.05 for all. Of the 33 pediatric patients, no patients had near stereopsis preoperatively and seven patients (21.2% recovered near stereopsis (400″ to 60″ at approximately 8mo after surgery. No intraoperative or

  20. Astigmatism induced by conventional spherical ablation after PRK and LASIK in myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Steven M; Mifflin, Mark D; Edmonds, Jason N; Simpson, Rachel G; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgically-induced astigmatism after spherical ablation in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia with astigmatism PRK or LASIK for the correction of myopia with minimal astigmatism of PRK, average cylinder increased from 0.39 ± 0.25 (0.00-0.75) preoperatively to 0.55 ± 0.48 (0.00-1.75) postoperatively (P = 0.014), compared with an increase in LASIK eyes from 0.40 ± 0.27 (0.00-0.75) preoperatively to 0.52 ± 0.45 (0.00-2.00) postoperatively (P = 0.041). PRK eyes experienced an absolute value change in cylinder of 0.41 ± 0.32 (0.00-1.50) and LASIK eyes experienced a change of 0.41 ± 0.31 (0.00-1.50, P = 0.955). Mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.59 ± 0.35 (0.00-1.70) in PRK eyes, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.44 D for each additional 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder; in LASIK eyes, mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.55 ± 0.32 (0.00-1.80, P = 0.482), with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.29 D for each 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder. Spherical ablation can induce substantial astigmatism even in eyes with less than one diopter of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. No significant difference in the magnitude of surgically-induced astigmatism was found between eyes treated with PRK and LASIK, although surgically-induced astigmatism was found to increase with greater levels of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK.

  1. Optical treatment of amblyopia in astigmatic children: the sensitive period for successful treatment.

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    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Miller, Joseph M

    2007-12-01

    To compare the effectiveness of eyeglass treatment of astigmatism-related amblyopia in children younger than 8 years (range, 4.75-7.99 years) versus children 8 years of age and older (range, 8.00-13.53 years) over short (6-week) and long (1-year) treatment intervals. Prospective, interventional, comparative case-control study. Four hundred forty-six nonastigmatic (right and left eye, or =1.00 D) Native American (Tohono O'odham) children in kindergarten or grades 1 through 6. Eyeglass correction of refractive error, prescribed for full-time wear, in astigmatic children. Amount of change in mean right-eye best-corrected letter visual acuity for treated astigmatic children versus untreated, age-matched nonastigmatic children after short (6-week) and long (1-year) treatment intervals. Astigmatic children had significantly reduced mean best-corrected visual acuity at baseline compared to nonastigmatic children. Astigmats showed significantly greater improvement in mean best-corrected visual acuity (0.08 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] unit; approximately 1 line), than the nonastigmatic children (0.01 logMAR unit) over the 6-week treatment interval. No additional treatment effect was observed between 6 weeks and 1 year. Treatment effectiveness was not dependent on age group ( or =8 years) and was not influenced by previous eyeglass treatment. Despite significant improvement, mean best-corrected visual acuity in astigmatic children remained significantly poorer than in nonastigmatic children after 1 year of eyeglass treatment, even when analyses were limited to results from highly compliant children. Sustained eyeglass correction results in significant improvement in best-corrected visual acuity in astigmatic children, including those previously believed to be beyond the sensitive period for successful treatment.

  2. Simulation of the impact of refractive surgery ablative laser pulses with a flying-spot laser beam on intrasurgery corneal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraiki, Mario; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate ablation algorithms and temperature changes in laser refractive surgery. The model (virtual laser system [VLS]) simulates different physical effects of an entire surgical process, simulating the shot-by-shot ablation process based on a modeled beam profile. The model is comprehensive and directly considers applied correction; corneal geometry, including astigmatism; laser beam characteristics; and ablative spot properties. Pulse lists collected from actual treatments were used to simulate the temperature increase during the ablation process. Ablation efficiency reduction in the periphery resulted in a lower peripheral temperature increase. Steep corneas had lesser temperature increases than flat ones. The maximum rise in temperature depends on the spatial density of the ablation pulses. For the same number of ablative pulses, myopic corrections showed the highest temperature increase, followed by myopic astigmatism, mixed astigmatism, phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK), hyperopic astigmatism, and hyperopic treatments. The proposed model can be used, at relatively low cost, for calibration, verification, and validation of the laser systems used for ablation processes and would directly improve the quality of the results.

  3. Astigmatism induced by conventional spherical ablation after PRK and LASIK in myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D

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    Christiansen SM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Christiansen,1 Mark D Mifflin,1 Jason N Edmonds,1 Rachel G Simpson,2 Majid Moshirfar11John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgically-induced astigmatism after spherical ablation in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D.Methods: The charts of patients undergoing spherical PRK or LASIK for the correction of myopia with minimal astigmatism of <1.00 D from 2002 to 2012 at the John A Moran Eye Center in Salt Lake City, UT, were retrospectively reviewed. Astigmatism was measured by manifest refraction. The final astigmatic refractive outcome at 6 months postoperatively was compared with the initial refraction by Alpins vector analysis.Results: For PRK, average cylinder increased from 0.39 ± 0.25 (0.00–0.75 preoperatively to 0.55 ± 0.48 (0.00–1.75 postoperatively (P = 0.014, compared with an increase in LASIK eyes from 0.40 ± 0.27 (0.00–0.75 preoperatively to 0.52 ± 0.45 (0.00–2.00 postoperatively (P = 0.041. PRK eyes experienced an absolute value change in cylinder of 0.41 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.50 and LASIK eyes experienced a change of 0.41 ± 0.31 (0.00–1.50, P = 0.955. Mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.59 ± 0.35 (0.00–1.70 in PRK eyes, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.44 D for each additional 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder; in LASIK eyes, mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.55 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.80, P = 0.482, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.29 D for each 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder.Conclusion: Spherical ablation can induce substantial astigmatism even in eyes with less than one diopter of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. No significant difference in the magnitude of surgically-induced astigmatism was found between eyes

  4. Astigmatism and Amblyopia among Native American Children (AANAC): design and methods.

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    Miller, J M; Dobson, V M; Harvey, E M; Sherrill, D L

    2000-09-01

    The overall goal of the AANAC study is to improve detection of astigmatism and prevention of amblyopia in populations with a high prevalence of astigmatism. To meet this goal, the study will evaluate four methods of screening for astigmatism in preschool children and will assess both the short-term and long-term benefits of early correction of astigmatism in improving acuity and preventing amblyopia. This paper presents an overview of the design and methodology of the AANAC study. Subjects are members of the Tohono O'Odham Nation, a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Preschool-age children who attend Head Start are screened with four tools: the Marco Nidek KM-500 autokeratometer, the MTI photoscreener, the Nikon Retinomax K-Plus autorefractor, and the Lea Symbols acuity chart. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of significant astigmatism, as measured by a technique that uses both cycloplegic retinoscopy and cycloplegic autorefraction, is determined for each of the four screening tools. Presence of amblyopia is evaluated by measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings. Spectacles are provided to all 3-year-old children with > or =2.00 diopters (D) of astigmatism and all 4- and 5-year-old children with > or =1.50 D of astigmatism. Persistence of amblyopia after glasses wearing is evaluated by follow-up measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings, conducted 2-5 months after glasses are prescribed. Long-term effectiveness of early screening and glasses prescription is evaluated through measurement of recognition acuity in two groups of first-grade children: one group who participated in the Head Start program before the intensive vision screening program was initiated, and a second group who participated in the study's Head Start vision screening program.

  5. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Assessment of refractive astigmatism and simulated therapeutic refractive surgery strategies in coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to raise the awareness of the influence of coma-like higher-order aberrations (HOAs) on power and orientation of refractive astigmatism (RA) and to explore how to account for that influence in the planning of topography-guided refractive surgery in eyes with coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics. Eleven eyes with coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics and with low lenticular astigmatism (LA) were selected for astigmatism analysis and for treatment simulations with topography-guided custom ablation. Vector analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of coma-like corneal HOAs to RA. Two different strategies were used for simulated treatments aiming to regularize irregular corneal optics: With both strategies correction of anterior corneal surface irregularities (corneal HOAs) were intended. Correction of total corneal astigmatism (TCA) and RA was intended as well with strategies 1 and 2, respectively. Axis of discrepant astigmatism (RA minus TCA minus LA) correlated strongly with axis of coma. Vertical coma influenced RA by canceling the effect of the with-the-rule astigmatism and increasing the effect of the against-the-rule astigmatism. After simulated correction of anterior corneal HOAs along with TCA and RA (strategies 1 and 2), only a small amount of anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA) and no TCA remained after strategy 1, while considerable amount of ACA and TCA remained after strategy 2. Coma-like corneal aberrations seem to contribute a considerable astigmatic component to RA in eyes with coma-like-aberrations dominant corneal optics. If topography-guided ablation is programmed to correct the corneal HOAs and RA, the astigmatic component caused by the coma-like corneal HOAs will be treated twice and will result in induced astigmatism. Disregarding RA and treating TCA along with the corneal HOAs is recommended instead.

  7. LIFESTYLE PECULIARITIES OF MODERN MYOPIC SCHOOLCHILDREN: A MEDICO-SOCIAL STUDY

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    M.E. Gurileva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia — is the most common vision defect, that is being formed due to impaired school routine, work and recreation conditions, motion activity and against the background of increased physical and psychological stress. Study objective: study lifestyle peculiarities of myopic schoolchildren. Methods: 349 pupils from 5–9 forms of a school with profound studying of various subjects were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. After a preventive examination the schoolchildren were divided into two groups according to ophthalmologists report, comparable by age and gender (162 myopic vs 182 without myopia. Results: all participants were poorly informed about myopia and possible preventive care, and during breaks behaved themselves in an unreasonable way judging from the positions of vision care. At home myopic children tended to spend more time doing their homework and on extracurricular studies, as well as on reading; these children in general spent more time watching TV or working on a computer; failed to rest properly, couldn’t switch from one type of activity to another, were working under conditions of unreasonable vision workload. In contrast to participants from control group, myopic schoolchildren spent less time resting: they were sleeping less and spent less time outdoors. Conclusion: revealed lifestyle peculiarities of modern myopic schoolchildren must become a target for preventive care. Their irrational lifestyle can be corrected by correction of daily routine, better organization of extracurricular exercises, visual exercises, better education of schoolchildren about disease risk factors.Key words: schoolchildren, myopia, risk factors.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 5–9

  8. Prevalence of myopic shifts among patients seeking cataract surgery

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    Rafael Iribarren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern cataract surgery by phacoemulsification is a widely accepted procedure with a rapid recovery time. The prescription of specific intraocular lens, implanted during surgery, makes it possible to anticipate whether the patient will need reading glasses after the procedure. The present study analyses a sample of cataract surgery patients to show the frequency of myopic shifts related to nuclear opacity, which can result in clear near vision before surgery. A non-selected sample of consecutive patients who underwent elective cataract surgery in a private clinic was studied retrospectively. The myopic shift in refraction was assessed by comparing the old prescription with the spectacle correction at the time of interviewing.The mean age of the 229 subjects studied was 71.5 ± 10.4 years (109, 47.6%, males. A myopic shift in refraction, defined as at least - 0.5 diopters, was present in 37.1% of subjects (95% CI: 30.8%-43.4%. The mean change in refraction in these subjects was -2.52 ± 1.52 diopters. The percentage of subjects who had developed a myopic shift was significantly greater in those who presented greater nuclear opalescence. There were also differences in the mean myopic shift by refractive group, with the emmetropes having the greatest myopic shift. In this study of patients seeking cataract surgery in a clinical setting, more than one third had myopic shifts in refraction. This must be taken into account in order that patients maintain the benefit of clear near vision after surgery.

  9. Effects of two different incision phacoemulsification on corneal astigmatism

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    Lu Huo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the effect of different incision in corneal astigmatism after phacoemulsification. METHODS: Totally 88 cases(122 eyeswith pure cataract were randomly divided into two groups. Forty cases(60 eyeswere clarity corneal incision in group A, and 48 cases(62 eyeswere sclera tunnel incision in group B. Mean corneal astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism(SIA, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAand best correct vision acuity(BCVAwere observed in pre- and post-operation at 1d; 1wk; 1mo.RESULTS: The mean astigmatism had statistically significant difference between two groups at 1d; 1wk; 1mo after operation(PPP>0.05. UCVA≥0.5 and BCVA≥0.8 had statistically significant difference at 1d; 1wk(PP>0.05.CONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification with scleral tunnel incision remove combined intraocular lens(IOLimplantation has small changes to corneal astigmatism. By selecting personalized corneal incision according to the corneal topography might be more beneficial.

  10. DOME-SHAPED MACULA IN MYOPIC EYES: Twelve-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Arias, Luis; Choudhry, Netan; Millan, Eduard; Flores, Ignacio; Rubio, Marcos J; Cobos, Estefanía; García-Bru, Pere; Filloy, Alejandro; Caminal, Josep M

    2017-04-01

    To study the long-term clinical course of dome-shaped macula in myopic eyes and to evaluate treatment efficacy for subretinal fluid (SRF) as a related complication. A retrospective, single-center consecutive case series study was conducted. The authors analyzed myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula in patients who presented for evaluation of decreased vision. Dome-shaped macula was defined as a convexity of the retina-choroidal macular complex seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. All patients were followed for at least 12 months (mean, 25 months). Fluorescein angiography and/or indocyanine green angiography were performed in cases with SRF to rule out choroidal neovascularization. A total of 56 dome-shaped macula eyes from 36 patients were included in the study (bilateral in 55% of patients). Mean patient age was 56.9 ± 13.1 years. The mean spherical equivalent was -9.1 ± 6.0 diopters; 53% of eyes were considered highly myopic (>-6 diopters) and 47% of eyes were mildly myopic. In most cases (37 eyes; 66.1%), the dome-shaped macula was detected on vertical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scan patterns. No significant changes (P ≥ 0.1) were observed in mean best-corrected visual acuity or mean central foveal thickness from baseline to final follow-up. Subretinal fluid was present in 29 eyes (51.8%) at baseline, with no differences in best-corrected visual acuity in eyes with and without SRF (P ≥ 0.05). Nineteen of the 29 SRF eyes were treated: 8 underwent low-fluence photodynamic therapy, whereas 7 received bevacizumab, and 4 ranibizumab. No significant differences were found between treated and untreated SRF eyes in best-corrected visual acuity improvement (P ≥ 0.1), or complete resolution of SRF (P ≥ 0.1). Likewise, photodynamic therapy did not yield any significant benefit versus untreated eyes in best-corrected visual acuity or improvement of SRF. Dome-shaped macula is a condition associated with myopic eyes that seems

  11. Simulated astigmatism impairs academic-related performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    implications for the clinical management of non-amblyogenic levels of astigmatism in relation to academic performance in children. Correction of low to moderate levels of astigmatism may improve the functional performance of children in the classroom. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  12. Photorefractive keratectomy for post-penetrating keratoplasty myopia and astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Ozdek, S C; Akata, F; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    2000-11-01

    To determine the safety, effectiveness, and predictability of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of myopia and astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty. Gazi University, Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey. Photorefractive keratectomy was performed in 16 eyes of 16 patients with postkeratoplasty myopia and astigmatism who were unable to wear glasses due to anisometropia and were contact lens intolerant. They were examined for uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and corneal transplant integrity before and after surgery. The mean follow-up after PRK was 26.0 months +/- 15.7 (SD) (range 12 to 63 months). The mean preoperative spherical equivalent refraction of -4.47 +/- 1.39 diopters (D) was -3.39 +/- 1.84 D (P >.05) at the last postoperative visit and the mean preoperative cylinder of -5.62 +/- 2.88 D was -3.23 +/- 1.70 D (P <.05); refractive regression correlated with the amount of ablation performed. The BSCVA decreased in 3 eyes (18.8%), and the UCVA decreased in 2 (12.5%). Six eyes (37.5%) had grade 2 to 3 haze, which resolved spontaneously in 4 eyes within a relatively long time but caused a decrease in BSCVA in 2 (12.5%). Two of the eyes (12.5%) had a rejection episode after PRK and were successfully treated with topical steroids. Photorefractive keratectomy to correct postkeratoplasty myopia and astigmatism appears to be less effective and less predictable than PRK for naturally occurring myopia and astigmatism. Corneal haze and refractive regression are more prevalent, and patient satisfaction is not good.

  13. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Color Probability Codes in Myopic Glaucoma Eyes After Applying a Myopic Normative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Bo Ram; Kim, Dong Myung; Park, Ki Ho; Jeoung, Jin Wook

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the optical coherence tomography (OCT) color probability codes based on a myopic normative database and to investigate whether the implementation of the myopic normative database can improve the OCT diagnostic ability in myopic glaucoma. Comparative validity study. In this study, 305 eyes (154 myopic healthy eyes and 151 myopic glaucoma eyes) were included. A myopic normative database was obtained based on myopic healthy eyes. We evaluated the agreement between OCT color probability codes after applying the built-in and myopic normative databases, respectively. Another 120 eyes (60 myopic healthy eyes and 60 myopic glaucoma eyes) were included and the diagnostic performance of OCT color codes using a myopic normative database was investigated. The mean weighted kappa (Kw) coefficients for quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, clock-hour RNFL thickness, and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness were 0.636, 0.627, and 0.564, respectively. The myopic normative database showed a higher specificity than did the built-in normative database in quadrant RNFL thickness, clock-hour RNFL thickness, and GCIPL thickness (P database in quadrant RNFL thickness, clock-hour RNFL thickness, and GCIPL thickness (P = .011, P = .004, P database. The implementation of a myopic normative database is needed to allow more precise interpretation of OCT color probability codes when used in myopic eyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vector analysis of low to moderate astigmatism with small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE): results of a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiamei; Wang, Yan; Wu, Wenjing; Xu, Lulu; Li, Xiaojing; Dou, Rui

    2015-01-24

    To evaluate the refractive outcomes for the correction of low to moderate astigmatism up to 1 year following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery. This retrospective study enrolled 98 eyes from 98 patients who underwent SMILE surgery for the correction of myopia and astigmatism. Only right eyes were included in this study to avoid the bias of orientation errors. The vector method was used to analyze the outcomes of astigmatism at 1 month, 6 months and 12 months after the procedure, including the double-angle plots, correction index (CI), index of success (IOS), angle of error (AofE) and magnitude of error (MofE). The effectiveness, safety, stability and predictability were also investigated during the 12-month follow-up. The preoperative cylinder ranged from -2.75 D to -0.25 D (average of -0.90±0.68 D), and the mean postoperative cylinder values were -0.24±0.29 D, -0.24±0.29 D, and -0.20±0.27 D at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. The mean astigmatism in vector form was -0.14 D×27.19° at 1 month, -0.13 D×27.29° at 6 months, and -0.10 D×28.63° at 12 months after surgery. The CI was 1.00±0.32 and IOS was 0.29±0.44 at the 12-month follow-up. Significant negative correlations were found between the CI and absolute target induced astigmatism (TIA) value, and positive correlations were found between the IOS and absolute AofE value (Psafe in correcting low to moderate astigmatism, and stable refractive outcomes were observed at the long-term follow-up. The undercorrection of astigmatism could possibly be influenced by attempted astigmatism correction preoperatively, the axis rotation during the surgery or wound healing postoperatively. This study suggested that nomograms should be adjusted in correcting astigmatism with SMILE surgery.

  15. Prevalence of correctable visual impairment in primary school children in Qassim Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldebasi, Yousef H

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of refractive errors (RE), which is a common cause of treatable visual impairment among children, varies widely. We assessed the prevalence of correctable visual impairment (uncorrected RE) in primary school children in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 21 primary schools. A total of 5176 children (mean age 9.5±1.8 years), 2573 boys (49.7%) and 2603 girls (50.3%), underwent a comprehensive eye examination. The examinations consisted of visual acuity, autorefraction, cover test, ocular motility, pupillary evaluation, anterior segment examination, cycloplegic auto-refraction and dilated fundus examination with direct ophthalmoscopy. The children were divided into groups based on their age and gender. The overall prevalence of RE in the better eye was 18.6% (n=963), and the prevalence of uncorrected RE 16.3% (n=846), with only 2.3% (n=127) of children wearing spectacles during examination. The prevalence of uncorrected myopia (5.8%) and myopic astigmatism (5.4%) was higher compared to that of hyperopic astigmatism (2.7%), mixed astigmatism (1.7%) and hyperopia (0.7%). The anisometropia prevalence was 3.6%. Risks for astigmatism, myopia and anisometropia were positively associated with age. In addition, myopia and anisometropia risks were also associated with female gender, while risk of astigmatism was correlated with male gender. Few children with vision reducing RE wore spectacles; an additional 16.3% of children could benefit from spectacle prescription. The prevalence of uncorrected RE in children is relatively high and represents an important public health problem in school-aged children in Qassim province. Performance of routine periodical vision screening throughout childhood may reverse this situation. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Variation of contrast sensitivity after femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis in changes environments

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    Jing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the difference of contrast sensitivity(CSin photopic and scotopic environments in eyes with myopia and myopic astigmatism operated with femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis(femto-LASIKand laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK.METHODS: In a prospective study 160 myopia and myopic astigmatism patients' eyes were involved, which accepted femto-LASIK or LASIK in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2012. The myopia degree was -1.50~-10.00D, the astigmatism degree ≤-6.0D. Eighty eyes were treated with femto-LASIK in group A, and 80 eyes were treated with LASIK in group B, All patients in the treatment group completed the final 6mo of follow-up. The uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAand the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity(BSCVA, objective and manifest refractions, results of slit-lamp examination, the side effects, intraocular pressure, corneal topography, CS in photopic and scotopic environments were noted.RESULTS: All of operations on 160 cases were successful without severe complication after 6 mo follow-up. CS of femto-LASIK group(group Aat each spatial frequency environment were higher than that of LASIK group(group B. In group A, after 1mo the photopic CS, after 3mo of scotopic CS recovered to the preoperative level, 6mo after surgery improved than before the operation. In group B, after 3mo photopic CS to the preoperative level, scotopic CS at 6mo after operation was still not recovered to the preoperative level.CONCLUSION:Femto-LASIK for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism, in improving the postoperative contrast sensitivity under shade environment has more advantages than LASIK.

  17. Comparison of the effects of cylindrical correction with and without iris recognition technology in wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsung-Jen; Lin, Yu-Huang; Chang, David C-K; Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Wang, I-Jong

    2012-04-01

      To analyse the magnitude of cylindrical corrections over which cyclotorsion compensation with iris recognition (IR) technology is beneficial during wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.   A retrospectively comparative case series.   Fifty-four eyes that underwent wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis without IR (non-IR group) and 53 eyes that underwent wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis with IR (IR group) were recruited.   Subgroup analysis based on baseline astigmatism were: a low degree of astigmatism (≥1.00 D to <2.00 D), a moderate degree of astigmatism (≥2.00 D to <3.00 D) and a high degree of astigmatism (≥3.00 D).   Vector and non-vector analyses were used for comparison.   The mean cylinder was -1.89 ± 0.76 D in the non-IR group and -2.00 ± 0.77 D in the IR group. Postoperatively, 38 eyes (74.50%) in the IR group and 31 eyes (57.50%) in the non-IR group were within ± 0.50 D of the target induced astigmatism vector (P = 0.063). The difference vector was 0.49 ± 0.28 in the IR group and 0.63 ± 0.40 in the non-IR group (P = 0.031). In the analysis of subgroups, the magnitude of error was significantly lower in the moderate IR subgroup than that of the moderate non-IR subgroup (P = 0.034). Furthermore, the moderate IR subgroup had a lower mean difference vector (P = 0.0078) and a greater surgically induced astigmatism (P = 0.036) than those of the moderate non-IR group.   Wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis for the treatment of astigmatism using IR technology was effective and accurate for the treatment of myopic astigmatism. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. A comparison between Goldmann applanation tonometry and dynamic contour tonometry after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh, Afshin Lotfi; Fouladi, Rohollah F; Hashemi, Hassan; Beheshtnejad, Amir Houshang

    2013-02-01

    The intraocular pressure (IOP) could be measured by both Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometry (DCT). Although these two methods have been discussed widely after laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy (LASIK), there is little data in the cases undergoing photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). We aimed to compare the changes of IOP measurements obtained by GAT and DCT after PRK for myopia/myopic astigmatism. This prospective study enrolled 77 candidates (154 eyes) for PRK to correct myopia or myopic astigmatism and 30 matched patients (30 eyes) with myopia or myopic astigmatism who served as controls. Changes of the IOP measurements (ΔIOP) obtained by GAT and DCT before and at 6 months after PRK in the operated eyes, and at baseline and 6 months later in the controls, were documented. Changes of the central corneal thickness (ΔCCT) were determined in the same fashion. The mean IOP readings obtained by DCT were comparable before and at 6 months after procedure (18.34 ± 3.03 mmHg and 17.87 ± 2.61 mmHg respectively, p = 0.41); whereas the mean IOP reading obtained by GAT decreased significantly 6 months postoperatively (17.92 ± 3.63 mmHg and 16.25 ± 2.66 mmHg, p vs 0.07 ± 0.44 mmHg, p = 0.02). The mean DCT-obtained ΔIOP was just marginally insignificant between the operated and nonoperated eyes (-0.63 ± 0.59 vs 0.02 ± 0.38 mmHg respectively; p = 0.09). The authors recommend DCT after PRK in the cases with myopia or myopic astigmatism.

  19. Influence of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Rong Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effect of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients. METHODS: The cataract patients were selected in our hospital. The patients were divided into control group(corneal limbus opposite curved scleral tunnel incision groupand observation group(above the top of cornea or temporal transparent corneal incision grouprandomly. At 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the change of corneal astigmatism and vision of the patients in two groups were compared and analyzed. RESULTS:Compared with control group, 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the average corneal astigmatism and surgically induced corneal astigmatism of the patients in observation group were decreased significantly. The visual acuity and corrected visual acuity were increased significantly. There was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION: Center distance and small incision corneal phacoemulsification can reduce postoperative astigmatism and improve postoperative visual acuity for cataract patients. It provides guarantee for further strengthen the clinical treated effect for cataract patients.

  20. Myopic loss aversion revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Blavatskyy, Pavlo; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we reexamine several experimental papers on myopic loss aversion by analyzing individual rather than aggregate choice patterns. We find that the behavior of the majority of subjects is inconsistent with the hypothesis of myopic loss aversion.

  1. Laser subepithelial keratomileusis for myopia of -6 to -10 diopters with astigmatism with the MEL60 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, Kamil; Hondur, Ahmet; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, predictability, and safety of laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) for treatment of high myopia with astigmatism. LASEK was performed in 61 eyes of 36 consecutive patients with myopic spherical equivalent refraction of -6.00 to -10.00 D using the Aesculap-Meditec MEL60 excimer laser. Data were collected prospectively with a follow-up of 6 to 17 months. Main outcome measures recorded were UCVA, BSCVA, residual refractive error, corneal haze, and complications. Ninety-six percent of eyes achieved 20/40 or better UCVA at 1 month. At 12 months, 64% of eyes achieved 20/20 and 92% achieved 20/40 or better UCVA. Two eyes lost 2 lines of BSCVA at 6 or 12 months. Accuracy of correction was +/- 0.50 D from emmetropia in 82% of eyes, and +/- 1.00 D in 90% at 12 months. No eye showed more than grade 1 haze. Grade 1 haze was observed in three eyes at 12 months. One patient had mild postoperative keratitis, which was successfully treated. LASEK with the Aesculap-Meditec MEL60 excimer laser appeared to be safe, effective, and highly predictable in treating high myopia.

  2. Novel myopic refractive correction with transepithelial very high-fluence collagen cross-linking applied in a customized pattern: early clinical results of a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos LaserVision.gr Institute, Athens, Greece, and New York Medical School, New York, NY, USA Background: The purpose of this study is to report the safety and efficacy of a new application of collagen cross-linking using a novel device to achieve predictable refractive myopic changes in virgin corneas. Methods: Four cases were treated with a novel device employing very high-fluence collagen cross-linking applied in a myopic pattern. Prior to treatment, riboflavin solution was applied to the intact epithelium. The collagen cross-linking device was then engaged for a total of 12 J/cm2, to be applied transepithelially in a predetermined pattern. Cornea clarity, corneal keratometry, and corneal topography were evaluated by both Placido disc and Scheimpflug imaging, along with cornea anterior segment optical coherence tomography and endothelial cell counts. Results: An average of 2.3 diopters was achieved in the first week in all four cases treated with the very high-fluence myopic collagen cross-linking intervention. There was a slight regression to 1.44 diopters at 1 month, which remained stable at 6-month follow-up. The mean keratometry change was from 44.90 diopters to 43.46 diopters. There was no significant change in endothelial cell counts or corneal clarity. There was some mild change in epithelial thickness distribution, with the treated area showing a slight but homogeneous reduction in mean thickness from 52 µm to 44 µm. Conclusion: This report describes the novel application of very high-fluence collagen cross-linking with a predictable well defined myopic refractive (flattening corneal effect. This technique has the advantages of essentially no postoperative morbidity, immediate visual rehabilitation, and the potential for tapering until the desired result is achieved. Keywords: myopia, refractive correction, high-fluence collagen cross-linking, clinical results

  3. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail: pbarriga@cyllene.uwa.edu.au; Zhao Chunnong [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Blair, David G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2005-06-06

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen.

  4. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, Pablo J.; Zhao Chunnong; Blair, David G.

    2005-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen

  5. Refractive errors in Cameroonians diagnosed with complete oculocutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eballé AO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballé1,3, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Christelle Noche4, Marie Evodie Akono Zoua2, Andin Viola Dohvoma21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon, 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Yaoundé Gynaeco-obstetric and Paediatric Hospital. Yaoundé, Cameroon; 4Faculty of Medicine, Université des Montagnes. Bangangté, CameroonBackground: Albinism causes significant eye morbidity and amblyopia in children. The aim of this study was to determine the refractive state in patients with complete oculocutaneous albinism who were treated at the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon and evaluate its effect on vision.Methods: We carried out this retrospective study at the ophthalmology unit of our hospital. All oculocutaneous albino patients who were treated between March 1, 2003 and December 31, 2011 were included.Results: Thirty-five patients (70 eyes diagnosed with complete oculocutaneous albinism were enrolled. Myopic astigmatism was the most common refractive error (40%. Compared with myopic patients, those with myopic astigmatism and hypermetropic astigmatism were four and ten times less likely, respectively, to demonstrate significant improvement in distance visual acuity following optical correction.Conclusion: Managing refractive errors is an important way to reduce eye morbidity-associated low vision in oculocutaneous albino patients.Keywords: albinism, visual acuity, refraction, Cameroon

  6. Alpins and thibos vectorial astigmatism analyses: proposal of a linear regression model between methods

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    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine linear regression models between Alpins descriptive indices and Thibos astigmatic power vectors (APV, assessing the validity and strength of such correlations. METHODS: This case series prospectively assessed 62 eyes of 31 consecutive cataract patients with preoperative corneal astigmatism between 0.75 and 2.50 diopters in both eyes. Patients were randomly assorted among two phacoemulsification groups: one assigned to receive AcrySof®Toric intraocular lens (IOL in both eyes and another assigned to have AcrySof Natural IOL associated with limbal relaxing incisions, also in both eyes. All patients were reevaluated postoperatively at 6 months, when refractive astigmatism analysis was performed using both Alpins and Thibos methods. The ratio between Thibos postoperative APV and preoperative APV (APVratio and its linear regression to Alpins percentage of success of astigmatic surgery, percentage of astigmatism corrected and percentage of astigmatism reduction at the intended axis were assessed. RESULTS: Significant negative correlation between the ratio of post- and preoperative Thibos APVratio and Alpins percentage of success (%Success was found (Spearman's ρ=-0.93; linear regression is given by the following equation: %Success = (-APVratio + 1.00x100. CONCLUSION: The linear regression we found between APVratio and %Success permits a validated mathematical inference concerning the overall success of astigmatic surgery.

  7. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set. The myopic stable set is defined for a very general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. We show that the myopic stable set exists and is non-empty. Under minor

  8. Unilateral Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy Presented as Anisometropic Astigmatism: 3 Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sun Jeon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD is typically considered bilateral and asymptomatic. However, few case reports on patients with unilateral PPCD with asymmetric refractive error have mentioned anisometropic amblyopia development. In support of this, we report 3 cases of unilateral PPCD that presented as anisometropic astigmatism. Visual prognosis related to amblyopia development is discussed. Case Presentation: All 3 patients had a band lesion in the affected eye and a difference of at least 1.5 diopters in cylindrical refractive error between their eyes. The affected eye had a greater amount of astigmatism in all cases. Two patients (Cases 1 and 2 also had amblyopia in the affected eye. Case 1 was a 25-year-old male with a unilateral PPCD diagnosis and a band lesion involving the visual axis. Case 2 was an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with unilateral PPCD. The boy was treated with occlusion and atropine therapy over a 2-year period. Case 3 was a 4-year-old girl diagnosed with unilateral PPCD. The girl had a 30-month history of corrective spectacle use and had no amblyopia. In all cases, the corneal endothelial cell count was lower in the affected eye than in the unaffected contralateral eye. Conclusions: Practitioners should closely monitor patients with unilateral PPCD for astigmatic anisometropia and amblyopia development. Visual prognosis for patients with unilateral PPCD may be related to lesion position, age at diagnosis, astigmatism severity, and early-childhood corrective spectacle use.

  9. Desempenho visual na correção de miopia com óculos e lentes de contato gelatinosas Visual performance in myopic correction with spectacles and soft contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Barth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o desempenho visual, por meio da acuidade visual LogMAR de alto contraste, sensibilidade ao contraste e análise de frentes de onda de indivíduos portadores de miopia com ou sem astigmatismo, corrigidos com óculos e com três diferentes lentes de contato gelatinosas [Acuvue® 2 (Vistacon J&J Vision Care Inc., EUA, Biomedics® 55 (Ocular Science, EUA e Focus® 1-2 week (Ciba Vision Corporation, EUA]. MÉTODOS: Estudo clínico e prospectivo com intervenção em amostra constituída por quarenta indivíduos portadores de miopia entre -1,00 D e -4,50 D, sem ou com astigmatismo até -0,75 D. RESULTADOS: A sobrerefração objetiva realizada pelo aberrômetro Zywave detectou diferença significativa entre as lentes de contato gelatinosas Acuvue® 2 e Biomedics® 55, em relação aos componentes refrativos esfera e equivalente esférico, que se mostraram hipercorrigidos em relação às lentes de contato gelatinosas Focus® 1-2 week. A acuidade visual LogMAR e sensibilidade ao contraste não detectaram diferenças no desempenho visual com os óculos e com as três lentes de contato gelatinosas. A análise de frentes de onda detectou diferença significativa na aberração de terceira ordem sem e com as lentes de contato gelatinosas, com melhor desempenho visual com as lentes de contato gelatinosas Acuvue® 2 e Biomedics® 55. CONCLUSÕES: A análise de frentes de onda detectou diferenças no desempenho visual com óculos e com as lentes de contato gelatinosas, sendo, portanto, uma medida mais sensível da função visual que a acuidade visual LogMAR de alto contraste e a sensibilidade ao contraste. O modelo de avaliação de desempenho visual com análise de frentes de onda utilizado nesta investigação serve de modelo para pesquisas semelhantes.PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual performance by high contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and wavefront in myopic patients with or without astigmatism corrected with spectacles and

  10. Treatment of corneal astigmatism with the new small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) laser technique: Is treatment of high degree astigmatism equally accurate, stable and safe as treatment of low degree astigmatism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Lyhne, Niels; Grauslund, Jakob

    .6%) treated for low astigmatism and four eyes (3.2%) treated for high astigmatism (P=0.02) had lost two or more lines of BSCVA after three months. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind, and our results indicate that SMILE treatment of high degree astigmatism is equally accurate and stable...... as treatment of low degree astigmatism. More eyes treated for high degree astigmatism lose two or more lines of BSCVA up to three months after surgery. Keywords Refractive surgery, astigmatism, SMILE......Field: Ophthalmology Introduction: SMILE has proven effective in treatment of myopia and low degrees of astigmatism (less than 2 dioptres (D)), but there are no studies on treatment of high degrees of astigmatism (2 or more D). The aim of this study was to compare results after SMILE treatment...

  11. Two-year results of femtosecond assisted LASIK versus PRK for different severity of astigmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Miraftab; Hassan Hashemi; Soheila Asgari

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To compare two-year results of femtosecond laser assisted LASIK (femto-LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in terms of astigmatism correction in patients with less than 2.0 diopters (D) of spherical error and more than 2.0 D of cylinder error. Methods: In this retrospective study, data were extracted from 100 patient charts. The two study groups were matched by age, gender, and baseline uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and refractive astigmatism (RA). Preoperativ...

  12. Optical and Biometric Characteristics of Anisomyopia in Human Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yibin; Tarrant, Janice; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of higher order optical aberrations and thus retinal image degradation in the development of myopia, through the characterization of anisomyopia in human adults in terms of their optical and biometric characteristics. Methods The following data were collected from both eyes of fifteen young adult anisometropic myopes and sixteen isometropic myopes: subjective and objective refractive errors, corneal power and shape, monochromatic optical aberrations, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth, and best corrected visual acuity. Monochromatic aberrations were analyzed in terms of their higher order components, and further analyzed in terms of 31 optical quality metrics. Interocular differences for the two groups (anisomyopes vs. isomyopes) were compared and the relationship between measured ocular parameters and refractive errors also analyzed across all eyes. Results As expected, anisomyopes and isomyopes differed significantly in terms of interocular differences in vitreous chamber depth, axial length and refractive error. However, interocular differences in other optical properties showed no significant intergroup differences. Overall, higher myopia was associated with deeper anterior and vitreous chambers, higher astigmatism, more prolate corneas, and more positive spherical aberration. Other measured optical and biometric parameters were not significantly correlated with spherical refractive error, although some optical quality metrics and corneal astigmatism were significantly correlated with refractive astigmatism. Conclusions An optical cause for anisomyopia related to increased higher order aberrations is not supported by our data. Corneal shape changes and increased astigmatism in more myopic eyes may be a by-product of the increased anterior chamber growth in these eyes; likewise, the increased positive spherical aberration in more myopic eyes may be a product of myopic eye growth. PMID:21797915

  13. Progression of Myopic Maculopathy during 18-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuxin; Yokoi, Tae; Nagaoka, Natsuko; Shinohara, Kosei; Onishi, Yuka; Ishida, Tomoka; Yoshida, Takeshi; Xu, Xian; Jonas, Jost B; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2018-06-01

    To examine the progression pattern of myopic maculopathy. Retrospective, observational case series. Highly myopic patients who had been followed up for 10 years or more. Using fundus photographs, myopic features were differentiated according to Meta-analysis of Pathologic Myopia (META-PM) Study Group recommendations. Progression pattern of maculopathy. The study included 810 eyes of 432 patients (mean age, 42.3±16.8 years; mean axial length, 28.8±1.9 mm; mean follow-up, 18.7±7.1 years). The progression rate of myopic maculopathy was 47.0 per 1000 eye-years. Within the pathologic myopia (PM) group (n = 521 eyes), progression of myopic maculopathy was associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; P = 0.001), older age (OR, 1.03; P = 0.002), longer axial length (OR, 1.20; P = 0.007), greater axial elongation (OR, 1.45; P = 0.005), and development of parapapillary atrophy (PPA; OR, 3.14; P < 0.001). Diffuse atrophy, found in 217 eyes without choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or lacquer cracks (LCs) at baseline, progressed in 111 (51%) eyes, leading to macular diffuse atrophy (n = 64; 64/111 or 58%), patchy atrophy (n = 59; 53%), myopic CNV (n = 18; 16%), LCs (n = 9; 5%), and patchy-related macular atrophy (n = 3; 3%). Patchy atrophy, detected in 63 eyes without CNV or LCs at baseline, showed progression in 60 eyes (95%), leading to enlargement of original patchy atrophy (n = 59; 59/60 or 98%), new patchy atrophy (n = 29; 48%), CNV-related macular atrophy (n = 13; 22%), and patchy-related macular atrophy (n = 5; 8%). Of 66 eyes with LCs, 43 eyes (65%) showed progression with development of new patchy atrophy (n = 38; 38/43 or 88%) and new LCs (n = 7; 16%). Reduction in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was associated mainly (all P < 0.001) with the development of CNV or CNV-related macular atrophy and enlargement of macular atrophy. The most frequent progression patterns were an extension of peripapillary diffuse atrophy to macular diffuse

  14. SR and LR Union Suture for the Treatment of Myopic Strabismus Fixus: Is Scleral Fixation Necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol P. S. Lam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of scleral fixation SR and LR union suture and nonscleral fixation union suture for the treatment of myopic strabismus fixus. Methods. Retrospective review of 32 eyes of 22 patients with myopic strabismus fixus who had undergone union suture of superior rectus (SR and lateral rectus (LR with or without scleral fixation, and follow-up longer than 6 months at Hong Kong Eye Hospital from 2006 to 2013. Surgical techniques and outcomes in terms of ocular alignment are analyzed. Results. There is significant overall improvement both in postoperative angle of esodeviation (P0.05. Conclusions. Union suture of SR and LR is an effective procedure in correcting myopic strabismus fixus. Fixation of the union suture to the sclera does not improve surgical outcome.

  15. Single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy in myopia and astigmatism: 18-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Moghaddam, Soheil; Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed; Salmanian, Bahram; Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Adili-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Noorizadeh, Farsad; Eslani, Medi

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the long-term quantitative and qualitative optical outcomes of 1-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) to correct myopia and astigmatism. Bina Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Prospective interventional case series. Eyes with myopia with or without astigmatism were evaluated. One-step transepithelial PRK was performed with an aberration-free aspheric optimized profile and the Amaris 500 laser. Eighteen-month follow-up results for refraction, visual acuities, vector analysis, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, postoperative pain, and haze grade were assessed. The study enrolled 146 eyes (74 patients). At the end of follow-up, 93.84% of eyes had an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better and 97.94% of eyes were within ±0.5 diopter of the targeted spherical refraction. On vector analysis, the mean correction index value was close to 1 and the mean index of success and magnitude of error values were close to 0. The achieved correction vector was on an axis counterclockwise to the axis of the intended correction. Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivities and ocular and corneal spherical, cylindrical, and corneal coma aberrations significantly improved (all P < .001). A slight amount of trefoil aberration was induced (P < .001, ocular aberration; P < .01, corneal aberration). No eye lost more than 1 line of corrected distance visual acuity. No eye had a haze grade of 2+ degrees or higher throughout the follow-up. Eighteen-month results indicate the efficacy and safety of transepithelial PRK to correct myopia and astigmatism. It improved refraction and quality of vision. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification with and without correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion: randomized controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ian

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To report the impact of posture-related ocular cyclotorsion on one surgeon\\'s surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) results and the variance in SIA. SETTING: Institute of Eye Surgery, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study included eyes that had phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Eyes were randomly assigned to have (intervention group) or not have (control group) correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the intervention group, the clear corneal incision was placed precisely at the 120-degree meridian with instruments designed to correct posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the control group, the surgeon endeavored to place the incision at the 120-degree meridian, but without markings. RESULTS: The intervention group comprised 41 eyes and the control group, 61 eyes. The mean absolute SIA was 0.74 diopters (D) in the intervention group and 0.78 D in the control group; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired 2-tailed Student t test). The variance in SIA was 0.29 D(2) and 0.31 D(2), respectively; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired F test). CONCLUSIONS: Attempts to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion did not influence SIA or its variance in a single-surgeon series. These results should be interpreted with full appreciation of the limitations of currently available techniques to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion in the clinical setting.

  17. Clinical evaluation of low vision and central foveal thickness in highly myopic cataract eyes after phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Li Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To retrospectively evaluate central foveal thickness in highly myopic eyes with best correct visual acuity(BCVAMETHODS: In this retrospective clinical study, we consecutively recruited 70 low highly myopic cataract subjects(70 eyesunderwent Phaco. Postoperative visits were performed at 1wk, 1 and 3mo. Postoperative BCVA were recorded and further divided into 2 groups with BCVARESULTS: The ratio of BCVAPr=-0.716, PCONCLUSION: In this study, BCVA is improved after 3mo follow up. There has significant correlation between postoperative BCVA and central foveal thickness.

  18. Retinal vessel caliber and myopic retinopathy: the blue mountains eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; Burlutsky, George; Wong, Tien Y; Wang, Jie Jin

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate changes in the retinal vasculature in eyes with myopic retinopathy. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Emmetropic and myopic participants from the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline survey were included in this study. Myopia was defined as a refractive error of less than -1.00 diopter. Myopic retinopathy was defined if either staphyloma, lacquer crack, Fuchs' spot or chorioretinal atrophy were present in myopic eyes. Retinal vascular caliber was measured from fundus photographs using standardized methods. The association of retinal vascular caliber with myopic retinopathy was assessed using generalized estimating equation models. A total of 2598 eyes of 1409 subjects were selected from 3654 baseline participants, with 2076 emmetropic eyes (normal controls), 486 myopic eyes without myopic retinopathy (myopic controls) and 36 myopic eyes with myopic retinopathy (cases). After adjusting for age, gender, height, body mass index and blood pressure, eyes with myopic retinopathy had significantly narrower mean arteriolar (166.6μm) and venular caliber (213.3μm), compared to normal (188.1μm and 226.9μm, respectively) or myopic control eyes (190.4μm and 227.0μm, respectively) (all P retinopathy and the two control groups remained significant after additional adjustment for refraction (all P retinopathy is associated with attenuation of retinal vessels.

  19. Two-year results of femtosecond assisted LASIK versus PRK for different severity of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraftab, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila

    2018-03-01

    To compare two-year results of femtosecond laser assisted LASIK (femto-LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in terms of astigmatism correction in patients with less than 2.0 diopters (D) of spherical error and more than 2.0 D of cylinder error. In this retrospective study, data were extracted from 100 patient charts. The two study groups were matched by age, gender, and baseline uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and refractive astigmatism (RA). Preoperative astigmatism was categorized as mild: 2.00 to LASIK and PRK groups was respectively -3.15 ± 0.94 D (-7.00 to -2.00 D) and -3.29 ± 0.95 D (-6.25 to -2.00 D) at baseline ( P  = 0.284), and -0.61 ± 0.40 D and -0.62 ± 0.60 D one year after surgery ( P  = 0.674), but significantly lower in the femto-LASIK group (-0.61 ± 0.39 vs. -0.83 ± 0.56 D, P  = 0.021) at 2 years when the rate of residual astigmatism more than 1.0 D was 6.3% in the femto-LASIK and 19.6% in the PRK group ( P  = 0.046). Mean UDVA in the femto-LASIK group (0.02 ± 0.05 logMAR) was better than the PRK group (0.06 ± 0.10 logMAR) ( P  = 0.025). Mean corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was not significantly different between groups (0.01 ± 0.03 vs. 0.01 ± 0.04 logMAR, P  = 0.714). Both groups had 1-4 Snellen lines CDVA improvement. The three subgroups of baseline astigmatism did not differ significantly in terms of residual astigmatism (all P  > 0.05). However, in subgroups with ≥4.00 D cylinder, there was less astigmatic regression at 1 year in the femto-LASIK group (0.28 ± 0.43 D) than the PRK group (0.54 ± 0.68 D) ( P  = 0.007). Our results pointed to better two-year results with femto-LASIK in the treatment of different degrees of astigmatism. UDVA improvement was superior with femto-LASIK, but the two methods did not significantly differ in terms of CDVA improvement.

  20. Prevalence of high astigmatism, eyeglass wear, and poor visual acuity among Native American grade school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending school on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Noncycloplegic autorefraction was conducted on the right and left eye of each child using the Nikon Retinomax K+ autorefractor, and monocular recognition acuity was tested using ETDRS logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) letter charts. Tohono O'odham children had a high prevalence of high astigmatism (42% had > or = 1.00 D in the right or left eye) and the axis of astigmatism was uniformly with-the-rule. However, only a small percentage of children arrived at the vision screening wearing glasses, and the prevalence of poor visual acuity (20/40 or worse in either eye) was high (35%). There was a significant relation between amount of astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity with each additional diopter of astigmatism resulting in an additional 1 logMAR line reduction in visual acuity. Uncorrected astigmatism and poor visual acuity are prevalent among Tohono O'odham children. The results highlight the importance of improving glasses-wearing compliance, determining barriers to receiving eye care, and initiating public education programs regarding the importance of early identification and correction of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.

  1. Corneal and refractive astigmatism in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children with a high prevalence of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, V; Miller, J M; Harvey, E M

    1999-12-01

    To examine the relation between corneal and refractive astigmatism in a sample of pre-school-age Native American children with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Subjects were 250 Tohono O'Odham children, 3 to 5 years of age. Each child had corneal astigmatism measured with the Marco Nidek KM-500 portable autokeratometer without pupil dilation, and with the Nikon Retinomax K-Plus portable autorefractor/autokeratometer without and with pupil dilation. Refractive astigmatism was measured using the Retinomax K-Plus, with cycloplegia, confirmed by retinoscopy. Corneal astigmatism exceeded refractive astigmatism, with a median vector dioptric difference of 0.88 D for the KM-500, 0.76 D for the Retinomax K-Plus without dilation, and 0.75 for the Retinomax K-Plus with dilation. The relation between corneal and refractive astigmatism was adequately described by the modification by Grosvenor et al. of Javal's rule, but not by laval's rule. The results are in agreement with data reported previously for older Native American and non-Native American populations. The modified laval's rule adequately describes the relation between corneal and refractive astigmatism in a population; however, this rule does not provide accurate prediction of refractive astigmatism in individual children or adults.

  2. Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Lyhne, Niels; Grauslund, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    surgery was 0.07 ± 0.03 (logMAR). However, 12 eyes (1.6 %) lost 2 or more lines of CDVA from before surgery to 3 months postoperatively. Simultaneous treatment of up to 3.00 D of astigmatism was not associated with less predictable refractive outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In the short term, SMILE seemed......PURPOSE: To study the outcomes of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients treated for myopia or myopic astigmatism with SMILE, using a VisuMax(®) femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany...

  3. Orbital angular momentum of general astigmatic modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Jorrit; Nienhuis, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    We present an operator method to obtain complete sets of astigmatic Gaussian solutions of the paraxial wave equation. In case of general astigmatism, the astigmatic intensity and phase distribution of the fundamental mode differ in orientation. As a consequence, the fundamental mode has a nonzero orbital angular momentum, which is not due to phase singularities. Analogous to the operator method for the quantum harmonic oscillator, the corresponding astigmatic higher-order modes are obtained by repeated application of raising operators on the fundamental mode. The nature of the higher-order modes is characterized by a point on a sphere, in analogy with the representation of polarization on the Poincare sphere. The north and south poles represent astigmatic Laguerre-Gaussian modes, similar to circular polarization on the Poincare sphere, while astigmatic Hermite-Gaussian modes are associated with points on the equator, analogous to linear polarization. We discuss the propagation properties of the modes and their orbital angular momentum, which depends on the degree of astigmatism and on the location of the point on the sphere

  4. Advanced astigmatism-corrected tandem Wadsworth mounting for small-scale spectral broadband imaging spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Lin, Guan-yu

    2013-01-01

    Tandem gratings of double-dispersion mount make it possible to design an imaging spectrometer for the weak light observation with high spatial resolution, high spectral resolution, and high optical transmission efficiency. The traditional tandem Wadsworth mounting is originally designed to match the coaxial telescope and large-scale imaging spectrometer. When it is used to connect the off-axis telescope such as off-axis parabolic mirror, it presents lower imaging quality than to connect the coaxial telescope. It may also introduce interference among the detector and the optical elements as it is applied to the short focal length and small-scale spectrometer in a close volume by satellite. An advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting has been investigated to deal with the situation. The Wadsworth astigmatism-corrected mounting condition for which is expressed as the distance between the second concave grating and the imaging plane is calculated. Then the optimum arrangement for the first plane grating and the second concave grating, which make the anterior Wadsworth condition fulfilling each wavelength, is analyzed by the geometric and first order differential calculation. These two arrangements comprise the advanced Wadsworth mounting condition. The spectral resolution has also been calculated by these conditions. An example designed by the optimum theory proves that the advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting performs excellently in spectral broadband.

  5. One-year refractive results, contrast sensitivity, high-order aberrations and complications after myopic small-incision lenticule extraction (ReLEx SMILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekundo, Walter; Gertnere, Jana; Bertelmann, Thomas; Solomatin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    To report one year results of the first cohort of routine refractive lenticule extraction through a small incision (ReLEx SMILE) for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. Fifty-four eyes of 27 patients with spherical equivalent of -4.68 ± 1.29D who underwent routine ReLEx SMILE by a single surgeon were prospectively followed-up for 1 year. We used the VisuMax femtosecond laser system (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany) with a 500 kHz repetition rate. Folow-up intervals were at 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. We obtained following parameters: uncorrected (UDVA) and distance-corrected visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity, and wave front measurements. We also recorded all complications. Because of suction loss in one eye, 12-month results were obtained in 53 eyes as follows. After 1 year, 88% of eyes with plano target had an UDVA of 20/20 or better. Twelve percent of eyes lost 1 line of CDVA, while 31% gained 1 line and 3% gained 2 lines. The mean SE after 1 year was -0.19 ± 0.19. The mean refraction change between month 1 and 12 was 0.08 D. Neither mesopic nor photopic contrast sensitivity showed any significant changes. The high-order aberrations (HOA) increased from 0.17 to 0.27 μm (Malacara notation). No visually threatening complications were observed. In this first cohort, ReLEx SMILE produced satisfactory refractive outcomes with moderate induction of HOA and unaffected contrast sensitivity after 1 year.

  6. Postoperative Corneal Asphericity in Low, Moderate, and High Myopic Eyes After Transepithelial PRK Using a New Pulse Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, David T C; Holland, Simon P; Verma, Shwetabh; Hogden, John; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the postoperative asphericity in low, moderate, and high myopic eyes after combined transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy and SmartSurf ACE treatment (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions GmbH, Kleinostheim, Germany). In this retrospective case series, the outcomes of myopic SmartSurf ACE were evaluated at 3 months postoperatively in 106 eyes and divided into low (less than -4.125 diopters [D]), moderate (-4.125 to -6.25 D), and high (more than -6.25 D) myopia groups. In all cases, standard examinations and preoperative and postoperative corneal topography (SCHWIND Sirius) were performed. The analysis comprised evaluating the change in asphericity versus planned correction, comparing expected and achieved postoperative asphericity for all eyes, and comparison of the three groups in terms of the preoperative and postoperatively expected and achieved asphericity. RESULTS At 3 months postoperatively, the low myopia group (n = 33) improved average negative asphericity (Q = -0.04 ± 0.17 preoperative vs -0.19 ± 0.20 postoperative, P .10), but showed significant differences postoperatively (P < .007). The cohort's average preoperative corrected distance visual acuity was 0.01 ± 0.04 logMAR (range: 0.0 to 0.18 logMAR) and uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.03 ± 0.08 logMAR (range: -0.12 to 0.40 logMAR) 3 months postoperatively. SmartSurf ACE maintained or slightly improved preoperative corneal asphericity for low to moderate myopic corrections (up to -6.00 D). This may provide advantages in the quality of vision and the onset of presbyopic symptoms after laser refractive surgery in myopic patients. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(12):820-826.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Convergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy L; Harvey, Erin M; Twelker, J Daniel; Miller, Joseph M; Leonard-Green, Tina; Campus, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine rate of convergence insufficiency (CI) and accommodative insufficiency (AI) and assess the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism in school-age children. Methods. 3rd-8th-grade students completed the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and binocular vision testing with correction if prescribed. Students were categorized by astigmatism magnitude (no/low: <1.00 D, moderate: 1.00 D to <3.00 D, and high: ≥3.00 D), presence/absence of clinical signs of CI and AI, and presence of symptoms. Analyses determine rate of clinical CI and AI and symptomatic CI and AI and assessed the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism. Results. In the sample of 484 students (11.67 ± 1.81 years of age), rate of symptomatic CI was 6.2% and symptomatic AI 18.2%. AI was more common in students with CI than without CI. Students with AI only (p = 0.02) and with CI and AI (p = 0.001) had higher symptom scores than students with neither CI nor AI. Moderate and high astigmats were not at increased risk for CI or AI. Conclusions. With-the-rule astigmats are not at increased risk for CI or AI. High comorbidity rates of CI and AI and higher symptoms scores with AI suggest that research is needed to determine symptomatology specific to CI.

  8. Topography-guided treatment of irregular astigmatism with the wavelight excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankov, Mirko R; Panagopoulou, Sophia I; Tsiklis, Nikolaos S; Hajitanasis, Georgos C; Aslanides, loannis M; Pallikaris, loannis G

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and predictability of correcting high irregular astigmatism in symptomatic eyes with the use of topography-guided photoablation. In a prospective, non-comparative case series, 16 consecutive symptomatic eyes of 11 patients with small hyperopic and myopic excimer laser optical zones, decentered and irregular ablation after corneal graft, and corneal scars were operated. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest and cycloplegic refraction, and corneal topography, with asphericity and regularity, were analyzed. LASIK (n = 10) and photorefractive keratectomy (n = 6) were performed using the ALLEGRETTO WAVE excimer laser and T-CAT software (Topography-guided Customized Ablation Treatment; WaveLight Laser Technologie AG, Erlangen, Germany). In the LASIK group, UCVA improved from 0.81 +/- 0.68 IogMAR (20/130) (range: 0.2 to 2.0) to 0.29 +/- 0.21 logMAR (20/39) (range: 0.1 to 0.7) at 6 months. In the PRK group, mean UCVA improved from 0.89 +/- 0.87 IogMAR (20/157) (range: 0.1 to 2.0) to 0.42 +/- 0.35 logMAR (20/53) (range: 0.1 to 1.0) at 6 months. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity did not change significantly in either group. One PRK patient lost one line of BSCVA. Refractive cylinder for the LASIK group improved from -2.53 +/- 1.71 diopters (D) (range: -0.75 to -5.75 D) to -1.28 +/- 0.99 D (range: 0 to -2.50 D) at 6 months. Refractive cylinder in the PRK group improved from -2.21 +/- 2.11 D (range: -0.25 to -5.50 D) to -1.10 +/- 0.42 D (range: -0.50 to -1.50 D). Index of surface irregularity showed a decrease from 60 +/- 12 (range: 46 to 89) to 50 +/- 9 (range: 32 to 63) at 6 months in the LASIK group whereas no significant change was noted in the PRK group. Subjective symptoms, such as glare, halos, ghost images, starbursts, and monocular diplopia, were not present postoperatively. Topography-guided LASIK and PRK resulted in a significant reduction of refractive cylinder and

  9. Implantation of a Multifocal Toric Intraocular Lens after Radial Keratotomy and Cross-Linking with Hyperopia and Astigmatism Residues: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nuzzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Radial keratotomy is a refractive surgical technique, widely used in the 80s and early 90s to correct myopia and astigmatism, but now overcome by more recent laser techniques. Important consequences, often in patients with more than 45 years of age, are progressive hyperopic shift and/or an increase in corneal astigmatism, whose main cause seems to be an increase in the curvature radius of the central portion of the cornea. This seems to be due to radial keratotomy incisions – with the consequent need for cross-linking – intraocular pressure, and corneal biomechanical parameters. The authors propose phacoemulsification with a customized multifocal toric intraocular lens implantation to correct the induced shift and hyperopic astigmatism. A decent postoperative visual acuity was observed with good patient satisfaction. A specific protocol must be applied to optimize the correct diagnosis, presurgical evaluation and postsurgical outcomes that are to be maintained over time, without regressions.

  10. Prevalence of astigmatism in Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M

    2010-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of high astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. SureSight autorefraction measurements were obtained for 1461 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of astigmatism >2.00 diopters was 30% in Tohono O'odham children during infancy (6 months to O'odham infants show a high prevalence of astigmatism, which decreases in the second year of life. However, the prevalence of high astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children increases by age 2 to <3 years to a level near that seen in infancy and remains at that level until at least age 8 years. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the increase in high astigmatism after infancy occurs in infants who had astigmatism as infants or is due to the development of high astigmatism in children who did not show astigmatism during infancy.

  11. Long-term results of photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and myopic astigmatism Resultados a longo prazo de ceratectomia fotorefrativa para miopia e astigmatismo miópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sakae Yamazaki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the long-term refractive outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy in myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: A retrospective study of 120 photorefractive keratectomy operated eyes with at least four-year follow-up (maximum of 96 months, mean follow-up 55 months. We divided patients into group 1 (G1 spherical equivalent (SE up to -4.00 diopters (D and group 2 (G2 SE >-4.00 D. The Summit Apex Plus® excimer laser was used for ablation. All eyes were analyzed in terms of uncorrected and best spectacle corrected visual acuity (UCVA/BSCVA and cycloplegic refraction. Data were analyzed using the Refractive Surgery Consultant Elite database software. RESULTS: G1 with 85 eyes (49 patients presented mean SE -2.42 D and G2 with 35 eyes (22 patients and mean SE of -4.45 D. Ninety-four percent of eyes in G1 and 82.9% of G2 were within ±1.00 D of emmetropia at 4 years. The UCVA was 20/30 or better in 82.0% of G1 eyes and 77.0% of G2 in the last postoperative follow-up. No patient lost more than one line in G2 compared to 13.0% in G1. Eyes that gained one or more lines after 4-year follow-up were 11.9% G1 and 2.9% in G2, respectively. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between achieved versus attempted refractive correction in both groups (r=0.925, pOBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados a longo prazo da cirurgia de ceratectomia fotorefrativa em miopia e astigmatismo miópico. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de120 olhos operados de ceratectomia fotorefrativa com um mínimo intervalo de 4 anos de seguimento pós-operatório (máximo de 96 meses e seguimento médio de 55 meses. Dividimos em grupo 1 (G1 com equivalente esférico (SE até -4.00 dioptrias (D e grupo 2(G2 SE > -4.00 D. O excimer laser Summit Apex Plus® foi usado na ablação. Foram obtidas acuidade visual não corrigida (UCVA e melhor acuidade visual corrigida (BSCVA e refração sob cicloplegia. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o programa Refractive Surgery

  12. The Impact of Pterygium Excision on Corneal Astigmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, F. A.; Niazi, S. P. K.; Khan, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the corneal astigmatism before and after the excision of pterygium and also to determine the correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Study Design: Cross-sectional interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Eye Department, Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad, from May 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Thirty patients underwent pterygium excision. Pre-operatively Snellen visual acuity, manifest refraction and slit lamp examination was done. The size of the pterygium was recorded in mm by projecting a horizontal slit lamp beam from the limbus to the apex. All the pterygium were equal to or greater than 2.5 mm. Keratometry was performed with an automated keratometer. Keratometric data was recorded pre-operatively and at 28 days postoperatively. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for comparing the pre-operative and the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Spearman's rank order was calculated to observe correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative astigmatism. Results: The median (mean rank) pre-operative astigmatism of 2.25 (15.50) reduced to a median (mean rank) postoperative astigmatism of 1.30 (14.96). This decrease in the postoperative astigmatism was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically non-significant correlation between the postoperative astigmatism and the pterygium size (rs = -0.29, p = 0.12). Conclusion: Pterygium excision caused significant reduction in corneal astigmatism. (author)

  13. [Visual outcomes four years after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery on highly myopic eyes [French version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazovitch, J; Naguzeswski, D; Beuste, T; Guillard, M

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether the visual outcomes of the refractive surgery technique, small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), are stable, effective, and predictable for high myopia over a four-year period. This is a retrospective study. The data were collected between March 2012 and July 2016. Two hundred and forty-eight patients participated in the study; that is, 496 eyes: 140 eyes of 70 patients (52 women/18 men) were classified in the highly myopic group (refraction measured in spherical equivalent [RMSE]>-6D), and 356 eyes of 178 patients (98 women/80 men) in the control group (RMSE≤-6D). Follow-up tests were conducted immediately post-operatively (D+1), after three months, after one year, and after four years. Refraction, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and best visual corrected acuity (BCVA) were measured. The highly myopic group (HMG) contained more women, and astigmatism was higher for this group than for the control group (CG). These are BCVA, refractive stability, the index of safety (SI: BCVA preoperatively D+1/BCVA postoperatively), and predictability (the percentage of eyes within±0.5 D of the target). In both groups, UCVA was better after the fourth year than it was immediately after the procedure (HMG: P=0.001; CG: P=0.001). Although it differed at one year (P=0.01), the groups' refractive stability tended to converge over four years (P=0.138). Both groups' SI was identical in the four follow-up tests (P=0.734 at D+1; P=0.07 at M+1; P=0.160 at M3 and Y1; and P=0.274 at Y4). For the HMG, SI stability was attained after three months (1.00±0.1); whereas it was attained after one month (0.91±0.11) for the CG. Four years after the surgery, we observed that 87 % of the operated eyes in the HMG were within 0.5 D of the target. SMILE is a good refractive surgery technique for treating high myopia. It yields stable, safe, effective, and predictable results over four years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. ANALYSIS OF CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM BEFORE AND AFTER PTERYGIUM SURGERY- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN PATIENTS ATTENDING KIMS, HUBLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Bajantri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pterygium is a very common degenerative condition seen in Indian subcontinent. It is a wing-shaped fibrovascular encroaching up on the cornea from either sides. The prevalence rate is 5.2%. Pterygium is known to affect refractive astigmatism. The induced astigmatism may become significant to cause visual distortion, even though the pterygium remains distant from visual axis induced astigmatism maybe either “with-the-rule” or “against-the-rule.” The aim of the study is to- 1. Compare preoperative with postoperative astigmatism in case of pterygium. 2. Assess the amount of astigmatism in case of pterygia of different lengths measured from the limbus over the cornea. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 70 eyes of 70 patients with primary pterygium. Preoperative evaluation included pterygium size, visual acuity, keratometry and refraction with subjective correction. Patients included in the study were divided into three groups based on length of pterygium encroaching on cornea (1 to 2 mm, 2 to 3 mm, >3 mm. Each eye underwent bare sclera pterygium excision. Postoperative visual acuity, keratometry and refraction were evaluated on 1st day, at the end of 1st week, 4 th week and 9th week. The pre and postoperative results were compared and analysed. RESULTS An average of all 70 cases with mean pterygium length 3.2 mm had a mean keratometry astigmatism of 1.84 ± 0.89D preoperatively and 0.514 ± 0.52D postoperatively indicating a reduction of pterygium-induced corneal astigmatism by 1.45 ± 0.77D (p value <0.0001, which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION Pterygium-induced corneal astigmatism is directly proportional to the size of the pterygium. Thus, early surgical excision reduces the corneal astigmatism, and hence, improves the visual acuity.

  15. The effects of induced oblique astigmatism on symptoms and reading performance while viewing a computer screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Mark; Hue, Jennifer E; Huang, Rae R; Bababekova, Yuliya

    2012-03-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a complex of eye and vision problems related to computer use which has been reported in up to 90% of computer users. Ocular symptoms may include asthenopia, accommodative and vergence difficulties and dry eye. Previous studies have reported that uncorrected astigmatism may have a significant impact on symptoms of CVS. However, its effect on task performance is unclear. This study recorded symptoms after a 10 min period of reading from a computer monitor either through the habitual distance refractive correction or with a supplementary -1.00 or -2.00D oblique cylinder added over these lenses in 12 young, visually-normal subjects. Additionally, the distance correction condition was repeated to assess the repeatability of the symptom questionnaire. Subjects' reading speed and accuracy were monitored during the course of the 10 min trial. There was no significant difference in reading rate or the number of errors between the three astigmatic conditions. However, a significant change in symptoms was reported with the median total symptom scores for the 0, 1 and 2D astigmatic conditions being 2.0, 6.5 and 40.0, respectively (p computer operation. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  16. Myopic (HD-PTP, PTPN23) selectively regulates synaptic neuropeptide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Dinara; Jha, Anupma; Deitcher, David L; Levitan, Edwin S

    2018-02-13

    Neurotransmission is mediated by synaptic exocytosis of neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and small-molecule transmitter-containing small synaptic vesicles (SSVs). Exocytosis of both vesicle types depends on Ca 2+ and shared secretory proteins. Here, we show that increasing or decreasing expression of Myopic (mop, HD-PTP, PTPN23), a Bro1 domain-containing pseudophosphatase implicated in neuronal development and neuropeptide gene expression, increases synaptic neuropeptide stores at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This occurs without altering DCV content or transport, but synaptic DCV number and age are increased. The effect on synaptic neuropeptide stores is accounted for by inhibition of activity-induced Ca 2+ -dependent neuropeptide release. cAMP-evoked Ca 2+ -independent synaptic neuropeptide release also requires optimal Myopic expression, showing that Myopic affects the DCV secretory machinery shared by cAMP and Ca 2+ pathways. Presynaptic Myopic is abundant at early endosomes, but interaction with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT III) protein (CHMP4/Shrub) that mediates Myopic's effect on neuron pruning is not required for control of neuropeptide release. Remarkably, in contrast to the effect on DCVs, Myopic does not affect release from SSVs. Therefore, Myopic selectively regulates synaptic DCV exocytosis that mediates peptidergic transmission at the NMJ.

  17. The effect of static cyclotorsion compensation on refractive and visual outcomes using the Schwind Amaris laser platform for the correction of high astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Toliou, Georgia; Padroni, Sara; Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Kolli, Sai

    2011-06-01

    To compare the refractive and visual outcomes using the Schwind Amaris excimer laser in patients with high astigmatism (>1D) with and without the static cyclotorsion compensation (SCC) algorithm available with this new laser platform. 70 consecutive eyes with ≥1D astigmatism were randomized to treatment with compensation of static cyclotorsion (SCC group- 35 eyes) or not (control group- 35 eyes). A previously validated optimized aspheric ablation algorithm profile was used in every case. All patients underwent LASIK with a microkeratome cut flap. The SCC and control group did not differ preoperatively, in terms of refractive error, magnitude of astigmatism or in terms of cardinal or oblique astigmatism. Following treatment, average deviation from target was SEq +0.16D, SD±0.52 D, range -0.98 D to +1.71 D in the SCC group compared to +0.46 D, SD±0.61 D, range -0.25 D to +2.35 D in the control group, which was statistically significant (p<0.05). Following treatment, average astigmatism was 0.24 D (SD±0.28 D, range -1.01 D to 0.00 D) in the SCC group compared to 0.46 D (SD±0.42 D, range -1.80 D to 0.00 D) in the control group, which was highly statistically significant (p<0.005). There was no statistical difference in the postoperative uncorrected vision when the aspheric algorithm was used although there was a trend to increased number of lines gained in the SCC group. This study shows that static cyclotorsion is accurately compensated for by the Schwind Amaris laser platform. The compensation of static cyclotorsion in patients with moderate astigmatism produces a significant improvement in refractive and astigmatic outcomes than when not compensated. Copyright © 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Arnold, Jennifer J; Holz, Frank G

    2017-01-01

    ) therapies have had a major impact on the management of patients with myopic CNV, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of this condition and how to best administer treatment. Additionally, the long-term safety and efficacy of these treatments are largely unknown. METHODS: We carried out...

  19. Myopic loss aversion: Potential causes of replication failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two studies on narrow bracketing and myopic loss aversion. The first study shows that the tendency to segregate multiple gambles is eliminated if subjects face a certainty equivalent or a probability equivalent task instead of a binary choice. The second study argues that the behavioral differences previously attributed entirely to myopic loss aversion are partly because long-term return properties are simply easier to grasp if the return information is already provided in the form of long-term returns rather than one-year returns. Both results may be related to recent failures to replicate myopic loss aversion. When the choice situation is structured in such a way that it draws respondents' attention to the final outcome distribution and/or if severe misestimations of long-term returns based on short-term return information are unlikely, behavioral differences consistent with myopic loss aversion are less likely to be observed.

  20. Clinical research on keratoconus and subclinical keratoconus in patients with astigmatism examined by Pentacam

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    Yang An

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the keratoconus(KCNand subclinical KCN in patients with astigmatism ≥2D by Pentacam anterior segment analyzer. METHODS: Two hundred and one eyes in 107 patients with astigmatism ≥2D were included in this study. All patients underwent optometry, visual acuity, corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, traditional corneal topography and examination with Pentacam. Changes of several parameters were observed including K1(horizontal central curvature within the scope with diameter of 3mm, K2(vertical central curvature within the scope with diameter of 3mm; Kmax(the maximum anterior corneal refractive power, corneal astigmatism(CYL, MinPachy(the thickness at the thinnest area of cornea, index of surface variation(ISV, index of vertical asymmetry(IVA, keratoconus index(KI, height of anterior corneal surface(AEand height of posterior corneal surface(PE, etc. ROC curve was made. Cutoff value and the sensitive index of each group were compared. Mann-Whitney U test was used for analysis of several parameters obtained from Pentacam. ROC curve was analyzed to determine the best diagnosis cutoff value. RESULTS: Mean age of the study population was 25.7±6.6 years old. Kmax, IVA, KI, AE and PE of the clinical and subclinical group were significantly higher than those of the astigmatism group, while the thickness at the thinnest area of cornea in clinical and subclinical group was lower than that of the astigmatism group(PCONCLUSION: The current study shows that subjects with 2D or more of astigmatism, even some of them have normal vision, should undergo corneal topography screening. Pentacam may provide more accurate information about anterior and posterior corneal anatomy especially for the height of posterior corneal surface, which plays an important role in screening of subclinical KCN.

  1. Visual acuity with simulated and real astigmatic defocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Arne; Tabernero, Juan; Schaeffel, Frank

    2011-05-01

    To compare the effects of "simulated" and "real" spherical and astigmatic defocus on visual acuity (VA). VA was determined with letter charts that were blurred by calculated spherical or astigmatic defocus (simulated defocus) or were seen through spherical or astigmatic trial lenses (real defocus). Defocus was simulated using ZEMAX and the Liou-Brennan eye model. Nine subjects participated [mean age, 27.2 ± 1.8 years; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), -0.1]. Three different experiments were conducted in which VA was reduced by 20% (logMAR 0.0), 50% (logMAR 0.2), or 75% (logMAR 0.5) by either (1) imposing positive spherical defocus, (2) imposing positive and negative astigmatic defocus in three axes (0, 45, and 90°), and (3) imposing cross-cylinder defocus in the same three axes as in (2). Experiment (1): there were only minor differences in VA with simulated and real positive spherical defocus. Experiment (2): simulated astigmatic defocus reduced VA twice as much as real astigmatic defocus in all tested axes (p < 0.01 in all cases). Experiment (3): simulated cross-cylinder defocus reduced VA much more than real cross-cylinder defocus (p < 0.01 in all cases), similarly for all three tested axes. The visual system appears more tolerant against "real" spherical, astigmatic, and cross-cylinder defocus than against "simulated" blur. Possible reasons could be (1) limitations in the modeling procedures to simulate defocus, (2) higher ocular aberrations, and (3) fluctuations of accommodation. However, the two optical explanations (2) and (3) cannot account for the magnitude of the effect, and (1) was carefully analyzed. It is proposed that something may be special about the visual processing of real astigmatic and cross-cylinder defocus-because they have less effect on VA than simulations predict.

  2. Management of moderate and severe corneal astigmatism with AcrySof® toric intraocular lens implantation - Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Koul, Archana; Dutta, Ranjan; Shroff, Noshir Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Visual performance following toric intraocular lens implantation for cataract with moderate and severe astigmatism. Cataract services, Shroff Eye Centre, New Delhi, India. Case series. This prospective study included 64 eyes of 40 patients with more than 1.50 dioptre (D) of pre-existing corneal astigmatism undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of the AcrySof® toric IntraOcular Lens (IOL). The unaided visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), residual refractive sphere and refractive cylinders were evaluated. Toric IOL axis and alignment error was measured by slit lamp method and Adobe Photoshop (version 7) method. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire at 3 months. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was 0.57 D at the final follow-up of 3 months. Mean alignment error was 3.44 degrees (SD = 2.60) by slit lamp method and 3.88 degrees (SD = 2.86) by Photoshop method. Forty-six (71.9%) eyes showed misalignment of 5 degrees or less, and 60 (93.8%) eyes showed misalignment of 10 degrees or less. The mean log MAR UCVA at 1st post-op day was 0.172 (SD = 0.02), on 7th post-op day was 0.138 (SD = 0.11), and on 30th post-op day was 0.081 (SD = 0.11). The mean log MAR BCVA at three months was -0.04 (SD = 0.76). We believe that implantation of AcrySof® toric IOL is an effective, safe and predictable method to correct high amounts of corneal astigmatism during cataract surgery.

  3. Photorefractive keratectomy in the management of postradial keratotomy hyperopia and astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghoreishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK in the management of postoperative hyperopia and astigmatism in patients with history of radial keratotomy (RK. Materials and Methods: This prospective nonrandomized noncomparative interventional case series enrolled consecutive eyes treated with PRK after RK. In cases, in which (1 wavefront (WF scan was undetectable during primary examinations; and/or, (2 WF data were not transferable to the excimer laser device, patients were treated with the tissue-saving (TS mode. Patients with detectable/transferable WF were assigned to WF-guided advanced personalized treatment (APT. Results: Thirty-two and 47 eyes were managed by APT and TS modes, respectively. Pooled analysis of both APT and TS groups showed improvement in uncorrected distant visual acuity and corrected distant visual acuity. The amount of sphere, cylinder, corneal cylinder, spherical equivalent, defocus equivalent, and total aberration showed improvement as well. Conclusion: PRK seems to bring favorable outcome and safety profile in the management of post-RK hyperopia and astigmatism. It is crucial for practitioners to warn their patients about the fact that they may still have progressive refractive instability regardless of their choice on the laser method of vision correction.

  4. Multi-modality imaging findings of huge intrachoroidal cavitation and myopic peripapillary sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yutong; Ma, Xiaoli; Hua, Rui

    2018-02-02

    Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation was described as the presence of an asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, yellow-orange, peripapillary lesion at the inferior border of the myopic conus in eyes with high myopia. A 66-year-old myopic Chinese man was enrolled and his multi-color imaging examination showed a well-circumscribed, caesious, peripapillary lesion coalesced with the optic nerve head vertically rotated and obliquely tilted, together with an inferotemporal sinkhole in the myopic conus. The optical coherence tomography images showed an intrachoroidal hyporeflective space, schisis, an intracavitary septum located below the retinal pigment epithelium and inserted beneath the optic nerve head, as well as a sinkhole between the peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation and the vitreous space. Both myopic colobomas and sinkhole in myopic conus may contribute the coalescence of intrachoroidal cavitation with optic nerve head. These qualitative and quantitative new findings will be beneficial for understanding its pathomorphological mechanism, and the impact on optic nerve tissue of myopic patients.

  5. Reduced vision in highly myopic eyes without ocular pathology: the ZOC-BHVI high myopia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Monica; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Li, Wayne; Resnikoff, Serge; Naidoo, Kovin; He, Mingguang

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship of the magnitude of myopia with visual acuity in highly myopic eyes without ocular pathology. Twelve hundred and ninety-two highly myopic eyes (up to -6.00 DS both eyes, no astigmatic cut-off) with no ocular pathology from the ZOC-BHVI high myopia study in China, had cycloplegic refraction, followed by subjective refraction and visual acuities and axial length measurement. Two logistic regression models were undertaken to test the association of age, gender, refractive error, axial length and parental myopia with reduced vision. Mean group age was 19.0 ± 8.6 years; subjective spherical equivalent refractive error was -9.03 ± 2.73 D; objective spherical equivalent refractive error was -8.90 ± 2.60 D and axial length was 27.0 ± 1.3 mm. Using visual acuity, 82.4 per cent had normal vision, 16.0 per cent had mildly reduced vision, 1.2 per cent had moderately reduced vision, 0.3 per cent had severely reduced vision and no subjects were blind. The percentage with reduced vision increased with spherical equivalent to 74.5 per cent from -15.00 to -39.99 D, axial length to 67.7 per cent of eyes from 30.01 to 32.00 mm and age to 22.9 per cent of those 41 years and over. Spherical equivalent and axial length were significantly associated with reduced vision (p vision. Gender was significant for one model (p = 0.04). Mildly reduced vision is common in high myopia without ocular pathology and is strongly correlated with greater magnitudes of refractive error and axial length. Better understanding is required to minimise reduced vision in high myopes. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  6. Complications of femtosecond laser corneal small incision lenticule extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hong Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the safety and complications of femtosecond laser corneal small incision lenticule extraction(SMILEprocedure and discuss the prevention and treatment.METHODS: We retrospectively studied the complications of 403 patients(799 eyeswith myopia and myopic astigmatism treated by SMILE.RESULTS: All the patients underwent the operation successfully. Only 1 case(1 eyesuffered from dark spot and changed to femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK(FS-LASIK, 5 cases(5 eyes, 0.6%suffered from the suction loss, 11 cases(17 eyes, 2.1%developed opaque bubble layer. All patients gained perfect uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA(20/20. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVAdid not decrease after operations. The incidence of haze and diffuse lamellar keratitis was low(0.3% and 0.4%, respectivelyand no other complications were observed. There was 9 eyes in 6 patients(1.1%found regression of refraction at 6mo after surgery, while the UCVA of rest patients reached 1.0 at 3mo after surgery.CONCLUSION: The SMILE procedure has high safety for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Effective prevention and management of the complications is the key to achieve the satisfactory visual acuity.

  7. Computation of misalignment and primary mirror astigmatism figure error of two-mirror telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yang; Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang

    2018-01-01

    Active optics usually uses the computation models based on numerical methods to correct misalignments and figure errors at present. These methods can hardly lead to any insight into the aberration field dependencies that arise in the presence of the misalignments. An analytical alignment model based on third-order nodal aberration theory is presented for this problem, which can be utilized to compute the primary mirror astigmatic figure error and misalignments for two-mirror telescopes. Alignment simulations are conducted for an R-C telescope based on this analytical alignment model. It is shown that in the absence of wavefront measurement errors, wavefront measurements at only two field points are enough, and the correction process can be completed with only one alignment action. In the presence of wavefront measurement errors, increasing the number of field points for wavefront measurements can enhance the robustness of the alignment model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that, when -2 mm ≤ linear misalignment ≤ 2 mm, -0.1 deg ≤ angular misalignment ≤ 0.1 deg, and -0.2 λ ≤ astigmatism figure error (expressed as fringe Zernike coefficients C5 / C6, λ = 632.8 nm) ≤0.2 λ, the misaligned systems can be corrected to be close to nominal state without wavefront testing error. In addition, the root mean square deviation of RMS wavefront error of all the misaligned samples after being corrected is linearly related to wavefront testing error.

  8. Epidemiological survey of astigmatism among 926 preschool children in a kindergarten in Enshi City

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    Mao-Ju Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the type, degree and axial distribution of low vision astigmatism in preschool children. METHODS: A group of 3-6 years old children were selected for astigmatism screening, and statistical analysis was performed on the detected 445 eyes of 308 people. RESULTS: With more than 0.50D astigmatism criteria, astigmatism examination of 308 people, accounting for 36.2%, of which 137 eyes astigmatism, astigmatism 171 monocular. The five types of astigmatism were compound hyperopia 40.7%, mixed 35.5%, compound myopia 8.5%, myopia 8.3%, simple hyperopia astigmatism degree 7.0%; 69.0% were mild, 16.6% moderate, 14.4% severe. Astigmatism axial distribution was with the rule for 54.9%, against the rule 28.8%, oblique 16.6%. In binocular astigmatism eyes, axial symmetry was in 35.8%, asymmetry in 64.2%. CONCLUSION: The main type of astigmatism in preschool children are compound hyperopia and mixed astigmatism. Astigmatism degree is mainly mild. With the increase of age, the detection rate of moderate and high astigmatism increased.

  9. Photorefractive keratectomy after cataract surgery in uncommon cases: long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Roszkowska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the excimer laser correction of the residual refractive errors after cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL implantation in uncommon cases. METHODS: Totally 24 patients with high residual refractive error after cataract surgery with IOL implantation were examined. Twenty-two patients had a history of phacoemulsification and IOL implantation, and two had extra-capsular cataract extraction with IOL implantation. Detailed examination of preoperative medical records was done to explain the origin of the post-cataract refractive errors. All patients underwent photorefractire keratectomy (PRK enhancement. The mean outcome measures were refraction, uncorretted visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and corneal transparency and follow up ranged from 1 to 8y. RESULTS: The principal causes of residual ametropia was inexact IOL calculation in abnormal eyes with high myopia and congenital lens abnormalities, followed by corneal astigmatism both suture induced and preexisting. After cataract surgery and before the laser enhancement the mean spherical equivalent (SE was -0.56±3 D ranging from -4.62 to +2.25 D in high myopic patients, instead it was -1±1.73 D ranging from -3.25 to +3.75 D in the astigmatic eyes, with a mean cylinder of -3.75±0 ranging from -3 to +5.50 D. After laser refractive surgery the mean SE was 0.1±0.73, ranging from -0.50 to +1.50 in the myopic group, and it was -0.50±0.57 ranging from -1.25 to +0.50 in astigmatic patients, with a mean cylinder of -0.25±0.75. In myopic patients the mean UCVA and BCVA were 0.038±0.072 logMAR and 0.018±0.04 respectively, both ranging from 0.10 to 0.0. In astigmatic patients, the mean UCVA and BCVA were 0.213±0.132 and 0.00±0.0 respectively, UCVA ranging from 0.50 to 0.22 and BCVA was 0.00. All patients presented normal corneal transparency. No ocular hypertension was detected and no corneal haze was observed. All registered

  10. A novel nomogram for the treatment of astigmatism with femtosecond-laser arcuate incisions at the time of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharozian, Connor J; Song, Christian; Hatch, Kathryn M; Talamo, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine an arcuate incision (AI) nomogram to treat astigmatism during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. This is a retrospective, cohort study. Femtosecond laser (FSL)-assisted transepithelial AIs were created at a 9.0 mm optical zone, 80% depth, centered on the limbus. We modified the manual Donnenfeld limbal relaxing incision nomogram to 70% for with-the-rule (WTR), 80% for oblique (OBL), and 100% for against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. The correction index (CI) equaled AI-induced astigmatism/target-induced astigmatism. Measures included preoperative keratometric corneal cylinder (Pre Kcyl), postoperative Kcyl (Post Kcyl), and postoperative residual refractive astigmatism (Post RRA). Mean Pre Kcyl and 1-2 months Post RRA in 161 eyes of 116 patients were 0.626±0.417 diopters (D) (range 0.5-2 D), and 0.495±0.400 D (range 0-1.5 D), respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes (Pre Kcyl-Post Kcyl) without accounting for axis change in the WTR, ATR, and OBL groups were 0.165±0.383 D ( P <0.001), 0.374±0.536 D ( P <0.001), and 0.253±0.416 D ( P =0.02), respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes using RRA as the postoperative measurement (Pre Kcyl-Post RRA) without accounting for axis change were 0.440±0.461 D ( P <0.001), 0.238±0.571 D ( P <0.05), 0.154±0.450 ( P =0.111) in WTR, ATR, and OBL groups, respectively. CIs for WTR, ATR, and OBL were 0.53, 1.01, and 0.95, respectively. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications related to the AIs. Transepithelial FSL-AIs using the modified Donnenfeld nomogram show potential for management of mild to moderate corneal astigmatism. An increase in the magnitude or reduction of the optical zone size for the treatment of WTR and ATR astigmatism for this nomogram may further improve refractive accuracy.

  11. LASIK for myopia and astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser: an international multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelaez, Maria Clara; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Barraquer, Carmen; Carones, Francesco; Feuermannova, Alena; Neuhann, Tobias; Rozsival, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    To assess the efficacy, predictability, and safety of LASIK for the surgical correction of low to moderate myopia with astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. Six international study sites enrolled 358 eyes with a manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) from -0.50 to -7.38 diopters (D) (mean sphere: -3.13+/-1.58 D) with up to -5.00 D of astigmatism (mean: -0.69+/-0.67 D). All eyes underwent treatment with the nonwavefront-guided aspheric algorithm of the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. All eyes were targeted for emmetropia. Refractive outcomes and corneal higher order aberrations were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. Visual quality was assessed using photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity. Six-month postoperative outcomes are reported. At 6 months postoperative, the MRSE for all eyes was -0.21+/-0.20 D, and 96% (343/358) of eyes had MRSE within +/-0.50 D. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 98% (351/358) of eyes, and no eyes lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. The total corneal higher order aberrations root-mean-square increased by 0.09 microm, spherical aberration increased by 0.08 microm, and coma increased by 0.04 microm postoperatively. Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity did not change 6 months postoperatively. Treatment of myopia with astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser is safe, efficacious, predictable, and maintains visual quality.

  12. Long-term outcomes of wedge resection at the limbus for high irregular corneal astigmatism after repaired corneal laceration

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    Jun Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical value of wedge resection at corneal limbus in patients with traumatic corneal scarring and high irregular astigmatism. METHODS: Patients with traumatic corneal astigmatism received wedge resection at least 6mo after suture removal from corneal wound. The uncorrected distance visual acuities (UCVA and best corrected distance visual acuities (BCVA, pre- and post-operation astigmatism, spherical equivalent (SE, safety and complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Ten eyes (10 patients were enrolled in this study. Mean follow-up time after wedge resection was 37.8±15.4mo (range, 20-61mo. The mean UCVA improved from +1.07±0.55 logMAR to +0.43±0.22 logMAR (P=0.000 and the mean BCVA from +0.50±0.30 logMAR to +0.15±0.17 logMAR (P=0.000. The mean astigmatism power measured by retinoscopy was -2.03±2.27 D postoperatively and -2.83±4.52 D preoperatively (P=0.310. The mean SE was -0.74±1.61 D postoperatively and -0.64±1.89 D preoperatively (P=0.601. Two cases developed mild pannus near the sutures. No corneal perforation, infectious keratitis or wound gape occurred. CONCLUSION: Corneal-scleral limbal wedge resection with compression suture is a safe, effective treatment for poor patients with high irregular corneal astigmatism after corneal-scleral penetrating injury. Retinoscopy can prove particularly useful for high irregular corneal astigmatism when other measurements are not amenable.

  13. Corrective Techniques and Future Directions for Treatment of Residual Refractive Error Following Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; McCaughey, Michael V; Santiago-Caban, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative residual refractive error following cataract surgery is not an uncommon occurrence for a large proportion of modern-day patients. Residual refractive errors can be broadly classified into 3 main categories: myopic, hyperopic, and astigmatic. The degree to which a residual refractive error adversely affects a patient is dependent on the magnitude of the error, as well as the specific type of intraocular lens the patient possesses. There are a variety of strategies for resolving residual refractive errors that must be individualized for each specific patient scenario. In this review, the authors discuss contemporary methods for rectification of residual refractive error, along with their respective indications/contraindications, and efficacies. PMID:25663845

  14. Effect of arcuate keratomy on decreasing astigmatism in IOL implantation after intracapsular cataract extraction

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    Zhong-Yu Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study an approach to visual acuity correction after intracapsular cataract extraction by phase-II intraocular lens implantation through the individualized arcuate keratotomy. METHODS: For demonstration, 48 postoperative patients(50 eyesreceiving the intracapsular cataract extraction were gathered up. Each patient received a scleral tunnel major incision along the radial line of the maximum corneal refractive power determined by a cornea curvimeter, and a arcuate keratotomy was made opposite to the major one; through the major incision an iris-claw intraocular lens is implanted. Each patient was measured for their corneal astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity before and after the surgery.RESULTS: The results suggested the average corneal astigmatism before the surgery and that 3d, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo after the surgery as +3.18±0.68, -1.56±0.73, +0.87±0.51, +1.21±0.70, +1.33±0.68 and +1.48±0.48 respectively. The uncorrected visual acuities 3d, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo after the surgery are 0.5±0.38, 0.56±0.23, 0.55±0.24, 0.52±0.28 and 0.51±0.25 respectively. CONCLUSION: Phase-II intraocular lens implantation witharcuate keratotomy is helpful to improve the postoperative visual acuity and reduce preoperative corneal astigmatism after the intracapsular cataract extraction aphakic eyes, It is also a low-cost surgery, and easy to perform, with minor surgical injuries, particularly available for surgical visual acuity correction of the aphakic eye receiving intracapsular cataract extraction.

  15. Management of moderate and severe corneal astigmatism with AcrySof® toric intraocular lens implantation – Our experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Koul, Archana; Dutta, Ranjan; Shroff, Noshir Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Visual performance following toric intraocular lens implantation for cataract with moderate and severe astigmatism. Setting Cataract services, Shroff Eye Centre, New Delhi, India. Design Case series. Method This prospective study included 64 eyes of 40 patients with more than 1.50 dioptre (D) of pre-existing corneal astigmatism undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of the AcrySof® toric IntraOcular Lens (IOL). The unaided visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), residual refractive sphere and refractive cylinders were evaluated. Toric IOL axis and alignment error was measured by slit lamp method and Adobe Photoshop (version 7) method. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire at 3 months. Results The mean residual refractive astigmatism was 0.57 D at the final follow-up of 3 months. Mean alignment error was 3.44 degrees (SD = 2.60) by slit lamp method and 3.88 degrees (SD = 2.86) by Photoshop method. Forty-six (71.9%) eyes showed misalignment of 5 degrees or less, and 60 (93.8%) eyes showed misalignment of 10 degrees or less. The mean log MAR UCVA at 1st post-op day was 0.172 (SD = 0.02), on 7th post-op day was 0.138 (SD = 0.11), and on 30th post-op day was 0.081 (SD = 0.11). The mean log MAR BCVA at three months was −0.04 (SD = 0.76). Conclusion We believe that implantation of AcrySof® toric IOL is an effective, safe and predictable method to correct high amounts of corneal astigmatism during cataract surgery. PMID:26586976

  16. Developmental changes in anterior corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Sherrill, Duane; Messer, Dawn H; Dobson, Velma

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe change in corneal astigmatism in infants and children of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Longitudinal measurements of corneal astigmatism were obtained in 960 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to <8 years. Change in corneal astigmatism (magnitude (clinical notation), J0, J45) across age in children with high astigmatism (≥2 diopter (D) corneal astigmatism) or low/no astigmatism (<2 D corneal astigmatism) at their baseline measurement was assessed. Regression analyses indicated that early in development (6 months to <3 years), astigmatism magnitude decreased in the high astigmatism group (0.37 D/year) and remained stable in the low/no astigmatism group. In later development (3 to <8 years), astigmatism decreased in the high (0.11 D/year) and low/no astigmatism groups (0.03 D/year). In 52 children who had data at all three of the youngest ages (6 months to <1 year, 1 to <2 years, 2 to <3 years) astigmatism decreased after infancy in those with high astigmatism (p = 0.021), and then remained stable from age 1-2 years, whereas astigmatism was stable from infancy through age 1 year and increased from age 1-2 years in the low/no astigmatism group (p = 0.026). J0 results were similar, but results on J45 yielded no significant effects. The greatest change occurred in highly astigmatic infants and toddlers (0.37 D/year). By age 3 years, change was minimal and not clinically significant. Changes observed were due primarily to change in the J0 component of astigmatism.

  17. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in low and moderate myopic Chinese eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mei Chun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To describe and compare the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in young, low and moderate myopic Chinese adults in Malaysian Chinese population.METHODS: Non-contact specular microscopy (Topcon SP3000P, Tokyo, Japan was performed in low (n=78; 21.22±1.51 years and moderate (n=78; 21.82±1.40 years myopic subjects. The mean of three consecutive measurements of endothelial cell density (MCD, coefficient of variation (CV in the cell size, and hexagonal appearance of the cell were obtained.RESULTS: In low myopic eyes the MCD was 3 063.0±176.2/mm2, the mean CV was 33.4±4.0% and the mean hexagonal appearance of the cell was 57.9±2.7%. In moderate myopic eyes the MCD was 2961.6±159.0/mm2, the mean CV was 33.9±3.6% and mean hexagonal appearance of the cell was 56.2±4.7%. There were statistically significant differences in MCD (PPCONCLUSION:The corneal endothelial cell layer in more myopic eyes tends to have less MCD and cell hexagonality compared to lower myopic eyes. Nevertheless, there is no significant difference in CV between low and moderate myopic eyes.

  18. Longitudinal change and stability of refractive, keratometric, and internal astigmatism in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Twelker, J Daniel; Sherrill, Duane L

    2014-12-16

    To assess longitudinal change in refractive, keratometric, and internal astigmatism in a sample of students from a population with a high prevalence of with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism and to determine the optical origins of changes in refractive astigmatism. A retrospective analysis of longitudinal measurements of right eye refractive and keratometric astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American children was conducted. Changes in refractive and keratometric astigmatism per year were compared in a younger cohort (n = 1594, 3 to O'odham children. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Association between mode of delivery and astigmatism in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengyang; Yang, Xubo; Tang, Angcang; Liu, Longqian

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether mode of delivery has any impact on astigmatism. This case-control study was performed in the Department of Ophthalmology in 2015. Exposure was mode of delivery [vaginal delivery (VD) or caesarean section (CS), which here included both elective and emergency CS]. Outcome was astigmatism (≥2.5 D), which was determined by cycloplegic refraction. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed to assess the associations between mode of delivery and astigmatism from logistic regression models. Of the 659 children studied here (341 boys; mean age, 4.37 years), 440 were born by CS and 219 by VD. The incidence of severe astigmatism (≥2.5 D) in the CS and VD groups was 22.06% and 13.24%, respectively. Children delivered by CS had a 77.9% higher risk of severe astigmatism compared with vaginally delivered children (OR = 1.779; 95% CI, 1.121 to 2.824). After dividing CS into elective CS and emergency CS, children delivered by elective CS had an 87.3% increased risk of severe astigmatism (OR = 1.873; 95% CI, 1.157 to 3.032), but children delivered by emergency CS did not differ from vaginally delivered children. In addition, the children whose mothers had histories of breastfeeding had a 44.6% lower risk of severe astigmatism than children whose mother did not breastfeed them (OR = 0.554, 95% CI, 0.335-0.914). Birth by CS, especially elective CS, increases the risk of severe astigmatism (≥2.50 D) in childhood. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Topography-guided hyperopic and hyperopic astigmatism femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK: long-term experience with the 400 Hz eye-Q excimer platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John KanellopoulosDepartment of Ophthalmology, New York University Medical School, New York, NY, and LaserVision.gr Eye Institute, Athens, GreeceBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topography-guided ablation using the WaveLight 400 Hz excimer laser in laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for hyperopia and/or hyperopic astigmatism.Methods: We prospectively evaluated 208 consecutive LASIK cases for hyperopia with or without astigmatism using the topography-guided platform of the 400 Hz Eye-Q excimer system. The mean preoperative sphere value was +3.04 ± 1.75 (range 0.75–7.25 diopters (D and the mean cylinder value was –1.24 ± 1.41 (–4.75–0 D. Flaps were created either with Intralase FS60 (AMO, Irvine, CA or FS200 (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX femtosecond lasers. Parameters evaluated included age, preoperative and postoperative refractive error, uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, flap diameter and thickness, topographic changes, higher order aberration changes, and low contrast sensitivity. These measurements were repeated postoperatively at regular intervals for at least 24 months.Results: Two hundred and two eyes were available for follow-up at 24 months. Uncorrected distance visual acuity improved from 5.5/10 to 9.2/10. At 24 (8–37 months, 75.5% of the eyes were in the ±0.50 D range and 94.4% were in the ±1.00 D range of the refractive goal. Postoperatively, the mean sphere value was –0.39 ± 0.3 and the cylinder value was –0.35 ± 0.25. Topographic evidence showed that ablation was made in the visual axis and not in the center of the cornea, thus correlating with the angle kappa. No significant complications were encountered in this small group of patients.Conclusion: Hyperopic LASIK utilizing the topography-guided platform of the 400 Hz Eye-Q Allegretto excimer and a femtosecond laser flap appears to be safe and effective for

  1. Prospects for electron beam aberration correction using sculpted phase masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Remez, Roei; Arie, Ady

    2016-04-15

    Technological advances in fabrication methods allowed the microscopy community to take incremental steps towards perfecting the electron microscope, and magnetic lens design in particular. Still, state of the art aberration-corrected microscopes are yet 20–30 times shy of the theoretical electron diffraction limit. Moreover, these microscopes consume significant physical space and are very expensive. Here, we show how a thin, sculpted membrane is used as a phase-mask to induce specific aberrations into an electron beam probe in a standard high resolution TEM. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate beam splitting, two-fold astigmatism, three-fold astigmatism, and spherical aberration. - Highlights: • Thin membranes can be used as aberration correctors in electron columns. • We demonstrate tilt, twofold-, threefold-astigmatism, and spherical aberrations. • Experimental and physical-optics simulation results are in good agreement. • Advantages in cost, size, nonmagnetism, and nearly-arbitrary correction.

  2. Two-years results of small-incision lenticule extraction and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis for Myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Igarashi, Akihito; Takahashi, Masahide; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2018-03-01

    To compare the 2-years visual and refractive outcomes between small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in eyes with myopia and myopic astigmatism. Our retrospective case-control study examined 30 eyes of 30 patients with the manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) of -3.71 ± 1.83 dioptres (D) who underwent SMILE and 30 eyes of 30 patients with MRSE of -3.81 ± 1.40 D who underwent wavefront-guided LASIK. We assessed the 2-years clinical outcomes. Logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (LogMAR)-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was -0.23 ± 0.07 in the SMILE group and -0.24 ± 0.07 in the wavefront-guided LASIK group 2 years postoperatively (p = 0.82). Logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution-uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was -0.18 ± 0.09 and -0.15 ± 0.11 (p = 0.30, respectively). In the SMILE and wavefront-guided LASIK groups 2 years postoperatively, 100% and 73% of eyes, respectively, were within 0.5 D of the prompted MRSE correction (p = 0.005). Changes in the MRSE of -0.10 ± 0.30 D and -0.23 ± 0.51 D occurred from 3 months to 2 years (p = 0.40, respectively). We found a significant correlation between myopic regression and the changes in the keratometric readings from 3 months to 2 years after wavefront-guided LASIK (r = -0.48, p = 0.002), but not after SMILE (r = -0.004, p = 0.90). Small-incision lenticule extraction offers better refractive outcomes than wavefront-guided LASIK during a 2-years follow-up for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Uncorrected and Corrected Distance Visual Acuity, Predictability, Efficacy, and Safety after Femtosecond Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and Refractive Lenticule extraction (ReLEx) for Moderate and High Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anders; Justesen, Birgitte Larsen; Melsen, Charlotte

    Title: Uncorrected and Corrected Distance Visual Acuity, Predictability, Efficacy, and Safety after Femtosecond Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and Refractive Lenticule extraction (ReLEx) for Moderate and High Myopia. Vestergaard A., Justesen B., Melsen C., Lyhne N., Department of Ophthal......Title: Uncorrected and Corrected Distance Visual Acuity, Predictability, Efficacy, and Safety after Femtosecond Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and Refractive Lenticule extraction (ReLEx) for Moderate and High Myopia. Vestergaard A., Justesen B., Melsen C., Lyhne N., Department...... predictability, efficacy and safety after femtosecond LASIK (FS-LASIK) with ReLEx. Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Methods: Retrospective study of results after FS-LASIK and ReLEx (including ReLEx flex, ReLEx pseudo-smile, and ReLEx smile). In total, 228 eyes were...... treated with FS-LASIK and 83 eyes with ReLEx, at the Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital in the period of April to November 2011. Only otherwise healthy myopic eyes with up to 3.00 D of astigmatism and with CDVA ≤ 0.30 (logMAR) before surgery were included in this study. FS-LASIK flaps...

  4. A novel nomogram for the treatment of astigmatism with femtosecond-laser arcuate incisions at the time of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharozian CJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Connor J Baharozian,1 Christian Song,2,3 Kathryn M Hatch,2,3 Jonathan H Talamo2,3 1Boston University School of Medicine, 2Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine an arcuate incision (AI nomogram to treat astigmatism during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective, cohort study. Femtosecond laser (FSL-assisted transepithelial AIs were created at a 9.0 mm optical zone, 80% depth, centered on the limbus. We modified the manual Donnenfeld limbal relaxing incision nomogram to 70% for with-the-rule (WTR, 80% for oblique (OBL, and 100% for against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism. The correction index (CI equaled AI-induced astigmatism/target-induced astigmatism. Measures included preoperative keratometric corneal cylinder (Pre Kcyl, postoperative Kcyl (Post Kcyl, and postoperative residual refractive astigmatism (Post RRA. Results: Mean Pre Kcyl and 1–2 months Post RRA in 161 eyes of 116 patients were 0.626±0.417 diopters (D (range 0.5–2 D, and 0.495±0.400 D (range 0–1.5 D, respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes (Pre Kcyl–Post Kcyl without accounting for axis change in the WTR, ATR, and OBL groups were 0.165±0.383 D (P<0.001, 0.374±0.536 D (P<0.001, and 0.253±0.416 D (P=0.02, respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes using RRA as the postoperative measurement (Pre Kcyl–Post RRA without accounting for axis change were 0.440±0.461 D (P<0.001, 0.238±0.571 D (P<0.05, 0.154±0.450 (P=0.111 in WTR, ATR, and OBL groups, respectively. CIs for WTR, ATR, and OBL were 0.53, 1.01, and 0.95, respectively. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications related to the AIs.Conclusion: Transepithelial FSL-AIs using the modified Donnenfeld nomogram show potential for management of mild to moderate corneal astigmatism. An increase in the magnitude or reduction of the optical zone

  5. Customized photorefractive keratectomy to correct high ametropia after penetrating keratoplasty: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    De Rosa, Giuseppe; Boccia, Rosa; Santamaria, Carmine; Fabbozzi, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Luigi; Lanza, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate preliminarily the safety and efficacy of customized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) to correct ametropia and irregular astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Methods: This pilot study included five eyes of five patients with a mean spherical equivalent of −5.1 ± 1.46 D (range from −2.75 to −6.50 D). In all cases, ametropia and irregular astigmatism was corrected with topography-guided customized PRK. Ocular examinations with topographic analysis were perfor...

  6. Serous Retinal Detachment Associated with Dome-Shaped Macula and Staphyloma Edge in Myopic Patients before and after Treatment with Spironolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Vega Sanz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Serous retinal detachment (SRD is a common anatomical complication associated with dome-shaped macula (DSM and staphyloma margin in myopic patients. Here we described the anatomical and functional outcomes obtained with the use of oral spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid antagonist, in the management of myopic patients with SRD associated with DSM and staphyloma margin. Methods. We evaluated both eyes of twelve myopic patients with long-standing SRD associated with DSM or staphyloma margin. The patients were treated daily for six months with oral spironolactone 50 mg. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT, determined by optical coherence tomography, were evaluated on the first day and on monthly follow-up visits. Results. Pretreatment BCVA (mean ± standard deviation was 0.406 ± 0.324 LogMAR, and posttreatment BCVA was 0.421 ± 0.354 LogMAR (P=0.489. Pretreatment CRT was 323.9 ± 78.6 μm, and after six months of treatment it was significantly lower, 291.2 ± 74.5 μm (P=0.010. There were no treatment-related complications. Conclusions. We evaluated a novel treatment for SRD associated with DSM and staphyloma margin in myopic patients. After six months of treatment with the mineralocorticoid antagonist spironolactone, the subretinal fluid and CRT were significantly reduced; however, there was no improvement in BCVA.

  7. Primary angle closure glaucoma in a myopic kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, J C; Lederer, C M

    1985-03-01

    Three related myopic individuals with primary angle closure glaucoma are reported. They had true myopia and not pseudomyopia secondary to increased lenticular index of refraction. We believe one of these individuals (-8.62 spherical equivalent) to have the most myopic case of primary angle closure glaucoma reported in the literature. Although myopia is associated with anatomical factors that offer considerable protection from primary angle closure glaucoma, its presence does not eliminate the possibility of this disease. Laser iridectomy was effective in the treatment of these patients.

  8. Accuracy of the Spot and Plusoptix photoscreeners for detection of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescioni, Mabel; Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the Spot (V2.0.16) and Plusoptix S12 (ROC4, V6.1.4.0) photoscreeners in detecting astigmatism meeting AAPOS referral criteria in students from a population with high prevalence of astigmatism. Students attending grades 3-8 on the Tohono O'odham reservation were examined. Screening was attempted with both the Spot and Plusoptix photoscreeners. Results were compared to cycloplegic refraction. Screening attempts providing no estimate of refractive error were considered fail/refer. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for detection of refractive errors were determined using AAPOS referral criteria and receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) analysis was conducted for measures of astigmatism. Agreement between screening and cycloplegic refraction measurements of astigmatism, spherical equivalent, and anisometropia were assessed using t tests and correlation analyses. A total of 209 students were included. Of the total, 116 (55%) met examination-positive criteria based on cycloplegic refraction, with 105 of those (90%) meeting the criterion for astigmatism. Measurements success rates were 97% for Spot and 54% for Plusoptix. Comparing the Spot and the Plusoptix, sensitivity was 96% versus 100%, specificity was 87% versus 61%, PPV was 90% versus 76%, and NPV was 94% versus 100% for detection of refractive error. Both screeners overestimated astigmatism by 1/3 D to 2/3 D. AUC for astigmatism was 0.97 for Spot and 0.83 for Plusoptix. In this highly astigmatic population, the Spot and the Plusoptix had similar sensitivity, but the Spot had better specificity and measurement success rates. Compared with results from study samples with lower rates of astigmatism, our results highlight the need to assess the ability of screening instruments to detect individual types of refractive errors. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

  9. A STUDY ON CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM IN PTERYGIUM CASES BEFORE AND AFTER SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalanchiarani S

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pterygium is a common degenerative condition seen in the Indian subcontinent. One of the indications for pterygium excision is visual impairment due to astigmatism. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the induced astigmatism – a pooling of the tear film at the leading edge of the pterygium, b mechanical traction exerted by the pterygium on cornea. Hence this study was done retrospectively to assess the effect of pterygium excision on the induced astigmatism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Records of patients operated for primary ocular pterygium by pterygium excision with primary conjunctival closure/ conjunctival autograft in the age group 18 - 70 years over a 1-year period were analysed retrospectively. Pre-operative and post-operative follow up records of day 1 and 1 st month were analysed for changes in corneal curvature and astigmatism using the recorded Automated Refractometry and Keratometry readings. RESULTS Out of the 44 cases analysed retrospectively as 2 groups – pterygium excision with primary conjunctival closure and pterygium excision with conjunctival autograft, majority of them were found to be females (70%, and between 40 - 50 years (90%. Most of the pterygium cases were found to be nasal, and commonly in the right eye and also that the amount of astigmatism increased with the grading of pterygium (p<.000. The most common type of astigmatism noted was “with the rule” astigmatism (75%. The percentage of “against the rule” and oblique astigmatism were 9% & 15% respectively. The decrease in the mean astigmatism after surgery was found to be statistically significant. The difference in t value between the preoperative and one-month postoperative corneal astigmatism was 2.5 D (p<.018. Steepening of both horizontal and vertical meridian was found in conjunctival autograft cases, but in simple closure cases steepening was found only in the vertical meridian. CONCLUSION To conclude, pterygium leads to a

  10. Two- and three-dimensional topographic analysis of pathologically myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ben, Antonio; Kamal-Salah, Radua; García-Basterra, Ignacio; Gonzalez Gómez, Ana; Morillo Sanchez, María José; García-Campos, Jose Manuel

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the posterior anatomical structure of pathologically myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Our database of 260 pathologically myopic eyes was analyzed retrospectively to identify patients with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma. All patients underwent vertical and horizontal SD-OCT scans across the central fovea, with three-dimensional macular map reconstruction. Best-corrected visual acuity, axial length, and choroidal thickness measurements were recorded. The macular bulge height was also analyzed in eyes with dome-shaped macula. In the three-dimensional images, the symmetry and orientation of the main plane of the inward incurvation of the macula were examined. Twenty-eight (10.7%) of the 260 pathologically myopic eyes had dome-shaped macula of one of three different types: a round radially symmetrical dome (eight eyes, 28.5%), a horizontal axially symmetrical oval-shaped dome (15 eyes, 53.5%), or a vertical axially symmetrical oval-shaped dome (five eyes, 17.8%). The macular bulge height was significantly greater in horizontal oval-shaped dome eyes (p = 0.01, for each comparison). Inferior posterior staphylomas were observed in ten (3.8%) of the 260 pathologically myopic eyes with asymmetrical macular bends. Vertical and horizontal OCT sectional scanning in combination with three-dimensional macular map reconstruction provides important information for understanding the posterior anatomical structure of dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma in pathologically myopic eyes.

  11. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, P; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA6009 (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5x10{sup -3} for {+-}10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  12. Prevalence of corneal astigmatism before cataract surgery in northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Feng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze the prevalence and presentation patterns of corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery candidates of Shenyang in northeast China.METHODS:A retrospective survey was used to study the corneal astigmatism which were measured by intraocular lens(IOLMaster optical biometer before cataract surgery between Jan. 1st, 2014 and Dec. 31st, 2014. Descriptive statistics of corneal astigmatism data were analyzed.RESULTS:The keratometric data from 4 543 eyes from 3 821 patients with a mean age of 66.36±10.38y(SD. In 10.50% of eyes, corneal astigmatism was between 0.5 diopters(Dor less; in 30.05% of eyes, it was 0.5-1.0 D; in 23.60%, it was 1.0-1.5 D; in 13.19%, it was 1.5-2.0 D; in 7.68%, it was 2.0-2.5 D; in 6.41%, it was 2.5-3.0 D; in 8.58%, it was 3.0 D or higher. With-the-rule astigmatism was found in 27.69% of eyes, while against-the-rule was found in 53.84% of eyes.CONCLUSION:About 59.46% of eyes in this study had preoperative corneal astigmatism equal to or above 1.0 D. Findings indicated more surgical techniques or toric intraocular lenses to meet the potential demand of the cataract surgery candidates.

  13. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for the treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan CS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colin S Tan,1,2 SriniVas R Sadda3 1National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 2Fundus Image Reading Center, National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Singapore; 3Doheny Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV is a sight-threatening condition which occurs in eyes with myopia, particularly in those with pathologic myopia. It is the most common cause of CNV among patients younger than 50 years. Hemorrhage and exudation from the CNV lesion may eventually result in scarring or chorioretinal atrophy. While myopic CNV was previously treated with focal laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy (PDT, the current treatment of choice is anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents in the treatment of myopic CNV. The RADIANCE study reported that intravitreal ranibizumab was superior to PDT in eyes with myopic CNV (at 3 months, both groups receiving intravitreal ranibizumab gained 10.5 and 10.6 letters vs 2.2 letters among patients receiving PDT. In addition, the study demonstrated similar visual outcomes in eyes treated on the basis of visual acuity stabilization or disease activity criteria. Other clinical studies have provided evidence for the efficacy of ranibizumab and aflibercept in the treatment of myopic CNV. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and imaging characteristics of myopic CNV, and discusses the evidence for the efficacy of anti-VEGF agents as compared to laser photocoagulation and PDT. Keywords: myopic choroidal neovascularization, ranibizumab, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

  14. Characteristics of astigmatism in Black South African high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Astigmatism impairs vision at various distances and causes symptoms of asthenopia which negatively impacts reading efficiency. Objective: The aim of conducting this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of astigmatism and its relation- ship to gender, age, school grade levels and ...

  15. Photorefractive keratectomy for correction of myopia: Our one-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resan Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK, after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK, is commonly performed refractive surgical method worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness and safety of PRK in correction of various strengths of myopia and to assess how much corneal tissue is being removed with one diopter sphere (Dsph correction by using different optical zones (OZ. Methods. A prospective study with a follow-up period of 6 months included 55 patients of which 100 myopic eyes were treated by PRK method (one eye was included in 10 patients. Myopic eyes with a preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA = 1.0 (20/20 were analysed. In order to assess the effectiveness of PRK operated myopic eyes were divided into four groups according to the dioptric power: 1≤ -1.75 Dsph (n = 26; 2 from -2 to -3.75 Dsph (n = 44; 3 from -4 to -6.75 Dsph (n = 23, and 4 ≥ -7 Dsph (n = 7. Myopic eyes with preoperative BCVA ≤ 0.9 (amblyopic eyes were excluded from the study, as well as eyes with astigmatism > -1.5 Dcyl. To assess the effectiveness of PRK we examined the percentage of eyes in the mentioned groups, which derived uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA 6 months after the intervention to the following: a UCVA = 1.0 (20/20 and b UCVA ≥ 0.5 (20/40. To assess the safety of PRK we examined the frequency of intraoperative and postoperative complications. To estimate how much corneal tissue was removed with one Dsph correction by using different OZ, we used preoperative and postoperative (after 6 months central pachymetry values expressed in μm and volume of cornea (central 7 mm expressed in mm³. In that sense, we used only the myopic eyes with clear preoperative spherical refraction. The total number of these eyes was 27, of which 16 eyes were treated using a 6.5 mm OZ and 11 eyes using a 7 mm OZ. Results. Refractive spherical equivalent (RSE for all eyes was in the range from -0.75 to -8.75 Dsph, and preoperative mean

  16. Outcomes of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sharon S W; Chan, Tommy C Y; Ng, Alex L K; Kwok, Alvin K H

    2018-03-28

    Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common refractive surgery in young patients, which aims at providing a clear distance vision without the use of spectacles. With time, these patients develop symptomatic cataract, which affects activities of daily living, and to improve visual acuity, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation can be considered. In post-myopic LASIK patients, to allow continuation of spectacle independence, the implantation of presbyopia-correcting IOLs is a suitable option. The purpose of this retrospective case series is to report the visual outcome and quality in post-myopic LASIK eyes after the implantation of AT LISA tri839MP IOL. Twenty eyes of 13 patients with history of myopic LASIK within 20 years underwent phacoemulsification by one single surgeon. All eyes were implanted with AT LISA tri839PMP IOL, and their outcomes were evaluated at 6 months postoperation. The mean postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (VA) is 0.28 ± 0.29, while the corrected distance VA is 0.06 ± 0.14. The mean postoperative uncorrected near VA is 0.02 ± 0.05, while the corrected near VA is 0.01 ± 0.02. The mean postoperative manifest refraction spherical equivalent (SE) is - 0.92 ± 0.76D. There is a statistically significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative refraction (p = 0.02), which shows a postoperative myopic shift. There is also a statistically significant difference between the mean targeted SE and postoperative manifest refraction SE (p = 0.00). Only one out of 20 eyes (5%) reported halo and glare symptoms. Ten out of 20 eyes (50%) are able to achieve spectacles independence. In conclusion, in post-myopic LASIK eyes, AT LISA tri839MP provides a good visual outcome at both near and distance, but is more predictable at near than at distance. There is a myopic shift in the postoperative SE. Visual quality is satisfactory and has not been exacerbated. Most patients can remain to be

  17. Optic Disc Change during Childhood Myopic Shift: Comparison between Eyes with an Enlarged Cup-To-Disc Ratio and Childhood Glaucoma Compared to Normal Myopic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Young Lopilly Park

    Full Text Available Progressive disc tilting and the development or enlargement of peripapillary atrophy (PPA are observed during a myopic shift in children. This could be related to the changes around the optic nerve head during eyeball elongation. If the biomechanical properties at or around the optic nerve head are changed after exposure to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucoma eyes, different response of the disc tilting and PPA changes could take place during eyeball elongation by myopic shift. On the basis of this background, the aim of this study was to compare the morphological changes in the optic disc induced by a myopic shift during childhood between normal control eyes, eyes from disc suspects with an enlarged cup-to-disc ratio (CDR, and eyes with childhood glaucoma.Total of 82 eyes from 82 subjects younger than 14 years of age were included in the study. Serial disc photographs were classified into one of two groups: eyes with an optic nerve head (ONH or peripapillary atrophy (PPA change or without an ONH/PPA change. Using ImageJ software, the outlines of the optic disc and PPA were plotted, and the vertical disc diameter (VDD, horizontal disc diameter (HDD, and maximum PPA width (PPW were measured. The changes in the ratios of these parameters and the relationships between the degree of myopic shift or the ONH/PPA change were analyzed.Twenty-five eyes with normal optic disc appearance, 36 eyes with enlarged cup-to-disc ratio, and 21 eyes of glaucoma patients were analyzed. The initial intraocular pressure (IOP at diagnosis was significantly different among the groups (P<0.001. The degree of myopic shift during follow-up period was not significantly different among the groups (P=0.612. However, the changes in the HDD/VDD and PPW/VDD ratios were significantly greater in the disc suspect group and significantly smaller in the glaucoma group. Among the 42 eyes with an ONH/PPA change, 16 (38.1% were from the normal control group, 24 (57.1% were

  18. Preoperative corneal astigmatism among adult patients with cataract in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Isyaku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and nature of corneal astigmatism among patients with cataract has not been well-documented in the resident African population. This retrospective study was undertaken to investigate preexisting corneal astigmatism in adult patients with cataract. We analyzed keratometric readings acquired by manual Javal-Schiotz keratometry before surgery between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. There were 3,169 patients (3286 eyes aged between 16 and 110 years involved with a Male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Mean keratometry in diopters was K1 = 43.99 and K2 = 43.80. Mean corneal astigmatism was 1.16 diopter and a majority (45.92% of eyes had astigmatism between 1.00 and 1.99 diopters. Two-thirds of the eyes (66.9% in this study had preoperative corneal astigmatism equal to or above 1.00 diopter. Findings will help local cataract surgeons to estimate the potential demand for toric intraocular lenses.

  19. Clinical analysis of outpatients with ametropia in Hebeisheng Eye Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To perform a clinical analysis of 1 500 cases of outpatients with ametropia in Hebeisheng Eye Hospital, to provide a theoretical basis for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of patients with ametropia.METHODS: Totally 1 500 cases(2 840 eyesof outpatient with ametropia were chosen as the research objects in Hebeisheng Eye Hospital from June 2013 to July 2014. All cases were treated with TOPCON RM-8800 computer optometry instrument for objective optometry, and used TOPCON phoropter for subjective optometry. The combination of the two instruments was taken to determine the diopter later. Diopter and axial distribution of the myopic astigmatism and hyperopic astigmatism were observed, age of astigmatic patient, distribution of astigmatism axis were observed as well. Meanwhile, a total of 150 cases were chosen randomly to measure their corneal curvature, anterior chamber depth, axial length and other static refractive index. All indexes were compared with those of the normal people subsequently, such as amplitude of accommodation, negative relative accommodation, positive relative accommodation, sensitivity of accommodation and other dynamic refractive index. RESULTS: Ametropia types of all patients were mainly simple myopia, simple myopia astigmatism, compound myopic astigmatism, simple hypermetropia, simple hyperopia astigmatism, compound hyperopic astigmatism and mixed astigmatism, the proportion were 38.99%, 3.27%, 23.94%, 4.68%, 1.34%, 13.52%, 15.25% respectively. There were 773 eyes with myopia astigmatism. The proportion of people with a myopia astigmatism diopter of above -0.25 to -0.50, -0.75 to -1.00, -1.25 to -1.50, above -1.75 were 31.05%, 38.55%, 16.56%, 13.84%. There were 421 eyes with hyperopia astigmatism, the proportion of people with hyperopia astigmatism diopter of 0.25-0.50, 0.75-1.00, 1.25- 1.50, >1.75 were 26.60%, 24.94%, 16.63%, 31.83%. Static refractive index of 150 patients(300 eyesshowed that corneal curvature was(41

  20. Pattern of astigmatism in a clinical setting in Maldives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Marasini

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, this study inferred that among patients with relatively higher magnitude of astigmatism attending to the clinics in Maldives, younger patients are affected more, which could possibly link to the environment, genetics and nutrition. The probable association between nutrition and astigmatism needs to be investigated to fill the gap in literature.

  1. Separation of the effects of astigmatic figure error from misalignments using Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P; Rakich, Andrew; Thompson, Kevin P

    2010-08-02

    We present the nodal aberration field response of Ritchey-Chrétien telescopes to a combination of optical component misalignments and astigmatic figure error on the primary mirror. It is shown that both astigmatic figure error and secondary mirror misalignments lead to binodal astigmatism, but that each type has unique, characteristic locations for the astigmatic nodes. Specifically, the characteristic node locations in the presence of astigmatic figure error (at the pupil) in an otherwise aligned telescope exhibit symmetry with respect to the field center, i.e. the midpoint between the astigmatic nodes remains at the field center. For the case of secondary mirror misalignments, one of the astigmatic nodes remains nearly at the field center (in a coma compensated state) as presented in Optics Express 18, 5282-5288 (2010), while the second astigmatic node moves away from the field center. This distinction leads directly to alignment methods that preserve the dynamic range of the active wavefront compensation component.

  2. A genome-wide association study of corneal astigmatism: The CREAM Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rupal L.; Li, Qing; Zhao, Wanting; Tedja, Milly S.; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Fan, Qiao; Yazar, Seyhan; Williams, Katie M.; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Xie, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Hess, Moritz; Nickels, Stefan; Lackner, Karl J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To identify genes and genetic markers associated with corneal astigmatism. Methods: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of corneal astigmatism undertaken for 14 European ancestry (n=22,250) and 8 Asian ancestry (n=9,120) cohorts was performed by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia. Cases were defined as having >0.75 diopters of corneal astigmatism. Subsequent gene-based and gene-set analyses of the meta-analyzed results of European ancestry cohorts we...

  3. A genome-wide association study of corneal astigmatism: The CREAM Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rupal L.; Li, Qing; Zhao, Wanting; Tedja, Milly S.; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Fan, Qiao; Yazar, Seyhan; Williams, Katie M.; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Xie, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Hess, Moritz; Nickels, Stefan; Lackner, Karl J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To identify genes and genetic markers associated with corneal astigmatism. Methods A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of corneal astigmatism undertaken for 14 European ancestry (n=22,250) and 8 Asian ancestry (n=9,120) cohorts was performed by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia. Cases were defined as having >0.75 diopters of corneal astigmatism. Subsequent gene-based and gene-set analyses of the meta-analyzed results of European ancestry cohorts wer...

  4. A genome-wide association study of corneal astigmatism: The CREAM Consortium.

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rupal L; Li, Qing; Zhao, Wanting; Tedja, Milly S; Tideman, J Willem L; Khawaja, Anthony P; Fan, Qiao; Yazar, Seyhan; Williams, Katie M; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Xie, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Hess, Moritz; Nickels, Stefan; Lackner, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To identify genes and genetic markers associated with corneal astigmatism. Methods A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of corneal astigmatism undertaken for 14 European ancestry (n=22,250) and 8 Asian ancestry (n=9,120) cohorts was performed by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia. Cases were defined as having >0.75 diopters of corneal astigmatism. Subsequent gene-based and gene-set analyses of the meta-analyzed results of European ancestry...

  5. A genome-wide association study of corneal astigmatism : The CREAM Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rupal L.; Li, Qing; Zhao, Wanting; Tedja, Milly S.; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Fan, Qiao; Yazar, Seyhan; Williams, Katie M.; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Xie, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Hess, Moritz; Nickels, Stefan; Lackner, Karl J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To identify genes and genetic markers associated with corneal astigmatism. Methods: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of corneal astigmatism undertaken for 14 European ancestry (n=22,250) and 8 Asian ancestry (n=9,120) cohorts was performed by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia. Cases were defined as having >0.75 diopters of corneal astigmatism. Subsequent gene-based and gene-set analyses of the meta-analyzed results of European ancestry cohor...

  6. A genome-wide association study of corneal astigmatism:The CREAM consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rupal L.; Li, Qing; Zhao, Wanting; Tedja, Milly S.; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Fan, Qiao; Yazar, Seyhan; Williams, Katie M.; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Xie, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Hess, Moritz; Nickels, Stefan; Lackner, Karl J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To identify genes and genetic markers associated with corneal astigmatism. Methods: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of corneal astigmatism undertaken for 14 European ancestry (n=22,250) and 8 Asian ancestry (n=9,120) cohorts was performed by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia. Cases were defined as having >0.75 diopters of corneal astigmatism. Subsequent gene-based and gene-set analyses of the meta-analyzed results of European ancestry cohort...

  7. Comparison of the ratio of keratometric change to refractive change induced by myopic ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Christiansen, Steven M; Kim, Gene

    2012-10-01

    To compare the ratio of keratometric change (ΔK) to refractive change (ΔSE) induced by refractive laser ablation. The charts of 3337 eyes that underwent LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) from 2002 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed, and the ratio ΔK/ΔSE measured at 3 months postoperatively was compared between eyes with low ΔSE (0.00 to 2.99 diopters [D]), moderate ΔSE (3.00 to 5.99 D), and high ΔSE (6.00 to 8.99 D). Eyes were further stratified by LASIK vs PRK; custom vs conventional treatments; microkeratome vs IntraLase (Abbott Medical Optics Inc) femtosecond laser-created flaps; and flat (38.00 to 41.99 D) vs moderate (42.00 to 45.99 D) vs steep (46.00 to 49.99 D) preoperative keratometry, and the ratio ΔK/ΔSE was similarly compared. Significant differences were found in the ratio ΔK/ΔSE among eyes with low ΔSE (1.00±0.50 D), moderate ΔSE (0.83±0.19 D), and steep ΔSE (0.80±0.15 D) (PLASIK vs PRK, custom vs conventional treatments, and microkeratome vs IntraLase flaps. Significant differences in the ratio ΔK/ΔSE were also found in eyes with low, moderate, and high ΔSE regardless of preoperative keratometry. The ratio ΔK/ΔSE compared with ΔSE follows a nonlinear pattern and tended to be higher and more variable at lower amounts of correction. The change in simulated keratometry required to achieve 1.00 D of myopic refractive correction decreased as the amount of refractive change increased, was more variable with lower amounts of correction, and followed a nonlinear relationship. Many variables, such as LASIK vs PRK, custom vs conventional, and microkeratome vs IntraLase flaps, affected the ratio of ΔK/ΔSE for moderate and high myopic corrections. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Effect of iris registration on outcomes of LASIK for myopia with the VISX CustomVue platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Chen, Michael C; Espandar, Ladan

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare visual outcomes after LASIK using the VISX STAR S4 CustomVue, with and without Iris Registration technology. METHODS: In this retrospective study, LASIK was performed on 239 myopic eyes, with or without astigmatism, of 142 patients. Iris registration LASIK was performed on 121...... eyes and non-iris registration LASIK was performed on 118 eyes. Primary outcome measures were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and manifest refraction. RESULTS: At 6 months, the mean values for UCVA (logMAR) were 0.00 +/- 0.09 in the iris registration...... magnitude of error of surgically induced astigmatism was -0.09 in the iris registration group and -0.04 in the non-iris registration group (P = .25). CONCLUSIONS: Wavefront-guided LASIK with the VISX STAR S4 CustomVue laser system, independent of iris registration status, is effective, safe, and predictable...

  9. [Laser in situ keratomyleusis (LASIK) for correction of myopia and hypermetropia--our one year experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukosavljević, Miroslav; Milivojević, Milorad; Resan, Mirko; Cerović, Vesna

    2009-12-01

    Laser in situ keratamileusis (LASIK) is the most commonly used refractive surgical method worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness and safety of LASIK in the correction of myopia and hyperopia. The study included myopic and hyperopic eyes with preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) = 1 (20/20), of the total number of 322 divided into 2 groups--1) myopic eyes (n = 241) which were divided into 4 subgroups according to the myopia strength: a) or = -7 D (n = 24); 2) hyperopic eyes (n = 81) which were divided into 3 subgroups according to the hyperopia strength: a) or = +4 D (n = 25). Myopic and hyperopic eyes with preoperative BCVA ambliopia) were excluded from the study, as well as eyes with astigmatism > 1.5 D. To assess the effectiveness of LASIK we examined the percentage of eyes in the mentioned subgroups, which derived uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) 6 month after the intervention to the following: a) UCVA = 1 (20/20) and b) UCVA > or = 0.5 (20/40). To assess the safety of LASIK we examined the frequency of intraoperative and postoperative complications. A prospective study was performed in a 6-months follow-up period. RESULTS. Refractive spherical equivalent (RSE) of myopic eyes was in the range from -0.75 D to -12 D. In the first subgroup preoperative mean value of RSE with standard deviation (mean RSE +/- SD) was -1.39 +/- 0.36 D, and 6 months after the LASIK 100% of the eyes had UCVA = 20/20. In the second subgroup preoperative mean RSE +/- SD was -2.85 +/- 0.50 D, and 6 months after LASIK 93% of the eyes had UCVA = 20/20, but 100% of the eyes had UCVA > or = 20/40. In the third subgroup preoperative mean RSE +/- SD was -5.03 +/- 0.75 D, and 6 months after the LASIK 90% of the eyes had UCVA = 20/20, but 100% of the eyes had UCVA > or = 20/40. In the fourth subgroup preoperative mean RSE +/- SD was -7.68 +/- 1.03 D, and 6 months after the LASIK 96% of the eyes had UCVA = 20/20, but 100% of eyes had UCVA > or = 20

  10. Under-correction of human myopia – Is it myopigenic?: A retrospective analysis of clinical refraction data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurali Vasudevan

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Under-correction of myopia produced a small but progressively greater degree of myopic progression than did full correction. The present finding is consistent with earlier clinical trials and modeling of human myopia.

  11. Numerical Methods Are Feasible for Assessing Surgical Techniques: Application to Astigmatic Keratotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariza-Gracia, M.A.; Ortilles, A.; Cristobal, J.A.; Rodriguez, J.F.; Calvo, B.

    2016-07-01

    The present study proposes an experimental-numerical protocol whose novelty relies on using both the inflation and the indentation experiments simultaneously to obtain a set of material parameters which accounts for both deformation modes of the cornea: the physiological (biaxial tension) and the non-physiological (bending). The experimental protocol characterizes the corneal geometry and the mechanical response of the cornea when subjected to the experimental tests using an animal model (New Zealand rabbit's cornea). The numerical protocol reproduces the experimental tests by means of an inverse finite element methodology to obtain the set of material properties that minimizes both mechanical responses at the same time. To validate the methodology, an Astigmatic Keratotomy refractive surgery is performed on 4 New Zealand rabbit corneas. The pre and post-surgical topographies of the anterior corneal surface were measured using a MODI topographer (CSO, Italy) to control the total change in astigmatism. Afterwards, the surgery is numerically reproduced to predict the overall change of the cornea. Results showed an acceptable numerical prediction, close to the average experimental correction, validating the material parameters obtained with the proposed protocol. (Author)

  12. Ocular Biometrics of Myopic Eyes With Narrow Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gabriel T; Wen, Joanne C; Su, Daniel Hsien-Wen; Stinnett, Sandra; Asrani, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ocular biometrics between myopic patients with and without narrow angles. Patients with a stable myopic refraction (myopia worse than -1.00 D spherical equivalent) were prospectively recruited. Angle status was assessed using gonioscopy and biometric measurements were performed using an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and an IOLMaster. A total of 29 patients (58 eyes) were enrolled with 13 patients (26 eyes) classified as having narrow angles and 16 patients (32 eyes) classified as having open angles. Baseline demographics of age, sex, and ethnicity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The patients with narrow angles were on average older than those with open angles but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.12). The central anterior chamber depth was significantly less in the eyes with narrow angles (P=0.05). However, the average lens thickness, although greater in the eyes with narrow angles, did not reach statistical significance (P=0.10). Refractive error, axial lengths, and iris thicknesses did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P=0.32, 0.47, 0.15). Narrow angles can occur in myopic eyes. Routine gonioscopy is therefore recommended for all patients regardless of refractive error.

  13. Factors influencing contrast sensitivity function in myopic eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Kamiya

    Full Text Available To evaluate the factors affecting the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF in healthy myopic eyes.We retrospectively examined 201 eyes of 201 consecutive subjects (age, 31.8 ± 7.4 years (mean ± standard deviation with myopic refractive errors of -1.25 to -8.25 diopters (D. From the contrast sensitivity data, the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF was calculated. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the factors affecting the AULCSF.The mean AULSCF was 1.09 ± 0.09 (0.89 to 1.55. Explanatory variables relevant to the AULCSF were, in order of influence, the objective scattering index (OSI (p = 0.018, partial regression coefficient B =  -0.032 and logMAR CDVA (p = 0.022, B =  -0.209 (adjusted R(2 = 0.231. No significant correlation was seen with other clinical factors such as gender, manifest refraction, pupil size, lens density, corneal HOAs, or ocular HOAs.Although the great majority of the variance remains unexplained, eyes with lower OSI and better CDVA are more predisposed to show higher contrast sensitivity function. These results indicate that not only CDVA but also intraocular forward scattering may play some role in predicting the contrast sensitivity function in myopic subjects.

  14. Supra choroidal buckling in managing myopic vitreoretinal interface disorders: 1-year data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rayes, Ehab N

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of supra choroidal buckling procedure using a supra choroidal catheter, as a new approach in treating myopic vitreomacular interface disorders specially in difficult cases of myopic traction maculopathy with or without macular hole retinal detachment in posterior staphyloma depending on the concept of indenting the choroid only, from a 1-year data study. A newly developed supra choroidal catheter was used to deliver stabilized, cross-linked, long-acting hyaluronic acid as a filler in the supra choroidal space in the area of the staphyloma forming a choroidal indenting effect. Before the injection, pars plana vitrectomy was performed without internal limiting membrane peeling to avoid the risk of break of the roof of foveal detachment in case of foveoschisis. This indentation was used to treat 11 patients with myopic foveoschisis and 12 patients with myopic macular hole retinal detachment, 5 of whom had failed primary repair by vitrectomy before inclusion in this trial. Clinical and optical coherence tomographic evaluations of these patients were performed over 1-year follow-up. Retinal layer restoration was achieved in all 11 eyes with myopic foveoschisis. This was gradual over a period of 2 to 6 weeks postoperatively. No recurrence over the 12-month follow-up was observed. Visual acuity improved by 1 line or more in 9 eyes (81.8%). Of the 12 eyes, 10 with macular hole detachment (83%) showed closure of the holes in association with the resolution of the detachment; 2 eyes showed resolution of the detachment and flatting of the edge of the holes but with incomplete closure on optical coherence tomography. Eight eyes (66.6%) showed improvement in visual acuity by 1 or more lines with no recurrence of retinal detachment over the 12-month follow-up period. The indentation effect was sufficient over the 12-month follow-up period. The indentation effect achieved by supra choroidal approach can be used as a method of managing myopic foveoschisis

  15. Induced Higher-order aberrations after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) Performed with Wavefront-Guided IntraLase Femtosecond Laser in moderate to high Astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zeraid, Ferial M; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L

    2016-03-22

    Wavefront-guided Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a widespread and effective surgical treatment for myopia and astigmatic correction but whether it induces higher-order aberrations remains controversial. The study was designed to evaluate the changes in higher-order aberrations after wavefront-guided ablation with IntraLase femtosecond laser in moderate to high astigmatism. Twenty-three eyes of 15 patients with moderate to high astigmatism (mean cylinder, -3.22 ± 0.59 dioptres) aged between 19 and 35 years (mean age, 25.6 ± 4.9 years) were included in this prospective study. Subjects with cylinder ≥ 1.5 and ≤2.75 D were classified as moderate astigmatism while high astigmatism was ≥3.00 D. All patients underwent a femtosecond laser-enabled (150-kHz IntraLase iFS; Abbott Medical Optics Inc) wavefront-guided ablation. Uncorrected (UDVA), corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuity in logMAR, keratometry, central corneal thickness (CCT) and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) over a 6 mm pupil, were assessed before and 6 months, postoperatively. The relationship between postoperative change in HOA and preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction, mean astigmatism, and postoperative CCT were tested. At the last follow-up, the mean UDVA was increased (P < 0.0001) but CDVA remained unchanged (P = 0.48) and no eyes lost ≥2 lines of CDVA. Mean spherical equivalent refraction was reduced (P < 0.0001) and was within ±0.50 D range in 61% of eyes. The average corneal curvature was flatter by 4 D and CCT was reduced by 83 μm (P < 0.0001, for all), postoperatively. Coma aberrations remained unchanged (P = 0.07) while the change in trefoil (P = 0.047) postoperatively, was not clinically significant. The 4th order HOAs (spherical aberration and secondary astigmatism) and the HOA root mean square (RMS) increased from -0.18 ± 0.07 μm, 0.04 ± 0.03 μm and 0.47 ± 0.11 μm, preoperatively, to 0.33 ± 0

  16. The applicability of correction factor for corneal thickness on non-contact tonometer measured intraocular pressure in LASIK treated eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethani, Jitendra; Dave, Paaraj; Jethani, Monica; Desai, Yogesh; Patel, Purvi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the applicability of central corneal thickness (CCT) based correction factor for non-contact tonometer (NCT) measured intraocular pressure (IOP) readings. A prospective, non-randomized study involved 346 eyes of 173 consecutive patients with age ⩾21 years undergoing laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia and/or myopic astigmatism. The CCT and IOP were measured before and after the LASIK procedure. The IOP pre and post-LASIK was compared after applying the correction factor for CCT. Patients not completing the 3 month postoperative follow-up were excluded. The median spherical equivalent before undergoing LASIK was -4.25D (inter-quartile range, -3.25D). The mean preoperative CCT was 536.82 ± 33.71 μm which reduced to 477.55 ± 39.3 μm (p < 0.01) post-LASIK. The mean IOP reduced from a preoperative value of 14.6 ± 2.32 mmHg to 10.64 ± 2.45 mmHg postoperatively (p < 0.01). On applying correction for the corneal thickness, the pre and postoperative IOP was 15.14 ± 2.8 mmHg and 15.37 ± 2.65 mmHg (p = 0.06) respectively with a strong positive correlation (r = 0.7, p < 0.01). Three hundred eyes (86.7%) had an absolute difference in IOP of less than 3.0 mmHg post-CCT correction which is within the retest variability of NCT. Only 46 eyes (13.3%) had an absolute difference of more than 3.0 mmHg. The modified Ehler's correction algorithm used in this study can be effectively applied in the normal IOP range in a majority of patients.

  17. Biometric measurements in highly myopic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peiyang; Zheng, Yingfeng; Ding, Xiaohu; Liu, Bin; Congdon, Nathan; Morgan, Ian; He, Mingguang

    2013-02-01

    To assess the repeatability and accuracy of optical biometry (Lenstar LS900 optical low-coherence reflectometry [OLCR] and IOLMaster partial coherence interferometry [PCI]) and applanation ultrasound biometry in highly myopic eyes. Division of Preventive Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Guangzhou, China. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic technology. Biometric measurements were taken in highly myopic subjects with a spherical equivalent (SE) of -6.00 diopters (D) or higher and an axial length (AL) longer than 25.0 mm. Measurements of AL and anterior chamber depth (ACD) obtained by OLCR were compared with those obtained by PCI and applanation A-scan ultrasound. Right eyes were analyzed. Repeatability was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CoV) and agreement, using Bland-Altman analyses. The mean SE was -11.20 D ± 4.65 (SD). The CoVs for repeated AL measurements using OLCR, PCI, and applanation ultrasound were 0.06%, 0.07%, and 0.20%, respectively. The limits of agreement (LoA) for AL were 0.11 mm between OLCR and PCI, 1.01 mm between OLCR and applanation ultrasound, and 1.03 mm between PCI and ultrasound. The ACD values were 0.29 mm, 0.53 mm, and 0.51 mm, respectively. These repeatability and agreement results were comparable in eyes with extreme myopia (AL ≥ 27.0 mm) or posterior staphyloma. The mean radius of corneal curvature was similar between OLCR and PCI (7.66 ± 0.24 mm versus 7.64 ± 0.25 mm), with an LoA of 0.12 mm. Optical biometry provided more repeatable and precise measurements of biometric parameters, including AL and ACD, than applanation ultrasound biometry in highly myopic eyes. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The evolution of refractive status in Chinese infants during the first year of life and its affected factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Juan Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the evolution of the refractive status and examine the affected factors in infants during the first year of life in a large sample size in China. METHODS: A total of 1258 babies (2516 eyes aged 32wk gestational age to 1y participated in the study, including 766 premature and 492 full-term infants. First, each baby received an orthoptic examination, slit-lamp checking and fundus imaging. Patients with diseases which might affect refractive status were excluded from the cohort. The cycloplegia retinoscopy was performed. Their neonatal histories were reviewed. Each measurement contained the refractive status and calculation of the spherical equivalent (SE. RESULTS: Refractive state showed an average hyperopia of +0.94±1.63 D at early ages, followed by a trend toward more hyperopia. The refractive state reached the top (+2.43±1.46 D at the age of one to two months. Then gliding till one year old when the refractive state reached +0.59±1.41 D. The prevalence of astigmatism was 42.17% in the study, being 2.82% myopic astigmatism and 39.35% hyperopic astigmatism. The 94.1% of hyperopic astigmatism was with-the-rule astigmatism and 71.83% of myopic astigmatism was with-the-rule astigmatism. Refractive state between boys and girls was different. The mean SE of boys was +1.97±1.57 D, while that of girls was +1.79±1.46 D, and the difference was significant. CONCLUSION: Before one year old, the change of refractive status is associated with checking age and sex. At the age of one to two months, the degree of hyperopia reaches the top. Boys have more hyperopic degree than girls, and with-the-rule astigmatism is predominant. Excluding premature infants with advanced retinopathy of prematurity, premature and full-term children have same refraction status.

  19. Association between anterior corneal astigmatism and posterior corneal astigmatism across age groups: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Shetty

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the anterior corneal astigmatism(ACAand posterior corneal astigmatism(PCApatterns across various age groups. We also evaluated the association between magnitudes and axes of the ACA and PCA across these age groups. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional analysis of clinical data of 381 eyes. We converted the clinical astigmatic notation to vector notation for analysis of ACA and PCA. We estimated the correlation between magnitude and axes of the ACA and PCA in the whole population and in four age groups(5-19, 20-39, 40-59, and ≥ 60y. We used random effects linear regression models for estimating the association between the magnitudes of ACA and PCA.RESULTS: The mean of the magnitude of the ACA(3.59Dand the PCA(0.50Dwas highest in children(5 to 9y. Overall, the magnitude of the ACA ranged from 0D to 10.0 Diopters(Dand the magnitude of the PCA ranged from 0 to 3.5 D. There was a significant correlation between the ACA and the PCA in the younger age group(r=0.85, PP=0.03with each unit increase in the ACA, the increase was the smallest in this age group.CONCLUSION: It will be prudent to measure the both the magnitude and axis of the PCA, particularly in those above 60y rather than rely on rule-of-thumb calculations based on ACA parameters for IOL power calculation.

  20. Correlation between Corneal Thickness and Degree of Myopic Refractory Error

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    A Mortazavi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: corneal thickness is an important factor in refractive surgeries such as Radial Keratotomy (RK, Photo Refractive Keratotomy (PRK and Laser Insitu Keratomileusis (LASIK. This study evaluated the correlation between this factor and the degree of myopic refractory error. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 224 myopic eyes (112 patients which had undergone LASIK operation were assessed. These patients had referred to Aban Eye Clinic, Isfahan, Iran, during August and September 2002. Corneal thickness was measured by ORB SCAN Topoghraphy, and cycloplegic refraction was performed with autorefratometery and retinoscopy. Suspected keratoconus cases and hyperopic patients were excluded. Results: The patients' age was 27.2 ± 1.36 in men (N = 35 and 30.13 ± 1.04 in women (N = 77. Mean value of myopic refractory error in male patients was 5.1 ± 0.24D and in female patients was 3.8 ± 0.36D. Mean of corneal thickness was 540 ± 5.25 µM and 530 ± 5.88 µM in male and female patients respectively. There was no correlation between the degree of myopia and corneal thickness in any of the patients. Also in this research, no relations between the age and myopia were found. Right eye (P > 0.5, r = 0.124 Left eye (P > 0.5, r = 0.104. Conclusion: Based on our findings, corneal thickness and myopic refectory error do not seem to have any relations. (r = 0.039, p = 0.684. Keywords: Corneal Thickness, Cornea, Myopia, LASIK, Refractory Error

  1. What is the influence of parents' myopia on their children's myopic progression? A 22-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärssinen, Olavi; Kauppinen, Markku

    2016-09-01

    To study the connection between parental myopia and their children's myopia from school age to adulthood. Two hundred and forty myopic schoolchildren (119 boys, 121 girls, mean age 10.9 years) with no previous spectacles for myopia were recruited to a 3-year treatment trial with different use of spectacles. Follow-ups were performed at mean ages of 13.9, 23.7 and 33.2 years for 238, 176 and 170 subjects respectively. Subjective refraction was calibrated to the spherical equivalent at corneal level (SEcor). Corneal refractive power (CR) and axial length (AL) were measured. Parental myopia was assessed with a questionnaire and the children assigned accordingly to one of three hereditary groups: both parents myopic H++, one myopic parent = H+- and no myopic parents = H-. At baseline, no significant gender differences in age or SEcor were found in the different hereditary groups. Among girls, CR was significantly higher in hereditary group H++ (45.20 ± 1.08 D) than in group H+- (44.19 ± 1.28 D; p = 0.006) or H- (43.84 ± 1.18 D; p parents were myopic and -3.19 ± 1.36 D if neither parent was myopic (p = 0.035), but no significant difference was observed in AL. The main difference between the hereditary groups was higher CR and myopic progression among females with myopic parents than non-myopic parents, but with no significant difference in AL with respect to parental myopia at study end. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The astigmatism factor for semiconductor injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yiguang; Guo Changzhi

    1988-03-01

    The relations between the astigmatism factor and the waveguide structure, working conditions etc. were accurately calculated, using a method for deriving a self-consistent solution of the optical field equation and the carrier diffusion equation. Various theoretical models regarding the spontaneous emission factor were analyzed and compared. The results show that there is a difference between astigmatism factors of semiconductor lasers with different waveguide structures. W. Streifer's results, for a model having an invariable distribution of the complex refractive index, are larger by a factor of 6 to 80 than the accurate calculated value. K. Petermann's theory regarding the spontaneous emission factor is more appropriate than other theories. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  3. Prevalence of corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American children 6 months to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H

    2011-06-21

    To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non-Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age.

  4. Role of optical coherence tomography angiography in myopic choroidal neovascularization after intravitreal injections of Ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the change of myopic choroidal neovascularization treated by ranibizumab and evaluate their value in monitoring the effect of anti- vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFtherapy.METHODS: The study enrolled 30 patients(30 eyesdiagnosed with myopic choroidal neovascularization. All affected eyes were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab 0.05mL(10mg/mL. Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, non-contact tonometer, ophthalmoscope, fundus fluorescein angiograph(FFAand OCTA were evaluated monthly until 6mo. The changes of BCVA and central macular thickness(CMTwere compared at 1, 3 and 6mo after treatment.RESULTS: All patients received an average of 1.70±0.65 injections. BCVA was 0.96±0.17(LogMARbefore therapy, and BCVA 1, 3 and 6mo after treatment respectively improved by 0.23±0.09, 0.34±0.07, 0.38±0.11. The differences were significant(t=5.461, 8.191, 8.894; Pt=12.007, 13.360, 9.531; PCONCLUSION: Intravitreal ranibizumab for CNV secondary to pathologic myopia is effective and safe; OCTA is a noninvasive and time-saving new technology, and it also is a promising tool for clinicians to make preliminary diagnosis and assess treatment efficacy in the follow-up visits.

  5. Autorefraction versus subjective refraction in a radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Jan Willem; Vrijman, Violette; Al-Saady, Rana; El-Saady, Rana; van der Meulen, Ivanka J; Mourits, Maarten P; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate whether the automated refraction (AR) correlates with subjective manifest (MR) refraction in eyes implanted with radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOLs). This retrospective study evaluated 52 eyes (52 patients) implanted with a radially asymmetric multifocal IOL (LS-312 MF30, Oculentis, Germany). At 3 months postoperatively, the AR and MR values were compared to determine the correlation between the sphere (S), the spherical equivalent (SE) and the astigmatic components J0 and J45. The difference of mean spherical measurement was +0.98D ± 0.62, with the AR measuring more myopic. The difference of the mean spherical equivalent was +1.11D ± 0.57, again with AR being more myopic. Both these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The astigmatic components showed less differences, with the mean difference of the J0 being -0.09D ± 0.43, and the J45 of +0.04D ± 0.47, which were both not statistically significant (p = 0.123 and p = 0.531, respectively). Correlation analysis of the refractive parameters showed r(2) = 0.067, r(2) = 0.078, r(2) = 0.018 and r(2) = 0.015, respectively, all of which point to a low correlation between the AR and the MR. Autorefraction shows poor correlation to manifest subjective refraction with these radially asymmetric multifocal IOLs. The autorefraction systematically underestimates the spherical and spherical equivalent power, while the correlation between the astigmatic components was also low. Autorefraction seems not a valid starting point for manifest subjective refraction with these types of lenses, unless a corrective factor of about +1 dioptre is used. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Current and emerging treatment options for myopic choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Matri L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leila El Matri, Ahmed Chebil, Fedra Kort Department B of Ophthalmology, Hedi Rais Institute of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University of El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia Abstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is the main cause of visual impairment in highly myopic patients younger than 50 years of age. There are different treatments for myopic CNV (mCNV, with 5- to 10-year outcomes currently. Chorioretinal atrophy is still the most important determinant factor for visual outcome. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the current treatments for mCNV, including laser, surgical management, verteporfin photodynamic therapy, and mainly anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Emerging treatment options are also discussed. Keywords: myopia, choroidal neovascularization, current treatment, emerging treatment

  7. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Intraocular Pressure in Myopic Spanish Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. del Buey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine biomechanical parameters of the cornea in myopic eyes and their relationship with the degree of myopia in a western healthy population. Methods. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOP, and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc were measured using the ocular response analyzer (ORA in 312 eyes of 177 Spanish subjects aged between 20 and 56 years. Refraction was expressed as spherical equivalent (SE, which ranged from 0 to −16.50 diopters (D (mean: −3.88±2.90 D. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their refractive status: group 1 or control group: emmetropia (-0.50≤SE0.05; nevertheless, IOPcc was significantly higher in the moderately myopic (15.47±2.47 mmHg and highly myopic (16.14±2.59 mmHg groups than in the emmetropia (15.15±2.06 mmHg and low myopia groups (14.53±2.37 mmHg. No correlation between age and the measured parameters was found. CH and IOPcc were weakly but significantly correlated with SE (r=0.171, P=0.002 and r=-0.131, P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Present study showed only a very weak, but significant, correlation between CH and refractive error, with CH being lower in both moderately and highly myopic eyes than that in the emmetropic and low myopic eyes. These changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea may have an impact on IOP measurement, increasing the risk of glaucoma.

  8. Applicability of supervised discriminant analysis models to analyze astigmatism clinical trial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedghipour MR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Reza Sedghipour,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani2,31Nikoukari Ophthalmology University Hospital, Tabriz, Iran; 2Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Neuroscience Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: In astigmatism clinical trials where more complex measurements are common, especially in nonrandomized small sized clinical trials, there is a demand for the development and application of newer statistical methods.Methods: The source data belonged to a project on astigmatism treatment. Data were used regarding a total of 296 eyes undergoing different astigmatism treatment modalities: wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, cross-cylinder photorefractive keratectomy, and monotoric (single photorefractive keratectomy. Astigmatism analysis was primarily done using the Alpins method. Prior to fitting partial least squares regression discriminant analysis, a preliminary principal component analysis was done for data overview. Through fitting the partial least squares regression discriminant analysis statistical method, various model validity and predictability measures were assessed.Results: The model found the patients treated by the wavefront method to be different from the two other treatments both in baseline and outcome measures. Also, the model found that patients treated with the cross-cylinder method versus the single method didn't appear to be different from each other. This analysis provided an opportunity to compare the three methods while including a substantial number of baseline and outcome variables.Conclusion: Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis had applicability for the statistical analysis of astigmatism clinical trials and it may be used as an adjunct or alternative analysis method in small sized clinical trials.Keywords: astigmatism, regression, partial least squares regression

  9. A comparison of Lea Symbol vs ETDRS letter distance visual acuity in a population of young children with a high prevalence of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Miller, Joseph M; Garvey, Katherine A; Harvey, Erin M

    2009-06-01

    To compare visual acuity results obtained by use of the Lea Symbols chart with results obtained with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts in young children who are members of a population with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Subjects were 438 children ages 5 through 7 years who were enrolled in kindergarten or first grade on the Tohono O'odham Reservation: 241 (55%) had astigmatism >or=1.00 D in one or both eyes (range, 0.00-6.75 D). While wearing best correction, each child had right eye visual acuity tested with the 62 cm by 65 cm Lea Symbols chart at 3 m and with the 62 cm by 65 cm ETDRS chart at 4 m. Visual acuity was scored as the smallest optotype size at which the child correctly identified 3 of a maximum of 5 optotypes. ETDRS visual acuity also was scored based on the total number of letters that the child correctly identified. Correlation between Lea Symbols visual acuity and ETDRS visual acuity was 0.78 (p < 0.001). Mean Lea Symbols visual acuity was one-half line (0.04-0.06 logMAR) better than mean ETDRS visual acuity (p < 0.001). The difference between Lea Symbols and ETDRS visual acuity was not correlated with the mean of the Lea Symbols and ETDRS visual acuity scores, which ranged from -0.3 logMAR (20/10) to 0.74 logMAR (20/110). In this population of young children, in whom the primary source of reduced visual acuity is astigmatism-related amblyopia, the Lea Symbols chart produced visual acuity scores that were about 0.5 line better than visual acuity scores obtained with ETDRS charts.

  10. Assessment and statistics of surgically induced astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Kristian

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop methods for assessment of surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in individual eyes, and in groups of eyes. The thesis is based on 12 peer-reviewed publications, published over a period of 16 years. In these publications older and contemporary literature was reviewed(1). A new method (the polar system) for analysis of SIA was developed. Multivariate statistical analysis of refractive data was described(2-4). Clinical validation studies were performed. The description of a cylinder surface with polar values and differential geometry was compared. The main results were: refractive data in the form of sphere, cylinder and axis may define an individual patient or data set, but are unsuited for mathematical and statistical analyses(1). The polar value system converts net astigmatisms to orthonormal components in dioptric space. A polar value is the difference in meridional power between two orthogonal meridians(5,6). Any pair of polar values, separated by an arch of 45 degrees, characterizes a net astigmatism completely(7). The two polar values represent the net curvital and net torsional power over the chosen meridian(8). The spherical component is described by the spherical equivalent power. Several clinical studies demonstrated the efficiency of multivariate statistical analysis of refractive data(4,9-11). Polar values and formal differential geometry describe astigmatic surfaces with similar concepts and mathematical functions(8). Other contemporary methods, such as Long's power matrix, Holladay's and Alpins' methods, Zernike(12) and Fourier analyses(8), are correlated to the polar value system. In conclusion, analysis of SIA should be performed with polar values or other contemporary component systems. The study was supported by Statens Sundhedsvidenskabeligt Forskningsråd, Cykelhandler P. Th. Rasmussen og Hustrus Mindelegat, Hotelejer Carl Larsen og Hustru Nicoline Larsens Mindelegat, Landsforeningen til Vaern om Synet

  11. Myopic Loss Aversion : Information Feedback vs. Investment Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.; Krause, M.; Kroger, S.; Zhang, C.

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally disentangle the effect of information feedback from the effect of investment flexibility on the investment behavior of a myopically loss averse investor.Our findings show that varying the information condition alone suffices to induce behavior that is in line with the hypothesis of

  12. Applicability of supervised discriminant analysis models to analyze astigmatism clinical trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghipour, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2012-01-01

    In astigmatism clinical trials where more complex measurements are common, especially in nonrandomized small sized clinical trials, there is a demand for the development and application of newer statistical methods. The source data belonged to a project on astigmatism treatment. Data were used regarding a total of 296 eyes undergoing different astigmatism treatment modalities: wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, cross-cylinder photorefractive keratectomy, and monotoric (single) photorefractive keratectomy. Astigmatism analysis was primarily done using the Alpins method. Prior to fitting partial least squares regression discriminant analysis, a preliminary principal component analysis was done for data overview. Through fitting the partial least squares regression discriminant analysis statistical method, various model validity and predictability measures were assessed. The model found the patients treated by the wavefront method to be different from the two other treatments both in baseline and outcome measures. Also, the model found that patients treated with the cross-cylinder method versus the single method didn't appear to be different from each other. This analysis provided an opportunity to compare the three methods while including a substantial number of baseline and outcome variables. Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis had applicability for the statistical analysis of astigmatism clinical trials and it may be used as an adjunct or alternative analysis method in small sized clinical trials.

  13. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2014-08-01

    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequential selective same-day suture removal in the management of post-keratoplasty astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, U; Mokashi, A A; Elalfy, M S; Dua, H S

    2013-09-01

    In a previous study, we proposed that corneal topography performed 30-40 min after the initial suture removal can identify the next set of sutures requiring removal, for the treatment of post-keratoplasty astigmatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing subsequent sets of sutures at the same sitting. 10/0 nylon interrupted sutures were placed, to secure the graft-host junction, at the time of keratoplasty. Topography was performed using Pentacam (Oculus) before suture removal. The sutures to be removed in the steep semi-meridians were identified and removed at the slit-lamp biomicroscope. Topography was repeated 30-40 min post suture removal, the new steep semi-meridians determined, and the next set of sutures to be removed were identified and removed accordingly. Topography was repeated 4-6 weeks later and the magnitude of topographic astigmatism was recorded. A paired-samples t-test was used to evaluate the impact of selective suture removal on reducing the magnitude of topographic and refractive astigmatism. Twenty eyes of 20 patients underwent sequential selective same-day suture removal (SSSS) after corneal transplantation. This study showed that the topographic astigmatism decreased by about 46.7% (3.68 D) and the refractive astigmatism decreased by about 37.7% (2.61 D) following SSSS. Vector calculations also show a significant reduction of both topographic and refractive astigmatism (P<0.001). SSSS may help patients to achieve satisfactory vision more quickly and reduce the number of follow-up visits required post keratoplasty.

  15. Plasma channels during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse with wavefront astigmatism in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dergachev, A A; Kandidov, V P; Shlenov, S A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ionin, A A; Mokrousova, D V; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S; Shustikova, A P [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    We have demonstrated experimentally and numerically the possibility of controlling parameters of plasma channels formed during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse by introducing astigmatism in the laser beam wavefront. It is found that weak astigmatism increases the length of the plasma channel in comparison with the case of aberration-free focusing and that strong astigmatism can cause splitting of the plasma channel into two channels located one after another on the filament axis. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  16. Visual and refractive outcomes with ReLEx® SMILE in 600 eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ganesh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the outcomes of ReLEx® small incision lenticule extraction(SMILEfor correction of myopia or myopic astigmatism in terms of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, aberrations, and dry eye.METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomized clinical study, done at Nethradhama Super Speciality Eye Hospital, a total of 600 eyes that met the inclusion criteria underwent a thorough preoperative examination, including corrected distance visual acuity(CDVA, contrast sensitivity, aberrometry, and dry eye assessment. VisuMax femtosecond laser system was used to perform SMILE. Patients were followed up on 1, 15d and 3mo. Pre and postoperative uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, CDVA, aberrations, dry eye, and contrast sensitivity during 3mo of follow-up were recorded. Data analysis was done with the help of a computer using SPSS for Windows Software(version 17.0, SPSS, Inc., New York, USA. A paired t-test was used to test the significance of difference between quantitative variables and Yate's Chi-square test for qualitative variables. P value less than 0.05 denoted a significant relationship.RESULTS: The study enrolled 600 eyes of 305 patients, of which 10 patients underwent SMILE in 1 eye only due to anisometropia. At 3mo, 98.83% of eyes had attained a UCVA of 20/20 or better. No patient had a loss of CDVA, and 37 eyes(6.17%showed a gain in 1 line in postoperative CDVA. Postoperative induction of coma and spherical aberrations was minimal. Contrast sensitivity reduced immediate postoperatively(PP=0.43, 0.47, 0.46CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate the high refractive accuracy and safety of ReLEx® SMILE for the treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. Increase in postoperative dryness and aberrations, both accepted drawbacks of any corneal refractive surgery were observed, while decrease in contrast sensitivity was insignificant at lower spatial frequencies.

  17. [High myopic patients: A survey of their history, feelings, beliefs and needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, D; Chartier, C; Cohen, S-Y; Malecaze, F; Souied, E H; Weber, M; Leveziel, N

    2016-01-01

    High myopia (HM), which affects 0.9 to 3.1% of the population, is a major cause of vision loss. The purpose of this investigation was to study and evaluate the impact of their high myopia on the daily lives of patients and to better understand their expectations in order to better meet their needs. The survey was conducted between February 19 and March 21, 2014. To be eligible, patients had to have myopia of at least -8 diopters and be over 40 years of age, with or without myopic complications. Patients' degree of myopia was defined as the optical prescription of their worse eye. The 123 patients included were interviewed by phone using a questionnaire developed and validated by a scientific committee composed of experts and members of the patients' Association against myopic maculopathy (AMAM). The phone interview, semi-structured, lasted 20 minutes. On average, myopia was -11.7 diopters. Women accounted for 71% of the population, 89% of patients were under 65 years and were mostly professionals (65%). Over half of the subjects reported myopic complications; 5% of patients had choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Only 29% had been informed of the risk of CNV or maculopathy. HM was a handicap in sports for 64% of patients, in leisure activities for 51%, and in professional activities for more than a quarter (28%). Only 56% of HM patients reported living perfectly well with their condition. This survey is the first study on the daily life of people with HM aiming to analyze their social and emotional environment. It shows that HM has a profound impact on the daily lives of patients and may affect social life and professional activity. Most myopic patients possess incomplete or unclear information about the nature and risk of myopic complications. They expressed the desire to be better informed about their condition earlier, before the onset of complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of vitrectomy with triamcinolone assistance versus internal limiting membrane peeling for highly myopic macular hole retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Wang, Ningli; Zu, Zhongqiao; Bi, Chuncao; Wang, Huaizhou; Chen, Fenghua; Yang, Xingguang

    2013-06-01

    To compare the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with or without the adjuvant surgical procedures: triamcinolone acetonide (TA) assistance and/or internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for the treatment of highly myopic macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). Case-control study. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with 2 kinds of adjuvant surgical procedures were used on 96 highly myopic eyes with MHRD. These eyes were assigned to 4 groups randomly: Group 1, non-TA-assisted PPV and without ILM peeling; Group 2, non-TA-assisted PPV with ILM peeling; Group 3, TA-assisted PPV and without ILM peeling; Group 4, TA-assisted PPV with ILM peeling. Anatomical reattachment of the retina, macular hole closure, and best-corrected visual acuity were measured. The rates of both retinal reattachment and macular hole closure were higher in Group 2 (84.0 and 44.0%) and Group 3 (80.8 and 46.2%) than Group 1 (73.9 and 17.4%); however, there were no differences between Group 2 and Group 3 (P > 0.05). The rates of macular hole closure were extremely low in Group 1 and also in eyes with extreme long axial lengths (≥29.0 mm), "severe" chorioretinal atrophy, and posterior staphyloma. Pars plana vitrectomy with either TA assistance or ILM peeling was effective for the treatment of highly myopic MHRD. If you peel the ILM, adding TA does not affect closure rates; and if TA is used to visualize the vitreous, ILM peeling may not be necessary in MHRD. There was a lower anatomical success rate in MHRD with extreme long axial lengths, severe chorioretinal atrophy, and posterior staphyloma.

  19. Laser in situ keratomyleusis (LASIK for correction of myopia and hypermetropia: Our one year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Laser in situ keratamileusis (LASIK is the most commonly used refractive surgical method worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness and safety of LASIK in the correction of myopia and hyperopia. Methods. The study included myopic and hyperopic eyes with preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA = 1 (20/20, of the total number of 322 divided into 2 groups - 1 myopic eyes (n = 241 which were divided into 4 subgroups according to the myopia strength: a ≤ -1.75 D (n = 23, b from -2 to -3.75 D (n = 81, c from -4 to -6.75 D (n = 113, d ≥ -7 D (n = 24; 2 hyperopic eyes (n = 81 which were divided into 3 subgroups according to the hyperopia strength: a ≤ +1.75D (n = 10, b from +2 to +3.75 D (n = 46, c ≥ +4 D (n = 25. Myopic and hyperopic eyes with preoperative BCVA ≤ 0.9 (eyes with ambliopia were excluded from the study, as well as eyes with astigmatism > 1.5 D. To assess the effectiveness of LASIK we examined the percentage of eyes in the mentioned subgroups, which derived uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA 6 month after the intervention to the following: a UCVA = 1 (20/20 and b UCVA ≥ 0.5 (20/40. To assess the safety of LASIK we examined the frequency of intraoperative and postoperative complications. A prospective study was performed in a 6-months follow-up period. Results. Refractive spherical equivalent (RSE of myopic eyes was in the range from -0.75 D to -12 D. In the first subgroup preoperative mean value of RSE with standard deviation (mean RSE ± SD was -1.39 ± 0.36 D, and 6 months after the LASIK 100% of the eyes had UCVA = 20/20. In the second subgroup preoperative mean RSE ± SD was -2.85 ± 0.50 D, and 6 months after LASIK 93% of the eyes had UCVA = 20/20, but 100% of the eyes had UCVA ≥ 20/40. In the third subgroup preoperative mean RSE ± SD was -5.03 ± 0.75 D, and 6 months after the LASIK 90% of the eyes had UCVA = 20/20, but 100% of the eyes had UCVA ≥ 20/40. In the fourth

  20. Astigmatism and biometric optic components of diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity at 9 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-S; Wang, A-G; Shih, Y-F; Hsu, W-M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of astigmatism and its relationship with biometric optic components in preterm school children with diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study in which cycloplegic keratometry, refraction, and ultrasound biometric measurement of optic components were performed on 24 consecutive preterm children with diode laser-treated threshold ROP at the age of 9 years. The study results were compared with data on 1021 age-matched full-term control children from a national survey. Results The laser-treated eyes had a mean astigmatism of 3.47 D, with a mean spherical equivalent of −4.49 D. Of the 46 eyes studied, 98% of eyes showed astigmatism ≥0.5 D and 50% had high astigmatism (>3.0 D). Most astigmatic eyes (97.7%) showed with-the-rule astigmatism, with the mean plus cylinder axis at 89.30o. Further correlation analysis showed the astigmatism in refraction was highly correlated with the corneal astigmatism (r=0.921, P<0.001) and the vertical corneal curvature (r=0.405, P=0.005). There was significantly steeper vertical corneal curvature (P=0.003) and flatter horizontal corneal curvature (P=0.031) in eyes with laser-treated ROP when compared with age-matched full-term controls. The eyes with laser-treated ROP also show significantly thicker lens (3.93 mm) and shallower anterior chamber depth (ACD; 2.92 mm) than full-term controls (P<0.001). Conclusions There is significantly higher prevalence and greater magnitude of astigmatism in eyes with laser-treated threshold ROP compared with full-term controls. The steeper vertical corneal curvature component contributes to the increased astigmatism in eyes with laser-treated ROP. PMID:23222565

  1. Guiding flying-spot laser transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Tang, Maolong; Chamberlain, Winston; Zhang, Xinbo; Huang, David

    2017-04-01

    To analyze transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) results using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and develop a model to guide the laser dioptric and depth settings. Casey Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA. Prospective nonrandomized case series. Patients with superficial corneal opacities and irregularities had transepithelial PTK with a flying-spot excimer laser by combining wide-zone myopic and hyperopic astigmatic ablations. Optical coherence tomography was used to calculate corneal epithelial lenticular masking effects, guide refractive laser settings, and measure opacity removal. The laser ablation efficiency and the refractive outcome were investigated using multivariate linear regression models. Twenty-six eyes of 20 patients received PTK to remove opacities and irregular astigmatism due to scar, dystrophy, radial keratotomy, or previous corneal surgeries. The uncorrected distance visual acuity and corrected distance visual acuity were significantly improved (P laser ablation depths were 31.3% (myopic ablation) and 63.0% (hyperopic ablation) deeper than the manufacturer's nomogram. The spherical equivalent of the corneal epithelial lenticular masking effect was 0.73 diopter ± 0.61 (SD). The refractive outcome highly correlated to the laser settings and epithelial lenticular masking effect (Pearson R = 0.96, P < .01). The ablation rate of granular dystrophy opacities appeared to be slower. Smoothing ablation under masking fluid was needed to prevent focal steep islands in these cases. The OCT-measured ablation depth efficiency could guide opacity removal. The corneal epithelial lenticular masking effect could refine the spherical refractive nomogram to achieve a better refractive outcome after transepithelial ablation. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field’s components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field’s derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. - Highlights: • The formula of partial coherence for aberration corrected TEM is derived. • Transfer functions are calculated with several residual aberrations. • The calculated transfer function shows the characteristic damping. • The odd-symmetric wave aberrations can cause the attenuation of image via coherence. • The examples of aberration corrected TEM image simulations are shown.

  3. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Fumio, E-mail: hosokawa@bio-net.co.jp [BioNet Ltd., 2-3-28 Nishikityo, Tachikwa, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midoriku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Sawada, Hidetaka [JEOL (UK) Ltd., JEOL House, Silver Court, Watchmead, Welwyn Garden City, Herts AL7 1LT (United Kingdom); Shinkawa, Takao [BioNet Ltd., 2-3-28 Nishikityo, Tachikwa, Tokyo (Japan); Sannomiya, Takumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midoriku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field’s components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field’s derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. - Highlights: • The formula of partial coherence for aberration corrected TEM is derived. • Transfer functions are calculated with several residual aberrations. • The calculated transfer function shows the characteristic damping. • The odd-symmetric wave aberrations can cause the attenuation of image via coherence. • The examples of aberration corrected TEM image simulations are shown.

  4. Dome-shaped macula: a compensatory mechanism in myopic anisometropia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Pearse A; Mitra, Arijit; Khan, Imran J; Quhill, Fahd; Elsherbiny, Samer M

    2012-05-31

    The purpose of this article was to describe a patient with dome-shaped macula in the setting of mild myopic anisometropia and to speculate regarding the role of this feature as a compensatory mechanism in ocular development. The clinical records of a 49-year-old woman with this condition were reviewed. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic images revealed evidence of a dome-shaped macula. B-scan ultrasonography measured axial lengths of 23.8 mm in the right eye and 22.8 mm in the left eye. Spherical equivalents were -1.375 and +0.375 in the right and left eyes, respectively. Examination of the left eye was unremarkable. Dome-shaped macula has previously only been described in patients with high myopia. These findings support the hypothesis that myopic anisometropia, rather than absolute refractive status, is central to the development of dome-shaped macula and that this feature represents a protective mechanism aimed at reducing the effects of anisometropia. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes underwent phacoemulcification were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, the clear temporal corneal incision group, and Group B, the superior scleral tunnel incision group. SPSS11.5 Software was used for statistical analysis to compare the postsurgical changes of cornea astigmatism on keratometry. Results. The changes of corneal astigmatic diopter in Groups A and B after 3 month postop from keratometric reading were 1.04 + 0.76 and 0.94 + 0.27, respectively (=.84>.05, which showed no statistic significance difference. Conclusion. The incision through either temporal clear cornea or superior scleral tunnel in phacoemulcification shows no statistic difference in astigmatism change on keratometry 3-month postop.

  6. HORIZONTAL RIDGE AS A POSTERIOR POLE FINDING IN A HIGHLY MYOPIC EYE WITH DOME-SHAPED MACULA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, I Chia

    2017-07-01

    This article describes a case with a highly myopic eye and a posterior pole with ridge-like lesions. Case report. A 72-year-old man with unilateral high myopia showed poor vision and an extremely elongated axial length in his right eye, but normal vision and normal axial length in his left eye. He was examined using fundus examination and optical coherence tomography, and revealed to have dome-shaped macula with two horizontal ridges connecting the optic disc and the macula in his highly-myopic eye. The findings suggest that a dome-shaped macula may not be limited to the macula area, but may involve the whole posterior pole and is potentially involved in the elongation of highly myopic eyeballs.

  7. Evaluation of corneal changes after myopic LASIK using the Pentacam®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairat YM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yehia M Khairat, Yasser H Mohamed, Ismail ANO Moftah, Narden N Fouad Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minya University, Egypt Background: In this study, we used a Pentacam® device to evaluate the corneal changes that occur after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. Methods: Our study included 60 eyes of 32 patients. All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism using LASIK. The eyes were examined preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively using a Pentacam to assess corneal changes with regard to curvature, elevation, and asphericity of the cornea. Results: A statistically significant decrease in mean keratometric power of the anterior corneal surface (P = 0.001 compared with its pre-LASIK value was detected after 3 months, but there was no significant change in keratometric power of the posterior surface (P = 0.836. Asphericity (Q-value of the anterior and posterior surfaces increased significantly after LASIK (P = 0.001. A significant forward bulge of the anterior corneal surface 4 mm and 7 mm from the central zone was detected 3 months post-LASIK (P = 0.001 for both, but there was no significant increase in posterior elevation at 4 mm and 7 mm from the center (P = 0.637 and P = 0.26, respectively. No cases of post-LASIK ectasia were detected. Correlation between different parameters of the corneal surface revealed an indirect relation between changes in pachymetry and anterior corneal elevation at 4 mm and 7 mm from the central zone (r = −0.27, P = 0.13, and r = −0.37, P = 0.04, respectively, and a direct proportion between changes in pachymetry and mean keratometric power of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces (r = 0.7, P = 0.001 and r = 0.4, P = 0.028, respectively. Conclusion: LASIK causes significant changes at the anterior corneal surface but the effect is subtle and insignificant at the posterior surface. Keywords: LASIK, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, Pentacam®, corneal

  8. Serous retinal detachment accompanied by MEWDS in a myopic patient with dome-shaped macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Kyu; Byon, Ik Soo; Park, Sung Who; Lee, Ji Eun

    2014-01-01

    Macular serous retinal detachment (MSRD) is a rare complication in highly myopic patients with an inferior staphyloma, tilted disc, or dome-shaped macula. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) presents with sudden visual loss and multiple yellowish dots that resolve spontaneously within several weeks. The authors report the development and spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid accompanied by MEWDS in a myopic patient with a dome-shaped macula. Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium due to MEWDS likely induced temporary MSRD in this patient. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  10. Method and system for automatically correcting aberrations of a beam of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The location of a beam of charged particles within a deflection field is determined by its orthogonal deflection voltages. With the location of the beam in the field, correction currents are supplied to a focus coil and to each of a pair of stigmator coils to correct for change of focal length and astigmatism due to the beam being deflected away from the center of its deflection field

  11. The effect of humidity and temperature on visual outcomes after myopic corneal laser refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hood CT

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Christopher T Hood,1 Roni M Shtein,1 Daniel Veldheer,1,2 Munira Hussain,1 Leslie M Niziol,1 David C Musch,1,3 Shahzad I Mian1 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan W.K. Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 3Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Objective: To determine whether procedure room environmental conditions are associated with outcomes after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK or laser-assisted keratomileusis (LASEK. Design: Retrospective chart review. Participants: Eight hundred sixty-three eyes of 458 consecutive patients at a university-based academic practice. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients who underwent LASIK or LASEK over a 3-year period. Linear mixed regression models were used to investigate the association of laser room temperature and humidity with the outcomes of visual acuity and postoperative manifest spherical equivalent refraction. Repeated measures logistic regression models were used for the outcomes of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK and need for enhancement surgery. Results: Subjects were on an average 38.6 years old at the time of surgery (standard deviation [SD] =10.3 and the average spherical equivalent refraction of eyes was 3.8 diopters (SD =2.03. Regression models did not reveal a significant association between temperature and uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA or corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, or between humidity and UDVA (P>0.05 for all. However, increased humidity was associated with a small but statistically significant improvement in CDVA after LASIK at 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year postoperatively (P<0.05 for all. There was no significant association between temperature and humidity and the need for enhancement, the incidence of DLK, or postoperative manifest refraction. Conclusion: While increased laser

  12. Assessment of corneal astigmatism following frown and straight incision forms in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery

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    Amedo AO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Ofeibea Amedo, Kwadwo Amoah, Nana Yaa Koomson, David Ben Kumah, Eugene Appenteng Osae Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana Abstract: To investigate which of two tunnel incision forms (frown versus straight in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery creates more corneal astigmatism. Sixty eyes of 60 patients who had consented to undergo cataract surgery and to partake in this study were followed from baseline through >12-week postoperative period. Values of preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism for the 60 eyes, measured with a Bausch and Lomb keratometer, were extracted from the patients’ cataract surgery records. Residual astigmatism was computed as the difference between preoperative and postoperative keratometry readings. Visual acuity was assessed during the preoperative period and at each postoperative visit with a Snellen chart at 6 m. Fifty eyes of 50 patients were successfully followed-up on. Overall, the mean residual astigmatism was 0.75±0.12 diopters. The differences in mean residual astigmatism between the two different incision groups were statistically significant (t [48]=6.33, P<0.05; frown incision group recorded 1.00±0.12 diopters, whereas the straight incision group recorded 0.50±0.12 diopters. No significant difference was observed between male and female groups (t [48]=0.24, P>0.05. Residual corneal astigmatism in the frown incision group was significantly higher than in the straight incision group. Fisher’s exact test did not reveal a significant association between incision forms and visual acuity during the entire postoperative period (P>0.05. Keywords: cataract, residual corneal astigmatism, frown incision, straight incision

  13. Genome-wide meta-analysis of five Asian cohorts identifies PDGFRA as a susceptibility locus for corneal astigmatism.

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    Qiao Fan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corneal astigmatism refers to refractive abnormalities and irregularities in the curvature of the cornea, and this interferes with light being accurately focused at a single point in the eye. This ametropic condition is highly prevalent, influences visual acuity, and is a highly heritable trait. There is currently a paucity of research in the genetic etiology of corneal astigmatism. Here we report the results from five genome-wide association studies of corneal astigmatism across three Asian populations, with an initial discovery set of 4,254 Chinese and Malay individuals consisting of 2,249 cases and 2,005 controls. Replication was obtained from three surveys comprising of 2,139 Indians, an additional 929 Chinese children, and an independent 397 Chinese family trios. Variants in PDGFRA on chromosome 4q12 (lead SNP: rs7677751, allelic odds ratio = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.16-1.36, P(meta = 7.87×10(-9 were identified to be significantly associated with corneal astigmatism, exhibiting consistent effect sizes across all five cohorts. This highlights the potential role of variants in PDGFRA in the genetic etiology of corneal astigmatism across diverse Asian populations.

  14. Refractive errors in children and adolescents in Bucaramanga (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Otero, Johanna; Serrano, Andrés A; Gómez, Luz María; Castellanos, Yuly

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of refractive errors in children and adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old, living in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga (Colombia). This study was a secondary analysis of two descriptive cross-sectional studies that applied sociodemographic surveys and assessed visual acuity and refraction. Ametropias were classified as myopic errors, hyperopic errors, and mixed astigmatism. Eyes were considered emmetropic if none of these classifications were made. The data were collated using free software and analyzed with STATA/IC 11.2. One thousand two hundred twenty-eight individuals were included in this study. Girls showed a higher rate of ametropia than boys. Hyperopic refractive errors were present in 23.1% of the subjects, and myopic errors in 11.2%. Only 0.2% of the eyes had high myopia (≤-6.00 D). Mixed astigmatism and anisometropia were uncommon, and myopia frequency increased with age. There were statistically significant steeper keratometric readings in myopic compared to hyperopic eyes. The frequency of refractive errors that we found of 36.7% is moderate compared to the global data. The rates and parameters statistically differed by sex and age groups. Our findings are useful for establishing refractive error rate benchmarks in low-middle-income countries and as a baseline for following their variation by sociodemographic factors.

  15. Refractive errors in children and adolescents in Bucaramanga (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Galvis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of refractive errors in children and adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old, living in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga (Colombia. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of two descriptive cross-sectional studies that applied sociodemographic surveys and assessed visual acuity and refraction. Ametropias were classified as myopic errors, hyperopic errors, and mixed astigmatism. Eyes were considered emmetropic if none of these classifications were made. The data were collated using free software and analyzed with STATA/IC 11.2. Results: One thousand two hundred twenty-eight individuals were included in this study. Girls showed a higher rate of ametropia than boys. Hyperopic refractive errors were present in 23.1% of the subjects, and myopic errors in 11.2%. Only 0.2% of the eyes had high myopia (≤-6.00 D. Mixed astigmatism and anisometropia were uncommon, and myopia frequency increased with age. There were statistically significant steeper keratometric readings in myopic compared to hyperopic eyes. Conclusions: The frequency of refractive errors that we found of 36.7% is moderate compared to the global data. The rates and parameters statistically differed by sex and age groups. Our findings are useful for establishing refractive error rate benchmarks in low-middle-income countries and as a baseline for following their variation by sociodemographic factors.

  16. Characteristics of astigmatism in Black South African high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Astigmatism prevalence, school children, South Africa. ... ception and symptoms.3 The high school population is of interest given that they ..... Malaysia. Asian. 7-15. 4634. ≤−0.75 15.7. Paudel te al45. Vietnam. Asian. 12-15. 2238.

  17. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

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    Milani P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Milani,1 Amedeo Massacesi,1 Stefania Moschini,1 Marco Setaccioli,1 Ennio Bulone,1 Gemma Tremolada,1 Stefano Ciaccia,1 Elena Mantovani,1 Daniela Morale,2 Fulvio Bergamini1 1Ophthalmology Department, Istituto Auxologico, 2Institute of Mathematics, Universita’ degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Purpose: To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV by fluorescein angio­graphy (FA, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, near-infrared (NIR reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF. Methods: This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years and a mean refraction of -9.72 diopters (95% CI -8.74 to -10.70 diopters. Results: Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%, with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3% and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%. No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2% eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4% eyes. Papillary chorio­retinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%, a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%, and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4% eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P<0.001. In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P<0.005. NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2% and 27 (41.5% eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3% and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed on AF (25/65, 38.4%. FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3% and 48 (73.8% eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P<0.001, absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P<0.05, and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P<0.01. Conclusion: Tomographic, angiographic, AF

  18. Outcomes for Myopic LASIK With the MEL 90 excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Carp, Glenn I; Lewis, Tariq A; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the visual outcomes of myopic LASIK performed with the MEL 90 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) using the Triple-A profile with a 500-Hz pulse rate. Retrospective analysis of the first 286 myopic LASIK procedures (147 patients) by two experienced surgeons in which the VisuMax femtosecond laser and MEL 90 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec) were used following a standardized surgical technique. Inclusion criteria were preoperative spherical equivalent refraction (SEQ) up to -10.38 diopters (D), cylinder up to 5.00 D, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/25 or better. No nomogram adjustments were made. Patients were observed for 3 months. Flap thickness was between 80 and 110 µm and optical zone was between 6 and 7 mm. Standard outcomes analysis was performed. Preoperatively, mean SEQ was -3.83 ± 1.83 D (range: -0.13 to -10.38 D) and mean cylinder was -0.94 ± 0.86 D (range: 0.00 to -5.00 D). Mean age was 36.4 years (range: 18.2 to 74.1 years) with 50% female patients. Of this population, 138 eyes were treated by one surgeon and 148 eyes by another. The mean predictability of SEQ was -0.13 ± 0.34 D (range: -1.00 to +1.00 D). Postoperative SEQ was ± 0.50 D in 88% and ± 1.00 D in 100% of eyes. Preoperative CDVA was 20/20 or better in 97% of eyes. Postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 92% and 20/25 or better in 99% of eyes. One line of CDVA was lost in 6% of eyes and no eyes lost two or more lines. There was statistically significant improvement in mesopic contrast sensitivity (CSV-1000) at 3 (P = .021), 6, 12, and 18 (all P ≤.001) cycles per degree. The MEL 90 excimer laser using the Triple-A ablation profile with a 500-Hz pulse rate was found to achieve a small but real increase in contrast sensitivity and high efficacy for myopia up to -10.00 D and cylinder up to 5.00 D without the need for a nomogram adjustment. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) versus laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for correcting myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryan, Jocelyn; Cheema, Anjum; Chuck, Roy S

    2017-02-15

    .90 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.21) for UCVA of 20/40 or better based on data from one trial with 57 eyes (very low-certainty evidence). People receiving LASEK were less likely to achieve a refractive error within 0.5 diopters of the target at 12 months follow-up (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.99; 57 eyes; very low-certainty evidence). One trial reported mild corneal haze at six months in one eye in the LASEK group and none in the LASIK group (RR 2.11, 95% CI 0.57 to 7.82; 76 eyes; very low-certainty evidence). None of the included trials reported postoperative pain score or loss of visual acuity, spherical equivalent of the refractive error, or quality of life at 12 months.Refractive regression, an adverse event, was reported only in the LASEK group (8 of 37 eyes) compared with none of 39 eyes in the LASIK group in one trial (low-certainty evidence). Other adverse events, such as corneal flap striae and refractive over-correction, were reported only in the LASIK group (5 of 39 eyes) compared with none of 37 eyes in the LASEK group in one trial (low-certainty evidence). Overall, from the available RCTs, there is uncertainty in how LASEK compares with LASIK in achieving better refractive and visual results in mildly to moderately myopic participants. Large, well-designed RCTs would be required to estimate the magnitude of any difference in efficacy or adverse effects between LASEK and LASIK for treating myopia or myopic astigmatism.

  20. Visual deficits in Nepalese patients with oculocutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Safal; Pokharel, Amrit; Kandel, Himal

    2016-01-01

    Albinism poses a significant threat to visual functions and causes remarkable ocular morbidity often resulting in visual disabilities. The study aimed at describing the visual status in patients with diagnosed cases of complete oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) attending to a tertiary eye hospital in Nepal. This was a cross-sectional descriptive hospital-based study of all diagnosed oculocutaneous albinotic cases (16 males and 9 females; mean age of 16 years) who visited the Department of Ophthalmology at the Institute of Medicine, for ocular consultation between September 1, 2011 and December 1, 2013. Twenty-five cases (50 eyes) with OCA were enrolled in the study. All the participants had maximally reduced visual acuity (mean: 1.24±0.50logMAR). Myopic astigmatism was the most common refractive error (n=17; 34%). 58% of all participants had with-the-rule astigmatism. Considering the spherical equivalent power, most of the eyes (n=30; 60%) had myopia, with overall mean SE refractive error of -1.59±5.39D. Visual acuity improved significantly with refractive correction in place (paired sample t-test, palbinism. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiology of ametropia of U.S. Army recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, W H; Wingert, T A

    1995-02-01

    All people attempting to enlist in the U.S. Army must undergo a physical examination that requires a rudimentary vision screening. Those who pass the physical, upon reporting to basic training, are again evaluated and any treatment necessary to allow the recruits to function during their initial indoctrination is provided. Those who fail to see 20/20 O.D. and O.S. with their current spectacles fail the screening and are evaluated by an optometrist. If their condition is not disqualifying, appropriate correction is prescribed. We reviewed the records of all the recruits in a 1-month period who either required spectacles to see 20/20 or failed the screening at the 43rd AG BN (reception). Epidemiological evaluation revealed most to be either simple myopes or myopic astigmats. Hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism accounted for the next most common diagnosis. Other conditions included anisometropia, antimetropia, amblyopia, keratoconus, and nystagmus. Examinations of these recruits were very limited, with dilated fundus evaluations being performed only when there was a high probability of a disqualifying condition. Therefore, it is unknown what retinal disease or degeneration may be present other than what would be visible with direct ophthalmoscopy.

  2. Myopic Loss Aversion: Demystifying the Key Factors Influencing Decision Problem Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Andrew M.; Looney, Clayton Arlen

    2012-01-01

    Advancement of myopic loss aversion theory has been hamstrung by conflicting results, methodological inconsistencies, and a piecemeal approach toward understanding the key factors influencing decision problem framing. A series of controlled experiments provides a more holistic view of the variables promoting myopia. Extending the information…

  3. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  4. Changes in higher order aberrations after wavefront guided FS-LASIK for myopia combined with moderate to high astigmatism

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    Cang-Yu Guan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the changes in higher order aberrations after wavefront guided femtosecond laser assisted laser in situ keratomileusis(FS-LASIKfor moderate to high astigmatism. METHODS: Eighty-eight eyes of 50 myopia patients with moderate to high astigmatism were included in this prospective study. There were 51 eyes with moderate astigmatism(≥-1.50D and RESULTS: At the 3mo after operation, the mean UDVA of all eyes was above 20/20, better than before operation(PP=0.36and no eyes lost ≥2 lines of CDVA. Mean astigmstism of 85 eyes(97%was reduced below -1.00D, mean astigmatism of 70 eyes(80%was reduced below -0.50D(PPP=0.078, 0.065. The spherical aberration, secondary astigmatism and the HOA root mean square(RMSincreased from 0.19±0.06, 0.05±0.02 and 0.42±0.12, preoperatively to 0.32±0.17, 0.26±0.08 and 0.78±0.28(PCONCLUSION: Wavefront-guided FS-LASIK is a safe and effective option for the patients with moderate to high astigmstism although parts of HOAs increased.

  5. Comparison of the Effect of Cycloplegia on Astigmatism Measurements in a Pediatric Amblyopic Population: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sunali; Phillips, Paul H; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Lowery, R Scott

    2018-06-18

    To study the effect of cycloplegia on astigmatism measurements in pediatric patients with amblyopia. This was a prospective comparative clinical study. Participants 4 to 17 years old were recruited from the patient population at the Arkansas Children's Hospital eye clinic after informed consent was obtained. Autorefractor measurements were used to obtain values of refractive error in amblyopic and non-amblyopic patients before and after cycloplegia. The groups were subdivided into myopia and hyperopia and with and without underlying amblyopia. The refractive error was expressed as sphere, cylinder, axis of astigmatism, and spherical equivalent. The treatment effect was summarized as the mean difference (95% confidence interval) for each outcome. No statistically significant difference was found on the axis and power of astigmatism before and after cycloplegia in the patients with amblyopia (P = .28 and .99, respectively). Non-cycloplegic autorefraction measurements may be considered safe for refining astigmatism power and axis in pediatric patients with amblyopia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 201X; XX(X):XXXX.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Vision of low astigmats through thick and thin lathe-cut soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, P; Woo, G C

    2001-01-01

    Distance and near visual acuity of 13 low astigmats were determined in a double-masked experiment through thick and thin (centre thickness 0.12 mm and 0.06 mm, respectively) spherical lathe-cut soft lenses. For each lens type, distance and near LogMAR VA and over-refraction were assessed with different logMAR VA charts. For 70% of the subjects, the residual astigmatism was significantly lower than the refractive astigmatism with thicker lenses. No statistically significant differences in the distance and near logMAR VA was found between the two lens types using any of the charts used, though, in general, logMAR VA obtained through the thicker lens was better than logMAR VA through the thinner lens. The variabilities in distance and near logMAR VA between the two lens types increased with decreased contrast. The variabilities in distance logMAR VA were greater with Chinese charts than with English charts, and LogMAR VA with Chinese charts were significantly worse for both lens types. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that thicker spherical lathe-cut soft lenses provide better vision in low astigmats. The Snellen acuity test is inadequate for vision assessment of soft contact lens wearers. When a patient wearing thin soft contact lenses complains of poor vision in spite of 6/6 or 6/5 Snellen acuity, changing to thicker lenses may be considered.

  7. Internal limiting membrane peeling and gas tamponade for myopic foveoschisis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Zhao, Lu; Yin, Yi; Li, Hongyang; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Xiufen; You, Ran; Wang, Jialin; Zhang, Youjing; Wang, Hui; Du, Ran; Wang, Ningli; Zhan, Siyan; Wang, Yanling

    2017-09-08

    Myopic foveoschisis (MF) is among the leading causes of visual loss in high myopia. However, it remains controversial whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling or gas tamponade is necessary treatment option for MF. PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and VIP databases were systematically reviewed. Outcome indicators were myopic foveoschisis resolution rate, visual acuity improvement and postoperative complications. Nine studies that included 239 eyes were selected. The proportion of resolution of foveoschisis was higher in ILM peeling group than non-ILM peeling group (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.06-4.35; P = 0.03). The proportion of postoperative complications was higher in Tamponade group than non-Tamponade group (OR = 10.81, 95% CI: 1.26-93.02; P = 0.03). However, the proportion of visual acuity improvement (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 0.56-4.80; P = 0.37) between ILM peeling group and non-ILM peeling group and the proportion of resolution of foveoschisis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 0.76-4.28; P = 0.18) between Tamponade group and non-Tamponade group were similar. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling could contribute to better resolution of myopic foveoschisis than non-peeling, however it does not significantly influence the proportion of visual acuity improvement and postoperative complications. Vitrectomy with gas tamponade is associated with more complications than non-tamponade and does not significantly influence the proportion of visual acuity improvement and resolution of myopic foveoschisis.

  8. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments (RM/17/002-revised)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set (MSS). The MSS is defined for a general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. An MSS exists and, under minor continuity assumptions, it is also unique. The MSS

  9. Myopic Regret Avoidance: Feedback Avoidance and Learning in Repeated Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…

  10. Acute Corneal Hydrops in Children with Primary Infantile Glaucoma: A Report of 31 Cases over 23 Years at the LVPEI.

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    Anil K Mandal

    Full Text Available Relatively little data exist regarding the outcomes of children with primary infantile glaucoma presenting with acute corneal hydrops. The aim of our study was to determine the surgical outcome of children of infantile glaucoma who presented with acute corneal hydrops.In total, 38 eyes of 31 consecutive children of infantile glaucoma presented with acute corneal hydrops who underwent primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy (CTT by a single surgeon from January 1990 to December 2012 at the LV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI, a tertiary eye care centre in Southern India were enrolled in this retrospective study. Primary outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP control (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg under anaesthesia or IOP ≤ 21 mmHg without anaesthesia and clearance of corneal edema. Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity (VA, corneal diameter, bleb appearance, intraoperative and postoperative complications.Mean age at presentation was 6.4 months (range, 2-11 months and seven eyes (23% had bilateral affliction. At presentation, all eyes (100% had moderate to severe degree of corneal edema with a mean preoperative IOP of 25.6 ±5.1 mmHg. Postoperatively, the IOP reduced to 12.0 ± 3.8 mmHg (difference = -13.6, 95% CI = -15.7 to -11.5, t = -13.18, p<0.0001, and the percentage reduction in IOP was 53.05%. Preoperatively 83% of the eyes were on antiglaucoma medication, and postoperatively 2 eyes (5.3% required 1 antiglaucoma medication for control of IOP. Preoperatively, corneal edema was present in all eyes and postoperatively it cleared in all of them. Significant myopic astigmatism was present in 28 eyes (74%, the commonest being compound myopic astigmatism (75% followed by simple myopic astigmatism (21%. Normal VA (best-corrected VA; BCVA ≥ 20/60 was achieved in 44.4% of the eyes and 22.2% eyes had low vision (BCVA, <20/60 to 20/400. Complete success (IOP control and clearance of corneal oedema was obtained in 94.7% eyes. There were no

  11. Reversal of myopic anisometropic amblyopia with occlusion therapy in a 25 year old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megbelayin, E; Ekpenyong, S M; Azunobi, J; Ejiro, G

    2014-03-01

    To report a reversal of myopic anisometropic amblyopia with occlusion therapy in a 25 year old. Case report. Eye clinic of a University Teaching Hospital in a metropolitan city. an index patient. Occlusion therapy. Post occlusion visual acuity. Presenting unaided visual acuity of right eye: 6/6, left eye: 4/60. Refraction result was: right eye: -0.50DS (6/6), left eye: -3.50DS (6/18). Following day time occlusion therapy of at least 6 hours for about 4 weeks, subjective refraction was: right eye: -0.5DS (6/5), left eye: -3.50DS (6/6(+3)). The remarkable improvement in vision at age 25 years of a patient with myopic anisometropic amblyopia shows that occlusion therapy might still be useful long after amblyogenic period.

  12. Posterior corneal surface differences between non-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and 10-year post-LASIK myopic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ma-Li; Wang, Qin-Mei; Lin, Zu-Shun; Yu, Ye; Huang, Jin-Hai; Savini, Giacomo; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Ling; Xu, Chen-Chen

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the posterior corneal surface differences between non-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and 10-year post-LASIK myopic eyes. The study included 130 eyes from 65 patients, who were treated with myopic LASIK 10 years ago. In addition, 130 eyes from 65 unoperated myopic patients of matching present age and preoperative refraction were divided into control group. Data on the posterior corneal surface and anterior chamber were obtained from Pentacam software and compared between the groups. Postoperative visual acuity (VA) and refractive error were also analysed. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) was -6.99 ± 1.78 dioptre (D) in the LASIK group. Ten years after surgery, the mean SE was -0.45 ± 1.22 D, the efficacy index was 0.98, and the safety index was 1.01. The posterior corneal elevations of the LASIK group at 2 mm corneal diameter were significantly lower than those of the control group. However, posterior corneal elevations at 6 mm corneal diameter were higher in the LASIK group than the controls (p LASIK group than in controls. Meanwhile, the anterior chamber volumes (ACV) were smaller in the LASIK group than in the control group. Our results demonstrated that the posterior corneal surface tends to show signs of central flattening and peripheral steepening 10 years after myopic LASIK surgery compared to that of non-operated myopic eyes. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparison of clinical outcomes between limbal relaxing incisions and toric intraocular lenses in eyes with astigmatic corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare refractive and vectorial outcomes of limbal relaxing incisions (LRI versus toric intraocular lenses (IOL in the treatment of preexisting corneal astigmatism at the time of phacoemulsification. Methods: This longitudinal observational case series assessed 62 eyes of 31 consecutive cataract patients with preoperative corneal astigmatism between 0.75 and 2.50 diopters in both eyes. Patients were randomly assorted in two groups: one assigned to receive AcrySof Toric™ IOL in both eyes, and another one assigned to have AcrySof Natural™ IOL associated with LRI, also in both eyes. All patients were re-evaluated, postoperatively, at 1, 3 and 6 months, when refractive astigmatism analysis was performed using vectorial methods proposed by Thibos. Variability of outcomes within each group and between groups were assessed and compared. Results: Manifest refractive cylinder, in diopters (D, as means ± standard deviation, in the LRI group for 1-month, 3-month and 6-month re-evalutions were respectively -0.66 ± 0.30; -0.70 ± 0.21 and -0.74 ± 0.26 when compared to -0.58 ± 0.24; -0.63 ± 0.20, and -0.62 ± 0.17 in the toric IOL group. (p value ≥ 0.06. Vectorial analysis evidenced greater astigmatism reduction in the toric IOL group in the 6th postoperative month, when postoperative mean astigmatic power vector was 0.31 D, when compared to 0.37 D in the LRI group (p value = 0.00. Conclusions: A trend of slightly better refractive outcomes favoring toric IOL group was seen, although such a trend was not statistically significant. Vectorial analysis, however, suggests that the use of toric IOL may constitute a more advantageous approach in the treatment of pre-existing corneal astigmatism, simultaneously with phacoemulsification.

  14. Three-Year Outcomes of Cross-Linking PLUS (Combined Cross-Linking with Femtosecond Laser Intracorneal Ring Segments Implantation for Management of Keratoconus

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    Mohammed Iqbal Hafez Saleem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of three-year outcomes of combined epithelium-on cross-linking with femtosecond laser ICRS (cross-linking PLUS for keratoconus management. Design. A retrospective multicenter clinical study. Methods. 43 eyes of 38 patients were subjected to preoperative and postoperative UCVA, BCVA, refraction, Pentacam pachymetry, and keratometry examinations at 3-, 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up period. Results. The preoperative and postoperative mean UCVA was 1.30 ± 0.48 (logMAR ± SD and 0.82 ± 0.22 respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean BCVA was 0.90 ± 0.40 and 0.60 ± 0.30, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean K average was 50.63 ± 0.87 (D ± SD and 45.56 ± 0.98, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean pachymetry was 471 ± 92.36 (μm ± SD and 423 ± 39.58, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean astigmatism was 7.55 ± 1.75 and 3.39 ± 1.26, respectively. One eye showed ICRS edge exposure while 6 eyes showed progression of keratoconus. Conclusion. CXL PLUS was proved to be a successful procedure to halt progression (mainly by CXL and to correct the refractive status of the keratoconic eye (mainly by ICRS. CXL PLUS performed a synergistic action correcting and maintaining the correction of both myopic and astigmatic components of keratoconus.

  15. Risk factors of regression and undercorrection in photorefractive keratectomy:a case-control study

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    Seyed-Farzad Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine risk factors of regression and undercorrection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK in myopia or myopic astigmatism.METHODS: A case-control study was designed in which eyes with an indication for re-treatment (RT were defined as cases; primary criteria for RT indication, as assessed at least 9mo postoperatively, included an uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA of 20/30 or worse and a stable refraction for more than 3mo. Additional considerations included optical quality symptoms and significant higher order aberrations (HOAs. Controls were chosen from the same cohort of operated eyes which had complete post-operative follow up data beyond 9mo and did not need RT. The cohort included patients who had undergone PRK by the Tissue-Saving (TS ablation profile of Technolas 217z100 excimer laser (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA. Mitomycin C had been used in all of the primary procedures.RESULTS:We had 70 case eyes and 158 control eyes, and they were comparable in terms of age, sex and follow-up time (P values:0.58, 1.00 and 0.89, respectively. Pre-operative spherical equivalent of more than -5.00 diopter (D, intended optical zone (OZ diameter of less than 6.00 mm and ocular fixation instability during laser ablation were associated with RT indications (all P values <0.001. These factors maintained their significance in the multiple logistic regression model with odd ratios of 6.12, 6.71 and 7.89, respectively.CONCLUSION:Higher refractive correction (>-5.00 D, smaller OZ (<6.00 mm and unstable fixation during laser ablation of PRK for myopia and myopic astigmatism were found to be strong predictors of undercorrection and regression.

  16. Application of the fractional Fourier transformation to digital holography recorded by an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, F; Coëtmellec, S; Brunel, M; Allano, D; Lebrun, D; Janssen, A J E M

    2005-11-01

    The authors have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle field illuminated by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam. They demonstrate that the bidimensional fractional Fourier transformation is a mathematically suitable tool to analyse the diffraction pattern generated not only by a collimated plane wave [J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 1537 (2002)], but also by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam when two different fractional orders are considered. Simulations and experimental results are presented.

  17. Clinical observation of transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy for myopia

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    Xiao-Ning Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effectiveness and safety of transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy(TransPRKusing the AMARIS laser platform. METHODS: Eighty myopic cases(156 eyeswith or without astigmatism were treated by TransPRK. In all eyes, treatments were planned with Custom Ablation Manager Software and ablations performed with the SCHWIND AMARIS system. Clinical outcomes of visual acuity, manifest refraction, intraocular pressure, and corneal topography were observed and analyzed. The follow-up period was one year.RESULTS: All patients completed the 1-year follow-up. After one-year follow-up, 47 cases(92 eyes, 58.8%achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity(UDVA≥1.0. Twenty cases(40 eyes, 25%was 0.8 and 13 cases(24 eyes, 16.3%was 0.6. Sixty-three cases(121 eyes, 78.8%were close to or above best corrected visual acuity(BCVA. Seventeen cases(34 eyes, 21.2%were slightly lower than BCVA 1 row or two. Nine cases(18 eyes, 11.3%got dry eye postoperatively. 16 cases(32 eyes, 20%complain of glare and poor night vision. CONCLUSION: The results show that TransPRK for myopia with or without astigmatism is safe and effective. The postoperative visual outcomes are stable.

  18. Risk Factors for Retreatment Following Myopic LASIK with Femtosecond Laser and Custom Ablation for the Treatment of Myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruh, Jonathan N; Garrett, Kenneth A; Huntington, Brian; Robinson, Steve; Melki, Samir A

    2017-01-01

    To identify risks factors for retreatment post-laser in situ keratomeliusis (LASIK). A retrospective chart review from December 2008 to September 2012 identified 1,402 patients (2,581 eyes) that underwent LASIK treatment for myopia with the Intralase™ FS, STAR S4 IR™ Excimer Laser, and WaveScan WaveFront™ technology. In this group, 83 patients were retreated. All charts were reviewed for preoperative age, gender, initial manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), total astigmatism, and iris registration. Increased incidence rates of retreatment post-LASIK were preoperative age >40 years (p -3.0 D (p = 0.02), and astigmatism >1D (p = 0.001). Iris registration capture did not significantly reduce the retreatment rate (p = 0.12). Risk factors for retreatment included preoperative age >40 years, initial MRSE > -3.0 D, and astigmatism >1D. There was no difference in retreatment rate for patients based on gender or iris registration capture.

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE AMOUNT OF ASTIGMATISM FOLLOWING CONVENTIONAL EXTRACAPSULAR CATARACT EXTRACTION AND MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

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    Rajkumari Bigyabati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cataract is the principal cause of avoidable blindness in India and throughout the world. Surgical removal of the cataractous lens remains the only effective treatment for management of cataract blindness. The success of cataract surgery is determined by best and earliest visual recovery. But the occurrence of postoperative astigmatism has become a major hurdle in achieving this goal. AIMS The study was designed to compare the amount of astigmatism following conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE and manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out in 100 eyes of 75 patients aged between 50 and 80 years admitted for cataract surgery. Out of these, 50 eyes were operated by conventional extracapsular cataract extraction and 50 eyes by manual small incision cataract surgery. The patients were followed up at 2 nd , 4 th , 6 th and 8 th weeks. At each follow-up visual acuity, refraction and acceptance and keratometry were recorded and the findings analysed for astigmatism. RESULTS In the current study, the mean (SD astigmatism developed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th of follow-up was significantly lower in the SICS group as compared to the ECCE group (P<0.000. At the end of 8 weeks of follow-up, the mean (SD astigmatism of the SICS group was 0.64±0.56 D as compared to the mean (SD of the ECCE group of 1.39±86 D and the difference was found to be significant (p<0.014. CONCLUSION The current study concludes that manual small incision cataract surgery is a better technique to control postoperative astigmatism than conventional extracapsular cataract extraction.

  20. Average Throughput Performance of Myopic Policy in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Omer Melih; Demirekler, Mubeccel

    2017-09-26

    This paper considers a single-hop wireless sensor network where a fusion center collects data from M energy harvesting wireless sensors. The harvested energy is stored losslessly in an infinite-capacity battery at each sensor. In each time slot, the fusion center schedules K sensors for data transmission over K orthogonal channels. The fusion center does not have direct knowledge on the battery states of sensors, or the statistics of their energy harvesting processes. The fusion center only has information of the outcomes of previous transmission attempts. It is assumed that the sensors are data backlogged, there is no battery leakage and the communication is error-free. An energy harvesting sensor can transmit data to the fusion center whenever being scheduled only if it has enough energy for data transmission. We investigate average throughput of Round-Robin type myopic policy both analytically and numerically under an average reward (throughput) criterion. We show that Round-Robin type myopic policy achieves optimality for some class of energy harvesting processes although it is suboptimal for a broad class of energy harvesting processes.

  1. Validity of autorefractor based screening method for irregular astigmatism compared to the corneal topography- a cross sectional study

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    Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To present a method of screening for irregular astigmatism with an autorefractor and its determinants compared to corneal topography. METHODS: This cross-sectional validity study was conducted in 2013 at an eye hospital in Spain. A tabletop autorefractor (test 1 was used to measure the refractive status of the anterior surface of the cornea at two corneal meridians of each eye. Then corneal topography (test 2 and Bogan’s classification was used to group eyes into those with regular or no astigmatism (GRI and irregular astigmatism (GRII. Test 1 provided a single absolute value for the greatest cylinder difference (Vr. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC were plotted for the Vr values measured by test 1 for GRI and GRII eyes. On the basis a Vr value of 1.25 D as cut off, sensitivity, specificity were also calculated. RESULTS: The study sample was comprised of 260 eyes (135 patients. The prevalence of irregular astigmatism was 42% [95% confidence interval (CI: 36, 48]. Based on test 2, there were 151 eyes in GRI and 109 eyes in GRII. The median Vr was 0.75 D (25% quartile, 0.5 D for GRI and 1.75 D (25% quartile, 1.25 D for GRII. The area under curve was 0.171 for GRI and 0.83 for GRII. The sensitivity of test I was 78.1% and the specificity was 76.1%. CONCLUSION: A conventional autorefractor can be effective as a first level screening method to detect irregular corneal astigmatism in places where corneal topography facilities are not available.

  2. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hao-Xin; Xu, Bing; Xue, Li-Xia; Dai, Yun; Liu, Qian; Rao, Xue-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.

  3. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao-Xin, Zhao; Bing, Xu; Li-Xia, Xue; Yun, Dai; Qian, Liu; Xue-Jun, Rao

    2008-01-01

    Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory

  4. CLINICAL STUDY OF POSTERIOR CHAMBER PHAKIC IOL PLACEMENT IN MYOPIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of posterior chamber phakic IOL in Myopic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective interventional study included 50 eyes of 50 patients with myopia. Patients of age more than 18 yrs. Stable refraction, Myopia, Mild to Moderate keratoconus and absence of any ocular pathology and any history of ocular surgeries were included in this study. Prior to starting treatment certain parameters like visual acuity, AC depth, Iridocorneal Angle Aperture, Endothelial cell count, Central corneal thickness and IOP were considered. Intervention- Implantation of the phakic IOL. Main outcome Measures- Uncorrected Visual Acuity (UCVA, best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, AS OCT AC depthbetween endothelium and phakic IOL, IOP and Endothelial cell count were recorded. RESULTS Postoperative examinations conducted at day 1, day 3, after 1 week, 1 month and after 3 months .out of 50 patients, 4 patients had striate keratopathy, 2 patients had shallow ac during immediate post-operative period. During the postoperative follow up 10 patients had BCVA of 6/9-6/6 (20%, 14 patients had 6/9-6/12 (28%, 24 patients had 6/12-6/24(48% and remaining 2 patients had <6/24 which was better than their preoperative uncorrected visual acuity. CONCLUSION Based on this prospective clinical study and on comparison with other clinical studies posterior chamber phakic IOL corrective procedures are safe and effective for treatment of myopia. It also shows that it can provide sharp and clear vision in 96% of our study population. It does not induce dry eye syndrome as in other refractive surgeries. Short term complications like endothelial damage, angle closure glaucoma, iritis, anterior capsule injury/lens changes were not encountered during our study. But still long term follow up is required to confirm long term safety of the implant.

  5. Patient satisfaction and acceptance of spherical equivalent spectacles correction wear in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B Sandeep; Das, Taraprasad; Mirdha, Ghansyam S; Reddy, Nagavardhan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities of acceptance of a ready-to-dispense spherical equivalent (SE) of spherocylindrical (SC) correction spectacles in rural India. Snellen visual acuity with SE power of refracted SC lenses was prospectively collected from all individuals visiting vision centers in Phase 1 (vision correction accuracy) of the study conducted in two South Indian districts. The satisfaction level was recorded by asking one standard question. The SE spectacles were dispensed in vision centers of one district in Phase 2 (SE acceptance) with a suggestion to return, if unsatisfied, for free exchange of spectacles within a month of dispensing. In Phase 1, 929 of 3529 patients were refracted and it was found that 320 patients and one eye of one patient (641 eyes) had astigmatism. The average age was 41 (±16; range: 7-84) years. There was no reduction of visual acuity in SE of 0.25 Dcyl (100% satisfaction) and progressive decrease in satisfaction to 43%, 26%, and 19% with SE correction of 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 Dcyl, respectively. In Phase 2, 988 of 6168 patients needed refraction and 240 had astigmatism. A total of 103 patients (206 eyes) accepted SE equivalent spectacles. No client returned for the free exchange of spectacles. Dispensing SE power up to 1 Dcyl in ready - made spectacles could be considered in remote rural populations in resource-poor economic conditions.

  6. Astigmatic single photon emission computed tomography imaging with a displaced center of rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Smith, M.F.; Stone, C.D.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A filtered backprojection algorithm is developed for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with an astigmatic collimator having a displaced center of rotation. The astigmatic collimator has two perpendicular focal lines, one that is parallel to the axis of rotation of the gamma camera and one that is perpendicular to this axis. Using SPECT simulations of projection data from a hot rod phantom and point source arrays, it is found that a lack of incorporation of the mechanical shift in the reconstruction algorithm causes errors and artifacts in reconstructed SPECT images. The collimator and acquisition parameters in the astigmatic reconstruction formula, which include focal lengths, radius of rotation, and mechanical shifts, are often partly unknown and can be determined using the projections of a point source at various projection angles. The accurate determination of these parameters by a least squares fitting technique using projection data from numerically simulated SPECT acquisitions is studied. These studies show that the accuracy of parameter determination is improved as the distance between the point source and the axis of rotation of the gamma camera is increased. The focal length to the focal line perpendicular to the axis of rotation is determined more accurately than the focal length to the focal line parallel to this axis. copyright 1998 American Association of Physicists in Medicine

  7. The highly myopic eye--oculometric considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Goldschmidt, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    (n=39) in 1962. Clinical follow-up studies were conducted in 1976, 1986, 1995 and 2002, with A-scan ultrasound oculometry (Kretztechnik 7000, immersion method; and Sonometrics 400, contact method) as a regular part of the schedule. For comparison, IOL Master evaluations were added in 2002...... by Francois and Goes, not all long eyes have flat corneas. In our high myopia series, a significant subgroup could thus be discerned who had peaked corneas, which led to mathematically slight reduction of the usual positive correlation between axial length and curvature radius in the ametropia population......; and (d) we found positive correlation between myopia increase in adult age and axial elongation, stressing that, in contrast to other outgrown body structures, the adult eye globes may still expand in size. This feature seems to be found not only in the eyes with posterior staphyloma, but also in myopic...

  8. Optimality of Multichannel Myopic Sensing in the Presence of Sensing Error for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization problem for the performance of opportunistic spectrum access is considered in this study. A user, with the limited sensing capacity, has opportunistic access to a communication system with multiple channels. The user can only choose several channels to sense and decides whether to access these channels based on the sensing information in each time slot. Meanwhile, the presence of sensing error is considered. A reward is obtained when the user accesses a channel. The objective is to maximize the expected (discounted or average reward accrued over an infinite horizon. This problem can be formulated as a partially observable Markov decision process. This study shows the optimality of the simple and robust myopic policy which focuses on maximizing the immediate reward. The results show that the myopic policy is optimal in the case of practical interest.

  9. A meta-analysis of vitrectomy with or without internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole retinal detachment in the highly myopic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinxiao; Guo, Jia; Meng, Xin; Wang, Jun; Peng, Xiaoyan; Ikuno, Yasushi

    2016-06-13

    To evaluate the anatomical and visual outcomes by par plana vitrectomy with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in highly myopic eyes with macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). MEDLINE (Ovid, PubMed) and EMBASE were used for data collection up to September 30, 2015. The parameters of anatomical success, macular hole closure and improved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at or beyond 6 months after operation were assessed as the primary outcome measurement. The meta-analysis was performed with the fixed-effects model. Seven comparative analyses involving a total of 373 patients were included in the present meta-analysis. Statistically the pooled data showed significant relative risk (RR) in terms of primary reattachment between ILM peeling and non-peeling groups (RR, 1.19; 95 % CI, 1.04 to 1.36; P = 0.012). An effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to macular hole closure was also detected (RR, 1.71; 95 % CI, 1.20 to 2.43; P = 0.003). However, no statistically significant difference was found in the improved BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) at 6 months or more (95 % CI, -0.31 to 0.44; P = 0.738). There is no proved benefit of postoperative visual improvement. However, the available evidences from this study suggested a superiority of ILM peeling over no peeling for myopic patients with MHRD.

  10. Simulation of the Effect of Different Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses With Eyes With Previous Laser Refractive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Vicente J; Miret, Juan J; García, Celia; Tolosa, Angel; Piñero, David P

    2018-04-01

    To simulate the optical performance of three presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses (IOLs) implanted in eyes with previous laser refractive surgery. A simulation of the through-focus modulation transfer function (MTF) was performed for three presbyopia-correcting IOLs (Mplus, Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany; Symfony, Johnson & Johnson Vision, Santa Ana, CA; and Mini Well, SIFI S.p.A., Lavinaio, Italy) in one eye with previous myopic LASIK and another with hyperopic LASIK. Real topographic data and the wavefront aberration profile of each IOL obtained with a Hartmann-Shack sensor were used. In the eye with myopic LASIK, all IOLs lost optical quality at near and intermediate distances for 4- and 4.7-mm pupil size. For 3-mm pupil size, the Mini Well IOL showed the best intermediate and near MTF and maintained the far focus independently of the pupil. In the eye with hyperopic LASIK, the Mini Well IOL showed an intermediate, distance, and -4.00-diopter (D) foci for all pupils. The Symfony IOL showed a depth of focus at far and intermediate distance for 3-mm and a focus at -2.50 D in the rest. The Mplus showed a focus of -4.50 and -3.00 D for the 3- and 4-mm pupil, respectively. The Mini Well and Symfony IOLs seem to work better than the Mplus IOL in eyes with previous myopic LASIK. With previous hyperopic LASIK, the Mini Well IOL seems to be able to provide acceptable near, intermediate, and far foci for all pupil sizes. These findings should be confirmed in future clinical studies. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(4):222-227.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. The effect of contact lens usage on corneal biomechanical parameters in myopic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Ali B; Beyazyildiz, Emrullah; Ileri, Dilek; Ozturk, Faruk

    2012-07-01

    To determine and compare the corneal biomechanical properties in myopic patients who use contact lenses and those who do not use contact lenses. The study consisted of 56 myopic patients who used contact lenses (study group) and 123 myopic patients who did not use contact lenses (control group). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with an ocular response analyzer (ORA) and a Goldmann applanation tonometer. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasonic pachymeter. Axial length and anterior chamber depth measurements were acquired with contact ultrasound A-scan biometry. The differences in ORA parameters between study and control group participants were analyzed. The mean corneal hysteresis in study and control groups was 10.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg (6.5-15.9 mm Hg) and 9.7 ± 1.5 mm Hg (6.3-14.2 mm Hg), respectively (P = 0.16). The mean corneal resistance factor was 10.4 ± 1.9 mm Hg (4.6-15.5 mm Hg) in the study group compared with 9.6 ± 1.9 mm Hg (5.1-15.0 mm Hg) in the control group. The difference for corneal resistance factor was statistically significant (P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in corneal-compensated IOP (P = 0.24). Mean Goldmann-correlated IOP was significantly higher in the study group than in control subjects (15.8 ± 3.2 vs. 14.7 ± 3.7 mm Hg) (P = 0.044). None of the corneal biomechanical parameters was significantly correlated to duration of contact lens usage in the study group. Our results suggest that ORA-generated parameters may be different in subjects with and without contact lens usage. Further longitudinal studies need to be performed to establish the relevance of our results.

  12. [Tapeto-retinal degeneration combined with incomplete general albinism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivandić, T

    1975-05-01

    Report on a family, which presented the rare autosomal dominant transmitted, incomplete general albinism associated with autosomal recessive inherited, diffuse tapeto-retinal degeneration "sine pigmento". hypopigmentation of skin, eyebrows and hair, blue iris and fundus albinoticus with hypoplasia of the macula. In 3 cases additionally appeared: waxy pallor of optic disc, vascular narrowing, reflexless hypoplastic macula, pigmentless periphery, acquired blue-yellow blindness, concentric limitation of the visual field, reduced darkadaptation, abolished electroretinogram and myopic astigmatism.

  13. Eye laterality: a comprehensive analysis in refractive surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Stephan J; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Steinberg, Johannes; Richard, Gisbert; Katz, Toam

    2013-08-01

    To explore eye laterality (higher refractive error in one eye) and its association with refractive state, spherical/astigmatic anisometropia, age and sex in refractive surgery candidates. Medical records of 12 493 consecutive refractive surgery candidates were filtered. Refractive error (subjective and cycloplegic) was measured in each subject and correlated with eye laterality. Only subjects with corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of >20/22 in each eye were enrolled to exclude amblyopia. Associations between eye laterality and refractive state were analysed by means of t-test, chi-squared test, Spearman's correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in spherical equivalent between right (-3.47 ± 2.76 D) and left eyes (-3.47 ± 2.76 D, p = 0.510; Pearson's r = 0.948, p laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D in myopic (-5.64 ± 2.5 D versus -4.92 ± 2.6 D; p = 0.001) and in hyperopic (4.44 ± 1.69 D versus 3.04 ± 1.79 D; p = 0.025) subjects, (II) a tendency for left eye cylindrical laterality in myopic subjects, and (III) myopic male subjects had a higher prevalence of left eye laterality. (IV) Age did not show any significant impact on laterality. Over the full refractive spectrum, this study confirmed previously described strong interocular refractive correlation but revealed a statistically significant higher rate of right eye laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D. In general, our results support the use of data from one eye only in studies of ocular refraction. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  14. [Remote results of high myopia surgical correction by tunnel keratoplasty ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushin, N V; Beliaev, V S; Gonchar, P A; Barashkov, V I; Kravchinina, V V; Frolov, M A

    2000-01-01

    Remote results evidence high refraction efficiency of tunnel keratoplasty, stable results being observed for up to 15 years. A total of 104 operations (58 patients) were analyzed for a period of observation of more than 10 years. The patients' ages varied from 17 to 52 years, there were 34 women and 24 men. The main advantage of interlamellar refraction meridional keratoplasty is easiness of operation. At present it is the operation of choice for dosed reduction of eye refraction aimed at correction of high myopia and astigmatism. The possibility of correcting residual myopia after keratotomy and repair of refraction abnormalities resultant from perforating keratoplasty is particularly interesting. The possibility of regulating the corrective effect in remote periods by replacing the implants also deserves attention. Hence, low traumatism, high efficiency, and stability of the refraction effect once more confirm our recommendation to use tunnel keratoplasty in clinical practice.

  15. Myopic control of stochastic inventories with intermittent updates: continuous versus periodic replenishment

    OpenAIRE

    M Shnaiderman

    2012-01-01

    A manufacturer who is responsible for supplying a retailer with a single product is considered. The retailer sells the product in response to stochastic demand and provides the manufacturer with periodic updates about his inventories. Replenishing the retailer's inventory under two myopic base-stock policies is addressed. These policies, referred to as vendor managed inventory, represent a relatively new approach to allocating responsibility in the replenishment process. Specifically, the man...

  16. Efficiency Gains and Myopic Antitrust Authority in a Dynamic Merger Game

    OpenAIRE

    MOTTA, Massimo; VASCONCELOS, Helder

    2003-01-01

    This Paper models a sequential merger formation game with endogenous efficiency gains in which every merger has to be submitted for approval to the Antitrust Authority (AA). Two different types of AA are studied: first, a myopic AA, which judges a given merger without considering that subsequent mergers may occur; and, second, a forward-looking AA, which anticipates the ultimate market structure a given merger will lead to. By contrasting the decisions of these two types of AA, merger policy ...

  17. [Fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography findings in central fundus of myopic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Budzinskaya, M V; Zhabina, O A; Andreeva, I V; Plyukhova, A A; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M

    2015-01-01

    Myopia prevalence grows alike in many countries, including Russia, regardless of geographical and population conditions. to assess fundus changes in myopic patients at different ocular axial lengths by means of modern diagnostic tools. The study enrolled 97 patients (194 eyes) aged 45 ± 20.17 years with myopia of different degrees. Besides a standard ophthalmic examination, all patients underwent fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. The occurrence of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy (diffuse or focal) has been shown to increase with increasing ocular axial length. Only 27 eyes (28.1%) appeared intact. As myopia progression implies axial growth of the eye, it is associated with a more severe decrease in choroid, RPE, and photoreceptor layer thicknesses: the longer the anterior-posterior axis, the thinner the above mentioned fundus structures. Age-related changes in the fundus are also likely to be more pronounced in longer axes. Myopic traction maculopathy, which in our case appeared the main cause of increased retinal thickness, was diagnosed in 105 eyes, "outer" macular retinoschisis--in 40 eyes. Thus, modern diagnostic tools, such as fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography, enable objective assessment of the central fundus.

  18. Partial null astigmatism-compensated interferometry for a concave freeform Zernike mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yimeng; Yuan, Qun; Gao, Zhishan; Yin, Huimin; Chen, Lu; Yao, Yanxia; Cheng, Jinlong

    2018-06-01

    Partial null interferometry without using any null optics is proposed to measure a concave freeform Zernike mirror. Oblique incidence on the freeform mirror is used to compensate for astigmatism as the main component in its figure, and to constrain the divergence of the test beam as well. The phase demodulated from the partial nulled interferograms is divided into low-frequency phase and high-frequency phase by Zernike polynomial fitting. The low-frequency surface figure error of the freeform mirror represented by the coefficients of Zernike polynomials is reconstructed from the low-frequency phase, applying the reverse optimization reconstruction technology in the accurate model of the interferometric system. The high-frequency surface figure error of the freeform mirror is retrieved from the high-frequency phase adopting back propagating technology, according to the updated model in which the low-frequency surface figure error has been superimposed on the sag of the freeform mirror. Simulations verified that this method is capable of testing a wide variety of astigmatism-dominated freeform mirrors due to the high dynamic range. The experimental result using our proposed method for a concave freeform Zernike mirror is consistent with the null test result employing the computer-generated hologram.

  19. Effects of SMILE and Trans-PRK on corneal higher order aberrations after myopic correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the effects of small incision lenticule extraction(SMILEand trans-epithelial photorefractive keratectomy(Trans-PRKon corneal horizontal coma, vertical coma, and spherical aberration and total higher order aberrations after refractive correction for myopia. METHODS: This was a prospective non-randomized cohort study. The cohort included 40 patients(80 eyeswith myopia, who received refraction correction surgery from December 2016 to February 2017 in Leshan Ophthalmic Center. Twenty patients(40 eyesreceived SMILE surgery and the other 20 patients(40 eyesreceived Trans-PRK surgery. Corneal aberrations were determined by a high-resolution Pentacam Scheimpflug camera before the surgery and at 1 and 3mo after the operation. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance of repeated measures. RESULTS: At 1 and 3mo post-operation, the uncorrected visual acuity in both groups was better than or equal to the preoperative best corrected visual acuity. The preoperative corneal aberrations showed no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05. Significantly higher aberration was found after the surgery in both groups(PP>0.05. Post-operation, horizontal and vertical coma had no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05, while SMILE group showed lower spherical aberration and lower total higher order aberration than Trans-PRK group(PCONCLUSION: Both SMILE and Trans-PRK increase corneal aberration and their effects on horizontal and vertical coma are similar. However, SMILE has a minor influence on spherical aberration and total high order aberration than Trans-PRK.

  20. Preliminary study of the correlation between refractive error and corneal refractive power, corneal asphericity in myopic eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Chao Han

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the correlation between myopic refractive error and relative factors, including the corneal refractive power, posterior refractive power, axial length, corneal asphericity coefficient Q value, central cornea thickness(CCTand intraocular pressure(IOP. METHODS:According to the degree of myopia measured by subjective refraction, 138 myopia patients were divided into three subgroups: mild group(-1.00D--3.00D, moderate group(-3.25D--6.00D, high group(>6.00D. The Pentacam anterior segment tomographer(Germany, Oculus Companywas used to measure the corneal refractive power, posterior refractive power, and corneal asphericity in the right eye. IOP, CCT and axial length were measured by a non-contact tonometer and A-scan ultrasonic, respectively. The data was analyzed with a Pearson correlation analysis and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The myopic refractive error was negatively correlated with the axial length(r=-0.682, Pr=0.009, P=0.925. The axial length was negatively correlated with corneal refractive power(r=-0.554, Pr=0.674, Pr=-0.375, P=0.01. There was no significantly correlation between the myopic refractive error and CCT, IOP(r=-0.138, P=0.141; r=-0.121, P=0.157. CONCLUSION:The corneal refractive power plays the role of emmetropization during the development of myopia. There is clinic significance for the correlation between Q value and refractive error, IOP to guide the corneal refractive surgery.

  1. Fovea sparing internal limiting membrane peeling using multiple parafoveal curvilinear peels for myopic foveoschisis: technique and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haiying; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-10-18

    To introduce a modified surgical technique, the "parafoveal multiple curvelinear internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling", to preserve epi-foveal ILM in myopic foveoschisis surgery. Consecutive patients with myopic foveoschisis were enrolled in the present prospective interventional case series. The surgeries were performed using transconjunctival 23-gauge system. The macular area was divided into quadrants. ILM was peeled off in a curvilinear manner centered around the site that was away from the central fovea in each quadrant. Shearing forces were used to control the direction to keep the peeling away from central fovea. ILM at central fovea of about 500 to 1000 μm was preserved by this technique. This technique was performed in 20 eyes of 20 consecutive patients. Epi-foveal ILM was successfully preserved in all cases using the technique. Patients were followed up for more than 12 months. The mean postoperative logMAR visual acuity improved from 1.67 ± 0.65 preoperatively to 1.15 ± 0.49 (P = 0.015; paired t-test). Postoperative OCT examinations showed that full-thickness macular holes (MHs) did not developed in any case. Central fovea thickness decreased from 910 ± 261 μm preoperatively to 125 ± 85 postoperatively (P = 0.001; paired t-test). Fovea sparing ILM peeling using multiple parafoveal curvilinear peels prevents the development of postoperative full-thickness MHs in eyes with myopic foveoschisis.

  2. Two-year results of femtosecond assisted LASIK versus PRK for different severity of astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Miraftab

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: Our results pointed to better two-year results with femto-LASIK in the treatment of different degrees of astigmatism. UDVA improvement was superior with femto-LASIK, but the two methods did not significantly differ in terms of CDVA improvement.

  3. Incidence and Outcomes of Optical Zone Enlargement and Recentration After Previous Myopic LASIK by Topography-Guided Custom Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Carp, Glenn I; Stuart, Alastair J; Rowe, Elizabeth L; Nesbit, Andrew; Moore, Tara

    2018-02-01

    To report the incidence, visual and refractive outcomes, optical zone enlargement, and recentration using topography-guided CRS-Master TOSCA II software with the MEL 80 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) after primary myopic laser refractive surgery. Retrospective analysis of 73 eyes (40 patients) with complaints of night vision disturbances due to either a decentration or small optical zone following a primary myopic laser refractive surgery procedure using the MEL 80 laser. Multiple ATLAS topography scans were imported into the CRS-Master software for topography-guided ablation planning. The topography-guided re-treatment procedure was performed as either a LASIK flap lift, a new LASIK flap, a side cut only, or photorefractive keratectomy. Axial curvature maps were analyzed using a fixed grid and set of concentric circles superimposed to measure the topographic optical zone diameter and centration. Follow-up was 12 months. The incidence of use in the population of myopic treatments during the study period was 0.79% (73 of 9,249). The optical zone diameter was increased by 11% from a mean of 5.65 to 6.32 mm, with a maximum change of 2 mm in one case. Topographic decentration was reduced by 64% from a mean of 0.58 to 0.21 mm. There was a 44% reduction in spherical aberration, 53% reduction in coma, and 39% reduction in total higher order aberrations. A subjective improvement in night vision symptoms was reported by 93%. Regarding efficacy, 82% of eyes reached 20/20 and 100% reached 20/32 (preoperative CDVA was 20/20 or better in 90%). Regarding safety, no eyes lost two lines of CDVA and 27% gained one line. Regarding predictability, 71% of re-treatments were within ±0.50 diopters. Topography-guided ablation was effective in enlarging the optical zone, recentering the optical zone, and reducing higher order aberrations. Topography-guided custom ablation appears to be an effective method for re-treatment procedures of symptomatic patients after

  4. A comparison of cycloplegic autorefraction and retinoscopy in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Sujata; Shah, Sanil; Shah, Khyati; Hurakadli, Preeti; Majee, Debalina; Gandhi, Shyamali

    2017-01-01

    Correction of significant refractive errors in childhood helps in preventing amblyopia and strabismus. India has a huge demand for eye-care services related to uncorrected refractive errors with limited manpower resources. This can be overcome by autorefractors, which are free of operator bias, do not need skilled eye-care professionals and can be operated with ease. Hence, the purpose of this study, the first in the Indian population, was to determine the accuracy of autorefraction compared to traditional retinoscopy under cycloplegia. A cross-sectional study of all children meeting our inclusion criteria was conducted from July till October 2011 in a tertiary eye care centre. Children underwent cycloplegic (cyclopentolate plus tropicamide) refraction with an auto-refractometer (Topcon KR-8900) and traditional retinoscopy and the results were compared. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: Myopia and myopic astigmatism, Group 2: Hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism and Group 3: Mixed astigmatism. Clinically significant difference was defined as either of more than 0.50 D difference in sphere, more than 0.5 D difference in cylinder or more than 20 degrees difference in axis. The left eyes of 294 children (148 male) were included in the study. Mean age was 8.22 ± 3.47 years. Clinically significant differences were noted in 13.22 per cent of eyes in Group 1, 15.09 per cent of eyes in Group 2 and 20.90 per cent of eyes in Group 3. Clinically significant differences were more common in children aged less than six years (25 per cent) compared to older children (9.19 per cent). Comparing the sphere, cylinder, spherical equivalent and length of power vector values gained by autorefraction and retinoscopy, no statistically significant differences were found in any group. Autorefraction with Topcon KR-8900 can be used reliably in Indian children older than six years, if conducted under cycloplegia. In mixed astigmatism and children less than six years, it should

  5. Erros de refração como causas de baixa visual em crianças da rede de escolas públicas da regional de Botucatu - SP Refractive errors as causes of visual impairment in children from public schools of the Botucatu region - SP

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    Claudia Akemi Shiratori de Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a ocorrência dos erros refracionais em escolares de nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando crianças da pré-escola e do ensino básico, quanto ao sexo, tipo de erro refracional, acuidade visual e tratamento realizado. RESULTADOS: Quatro mil seiscentos e vinte e três crianças foram submetidas a exame de acuidade visual, das quais 8,1% apresentaram necessidade de exame oftalmológico completo. Houve 63,2% de portadores de astigmatismo hipermetrópico, 15,7% de astigmatismo miópico, 12,5% de astigmatismo misto, 4,9% de hipermetropia e 3,7% de miopia. Foi indicada a prescrição de lentes corretoras para 48,7% da amostra estudada. A frequência de erros refracionais na população foi de 3,9%. CONCLUSÃO: O astigmatismo hipermetrópico foi o erro de refracional mais frequente, havendo necessidade de tratamento em cerca de 50% das crianças triadas com frequência de 3,9% de erro refracional passível de correção na população de estudo.PURPOSE: To evaluate the refractive errors as cause of visual impairment in school children from the Botucatu region. METHODS: A sectional study was conducted evaluating preschool and elementary school students, according to gender, refractive error, visual acuity and treatment. RESULTS: Four thousand six hundred and twenty-three (4,623 children were submitted to visual acuity evaluation and 8.1% of them were submitted to complete ocular examination. There were 63.2% hyperopic astigmatism, 15.7% myopic astigmatism, 12.5% astigmatism, 4.9% hyperopia and 3.7% myopia. Corrective lenses were prescribed for 48.7% of the evaluated children. CONCLUSION: The most frequent refractive error was hyperopic astigmatism and 50% of the children received treatment. The frequency of refractive errors was 3.9% of the studied population.

  6. Designing Fresnel microlenses for focusing astigmatic multi-Gaussian beams by using fractional order Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, A; Durand, P-E; Fogret, E; Pellat-Finet, P

    2011-01-01

    According to a scalar theory of diffraction, light propagation can be expressed by two-dimensional fractional order Fourier transforms. Since the fractional Fourier transform of a chirp function is a Dirac distribution, focusing a light beam is optically achieved by using a diffractive screen whose transmission function is a two-dimensional chirp function. This property is applied to designing Fresnel microlenses, and the orders of the involved Fourier fractional transforms depend on diffraction distances as well as on emitter and receiver radii of curvature. If the emitter is astigmatic (with two principal radii of curvature), the diffraction phenomenon involves two one-dimensional fractional Fourier transforms whose orders are different. This degree of freedom allows us to design microlenses that can focus astigmatic Gaussian beams, as produced by a line-shaped laser diode source.

  7. PERIPHERAL RETINAL FINDINGS IN HIGHLY MYOPIC CHILDREN ≤10 YEARS OF AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Alok S.; Hubbard, G. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the peripheral retinal findings in highly myopic young children without other known risk factors for retinal detachment. Methods A retrospective review of all cases of children ≤10 years of age with high myopia (>6.00 diopters) who were evaluated for presumed risk of retinal detachment by either an examination under anesthesia or office examination by a single retina specialist from January 2001 through December 2008. Patients with regressed retinopathy of pre-maturity, retinal detachment in the fellow eye, or known Stickler syndrome were excluded. Results Fifty-four eyes of 30 patients with high myopia were examined. Twenty-six eyes of 14 patients were examined under anesthesia because of the examiner’s inability to adequately visualize the peripheral retina during an office examination. Mean age at examination was 6 ± 3 (range, 1–10) years. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error was −13.88 ± 3.79 (range, −6.00 to −25.00) diopters. Peripheral retinal findings were identified in 33% of eyes, the most common being lattice degeneration (20%), white without pressure (11%), and retinal holes with subretinal fluid (4%). Conclusion Approximately one third of highly myopic children in our study showed peripheral retinal findings. If the peripheral retina is not adequately visualized during an office evaluation, examination under anesthesia should be considered. PMID:20224463

  8. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

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    Martin Ming-Leung Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.

  9. Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning in Myopic Glaucoma: Impact of Optic Disc Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyeong Ik; Lee, Won June; Kim, Young Kook; Park, Ki Ho; Jeoung, Jin Wook

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of optic disc torsion on the rate of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning in patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma. We included 102 patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma accompanied by glaucomatous damage confined to a single hemiretina who were followed up over a 5-year period. We divided the subjects into three groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion and the correspondence between the direction of optic disc torsion and the location of glaucomatous damage: torsion with reverse correspondence group (eyes showing inferior optic disc torsion with glaucomatous damage in the superior quadrant or eyes showing superior torsion with damage in the inferior quadrant), no torsion group, and torsion with correspondence group (eyes showing inferior optic disc torsion with glaucomatous damage in the inferior quadrant or eyes showing superior torsion with damage in the superior quadrant). Changes in the peripapillary RNFL thickness (pRNFLT), evaluated using linear mixed model analysis, were compared among the three groups to determine the relationship between optic disc torsion and pRNFLT changes. Among the total of 102 subjects, 13 eyes (12.7%) exhibited optic disc torsion with reverse correspondence, 59 (57.8%) did not exhibit optic disc torsion, and 30 (29.4%) exhibited optic disc torsion with correspondence. pRNFL thinning in the quadrant with glaucomatous damage was significantly faster in the torsion with correspondence group (-1.66 μm/y) than those in the no torsion (-1.14 μm/y; P = 0.032) and torsion with reverse correspondence (-0.50 μm/y; P optic disc torsion-glaucomatous damage correspondence is an important prognostic factor for patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma.

  10. Comparison of FDA safety and efficacy data for KAMRA and Raindrop corneal inlays

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    Majid Moshirfar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To provide a side-by-side analysis of the summary of safety and effectiveness data (SSED submitted to the FDA for the KAMRA and Raindrop corneal inlays for the correction of presbyopia. METHODS: SSED reports submitted to the FDA for KAMRA and Raindrop were compared with respect to loss of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, adverse event rates, induction of astigmatism, retention of contrast sensitivity, stability of manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE, and achieved monocular uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA at 24mo. RESULTS: Totally 442/508 of KAMRA patients and 344/373 Raindrop patients remained enrolled in the clinical trials at 24mo. The proportion of KAMRA and Raindrop patients who lost ≥2 lines of CDVA at 24mo was 3.4% and 1%, respectively. The adverse event rate was comparable between the devices. No significant inductions of astigmatism were noted. Both technologies induced a transient myopic shift in MRSE followed by a hyperopic shift and subsequent stabilization. Totally 87% of KAMRA and 98% of Raindrop patients attained a monocular UNVA of J5 (20/40 or better at 24mo, 28% of KAMRA and 67% of Raindrop patients attained a monocular UNVA of J1 (20/20 or better at 24mo. CONCLUSION: Both devices can be considered safe and effective, however, the results of corneal inlay implantation are mixed, and long-term patient satisfaction will likely depend on subjective expectations about the capabilities of the inlays. Variability in surgical technique and postoperative care within and between the two clinical trials diminishes the comparative power of this article.

  11. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development. PMID:17825347

  12. Comparison and interchangeability of macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT in myopic eyes

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    Geng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the difference of macular thickness measurements between stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT and Cirrus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA in the same myopic patient and to develop a conversion equation to interchange macular thickness obtained with these two OCT devices. METHODS: Eighty-nine healthy Chinese adults with spherical equivalent (SE ranging from -1.13 D to -9.63 D were recruited. The macular thickness was measured by Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT. The correlation between macular thickness and axial length and the agreement between two OCT measurements were evaluated. A formula was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. RESULTS: Average macular thickness measured with Stratus OCT (r=-0.280, P=0.008 and Cirrus OCT (r=-0.224, P=0.034 were found to be negatively correlated with axial length. No statistically significant correlation was found between axial length and central subfield macular thickness (CMT measured with Stratus OCT (r=0.191, P=0.073 and Cirrus OCT (r=0.169, P=0.113. The mean CMT measured with Cirrus OCT was 53.63±7.94 μm thicker than with Stratus OCT. The formula CMTCirrus OCT=78.328+0.874×CMTStratus OCT was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. CONCLUSION: Macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT were thicker than with Stratus OCT in myopic eyes. A formula can be used to interchange macular thickness measured with two OCT devices in myopic eyes. Studies with different OCT devices and larger samples are warranted to enable the comparison of macular values measured with different OCT devices.

  13. Smart Grid Charging of Electric Vehicles: EV-Owner Response to Scheduling and Pricing under Myopic Loss Aversion in an Ultimatum Two-Player Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2015-01-01

    at the neglected psychological dynamics of EV-owners facing charging decisions and interacting with the supplier. This study represents these dynamics by proposing a behavioral framework of utility maximization under myopic loss aversion within an ultimatum two-player game framework. The EV......, but are affected by myopic loss aversion resulting from monetary considerations as well as the ultimatum game with the supplier; (ii) EV-owners are open towards centralized smart-grid strategies optimizing the load on the grid from a system optimum perspective; (iii) the frequency of charging decisions (daily...

  14. Lower- and higher-order aberrations predicted by an optomechanical model of arcuate keratotomy for astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Palos, Fernando; Lanchares, Elena; Calvo, Begoña; Cristóbal, José A

    2009-01-01

    To develop a realistic model of the optomechanical behavior of the cornea after curved relaxing incisions to simulate the induced astigmatic change and predict the optical aberrations produced by the incisions. ICMA Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. A 3-dimensional finite element model of the anterior hemisphere of the ocular surface was used. The corneal tissue was modeled as a quasi-incompressible, anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive behavior strongly dependent on the physiological collagen fibril distribution. Similar behaviors were assigned to the limbus and sclera. With this model, some corneal incisions were computer simulated after the Lindstrom nomogram. The resulting geometry of the biomechanical simulation was analyzed in the optical zone, and finite ray tracing was performed to compute refractive power and higher-order aberrations (HOAs). The finite-element simulation provided new geometry of the corneal surfaces, from which elevation topographies were obtained. The surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) of the simulated incisions according to the Lindstrom nomogram was computed by finite ray tracing. However, paraxial computations would yield slightly different results (undercorrection of astigmatism). In addition, arcuate incisions would induce significant amounts of HOAs. Finite-element models, together with finite ray-tracing computations, yielded realistic simulations of the biomechanical and optical changes induced by relaxing incisions. The model reproduced the SIA indicated by the Lindstrom nomogram for the simulated incisions and predicted a significant increase in optical aberrations induced by arcuate keratotomy.

  15. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight ® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction), using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in all cases. All patients had astigmatism corrected, and had at least 1 week of follow-up. Accuracy to desired refractive goal was assessed by postoperative refraction, aberration reduction via calculation of polynomials, and postoperative visions were analyzed as a secondary goal. The average difference of astigmatic power from manifest to measured was 0.5462D (with a range of 0-1.69D), and the average difference of axis was 14.94° (with a range of 0°-89°). Forty-seven of 50 eyes had a goal of plano, 3 had a monovision goal. Astigmatism was fully eliminated from all but 2 eyes, and 1 eye had regression with astigmatism. Of the eyes with plano as the goal, 80.85% were 20/15 or better, and 100% were 20/20 or better. Polynomial analysis postoperatively showed that at 6.5 mm, the average C3 was reduced by 86.5% and the average C5 by 85.14%. Using WaveLight ® Contoura measured astigmatism and axis removes higher order aberrations and allows for the creation of a more uniform cornea with accurate removal of astigmatism, and reduction of aberration polynomials. WaveLight ® Contoura successfully links the refractive correction layer and aberration repair layer using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol to demonstrate how aberration removal can affect refractive correction.

  16. Surgically induced astigmatism after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery

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    Je Hwan Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the corneal refractive changes induced after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral phacoemulsification that were implanted with a 6.0 mm foldable intraocular lens through a 3.0 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eyes, nasal in the left eyes. The outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA 1 and 3 months, post-operatively. Results: At 1 month, the mean SIA was 0.81 diopter (D for the temporal incisions and 0.92 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.139. At 3 months, the mean SIA were 0.53 D for temporal incisions and 0.62 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.309. The UCVA was similar in the 2 incision groups before surgery, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Conclusion: After bilateral cataract surgery using 3.0 mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incisions, the induced corneal astigmatic change was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes, both temporal and nasal incisions (3.0 mm or less would be favorable for astigmatism-neutral cataract surgery.

  17. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in various incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Nidhi; Chopra, Deepak; Chaurasia, Rajan Kumar; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To determine the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in Straight, Frown and Inverted V shape (Chevron) incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS). A prospective cross sectional study was done on a total of 75 patients aged 40y and above with senile cataract. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (25 each). Each group received a particular type of incision (Straight, Frown or Inverted V shape incisions). Manual SICS with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was performed. The patients were compared 4wk post operatively for uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and SIA. All calculations were performed using the SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software. The study found that 89.5% of patients in Straight incision group, 94.2% in Frown incision group and 95.7% in Inverted V group attained BCVA post-operatively in the range of 6/6 to 6/18. Mean SIA was minimum (-0.88±0.61D×90 degrees) with Inverted V incision which was statistically significant. Inverted V (Chevron) incision gives minimal SIA.

  18. Myopic loss aversion in the response of electric vehicle owners to the scheduling and pricing of vehicle charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2017-01-01

    model incorporating psychological aspects relevant to EV-owners facing charging decisions and interacting with the supplier. The behavioural model represents utility maximization under myopic loss aversion (MLA) within an ultimatum game (UG) framework where the two players are the EV...

  19. Comparison of clinical outcomes in PRK with a standard and aspherical optimized profile: a full case analysis of 100 eyes with 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dausch, Dieter; Dausch, Burglinde; Wottke, Matthias; Sluyterman van Langeweyde, Georg

    2014-01-01

    One hundred eyes from 55 adult patients with myopia were retrospectively studied to determine the comparative safety, efficacy, and predictability of aberration smart ablation (ASA) and a new advanced ablation algorithm (Triple-A) using the MEL(®) 80 excimer laser. Fifty myopic eyes with a manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) between -1.0 diopters (D) and -9.75 D were consecutively treated with photorefractive keratec-tomy ASA, and 50 myopic eyes with an MRSE between -1.38 D and -11.0 D with photorefractive keratectomy Triple-A. Uncorrected distance visual acuity, MRSE, the absolute value of the cylinder, corrected distance visual acuity, and postoperative complications at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months (1 year) were descriptively analyzed and compared at 1 year. After 12 months, the MRSE variance was statistically significantly better in patients triaged to receive Triple-A compared with patients receiving ASA (ASA, ±0.7 D; Triple-A, ±0.15 D; P<0.001). Furthermore, no patient in the Triple-A group had any cylinder postoperatively. Patients in the Triple-A treatment arm achieved a superior result. No statistically significant difference in the two treatment arms was noted for the analysis of the mean MRSE at 12 months (P=0.78). Triple-A was more effective than standard aspherical surgical intervention in a number of treatment outcome parameters (eg, MRSE, astigmatism, efficacy index). The two surgical procedures were equivalent in terms of safety.

  20. Anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism for an astigmatic atomic force microscope system based on a digital versatile disk optical head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, E-T; Illers, H; Wang, W-M; Hwang, I-S; Jusko, L; Danzebrink, H-U

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism is applied to an astigmatic detection system (ADS)-based atomic force microscope (AFM) for drift compensation and cantilever alignment. The optical path of the ADS adopts a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) optical head using the astigmatic focus error signal. The ADS-based astigmatic AFM is lightweight, compact size, low priced, and easy to use. Furthermore, the optical head is capable of measuring sub-atomic displacements of high-frequency AFM probes with a sub-micron laser spot (~570 nm, FWHM) and a high-working bandwidth (80 MHz). Nevertheless, conventional DVD optical heads suffer from signal drift problems. In a previous setup, signal drifts of even thousands of nanometers had been measured. With the anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism, the signal drift is compensated by actuating a voice coil motor of the DVD optical head. A nearly zero signal drift was achieved. Additional benefits of this mechanism are automatic cantilever alignment and simplified design.

  1. Effects of different cutting centers on LASIK surgery in myopic patients

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    Yan-Wei Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of different cutting centers on the visual acuity, refractive diopter and visual quality of patients undergoing laser assisted in situ keratomileusis(LASIK. METHODS: A total of 80 patients(160 eyeswith myopia treated by elective LASIK were divided into two groups. Thirty-six cases(72 eyeswith visual axis corneal reflection point(VACRPas the cutting center were included into the VACRP group while 44 cases(88 eyeswith pupil center(PCas the cutting center were included into the PC group. The uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, the best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, refractive diopter, corneal aberration \\〖total corneal and anterior corneal surface higher-order aberrations(HOA, spherical aberration(Z40, vertical coma(Z3-1, horizontal coma(totZ31and offset of cutting centers were determined before surgery and 1mo after surgery. RESULTS: There was no difference in the probability of UCVA ≥ 0.1, BCVA and refractive diopter between the two groups at 1mo after surgery(P>0.05. The astigmatism and cutting center deviation of VACRP group were lower than those of PC group(P40, totZ3-1, totZ31, froHOA, froZ3-1、froZ31 and froZ40 were lower in VACRP group than PC group at 1mo after surgery(PCONCLUSION: The UCVA of patients treated with both cutting centers for LASIK is good but VACRP has more advantages in reducing the offset of cutting center and improving postoperative visual quality.

  2. [Incidence of vitreoretinal pathologic conditions in myopic eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jijian; Xie, Xin; Du, Xinhua; Yang, Yabo; Yao, Ke

    2002-09-01

    To determine the incidence of vitreoretinal pathologic conditions in myopic eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis. Vitreoretinal pathologic conditions of 1981 consecutive eyes (995 patients) having undergone laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis for the correction of myopia were studied. Preoperative and postoperative basic examinations included visual acuity, manifest and cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp microscope examination, applanation tonometry and a fundus examination after pupil dilatation by indirect ophthalmoscopy and biomicroscopy with spherical lens of + 90 diopters. Before laser in situ keratomileusis, preventive treatment was carried out for predisposing lesion of retinal detachment in 8 eyes: 6 eyes for lattice degeneration and 2 eyes for atrophic holes. Postoperative examinations were conducted at 1, 3 and 12 months and once a year thereafter. All eyes were followed up for >/= 12 months. Eyes were followed for a mean of (18.40 +/- 4.50) months (range 12 - 28) after the surgery. Sixteen eyes of 13 patients (0.81%) developed vitreoretinopathy after LASIK, including 6 eyes with lattice degeneration (0.30%) in which one of them had previous laser treatment, 2 with posterior vitreous detachment (0.10%), 2 with macular hemorrhage (0.10%), 4 with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (0.20%), and 2 with retinal tear without retinal detachment (0.10%) in which one of them had previous laser treatment for lattice degeneration. Five patients were males (5 eyes involved). Others were females. Mean age of the group with vitreoretinal pathologic conditions was 31.80 +/- 5.85 years (range 22 to 43). The interval between refractive surgery and development of vitreoretinal complication was (10.38 +/- 6.20) months (range 1 to 24). The eyes that developed vitreoretinopathy had myopia -4.75 to -15.00 diopters (mean -9.45 +/- 2.61 D) before LASIK. The comparison of incidences of vitreoretinopathy after LASIK between the group of >/= -6.00 D and lattice degeneration and

  3. Suppressed eye growth following diffuser removal from myopic birds is not due to increased dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, I.; Boelen, M.; Megaw, P.; Miethke, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Myopia can be induced in developing chickens by fitting a diffuser over the eye. If the diffuser is removed, the restoration of normal visual input results in rapid suppression of eye growth, with ultimate restoration of normal vision. We have investigated whether the suppression of eye growth after the removal of a diffuser from a myopic eye results from an increased rate of release of dopamine from the retina. Chickens were maintained on a 12:12 light-dark cycle, and were fitted with a diffuser from day 7 to day 21. After removal of the diffuser, the rate of dopamine release was then followed by measuring the kinetics of accumulation of DOPAC in the vitreous during the light phase. The rate of scleral glycosaminoglycan synthesis (SGS) was followed by measuring the rate of incorporation of 35 S-sulphate into scleral buttons incubated in vitro. At the end of the period of development of form-deprivation myopia,dopamine release rates were very low in the myopic eyes compared to those in the contralateral control eyes. In contrast, SGS rates were higher in the sclera from myopic eyes. After removal of the diffusers, the rate of SGS declined rapidly to below that in the control eyes within 72h. In contrast, dopamine release rates remained low for up to 10 days after removal of the occluders. These results show that there is a correlation between reduced dopamine release and increased SGS during the development of myopia, but that there is not a symmetrical relationship during the suppression of SGS following occluder removal. These results therefore suggest that dopamine is not a crucial signalling molecule in the visually mediated control of eye growth. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  4. The use of Wavelight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motwani M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Manoj Motwani Motwani LASIK Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction, using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in all cases. All patients had astigmatism corrected, and had at least 1 week of follow-up. Accuracy to desired refractive goal was assessed by postoperative refraction, aberration reduction via calculation of polynomials, and postoperative visions were analyzed as a secondary goal. Results: The average difference of astigmatic power from manifest to measured was 0.5462D (with a range of 0–1.69D, and the average difference of axis was 14.94° (with a range of 0°–89°. Forty-seven of 50 eyes had a goal of plano, 3 had a monovision goal. Astigmatism was fully eliminated from all but 2 eyes, and 1 eye had regression with astigmatism. Of the eyes with plano as the goal, 80.85% were 20/15 or better, and 100% were 20/20 or better. Polynomial analysis postoperatively showed that at 6.5 mm, the average C3 was reduced by 86.5% and the average C5 by 85.14%. Conclusions: Using WaveLight® Contoura measured astigmatism and axis removes higher order aberrations and allows for the creation of a more uniform cornea with accurate removal of astigmatism, and reduction of aberration polynomials. WaveLight® Contoura successfully links the refractive correction layer and aberration repair layer using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol to demonstrate how aberration removal can affect refractive correction. Keywords: WaveLight Contoura, topographic guided ablation, LASIK, PRK, uniform cornea, Contoura with LYRA Protocol, measured astigmatism

  5. Effect of visual perception training combined with total nutrition meal sequential therapy on myopic amblyopia in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the therapeutic effect of visual perception training combined with total nutrition meal sequential therapy in the treatment of myopic amblyopia. METHODS: Totally 73 children(135 eyeswith myopic amblyopia were divided into control group(36 cases, 67 eyesand treatment group(37 cases, 68 eyesaccording to random number table. The control group were treated with traditional spectaculars and grating covering combined with fine eyesight training; the treatment group were treated with visual perception training combined with total nutrient meal sequential therapy. The visual acuity, diopter and average diopter of two groups were compared before and after treatment at 3, 6mo and 1a. The curative effect of two groups of children was compared after 1a treatment. And the adverse reactions were recorded in two groups during the treatment period. The recurrence rate of amblyopia in 1a follow-up was compared between two groups. RESULTS: The difference of visual acuity between two groups was not significant at 3mo(P>0.05. The visual acuity of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group at 6mo and 1a(PP>0.05, but the average annual refractive changes in the treatment group were significantly lower than that in the control group(PPPCONCLUSION: Visual perception training combined with total nutrition meal sequential therapy in the treatment of myopic amblyopia in preschool children can significantly improve patients' visual acuity, reduce the average annual diopter changes, improve the therapeutic effect, reduce the recurrence rate of amblyopia.

  6. Astigmatism treatment during phacoemulsification: a review of current surgical strategies and their rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preexisting corneal astigmatism, present at the time of cataract surgery, is reviewed in detail throughout this article on its most important aspects such as occurrence rates, clinical relevance and current treatment options. Special emphasis is given to the latter aspect. Each method's rationale, advantage and limitation ishigh lightened. Comparisons between treatment options, whenever possible, are also provided.

  7. Measuring the 3D motion of particles in microchannel acoustophoresis using astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustsson, P.; Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We introduce full three-dimensional tracking of particles in an acoustophoresis microchannel using Astigmatism Particle Tracking Velocimetry (APTV) [1]. For the first time the interaction between acoustic streaming and the primary acoustic radiation force in microchannel acoustophoresis are exami...... relative to the influence from the acoustic radiation force. The current study opens the route to optimized acoustophoretic system design and operation to enable manipulation of small biological components such as spores, bacteria and viruses.......We introduce full three-dimensional tracking of particles in an acoustophoresis microchannel using Astigmatism Particle Tracking Velocimetry (APTV) [1]. For the first time the interaction between acoustic streaming and the primary acoustic radiation force in microchannel acoustophoresis...... are examined in three dimensions. We have quantified the velocity of particles driven by the primary acoustic radiation force and acoustic streaming, respectively, using 0.5-μm and 5-μm particles. Increased ultrasound frequency and lowered viscosity of the medium reduced the influence of acoustic streaming...

  8. Comparison of clinical outcomes in PRK with a standard and aspherical optimized profile: a full case analysis of 100 eyes with 1-year follow-up

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    Dausch D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieter Dausch,1,2 Burglinde Dausch,2 Matthias Wottke,3 Georg Sluyterman van Langeweyde31Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Augen-Laser-Klinik Nürnberg, Nuremberg, Germany; 3Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany Purpose: One hundred eyes from 55 adult patients with myopia were retrospectively studied to determine the comparative safety, efficacy, and predictability of aberration smart ablation (ASA and a new advanced ablation algorithm (Triple-A using the MEL® 80 excimer laser.Methods: Fifty myopic eyes with a manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE between -1.0 diopters (D and -9.75 D were consecutively treated with photorefractive keratectomy ASA, and 50 myopic eyes with an MRSE between -1.38 D and -11.0 D with photorefractive keratectomy Triple-A. Uncorrected distance visual acuity, MRSE, the absolute value of the cylinder, corrected distance visual acuity, and postoperative complications at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months (1 year were descriptively analyzed and compared at 1 year.Results: After 12 months, the MRSE variance was statistically significantly better in patients triaged to receive Triple-A compared with patients receiving ASA (ASA, ±0.7 D; Triple-A, ±0.15 D; P<0.001. Furthermore, no patient in the Triple-A group had any cylinder postoperatively. Patients in the Triple-A treatment arm achieved a superior result. No statistically significant difference in the two treatment arms was noted for the analysis of the mean MRSE at 12 months (P=0.78.Conclusion: Triple-A was more effective than standard aspherical surgical intervention in a number of treatment outcome parameters (eg, MRSE, astigmatism, efficacy index. The two surgical procedures were equivalent in terms of safety. Keywords: aberration smart ablation (ASA, manifest refraction spherical equivalent, Triple-A advanced ablation algorithm, uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, excimer laser, PRK, ablation profile

  9. Refractive lens exchange with a multifocal diffractive aspheric intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Ferrer-Blasco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and predictability after refractive lens exchange with multifocal diffractive aspheric intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 30 patients underwent bilateral implantation with AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD3 intraocular lens with +4.00 D near addition. Patients were divided into myopic and hyperopic groups. Monocular best corrected visual acuity at distance and near and monocular uncorrected visual acuity at distance and near were measured before and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: After surgery, uncorrected visual acuity was 0.08 ± 0.15 and 0.11 ± 0.14 logMAR for the myopic and hyperopic groups, respectively (50% and 46.67% of patients had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better in the myopic and hyperopic groups, respectively. The safety and efficacy indexes were 1.05 and 0.88 for the myopic and 1.01 and 0.86 for the hyperopic groups at distance vision. Within the myopic group, 20 eyes remained unchanged after the surgery, and 3 gained >2 lines of best corrected visual acuity. For the hyperopic group, 2 eyes lost 2 lines of best corrected visual acuity, 21 did not change, and 3 eyes gained 2 lines. At near vision, the safety and efficacy indexes were 1.23 and 1.17 for the myopic and 1.16 and 1.13 for the hyperopic groups. Best corrected near visual acuity improved after surgery in both groups (from 0.10 logMAR to 0.01 logMAR in the myopic group, and from 0.10 logMAR to 0.04 logMAR in the hyperopic group. CONCLUSIONS: The ReSTOR® SN6AD3 intraocular lens in refractive lens exchange demonstrated good safety, efficacy, and predictability in correcting high ametropia and presbyopia.

  10. [Incidence of refractive errors with corrective aids subsequent selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, P; Synek, S; Petrová, S; Sokolová, Sidlová J; Forýtková, L; Holoubková, Z

    2012-02-01

    This study follows the occurrence of refractive errors in population and the possible selection of the appropriate type of corrective aids. Objective measurement and subsequent determination of the subjective refraction of the eye is on essential act in opotmetric practice. The file represented by 615 patients (1230 eyes) is divided according to the refractive error of myopia, hyperopia and as a control group are listed emetropic clients. The results of objective and subjective values of refraction are compared and statistically processed. The study included 615 respondents. To determine the objective refraction the autorefraktokeratometer with Placido disc was used and the values of spherical and astigmatic correction components, including the axis were recorded. These measurements were subsequently verified and tested subjectively using the trial lenses and the projection optotype to the normal investigative distance of 5 meters. After this the appropriate corrective aids were then recommended. Group I consists of 123 men and 195 women with myopia (n = 635) of clients with an average age 39 +/- 18,9 years. Objective refraction - sphere: -2,57 +/- 2,46 D, cylinder: -1,1 +/- 1,01 D, axis of: 100 degrees +/- 53,16 degrees. Subjective results are as follows--the value of sphere: -2,28 +/- 2,33 D, cylinder -0,63 +/- 0,80 D, axis of: 99,8 degrees +/- 56,64 degrees. Group II is represented hyperopic clients and consists of 67 men and 107 women (n = 348). The average age is 58,84 +/- 16,73 years. Objective refraction has values - sphere: +2,81 +/- 2,21 D, cylinder: -1,0 +/- 0,94 D; axis 95 degree +/- 45,4 degrees. Subsequent determination of subjective refraction has the following results - sphere: +2,28 +/- 2,06 D; cylinder: -0,49 +/- 0,85 D, axis of: 95,9 degrees +/- 46,4 degrees. Group III consists from emetropes whose final minimum viasual acuity was Vmin = 1,0 (5/5) or better. Overall, this control group is represented 52 males and 71 females (n = 247). The average

  11. Application of the fractional Fourier transformation to digital holography recorded by an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, F.; Coëtmellec, S.; Brunel, M.; Allano, D.; Lebrun, D.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle field illuminated by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam. They demonstrate that the bidimensional fractional Fourier transformation is a mathematically suitable tool to analyse the diffraction pattern generated not only by

  12. Utility of microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (MIOCT) in the treatment of myopic macular hole retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Kakkar, Prateek; Ravani, Raghav Dinesh; Markan, Ashish

    2017-07-14

    Macular hole-associated retinal detachment in high myopia is described as a final stage in progression of myopic traction maculopathy (MTM). 1â€"3 Shimada et al 4 described the progressive stages of MTM from macular retinoschisis to serous retinal detachment in high myopia. Stage 4 MTM is characterised as disappearance of retinoschisis with progression to retinal detachment due to macular hole formation. It is hypothesised that vitreoschisis and abnormal vitreo-retinal interface create the premacular tangential traction. 5 6 Intraoperative triamcinolone acetonide is used to visualise the residual posterior vitreous cortex (PVC). We hereby describe the utility of microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (MIOCT) in assisting complete removal of PVC and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling with multilayered inverted ILM flap in the treatment of myopic macular hole retinal detachment. MIOCT helped identify vitreoschisis and confirm the position of ILM flaps over the macular hole intraoperatively. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. The application of excimer lasers for corneal sculpturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Of the broad selection of lasers available for surgery, the argon fluoride excimer laser offers a set of attributes that make it uniquely suited for the removal of corneal tissue. With ultraviolet radiation at 193mm, the energy of an individual photon (6.3 electron volts) is sufficient to break bonds in protein molecules without generating molecular vibration (heat). A single laser pulse is capable of removing 0.25 microns of corneal tissue over a well defined area 80 mm 2 in extent. This excision with a lateral precision to a fraction of a micron causes no discernible damage to neighboring cells. The smooth surface left after the tissue is removed promotes a quick and predictable regrowth of the epithelium. The penetration of radiation into the underlying tissue is the order of a micron so there is no potential harm to the lens or retinal tissue. Insignificant mutagenesis or unscheduled DNA synthesis has been detected as a result of tissue irradiation at this wavelength. In the past few years major progress has been made towards developing ophthalmic procedures which utilize the unique properties of this laser. To date there are FDA IDE's (Investigational Device Exemptions) for the following procedures: Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) or corneal reshaping for correcting near-sightedness, far-sightedness and astigmatism without the need for eye glasses, contact lenses or conventional refractive surgery (Radial Keratotomy); Partial Excimer Trabeculectomy for relieving the pressure build-up caused by glaucoma; T-Excisons for reducing astigmatism; Myopic Keratomileusis (MKM) for the refractive correction of severe myopia; superficial Keratectomy (corneal smoothing) for treating various corneal scars, dystrophies, recurrent corneal erosion etc. In this paper the fundamentals of beam tissue interaction at 193nm will be discussed

  14. Fibrinous anterior uveitis following laser in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Pragya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for myopic astigmatism in both eyes presented with severe pain, photophobia and decreased visual acuity in the left eye eight days after surgery. Examination revealed severe anterior uveitis with fibrinous exudates in the anterior chamber, flap edema and epithelial bullae. Laboratory investigations for uveitis were negative and the patient required systemic and intensive topical steroids with cycloplegics to control the inflammation. This case demonstrates that severe anterior uveitis may develop after LASIK and needs prompt and vigorous management for resolution.

  15. Characteristics and Surgical Outcomes of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Following Myopic LASIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftarian, Narsis; Dehghan, Mohammad-Hossein; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheilian, Masoud; Karkhaneh, Reza; Lashay, Alireza; Mirshahi, Ahmad; Parhizkar, Hamid; Kazemimoghadam, Mohsen; Modarreszadeh, Mehdi; Hashemi, Masih; Fadaei, Mojtaba; Entezari, Morteza

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical features and surgical outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) following myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods In a retrospective, non-comparative case series, 46 eyes that had undergone vitreoretinal surgery for management of RRD following myopic LASIK were identified. Data was reviewed with emphasis on characteristics of the RRD, employed surgical techniques, and anatomic and visual outcomes. Results Mean pre-LASIK myopia was −9.7±3.9 (range −4.00 to −18.00) diopters (D). Mean interval between LASIK and development of RRD was 11.6±11.2 months. Posterior vitreous detachment was present in 44 eyes (95.6%). The retinal breaks included flap tears in 36 (78.3%) eyes, giant tears in 8 (17.4%) eyes and atrophic holes in 2 (4.3%) eyes. In eyes with flap tears, the breaks were multiple, large or posterior to the equator in 24(66.7%) eyes. Retinal breaks were related to lattice degeneration in 20 (43.5%) eyes of which, three had history of prophylactic barrier laser photocoagulation. Scleral buckling was performed as the initial procedure in 32 (69.6%) eyes and primary vitrectomy was undertaken in 14 (30.4%) eyes. The initial surgical procedure failed in 14 (30.4%) eyes due to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Retinal reattachment was finally achieved in 43 (93.4%) eyes. Postoperative visual acuity ≥20/40 and ≥20/200 was achieved in 16 (34.8%) and 25 (54.3%) eyes, respectively. Conclusion Post-LASIK retinal detachment has a complex nature in eyes with moderate to high myopia. The retinal detachment is complex in terms of size, number and location of retinal breaks, is associated with a high rate of PVR and entails unfavorable visual outcomes. PMID:23198065

  16. Analysis of the Ocular Refractive State in Fighting Bulls: Astigmatism Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Bueno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular refractive state (ORS of fighting bulls. The study consisted of 90 ophthalmological healthy animals (85 in post-mortem and 5 in living conditions, resp.. The ORS of the eyes (2 per animal was determined using streak retinoscopy. In vivo animals were assessed at a fighting bull farm facility. Post-mortem measurements were carried out at a local arena. The ORS along the horizontal meridian ranged between −1.00 and +2.50 diopters (D, with a mean of +0.66±0.85 D in post-mortem animals. Values for in vivo conditions were similar (+0.75±0.46 D. Left and right eyes were highly correlated in both sets (p<0.001. A fairly good correlation was also observed when comparing living and post-mortem eyes in the same animals. Anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D was diagnosed in 3 animals. Astigmatism (≥+0.5 D was detected in 93% of the eyes. To our knowledge, the ORS of the fighting bull has been reported for the first time. Although values vary among individuals, all eyes presented a marked astigmatism. Whereas the horizontal meridian was slightly hyperopic, the vertical meridian was always closer to emmetropia. These results represent a starting point to understand the ocular optics of this kind of animals, which might benefit the selection of animals at the farm before being sent to the bullfighting arena.

  17. Nerve growth factor concentration and implications in photorefractive keratectomy vs laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Keun; Lee, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether tear nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration correlates with corneal sensation and ocular surface dryness after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Prospective, nonrandomized comparative clinical trial. Seventy eyes of 35 patients and 76 eyes of 38 patients underwent PRK and LASIK procedures to correct myopia and myopic astigmatism, respectively. Total tear protein level, tear NGF concentration, tear film breakup time (BUT) and Schirmer values were measured before and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The postoperative mean tear NGF/total tear protein (NGF/tP) ratio increased in both PRK and LASIK patients compared with preoperative levels (P PRK than in LASIK subjects (P LASIK in the ablated zone was lower than the preoperative sensation (P PRK subjects. Mean BUT and Schirmer values were significantly lower in LASIK-treated eyes compared with PRK-treated eyes up to 6 months postoperatively (P PRK-treated and LASIK-treated eyes might be related to the difference in the early postoperative levels of NGF, which is a potent nerve growth stimulator.

  18. Morphological changes after trabeculectomy in highly myopic eyes with high intraocular pressure by using swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadamichi Akagi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions and importance: We found that the shape of some eyes with high myopia and high IOP changed owing to the decrease in IOP. Eyeball deformities may be affected by high IOP, and IOP reduction might reduce scleral deformation in highly myopic eyes with high IOP.

  19. Genome-wide meta-analysis of five asian cohorts identifies pdgfra as a susceptibility locus for corneal astigmatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Fan (Qiao); X. Zhou (Xin); C.C. Khor; C.-Y. Cheng; L.-K. Goh; X. Sim (Xueling); W.-T. Tay; Y.-J. Li; T.-H. OngRick; C. Suo (Chen); B.K. Cornes (Belinda); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); K.S. Chia (Kee Seng); M. Seielstad (Mark); J. Liu (Jianjun); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); T.L. Young (Terri); E.S. Tai (Shyong); T.Y. Wong (Tien Yin); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); T. Aung (Tin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCorneal astigmatism refers to refractive abnormalities and irregularities in the curvature of the cornea, and this interferes with light being accurately focused at a single point in the eye. This ametropic condition is highly prevalent, influences visual acuity, and is a highly

  20. Genetic and environmental-genetic interaction rules for the myopia based on a family exposed to risk from a myopic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenbo, Li; Congxia, Bai; Hui, Liu

    2017-08-30

    To quantitatively assess the role of heredity and environmental factors in myopia based on the family with enough exposed to risk from myopic environment for establishment of environmental and genetic index (EGI). A pedigree analysis unit was defined as one child (university student), father, and mother. Information pertaining to visual acuity, experience in participating in the college entrance examination in mainland of China (regarded as a strong environmental risk for myopia), and occupation for pedigree analysis units were obtained. The difference between effect of both genetic and environmental factors (myopia prevalence in children with two myopic parents) and environmental factors (myopia prevalence in children of whom neither parent was myopic) was defined as the EGI. Multiple regression analysis was performed for 114 pedigree using diopters of father, mother, average diopters in parents, maximum and minimum diopters in father and mother as variables. A total of 353 farmers and 162 farmer families were used as a control group. A distinct difference in myopia rate (96.2% versus 57.7%) was observed for children from parents with myopia and parents without myopia (EGI=0.385). The maximum diopter was included to regression equation which was statistically significant. The prevalence of myopia was 9.9% in the farmer. The prevalence in children is similar between the farmer and other families. A new genetic rule that myopia in children was directly related with maximum diopters in father and mother may be suggested. Environmental factors may play a leading role in the formation of myopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Refractive Error in a Sample of Black High School Children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajuihian, Samuel Otabor; Hansraj, Rekha

    2017-12-01

    This study focused on a cohort that has not been studied and who currently have limited access to eye care services. The findings, while improving the understanding of the distribution of refractive errors, also enabled identification of children requiring intervention and provided a guide for future resource allocation. The aim of conducting the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of refractive error and its association with gender, age, and school grade level. Using a multistage random cluster sampling, 1586 children, 632 males (40%) and 954 females (60%), were selected. Their ages ranged between 13 and 18 years with a mean of 15.81 ± 1.56 years. The visual functions evaluated included visual acuity using the logarithm of minimum angle of resolution chart and refractive error measured using the autorefractor and then refined subjectively. Axis astigmatism was presented in the vector method where positive values of J0 indicated with-the-rule astigmatism, negative values indicated against-the-rule astigmatism, whereas J45 represented oblique astigmatism. Overall, patients were myopic with a mean spherical power for right eye of -0.02 ± 0.47; mean astigmatic cylinder power was -0.09 ± 0.27 with mainly with-the-rule astigmatism (J0 = 0.01 ± 0.11). The prevalence estimates were as follows: myopia (at least -0.50) 7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 9%), hyperopia (at least 0.5) 5% (95% CI, 4 to 6%), astigmatism (at least -0.75 cylinder) 3% (95% CI, 2 to 4%), and anisometropia 3% (95% CI, 2 to 4%). There was no significant association between refractive error and any of the categories (gender, age, and grade levels). The prevalence of refractive error in the sample of high school children was relatively low. Myopia was the most prevalent, and findings on its association with age suggest that the prevalence of myopia may be stabilizing at late teenage years.

  2. Láser in situ keratomileusis en la corrección de miopía y astigmatismo residual posqueratotomía radial en casos seleccionados Laser in situ keratomileusis to correct myopia and residual astigmatism after radial keratotomy in selected cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Pérez Candelaria

    2010-01-01

    descriptive study was performed in 55 eyes from 31 patients with residual myopia and/or astigmatism after radial keratotomy, who were re-operated on using Laser in situ keratomileusis at Refractive Surgery Service of "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from January to June 2007. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select the patients, on the basis of following variables: residual refractive errors in average spheral equivalent, visual acuity without correction and best visual acuity with correction before and after LASIK as well as the transoperative and postoperative complications. The average follow-up period were 12 ± 3 months. RESULTS: The spheral equivalent after LASIK was substantially reduced in the first day of the postoperative phase and kept stable in the last appointment with the specialist. The visual acuity without correction after LASIK was 1,0 (20/20 in 22 eyes (40% and > 0,5 (20/40 in 44 eyes (80 %. In eleven eyes (20%, the best corrected visual acuity improved by one line in the Snellen´s chart. The transoperative complication was found in one eye with central corneal flap perforation whereas the reported postoperative complications were detritus and hematic remains in the interphase in 2 eyes, fine foldings of the flap in one eye and epithelization of the interphase out of the visual axis also in one eye. CONCLUSIONS: The Laser in situ keratomileusis can be used successfully to correct myopia and astigmatism after radial keratotomy in duly selected cases.

  3. Evaluation of 10 AMD Associated Polymorphisms as a Cause of Choroidal Neovascularization in Highly Myopic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Velazquez-Villoria

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascularization (CNV commonly occurs in age related macular degeneration and pathological myopia patients. In this study we conducted a case-control prospective study including 431 participants. The aim of this study was to determine the potential association between 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in 4 different genetic regions (CFI, COL8A1, LIPC, and APOE, and choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and the development of choroidal neovascularization in highly myopic eyes of a Caucasian population. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and hypertension was performed for each allele, genotype and haplotype frequency analysis. We found that in the univariate analysis that both single-nucleotide polymorphisms in COL8A1 gene (rs13095226 and rs669676 together with age, sex and hypertension were significantly associated with myopic CNV development in Spanish patients (p0.05; however, analysis of the axial length between genotypes of rs13095226 revealed an important influence of COL8A1 in the development of CNV in high myopia. Furthermore we conducted a meta-analysis of COL8A1, CFI and LIPC genes SNPs (rs669676, rs10033900 and rs10468017 and found that only rs669676 of these SNPs were associated with high myopia neovascularization.

  4. Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Juan; Artal, Pablo

    2012-02-01

    To determine the optimum position to center a small-aperture corneal inlay and the effect of residual defocus in the surgical eye to maximize depth of focus. Laboratorio de Óptica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain. Cohort study. Personalized eye models were built using actual data (corneal topography, eye length, ocular aberrations, and eye alignment). A small aperture 1.6 mm in diameter was placed at the corneal plane in each model. The monochromatic and polychromatic Strehl ratios were calculated as a function of the pinhole position. Different residual defocus values were also incorporated into the models, and the through-focus Strehl ratios were calculated. Sixteen eye models were built. For most subjects, the optimum location of the aperture for distance vision was close to the corneal reflex position. For a given optimized centration of the aperture, the best compromise of depth of focus was obtained when the eyes had some residual myopic defocus (range -0.75 to -1.00 diopter [D]). Strehl ratio values were over 0.1 for far distance, which led to visual acuities better than 20/20. The depth of focus was 2.50 D with a mean near visual acuity of Jaeger 1 or better. In eyes with little astigmatism and aberrations, the optimum centration of the small aperture was near the corneal reflex position. To improve optical outcomes with the inlay, some small residual myopia and correction of corneal astigmatism might be required. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Corneal ectasia after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis: a long-term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadea L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leopoldo Spadea,1 Emilia Cantera,2 Magdalena Cortes,2 Nicole Evangelista Conocchia,1 Charles WM Stewart11University of L’Aquila, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Eye Clinic, L’Aquila, 2Villa Stuart Clinic, Department of Ophthalmic Sciences, Rome, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term postoperative incidence of and key factors in the genesis of corneal ectasia after myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in a large number of cases.Methods: A retrospective review of one surgeon's myopic LASIK database was performed. Patients were stratified into two groups based on date of surgery, ie, group 1 (1313 eyes from 1999 to 2001 and group 2 (2714 eyes from 2001 to 2003. Visual acuity, refraction, pachymetry, and corneal topography data were available for each patient from examinations performed both before and after the refractive procedures.Results: Of the 4027 surgically treated eyes, 23 (0.57% developed keratectasia during the follow-up period, which was a minimum seven years; nine eyes (0.69% were from group 1 and 14 eyes (0.51% were from group 2. The onset of corneal ectasia was at 2.57 ± 1.04 (range 1–4 years and 2.64 ± 1.29 (range 0.5–5 years, respectively, for groups 1 and 2. The most important preoperative risk factors using the Randleman Ectasia Risk Score System were manifest refractive spherical error in group 1 and a thin residual stromal bed in group 2. Each of the cases that developed corneal ectasia had risk factors that were identified.Conclusion: Ectasia was an uncommon outcome after an otherwise uncomplicated laser in situ keratomileusis procedure. The variables present in eyes developing postoperative LASIK ectasia can be better understood using the Randleman Ectasia Risk Score System.Keywords: corneal topography, Ectasia Risk Score System, keratectasia, myopia, LASIK

  6. The use of Wavelight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Motwani M

    2017-01-01

    Manoj Motwani Motwani LASIK Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction), using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in...

  7. Computer simulation of photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia and hyperopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Pascal; 'Huillier, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) performed by means of the 193 nm excimer laser has stimulated considerable interest in the ophthalmic community because this new procedure has the potential to correct myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. The use of a laser beam to remove a controlled amount of tissue from the cornea implies that both the energy density of the laser beam and the target removed rate are accurately known. In addition, the required tissue ablation profile to achieve refractive correction must be predicted by optical calculations. This paper investigates: (1) Optical computations based on raytracing model to determine what anterior profile of cornea is needed postoperatively for ametropia. (2) Maximal depth of the removed corneal tissue against the ablation zone treated. And (3) the thickness of ablated corneal lenticule at any distance from the optical axis. Relationships between these data are well fitted by polynomial regressive curves in order to be useful as an algorithm in the computer-controlled delivery of the ArF laser beam.

  8. Simultaneous correction of large low-order and high-order aberrations with a new deformable mirror technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooms, F.; Camet, S.; Curis, J. F.

    2010-02-01

    A new technology of deformable mirror will be presented. Based on magnetic actuators, these deformable mirrors feature record strokes (more than +/- 45μm of astigmatism and focus correction) with an optimized temporal behavior. Furthermore, the development has been made in order to have a large density of actuators within a small clear aperture (typically 52 actuators within a diameter of 9.0mm). We will present the key benefits of this technology for vision science: simultaneous correction of low and high order aberrations, AO-SLO image without artifacts due to the membrane vibration, optimized control, etc. Using recent papers published by Doble, Thibos and Miller, we show the performances that can be achieved by various configurations using statistical approach. The typical distribution of wavefront aberrations (both the low order aberration (LOA) and high order aberration (HOA)) have been computed and the correction applied by the mirror. We compare two configurations of deformable mirrors (52 and 97 actuators) and highlight the influence of the number of actuators on the fitting error, the photon noise error and the effective bandwidth of correction.

  9. Analysis of focusing error signals by differential astigmatic method under off-center tracking in the land-groove-type optical disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko

    2015-04-01

    We theoretically calculate the behavior of the focusing error signal in the land-groove-type optical disk when the objective lens traverses on out of the radius of the optical disk. The differential astigmatic method is employed instead of the conventional astigmatic method for generating the focusing error signals. The signal behaviors are compared and analyzed in terms of the gain difference of the slope sensitivity of the focusing error signals from the land and the groove. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and advantageous conditions for suppressing the gain difference are investigated. The calculation method and results described in this paper will be reflected in the next generation land-groove-type optical disks.

  10. LASEK con mitomicina C en altos defectos refractivos miópicos Use of LASEK with Mitomycin C to treat high myopic defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Cabrera Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Valorar los resultados refractivos en pacientes con altos defectos refractivos miópicos operados por queratomileusis subepitelial asistida con láser combinando el uso de mitomicina C (LASEK+MC. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, de corte transversal en un total de 47 ojos. La muestra fue seleccionada del total de pacientes que acudió a nuestro -Servicio de Cirugía Implanto-refractiva. Teniendo en cuenta el consentimiento informado previo, se aplicó la técnica referida para la corrección de a ametropía, empleándose la mitomicina C de producción nacional al 0,02 % durante dos minutos en el transoperatorio. Para valorar los resultados del estudio se realizaron varios exámenes antes y después de operados los pacientes. RESULTADOS: Los resultados refractivos encontrados en los pacientes operados fueron muy alentadores, se logró corregir la totalidad de los defectos refractivos y se obtuvo una calidad visual muy favorable según test visuales realizados. Además, se obtuvo un índice de complicaciones muy bajo. CONCLUSIONES: La cirugía corneal con láser mediante LASEK+MC, demostró ser una técnica muy confiable y segura. Se obtuvo resultados refractivos muy alentadores, en pacientes con altos defectos refractivos miópicos, cuya calidad de vida, consecuentemente, fue muy superior.OBJECTIVE: To assess the refractive outcome in patients with high refractive myopic defects who were operated on by laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis plus Mitomycin C (LASEK + MC. METHODOS: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed in 47 eyes. The sample was selected from the whole number of patients who went to our Implant-Refractive Surgery Department. Taking into account their previous informed consent, the referred technique was used to correct ametropy by additionally using Cuban-made 0,02 % Mitomycin C for two minutes in the transoperative stage. To evaluate the outcome of the study, several tests were conducted

  11. Contact Lens Visual Rehabilitation in Keratoconus and Corneal Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Ozkurt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal distrophy. It’s a noninflammatory progressive thinning process that leads to conical ectasia of the cornea, causing high myopia and astigmatism. Many treatment choices include spectacle correction and contact lens wear, collagen cross linking, intracorneal ring segments implantation and finally keratoplasty. Contact lenses are commonly used to reduce astigmatism and increase vision. There are various types of lenses are available. We reviewed soft contact lenses, rigid gas permeable contact lenses, piggyback contact lenses, hybrid contact lenses and scleral-semiscleral contact lenses in keratoconus management. The surgical option is keratoplasty, but even after sutur removal, high astigmatism may stil exists. Therefore, contact lens is an adequate treatment option to correct astigmatism after keratoplasty.

  12. [Clinical findings in members of a Czech family with retinitis pigmentosa caused by the c.2426_2427delAG mutation in RPGR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousal, B; Skalická, P; Diblík, P; Kuthan, P; Langrová, H; Lišková, P

    2013-03-01

    To describe the phenotype of members of the first Czech retinitis pigmentosa family with an identified molecular genetic cause (c.2426_2427delAG in RPGR), followed for more than 13 years. Medical records were reviewed and a detailed ophthalmic examination including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and full-field and multifocal electroretinography (ERG) was performed in two affected males, three female carriers and one unaffected female. A 22-year-old male who denied suffering from nyctalopia had a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 0.63 in both eyes. Moderate myopia and myopic astigmatism were present bilaterally. Color vision and contrast sensitivity were normal. There was an eccentric constriction of the visual fields that spared the central 20 degrees in both eyes. Fundus examination revealed bilateral pigmentary changes in the mid-periphery. Full-field ERG documented a 10% rod and 20% cone response. The phenotype of his cousin, also aged 22 years, was more severe. He complained of nyctalopia since 12 years of age. His BCVA was 0.3 in the right eye and 0.5 in the left eye. Myopia and astigmatism were present bilaterally. Contrast sensitivity and color vision were severely impaired. Full field ERG was extinct, but some activity on multifocal ERG was still detectable. The constriction of the visual fields reached 5 degrees in both eyes. Fundus examination showed the typical retinitis pigmentosa appearance. All carriers denied that they suffered from nyctalopia, but two of them had decreased BCVA in at least one eye. None exhibited typical bone spicules or a tapetal-like reflex. Significant refractive errors were present in all eyes of the carriers. The finding of moderate or high myopia and astigmatism in males with retinitis pigmentosa as well as refractive errors in female relatives indicates possible X-linked inheritance, which may be especially important in pedigrees where the transmission pattern can not be clearly established. Our study

  13. Refractive Lenticule Implantation for Correction of Ametropia: Case Reports and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, A; Messerschmidt-Roth, A; Sekundo, W; Schulze, S

    2017-01-01

    The ReLEx® technique allows correction of refractive errors through the creation and extraction of refractive stromal lenticules. Contrary to excimer laser corneal refractive procedures, where the stromal tissue is photoablated, the extracted lenticules obtained with ReLEx® can be preserved. Recent studies and case reports have described autologous re-implantation and allogeneic implantation of refractive lenticules into femtosecond-laser created stromal pockets in order to reverse the refractive outcome of a myopic corneal refractive procedure, correct hyperopia, aphakia, presbyopia and treat keratoconus. The use of stromal lenticules has also been described for therapeutic purposes, with an allogenic lenticule being transplanted under a LASIK flap in order to restore corneal volume and reduce the refractive error in a case of excessive stromal tissue removal after LASIK. This review summarises the results of the latest case reports and studies that describe the implantation of cryopreserved or fresh refractive stromal lenticules and discusses the feasibility, safety and refractive outcomes of the procedure, on the basis of published literature as well as our own experience. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Comparison of quality of life between myopic patients with spectacles and contact lenses, and patients who have undergone refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Shams

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Quality of life for people with myopia who had the refractive surgery was better than people with myopia who wore spectacles or contact lenses. Although quality of life in people with myopia who had the refractive surgery was less than emmetropia, it seems that refractive surgery improves quality of life of myopic patients.

  15. Influência do astigmatismo corneano na acuidade visual final após implante de AcrySof® ReSTOR®: relato de caso Influence of corneal astigmatism in final visual acuity after implantation of AcrySofTM ReSTOR TM: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Carvalho Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente tem-se desenvolvido novos tipos de lentes intra-oculares (LIO que objetivam eliminar a presbiopia e o seu uso vem se popularizando. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com catarata bilateral e irregularidades corneanas e astigmatismo maior que 2 D à topografia, no qual implantou-se a LIO AcrySof® ReSTOR® no olho esquerdo associado à realização de incisões limbares relaxantes para tentar diminuir o astigmatismo corneano observado. A acuidade visual pós-operatória, tanto para perto quanto para longe, ficou abaixo das expectativas, sem melhora à refração e sem uma outra alteração que a justificasse, além das citadas. Após 45 dias, sem melhora da acuidade visual, efetuou-se o explante desta LIO, seguindo-se de implante de uma monofocal, sendo observada melhora da acuidade visual corrigida final. Assim, o presente caso clínico reforça a necessidade de uma correta seleção pré-operatória dos pacientes candidatos ao implante deste tipo de LIO multifocal, atentando inclusive para os dados topográficos.Currently, new types of intraocular lenses have been developed aiming to eliminate presbyopia and the use has become more popular. The authors report the case of a patient with bilateral cataract and corneal irregularities and astigmatism higher than 2D in the corneal topography, in which AcrySofTM ReSTOR TM intraocular lens was implanted in the left eye associated to relaxing limbal incisions trying to reduce corneal astigmatism. The near and distance postoperative visual acuity were worse than expected, with no improvement with refraction. Apparently, no other reason apart from irregular astigmatism/multifocal lens justified the low vision. After 45 days, with no visual acuity improvement, the intraocular lens was explanted and a monofocal one was implanted. The final corrected visual acuity improved. Thus, the present case emphasizes the need of a correct preoperative selection of patients to implant this type of

  16. Outcomes of microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography-guided center-sparing internal limiting membrane peeling for myopic traction maculopathy: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Ravani, Raghav; Mehta, Aditi; Simakurthy, Sriram; Dhull, Chirakshi

    2017-07-04

    To evaluate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (I-OCT)-guided traction removal and center-sparing internal limiting membrane (cs-ILM) peeling. Nine eyes with myopic traction maculopathy as diagnosed on SD-OCT underwent PPV with I-OCT-guided cs-ILM peeling and were evaluated prospectively for resolution of central macular thickness (CMT) and improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and complications, if any, were noted. All patients were followed up for more than 9 months. Resolution of the macular retinoschisis was seen in all nine eyes on SD-OCT. At 36 weeks, there was a significant improvement in mean BCVA from the preoperative BCVA (P = 0.0089) along with a reduction in the CMT from 569.77 ± 263.19 to 166.0 ± 43.91 um (P = 0.0039). None of the eyes showed worsening of BCVA or development of full-thickness macular hole in the intraoperative or follow-up period. PPV with I-OCT-guided cs-ILM peeling helps in complete removal of traction, resolution of retinoschisis and good functional recovery with low intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  17. Refractive accuracy with light-adjustable intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Eloy A; Alcon, Encarna; Rubio, Elena; Marín, José M; Artal, Pablo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate efficacy, predictability, and stability of refractive treatments using light-adjustable intraocular lenses (IOLs). University Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain. Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. Eyes with a light-adjustable IOL (LAL) were treated with spatial intensity profiles to correct refractive errors. The effective changes in refraction in the light-adjustable IOL after every treatment were estimated by subtracting those in the whole eye and the cornea, which were measured with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and a corneal topographer, respectively. The refractive changes in the whole eye and light-adjustable IOL, manifest refraction, and visual acuity were obtained after every light treatment and at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The study enrolled 53 eyes (49 patients). Each tested light spatial pattern (5 spherical; 3 astigmatic) produced a different refractive change (Plight adjustments induced a maximum change in spherical power of the light-adjustable IOL of between -1.98 diopters (D) and +2.30 D and in astigmatism of up to -2.68 D with axis errors below 9 degrees. Intersubject variability (standard deviation) ranged between 0.10 D and 0.40 D. The 2 required lock-in procedures induced a small myopic shift (range +0.01 to +0.57 D) that depended on previous adjustments. Light-adjustable IOL implantation achieved accurate refractive outcomes (around emmetropia) with good uncorrected distance visual acuity, which remained stable over time. Further refinements in nomograms and in the treatment's protocol would improve the predictability of refractive and visual outcomes with these IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using corneal topography design personalized cataract surgery programs

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    Jin-Ou Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate how to design personalized cataract surgery programs to achieve surgical correction of preoperative corneal astigmatism with surgical astigmatism under the guidance of corneal topography, improve postoperative visual quality and reduce the cost of treatment. METHODS: Totally 202 cases(226 eyescataract patients were divided into randomized treatment group and individualized treatment group. According to the method and location of the incision, randomized treatment group were divided into 8 groups. Surgical astigmatism after different incision were calculated with the use of preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism through vector analysis method. Individualized treatment groups were designed personably for surgical method with reference of every surgically induced astigmatism, the surgical method chooses the type of surgical incision based on close link between preoperative corneal astigmatism and surgically induced astigmatism, and the incision was located in the steep meridian. The postoperative corneal astigmatism of individualized treatment group was observed. RESULTS: Postoperative corneal astigmatism of individualized treatment group were lower than that of 3.0mm clear corneal tunnel incision in the randomized treatment group, there were statistically significance difference, while with 3.0mm sclera tunnel incision group there were no statistically significance difference. After 55.8% of patients with the use of individualized surgical plan could undergo the operation of extracapsular cataract extraction with relatively low cost and rigid intraocular lens implantation, the per capita cost of treatment could be reduced. CONCLUSION: Personalized cataract surgery programs are designed to achieve surgical correction of preoperative corneal astigmatism under the use of corneal topography, improve postoperative visual quality and reduce the cost of treatment.

  19. Academic and Workplace-related Visual Stresses Induce Detectable Deterioration Of Performance, Measured By Basketball Trajectories and Astigmatism Impacting Athletes Or Students In Military Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Separate military establishments across the globe can confirm that a high percentage of their prospective pilots-in-training are no longer visually fit to continue the flight training portion of their programs once their academic coursework is completed. I maintain that the visual stress induced by those intensive protocols can damage the visual feedback mechanism of any healthy and dynamic system beyond its usual and ordinary ability to self-correct minor visual loss of acuity. This deficiency seems to be detectable among collegiate and university athletes by direct observation of the height of the trajectory arc of a basketball's flight. As a particular athlete becomes increasingly stressed by academic constraints requiring long periods of concentrated reading under highly static angular convergence of the eyes, along with unfavorable illumination and viewing conditions, eyesight does deteriorate. I maintain that induced astigmatism is a primary culprit because of the evidence of that basketball's trajectory! See the next papers!

  20. Lamina Cribrosa Changes after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis in Myopic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Choi, Da Ye Diana; Lim, Dong Hui; Chung, Tae Young; Han, Jong Chul; Kee, Changwon

    2018-04-01

    To determine deep optic nerve head structure changes after transient intraocular pressure elevation during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography was performed in each myopic eye that underwent LASIK surgery. Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography images were created at postoperative 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month. Lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness, LC depth and prelaminar thickness at the superior, middle and inferior portions of the optic nerve head were measured by two investigators. Forty eyes in 40 patients were included in the present study. During follow-up, there were no significant differences in prelaminar thickness or LC depth. The LC demonstrated increased thickness at postoperative 1 day at all three locations (superior, middle, and inferior) (p LASIK surgery. However, the thickness will gradually return to baseline morphology. Temporary intraocular pressure increase during LASIK does not appear to induce irreversible LC thickness changes. © 2018 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

  1. [Comparative results evaluation of residual myopia and astigmatism correction after radial keratotomy by photorefraction keratectomy and laser specialized keratomileusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Martines, T E; Sheludchenko, V M; Kurenkov, V V

    1999-01-01

    The results of correction of residual myopia by photorefraction keratectomy (PRK) (51 eyes) and laser specialized keratomileusis (LASIK) (36 eyes) after radial keratotomy (RK) are compared. The patients were observed for up to 12 months. After PRK, 7.3% patients developed late fleur of the cornea, evaluated by at least 2 points. The incidence of fleur directly depended on the value of residual myopia. After LASIK none of the patients developed such fleur. The best visual acuity (0.5 and higher without correction) was attained in 70.73% after PRK and RK, vs. 100% after LASIK. The results of photorefraction operations and severity of residual myopia after RK correlated. In residual myopia of up to -3 diopters the results of correction by PRK and LASIK were virtually the same. In residual myopia higher than -3 diopters, LASIK is preferable.

  2. Aberration-corrected STEM/TEM imaging at 15 kV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeo; Sawada, Hidetaka; Hosokawa, Fumio; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu

    2014-01-01

    The performance of aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV was evaluated in a low-voltage microscope equipped with a cold-field emission gun and a higher-order aberration corrector. Aberrations up to the fifth order were corrected by the aberration measurement and auto-correction system using the diffractogram tableau method in TEM and Ronchigram analysis in STEM. TEM observation of nanometer-sized particles demonstrated that aberrations up to an angle of 50 mrad were compensated. A TEM image of Si[110] exhibited lattice fringes with a spacing of 0.192 nm, and the power spectrum of the image showed spots corresponding to distances of 0.111 nm. An annular dark-field STEM image of Si[110] showed lattice fringes of (111) and (22¯0) planes corresponding to lattice distances of 0.314 nm and 0.192 nm, respectively. At an accelerating voltage of 15 kV, the developed low-voltage microscope achieved atomic-resolution imaging with a small chromatic aberration and a large uniform phase. - Highlights: • Aberration-corrected STEM/TEM imaging at 15 kV demonstrated lattice fringes of Si[110] single crystal with a spacing of 0.192 nm. • To achieve this performance at a lower accelerating voltage, uniform phase area over 50 mrad is mandatory in Ronchigram and Diffractogram tableau. • This means a higher-order aberration of six-fold astigmatism should be compensated. • In addition, decreasing the effect of chromatic aberration plays an important role for improving the performance of linear scattering component at 15 kV TEM

  3. [Eyeball structure changes in high myopic patients and their significance for forensic assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Chang; Xia, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xing-Tao; Liu, Rui-Jue; Bian, Shi-Zhong; Ying, Chong-Liang; Zhu, Guang-You

    2008-10-01

    There are irreversible eyeball structural changes in high myopic patients. These changes include axial length, corneal radius, anterior chamber depth, fundus degeneration, macula thickness, etc. There is a close relationship between the damage degree of visual function and these changes. The incidence of complications, such as vitreous opacity, posterior vitreous detachment, cataract, glaucoma, posterior staphyloma and retina detachment, is also highly related to the myopia diopter. More and more researches have indicated that the myopia diopter and the level of visual function are affected by multiple factors. It is promising to detect all of these changes by different kinds of methods, and to assess visual function through these changes. By clarifying these changes, it is also useful to distinguish traumatic damage from disease to provide evidence for forensic assessment of eye injuries.

  4. Zyoptix wavefront-guided versus standard photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in low and moderate myopia: randomized controlled 6-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, L; Toto, L; Zuppardi, E; Nubile, M; Carpineto, P; Di Nicola, M; Ballone, E

    2006-01-01

    efficacious for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism as PlanoScan PRK. Moreover this technique induces a smaller increase of third order coma aberration compared to standard PRK. The use of Zyoptix wavefront-guided PRK is particularly indicated in eyes with higher preoperative RMS values.

  5. Higher-order aberrations and visual acuity after LASEK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgancioglu, Berrak; Bilgihan, Kamil; Ozturk, Sertac

    2008-08-01

    To determine ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with supernormal vision after myopic astigmatic laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) and to compare the findings with those in eyes with natural supernormal vision. Ocular HOAs were measured after LASEK in 20 eyes of 12 myopic astigmatic patients with postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of >20/16 (group 1). Patients who were included in the study had no visual symptoms like glare, halo or double vision. The measurements were taken 8.3 +/- 3 months after LASEK surgery. In group 2 ocular HOAs were examined in 20 eyes of 10 subjects with natural UCVA of >20/16 as a control. Measurements were taken across a pupil with a diameter of 4.0 mm and 6.0 mm. Root-mean-square (RMS) values of HOAs, Z(3)-1, Z(3)1, Z(4)0, Z(5)-1, Z(5)1 and Z(6)0 were analyzed. The mean RMS values for each order were higher in group 1 when compared with group 2 at 4.0 mm and 6.0 mm pupil diameters. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in spherical and coma aberrations (P > 0.05). Mean RMS values for total HOAs were 0.187 +/- 0.09 microm at 4.0 mm and 0.438 +/- 0.178 microm at 6.0 mm pupil in group 1 and 0.120 +/- 0.049 microm at 4.0 mm and 0.344 +/- 0.083 microm at 6.0 mm pupil in group 2. The difference between groups in total HOAs was statistically significant at 4.0 mm and 6.0 mm pupil diameters (P < 0.05). Ocular HOAs exist in eyes with supernormal vision. After LASEK, the amount of HOAs of the eye increases under both mesopic and photopic conditions. However the amount of HOA increase does not seem to be consistent with visual symptoms.

  6. Factors related to axial length elongation and myopia progression in orthokeratology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate which baseline factors are predictive for axial length growth over an average period of 2.5 years in a group of children wearing orthokeratology (OK contact lenses.In this retrospective study, the clinical records of 249 new OK wearers between January 2012 and December 2013 from the contact lens clinic at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was axial length change from baseline to the time of review (July-August 2015. Independent variables included baseline measures of age at initiation of OK wear, gender, refractive error (spherical equivalent, astigmatism, average keratometry, corneal toricity, central corneal thickness, white-to-white corneal diameter, pupil size, corneal topography eccentricity value (e-value, intraocular pressure (IOP and total time in follow-up (months total. The contributions of all independent variables on axial length change at the time of review were assessed using univariate and multivariable regression analyses.Univariate analyses of the right eyes of 249 OK patients showed that smaller increases in axial length were associated with older age at the onset of OK lens wear, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error, less time in follow-up and a smaller e-value. Multivariable analyses of the significant right eye variables showed that the factors associated with smaller axial length growth were older age at the onset of OK lens wear (p<0.0001, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error (p = 0.0046 and less time in follow-up (p<0.0001.The baseline factors demonstrating the greatest correlation with reduced axial length elongation during OK lens wear in myopic children included greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error and older age at the onset of OK lens wear.

  7. Corneal epithelial alterations resulting from use of chlorine-disinfected contact tonometer after myopic photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, M J

    1998-08-01

    This study aimed to describe a previously unreported complication associated with the use of chlorine-disinfected applanation tonometer heads for intraocular pressure measurement after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Two retrospective case reports. Two patients underwent, respectively, a 7-diopter and a 4-diopter myopic excimer laser correction in their first eye 2 weeks apart. Complete epithelial closure of the ablated area was observed by biomicroscopy in the first-week examination. Four weeks after photorefractive keratectomy, a complete ophthalmic examination was performed. Goldmann applanation tonometry was performed bilaterally after thoroughly rinsing and drying the tonometer biprism, which had been immersed regularly in a chlorine 5000-parts per million solution. Slit-lamp examination and corneal topographic surface regularity were measured. A few minutes after applanation tonometry, both patients reported ocular discomfort in the excimer laser-treated eyes, whereas the untreated fellow eyes were painless. Punctate corneal lesions and superficial epithelial cell clumping were present in the first patient's treated eye, predominantly in the inferior aspect of the applanated cornea. Visual inspection showed a normal tonometer tip. In the second patient's treated cornea, a focal epithelial defect was identified biomicroscopically, which corresponded to the steeper region within the ablation zone on the videokeratograph. In this case, crystal deposits were found on the tonometer tip. The epithelial alterations resolved without sequelae in both cases. Disinfecting solutions of chlorine can cause crystal deposit formation on the tonometer head. Applanation tonometry after repeated disinfection with chlorine solutions appears to have the potential for disrupting the epithelial layer of the healing cornea. Covered contact tonometry or noncontact tonometry should be evaluated as alternative methods to chemically disinfected contact tonometry for

  8. [Clinical Characteristics of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in Highly Myopic and Phakic Eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihara, Tadashi; Hirota, Kazunari; Yokota, Reiji; Kunita, Daisuke; Itoh, Yuji; Rii, Tosho; Koto, Takashi; Hiraoka, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Hirakata, Akito

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate clinical characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in high myopic and phakic eyes. The subjects were 1174 eyes of phakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment detected in 1199 eyes that underwent initial vitreoretinal surgery between April 2006 and March 2011. Eyes with macular hole retinal detachment or secondary retinal detachment were excluded. The 486 eyes with high myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -6.0 D or axial length ≥ 26.5 mm) and the 688 eyes with non-high myopia were compared. The mean age was significantly younger in the high myopia group (42.7 ± 14.2 years old, p lattice degeneration were more frequent (16.7%, 20.4%, respectively). The incidences of the retinal detachment in younger age and those caused by retinal holes were higher in the high myopia group. Higher incidence of retinal detachment and lattice degeneration in the fellow eyes of the high myopia group indicated that careful observation also in the fellow eyes was recommended.

  9. [The eye, the optic system and its anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S Y

    1993-09-15

    The eye is a perceptive system with extremely complex physiology, although its optical properties can be assimilated to those of spherical diopters. Various approximations make it possible to reduce the eyeball to a single convex diopter. With a normal eye the image of an object situated ad infinitum focuses on the retina. The normal eye is called emmetropic. Otherwise, the eye is called ametropic. Several types of ametropy exist. When the image focuses in front of the retina the eye is said to be myopic. When the image focuses behind the retina the eye is called hypermetropic (or hyperopic). When the image of an object differs according to various focusing axes, the eye is said to be astigmatic.

  10. Statistical characteristics of aberrations of human eyes after small incision lenticule extraction surgery and analysis of visual performance with individual eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiqi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; Fang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Preoperative and postoperative wavefront aberrations of 73 myopic eyes with small incision lenticule extraction surgery are analyzed in this paper. Twenty-eight postoperative individual eye models are constructed to investigate the visual acuity (VA) of human eyes. Results show that in photopic condition, residual defocus, residual astigmatism, and higher-order aberrations are relatively small. 100% of eyes reach a VA of 0.8 or better, and 89.3% of eyes reach a VA of 1.0 or better. In scotopic condition, the residual defocus and the higher-order aberrations are, respectively, 1.9 and 8.5 times the amount of that in photopic condition, and the defocus becomes the main factor attenuating visual performance.

  11. Use of placental extract for the treatment of myopic and senile chorio-retinal dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, G; Malinverni, W

    1982-01-01

    After an examination of the literature, the authors evaluate the activity of placenta extract in 34 subjects suffering from chorio-retinal dystrophy of different types (myopic and senile) and of different degrees of anatomo-functional alteration. The parameters used for this study were visual acuity, the luminous sense, the visual field and the electrophysiological activity of the retina. The aqueous solution was administered by intramuscular route at a daily dose of 3 ml (equivalent to 1,80 g of fresh organ) during 20 days; the parameters were tested before and at the end of the treatment. The results obtained during this study show that the parameters were improved, in different degrees, by the administration of the placenta extract. This is clearly demonstrated by the significant improvement in the luminous sense.

  12. [Refractive precision and objective quality of vision after toric lens implantation in cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debois, A; Nochez, Y; Bezo, C; Bellicaud, D; Pisella, P-J

    2012-10-01

    To study efficacy and predictability of toric IOL implantation for correction of preoperative corneal astigmatism by analysing spherocylindrical refractive precision and objective quality of vision. Prospective study of 13 eyes undergoing micro-incisional cataract surgery through a 1.8mm corneal incision with toric IOL implantation (Lentis L313T(®), Oculentis) to treat over one D of preoperative corneal astigmatism. Preoperative evaluation included keratometry, subjective refraction, and total and corneal aberrometry (KR-1(®), Topcon). Six months postoperatively, measurements included slit lamp photography, documenting IOL rotation, tilt or decentration, uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity and objective quality of vision measurement (OQAS(®) Visiometrics, Spain). Postoperatively, mean uncorrected distance visual acuity was 8.33/10 ± 1.91 (0.09 ± 0.11 LogMar). Mean postoperative refractive sphere was 0.13 ± 0.73 diopters. Mean refractive astigmatism was -0.66 ± 0.56 diopters with corneal astigmatism of 2.17 ± 0.68 diopters. Mean IOL rotation was 4.4° ± 3.6° (range 0° to 10°). Mean rotation of this IOL at 6 months was less than 5°, demonstrating stability of the optic within the capsular bag. Objective quality of vision measurements were consistent with subjective uncorrected visual acuity. Implantation of the L313T(®) IOL is safe and effective for correction of corneal astigmatism in 1.8mm micro-incisional cataract surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among primary school children

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    Zhale Rajavi

    2015-01-01

    Results: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9% of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004. Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001, that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007, but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9 and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87 and hyperopia (OR=11.87, were important amblyogenic risk factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.

  14. Combined special capsular tension ring and toric IOL implantation for management of post-DALK high regular astigmatism with subluxated traumatic cataract

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    Asim Kumar Kandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 18-year-old male who has undergone phacoemulsification with implantation of toric IOL (AcrySof IQ SN6AT9 after fixation of lens capsule with Cionni′s capsular tension ring (CTR for subluxated traumatic cataract with high astigmatism after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. He underwent right eye DALK for advanced keratoconus four years earlier. He had history of trauma one year later with displaced clear crystalline lens into  anterior chamber and graft dehiscence, which was repaired successfully. The graft survived, but patient developed cataract with subluxated lens, for which phacoemulsification with implantation of toric IOL was done. Serial  topography showed regular corneal astigmatism of -5.50 diopter (K 1 42.75 D @130°, K 2 48.25 D @40°. At 10-month follow-up, the patient has BCVA 20/30 with + 0.75 DS/- 1.75 DC @ 110°. The capsular bag is quite stable with well-centered IOL. Combination of Cionni′s ring with toric IOL could be a good option to manage such complex cases.

  15. Combined special capsular tension ring and toric IOL implantation for management of post-DALK high regular astigmatism with subluxated traumatic cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandar, Asim Kumar

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of 18-year-old male who has undergone phacoemulsification with implantation of toric IOL (AcrySof IQ SN6AT9) after fixation of lens capsule with Cionni's capsular tension ring (CTR) for subluxated traumatic cataract with high astigmatism after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). He underwent right eye DALK for advanced keratoconus four years earlier. He had history of trauma one year later with displaced clear crystalline lens into  anterior chamber and graft dehiscence, which was repaired successfully. The graft survived, but patient developed cataract with subluxated lens, for which phacoemulsification with implantation of toric IOL was done. Serial  topography showed regular corneal astigmatism of -5.50 diopter (K 1 42.75 D @130°, K 2 48.25 D @40°). At 10-month follow-up, the patient has BCVA 20/30 with + 0.75 DS/- 1.75 DC @ 110°. The capsular bag is quite stable with well-centered IOL. Combination of Cionni's ring with toric IOL could be a good option to manage such complex cases.

  16. Topography-modified refraction: adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK

    OpenAIRE

    Alpins, Noel

    2017-01-01

    Noel Alpins1,2 1NewVision Clinics, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department Ophthalmology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia It is encouraging to see the results in the article by Kanellopoulos “Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK”,1 where the combination of refractive and corneal data in the treatment parameters pro...

  17. INTACS before or after laser in situ keratomileusis: correction of thin corneas with moderately high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mitsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Teruki; Toda, Ikuko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Intrastromal corneal ring segments (INTACS Micro-Thin Prescription Inserts by Addition Technologies, Fremont, Calif) were inserted as a combined surgery with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in six eyes with thin corneas to correct moderately high myopia. INTACS were implanted before LASIK (INTACS-LASIK) in three eyes and after LASIK (LASIK-INTACS) in three eyes. Mean preoperative manifest spherical equivalent refraction was -7.88 diopters. Mean follow-up was 306 days. No intraoperative complications occurred. The LASIK-INTACS eyes were slightly more overcorrected than the INTACS-LASIK eyes because of the enhanced performance of INTACS in the thinned corneal tissue. Induced astigmatism by INTACS per se was less in the LASIK-INTACS eyes than in the INTACS-LASIK eyes. At last examination, uncorrected visual acuity was better than 20/25 in all eyes. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was within 1 line of the preoperative value in all eyes. Both methods resulted in significant improvement in visual acuity and refraction. Based on our limited experience, however, LASIK followed by INTACS is preferred for reasons of safety, convenience, and lower induced cylinder.

  18. Long-term safety and efficacy follow-up of prophylactic higher fluence collagen cross-linking in high myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John KanellopoulosLaservision.gr Institute, Athens, Greece, and New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet A irradiation cross-linking on completion for cases of high myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK.Methods: Forty-three consecutive LASIK cases treated with femtosecond laser flap and the WaveLight excimer platform were evaluated perioperatively for uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected spectacle visual acuity, refraction, keratometry, topography, total and flap pachymetry, corneal optical coherence tomography, and endothelial cell count. All eyes at the completion of LASIK had cross-linking through the repositioned flap, with higher fluence (10 mW/cm2 ultraviolet light of an average 370 µm wavelength and 10 mW/cm2 fluence applied for 3 minutes following an earlier single instillation of 0.1% riboflavin within the flap interface. Mean follow-up duration was 3.5 (range 1.0–4.5 years.Results: Mean uncorrected visual acuity changed from 0.2 to 1.2, best corrected spectacle visual acuity from 1.1 to 1.2, spherical equivalent from -7.5 diopters (D to -0.2 D, keratometry from 44.5 D to 38 D, flap pachymetry from 105 µm to, total pachymetry from 525 to 405, and endothelial cell count from 2750 to 2800. None of the cases developed signs of ectasia or significant regression during follow-up.Conclusion: Prophylactic collagen cross-linking for high-risk LASIK cases appears to be a safe and effective adjunctive treatment for refractive regression and potential ectasia. This application may be viewed as prophylactic customization of the biomechanical behavior of corneal collagen.Keywords: prophylactic collagen cross-linking, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, high-risk, post-LASIK ectasia

  19. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness of black and Indian myopic students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

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    Chanel Murugan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness in black and Indian myopic students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Method: Eighty (40 black and 40 Indian participants of both genders and aged between 19 and 24 years (mean and standard deviation: 21 ± 1.7 years were included in the study. Refractive errors were assessed with the Nidek AR-310A auto-refractor and via subjective refraction. RNFL thicknesses were then measured using the iVue-100 optical coherence tomography device. Axial lengths were measured with the Nidek US-500 A-scan ultrasound device. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis. Results: The mean myopic spherical equivalent was significantly more negative amongst the Indian (-2.42 D ± 2.22 D than amongst the black (-1.48 D ± 1.13 D (p = 0.02 participants.The mean axial length was greater amongst the black (23.35 mm ± 0.74 mm than amongst the Indian (23.18 mm ± 0.87 mm participants but the difference was not significant. In the total sample (n = 80, the average global RNFL thickness ranged from 87 μm to 123 μm (105 μm ±9 μm. Mean global RNFL thickness was slightly greater amongst black (108 μm ± 7 μm than amongst Indian (102 μm ± 9 μm (p = 0.00 participants. Mean global RNFL thickness was similar for male (106 μm ± 7 μm and female (105 μm ± 10 μm (p = 0.79 participants.A positive and significant association between myopic spherical equivalent and global RNFL thickness was found for the total sample (r = 0.36, p = 0.00 and for Indians (r = 0.33, p = 0.04but not for the black (r = 0.25, p = 0.13 participants. There was a negative and significant correlation between axial length and global RNFL thickness amongst the Indian participants (r = -0.34, p = 0.03 but not amongst the total sample (r = -0.12, p = 0.30 or the black (r = 0.06, p = 0.73 participants. Conclusion: The findings suggest that racial differences in RNFL

  20. Efficacy of non-fovea-sparing ILM peeling for symptomatic myopic foveoschisis with and without macular hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badawi, Amer Hamad; Abdelhakim, Mohamad Amr Salah Eddin; Macky, Tamer Ahmed; Mortada, Hassan Aly

    2018-04-30

    To study anatomical and visual outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with non-fovea-sparing (entire) internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in eyes with myopic foveoschisis (MF). Prospective interventional case series of eyes undergoing PPV with entire ILM peeling for symptomatic MF. Preoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD - OCT) epiretinal membrane, anomalous posterior vitreous detachment, vitreoschisis and postoperative changes in SD-OCT central foveal thickness (CFT), ellipsoid zone defect, foveal detachment (FD), macular hole (MH) diameter (if present) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). This study included 21 eyes (21 patients) with mean age 60.4±13.1, 15 females (71.4%). All patients achieved complete postoperative reattachment by SD-OCT (no FD) 6 months post vitrectomy, with no iatrogenic intraoperative or postoperative MH, and with significant improvement in final BCVA from 1.6±0.30 to1.0±0.2 logMAR, and in CFT from 918.2±311.4 to182.3±33.1 µm. Patients were subdivided into subgroup A: 11 eyes without MH; and subgroup B: 10 eyes with MH, the latter had significant improvement in MH diameter (p=0.005). Preoperative BCVA was a significant risk factor for visual gain, while preoperative FD and CFT were significant for CFT change. Vitrectomy with non-fovea-sparing (entire) ILM peeling resulted in a significant functional and anatomical improvement in eyes with MF with/without MH with no reported complications. Results are comparable to fovea-sparing ILM peeling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. In-the-bag IOL stability of super high myopic eyes with different size of capculorhexis

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    Yu-Lan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the in-the-bag IOL stability of different size of continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis(CCCin super high myopic eyes with cataract underwent phacoemulsification.METHODS: A total of fourteen cataract patients with bilateral super high myopia were included,Phaco+IOL implantation were performed on both eyes, one eye was randomly classified into 5mm diameter CCC observation group, the fellow eye was 6mm diameter CCC observation group. Cataract extraction combined with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation(IOLwith the type of hydrophilic acrylic aspheric intraocular lens(MCX11by well experienced surgeon. The operation was running smoothly, the next day after operation, all patients were confirmed by Image-pro plus6.0 image analysis software for the measurement of main meridian sac diameter with target capsulorhexis diameter no more than ±0.2mm. Slit lamp examination of IOL shape and position, changes of anterior capculorhexis edge, refraction, anterior chamber depth was measured and observed of all eyes after operation 1wk; 1, 3, 6mo.RESULTS: Compared with postoperation 1wk, the former sac diameter of two groups were slightly smaller at postoperation 1mo, with no statistically significant difference between two groups. 5mm diameter CCC observation group had slightly hyperopic shift in follow-up 1-3mo, 6mm diameter CCC observation group had hyperopic shift in follow-up 1mo, and getting stable after 1mo. Refraction change was related to anterior chamber depth changes. 5mm diameter CCC observation group had 3 minor loop folding in follw-up 3mo.CONCLUSION: Relatively smaller continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in super high myopic eyes underwent cataract surgery may cause a tendency of uneven construction or effective lens position change of in-the-bag IOL. Unusual refraction change or shift after operation 1mo could suggest instability of IOL, early noticing or interruption could prevent further complications.

  2. Phakic intraocular lenses for the treatment of refractive errors: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    the bibliography review, 30 studies met the inclusion criteria: two HTAs; one systematic review; 20 pre-post observational studies; and seven comparative studies (five pIOL vs. LASIK, one pIOL vs. PRK, and one pIOL vs. CLE). Both HTAs concluded that there was good evidence of the short-term efficacy and safety of pIOLs, however, their conclusions regarding long-term safety differed. The 2006 HTA found convincing evidence of long-term safety, while the 2009 HTA found no long-term evidence about the risks of complications including cataract development, corneal damage, and retinal detachment. The systematic review of adverse events found that cataract development (incidence rate of 9.6% of eyes) is a substantial risk following posterior chamber pIOL implantation, while chronic endothelial cell loss is a safety concern after iris-fixated pIOL implantation. Adverse event rates varied by lens type, but they were more common in eyes that received posterior chamber pIOLs. The evidence of pIOL effectiveness is based on pre-post case series. These studies reported a variety of outcomes and different follow-up time points. It was difficult to combine the data into meaningful summary measures as many time points are based on a single study with a very small sample size. Overall, the efficacy evidence is low to very low quality based on the GRADE Working Group Criteria. For all refractive errors (low to high), most eyes experienced a substantial increase in uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) with more than 75% of eyes achieving UCVA of 20/40 or better at all postoperative time points. The proportion of eyes that achieved postoperative UCVA 20/20 or better varied substantially according type of lens used and the type of refractive error being corrected, ranging from about 30% of eyes that received iris-fixated lenses for myopia to more than 78% of eyes that received posterior chamber toric lenses for myopic astigmatism. Predictability of manifest refraction spherical equivalent

  3. Incidence and distribution of paravascular lamellar holes and their relationship with macular retinoschisis in highly myopic eyes using spectral-domain oct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, José I; Sánchez, Fernando; Díaz-Cascajosa, Jesús; Mingorance, Ester; Andreu, David; Buil, José A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the incidence and distribution of paravascular lamellar holes (PLH) around retinal vessels in highly myopic eyes and their relationship with macular retinoschisis (MR). We examined 306 eyes of 178 patients with high myopia, performing multiple scans of the posterior pole within the retinal vascular arcades using spectral-domain OCT. Type of staphyloma was determined. PLH were divided into three groups: holes only (group 1), holes extending below vessels (group 2), and holes in an area of paravascular retinoschisis (group 3). OCT showed that 96/306 eyes (31.4 %) had PLH mainly along the infero-temporal arcade (39.9 %). Type V and IX staphylomas had a higher proportion of PLH in the infero-temporal arcade than other staphylomas. Group 3 eyes presented higher rates of myopia and staphyloma. MR was detected in 10/27 eyes (37 %) in Group 3, but only in 2/33 eyes (6.1 %) in Group 1. No MR was found in Group 2. PLH are relatively common in highly myopic eyes and mainly distributed in the inferior temporal arcade. Findings from this descriptive study suggest that distribution of PLH might be related to the type of staphyloma. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relevance of PLH in the pathogenesis of MR.

  4. Avaliação da qualidade óptica de lentes de contato gelatinosas na correção de miopia Evaluation of optical performance of soft contact lenses in myopic correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Weslley Dalcoll

    2008-12-01

    ções de acuidade visual logMAR de baixo contraste, sensibilidade ao contraste, índice de Strehl, MTF e das aberrações de alta ordem.PURPOSE: To evaluate the optical performance of eyes fitted with two different soft contact lenses: Acuvue® 2 (Vistacon J&J Vision Care Inc., USA and World Vision Disposable Asférica Wave Front® (World Vision Ophthalmic, Brazil. METHODS: An interventional prospective clinical trial studied a sample of 40 myopic patients (-0.75D to -4.50D, with or without astigmatism up to -0.75D. Each patient had one eye randomized to visual performance evaluation including high and low contrast visual acuities, wavefront analysis and contrast sensitivity. RESULTS: The Nidek OPD Scan detected a residual refraction (hypercorrection for both contact lenses. High contrast visual acuity was significantly higher for World Vision soft contact lenses. Low contrast visual acuity was similar for both soft contact lenses. Contrast sensitivity improved significantly at 1.5; 3; 6 e 18 spatial frequencies for both soft contact lenses, but no difference was found between them. Regarding wavefront analysis, no difference was found between both soft contact lenses. There were not significantly differences in the Strehl indices and MTF for both soft contact lenses. CONCLUSION: World Vision Disposable Asférica Wave Front® soft contact lenses had a better performance regarding high contrast visual acuity. However, low contrast visual acuity, wavefront analysis and contrast sensitivity were similar for both soft contact lenses.

  5. Stability of therapeutic retreatment of corneal wavefront customized ablation with the SCHWIND CAM: 4-year data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Kolli, Sai; Padroni, Sara; Padron, Sara; Arba Mosquera, Samuel

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes of aspheric corneal wavefront ablation profiles for excimer laser retreatment. Eighteen eyes that had previously undergone LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) were retreated with LASIK using the corneal wavefront ablation profile. Custom Ablation Manager (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions, Kleinostheim, Germany) software and the ESIRIS flying spot excimer laser system (SCHWIND) were used to perform the ablations. Refractive outcomes and wavefront data are reported up to 4 years after retreatment. Pre- and postoperative data were compared with Student t tests and (multivariate) correlation tests. P<.05 was considered statistically significant. A bilinear correlation of various postoperative wavefront aberrations versus planned correction and preoperative aberration was performed. Mean manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) before retreatment was -0.38±1.85 diopters (D) and -0.09±0.22 D at 6 months and -0.10±0.38 D at 4 years postoperatively. The reduction in MRSE was statistically significant at both postoperative time points (P<.005). Postoperative aberrations were statistically lower (spherical aberration P<.05; coma P<.005; root-mean-square higher order aberration P<.0001) at 4 years postoperatively. Distribution of the postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (P<.0001) and corrected distance visual acuity (P<.01) were statistically better than preoperative values. Aspheric corneal wavefront customization with the ESIRIS yields visual, optical, and refractive results comparable to those of other wavefront-guided customized techniques for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. The corneal wavefront customized approach shows its strength in cases where abnormal optical systems are expected. Systematic wavefront customized corneal ablation appears safe and efficacious for retreatment cases. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters in myopic population using scanning laser polarimetry (GDxVCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Aggarwal, A; Bali, S J; Sharma, A; Shah, B M; Angmo, D; Panda, A

    2013-01-01

    Myopia presents a significant challenge to the ophthalmologist as myopic discs are often large, tilted, with deep cups and have a thinner neuroretinal rim all of which may mimic glaucomatous optic nerve head changes causing an error in diagnosis. To evaluate the retinal fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in low, moderate and high myopia using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). One hundred eyes of 100 emmetropes, 30 eyes of low myopes (0 to - 4 D spherical equivalent(SE), 45 eyes with moderate myopia (- 4 to - 8D SE), and 30 eyes with high myopia (- 8 to - 15D SE) were subjected to retinal nerve fiber layer assessment using the scanning laser polarimetry (GDxVCC) in all subjects using the standard protocol. Subjects with IOP > 21 mm Hg, optic nerve head or visual field changes suggestive of glaucoma were excluded from the study. The major outcome parameters were temporal-superior-nasal-inferiortemporal (TSNIT) average, the superior and inferior average and the nerve fibre indicator (NFI). The TSNIT average (p = 0.009), superior (p = 0.001) and inferior average (p = 0.008) were significantly lower; the NFI was higher (P less than 0.001) in moderate myopes as compared to that in emmetropes. In high myopia the RNFL showed supranormal values; the TSNIT average, superior and inferior average was significantly higher(p less than 0.001) as compared to that in emmetropes. The RNFL measurements on scanning laser polarimetry are affected by the myopic refractive error. Moderate myopes show a significant thinning of the RNFL. In high myopia due to peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy and contribution of scleral birefringence, the RNFL values are abnormally high. These findings need to be taken into account while assessing and monitoring glaucoma damage in moderate to high myopes on GDxVCC. © NEPjOPH.

  7. Prevalência do astigmatismo e distribuição de seu eixo em pacientes de um serviço oftalmológico privado Prevalence of astigmatism and its axis in an ophthalmology private clinic

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    Tatiana Rocha Rayes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência do astigmatismo e a variação de seu eixo nas várias faixas etárias (2-99 anos em uma população de uma clínica oftalmológica privada na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, transversal com base na análise de prontuários. Foi considerado astigmatismo uma diferença entre o maior e menor meridiano da córnea de -0,50 dioptrias(D ou mais. Quanto ao eixo, consideramos: astigmatismo a favor da regra: entre 160º e 20º ; astigmatismo oblíquo: entre 21º e 69º e entre 111º e 159º ; astigmatismo contra a regra: entre 70º e 110º . Os dados apresentados e analisados se referem à refração efetivamente prescrita para o paciente. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 20.866 olhos astigmatas (47,6% - Intervalo de Confiança IC 95% - 47,1-48. O eixo do astigmatismo se apresentou a favor da regra em 9574 olhos (45,9% IC 95% 45,2-46,6, oblíquo em 3893 olhos (18,7% IC 95% 18,1-19,2, e contra a regra em 7399 olhos (35,5% IC 95% 34,8-36,1. Verificou-se que a distribuição do astigmatismo oblíquo permanece linear no avançar da idade, enquanto há uma inversão do eixo do cilindro, de a favor para contra a regra com o tempo. CONCLUSÃO: Ficou bem evidenciada neste trabalho a marcante mudança do eixo do astigmatismo com o avançar da idade. Não encontramos relação entre o grau das ametropias e o eixo do astigmatismo.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of astigmatism and the change of the axis according to the age in an ophthalmology private clinic population in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out based on the analyses of medical files. Astigmatism was classified as a cylindrical equivalent <-0,5 diopter (D. Astigmatism with the rule was defined as 160° to 20° , oblique astigmatism as 21° to 69° and 111° to 159° , and astigmatism against the

  8. Quantification of Macular Vascular Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Its Relationship with Retinal Thickness in Myopic Eyes of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantify macular vascular density using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA and to investigate its relationship with retinal thickness in myopic eyes of young adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 268 myopic eyes without pathological changes were recruited and divided into three groups: mild myopia (n=81, moderate myopia (n=117, and high myopia (n=70. Macular vascular density was quantified by OCTA and compared among three groups. Average retinal thickness, central subfield thickness, and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness were also evaluated and compared. Correlations among these variables were analyzed. Results. There was no statistical difference in superficial (62.3 ± 5.7% versus 62.7 ± 5.9% versus 63.8 ± 5.5% and deep macular vascular densities (58.3 ± 9.6% versus 59.2 ± 9.3% versus 60.9 ± 7.9% among mild-myopia, moderate-myopia, and high-myopia groups (both P>0.05. Superficial and deep macular vascular densities both had correlations with mean arterial pressure. Furthermore, superficial macular vascular density was significantly correlated with mGCC thickness. Conclusions. Varying degrees of myopia did not affect macular vascular density in young healthy adults. In addition, superficial macular vascular density, as an independent factor, was positively correlated with mGCC thickness.

  9. Extended wavelet transformation to digital holographic reconstruction: application to the elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, Clément; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Brunel, Marc; Lebrun, Denis

    2013-02-01

    Wavelet analysis provides an efficient tool in numerous signal processing problems and has been implemented in optical processing techniques, such as in-line holography. This paper proposes an improvement of this tool for the case of an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian (AEG) beam. We show that this mathematical operator allows reconstructing an image of a spherical particle without compression of the reconstructed image, which increases the accuracy of the 3D location of particles and of their size measurement. To validate the performance of this operator we have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle illuminated by an AEG beam. This study used mutual intensity propagation, and the particle is defined as a chirped Gaussian sum. The proposed technique was applied and the experimental results are presented.

  10. Posição viciosa de cabeça por astigmatismo mal corrigido: relato de caso Abnormal head position caused by incorrect prescription for astigmatism: case report

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    Flávia Augusta Attié de Castro

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A posição viciosa de cabeça é uma condição compensatória que visa proporcionar aos pacientes melhor rendimento visual. Pode ser causada por problemas oftalmológicos, como distúrbios oculomotores (nistagmos, estrabismos e altos astigmatismos. No entanto, compromete a estética e, a longo prazo, pode causar transtornos ortopédicos (coluna cervical e assimetrias faciais. Relatamos o caso de uma garota, JL, 8 anos, com cabeça inclinada para esquerda havia vários anos. Fazia uso de óculos prescritos em outro serviço para correção de astigmatismo misto: OD= +2,00 DE Ç -5,50 DC a 180º e OE= +2,25 DE Ç -5,75 DC a 180º. No exame oftálmico, a paciente apresentava cabeça inclinada para a esquerda e acuidade visual com correção de 0,5 no OD e 0,7 OE. Os testes de cobertura simples e alternado não evidenciaram desvio ocular. Rotações oculares, biomicroscopia e fundoscopia também não mostraram alterações. Na refratometria sob cicloplegia e teste de lentes foram encontrados: OD= +3,50 DE Ç -6,00 DC a 10º e OE= +3,50 DE Ç -6,00 DC a 170º, com acuidade visual igual a 1,0 nos olhos direito e esquerdo. Foram prescritas as lentes encontradas no exame e a paciente retornou com a correção nova sem a inclinação de cabeça. Erros refracionais mal corrigidos também podem gerar torcicolo e, muitas vezes, passam despercebidos. Refratometria sob cicloplegia e teste de lentes são fundamentais para um diagnóstico preciso.Abnormal head position is a compensatory condition which improves patients' vision. It can be caused by ophthalmological problems such as oculomotor imbalances (strabismus, nystagmus and high astigmatisms. However, it results in esthetic impairment, orthopedic trouble and facial asymmetries. We describe a case of a girl, JL, 8 years, with abnormal head position tilted to the left since the last glasses were prescribed. The correction used by the patient was: right eye = +2.00 sph à -5.5 cyl 180° and left eye = +2

  11. [Cyclorotation of the eye in wavefront-guided LASIK using a static eyetracker with iris recognition].

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    Kohnen, T; Kühne, C; Cichocki, M; Strenger, A

    2007-01-01

    Centration of the ablation zone decisively influences the result of wavefront-guided LASIK. Cyclorotation of the eye occurs as the patient changes from the sitting position during aberrometry to the supine position during laser surgery and may lead to induction of lower and higher order aberrations. Twenty patients (40 eyes) underwent wavefront-guided LASIK (B&L 217z 100 excimer laser) with a static eyetracker driven by iris recognition (mean preoperative SE: -4.72+/-1.45 D; range: -1.63 to -7.00 D). The iris patterns of the patients' eyes were memorized during aberrometry and after flap creation. The mean absolute value of the measured cyclorotation was -1.5+/-4.2 degrees (range: -11.0 to 6.9 degrees ). The mean cyclorotation was 3.5+/-2.7 masculine (range: 0.1 to 11.0 degrees ). In 65% of all eyes cyclorotation was >2 masculine. A static eyetracker driven by iris recognition demonstrated that cyclorotation of up to 11 degrees may occur in myopic and myopic astigmatic eyes when changing from a sitting to a supine position. Use of static eyetrackers with iris recognition may provide a more precise positioning of the ablation profile as they detect and compensate cyclorotation.

  12. A study of fundus status in myopia

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    Christina Samuel, Sundararajan D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important sensory organ for a human is the eye. Any damage to the retina can cause diminution or loss of vision. One of the most important refractive errors of the eye is Myopia apart from hypermetropia and astigmatism. It is one of the commonest conditions seen in everyday practice. Myopic degeneration is one of the common causes of decreased visual acuity. Aim: The aim of this clinical study is to observe the fundus changes associated with Myopia. Methods: A prospective study of 100 cases of myopia were included in this study. Detailed anterior segment and good posterior segment examination after achieving mydriasis was done with a direct ophthalmoscope and indirect ophthalmoscope with 20D lens. Result: In our study, we found that males were more commonly affected than females with myopia (54%. 50% of the cases affected belonged to the student community. 53.68% had positive changes in the retina suggestive of degenerative changes in the fundus. Conclusion: Degenerative changes of fundus are most commonly seen in myopic patients of which Tessellated fundus was about 90.20%. Vitreous degenerative changes for 70.59%. Crescent formation was 87.25%. Dull foveal reflex in 82.35% and lattice degeneration accounted for 40%.

  13. A prospective bilateral comparison of epi-LASIK and LASEK for myopia.

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    Hondur, Ahmet; Bilgihan, Kamil; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2008-11-01

    To compare the clinical and confocal microscopic results of mechanical (epi-LASIK) versus alcohol-assisted laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) for the correction of myopia. Twenty-five patients with myopia received epi-LASIK in one eye and LASEK in the other. The difference of spherical equivalent refraction of myopia and astigmatism was less than 1.00 diopter (D) in two eyes of each case. Mechanical separation of the epithelium was performed with the Lasitome epithelial separator and alcohol-assisted separation with 25 second application of 18% alcohol. Ablation was performed with the ESIRIS laser. Patients were seen daily until epithelial closure, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Time to epithelial healing, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), manifest refraction, haze, and grey scale value in confocal microscopy were recorded. Preoperative myopic spherical equivalent refraction was -3.95+/-1.49 D in the epi-LASIK and -3.91+/-1.39 D in the LASEK-treated eyes. The mean time to epithelial healing was slightly longer after epi-LASIK (4.86+/-0.64 vs 4.18+/-0.58 days). Of both epi-LASIK and LASEK-treated eyes, 92% achieved 20/20 or better UCVA and were within +/-0.50 D of emmetropia at 12 months. The grade of haze and mean grey scale value in confocal microscopy were similar in epi-LASIK and LASEK-treated eyes at all postoperative periods. One eye treated with epi-LASIK suffered a minor stromal cut. Epi-LASIK and LASEK offer effective correction of myopia with comparable results at 1 year.

  14. Six-month clinical outcomes after hyperopic correction with the SCHWIND AMARIS Total-Tech laser

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    Arbelaez, María Clara; Vidal, Camila; Arba Mosquera, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative clinical outcomes, and corneal High Order Aberrations, among eyes with hyperopia up to +5 D of spherical equivalent, that have undergone LASIK treatments using the SCHWIND AMARIS laser system. Methods At six-month follow-up, 100 eyes with preoperative hyperopia or hyperopic astigmatism up to +5 D of spherical equivalent were retrospectively analysed. Standard examinations, pre- and postoperative wavefront analysis with a corneal-wavefront-analyzer (OPTIKON Scout) were performed. Aberration-Free aspheric treatments were planned with Custom Ablation Manager software and ablations performed using the SCHWIND AMARIS flying-spot excimer laser system (both SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions). LASIK flaps were created using a LDV femtosecond laser (Ziemer Group) in all cases. Clinical outcomes were evaluated in terms of predictability, refractive outcome, safety, and wavefront aberration. Results At six month, 90 % of eyes achieved ≥ 20/25 UCVA and 44 % achieved ≥ 20/16 UCVA. Seventy-four percent of eyes were within ± 0.25D of spherical equivalent and 89 % within ± 0.50D, with 94 % within 0.50D of astigmatism. Mean spherical equivalent was −0.12 ± 0.51D and 0.50 ± 0.51D for the astigmatism. Fifty-two percent of eyes improved BSCVA vs. only 19 % losing lines of BSCVA. Predictability slope for refraction was 1.03 and intercept +0.01 D. On average, negative corneal spherical aberrations were significantly increased by the treatments, no other aberration terms changed from pre- to postoperative values. Conclusions LASIK for hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism with SCHWIND AMARIS yields very satisfactory visual outcomes. Preoperative refractions were postoperatively reduced to subclinical values with no clinically relevant induction of corneal HOA.

  15. Can the Bruckner test be used as a rapid screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children?

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    Kothari Mihir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the suitability of Brückner test as a screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children. Materials and Methods: A pediatric ophthalmologist prospectively observed the size and location of pupillary crescent on Brückner test as hyperopic, myopic or astigmatic. This was compared with the cycloplegic refraction. Detailed ophthalmic examination was done for all. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Brückner test were determined for the defined cutoff levels of ametropia. Results: Ninety-six subjects were examined. Mean age was 8.6 years (range 1 to 16 years. Brückner test could be completed for all; the time taken to complete this test was 10 seconds per subject. The ophthalmologist identified 131 eyes as ametropic, 61 as emmetropic. The Brückner test had sensitivity 91%, specificity 72.8%, positive predictive value 85.5% and negative predictive value 83.6%. Of 10 false negatives four had compound hypermetropic astigmatism and three had myopia. Conclusions: Brückner test can be used to rapidly screen the children for significant refractive errors. The potential benefits from such use may be maximized if programs use the test with lower crescent measurement cutoffs, a crescent measurement ruler and a distance fixation target.

  16. Correção cirúrgica da esotropia progressiva do alto míope pela técnica de Yamada: relato de dois casos Surgical correction of progressive high myopic esotropia by Yamada's technique: report of two cases

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    Fábio Ejzenbaum

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A "esotropia fixa progressiva" se apresenta como um quadro de esotropia progressiva, em adultos altos míopes, que aumenta até que os olhos fiquem fixos numa esotropia de grande ângulo, geralmente associada a hipotropia, e que tem fracos resultados cirúrgicos. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a abordagem cirúrgica de 2 pacientes com "esotropia fixa adquirida progressiva" que foram operados segundo a técnica de Yamada (hemitransposição dos retos lateral e superior, e obtiveram bom resultado pós-operatório."Progressive esotropia fixus" is a disease present in high myopic patients with a large angle esotropia associated with hypotropia with poor surgical results. This paper has the purpose to describe Yamada's surgical technique (hemitranspositions of the superior rectus and lateral rectus applied to 2 patients with good surgical results.

  17. Modelling lifetime cost consequences of toric compared with standard IOLs in cataract surgery of astigmatic patients in four European countries.

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    Laurendeau, C; Lafuma, A; Berdeaux, G

    2009-09-01

    To compare the lifetime costs of freeing astigmatic patients from spectacles after bilateral cataract surgery implanting toric intraocular lenses (IOLs: i.e., Acrysof Toric) versus monofocal IOLs, in France, Italy, Germany and Spain. A Markov model followed patient cohorts from cataract surgery until death. Prevalence rates of patients not needing spectacles and the types of spectacles prescribed for those requiring them were obtained from clinical trials and national surveys. The economic perspective was societal. Mortality rates were incorporated into the model. Discount rates were applied. A sensitivity analysis was performed on non-discounted costs. Fewer patients with toric IOLs needed spectacles for distance vision than patients with monofocal IOLs. With monofocal IOLs more than 66% of patients needed complex spectacles compared to less than 25% implanted with toric IOLs. In France and Italy, toric IOLs reduced overall costs relative to otherwise high spectacle costs after cataract surgery. Savings were 897.0 euros (France), 822.5 euros (Germany), 895.8 euros (Italy) and 391.6 euros (Spain), without discounting. On applying a 3% discount rate the costs became 691.7 euros, 646.4 euros, 693.9 euros and 308.2 euros, respectively. Bilateral toric IOL implants in astigmatic patients decreased spectacle dependence for distance vision and the need for complex spectacles. The economic consequences for patients depended on the national spectacle costs usually incurred after cataract surgery.

  18. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens for the surgical correction of aphakia in cases with microspherophakia

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    Sameh Mosaad Fouda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of retropupillary fixation of an iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL; Verisyse polymethyl methacrylate IOL, Abbott Medical Optics [AMO], Netherlands for the surgical correction of aphakia in microspherophakic eyes without sufficient capsular support. Design: This was a prospective, interventional, noncomparative case series. Methods: This interventional case series comprised 17 eyes of 9 microspherophakic patients. Retropupillary fixation of the Verisyse iris-claw IOL (AMO was performed in all cases. The surgical time was measured. Corrected distance visual acuity, astigmatism, intraocular pressure (IOP, tissue reaction, pigment dispersion, and stability of the IOL were studied 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Eight patients had familial microspherophakia and one patient had Marfan's syndrome. Eighty-two percent of the cases achieved a visual acuity of 0.3 or better. There was no significant postoperative inflammatory reaction. Transient elevation of IOP was recorded in two cases in the 1st week only. One IOL developed disengagement of one of the haptics from the iris and was successfully re-engaged. All the other IOLs were well centered and stable. The mean surgical time was 18.0 ± 4.5 min. Conclusions: Retropupillary fixation of an iris-claw IOL is a safe and effective procedure that provides early visual recovery. It is also a time-saving method for correcting aphakia in microspherophakic eyes without sufficient capsular support.

  19. Refractive error magnitude and variability: Relation to age.

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    Irving, Elizabeth L; Machan, Carolyn M; Lam, Sharon; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Lillakas, Linda

    2018-03-19

    To investigate mean ocular refraction (MOR) and astigmatism, over the human age range and compare severity of refractive error to earlier studies from clinical populations having large age ranges. For this descriptive study patient age, refractive error and history of surgery affecting refraction were abstracted from the Waterloo Eye Study database (WatES). Average MOR, standard deviation of MOR and astigmatism were assessed in relation to age. Refractive distributions for developmental age groups were determined. MOR standard deviation relative to average MOR was evaluated. Data from earlier clinically based studies with similar age ranges were compared to WatES. Right eye refractive errors were available for 5933 patients with no history of surgery affecting refraction. Average MOR varied with age. Children <1 yr of age were the most hyperopic (+1.79D) and the highest magnitude of myopia was found at 27yrs (-2.86D). MOR distributions were leptokurtic, and negatively skewed. The mode varied with age group. MOR variability increased with increasing myopia. Average astigmatism increased gradually to age 60 after which it increased at a faster rate. By 85+ years it was 1.25D. J 0 power vector became increasingly negative with age. J 45 power vector values remained close to zero but variability increased at approximately 70 years. In relation to comparable earlier studies, WatES data were most myopic. Mean ocular refraction and refractive error distribution vary with age. The highest magnitude of myopia is found in young adults. Similar to prevalence, the severity of myopia also appears to have increased since 1931. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Laser thermokeratoplasty in the treatment of hyperopia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, I L; Pashtaev, N P; Suslikov, S V

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness, safety, and stability of multimodality treatment for hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism complicated by amblyopia and anisometropia were studied in 117 patients (117 eyes) aged 9 to 16 years, by using the new laser units "Lik-100" and "Glasser" at 1.54 microm. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1) 43 patients (43 eyes) with hyperopia, spheric anisometropia and amblyopia; 2) 38 patients (38 eyes) with hyperopia, simple and complicated hyperopic astigmatism, astigmatic anisometropia, and amblyopia; 3) 36 patients (36 eyes) with hyperopia, simple and complicated hyperopic astigmatism, mixed anisometropia, and amblyopia. All the groups underwent multimodality treatment involving laser thermokeratoplasty and drug therapy for amblyopia. In children and adolescents, the refraction effect was 2.99 and 3.61 (mean 3.37 +/- 0.60) diopters, respectively. Astigmatism diminished by 2.01 diopters (63%) in children and by 2.62 diopters (79%) in adolescents (mean 2/35 diopters). The predictability of a refraction effect in the range of +/- 0.5 diopters averaged 77% in all the groups. Anisometropia diminished by an average of 2.88 +/- 0.8 diopters, which was 85% of the baseline data (the upper range of residual refraction was not more than 1.5 diopters. In all the groups, uncorrectable visual acuity increased by an average of 0.36 diopters (0.43 and 0.4 diopters in children and adolescents, respectively); correctable visual acuity increased by an average of 0.22 diopters (0.36 and 0.31 diopters in children and adolescents, respectively). Loss of correctable visual acuity lines did not greater than 2.7% (5 eyes). That of endothelial cells was not more than 6-8%. The angle of squint strabismus could be decreased or corrected in 79% after treatment. Binocular vision restored in 57%.

  1. Correction of refractive errors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research.

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    Mitchell, Jude F; Boisvert, Chantal J; Reuter, Jon D; Reynolds, John H; Leblanc, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    Macaques are the most common animal model for studies in vision research, and due to their high value as research subjects, often continue to participate in studies well into old age. As is true in humans, visual acuity in macaques is susceptible to refractive errors. Here we report a case study in which an aged macaque demonstrated clear impairment in visual acuity according to performance on a demanding behavioral task. Refraction demonstrated bilateral myopia that significantly affected behavioral and visual tasks. Using corrective lenses, we were able to restore visual acuity. After correction of myopia, the macaque's performance on behavioral tasks was comparable to that of a healthy control. We screened 20 other male macaques to assess the incidence of refractive errors and ocular pathologies in a larger population. Hyperopia was the most frequent ametropia but was mild in all cases. A second macaque had mild myopia and astigmatism in one eye. There were no other pathologies observed on ocular examination. We developed a simple behavioral task that visual research laboratories could use to test visual acuity in macaques. The test was reliable and easily learned by the animals in 1 d. This case study stresses the importance of screening macaques involved in visual science for refractive errors and ocular pathologies to ensure the quality of research; we also provide simple methodology for screening visual acuity in these animals.

  2. Myopic shift and outdoor activity among primary school children: one-year follow-up study in Beijing.

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    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess whether a change in myopia related oculometric parameters of primary school children in Beijing was associated with indoors and outdoors activity. METHODS: The longitudinal school-based study included school children who were examined in 2011 and who were re-examined in 2012. The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including ocular biometry by optical low-coherence reflectometry and non-cycloplegic refractometry. Parents and children had a detailed interview including questions on time spent indoors and outdoors. RESULTS: Out of 681 students examined at baseline, 643 (94.4% returned for follow-up examination. Within the one-year period, mean time spent daily outdoors increased by 0.4±0.9 hours, mean axial length by 0.26±0.49 mm, the ratio of axial length divided by anterior corneal curvature (AL/CC by 0.03±0.06, and myopic refractive error by -0.06±0.89 diopters. In multivariate analysis, elongation of axial length was significantly associated with less total time spent outdoors (P = 0.02; standardized coefficient beta -0.12 and more time spent indoors with studying (P = 0.007; beta: 0.14 after adjustment for maternal myopia (P = 0.02; beta: 0.12. An increase in AL/CC was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors (P = 0.01; beta:-0.12 after adjustment for paternal myopia (P = 0.003; beta: 0.15 and if region of habitation was excludedors for leisure (P = 0.006; beta:-0.13, with less total time spent outdoors (P = 0.04; beta:-0.10, or with more time spent i. An increase in myopic refractive error, after adjustment for age, was significantly associated with less time spent outdo ndoors with studying (P = 0.005; beta: 0.13. CONCLUSIONS: A change in oculometric parameters indicating an increase in myopia was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors and more time spent indoors in school children in Greater Beijing within a study period of one year. Our

  3. Choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula in highly myopic eyes: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Dell'Arti, Laura; Benatti, Eleonora; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Mapelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Fabio; Ratiglia, Roberto; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Barteselli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    To describe choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula associated with high myopia using fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and to elucidate the mechanism and natural course of serous retinal detachment (RD) associated with dome-shaped macula. Retrospective, observational case series. We reviewed longitudinal imaging results of 52 highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula. Changes on FA and ICGA were assessed. Retinal, choroidal, and scleral thicknesses and bulge height were measured on SD OCT. Serous RD was the most common abnormality associated with dome-shaped macula, detected by SD OCT in 44% of the cases with no associated choroidal neovascularization. Significant differences in the proportion of eyes with pinpoint leakage on FA (P macula was likely caused by choroidal vascular changes, similar to central serous chorioretinopathy, but specifically confined in the inward bulge of the staphyloma and secondary to excessive scleral thickening. Serous retinal detachment showed fluctuating changes over time, with alternating active and inactive stages. Angiographic findings in dome-shaped macula suggest the choroid as a target for possible treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Myopia and radial keratotomy: a survey among Norwegian ophthalmologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midelfart, A

    1990-10-01

    One hundred and eighty-nine of 200 ophthalmologists in Norway responded to a survey requesting them to report their age, sex, refractive state, use of corrective lenses, and if myopic, their view on radial keratotomy as a possible method to correct their own myopia. According to the answers, 32 (17%) females and 154 (82%) males, with mean age of 49 years, were registered. The reported refractive state was 26.5% emmetropy and 72.0% ametropy. The prevalence of myopia was 45%. The mean refractive status (equivalent sphere) in the right eye was -1.02 +/- 2.28 D with a range from -8.5 D to +7.25 D (n = 184). Of the ametropes, 64.8% used spectacles, 15.3% used both spectacles and contact lenses, whilst 3.6% used only contact lenses for distance vision. With the exception of one, all myopes used corrective lenses. Only 2 myopic ophthalmologists responded positively to the question of whether they would consider having radial keratotomy to correct their own myopia.

  5. Six-month clinical outcomes after hyperopic correction with the SCHWIND AMARIS Total-Tech laser

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    María Clara Arbelaez

    2010-10-01

    Conclusions: LASIK for hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism with SCHWIND AMARIS yields very satisfactory visual outcomes. Preoperative refractions were postoperatively reduced to subclinical values with no clinically relevant induction of corneal HOA.

  6. Hartmann tests to measure the spherical and cylindrical curvatures and the axis orientation of astigmatic lenses or optical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gómez, Geovanni; Malacara-Hernández, Zacarías; Malacara-Hernández, Daniel

    2014-02-20

    The measurement of astigmatic lenses, optical surfaces or wavefronts are a highly studied problem and many different instruments have been commercially fabricated to perform this task. Many of them use a Hartmann arrangement to obtain the result. In this paper, we analyze with detail the algorithms that can be used to make the necessary calculations and propose several alternatives with different advantages and disadvantages. Different mathematical algorithms that are involved in the calculation process have been given whereas any description of the instrument itself is not proposed, but only the different mathematical algorithms that are involved in the calculation process.

  7. Negative effects of transthyretin in high myopic vitreous on diabetic retinopathy

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    Jun Shao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between vitreous transthyretin (TTR levels, high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR. METHODS: We selected 6722 individuals from the southern Jiangsu Province for diabetes and ophthalmic examinations. The TTR concentration in the vitreous of 50 patients with high myopia and diabetes, 50 patients with only DR, and 20 healthy controls were determined by ELISA. Key factors in Tie2 pathway in DR development including vascular endothecial growth factor (VEGF, Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 1 and VEGFR2 were also detected by ELISA. RESULTS: The prevalence of DR in patients with diabetes and myopia [6.00 D, and diabetes without myopia were 11.1%, 2.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. The vitreous TTR concentration of patients with diabetes and high myopia was approximately 6.5- and 4.2-times higher than those of patients with DR and healthy controls, respectively (P<0.05. Following the vitreous TTR concentration, the levels of VEGF, Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in vitreous of diabetes and high myopia patients, DR patients and healthy controls were detected as dramatically fluctuated. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that TTR can affect the vitreous contents of key factors in Tie2 pathway for neovascularization, and there should be a protective association between abundant TTR levels in the vitreous of highly myopic patients and a decreased risk of DR.

  8. Changes in refractive characteristics in Japanese children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Junna; Kaneko, Hiroki; Takayama, Kei; Tuzuki, Kinichi; Kakihara, Hiroko; Iwami, Miou; Kawase, Yoshikatsu; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Yamaguchi, Naoko; Nonobe, Norie; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the refractive characteristics of Japanese children with Down syndrome. Retrospective study. The clinical records of refractive errors and ocular manifestations in children with Down syndrome who visited the Aichi Children's Health and Medical Center between November 2001 and January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The children were divided into the 3 following groups depending on their age: group 1 (≤ 6 years), group 2 (7-12 years), and group 3 (13-19 years). The collection of refractive error data was performed only for the right eyes and only once for each child, when the children were last examined with their pupils dilated. The study included 416 children (224 boys, 192 girls; average age, 6.1 ± 4.1 years). Group 3 had significantly stronger myopia than did groups 1 and 2. The mean cylindrical power in all the children was - 2.1 ± 1.2 diopters (D), and cylindrical power ≤ - 1.0 D (stronger than - 1.0 D) was seen in 366 eyes (88%). No significant difference in cylindrical power was found among the 3 groups. The spherical equivalent refraction showed an age-dependent myopic shift. Given that the amount of astigmatism did not show age-dependent differences, the age-dependent myopic shift could be due mainly to the change in spherical power.

  9. Calculation of Unknown Preoperative K Readings in Postrefractive Surgery Patients

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    Nicola Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the unknown preoperative K readings (Kpre to be used in history-based methods, for intraocular lens (IOL power calculation in patients who have undergone myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Methods. A regression formula generated from the left eyes of 174 patients who had undergone PRK for myopia or for myopic astigmatism was compared with other methods in 168 right eyes. The Pearson index and paired t-test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results. The differences between Kpre and those obtained with the other methods were as follows: 0.61 ± 0.94 D (range: −3.94 to 2.05 D, p<0.01 subtracting the effective treatment, 0.01 ± 0.86 D (range: −2.61 to 2.34 D, p=0.82 with Rosa’s formula, −0.02 ± 1.31 D (range: −3.43 to 3.68 D, p=0.82 with the current study formula, and −0.43 ± 1.40 D (range: −3.98 to 3.12 D, p<0.01 utilizing a mean K (Km of 43.5 D. Conclusions. These formulas may permit the utilization of history-based methods, that is, the double-K method in calculating the IOL power following PRK when Kpre are unknown.

  10. Decentration of optical zone center and its impact on visual outcomes following SMILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Manli; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Danyang; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Yugui; Zheng, Hua; Liu, Quan

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate decentration from pupil center and corneal vertex normal following femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for the treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. This study evaluated 101 eyes of 101 patients with a spherical equivalent (SE) of -5.30 ± 1.72 diopters (D). Decentration was measured in the pupil-centered group (PC group) by video capture images and in the vertex normal-centered group (VNC group) using the WaveLight Oculyzer II (Alcon). The PC and VNC groups were further divided into 4 subgroups (1 PC, 2 PC and 1 VNC, 2 VNC) based on the displacement of the lenticule center. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities, manifest refraction, and wavefront errors were measured preoperatively, and at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Regarding efficacy and safety, at 6 months postoperatively, 65, 71, 83, and 53% of eyes had unchanged corrected distance visual acuity in 1 PC, 1 VNC, 2 PC and 2 VNC groups, respectively. Also, 97, 98, 100, and 97% of treated eyes had a postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity 20/20 or better in the subgroups, respectively. In the groups mentioned above, 96, 100, 100, and 95% of eyes, respectively, were within ±0.5 D of the targeted SE. In terms of total higher-order aberrations, the 1 PC group was significantly higher than the 1 VNC group (P = 0.04), whereas the 2 VNC group was significantly higher than the 2 PC group (P = 0.02). Our results demonstrate that better refractive outcomes will be achieved when the lenticule center is closer to the corneal vertex normal.

  11. Mild decentration measured by a Scheimpflug camera and its impact on visual quality following SMILE in the early learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiyan; Zhao, Jing; Miao, Huamao; Shen, Yang; Sun, Ling; Tian, Mi; Wadium, Elizabeth; Zhou, Xingtao

    2014-05-20

    To measure decentration following femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism in the early learning curve, and to investigate its impact on visual quality. A total of 55 consecutive patients (100 eyes) who underwent the SMILE procedure were included. Decentration was measured using a Scheimpflug camera 6 months after surgery. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, CDVA), manifest refraction, and wavefront errors were also measured. Associations between decentration and the preoperative spherical equivalent were analyzed, as well as the associations between decentration and wavefront aberrations. Regarding efficacy and safety, 40 eyes (40%) had an unchanged CDVA; 32 eyes (32%) gained one line; and 11 eyes (11%) gained two lines. Fifteen eyes (15%) lost one line of CDVA, and two eyes (2%) lost two lines. Ninety-nine of the treated eyes (99%) had a postoperative UDVA better than 1.0, and 100 eyes (100%) had a UDVA better than 0.8. The mean decentered displacement was 0.17 ± 0.09 mm. The decentered displacement of all treated eyes (100%) was within 0.50 mm; 70 eyes (70%) were within 0.20 mm; and 90 eyes (90%) were within 0.30 mm. The vertical coma showed the greatest increase in magnitude. The magnitude of horizontal decentration was found to be associated with an induced horizontal coma. This study suggests that, although mild decentration occurred in the early learning curve, good visual outcomes were achieved after the SMILE surgery. Special efforts to minimize induced vertical coma are necessary. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. New Refractive Surgery Procedures and Their Implications for Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawara, Van B; Wood, Kathryn J; Montgomery, Ron W

    2006-01-01

    ...., myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) with corrective surgery. Prior Federal Aviation Administration research studies have shown that the number of civil airmen with refractive surgery continues to increase...

  13. Quantitative evaluation of changes in eyeball shape in emmetropization and myopic changes based on elliptic fourier descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kotaro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2011-11-04

    To evaluate changes in eyeball shape in emmetropization and myopic changes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and elliptic Fourier descriptors (EFDs). The subjects were 105 patients (age range, 1 month-19 years) who underwent head MRI. The refractive error was determined in 30 patients, and eyeball shape was expressed numerically by principal components analysis of standardized EFDs. In the first principal component (PC1; the oblate-to-prolate change), the proportion of variance/total variance in the development of the eyeball shape was 76%. In all subjects, PC1 showed a significant correlation with age (Pearson r = -0.314; P = 0.001), axial length (AL, r = -0.378; P eyeball shape from oblate to prolate was clarified by quantitative analysis based on EFDs. The results showed clear differences between age groups with regard to changes in the shape of the eyeball, the correlation between these changes, and refractive status changes.

  14. Customized photorefractive keratectomy to correct high ametropia after penetrating keratoplasty: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Our pilot study suggests that customized PRK can be a safe and effective method for treating ametropia and irregular astigmatisms after PK. Future studies with larger samples and longer follow-ups should be performed to confirm these results.

  15. Astigmatism-free high-brightness 1060 nm edge-emitting lasers with narrow circular beam profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Jarez; Kalosha, Vladimir P; Bimberg, Dieter; Pohl, Johannes; Weyers, Markus

    2016-12-26

    1060 nm high-brightness vertical broad-area edge-emitting lasers providing anastigmatic high optical power into a narrow circular beam profile are demonstrated. Ridge-waveguide (RW) lasers yield record 2.2 W single-transverse mode power in the 1060-nm wavelength range under continuous-wave (cw) operation at room temperature with excellent beam quality factor M2 ≤ 2. Independent of operating current the astigmatism is only 2.5 µm. 3 mm long broad-area (BA) lasers produce a θvert as narrow as 9° full width at half maximum, which agrees well with our simulation results, being insensitive to drive current. 5 mm long BA lasers deliver highest ever reported cw 12 W multimode output power among lasers showing θvert <10° in the 1060-nm wavelength range. The emitted laser beams from both RW and BA lasers show a perfect circular shape with ≤10° divergence angle at record 2.1 W and 4.2 W cw-mode output power, respectively.

  16. The Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial: lessons from the study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, L; Gwiazda, J

    2004-01-01

    The Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET), a multicentre clinical trial based in 4 schools of optometry in the United States, evaluated the effect of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on myopia progression in an ethnically diverse group of 469 myopic children aged 6 to 11 years. Completion of the clinical trial phase of the study provides an opportunity to evaluate aspects of the study design that contribute to its success. This article describes aspects of the study design that were influential in ensuring the smooth conduct of COMET. These include a dedicated team of investigators, an organisational structure with strong leadership and an independent Co-ordinating Centre, regular communication among investigators, flexible and creative approaches to recruitment and retention, sensitivity to concerns for child safety and child participation, and methods for enhancing and monitoring data reliability. The experience with COMET has provided a number of valuable lessons for all aspects of the study design that should benefit the development and implementation of future clinical trials, particularly those done in similar populations of children. The use of a carefully designed protocol using standard methods by dedicated members of the study team is essential in ensuring achievement of the study aims.

  17. Mudanças na refração após cirurgia de correção de esotropia Refractive changes following surgery for correction of esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo F. Gaal Vadas

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar o comportamento da refração e da curvatura corneana em pacientes com esotropia essencial submetidos à cirurgia monocular para correção do estrabismo. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo em que 42 olhos de 21 pacientes com esotropia essencial de ângulo moderado, sem quaisquer outros estrabismos associados, foram selecionados e submetidos ao exame oftalmológico completo e à cirurgia monocular. O olho contralateral serviu como grupo controle. Foram feitas avaliações de pré-operatório, pós-operatório de 1 mês e pós-operatório de 6 meses. O astigmatismo pré-operatório foi confrontado com os astigmatismos pós-operatórios por análise vetorial e cálculo do valor polar. Resultados: Obtivemos, nos olhos operados, redução significante (pPurpose: To evaluate changes in refraction and corneal curvature following surgery for correction of acquired esotropia. Methods: 42 eyes of 21 patients with acquired moderate angle esotropia without any other form of strabismus were prospectively enrolled and submitted to a complete ophthalmological examination followed by recess/resect procedure in a single eye. Data from the fellow eye were selected as control. Ophthalmological assessment was carried out preoperatively, 1 month after surgery and 6 months after surgery, where astigmatism was compared using vector analysis and the polar value concept. Results: The eyes submitted to surgery revealed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in spherical equivalent, from 3.28 ± 1.98 diopters to 3.05 ± 1.95 diopters. Refraction data disclosed a significant increase in the 90° component of net astigmatism, from 0.458 ± 0.594 diopters to 1.002 ± 0.718 diopters, which was also observed in keratometric readings:1.083 ± 0.560 diopters to 1.690 ± 0.591 diopters. Surgically induced astigmatism, assessed using refraction data was 0.63 ± 0.27 diopters at an average axis of 92.30 ± 14.91 degrees, and 0.71 ± 0.27 diopters at an average axis of 94.45

  18. Results of Posterior Chamber Lens Implantation for Correction of Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Sorgun Evcili

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the results of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation in myopic patients. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (STAAR ICL implantation was performed in 58 eyes of 33 patients with mean spherical equivalent of -13.12±5.31 diopters (D (-2.5 - -24.75 D between August 2007 and October 2010 at Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Second Eye Clinic. The mean age of the patients was 32.84 ± 9.95 years (18-55 years - 24 (72.7% were male and 9 (27.3% were female. The study was designed as prospective case series. The patients were evaluated regarding visual acuity, refraction, endothelial cell count, and complications in postoperative period. Re sults: The mean follow-up time was 21.5±4.9 (12-24 months months. The mean spherical equivalent was -1.29±1.53 D (-5.6 D - +2.60 D at the last postoperative follow-up visit. Visual acuity was better or equal to preoperative best-corrected value in 42 (72.4% of eyes at the last follow-up visit postoperatively. Mean spherical equivalent was regressed to -1.13±1.59D at 1-month and -1.39±1.53D at 24-month postoperative follow-up visit. Pupillary-block glaucoma in 1 eye (1.7%, anterior subcapsular opacification not affecting the vision in 4 eyes, and retinal detachment in 1 eye were detected at follow-up visits. Dis cus si on: ICL implantation was observed to be an effective and safe method for correction of myopia in two-year follow-up. As possible retinal complications may develop, the patients must be followed carefully during the preoperative and postoperative period. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 349-54

  19. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE CORRECTION OF ACCOMMODATION REFRACTION DISORDERS IN VISUALLY INTENSIVE LABOR PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Ovechkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased load on the visual analyzer of an operator, increase in everyday visual performance, universal introduction of information displaying on cathode-ray tubes result in temporary and stable visual disturbances. Accommodative refractive apparatus of an eye is one of the key points of application of visually intensive labor. Work associated with permanent eyestrain overloads oculomotor and accommodative apparatus thus provoking myopic shift, increase in dynamic refraction, exophoric or esophoric shift of initial visual equilibrium. Accommodation disorders are accompanied by changes in ciliary muscle blood supply, abnormalities of vegetative segment regulation, parasympathetic brain vascular dystonia due to the decreased tonus of sympathetic nervous system. Evaluation of certain kind of activity in terms of ergonomics includes examination of visual status and visual working capacity, development of visual professiograms and vision standards for certain professions, justification of methods and tools of visual work optimization. Visual disturbances in operators developing in the course of visually intensive occupational work should be considered from the viewpoint of traditional accommodation and refraction disorders as well as functional manifestations of general fatigue or thoracic cervical spine dysfunction. Symptoms of accommodative asthenopia can be regarded as a functional manifestation of general fatigue syndrome or functional neurosis. Development of multidisciplinary approach to the correction of accommodation refraction disorders in visually intensive labor persons is of scientific urgency and practical reasonability. There is a long-felt need in additional attraction of different specialists who use in their work physical factors for accommodative asthenopia correction. Development of multidisciplinary approach to accommodation refraction disorder correction in visually intensive labor persons is based on syndromic pathogenic

  20. OCULAR DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Suresh Joshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, an estimated 1.5-2.5% children below 2 years of age are developmentally delayed. A higher incidence of ocular disability is seen in these children, refractive errors and strabismus being most common. These can add to the overall burden of health as most of them have developmental comorbidities. The aim of the study is to study the ocular disorders in children with developmental delay. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 112 children between the 2-12 years of age diagnosed to have developmental delay. All the subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity testing using Snellen’s charts (3m and 6m and Log MAR charts (recorded as per Snellen’s vision testing to maintain uniformity, cycloplegic refraction, torchlight and slit-lamp evaluation and dilated fundus examination. The data was tabulated and represented using bar diagrams, Pie charts and graphs. The results were expressed as percentages. Design-Cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS 66 boys and 46 girls (total 112 were evaluated. The mean age of the study population was 7.8 years ± 2.4 SD. The aetiology of developmental delay was cerebral palsy (64%, Down syndrome (22%, autism (7%, intellectual disability (4.5% and 1 case each of congenital hypothyroidism and ataxia telangiectasia. The prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 84.8%, which was slightly higher in girls (87% as compared to boys (83%. Refractive error (79.5% was the commonest ocular disorder followed by strabismus (46.4%. Astigmatism (44.6% was the commonest refractive error, which was divided into myopic astigmatism (19.6%, hyperopic astigmatism (13.8% and mixed astigmatism (11.2%. Simple hyperopia was seen in 21.9% subjects and simple myopia in 12.1%. Exotropia (52% was commoner than esotropia (48%. Other ocular abnormalities included optic atrophy, nystagmus, epicanthal folds, cataract, mongoloid slant, ptosis, telecanthus, conjunctival telangiectasia and

  1. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya

    2012-06-19

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films. The axial position of the dye molecules across the thickness of the film was determined with a resolution of 12 nm by analyzing astigmatic fluorescence images. The average relaxation times of the rotating molecules do not depend on the overall thickness of the film between 20 and 110 nm. The relaxation times also do not show any dependence on the axial position within the films for the film thickness between 70 and 110 nm. In addition to the rotating molecules we observed a fraction of spatially diffusing molecules and completely immobile molecules. These molecules indicate the presence of thin (<5 nm) high-mobility surface layer and low-mobility layer at the interface with the substrate. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. LASIK and PRK in hyperopic astigmatic eyes: is early retreatment advisable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Andreas; Richard, Gisbert; Steinberg, Johannes; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Linke, Stephan Johannes; Katz, Toam

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the refractive and keratometric stability in hyperopic astigmatic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) during the first 6 months after surgery. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 97 hyperopic eyes; 55 were treated with LASIK and 42 with PRK. Excimer ablation for all eyes was performed using the ALLEGRETTO excimer laser platform using a mitomycin C for PRK and a mechanical microkeratome for LASIK. Keratometric and refractive data were analyzed during three consecutive follow-up intervals (6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months). The corneal topography was obtained using Scheimpflug topography, and subjective refractions were acquired by expert optometrists according to a standardized protocol. After 3 months, mean keratometry and spherical equivalent were stable after LASIK, whereas PRK-treated eyes presented statistically significant (P1 D occurred. The optical zone diameter did not correlate with the development of regression. After corneal laser refractive surgery, keratometric changes are followed by refractive changes and they occur up to 6 months after LASIK and for at least 6 months after PRK, and therefore, caution should be applied when retreatment is planned during the 1st year after surgery because hyperopic refractive regression can lead to suboptimal visual outcome. Keratometric and refractive stability is earlier achieved after LASIK, and therefore, retreatment may be independent of late regression.

  3. Effect of Cycloplegia on Corneal Biometrics and Refractive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abbas; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Shafii, Aliakbar; Faramarzi, Amir; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Yazdani, Shahin

    2018-01-01

    To determine changes in refractive state and corneal parameters after cycloplegia with cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1% using a dual Scheimpflug imaging system. In this prospective cross-sectional study patients aged 10 to 40 years who were referred for optometric evaluation enrolled and underwent autorefraction and corneal imaging with the Galilei dual Scheimpflug system before and 30 minutes after twice instillation of medication. Changes in refraction and astigmatism were investigated. Corneal biometrics including anterior and posterior corneal curvatures, total corneal power and corneal pachymetry were compared before and after cycloplegia. Two hundred and twelve eyes of 106 subjects with mean age of 28 ± 5 years including 201 myopic and 11 hyperopic eyes were evaluated. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error before cycloplegia was -3.4 ± 2.6 D. A mean hyperopic shift of 0.4 ± 0.5 D occurred after cycloplegia ( P biometrics should be considered before cataract and refractive surgeries.

  4. Prevalence of refraction errors and color blindness in heavy vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Haydar; Ozdemir, Levent; Arslan, Seher; Cetin, Ilhan; Ozeç, Ayşe Vural; Cetinkaya, Selma; Sümer, Haldun

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of eye disorders in heavy vehicle drivers. A cross-sectional type study was conducted between November 2004 and September 2006 in 200 driver and 200 non-driver persons. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed, including visual acuity, and dilated examination of the posterior segment. We used the auto refractometer for determining refractive errors. According to eye examination results, the prevalence of the refractive error was 21.5% and 31.3% in study and control groups respectively (P<0.05). The most common type of refraction error in the study group was myopic astigmatism (8.3%) while in the control group simple myopia (12.8%). Prevalence of dyschromatopsia in the rivers, control group and total group was 2.2%, 2.8% and 2.6% respectively. A considerably high number of drivers are in lack of optimal visual acuity. Refraction errors in drivers may impair the traffic security.

  5. Central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and degree of myopia in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in southeast Spain: determination and relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Garcia-Medina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Garcia-Medina1, Jose Javier Garcia-Medina2,3, Pablo Garrido-Fernandez1, Jose Galvan-Espinosa1, Jesus Martin-Molina1, Carlos Garcia-Maturana4, Sergio Perez-Pardo1, Maria Dolores Pinazo-Duran3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Torrecardenas Hospital, Almeria, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Huercal Overa Hospital, Almeria, Spain; 3Ophthalmology Research Unit “Santiago Grisolia”, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain; 4University of Sevilla, SpainObjective: To determine the values of, and study the relationships among, central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, and degree of myopia (DM in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in Almeria (southeast Spain. To our knowledge this is first study of this kind in this region.Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in which a sample of 310 myopic patients (620 eyes aged 20 to 40 years was selected by gender- and age-stratified sampling, which was proportionally fixed to the size of the population strata for which a 20% prevalence of myopia, 5% epsilon, and a 95% confidence interval were hypothesized. We studied IOP, CCT, and DM and their relationships by calculating the mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval for the mean, median, Fisher’s asymmetry coefficient, range (maximum, minimum, and the Brown-Forsythe’s robust test for each variable (IOP, CCT, and DM.Results: In the adult myopic population of Almeria aged 20 to 40 years (mean of 29.8, the mean overall CCT was 550.12 µm. The corneas of men were thicker than those of women (P = 0.014. CCT was stable as no significant differences were seen in the 20- to 40-year-old subjects’ CCT values. The mean overall IOP was 13.60 mmHg. Men had a higher IOP than women (P = 0.002. Subjects over 30 years (13.83 had a higher IOP than those under 30 (13.38 (P = 0.04. The mean overall DM was -4.18 diopters. Men had less myopia than women (P < 0.001. Myopia was stable in the

  6. Factors Influencing Intraocular Pressure Changes after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis with Flaps Created by Femtosecond Laser or Mechanical Microkeratome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yin Lin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe factors that influence the measured intraocular pressure (IOP change and to develop a predictive model after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK with a femtosecond (FS laser or a microkeratome (MK. We retrospectively reviewed preoperative, intraoperative, and 12-month postoperative medical records in 2485 eyes of 1309 patients who underwent LASIK with an FS laser or an MK for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Data were extracted, such as preoperative age, sex, IOP, manifest spherical equivalent (MSE, central corneal keratometry (CCK, central corneal thickness (CCT, and intended flap thickness and postoperative IOP (postIOP at 1, 6 and 12 months. Linear mixed model (LMM and multivariate linear regression (MLR method were used for data analysis. In both models, the preoperative CCT and ablation depth had significant effects on predicting IOP changes in the FS and MK groups. The intended flap thickness was a significant predictor only in the FS laser group (P < .0001 in both models. In the FS group, LMM and MLR could respectively explain 47.00% and 18.91% of the variation of postoperative IOP underestimation (R2 = 0.47 and R(2 = 0.1891. In the MK group, LMM and MLR could explain 37.79% and 19.13% of the variation of IOP underestimation (R(2 = 0.3779 and 0.1913 respectively. The best-fit model for prediction of IOP changes was the LMM in LASIK with an FS laser.

  7. Fator de correção para indivíduos com capacidade acomodativa baseado no uso do refrator automático Correction factor for individuals with accommodative capacity based on automated refractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ueno Takahagi

    2009-12-01

    values with and without cycloplegy effect according to age. RESULTS: The correlation between the astigmatism diopter values with and without cicloplegy ranged from 81.52% to 92.27%. Analyzing the spherical diopter values, the correlation was lower (53.57% to 87.78%. The astigmatism axis also revealed low correlation values (28.86% to 58.80%. The multiple regression model according to age demonstrated multiple determination coefficient with high values for myopia (86.38% and astigmatism (79.79%. The lowest multiple determination coefficient was observed for astigmatism axis (17.70%. CONCLUSION: It was possible to demonstrate a high correlation in refractive errors with and without cycloplegy effect on the cylindrical ametropies. Mathematical formules, for cylindrical and spherical ametropies, were presented as a correction factor for refraction of the patients not submitted to cycloplegy.

  8. Analysis of refractive status and related factors of pupils in Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community, Shanghai, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the refractive status of pupils of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai and analyze the relationships between visual acuity and relative factors. METHODS: All the in-school students of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai were involved in the study. Four hundred and sixty pupils out of 465 pupils were investigated(The rate was 98.9%. There were 445 pupils with fully data collection. Uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, age, height(H, weight(W, body mass index(BMI, diopter of spherical(S, diopter of cylinder(C, spherical equivalent(SE, axial length(ALand corneal curvature(Kwere examined. The refractive status was described and the influence of relative factors was analyzed. UCVA measurement uses the standard logarithmic visual acuity chart, recording by decimal number, then transform into LogMar vision for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In total, the average age was 9.49±1.47 year, SE was -0.85±1.82D and UCVA was +0.09±0.28. The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was 40.9% and 58.9%, respectively. With getting older, the prevalence of myopia increased with the average myopic SE developing significantly(P=0.000. UCVA and AL increased in the same time, SE decreased gradually(PPCONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was high in Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai. Visual acuity is closely related to AL and growth factors.

  9. Refractive and ocular biometric profile of children with a history of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savleen; Sukhija, Jaspreet; Katoch, Deeksha; Sharma, Mansi; Samanta, Ramanuj; Dogra, Mangat R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Indian children belong to a diverse socioeconomic strata with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) developing in mature, higher birth weight babies as well. The purpose of our study is to analyze the long-term status of refractive errors and its relationship with ocular biometry in children with ROP who were laser treated at a tertiary center in North India. Methods: Cross sectional study. Children (biometric status. Results: Thirty-six children presenting to us at the mean age of 7.37 ± 3.07 years (6–15 years) were included. Mean spherical equivalent (SE) was −4.05 D ± 5.10. 75% were myopic, with high astigmatism in 31%. Higher lens thickness (P = 0.03) and higher SE (P = 0.002) at 1 year postnatal age were predictors of larger SE. 79.4% achieved a favorable functional outcome (visual acuity ≥20/40). 5.88% achieved unsatisfactory outcome (<20/200) despite having a favorable structural outcome. Conclusion: There are a substantial number of children who develop myopia and high astigmatism while undergoing laser treatment for ROP. We found myopia in our cohort to be lenticular and greater axial length contributing to the development of high myopia. An initial large refractive error predicts the future development of myopia in these children. Nearly 6% of patients with good structural outcome have unexplained subnormal vision. Our threshold for prescribing glasses in these children should be low. PMID:28905827

  10. Topography-guided custom ablation treatment for treatment of keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a progressive ectatic disorder of the cornea which often presents with fluctuating refraction and high irregular astigmatism. Correcting the vision of these patients is often a challenge because glasses are unable to correct the irregular astigmatism and regular contact lenses may not fit them very well. Topography-guided custom ablation treatment (T-CAT is a procedure of limited ablation of the cornea using excimer laser with the aim of regularizing the cornea, improving the quality of vision and possibly contact lens fit. The aim of the procedure is not to give a complete refractive correction. It has been tried with a lot of success by various groups of refractive surgeons around the world but a meticulous and methodical planning of the procedure is essential to ensure optimum results. In this paper, we attempt to elucidate the planning for a T-CAT procedure for various types of cones and asphericities.

  11. Optical design of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Huang Shengling; Wang Zhanshan

    2008-01-01

    A new flux-resolution optical design method of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KB microscope) is proposed. In X-ray imaging diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion(ICF), spatial resolution and flux are always the key parameters. While the traditional optical design of KB microscope is to correct on-axis spherical aberration and astigmatic aberration, flux-resolution method is based on lateral aberration of full field and astigmatic aberration. Thus the spatial resolution related to field dimension and light flux can be estimated. By the expressions of spatial resolution and actual limits in ICF, rules of how to set original structure and optical design flow are summarized. An instance is presented and it shows that the design has met the original targets and overcome the shortcomings of image characterization in compressed core by traditional spherical aberration correction. (authors)

  12. Comparison of corneal power, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration measurements obtained by a point-source color light-emitting diode-based topographer, a Placido-disk topographer, and a combined Placido and dual Scheimpflug device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Bruna V; Wang, Li; Ali, Shazia F; Koch, Douglas D; Weikert, Mitchell P

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the performance of a point-source color light-emitting diode (LED)-based topographer (color-LED) in measuring anterior corneal power and aberrations with that of a Placido-disk topographer and a combined Placido and dual Scheimpflug device. Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas USA. Retrospective observational case series. Normal eyes and post-refractive-surgery eyes were consecutively measured using color-LED, Placido, and dual-Scheimpflug devices. The main outcome measures were anterior corneal power, astigmatism, and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) (6.0 mm pupil), which were compared using the t test. There were no statistically significant differences in corneal power measurements in normal and post-refractive surgery eyes and in astigmatism magnitude in post-refractive surgery eyes between the color-LED device and Placido or dual Scheimpflug devices (all P > .05). In normal eyes, there were no statistically significant differences in 3rd-order coma and 4th-order spherical aberration between the color-LED and Placido devices and in HOA root mean square, 3rd-order coma, 3rd-order trefoil, 4th-order spherical aberration, and 4th-order secondary astigmatism between the color-LED and dual Scheimpflug devices (all P > .05). In post-refractive surgery eyes, the color-LED device agreed with the Placido and dual-Scheimpflug devices regarding 3rd-order coma and 4th-order spherical aberration (all P > .05). In normal and post-refractive surgery eyes, all 3 devices were comparable with respect to corneal power. The agreement in corneal aberrations varied. Drs. Wang, Koch, and Weikert are consultants to Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG. Dr. Koch is a consultant to Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Alcon Surgical, Inc., and i-Optics Corp. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Myopic versus Far-Sighted Behaviors in Dynamic Supply Chain Coordination through Advertising with Reference Price Effect

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    Yafei Zu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the different effects of the myopic and far-sighted behaviors on the advertising coordination in dynamic supply chain, this paper takes the reference price effect into consideration and formulates four differential game models for the two-level supply chain composed of a manufacturer and a retailer in the situation of Stackelberg game. In our models, the market demand is assumed to be affected by the goodwill, reference price, and the advertising investment, in which the advertising investment can promote the construction of goodwill and such goodwill can further enhance the reference price. The results show that the participating members in the supply chain should invest more in advertisement to improve the goodwill and the relative reference price reflected in the minds of consumers. A far-sighted manufacturer will invest more in the advertisement and charge a higher wholesale price regardless of the behavior choice of the retailer. However, such kind of ignorance leads to different results on the retail pricing strategies of the retailer. The numerical analyses are given in the end to verify the effectiveness of the conclusions which provide the theoretical support to the dynamic supply chain coordination in practice.

  14. Resultados del LASIK miópico en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Results of myopic LASIK obtained at “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology

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    Isabel Cristina Lantigua Maldonado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar los resultados y la estabilidad del LASIK miópico realizado en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y comparativo. El universo estuvo compuesto por los pacientes operados mediante LASIK (4 011 ojos desde el inicio en nuestro centro (2005 de la cirugía refractiva corneal con láser de excímeros. Se seleccionaron los pacientes con estudios realizados un año después de la cirugía. Las variables estudiadas fueron queratometría, mejor agudeza visual sin corrección, mejor agudeza visual con corrección, equivalente esférico, paquimetría y topografía. Se compararon las variables antes de la cirugía y al año de esta. Los resultados se analizaron mediante la prueba t de Student para datos pareados con significación estadística cuando pObjective: To evaluate the results and the stability of the myopic Lasik carried out in “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology. Methods: A prospective, descriptive and comparative study was conducted. The universe of study was made up of the patients operated on by LASIK (4011 eyes from the beginning of the corneal refractive surgery with excimer laser in our center in 2005. The patients were selected from those that had been studied for ametropy correction one year after the surgery. The studied variables were keratometry, better visual acuity without correction, better visual acuity with correction, spherical equivalent, pachymetry and topography, and the obtained results were compared before and at one year of the surgery. The paired T test served to analyze the results with statistical significance of p < 0.05. Results: Significant changes took place in keratometry and spherical equivalent that brought about improved visual acuity without correction for distance vision. The best visual acuity with correction remained the same before and after the surgery. Pachymetry remained within safe

  15. Near Work Related Behaviors Associated with Myopic Shifts among Primary School Students in the Jiading District of Shanghai: A School-Based One-Year Cohort Study.

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    Xiaofang You

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics of various near work related behaviors among primary students and their associations with changes in myopia related ocular biometric parameters during one-year of follow up.A school-based sample of 4,814 primary 1st to 4th grade students aged 6-10 years old were selected by cluster randomization based on probability proportion to size in 2013. At baseline, students together with their parents filled in a self-administered questionnaire on 9 aspects of near work related behaviors and some important covariants of myopia. A comprehensive set of eye examinations including axial length (AL and cycloplegic refraction was conducted both at baseline and one year later.With the grade level increase, students did increasingly better at finding various ways to have an eye break, but they were increasingly likely to continuously do long-time near work without an eye break. Keeping a reasonable eye distance and correct hand posture for reading, writing, or watching TV became worse for the first time before grade 2, but then became better at grade 3. In contrast, selecting appropriate lighting environments or situations and keeping a balanced diet became better for the first time before grade 2, but then became worse at grade 3. At one-year follow up, the mean AL increased by 0.32 ± 0.35 mm, the ratio of AL divided by the mean corneal radius of curvature (AL/CR ratio increased by 0.032 ± 0.054, the myopic spherical equivalent (SE increased by -0.51 ± 0.51 diopters and the incidence of myopia was 16.0% (237/1,477. After controlling for the confounding effects of parental myopia, student's age, gender, height, daily near work time, daily outdoor activity time and all of the other near work related behaviors, keeping a reasonable distance when reading, writing and watching TV was associated with elongation of the AL [standard coefficient beta = -0.062, P = 0.004], a change in SE [beta = -0.072, P = 0.020] and incident myopia

  16. Comparative characteristics of morphometric, biometric and biomechanical parameters of myopic eyes in children with different types of progressive myopia

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    T. E. Tsybulskaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. With the progression of myopic process in children the changes of morphometric, biometric and biomechanical parameters of eyeball are observed. In order to study these parameters in the axial and refractive myopia 32 patients (64 eyes with axial and 26 patients (46 eyes with refractive myopia have been examined. Methods and results. It has been established that in patients with axial and refractive progressive myopia in 56.4% of cases there is a decrease of peripapillary zone thickness of nerve fiber and decrease of ganglion cells layer thickness, an increase of corneal-compensated intraocular pressure by 1.3 times, and also the reduce of corneal hysteresis by 1.2 times. Conclusion. These changes do not depend on the degree of refraction and are associated with an increase in axial length of the eye and decrease in the biomechanical properties of the root-scleral capsule regardless the type of myopia.

  17. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification by temporal clear corneal and superior clear corneal approach: a comparison

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    Nikose AS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Archana Sunil Nikose, Dhrubojyoti Saha, Pradnya Mukesh Laddha, Mayuri Patil Department of Ophthalmology, N.K.P. Salve Institute and LMH, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Cataract surgery has undergone various advances since it was evolved from ancient couching to the modern phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA remains one of the most common complications. The introduction of sutureless clear corneal incision has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured limbal incision and scleral tunnel. A clear corneal incision has the benefit of being bloodless and having an easy approach, but SIA is still a concern.Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the SIA in clear corneal incisions with temporal approach and superior approach phacoemulsification. Comparisons between the two incisions were done using keratometric readings of preoperative and postoperative refractive status.Methodology: It was a hospital-based prospective interventional comparative randomized control trial of 261 patients conducted in a rural-based tertiary care center from September 2012 to August 2014. The visual acuity and detailed anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were done and the cataract was graded according to Lens Opacification Classification System II. Patients were divided for phacoemulsification into two groups, group A and group B, who underwent temporal and superior clear corneal approach, respectively. The patients were followed up on day 1, 7, 30, and 90 postoperatively. The parameters recorded were uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, and keratometry. The mean difference of SIA between 30th and 90th day was statistically evaluated using paired t-test, and all the analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc. software.Results: The mean postoperative SIA in group A was 0.998 D on the 30th day, which

  18. Effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties

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    Emine; Kalkan; Akcay; Fatih; Canan; Huseyin; Simavli; Derya; Dal; Hacer; Yalniz; Nagihan; Ugurlu; Omer; Gecici; Nurullah; Cagil

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality.METHODS: Using the Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors(17 with myopia,12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants.Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness,cooperativeness, and self-transcendence.RESULTS: Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness,cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion(P <0.05, P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.05, and P <0.01,respectively).CONCLUSION: Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.

  19. Comparison of Three Epithelial Removal Techniques in PRK: Mechanical, Alcohol-assisted, and Transepithelial Laser.

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    Shapira, Yinon; Mimouni, Michael; Levartovsky, Shmuel; Varssano, David; Sela, Tzahi; Munzer, Gur; Kaiserman, Igor

    2015-11-01

    To compare the visual and refractive results obtained after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in patients who underwent one of three different epithelial removal techniques. The authors reviewed the medical files of consecutive eyes with myopia and myopic astigmatism that were treated during a 10-year period by mechanical PRK, alcohol-assisted PRK, or transepithelial PRK (in the phototherapeutic keratectomy mode), and observed for more than 1 year. A total of 3,417 patients (3,417 eyes) were included in this study. At 3 and 6 months postoperatively, the outcome of alcohol-assisted PRK was superior both in efficacy (P PRK and transepithelial PRK, which were similar. At more than 1 year postoperatively, the mean efficacy index was still high for alcohol-assisted PRK, but low for the transepithelial PRK, corresponding to a mean uncorrected visual acuity of more than one Snellen line lower than those of the other two techniques (P PRK (P PRK. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Corneal Power Measurement and Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Following Laser Vision Correction (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

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    Huang, David; Tang, Maolong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xinbo; Armour, Rebecca L.; Gattey, Devin M.; Lombardi, Lorinna H.; Koch, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure corneal power and improve the selection of intraocular lens (IOL) power in cataract surgeries after laser vision correction. Methods: Patients with previous myopic laser vision corrections were enrolled in this prospective study from two eye centers. Corneal thickness and power were measured by Fourier-domain OCT. Axial length, anterior chamber depth, and automated keratometry were measured by a partial coherence interferometer. An OCT-based IOL formula was developed. The mean absolute error of the OCT-based formula in predicting postoperative refraction was compared to two regression-based IOL formulae for eyes with previous laser vision correction. Results: Forty-six eyes of 46 patients all had uncomplicated cataract surgery with monofocal IOL implantation. The mean arithmetic prediction error of postoperative refraction was 0.05 ± 0.65 diopter (D) for the OCT formula, 0.14 ± 0.83 D for the Haigis-L formula, and 0.24 ± 0.82 D for the no-history Shammas-PL formula. The mean absolute error was 0.50 D for OCT compared to a mean absolute error of 0.67 D for Haigis-L and 0.67 D for Shammas-PL. The adjusted mean absolute error (average prediction error removed) was 0.49 D for OCT, 0.65 D for Haigis-L (P=.031), and 0.62 D for Shammas-PL (P=.044). For OCT, 61% of the eyes were within 0.5 D of prediction error, whereas 46% were within 0.5 D for both Haigis-L and Shammas-PL (P=.034). Conclusions: The predictive accuracy of OCT-based IOL power calculation was better than Haigis-L and Shammas-PL formulas in eyes after laser vision correction. PMID:24167323

  1. Toric Intraocular Lens Outcomes in Patients With Glaucoma.

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    Brown, Reay H; Zhong, Le; Bozeman, Caroline W; Lynch, Mary G

    2015-06-01

    To report the outcomes of toric intraocular lens implantation in patients with glaucoma and corneal astigmatism. One hundred twenty-six eyes of 87 patients with glaucoma and corneal astigmatism that underwent cataract surgery with an AcrySof toric intraocular lens (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) implant were selected for this single-center, retrospective case series. Corrected distance visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and refractive astigmatism were measured in each eye preoperatively and postoperatively. Uncorrected distance visual acuity and toric alignment were measured postoperatively. The uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.04 ± 0.08 logMAR (20/22 Snellen) for all eyes. Ninety-eight percent of all eyes achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/40 or better, with 76% achieving 20/25 or better and 47% achieving 20/20. The corrected distance visual acuity for all eyes was 0.01 ± 0.03 logMAR (20/20.5 Snellen) postoperatively. The refractive cylinder improved from 1.47 ± 1.10 diopters preoperatively to 0.31 ± 0.37 diopters postoperatively. The residual refractive cylinder was 1.00 diopter or less in 97% of eyes, 0.75 diopters or less in 90% of eyes, and 0.50 diopters or less in 83% of eyes. Mean misalignment was 4.4° ± 5.1°. Intraocular pressure decreased by a mean of 2.3 ± 3.3 mm Hg following the surgery. Toric intraocular lenses can reliably reduce astigmatism and improve uncorrected vision in eyes with cataract and glaucoma. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Productivity associated with visual status of computer users.

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    Daum, Kent M; Clore, Katherine A; Simms, Suzanne S; Vesely, Jon W; Wilczek, Dawn D; Spittle, Brian M; Good, Greg W

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project is to examine the potential connection between the astigmatic refractive corrections of subjects using computers and their productivity and comfort. We hypothesize that improving the visual status of subjects using computers results in greater productivity, as well as improved visual comfort. Inclusion criteria required subjects 19 to 30 years of age with complete vision examinations before being enrolled. Using a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized design, subjects completed three experimental tasks calculated to assess the effects of refractive error on productivity (time to completion and the number of errors) at a computer. The tasks resembled those commonly undertaken by computer users and involved visual search tasks of: (1) counties and populations; (2) nonsense word search; and (3) a modified text-editing task. Estimates of productivity for time to completion varied from a minimum of 2.5% upwards to 28.7% with 2 D cylinder miscorrection. Assuming a conservative estimate of an overall 2.5% increase in productivity with appropriate astigmatic refractive correction, our data suggest a favorable cost-benefit ratio of at least 2.3 for the visual correction of an employee (total cost 268 dollars) with a salary of 25,000 dollars per year. We conclude that astigmatic refractive error affected both productivity and visual comfort under the conditions of this experiment. These data also suggest a favorable cost-benefit ratio for employers who provide computer-specific eyewear to their employees.

  3. A study regarding efficacy of various intraocular lens power calculation formulas in a subset of Indian myopic population

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    Ashish Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of intraocular lens power calculation formulas in a subset of Indian myopic population. Retrospectively reviewed 43 patients who underwent phacoemulsification with high axial length (AL (>24.5 mm, range 24.75-32.35 mm. The power of the implanted intraocular lens (IOL was used to calculate the predicted post-operative refractive error by four formulas: Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK II, SRK/T, Holladay 1, and Hoffer Q. The predictive accuracy of the formulas was analyzed by comparing the difference between the "actual" and "predicted" postoperative refractive errors. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA tests were done to have pair-wise comparisons between the formulas and P < 0.05 was considered significant. A subcategory of axial length 24.5-26.5 mm was also tested. Holladay 1, Hoffer Q and SRK/T formulas showed a slight tendency toward resultant hyperopia, with mean error of +0.24 diopters (D, +0.58 D, and +0.92 D, respectively. The Holladay 1 formula provided the best predictive result overall.

  4. Effect of surgical skill on surgically-induced astigmatism in cataract surgery

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    Numan Eraslan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effect of surgical experience on surgically-induced astigmatism(SIAin patients with uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery.METHODS:Fifty-three eyes of fifty patients, mean age 64.5±10.8y, were randomly divided into two groups(23 eyes and 30 eyes. First group was underwent surgery by cataract specialists and the second was by residents. At baseline all the patients were underwent a complete opthalmological examination including keratometry and autorefractometer measurements. Vector analysis programme including the Alpins' method was used for the calculation of SIA. All the measurements were repeated postoperative first day, first month and second month and changes were recorded. Shapiro Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests were applied for determining the statistical differences between the SIA with two groups.RESULTS:There were no significant differences in demographic data of the groups. Intergroup analysis showed, first group was more effective results in SIA postoperative first day(P=0.002, first month(P=0.004and the second month(P=0.001. For the first group, SIA were 0.79±0.41 diopter(Dat the first postoperative day, 0.54±0.41 D at the first postoperative month and 0.47±0.37 D at the second postoperative month. Second one was 1.27±0.66 D, 0.98±0.56 D and 0.94±0.54 D, respectively.CONCLUSION:According to the results, surgical experience was one of the factors that affects SIA. Residents would perform more phacoemilcification surgery to obtain more surgical experience.

  5. Safety, efficacy, predictability and stability of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with a 1000-Hz scanning spot excimer laser.

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    Khoramnia, Ramin; Salgado, Josefina P; Wuellner, Christian; Donitzky, Christof; Lohmann, Chris P; Winkler von Mohrenfels, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, predictability and stability of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with a 1000-Hz scanning spot excimer laser (Concept System 1000; WaveLight GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). LASIK was performed on twenty eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism (mean spherical equivalent refraction: -3.97±1.72 dioptres (D); mean cylinder: -0.84±0.77 D) using a microkeratome for flap creation and the Concept System 1000 for photoablation. Patients were examined preoperatively as well as 1, 3 and 6 months after the treatment. Manifest sphere and cylinder, uncorrected (UCDVA) and best corrected (BCDVA) distance visual acuity, corneal topography and pachymetry were analysed. We observed no adverse events that might have been associated with the use of a repetition rate of 1000 Hz. All eyes maintained or had improved BCDVA at 6 months after treatment when compared to preoperative values. Six months after LASIK, UCDVA was 20/20 or better in 85% and 20/25 or better in 100% of the eyes. The spherical equivalent refraction was within ±0.50 D in 95% of the eyes at 6 months after surgery. The refraction stayed stable over time; 95% of the eyes changedLASIK with the prototype 1000-Hz excimer laser was safe, efficient and predictable. The postoperative refraction was stable over time. There were no specific clinical side-effects that might be associated with the use of such a high repetition rate. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  6. Alcohol-assisted versus Mechanical Epithelium Removal in Photorefractive Keratectomy

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    Mohammad Ghoreishi,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcomes and complications of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical corneal epithelial debridement for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Methods: This randomized controlled trial included 1,250 eyes of 625 patients undergoing PRK for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. Each patient was randomly assigned to alcohol-assisted or mechanical epithelial removal. Results: A total of 658 eyes underwent alcohol-assisted epithelial removal while the epithelium was removed mechanically in 592 eyes. Mean spherical equivalent was ‑4.37}2.3 D in the alcohol group and ‑3.8}1.3 D in the mechanical group (P = 0.78. There was no significant difference in postoperative pain between the study groups (P = 0.22. Uncorrected visual acuity ≥ 20/20 and ≥ 20/40 was achieved in 90.9% versus 93.4% (P = 0.08, and 98.9% versus 99.5% (P = 0.36 of eyes in the alcohol and mechanical groups, respectively. Final refractive error within 1D of emmetropia was achieved in 90% versus 92.2% of eyes in the alcohol and mechanical groups, respectively (P = 0.23. Alcohol-assisted debridement required less time than mechanical debridement (96±18 vs. 118±26 seconds, P=0.035. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of early and late postoperative complications. Conclusion: Alcohol-assisted and mechanical epithelium removal are comparable in terms of efficacy and side effects. The method of epithelial debridement in PRK may be left to the surgeon′s choice.

  7. LASEK for the correction of hyperopia with mitomycin C using SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser: one-year follow-up

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    Khosrow Jadidi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and predictability of laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy(LASEKfor the correction of hyperopia using the SCHWIND AMARIS platform.METHODS: This retrospective single-surgeon study includes 66 eyes of 33 patients with hyperopia who underwent LASEK with mitomycin C(MMC. The median age of patients was 35.42±1.12y(ranging 18 to 56y. In each patient LASEK was performed using SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. Postoperatively clinical outcomes were evaluated in terms of predictability, safety, efficacy, subjective and objective refractions, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity(BSCVAand adverse events. RESULTS: The mean baseline refraction was 3.2±1.6 diopters(D(ranging 0 to 7 D. The mean pre-operative and postoperative spherical equivalent(SEwere 2.34±1.76(ranging -1.25 to 7 Dand 0.30±0.84(ranging -0.2 to 0.8 Drespectively(P=0.001. The mean hyperopia was 0.63±0.84 D(ranging -1.75 to 2.76 D6 to 12mo postoperatively. Likewise, the mean astigmatism was 0.68±0.43 D(range 0 to 2 Dwith 51(77.3%and 15(22.7%eyes within ±1 and ±0.50 D respectively. The safety index and efficacy index were 1.08 and 1.6 respectively.CONCLUSION:LASEK using SCHWIND AMARIS with MMC yields good visual and refractive results for hyperopia. Moreover, there were no serious complications.

  8. The rat with oxygen-induced retinopathy is myopic with low retinal dopamine.

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    Zhang, Nan; Favazza, Tara L; Baglieri, Anna Maria; Benador, Ilan Y; Noonan, Emily R; Fulton, Anne B; Hansen, Ronald M; Iuvone, P Michael; Akula, James D

    2013-12-19

    Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter implicated both in modulating neural retinal signals and in eye growth. Therefore, it may participate in the pathogenesis of the most common clinical sequelae of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), visual dysfunction and myopia. Paradoxically, in ROP myopia the eye is usually small. The eye of the rat with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is characterized by retinal dysfunction and short axial length. There have been several investigations of the early maturation of DA in rat retina, but little at older ages, and not in the OIR rat. Therefore, DA, retinal function, and refractive state were investigated in the OIR rat. In one set of rats, the development of dopaminergic (DAergic) networks was evaluated in retinal cross-sections from rats aged 14 to 120 days using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of DA). In another set of rats, retinoscopy was used to evaluate spherical equivalent (SE), electoretinography (ERG) was used to evaluate retinal function, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate retinal contents of DA, its precursor levodopamine (DOPA), and its primary metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). The normally rapid postnatal ramification of DAergic neurons was disrupted in OIR rats. Retinoscopy revealed that OIR rats were relatively myopic. In the same eyes, ERG confirmed retinal dysfunction in OIR. HPLC of those eyes' retinae confirmed low DA. Regression analysis indicated that DA metabolism (evaluated by the ratio of DOPAC to DA) was an important additional predictor of myopia beyond OIR. The OIR rat is the first known animal model of myopia in which the eye is smaller than normal. Dopamine may modulate, or fail to modulate, neural activity in the OIR eye, and thus contribute to this peculiar myopia.

  9. Differences between wavefront and subjective refraction for infrared light.

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    Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J; Copland, James; Neal, Daniel R; Thibos, Larry N

    2014-10-01

    To determine the accuracy of objective wavefront refractions for predicting subjective refractions for monochromatic infrared light. Objective refractions were obtained with a commercial wavefront aberrometer (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Subjective refractions were obtained for 30 subjects with a speckle optometer validated against objective Zernike wavefront refractions on a physical model eye (Teel et al., Design and validation of an infrared Badal optometer for laser speckle, Optom Vis Sci 2008;85:834-42). Both instruments used near-infrared (NIR) radiation (835 nm for COAS, 820 nm for the speckle optometer) to avoid correction for ocular chromatic aberration. A 3-mm artificial pupil was used to reduce complications attributed to higher-order ocular aberrations. For comparison with paraxial (Seidel) and minimum root-mean-square (Zernike) wavefront refractions, objective refractions were also determined for a battery of 29 image quality metrics by computing the correcting lens that optimizes retinal image quality. Objective Zernike refractions were more myopic than subjective refractions for 29 of 30 subjects. The population mean discrepancy was -0.26 diopters (D) (SEM = 0.03 D). Paraxial (Seidel) objective refractions tended to be hyperopically biased (mean discrepancy = +0.20 D, SEM = 0.06 D). Refractions based on retinal image quality were myopically biased for 28 of 29 metrics. The mean bias across all 31 measures was -0.24 D (SEM = 0.03). Myopic bias of objective refractions was greater for eyes with brown irises compared with eyes with blue irises. Our experimental results are consistent with the hypothesis that reflected NIR light captured by the aberrometer originates from scattering sources located posterior to the entrance apertures of cone photoreceptors, near the retinal pigment epithelium. The larger myopic bias for brown eyes suggests that a greater fraction of NIR light is reflected from choroidal melanin in brown eyes compared with blue eyes.

  10. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

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    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  11. On-line pachymetry outcome of ablation in aberration free mode TransPRK.

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    Adib-Moghaddam, Soheil; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Salmanian, Bahram; Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Noorizadeh, Farsad

    2014-01-01

    There are many independent factors that influence the outcome of refractive surgeries, consisting of patient characteristics and environmental factors. We studied the accuracy of central ablation depth compared to online pachymetry results. A total of 153 eyes that underwent TransPRK at Bina Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated from November 2010 to January 2012 in a retrospective cross-sectional study. The relevant data were registered and bivariate correlations and linear regression association were investigated statistically. The mean age was 29 ± 5 years. Distribution of refractive errors was as follows: compound myopic astigmatism 123 (80.4%), simple myopia 24 (15.7%), and mixed astigmatism 6 (3.9%). Mean ambient temperature and humidity levels intraoperatively were 23.49 ± 1.16°C and 28.91 ± 6.16%, respectively. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) between the preassumed central ablation depth (131.68 ± 32.72 µm) and the net level of ablation depth (measured by online pachymetry, 168.04 ± 41.47 µm). Temperature and humidity levels were not in any statistically significant correlation with the net amount of difference found. The backward linear regression was done to reveal the association between ablation depth and several variables. This study showed that there is deviation in optical coherence pachymetry online measurements done with SCHWIND AMARIS laser. Ambient temperature and humidity levels intraoperatively do not influence the outcome. However, basic structural characteristics of patients along with change in refractive index and corneal shrinkage because of corneal dehydration are associated with the differences.

  12. Incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for retreatment after wavefront-optimized ablations with PRK and LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randleman, J Bradley; White, Alfred J; Lynn, Michael J; Hu, Michelle H; Stulting, R Doyle

    2009-03-01

    To analyze and compare retreatment rates after wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK and determine risk factors for retreatment. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients undergoing PRK or LASIK with the wavefront-optimized WaveLight platform from January 2005 through December 2006 targeted for a piano outcome and to determine the rate and risk factors for retreatment surgery in this population. Eight hundred fifty-five eyes were analyzed, including 70 (8.2%) eyes with hyperopic refractions and 785 (91.8%) eyes with myopic refractions. After initial treatment, 72% of eyes were 20/20 or better and 99.5% were 20/40 or better. To improve uncorrected visual acuity, 54 (6.3%) eyes had retreatments performed. No significant differences in retreatment rates were noted based on age (P = .15), sex (P = .8), eye (P = .3), PRK versus LASIK (P = 1.0), room temperature (P = .1) or humidity (P = .9), and no correlation between retreatment rate and month or season of primary surgery (P = .4). There was no correlation between degree of myopia and retreatment rate. Eyes were significantly more likely to undergo retreatment if they were hyperopic (12.8% vs 6.0%, P = .006) or had astigmatism > or = 1.00 diopter (D) (9.1% vs 5.3%, P = .04). Retreatment rate was 6.3% with the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE excimer laser. This rate was not influenced by age, sex, corneal characteristics, or environmental factors. Eyes with hyperopic refractions or astigmatism > or = 1.00 D were more likely to undergo retreatment.

  13. Spectacles May Improve Reading Speed in Children with Hyperopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, L.J.; Krijnen, J.S.M.; Nefkens-Molster, A.E.; Wensing, K.; Gutker, E.; Knol, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of (hyperopic or myopic) spectacle correction in reading speed of 9- to 10-year-old children. Methods: Subjects were recruited at their schools. Initial selection was based on reduced distance acuity and/or a positive blur test. Final

  14. Laser in situ keratomileusis for residual hyperopic astigmatism after conductive keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Khoury, Aghlab N; Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Naoumidi, Tatiana; Pallikaris, loannis G

    2004-01-01

    To report a case of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in a patient with previous conductive keratoplasty. A 48-year-old man underwent conductive keratoplasty for low hyperopic astigmatism (manifest refraction OD: +2.25 -0.50 x 77 degrees; OS: +2.50 -0.50 x 105 degrees). Three months postoperatively, UCVA was 20/25 and BSCVA was 20/20 in both eyes; manifest refraction OD: -0.25 -0.75 x 110 degrees; OS: +0.75 -0.75 x 50 degrees. Sixteen months after the operation, regression of refractive outcome was (manifest) OD: +1.75 -1.25 x 90 degrees; OS: +2.50 -0.50 x 85 degrees; UCVA was 20/40 in the right eye and 20/63 in the left eye and BSCVA was 20/20 in both eyes. LASIK was performed for hyperopic regression in the left eye using an automated microkeratome (Alcon SKBM, 130-microm plate; Aesculap-Meditec MEL 70 excimer laser). LASIK was uneventful and no intraoperative or postoperative complications related to the previous conductive keratoplasty procedure or LASIK were observed. Three months after LASIK and 19 months after the initial conductive keratoplasty, the patient's left eye was emmetropic; UCVA was 20/20(-2), BSCVA was 20/20 and manifest refraction was +0.25 -0.25 x 35 degrees. There was a uniform increase in topographical steepening. Visual acuity, refraction and topographic findings remained unchanged at 6 months. Even though our experience is limited, treatment of hyperopia with LASIK in an eye with refractive regression following previous conductive keratoplasty resulted in a predicted refractive outcome, with no complications, and improvement in visual acuity at 6 months follow-up.

  15. Três anos pós-LASIK em crianças anisométropes de 8 a 15 anos de idade Three years after LASIK in anisometropic children from 8 to 15 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belquiz R. Amaral Nassaralla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a segurança, eficácia, previsibilidade e estabilidade da técnica "laser in situ keratomileusis" (LASIK, três anos após a cirurgia, para a correção de alta anisometropia em crianças, para as quais os tratamentos convencionais não obtiveram êxito. MÉTODOS: Nove olhos de nove pacientes, três meninos e 6 meninas, com idade média de 11,5 anos (variando de 8 a 15 anos, foram submetidos à técnica LASIK utilizando-se o excimer laser Chiron Technolas 217. O tempo mínimo de seguimento foi de 36 meses. RESULTADOS: Três anos após o LASIK, a acuidade visual sem correção (AVSC melhorou pelo menos 5 linhas em todos os olhos; cinco olhos (55,5% apresentavam AVSC de 20/50 ou melhor. Seis olhos (66,6%, apresentavam acuidade visual com correção (AVCC de 20/50 ou melhor e cinco olhos (55,5% ganharam pelo menos 1 linha na AVCC. Devido a ambliopia, nenhum olho apresentou AVSC de 20/20 ou melhor. A média do equivalente esférico pré-operatório foi reduzida de -7,66 (± 3,75 D para -1,02 (± 1,26 D e a do astigmatismo, de -3,11 (± 2,09 D para -0,75 (± 0,25 D. A maior anisometropia encontrada foi de 1,5 D. CONCLUSÕES: Após três anos de seguimento, a técnica LASIK parece ser opção segura e eficaz na correção de alta anisometropia em crianças entre 8 e 15 anos de idade, para os quais os tratamentos convencionais não obtiveram êxito. A progressão do erro refracional relacionada à idade não impediu o uso da correção visual adequada.PURPOSE: To determine the safety, efficacy, predictability and stability of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK, three years after surgery, to correct high myopia or high myopic astigmatism in children with high anisometropia in whom conventional treatments had failed. METHODS: Nine eyes of 9 patients, 3 boys and 6 girls with a mean age of 11.5 years (range, 8 to 15 years underwent LASIK using the Chiron Technolas 217 excimer laser. Minimum follow-up was 36 months. RESULTS: Three

  16. A wavefront analyzer for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, E.; Brossard, M.; Fauche, P.

    2017-01-01

    the terahertz wavefront and calculate its Zernike coefficients. In particular, we especially show that the focus spot of the spectrometer suffers from optical aberrations such as remaining defocus, first and second order astigmatisms, as well as spherical aberration. This opens a route to wavefront correction...

  17. Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.].......[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.]....

  18. Refractive status of primary school children in Mopani district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Mabaso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports part of the findings of a study carried out to determine the causes, prevalence,  and  distribution  of  ocular  dis-orders  among  rural  primary  school  children in  Mopani  district  of  Limpopo  Province, South Africa. Three hundred and eighty eight children  aged  8  to  15  years  were  randomly selected from five randomly selected schools. Non-cycloplegic retinoscopy and auto-refrac-tion were performed on each child. The preva-lence of hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism was  73.1%,  2.5%  and  31.3%  respective-ly.  Hyperopia  (Nearest  spherical  equivalent power (FNSE ranged from +0.75 to +3.50 D for the right and left eyes with means of +1.05 ±  0.35  D  and  +1.08  ±  0.34  D  respectively. Myopia (FNSE ranged from –0.50 to –1.75 D for the right eye and –0.50 to –2.25 D for the left eye with means of –0.75 ± 0.55 D and –0.93 ± 0.55 D respectively. Regression model for myopia, shows that age had an odds ratio of  1.94  (1.15  to  3.26,  indicating  a  signifi-cant increased risk of myopia with increasing age.  Correcting  cylinders  for  the  right  eyes ranged from –0.25 to –4.50 D (mean = −0.67 ± 0.47 D and for the left eyes from –0.25 to –2.50 D (mean = −0.60 ± 0.30 D. With-the-rule  (WTR  astigmatism  (66.5%  was  more common, followed by against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism (28.1% and oblique (OBL astig-matism  (5.4%.  With-the-rule  astigmatism was  more  common  in  females  than  males; ATR astigmatism and OBL astigmatism were common in males. Regular vision screening programmes,  appropriate  referral  and  vision correction  in  primary  schools  in  Mopani district  are  recommended  in  order  to  elimi-nate  refractive  errors  among  the  children.

  19. Long -term effects of optical defocus on eye growth and refractogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarutta, Elena; Khodzhabekyan, Narine; Filinova, Oksana; Milash, Sergei; Kruzhkova, Galina

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of binocular and alternating monocular myopic constant defocus prescribed in spectacle format on myopia onset and progression in children. 129 children aged 5–12 years were divided into 4 groups: 48 children aged 5–8 years (1st group) with emmetropia and risk factors of myopia development were prescribed the continuous wearing of plus lenses to induce myopia of 1.0 D. 46 children aged 7–11 years (2nd group) with low myopia from −0.75 to −2.25 D were prescribed 2 pairs of spectacles for alternating continuous wearing. One eye was corrected for distance to obtain residual myopia in spectacles of about 0.50 D, and the fellow eye was corrected to obtain residual or induced myopia of about 1.50 D. The children changed spectacles every day. Control data were obtained from 15 children aged 6–9 years (1st control group) with pseudomyopia with no correction administered, and 20 low myopic children aged 7–12 years (2nd control group) wearing conventional spectacle correction. Autorefractometry before and after cycloplegia and ultrasound biometry were performed. A hyperopic shift caused by thinning of the crystalline lens and deepening of the anterior chamber in all patients of the 1st group was observed after 1 month and persisted over the follow -up period. Horizontal diameter (HD) increased more than 3 times as much as the axial length (AL). No cases of myopia onset were observed during the 9 -year follow -up period. 36 (81.8%) children of the 2nd group had stable refraction over the 4 year follow up, an insignificant increase in the AL and a significant increase in the HD were revealed. A 3-year follow -up revealed an increase in cycloplegic refraction in both control groups; the AL increased significantly, while the HD showed an insignificant increase. Permanent low myopic defocus of the image in binocular spectacle format inhibits eye growth and refraction shift to myopia in children with low hyperopia

  20. Macular Choroidal Thickness in Myopic Eyes with and without a Dome-Shaped Macula: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudier, Guillaume; Gaudric, Alain; Gualino, Vincent; Massin, Pascale; Nardin, Mathieu; Tadayoni, Ramin; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Gaucher, David

    2016-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) has recently been described with myopic staphyloma, which may cause decreased vision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the choroidal thickness of eyes with and eyes without DSM. A total of 26 eyes with DSM were paired based on axial length with 26 eyes without DSM. All patients underwent spectral-domain OCT examination using the 7-line EDI (enhanced depth imaging) protocol. The mean choroidal thickness was measured using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid areas. Both nasal choroidal thickness and temporal choroidal thickness were significantly thinner in the DSM group (120.43 vs. 159.46 µm, p = 0.035, and 142.17 vs. 187.23 µm, p = 0.021, respectively). However, the mean central choroidal thickness did not differ (152.61 vs. 175.96 µm, p = 0.20). The ratio between central and peripheral choroidal thickness was very significantly elevated with DSM (1.18 ± 0.12 vs. 0.99 ± 0.09, p < 0.0001). Choroidal thickness decreases at the periphery but not in the macular area with DSM. DSM seems not to be due to an inward protrusion of the globe but due to macular anatomical preservation in a growing staphyloma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Compact adaptive optic-optical coherence tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S [Livermore, CA; Chen, Diana C [Fremont, CA; Jones, Steven M [Danville, CA; McNary, Sean M [Stockton, CA

    2011-05-17

    Badal Optometer and rotating cylinders are inserted in the AO-OCT to correct large spectacle aberrations such as myopia, hyperopic and astigmatism for ease of clinical use and reduction. Spherical mirrors in the sets of the telescope are rotated orthogonally to reduce aberrations and beam displacement caused by the scanners. This produces greatly reduced AO registration errors and improved AO performance to enable high order aberration correction in a patient eyes.

  2. A STUDY ON OCULAR FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezeela K

    2018-03-01

    in both eyes and were divided into 5 groups. Group 5 with vision 6/6 accounted for 50% in both eyes separately. Group 4 with vision in the range of 6/9-6/12 amounted to 42.9% in right eye and 44.3% in left eye. Examination of anterior segment of the eye was normal in 47 (67.1% children. Hordeolum, which included both varieties hordeolum internum and externum were present in 15 (21.4% children. 8 children (11.4% had blepharitis. 11 children (15.7% had posterior subcapsular cataract. All of them had cataracts in both eyes, but not to the same extent. Duration of steroid therapy was found to be associated with development of cataract. With a percentage of 6.2% at a duration of 1-3 years, it increased to 17.4% within 4-6 years duration. Among the 70 children, only one child had elevated intraocular pressure and none of the children with hypertension had features of retinopathy. Myopic astigmatism was the commonest refractive error noted, followed myopia. CONCLUSION  The ocular abnormalities noted in the study group, were hordeolum internum and externum, blepharitis and refractive errors.  Myopic astigmatism was the commonest refractive error, followed by myopia.  Posterior sub capsular cataract was the most common treatment related abnormality detected.  Duration of steroid treatment was seen to be directly associated with development of cataract.

  3. Toric Intraocular Lenses in the Correction of Astigmatism During Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Tendal, Britta

    2016-01-01

    TOPIC: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the benefit and harms associated with implantation of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) during cataract surgery. Outcomes were postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA) and distance spectacle independence. Harms were...

  4. Orientation identification of the power spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnaya, M.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The image Fourier transform is widely used for defocus and astigmatism correction in electron microscopy. The shape of a power spectrum (the square of a modulus of image Fourier transform) is directly related to the three microscope’s controls, namely defocus and two-fold (two-parameter)

  5. Rotation of lathe-cut hydrogel lenses on the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M G; Harris, K L; Ruddell, D

    1976-01-01

    The rotation lathe-cut HydroCurveTM gel contact lens was measured on six eyes to evaluate the parameters that influence lens rotation and to determine if this lens could be used to correct astigmatism. Of the 72 observations made, 73.6% showed some lens rotation, and 33.4% of the sample rotated more than 5 degrees per 10 blinks. Of the observations in which rotation was noted, 88.7% were encyclorotation. These results are similar to those found for spin-cast hydrogel lenses. None of the lens parameters evaluated seemed to be related to lens rotation, whereas the eye parameters studied were. Lenses were more likely to rotate on eyes with smaller corneal diameters, smaller palpebral apertures, and corneal curvatures steeper than 4 3.00 DK (X2, N =72, p less than 0.05). Our findings indicate that some method of lens stabilization will be needed before lathe-cut hydrogel lenses can be used to effectively correct astigmatism.

  6. Corneal perforation after conductive keratoplasty with previous refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Titze, Patrik; Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-12-01

    A 56-year-old woman had conductive keratoplasty (CK) for residual hyperopia and astigmatism. Three years before the procedure, the patient had arcuate keratotomy, followed by laser in situ keratomileusis 2 years later for high astigmatism correction in both eyes. During CK, a corneal perforation occurred in the right eye; during the postoperative examination, an iris perforation and anterior subcapsule opacification were seen beneath the perforation site. The perforation was managed with a bandage contact lens and an antibiotic-steroid ointment; it had a negative Seidel sign by the third day. The surgery in the left eye was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 and the best corrected visual acuity 20/20 in both eyes with a significant improvement in corneal topography. Care must be taken to prevent CK-treated spots from coinciding with areas in the corneal stroma that might have been altered by previous refractive procedures.

  7. Smart social adaptation prevents catastrophic ecological regime shifts in networks of myopic harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang; Wiedermann, Marc; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    In the anthropocene, the rise of global social and economic networks with ever increasing connectivity and speed of interactions, e.g., the internet or global financial markets, is a key challenge for sustainable development. The spread of opinions, values or technologies on these networks, in conjunction with the coevolution of the network structures themselves, underlies nexuses of current concern such as anthropogenic climate change, biodiversity loss or global land use change. To isolate and quantitatively study the effects and implications of network dynamics for sustainable development, we propose an agent-based model of information flow on adaptive networks between myopic harvesters that exploit private renewable resources. In this conceptual model of a network of socio-ecological systems, information on management practices flows between agents via boundedly rational imitation depending on the state of the resource stocks involved in an interaction. Agents can also adapt the structure of their social network locally by preferentially connecting to culturally similar agents with identical management practices and, at the same time, disconnecting from culturally dissimilar agents. Investigating in detail the statistical mechanics of this model, we find that an increasing rate of information flow through faster imitation dynamics or growing density of network connectivity leads to a marked increase in the likelihood of environmental resource collapse. However, we show that an optimal rate of social network adaptation can mitigate this negative effect without loss of social cohesion through network fragmentation. Our results highlight that seemingly immaterial network dynamics of spreading opinions or values can be of large relevance for the sustainable management of socio-ecological systems and suggest smartly conservative network adaptation as a strategy for mitigating environmental collapse. Hence, facing the great acceleration, these network dynamics should

  8. Life Science-Related Physics Laboratory on Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T. H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment on geometrical optics designed for life science majors in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The thin lens equation is used by the students to calculate the focal length of the lens necessary to correct a myopic condition in an optical bench simulation of a human eye. (Author/MLH)

  9. Significant correlations between optic nerve head microcirculation and visual field defects and nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma patients with myopic glaucomatous disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu Yokoyama, Naoko Aizawa, Naoki Chiba, Kazuko Omodaka, Masahiko Nakamura, Takaaki Otomo, Shunji Yokokura, Nobuo Fuse, Toru NakazawaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanBackground: Eyes with glaucoma are characterized by optic neuropathy with visual field defects in the areas corresponding to the optic disk damage. The exact cause for the glaucomatous optic neuropathy has not been determined. Myopia has been shown to be a risk factor for glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a significant correlation existed between the microcirculation of the optic disk and the visual field defects and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in glaucoma patients with myopic optic disks.Methods: Sixty eyes of 60 patients with myopic disks were studied; 36 eyes with glaucoma (men:women = 19:17 and 24 eyes with no ocular diseases (men:women = 14:10. The mean deviation (MD determined by the Humphrey field analyzer, and the peripapillary RNFLT determined by the Stratus-OCT were compared between the two groups. The ocular circulation was determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, and the mean blur rate (MBR was compared between the two groups. The correlations between the RNFLT and MBR of the corresponding areas of the optic disk and between MD and MBR of the optic disk in the glaucoma group were determined by simple regression analyses.Results: The average MBR for the entire optic disk was significantly lower in the glaucoma group than that in the control group. The differences of the MBR for the tissue in the superior, inferior, and temporal quadrants of the optic disk between the two groups were significant. The MBR for the entire optic disk was significantly correlated with the MD (r = 0.58, P = 0.0002 and the average RNFLT (r = 0.53, P = 0.0008. The tissue MBR of the optic disk was significantly correlated with the RNFLT in the superior, inferior, and temporal quadrants

  10. Macroeconomic landscape of refractive surgery in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Kevin J

    2015-07-01

    This review examines the economic history of refractive surgery and the decline of laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in the USA, and the emergence of refractive cataract surgery as an area of growth. Since it peaked in 2007 at 1.4 million procedures per year, LASIK has declined 50% in the USA, whereas refractive cataract surgery, including presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses (IOLs), astigmatism-correcting IOLs, and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, has grown to 350 000 procedures per year, beginning in 2003. Patients are price-sensitive and responsive to publicity (good or bad) about refractive surgery and refractive cataract surgery. LASIK's decline has been partially offset by the emergence of refractive cataract surgery. About 11% of all cataract surgery in the USA involves presbyopia-correcting IOLs, astigmatism-correcting IOLs, or a femtosecond laser. From the surgeon's perspective, there are high barriers to entry into the marketplace for refractive surgery and refractive cataract surgery due to the high capital cost of excimer and femtosecond lasers, the high skill level required to deliver spectacular results to demanding patients who pay out of pocket, and the necessity to perform a high volume of surgeries to satisfy both of these requirements. Probably, less than 7% of US cataract surgeons can readily meet all of these requirements.

  11. Screening for psychiatric distress and low self-esteem in patients presenting for excimer laser surgery for myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, B; Stark, C; McGhee, C N

    1997-01-01

    Patients presenting for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) may have unusual psychological profiles. Certain psychological variables may impact treatment outcome, making early identification crucial. We report a controlled questionnaire study of psychiatric "anxiety/distress" and self-esteem in myopic patients who presented for excimer laser treatment. Ninety consecutive myopic individuals (patients) who presented for excimer laser PRK and 50 consecutive myopic individuals who presented to an optometrist for contact lens fitting (controls) were assessed using two self-completion questionnaires-the GHQ30 and Hudson Index of Self-Esteem ISE. The questionnaires were distributed during assessment for treatment. PRK patients had a 90% response rate for both questionnaires and control patients, 98% for GHQ30 and 100% for Hudson ISE. PRK patients were significantly older (p = 0.000003), had a greater myopic spherical equivalent refraction (p = 0.012) and had better spectacle-corrected visual acuity (p = 0.0096). No significant differences were demonstrated with regard to anxiety/distress in terms of absolute scores (p = 0.07), or the proportion of patients being positive or negative (p = 0.10). Similarly, self-esteem was not significantly different between the two groups (absolute scores p = 0.69; positive/negative p = 0.29). The high response rate shows that the GHQ30 and Hudson ISE are easy to use and well tolerated by myopes in a busy clinic setting. The fact that the patients were older, with a greater refractive error, may partly reflect the onset of contact lens intolerance. The psychological findings suggest that PRK patients cannot be considered more distressed or anxious than other myopic individuals. There is no evidence that their decision to undergo surgery is driven by abnormally low self-esteem.

  12. Refractive errors, visual impairment, and the use of low-vision devices in albinism in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze Schwering, M; Kumar, N; Bohrmann, D; Msukwa, G; Kalua, K; Kayange, P; Spitzer, M S

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on the refractive implications of albinism in Malawi, which is mostly associated with the burden of visual impairment. The main goal was to describe the refractive errors and to analyze whether patients with albinism in Malawi, Sub-Saharan Africa, benefit from refraction. Age, sex, refractive data, uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity (UCVA, BCVA), colour vision, contrast sensitivity, and the prescription of sunglasses and low vision devices were collected for a group of 120 albino individuals with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). Refractive errors were evaluated objectively and subjectively by retinoscopy, and followed by cycloplegic refraction to reconfirm the results. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was also assessed binocularly. One hundred and twenty albino subjects were examined, ranging in age from 4 to 25 years (median 12 years), 71 (59 %) boys and 49 (41 %) girls. All exhibited horizontal pendular nystagmus. Mean visual acuity improved from 0.98 (0.33) logMAR to 0.77 (0.15) logMAR after refraction (p < 0.001). The best improvement of VA was achieved in patients with mild to moderate myopia. Patients with albinism who were hyperopic more than +1.5 D hardly improved from refraction. With the rule (WTR) astigmatism was more present (37.5 %) than against the rule (ATR) astigmatism (3.8 %). Patients with astigmatism less than 1.5 D improved in 15/32 of cases (47 %) by 2 lines or more. Patients with astigmatism equal to or more than 1.5 D in any axis improved in 26/54 of cases (48 %) by 2 lines or more. Refraction improves visual acuity of children with oculocutaneous albinism in a Sub-Saharan African population in Malawi. The mean improvement was 2 logMAR units.

  13. Hartmann wavefront sensing of the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Pam S.; Eichhorn, William L.; Wilson, Mark E.

    1994-06-01

    There is no doubt that astronomy with the `new, improved' Hubble Space Telescope will significantly advance our knowledge and understanding of the universe for years to come. The Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) was designed to restore the image quality to nearly diffraction limited performance for three of the first generation instruments; the faint object camera, the faint object spectrograph, and the Goddard high resolution spectrograph. Spectacular images have been obtained from the faint object camera after the installation of the corrective optics during the first servicing mission in December of 1993. About 85% of the light in the central core of the corrected image is contained within a circle with a diameter of 0.2 arcsec. This is a vast improvement over the previous 15 to 17% encircled energies obtained before COSTAR. Clearly COSTAR is a success. One reason for the overwhelming success of COSTAR was the ambitious and comprehensive test program conducted by various groups throughout the program. For optical testing of COSTAR on the ground, engineers at Ball Aerospace designed and built the refractive Hubble simulator to produce known amounts of spherical aberration and astigmatism at specific points in the field of view. The design goal for this refractive aberrated simulator (RAS) was to match the aberrations of the Hubble Space Telescope to within (lambda) /20 rms over the field at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. When the COSTAR optics were combined with the RAS optics, the corrected COSTAR output images were produced. These COSTAR images were recorded with a high resolution 1024 by 1024 array CCD camera, the Ball image analyzer (BIA). The image quality criteria used for assessment of COSTAR performance was encircled energy in the COSTAR focal plane. This test with the BIA was very important because it was a direct measurement of the point spread function. But it was difficult with this test to say anything quantitative about the

  14. Patchy Chorioretinal Atrophy Changes at the Posterior Pole After Ranibizumab for Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravano, Mariacristina; Scarinci, Fabio; Gilardi, Marta; Querques, Lea; Varano, Monica; Oddone, Francesco; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the potential role of ranibizumab treatment on the development or enlargement of chorioretinal atrophy (CRA) at the posterior pole in eyes with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV). This observational case series included patients having high myopia spherical equivalent refractive error ≥ -6.00 diopters, axial length (AxL) ≥ 26.0 mm in both eyes, and mCNV treated with ranibizumab 0.5 mg in one eye, who were retrospectively enrolled. Areas of CRA in treated and fellow eyes were measured on fundus autofluorescence images at baseline, 12, and 24 months. The CRA hypoautofluorescent lesions were divided in two groups: perilesional atrophy, corresponding to area around the mCNV, and patchy extralesional atrophy, corresponding to CRA between the temporal vascular arcades. Thirty-six eyes of 18 patients were included. The mean perilesional CRA size significantly increased from baseline to 12 months (3.5 ± 10.6 mm2, P = 0.02) and 24 months (4.4 ± 11.7 mm2, P = 0.038) in the treated eye. In treated and not treated eyes, patchy extralesional CRA at the posterior pole increased significantly from baseline to 12 and 24 months follow-up. None of the fellow eyes developed mCNV. No significant relationship was found between the number of injections, AxL, age, and perilesional and patchy extralesional CRA in the treated and not treated eyes (P > 0.05). In eyes with pathologic myopia and mCNV, intravitreal injections of ranibizumab should not be considered as a contributing risk factor worsening the natural course of CRA, even though the risk of the perilesional CRA enlargement should be taken into account.

  15. Spontaneous Rotation of a Toric Implantable Collamer Lens

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    Alejandro Navas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of toric implantable collamer lens (TICL spontaneous rotation in a patient with myopic astigmatism. A 23-year-old female underwent TICL implantation. Preoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 20/800 and 20/1200, respectively, with –7.75 –4.25 × 0° and –8.25 –5.25 × 180°. The left eye achieved an UCVA of 20/30. After 3 months of successful implantation of TICL in the left eye, the patient presented with a sudden decrease in visual acuity in the left eye. UCVA was 20/100 with a refraction of +2.50 –4.50 × 165°. We observed the toric marks with a 30° rotation from the original position and decided to reposition the TICL, obtaining a final UCVA of 20/25, which remained stable at 6 months’ follow-up. TICL can present a considerable rotation that compromises visual acuity. The relocation of TICL is a safe and effective procedure to recover visual acuity due to significant spontaneous TICL rotation.

  16. Longitudinal measurements of luminance and chromatic contrast sensitivity: comparison between wavefront-guided LASIK and contralateral PRK for myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Barreto Junior, Jackson; Lago, Marcos; Bechara, Samir Jacob; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare the postoperative contrast sensitivity functions between wavefront-guided LASIK eyes and their contralateral wavefront-guided PRK eyes. The participants were 11 healthy subjects (mean age=32.4 ± 6.2 years) who had myopic astigmatism. The spatial contrast sensitivity functions were measured before and three times after the surgery. Psycho and a Cambridge graphic board (VSG 2/4) were used to measure luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow spatial contrast sensitivity functions (from 0.85 to 13.1 cycles/degree). Longitudinal analysis and comparison between surgeries were performed. There was no significant contrast sensitivity change during the one-year follow-up measurements neither for LASIK nor for PRK eyes. The comparison between procedures showed no differences at 12 months postoperative. The present data showed similar contrast sensitivities during one-year follow-up of wave-front guided refractive surgeries. Moreover, one year postoperative data showed no differences in the effects of either wavefront-guided LASIK or wavefront-guided PRK on the luminance and chromatic spatial contrast sensitivity functions.

  17. The screening of visual impairment among preschool children in an urban population in Malaysia; the Kuching pediatric eye study: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premsenthil, Mallika; Manju, Rose; Thanaraj, Asokumaran; Rahman, Syed Alwi Syed Abdul; Kah, Tan Aik

    2013-04-19

    To screen for visual impairment in Malaysian preschool children. Visual screening was conducted in 400 preschool children aged 4 to 6 years. The screening involved two basic procedures; the distant visual acuity test using the Sheridan Gardiner chart and the depth perception test using the Langs stereoacuity test. Criteria for referral were a visual acuity of 6/12 or less in the better eye or a fail in the depth perception test. The prevalence of visual impairment was 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 7.6). Of the 400 preschool children screened, 20 of them failed the distant visual acuity test or the stereopsis test. Refractive errors were the most common cause of visual impairment (95%, 95% CI = 76.2, 98.8); myopic astigmatism was the commonest type of refractive error (63.2%, 95% CI = 40.8, 80.9). The study is a small but important step in the effort to understand the problem of visual impairment among our preschool children. Our study showed that it is feasible to measure distant visual acuity and stereopsis in this age group.

  18. Evaluation of Biomechanical Changes in Myopia Patients with Unsatisfactory Corneas After Femto Second-Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) Concurrent with Accelerated Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Using Corvis-ST: Two-Year Follow-Up Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiwei; Tao, Ye; Wang, Liqiang; Huang, Yifei

    2017-07-27

    BACKGROUND Some myopia patients with unsatisfactory corneas consider corneal refractive surgery for different reasons. Accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (ACXL) is an effective method to enhance the resistance of the cornea. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the changes of biomechanical properties in patients with myopia and thin corneas after femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) concurrent with ACXL. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective study was designed. A total of 22 eyes of 11 myopia astigmatism patients with unsatisfactory corneas were enrolled. The patients were assigned to femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis concurrent with accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (FS-LASIK-ACXL). The follow-up duration was 24 months. Manifest refraction, uncorrected (UDVA), and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), ultra-high-speed camera (Corvis-ST), corneal topography, anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT), Pentacam, and endothelial cell density (ECD) were examined before and after the operation. The corneal biomechanical and refractive data was analyzed using SAS9.3. Data were analyzed through normal distribution test and variance of analysis. The difference was considered as statistically significant when pLASIK-ACXL operation. The values of first applanation length (A1L), the second applanation length (A2L), the first applanation velocity (A1V), the second applanation velocity (A2V), deformation amplitude (DA), highest concavity peak distance (PD), and radius of curvature at the time of highest concavity (HCR) did not show significant difference after the operation. CONCLUSIONS FS-LASIK-ACXL is an effective and safe surgery for improving visual acuity for myopic patients with thin corneas, and it does not increase the risk of iatrogenic keratectasia.

  19. Clinical observation on photorefractive keratectomy with epithelial removal by excimer laser

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    Dong-Mei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical outcomes after photorefractive keratectomy(PRKwith epithelial removal by phototherapeutic keratectomy(PTKfor 1a. METHODS:A prospective analysis for 16 consecutive patients(30 eyeswith myopia and myopic astigmatism from July 2012 to July 2014 in our hospital underwent transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy(T-PRK, PRK with epithelial removal by PTK. Uncorrected distant visual acuity(UCVA, haze formation and remaining manifest refractive spherical equivalent(MRSEwere recorded before and at 1,3,6 and 12mo after operations. RESULTS:There were no significant differences(P>0.05in patients had an postoperative UCVA≥0.5 at 1, 3, 6 and 12mo compared with preoperative best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, and the same as the patients had an UCVA≥1.0(P>0.006. There were significant differences in haze values between different postoperative times(F=16.751, P=0.000. The haze value at 1mo was 0.71±0.25, which was gradually reduced with the time, and no more than 2 grades. Postoperative MRSE at 1mo was 0.9±0.87D, compared with 0.5±0.65D at 3mo, the difference was statistically significant(t=2.017, P=0.048. While the difference was not statistically significant(F=2.389, P=0.098among MRSE at 3, 6(0.5±0.45Dand 12mo(0.25±0.4D.CONCLUSION:The study obtained good clinical visual acuity. It shows slightly hyperopic shift and corneal haze at 1mo postoperatively. Large sample and grouped clinical research should be taken for the long-term stability of refraction and visual quality.

  20. Refractive error, visual acuity and causes of vision loss in children in Shandong, China. The Shandong Children Eye Study.

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    Jian Feng Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of refractive errors and prevalence and causes of vision loss among preschool and school children in East China. METHODS: Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4-18 years were selected from kindergartens, primary schools, and junior and senior high schools in the rural Guanxian County and the city of Weihai. All children underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of uncorrected (UCVA and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and auto-refractometry under cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as refractive error of ≤-0.5 diopters (D, high myopia as ≤ -6.0D, and amblyopia as BCVA ≤ 20/32 without any obvious reason for vision reduction and with strabismus or refractive errors as potential reasons. RESULTS: Out of 6364 eligible children, 6026 (94.7% children participated. Prevalence of myopia (overall: 36.9 ± 0.6%;95% confidence interval (CI:36.0,38.0 increased (P<0.001 from 1.7 ± 1.2% (95%CI:0.0,4.0 in the 4-years olds to 84.6 ± 3.2% (95%CI:78.0,91.0 in 17-years olds. Myopia was associated with older age (OR:1.56;95%CI:1.52,1.60;P<0.001, female gender (OR:1.22;95%CI:1.08,1.39;P = 0.002 and urban region (OR:2.88;95%CI:2.53,3.29;P<0.001. Prevalence of high myopia (2.0 ± 0.2% increased from 0.7 ± 0.3% (95%CI:0.1,1.3 in 10-years olds to 13.9 ± 3.0 (95%CI:7.8,19.9 in 17-years olds. It was associated with older age (OR:1.50;95%CI:1.41,1.60;P<0.001 and urban region (OR:3.11;95%CI:2.08,4.66;P<0.001. Astigmatism (≥ 0.75D (36.3 ± 0.6%;95%CI:35.0,38.0 was associated with older age (P<0.001;OR:1.06;95%CI:1.04,1.09, more myopic refractive error (P<0.001;OR:0.94;95%CI:0.91,0.97 and urban region (P<0.001;OR:1.47;95%CI:1.31,1.64. BCVA was ≤ 20/40 in the better eye in 19 (0.32% children. UCVA ≤ 20/40 in at least one eye was found in 2046 (34.05% children, with undercorrected refractive error as cause in 1975 (32.9% children. Amblyopia

  1. Análise comparativa da refração automática objetiva e refração clínica Automatic objective refraction and clinical refraction - a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Uras

    2001-02-01

    automated objective refraction was performed using the automatic keratorefractor TOPCON 3000. Results: 1,001 eyes of 504 patients were studied. 45.2% were male patients and the mean age was 36.6 years. There was an overall concordance between clinical refraction and the automated objective refraction in 66.7% of the patients. The concordance of a spherical value, not considering variations of -0.50 to +0.50 SD was, approximately 90%. In simple hyperopic/myopic astigmatic eyes the concordance was 27.6%, in eyes with compound hyperopic/myopic astigmatism the concordance was 97.7%. Cycloplegia did not significantly affect this concordance. There was no significant difference regarding the axis of astigmatic eyes when using both techniques. Conclusion: Automated objective refraction is an useful tool in clinical refraction but clinical data should also be considered and the final lens prescription should never be based solely on the automated examination.

  2. Outcomes of LASIK and PRK in previous penetrating corneal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovoor, Timmy A; Mohamed, Engy; Cavanagh, H Dwight; Bowman, R Wayne

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of excimer laser refractive surgery in correcting refractive error in eyes that have undergone previous penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Twenty-three keratorefractive procedures on 16 eyes from 16 consecutive subjects were evaluated between 2002 and 2008. Each patient presented a previous history of a PK with subsequent postoperative myopia and astigmatism. Keratometric value, manifest refraction, best-corrected visual acuity, uncorrected visual acuity, and complications were determined. There were a total of 14 photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) procedures performed on 11 eyes and 9 laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedures performed on 5 eyes. In the PRK group, the preoperative post-PK manifest refractive spherical equivalent and cylindrical error were -6.22 +/- 6.23 diopter and 5.23 +/- 2.26 D, respectively. The PRK postoperative manifest refractive spherical equivalent and cylindrical error were -3.61 +/- 4.23 D (P=0.25) and 3.21 +/- 1.78 D (P=0.02), respectively. In the LASIK group, the preoperative post-PK manifest refractive spherical equivalent and cylindrical error were -3.05 +/- 3.29 D and 4.11 +/- 2.38 D, respectively. The LASIK postoperative manifest refractive spherical equivalent and cylindrical error were -1.51 +/- 2.02 D (P=0.24) and 2.08 +/- 1.26 D (P=0.03), respectively. There was a 2-line or greater improvement of uncorrected visual acuity in 8 of the 14 PRK treatments and 5 of the 9 LASIK treatments. There were two episodes of acute graft rejection. One of the episodes resolved with topical and oral corticosteroids, and the other episode required a repeat corneal transplantation. PRK and LASIK are effective tools in reducing surgically induced astigmatism after penetrating corneal transplantation in most patients in this case series. The reduction of astigmatism may allow improved contact lens or spectacle fitting to achieve best-corrected binocular visual acuity.

  3. Myopic and Forward Looking Behavior in Branded Oral Anti-Diabetic Medication Consumption: An Example from Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Naomi C; Burgess, James F; Cabral, Howard J; Pizer, Steven D

    2017-06-01

    We evaluate consumption responses to the non-linear Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit. We compare propensity-matched older patients with diabetes and Part D Standard or low-income-subsidy (LIS) coverage. We evaluate monthly adherence to branded oral anti-diabetics, with high end-of-year donut hole prices (>$200) for Standard patients and consistent, low (≤$6) prices for LIS. As an additional control, we examine adherence to generic anti-diabetics, with relatively low, consistent prices for Standard patients. If Standard patients are forward looking, they will reduce branded adherence in January, and LIS-Standard differences will be constant through the year. Contrary to this expectation, branded adherence is lower for Standard patients in January and diverges from LIS as the coverage year progresses. Standard-LIS generic adherence differences are minimal. Our findings suggest that seniors with chronic conditions respond myopically to the nonlinear Part D benefit, reducing consumption in response to high deductible, initial coverage and gap prices. Thus, when the gap is fully phased out in 2020, cost-related nonadherence will likely remain in the face of higher spot prices for more costly branded medications. These results contribute to studies of Part D plan choice and medication adherence that suggest that seniors may not make optimal healthcare decisions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue.

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    Adie, Steven G; Graf, Benedikt W; Ahmad, Adeel; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2012-05-08

    Aberrations in optical microscopy reduce image resolution and contrast, and can limit imaging depth when focusing into biological samples. Static correction of aberrations may be achieved through appropriate lens design, but this approach does not offer the flexibility of simultaneously correcting aberrations for all imaging depths, nor the adaptability to correct for sample-specific aberrations for high-quality tomographic optical imaging. Incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) methods have demonstrated considerable improvement in optical image contrast and resolution in noninterferometric microscopy techniques, as well as in optical coherence tomography. Here we present a method to correct aberrations in a tomogram rather than the beam of a broadband optical interferometry system. Based on Fourier optics principles, we correct aberrations of a virtual pupil using Zernike polynomials. When used in conjunction with the computed imaging method interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy, this computational AO enables object reconstruction (within the single scattering limit) with ideal focal-plane resolution at all depths. Tomographic reconstructions of tissue phantoms containing subresolution titanium-dioxide particles and of ex vivo rat lung tissue demonstrate aberration correction in datasets acquired with a highly astigmatic illumination beam. These results also demonstrate that imaging with an aberrated astigmatic beam provides the advantage of a more uniform depth-dependent signal compared to imaging with a standard gaussian beam. With further work, computational AO could enable the replacement of complicated and expensive optical hardware components with algorithms implemented on a standard desktop computer, making high-resolution 3D interferometric tomography accessible to a wider group of users and nonspecialists.

  5. Is high myopia a risk factor for visual field progression or disk hemorrhage in primary open-angle glaucoma?

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    Nitta, Koji; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Wajima, Ryotaro; Tachibana, Gaku

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences between highly myopic and non-myopic primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, including normal-tension glaucoma patients. A total of 269 POAG patients were divided into two groups: patients with ≥26.5 mm of axial length (highly myopic group) and patients with field (VF) loss was significantly greater in the highly myopic group (10-year survival rate, 73.7%±6.8%) than in the non-myopic group (10-year survival rate, 46.3%±5.8%; log-rank test, P =0.0142). The occurrence of disk hemorrhage (DH) in the non-myopic group (1.60±3.04) was significantly greater than that in the highly myopic group (0.93±2.13, P =0.0311). The cumulative probability of DH was significantly lower in the highly myopic group (10-year survival rate, 26.4%±5.4%) than in the non-myopic group (10-year survival rate, 47.2%±6.6%, P =0.0413). Highly myopic POAG is considered as a combination of myopic optic neuropathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). If GON is predominant, it has frequent DH and more progressive VF loss. However, when the myopic optic neuropathy is predominant, it has less DH and less progressive VF loss.

  6. Z-LASIK and Trans-PRK for correction of high-grade myopia: safety, efficacy, predictability and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, Assaf; Mimouni, Michael; Livny, Eitan; Bahar, Irit

    2018-03-12

    The aim of the study was to examine the outcomes of transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (Trans-PRK) and Femtosecond Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (Z-LASIK) for the correction of high myopia. A retrospective cohort study design was used. The study group included 792 eyes with high-grade myopia (- 6.0 diopters or higher) or high-grade myopia with astigmatism that were treated with Z-LASIK or Trans-PRK in 2013 through 2014 in an optical outpatient clinic of a large private medical service. The Trans-PRK group comprised of 674 eyes with a spherical equivalent (SE) of - 7.87 ± 1.46 and the Z-LASIK group comprised of 118 eyes with a SE of - 7.19 ± 0.81 (P PRK group was - 0.06 and - 0.02 in the Z-LASIK group (P = 0.545). Efficacy index values were 0.92 in the Trans-PRK group and 0.95 in the Z-LASIK group (P = 0.083), and corresponding safety index values were 0.95 and 0.97 (P = 0.056). An UCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 94.20% of eyes in the Trans-PRK group, and 98.31% in the Z-LASIK group (P = 0.063). The majority of eyes in both the Trans-PRK and Z-LASIK groups were within ± 0.5D of attempted correction: 59.35 and 64.71%, respectively (P = 0.271). Both Trans-PRK and Z-LASIK demonstrated excellent efficacy, safety and predictability profiles, with results comparable and in some cases superior to the current literature. Results of Z-LASIK were slightly better than those of Trans-PRK, though the preoperative SE of the latter was higher.

  7. CIRCLE Enhancement After Myopic SMILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Jakob; Luft, Nikolaus; Mayer, Wolfgang J; Siedlecki, Martin; Kook, Daniel; Meyer, Bertram; Bechmann, Martin; Wiltfang, Rainer; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Dirisamer, Martin

    2018-05-01

    To report the outcomes of enhancement after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) using the VisuMax CIRCLE option (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany), which converts the SMILE cap into a femtosecond LASIK flap for secondary excimer laser application. Of 2,065 SMILE procedures, 22 eyes (1.1%) re-treated with CIRCLE with a follow-up of 3 months were included in the analysis. SMILE was performed in the usual manner. For re-treatment, the CIRCLE procedure was performed with pattern D flap creation on the VisuMax system and subsequent excimer laser ablation with a Zeiss MEL 90 laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec) with plano target in all cases. Spherical equivalent was -5.56 ± 2.22 diopters (D) before SMILE and -0.51 ± 1.08 D before CIRCLE. CIRCLE enhancement was performed after a mean of 10.0 ± 7.9 months, allowed for safe flap lifting in all eyes, and resulted in a final manifest refraction spherical equivalent of 0.18 ± 0.31 D at 3 months (P line of UDVA. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) remained unchanged at all time points (before vs after CIRCLE, P = .40). Two eyes (9.1 %) lost one line of CDVA; no eye lost two or more lines. The safety and efficacy indices were 1.03 and 0.97 at 3 months. The CIRCLE procedure represents an effective re-treatment option after SMILE. Compared to surface ablation re-treatment after SMILE, CIRCLE seems to offer advantages in respect to speed of visual recovery, safety, and predictability, but at the price of flap creation. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(5):304-309.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ...

  9. Relation of anthropometric measurements to ocular biometric changes and refractive error in children with thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkitkat, Rania S; El-Shazly, Amany A; Ebeid, Weam M; Deghedy, Marwa R

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate and correlate anthropometric, biometric, and refractive error changes in thalassemia major (TM). One hundred children with TM and another hundred healthy controls were recruited. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) were the anthropometric parameters recorded. Full ophthalmologic examination was performed, including best-corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, indirect ophthalmoscopy, keratometry (K readings), and ocular biometry. Compared to controls, children with TM were shorter and lighter, with a smaller BMI (pbiometric data, patients with thalassemia had steeper mean K readings (p = 0.03), shorter axial length (AXL) (p = 0.005), shorter vitreous chamber depth (pbiometric changes (steeper corneas and thicker lenses) to reach emmetropization, with an exaggerated response and subsequent myopic shift. However, growth retardation is not directly related to ocular growth changes, myopic shift, or variations in biometric parameters.

  10. Analysis of excimer laser radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume at LASIK procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiati, Rima Fitria; Rini Rizki, Artha Bona; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Rahmadiansah, Andi

    2016-11-01

    LASIK (Laser Asissted In Situ Interlamelar Keratomilieusis) is a technique for correcting refractive disorders of the eye such as myopia and astigmatism using an excimer laser. This procedure use photoablation technique to decompose corneal tissues. Although preferred due to its efficiency, permanency, and accuracy, the inappropriate amount radiant exposure often cause side effects like under-over correction, irregular astigmatism and problems on surrounding tissues. In this study, the radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume has been modelled through several processes. Data collecting results is laser data specifications with 193 nm wavelength, beam diameter of 0.065 - 0.65 cm, and fluence of 160 mJ/cm2. For the medical data, the myopia-astigmatism value, cornea size, corneal ablation thickness, and flap data are taken. The first modelling step is determining the laser diameter between 0.065 - 0.65 cm with 0.45 cm increment. The energy, power, and intensity of laser determined from laser beam area. Number of pulse and total energy is calculated before the radiant exposure of laser is obtained. Next is to determine the parameters influence the ablation volume. Regression method used to create the equation, and then the spot size is substituted to the model. The validation used is statistic correlation method to both experimental data and theory. By the model created, it is expected that any potential complications can be prevented during LASIK procedures. The recommendations can give the users clearer picture to determine the appropriate amount of radiant exposure with the corneal ablation volume necessary.

  11. One-year follow-up of femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan JCH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Choon-Hwai Tan, Wee-Jin HengNational Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, SingaporeBackground: The purpose of this report is to describe the initial outcomes of femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty.Methods: This retrospective surgical case series consisted of 10 eyes from 10 patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty at a tertiary center. Femtosecond laser was used to perform a zig-square incision on the donor cornea with matched dimensions on the recipient cornea. Outcomes measured included: unaided visual acuity and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity preoperatively and at one, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively; manifest refractive and topographic astigmatism at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively; and endothelial cell density loss, calculated at the end of the one-year follow-up period.Results: At one-year follow-up, there was an improvement in unaided visual acuity from a mean preoperative logMAR of 1.67 to 0.44, and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity from a mean preoperative logMAR of 1.33 to 0.13. By postoperative month 3, mean manifest refractive and topographic astigmatism was 2.31 ± 1.41 D and 2.59 ± 1.57 D, respectively. The mean reduction in endothelial cell density was 20.7% after one year of follow-up.Conclusion: Femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty provided a good visual outcome and early visual rehabilitation due to precise graft-host alignment and reduced astigmatism in the early postoperative months.Keywords: penetrating keratoplasty, femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty

  12. Photorefractive keratectomy in refractive accommodative esotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Akata, F; Or, M; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    1997-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) was performed on a 19-year-old man with hyperopic astigmatism and refractive accommodative esotropia. The patient was orthophoric while wearing spectacles, but had an esotropia of 30 prism dioptres at near and distance vision without spectacles. The best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/50 and of the left eye was 20/20. The excessive accommodative convergence of the patient was eliminated by correcting the hyperopic refractive error by performing PRK, and the patient became orthophoric after the treatment.

  13. Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Christian; Höhn, René; Kottler, Ulrike; Wild, Philipp; Blettner, Maria; Bühren, Jens; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    To study the distribution of refractive errors among adults of European descent. Population-based eye study in Germany with 15010 participants aged 35-74 years. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination according to a standardised protocol. Refractive error was determined by an automatic refraction device (Humphrey HARK 599) without cycloplegia. Definitions for the analysis were myopia +0.5 D, astigmatism >0.5 cylinder D and anisometropia >1.0 D difference in the spherical equivalent between the eyes. Exclusion criterion was previous cataract or refractive surgery. 13959 subjects were eligible. Refractive errors ranged from -21.5 to +13.88 D. Myopia was present in 35.1% of this study sample, hyperopia in 31.8%, astigmatism in 32.3% and anisometropia in 13.5%. The prevalence of myopia decreased, while the prevalence of hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia increased with age. 3.5% of the study sample had no refractive correction for their ametropia. Refractive errors affect the majority of the population. The Gutenberg Health Study sample contains more myopes than other study cohorts in adult populations. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of a generally lower prevalence of myopia among adults in Europe as compared with East Asia.

  14. Visual outcomes after Epi-LASIK and PRK for low and moderate myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Rose K; Coe, Charles D; Edwards, Jayson D; Ryan, Denise S; Bower, Kraig S

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate visual outcomes following epi-LASIK compared to photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Of a total 294 patients aged ≥21 years, 145 (290 eyes) underwent epi-LASIK and 149 (298 eyes) underwent PRK for low to moderate myopia or myopic astigmatism. Epi-LASIK was performed with the Amadeus II epikeratome (Abbott Medical Optics) and PRK with the Amoils rotary epithelial brush (Innovative Excimer Solutions). All ablations were performed using the same excimer laser system. Outcome measures included intraoperative complications, corneal reepithelialization, postoperative pain, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal haze, and quality of vision. Mean preoperative MRSE was -2.97±1.19 diopters (D) for epi-LASIK versus -2.95±1.06 D for PRK. Complete reepithelialization was achieved by postoperative day 4 in 46.9% of epi-LASIK eyes versus 92.4% of PRK eyes, with superior UDVA at postoperative day 1 in the PRK group (P=.002). Using Fisher exact test, a significantly higher percentage of epi-LASIK eyes compared to PRK eyes achieved 20/15 or better at 1 month (25.8% vs 17.8%, P=.031), 3 months (62.3% vs 49.3%, P=.004), 6 months (77.1% vs 57.9%, Pvs 61.9%, P=.002). A change in MRSE >0.50 D occurred in 8.4% of epi-LASIK eyes within the 3- and 12-month interval versus 17.7% of PRK eyes (P=.04). No differences were noted between the two procedures in CDVA or clinically significant haze. Epi-LASIK showed superior refractive efficacy and stability but required more time for wound healing, resulting in inferior early visual outcomes and a tendency to overcorrect higher refractive errors compared to PRK. Both treatments were safe and comparable in terms of pain and haze formation. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Intraocular straylight and contrast sensitivity after contralateral wavefront-guided LASIK and wavefront-guided PRK for myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Jackson; Barboni, Mirella T S; Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Sato, João R; Bechara, Samir J; Ventura, Dora F; Alves, Milton Ruiz

    2010-08-01

    To compare intraocular straylight measurements and contrast sensitivity after wavefront-guided LASIK (WFG LASIK) in one eye and wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy (WFG PRK) in the fellow eye for myopia and myopic astigmatism correction. A prospective, randomized study of 22 eyes of 11 patients who underwent simultaneous WFG LASIK and WFG PRK (contralateral eye). Both groups were treated with the NIDEK Advanced Vision Excimer Laser System, and a microkeratome was used for flap creation in the WFG LASIK group. High and low contrast visual acuity, wavefront analysis, contrast sensitivity, and retinal straylight measurements were performed preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. A third-generation straylight meter, C-Quant (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH), was used for measuring intraocular straylight. Twelve months postoperatively, mean uncorrected distance visual acuity was -0.06 +/- 0.07 logMAR in the WFG LASIK group and -0.10 +/- 0.10 logMAR in the WFG PRK group. Mean preoperative intraocular straylight was 0.94 +/- 0.12 logs for the WFG LASIK group and 0.96 +/- 0.11 logs for the WFG PRK group. After 12 months, the mean straylight value was 1.01 +/- 0.1 log s for the WFG LASIK group and 0.97 +/- 0.12 log s for the WFG PRK group. No difference was found between techniques after 12 months (P = .306). No significant difference in photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity between groups was noted. Intraocular straylight showed no statistically significant increase 1 year after WFG LASIK and WFG PRK. Higher order aberrations increased significantly after surgery for both groups. Nevertheless, WFG LASIK and WFG PRK yielded excellent visual acuity and contrast sensitivity performance without significant differences between techniques.

  16. Alcohol versus brush PRK: visual outcomes and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Rose K; Ryan, Denise S; Stutzman, Richard D; Psolka, Maximilian; Mines, Michael J; Wagner, Melvin E; Weber, Eric D; Wroblewski, Keith J; Bower, Kraig S

    2012-08-01

    A smooth corneal surface prior to laser ablation is important in order to achieve a favorable refractive outcome. In this study, we compare PRK outcomes following two commonly used methods of epithelial debridement: Amoils epithelial scrubber (brush) versus 20% ethanol (alcohol). We reviewed records of patients who underwent wavefront-optimized PRK for myopia or myopic astigmatism between January 2008 and June 2010. Two treatment groups (brush vs. alcohol) were compared in terms of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and complications at postoperative mont