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Sample records for mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived lipid

  1. Multifaceted role of lipids in Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkamaljit; Kaur, Jagdeep

    2017-03-01

    Mycobacterium leprae must adopt a metabolic strategy and undergo various metabolic alterations upon infection to survive inside the human body for years in a dormant state. A change in lipid homeostasis upon infection is highly pronounced in Mycobacterium leprae. Lipids play an essential role in the survival and pathogenesis of mycobacteria. Lipids are present in several forms and serve multiple roles from being a source of nutrition, providing rigidity, evading the host immune response to serving as virulence factors, etc. The synthesis and degradation of lipids is a highly regulated process and is the key to future drug designing and diagnosis for mycobacteria. In the current review, an account of the distinct roles served by lipids, the mechanism of their synthesis and degradation has been elucidated.

  2. Lipid Droplets and Mycobacterium leprae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Ayssar A.; Stehr, Matthias; Singh, Mahavir

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease and is a major source of morbidity in developing countries. Leprosy is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium leprae, which infects as primary target Schwann cells. Lepromatous leprosy exhibits multiple lesions of the skin, eyes, nerves, and lymph nodes. The sites of infection are characterized by the presence of foamy macrophages, fully packed with lipid droplets (LDs), which are induced by M. leprae. In the last years, it has become evident that M. tuberculosis imports lipids from foamy macrophages and is dependent on fatty acids for growth in infected macrophages. M. leprae seems to have similar mechanisms for scavenging lipids from the host. But due to the inability to culture M. leprae on laboratory media, research progresses only slowly. However, in the last years, substantial progress has been made in the field of lipid metabolism in M. leprae. Herein, we will present and summarize the lipid droplets formation and the metabolism of lipids during M. leprae infection. PMID:23209912

  3. Differential effects of Mycobacterium bovis - derived polar and apolar lipid fractions on bovine innate immune cells

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    Pirson Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM and trehalose monomycolate (TMM, the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs, triacyl glycerol (TAG, pentacyl trehalose (PAT, phenolic glycolipid (PGL, and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG. Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM, diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG, phenylethanolamine (PE and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs. These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen presenting cells to the polar lipid fraction. Phenotypic characterisation of the cells was performed by flow cytometry and significant decreases in the expression of MHCII, CD86 and CD1b were found after exposure to the polar lipid fraction. Polar lipids also significantly increased the levels of CD40 expressed by monocytes and cultured monocytes but no effect was seen on the constitutively high expression of CD40 on MDDC or on the levels of CD80 expressed by any of the cells. Finally, the capacity of polar fraction treated cells to stimulate alloreactive lymphocytes was assessed. Significant reduction in proliferative activity was seen after stimulation of PBMC by polar fraction treated cultured monocytes whilst no effect was seen after lipid treatment of MDDC. These data demonstrate that pathogenic mycobacterial polar lipids may significantly hamper the ability of the host APCs to induce an appropriate immune response to an invading pathogen.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces the miR-33 locus to reprogram autophagy and host lipid metabolism.

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    Ouimet, Mireille; Koster, Stefan; Sakowski, Erik; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; van Solingen, Coen; Oldebeken, Scott; Karunakaran, Denuja; Portal-Celhay, Cynthia; Sheedy, Frederick J; Ray, Tathagat Dutta; Cecchini, Katharine; Zamore, Philip D; Rayner, Katey J; Marcel, Yves L; Philips, Jennifer A; Moore, Kathryn J

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives in macrophages by evading delivery to the lysosome and promoting the accumulation of lipid bodies, which serve as a bacterial source of nutrients. We found that by inducing the microRNA (miRNA) miR-33 and its passenger strand miR-33*, Mtb inhibited integrated pathways involved in autophagy, lysosomal function and fatty acid oxidation to support bacterial replication. Silencing of miR-33 and miR-33* by genetic or pharmacological means promoted autophagy flux through derepression of key autophagy effectors (such as ATG5, ATG12, LC3B and LAMP1) and AMPK-dependent activation of the transcription factors FOXO3 and TFEB, which enhanced lipid catabolism and Mtb xenophagy. These data define a mammalian miRNA circuit used by Mtb to coordinately inhibit autophagy and reprogram host lipid metabolism to enable intracellular survival and persistence in the host.

  5. Clofazimine modulates the expression of lipid metabolism proteins in Mycobacterium leprae-infected macrophages.

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    Degang, Yang; Akama, Takeshi; Hara, Takeshi; Tanigawa, Kazunari; Ishido, Yuko; Gidoh, Masaichi; Makino, Masahiko; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) lives and replicates within macrophages in a foamy, lipid-laden phagosome. The lipids provide essential nutrition for the mycobacteria, and M. leprae infection modulates expression of important host proteins related to lipid metabolism. Thus, M. leprae infection increases the expression of adipophilin/adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and decreases hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), facilitating the accumulation and maintenance of lipid-rich environments suitable for the intracellular survival of M. leprae. HSL levels are not detectable in skin smear specimens taken from leprosy patients, but re-appear shortly after multidrug therapy (MDT). This study examined the effect of MDT components on host lipid metabolism in vitro, and the outcome of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine treatment on ADRP and HSL expression in THP-1 cells. Clofazimine attenuated the mRNA and protein levels of ADRP in M. leprae-infected cells, while those of HSL were increased. Rifampicin and dapsone did not show any significant effects on ADRP and HSL expression levels. A transient increase of interferon (IFN)-β and IFN-γ mRNA was also observed in cells infected with M. leprae and treated with clofazimine. Lipid droplets accumulated by M. leprae-infection were significantly decreased 48 h after clofazimine treatment. Such effects were not evident in cells without M. leprae infection. In clinical samples, ADRP expression was decreased and HSL expression was increased after treatment. These results suggest that clofazimine modulates lipid metabolism in M. leprae-infected macrophages by modulating the expression of ADRP and HSL. It also induces IFN production in M. leprae-infected cells. The resultant decrease in lipid accumulation, increase in lipolysis, and activation of innate immunity may be some of the key actions of clofazimine.

  6. Bacterial immunostat: Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipids and their role in the host immune response

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    Adriano Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract: The lipid-rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dynamic structure that is involved in the regulation of the transport of nutrients, toxic host-cell effector molecules, and anti-tuberculosis drugs. It is therefore postulated to contribute to the long-term bacterial survival in an infected human host. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. tuberculosis remodels the lipid composition of the cell wall as an adaptive mechanism against host-imposed stress. Some of these lipid species (trehalose dimycolate, diacylated sulphoglycolipid, and mannan-based lipoglycans trigger an immunopathologic response, whereas others (phthiocerol dimycocerosate, mycolic acids, sulpholipid-1, and di-and polyacyltrehalose appear to dampen the immune responses. These lipids appear to be coordinately expressed in the cell wall of M. tuberculosis during different phases of infection, ultimately determining the clinical fate of the infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the metabolism, transport, and homeostatic or immunostatic regulation of the cell wall lipids, and their orchestrated interaction with host immune responses that results in bacterial clearance, persistence, or tuberculosis.

  7. Protective Effect of a Lipid-Based Preparation from Mycobacterium smegmatis in a Murine Model of Progressive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    Maria de los Angeles García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A more effective vaccine against tuberculosis (TB is urgently needed. Based on its high genetic homology with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the nonpathogenic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis (Ms, could be an attractive source of potential antigens to be included in such a vaccine. We evaluated the capability of lipid-based preparations obtained from Ms to provide a protective response in Balb/c mice after challenge with Mtb H37Rv strain. The intratracheal model of progressive pulmonary TB was used to assess the level of protection in terms of bacterial load as well as the pathological changes in the lungs of immunized Balb/c mice following challenge with Mtb. Mice immunized with the lipid-based preparation from Ms either adjuvanted with Alum (LMs-AL or nonadjuvanted (LMs showed significant reductions in bacterial load (P<0.01 compared to the negative control group (animals immunized with phosphate buffered saline (PBS. Both lipid formulations showed the same level of protection as Bacille Calmette and Guerin (BCG. Regarding the pathologic changes in the lungs, mice immunized with both lipid formulations showed less pneumonic area when compared with the PBS group (P<0.01 and showed similar results compared with the BCG group. These findings suggest the potential of LMs as a promising vaccine candidate against TB.

  8. Essential role of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the maintenance of lipid storage in Mycobacterium leprae-infected macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Kazunari; Degang, Yang; Kawashima, Akira; Akama, Takeshi; Yoshihara, Aya; Ishido, Yuko; Makino, Masahiko; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2012-05-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), the causative agent of leprosy, parasitizes within the foamy or enlarged phagosome of macrophages where rich lipids accumulate. Although the mechanisms for lipid accumulation in the phagosome have been clarified, it is still unclear how such large amounts of lipids escape degradation. To further explore underlying mechanisms involved in lipid catabolism in M. leprae-infected host cells, we examined the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a key enzyme in fatty acid mobilization and lipolysis, in human macrophage THP-1 cells. We found that infection by live M. leprae significantly suppressed HSL expression levels. This suppression was not observed with dead M. leprae or latex beads. Macrophage activation by peptidoglycan (PGN), the ligand for toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), increased HSL expression; however, live M. leprae suppressed this increase. HSL expression was abolished in the slit-skin smear specimens from patients with lepromatous and borderline leprosy. In addition, the recovery of HSL expression was observed in patients who experienced a lepra reaction, which is a cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity immune response, or in patients who were successfully treated with multi-drug therapy. These results suggest that M. leprae suppresses lipid degradation through inhibition of HSL expression, and that the monitoring of HSL mRNA levels in slit-skin smear specimens may be a useful indicator of patient prognosis.

  9. Cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis BCG are inflammatory when inoculated within a gel matrix: characterization of a new model of the granulomatous response to mycobacterial components.

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    Rhoades, Elizabeth R; Geisel, Rachel E; Butcher, Barbara A; McDonough, Sean; Russell, David G

    2005-05-01

    The chronic inflammatory response to Mycobacterium generates complex granulomatous lesions that balance containment with destruction of infected tissues. To study the contributing factors from host and pathogen, we developed a model wherein defined mycobacterial components and leukocytes are delivered in a gel, eliciting a localized response that can be retrieved and analysed. We validated the model by comparing responses to the cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to reported activities in other models. BCG lipid-coated beads and bone marrow-derived macrophages (input macrophages) were injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. Input macrophages and recruited peritoneal exudate cells took up fluorescently tagged BCG lipids, and matrix-associated macrophages and neutrophils produced tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1alpha, and interleukin-6. Leukocyte numbers and cytokine levels were greater in BCG lipid-bearing matrices than matrices containing non-coated or phosphatidylglycerol-coated beads. Leukocytes arrived in successive waves of neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils, followed by NK and T cells (CD4(+), CD8(+), or gammadelta) at 7 days and B cells within 12 days. BCG lipids also predisposed matrices for adherence and vascularization, enhancing cellular recruitment. We submit that the matrix model presents pertinent features of the murine granulomatous response that will prove to be an adaptable method for study of this complex response.

  10. "Genetic regulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a lipid-rich environment".

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    Aguilar-Ayala, Diana A; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Vandamme, Peter; Martin, Anandi; Gonzalez-Y-Merchand, Jorge A

    2017-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. Although lipids (mainly fatty acids and cholesterol) have been reported to play an important role during active and latent infection of M. tuberculosis, there are other molecular aspects of bacterial response to those substrates that are not fully understood, involving gene regulation background. This review highlights recent insights on pathogen gene expression: regulation during its active growth, during survival in presence of lipids and under variable hostile host microenvironments. We also propose several application options of this knowledge that may contribute for improved TB control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo activity of released cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin is due principally to trehalose mycolates.

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    Geisel, Rachel E; Sakamoto, Kaori; Russell, David G; Rhoades, Elizabeth R

    2005-04-15

    The hallmark of Mycobacterium-induced pathology is granulomatous inflammation at the site of infection. Mycobacterial lipids are potent immunomodulators that contribute to the granulomatous response and are released in appreciable quantities by intracellular bacilli. Previously we investigated the granulomagenic nature of the peripheral cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) by coating the lipids onto 90-microm diameter microspheres that were mixed into Matrigel matrix with syngeneic bone marrow-derived macrophages and injected i.p. into mice. These studies demonstrated that BCG lipids elicit proinflammatory cytokines and recruit leukocytes. In the current study we determined the lipids responsible for this proinflammatory effect. BCG-derived cell wall lipids were fractionated and purified by liquid chromatography and preparative TLC. The isolated fractions including phosphatidylinositol dimannosides, cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, trehalose monomycolate, trehalose dimycolate, and mycoside B. Trehalose dimycolate, when delivered to bone marrow-derived murine macrophages, induced the greatest secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in vitro. Trehalose dimycolate similarly induced the greatest secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines in ex vivo matrices over the course of 12 days. Trehalose monomycolate and dimycolate also induced profound neutrophil recruitment in vivo. Experiments with TLR2 or TLR4 gene-deficient mice revealed no defects in responses to trehalose mycolates, although MyD88-deficient mice manifested significantly reduced cell recruitment and cytokine production. These results demonstrate that the trehalose mycolates, particularly trehalose dimycolate, are the most bioactive lipids in the BCG extract, inducing a proinflammatory cascade that influences granuloma formation.

  12. Efficacy of novel lipid-formulated whole bacterial cell vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, J.F.T.; Hughes, A.D.; Liggett, S.; Farquhar, P.A.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Bakker, D.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis [MAP], the Causative agent of enteric Johne's disease, incurs significant economic losses to the livestock industry. Prophylactic vaccination can be employed as a control means, however mineral oil-based vaccines Currently in practice have limited

  13. Trehalose Polyphleates, External Cell Wall Lipids in Mycobacterium abscessus, Are Associated with the Formation of Clumps with Cording Morphology, Which Have Been Associated with Virulence

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    Marta Llorens-Fons

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus is a reemerging pathogen that causes pulmonary diseases similar to tuberculosis, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When grown in agar medium, M. abscessus strains generate rough (R or smooth colonies (S. R morphotypes are more virulent than S morphotypes. In searching for the virulence factors responsible for this difference, R morphotypes have been found to form large aggregates (clumps that, after being phagocytozed, result in macrophage death. Furthermore, the aggregates released to the extracellular space by damaged macrophages grow, forming unphagocytosable structures that resemble cords. In contrast, bacilli of the S morphotype, which do not form aggregates, do not damage macrophages after phagocytosis and do not form cords. Cording has also been related to the virulence of M. tuberculosis. In this species, the presence of mycolic acids and surface-exposed cell wall lipids has been correlated with the formation of cords. The objective of this work was to study the roles of the surface-exposed cell wall lipids and mycolic acids in the formation of cords in M. abscessus. A comparative study of the pattern and structure of mycolic acids was performed on R (cording and S (non-cording morphotypes derived from the same parent strains, and no differences were observed between morphotypes. Furthermore, cords formed by R morphotypes were disrupted with petroleum ether (PE, and the extracted lipids were analyzed by thin layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Substantial amounts of trehalose polyphleates (TPP were recovered as major lipids from PE extracts, and images obtained by transmission electron microscopy suggested that these lipids are localized to the external surfaces of cords and R bacilli. The structure of M. abscessus TPP was revealed to be similar to those previously described in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Although the exact role of TPP is unknown, our

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex lipid virulence factors preserved in the 17,000-year-old skeleton of an extinct bison, Bison antiquus.

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    Oona Y-C Lee

    Full Text Available Tracing the evolution of ancient diseases depends on the availability and accessibility of suitable biomarkers in archaeological specimens. DNA is potentially information-rich but it depends on a favourable environment for preservation. In the case of the major mycobacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, robust lipid biomarkers are established as alternatives or complements to DNA analyses. A DNA report, a decade ago, suggested that a 17,000-year-old skeleton of extinct Bison antiquus, from Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming, was the oldest known case of tuberculosis. In the current study, key mycobacterial lipid virulence factor biomarkers were detected in the same two samples from this bison. Fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC indicated the presence of mycolic acids of the mycobacterial type, but they were degraded and could not be precisely correlated with tuberculosis. However, pristine profiles of C(29, C(30 and C(32 mycocerosates and C(27 mycolipenates, typical of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, were recorded by negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography mass spectrometry of pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives. These findings were supported by the detection of C(34 and C(36 phthiocerols, which are usually esterified to the mycocerosates. The existence of Pleistocene tuberculosis in the Americas is confirmed and there are many even older animal bones with well-characterised tuberculous lesions similar to those on the analysed sample. In the absence of any evidence of tuberculosis in human skeletons older than 9,000 years BP, the hypothesis that this disease evolved as a zoonosis, before transfer to humans, is given detailed consideration and discussion.

  15. The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells.

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    Jin, Song-Hyo; An, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2017-06-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M.leprae-infected Schwann cells in the nerve biopsies of lepromatous leprosy patients. M.leprae-induced LD formation favors intracellular M.leprae survival in primary Schwann cells and in a myelinating Schwann cell line referred to as ST88-14. In the current study, we initially characterized SW-10 cells and investigated the effects of LDs on M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells, which are non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells express S100, a marker for cells from the neural crest, and NGFR p75, a marker for immature or non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells, however, do not express myelin basic protein (MBP), a marker for myelinating Schwann cells, and myelin protein zero (MPZ), a marker for precursor, immature, or myelinating Schwann cells, all of which suggests that SW-10 cells are non-myelinating Schwann cells. In addition, SW-10 cells have phagocytic activity and can be infected with M. leprae. Infection with M. leprae induces the formation of LDs. Furthermore, inhibiting the formation of M. leprae-induced LD enhances the maturation of phagosomes containing live M.leprae and decreases the ATP content in the M. leprae found in SW-10 cells. These facts suggest that LD formation by M. leprae favors intracellular M. leprae survival in SW-10 cells, which leads to the logical conclusion that M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells can be a new model for investigating the interaction of M.leprae with non-myelinating Schwann cells.

  16. In Vitro Activity of Copper(II Complexes, Loaded or Unloaded into a Nanostructured Lipid System, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Patricia B. da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, presenting 9.5 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths in 2014. The aim of this study was to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system (NLS composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol, 10% surfactant (soy phosphatidylcholine, sodium oleate, and Eumulgin® HRE 40 ([castor oil polyoxyl-40-hydrogenated] in a proportion of 3:6:8, and an 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4 as a tactic to enhance the in vitro anti-Mtb activity of the copper(II complexes [CuCl2(INH2]·H2O (1, [Cu(NCS2(INH2]·5H2O (2 and [Cu(NCO2(INH2]·4H2O (3. The Cu(II complex-loaded NLS displayed sizes ranging from 169.5 ± 0.7095 to 211.1 ± 0.8963 nm, polydispersity index (PDI varying from 0.135 ± 0.0130 to 0.236 ± 0.00100, and zeta potential ranging from −0.00690 ± 0.0896 to −8.43 ± 1.63 mV. Rheological analysis showed that the formulations behave as non-Newtonian fluids of the pseudoplastic and viscoelastic type. Antimycobacterial activities of the free complexes and NLS-loaded complexes against Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 were evaluated by the REMA methodology, and the selectivity index (SI was calculated using the cytotoxicity index (IC50 against Vero (ATCC® CCL-81, J774A.1 (ATCC® TIB-67, and MRC-5 (ATCC® CCL-171 cell lines. The data suggest that the incorporation of the complexes into NLS improved the inhibitory action against Mtb by 52-, 27-, and 4.7-fold and the SI values by 173-, 43-, and 7-fold for the compounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The incorporation of the complexes 1, 2 and 3 into the NLS also resulted in a significant decrease of toxicity towards an alternative model (Artemia salina L.. These findings suggest that the NLS may be considered as a platform for incorporation of metallic complexes aimed at the treatment of TB.

  17. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium massiliense JCM 15300 in the Mycobacterium abscessus group reveal a conserved genomic island MmGI-1 related to putative lipid metabolism.

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    Tsuyoshi Sekizuka

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus group subsp., such as M. massiliense, M. abscessus sensu stricto and M. bolletii, are an environmental organism found in soil, water and other ecological niches, and have been isolated from respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, postoperative infection of cosmetic surgery. To determine the unique genetic feature of M. massiliense, we sequenced the complete genome of M. massiliense type strain JCM 15300 (corresponding to CCUG 48898. Comparative genomic analysis was performed among Mycobacterium spp. and among M. abscessus group subspp., showing that additional ß-oxidation-related genes and, notably, the mammalian cell entry (mce operon were located on a genomic island, M. massiliense Genomic Island 1 (MmGI-1, in M. massiliense. In addition, putative anaerobic respiration system-related genes and additional mycolic acid cyclopropane synthetase-related genes were found uniquely in M. massiliense. Japanese isolates of M. massiliense also frequently possess the MmGI-1 (14/44, approximately 32% and three unique conserved regions (26/44; approximately 60%, 34/44; approximately 77% and 40/44; approximately 91%, as well as isolates of other countries (Malaysia, France, United Kingdom and United States. The well-conserved genomic island MmGI-1 may play an important role in high growth potential with additional lipid metabolism, extra factors for survival in the environment or synthesis of complex membrane-associated lipids. ORFs on MmGI-1 showed similarities to ORFs of phylogenetically distant M. avium complex (MAC, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer or genetic recombination events might have occurred within MmGI-1 among M. massiliense and MAC.

  18. Oral vaccination of guinea pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in a lipid matrix protects against aerosol infection with virulent M. bovis.

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    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Nadian, Allan; Vipond, Julia; Court, Pinar; Williams, Ann; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive disease control option. Delivery of BCG in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccinating badgers over a wide geographical area. Using a guinea pig pulmonary challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of candidate badger oral vaccines, based on broth-grown or ball-milled BCG, delivered either as aqueous suspensions or formulated in two lipids with differing fatty acid profiles (one being animal derived and the other being vegetable derived). Protection was determined in terms of increasing body weight after aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis, reduced dissemination of M. bovis to the spleen, and, in the case of one oral formulation, restricted growth of M. bovis in the lungs. Only oral BCG formulated in lipid gave significant protection. These data point to the potential of the BCG-lipid formulation for further development as a tool for controlling tuberculosis in badgers.

  19. The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Song-Hyo; An, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidate...

  20. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.; Gadbery, John; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Martin, Dwight W.; Sampson, Nicole S.; Miller, W. T.; Tonge, Peter J.; Seeliger, Jessica C.

    2015-09-08

    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids know as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinase PknB modifies PapA5 on three Thr residues, including two (T196, T198) located on an unresolved loop. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and suggest possible mechanisms by which DIM biosynthesis may be regulated by the post-translational modification of PapA5.

  1. In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae to ticarcillin in combination with clavulanic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, M J; Rodriguez, F C; Luna, M D; Benavente, M C

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonei) to ticarcillin in combination with calvulanic acid (CA) was studied by the agar dilution method. All the M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum strains were inhibited at a ticarcillin concentration of 32 micrograms/ml or lower in combination with 5 micrograms of CA. M. chelonae and M. avium strains ...

  2. Methanol production by Mycobacterium smegmatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, L.S.; Ballou, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis cells produce [ 3 H]methanol when incubated with [methyl- 3 H]methionine. The methanol is derived from S-adenosylmethionine rather than methyltetrahydrofolate. M. smegmatis cells carboxymethylate several proteins, and some of the methanol probably results from their demethylation, but most of the methanol may come from an unidentified component with a high gel mobility. Although methanol in the medium reached 19 μM, it was not incorporated into the methylated mannose polysaccharide, a lipid carrier in this organism

  3. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis homologue of the Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the completion of genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and upsurge in the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection worldwide partly as a result of HIV pandemic, there is need for rationale approach to vaccine and chemotherapy discoveries for M. tuberculosis. The homologue of mig gene of. Mycobacterium ...

  4. Fatty Acyl Chains of Mycobacterium marinum Lipooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Yoann; Alibaud, Laeticia; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Maes, Emmanuel; Tokarski, Caroline; Elass, Elisabeth; Kremer, Laurent; Guérardel, Yann

    2011-01-01

    We have recently established the fine structure of the glycan backbone of lipooligosaccharides (LOS-I to LOS-IV) isolated from Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These studies culminated with the description of an unusual terminal N-acylated monosaccharide that confers important biological functions to LOS-IV, such as macrophage activation, that may be relevant to granuloma formation. It was, however, also suggested that the lipid moiety was required for LOSs to exert their immunomodulatory activity. Herein, using highly purified LOSs from M. marinum, we have determined through a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR techniques, the structure and localization of the fatty acids composing the lipid moiety. The occurrence of two distinct polymethyl-branched fatty acids presenting specific localizations is consistent with the presence of two highly related polyketide synthases (Pks5 and Pks5.1) in M. marinum and presumably involved in the synthesis of these fatty acyl chains. In addition, a bioinformatic search permitted us to identify a set of enzymes potentially involved in the biosynthesis or transfer of these lipids to the LOS trehalose unit. These include MMAR_2343, a member of the Pap (polyketide-associated protein) family, that acylates trehalose-based glycolipids in M. marinum. The participation of MMAR_2343 to LOS assembly was demonstrated using a M. marinum mutant carrying a transposon insertion in the MMAR_2343 gene. Disruption of MMAR_2343 resulted in a severe LOS breakdown, indicating that MMAR_2343, hereafter designated PapA4, fulfills the requirements for LOS acylation and assembly. PMID:21803773

  5. In vitro Inhibition of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Nigerian plants used in traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis and/or some of its symptoms were screened for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only 3 of the 6 crude methanolic extracts of the 6 plant species exhibited inhibitory activities against ...

  6. Mycobacterium canettii Infection of Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fériel; Brégeon, Fabienne; Poncin, Isabelle; Weber, Pascal; Drancourt, Michel; Canaan, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissues were shown to host Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is persisting inside mature adipocytes. It remains unknown whether this holds true for Mycobacterium canettii , a rare representative of the M. tuberculosis complex responsible for lymphatic and pulmonary tuberculosis. Here, we infected primary murine white and brown pre-adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mature adipocytes with M. canettii and M. tuberculosis as a positive control. Both mycobacteria were able to infect 18-22% of challenged primary murine pre-adipocytes; and to replicate within these cells during a 7-day experiment with the intracellular inoculums being significantly higher in brown than in white pre-adipocytes for M. canettii ( p = 0.02) and M. tuberculosis ( p = 0.03). Further in-vitro infection of 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes yielded 9% of infected cells by M. canettii and 17% of infected cells by M. tuberculosis ( p = 0.001). Interestingly, M. canettii replicated and accumulated intra-cytosolic lipid inclusions within mature adipocytes over a 12-day experiment; while M. tuberculosis stopped replicating at day 3 post-infection. These results indicate that brown pre-adipocytes could be one of the potential targets for M. tuberculosis complex mycobacteria; and illustrate differential outcome of M. tuberculosis complex mycobacteria into adipose tissues. While white adipose tissue is an unlikely sanctuary for M. canettii , it is still an open question whether M. canettii and M. tuberculosis could persist in brown adipose tissues.

  7. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  8. Mycobacterium persicum sp. nov., a novel species closely related to Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium gastri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Trovato, Alberto; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Borroni, Emanuele; Heidarieh, Parvin; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Shahbazi, Narges; Cirillo, Daniela M; Tortoli, Enrico

    2017-06-01

    Four strains isolated in Iran from pulmonary specimens of unrelated patients are proposed as representative of a novel Mycobacterium species. Similarity, at the phenotypic level, with Mycobacterium kansasii is remarkable with the photochromogenic yellow pigmentation of the colonies being the salient feature. They differ, however, genotypically from this species and present unique sequences in 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes. The average nucleotide identity and the genome-to-genome distance fully support the status of an independent species. The name proposed for this species is Mycobacterium persicum sp. nov. with AFPC-000227T (=DSM 104278T=CIP 111197T) as the type strain.

  9. Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Humberto; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Falconí, Eduardo; Bravo, Francisco; Donaires, Ninoska; Van Marck, Eric; Portaels, Françoise

    2008-03-01

    Eight adult patients (ages 18-58, 5 women) with Buruli ulcer (BU) confirmed by at least 2 diagnostic methods were seen in a 10-year period. Attempts to culture Mycobacterium ulcerans failed. Five patients came from jungle areas, and 3 from the swampy northern coast of Peru. The patients had 1-5 lesions, most of which were on the lower extremities. One patient had 5 clustered gluteal lesions; another patient had 2 lesions on a finger. Three patients were lost to follow-up. All 5 remaining patients had moderate disease. Diverse treatments (antituberculous drugs, World Health Organization [WHO] recommended antimicrobial drug treatment for BU, and for 3 patients, excision surgery) were successful. Only 1 patient (patient 7) received the specific drug treatment recommended by WHO. BU is endemic in Peru, although apparently infrequent. Education of populations and training of health workers are first needed to evaluate and understand the full extent of BU in Peru.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism underpins the physiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, although experimental mycobacteriology has provided key insights into the metabolic pathways that are essential for survival and pathogenesis, determining the metabolic status of bacilli during different stages of infection and in different cellular compartments remains challenging. Recent advances—in particular, the development of systems biology tools such as metabolomics—have enabled key insights into the biochemical state of M. tuberculosis in experimental models of infection. In addition, their use to elucidate mechanisms of action of new and existing antituberculosis drugs is critical for the development of improved interventions to counter tuberculosis. This review provides a broad summary of mycobacterial metabolism, highlighting the adaptation of M. tuberculosis as specialist human pathogen, and discusses recent insights into the strategies used by the host and infecting bacillus to influence the outcomes of the host–pathogen interaction through modulation of metabolic functions. PMID:25502746

  11. Mycobacterium fortuitum causing surgical site wound infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleem, F.; Usman, J.; Omair, M.; Din, R.U.; Hassan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum, a rapidly growing mycobacterium, is ubiquitous in nature. The organism was considered to be a harmless saprophyte but now there have been several reports from different parts of the world wherein it has been incriminated in a variety of human infections. We report a culture positive case of surgical site infection caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum, who responded well to the treatment. (author)

  12. Lipid containing nanodrug delivery system for the treatment of Tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of the antibiotics in the cells, hence reducing the dose frequency and simultaneously improve patient compliance. The cell wall envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) contains unique high molecular weight lipids. Of these, the most abundant are mycolic acids...

  13. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  14. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901 T (=JCM 31611 T =KCTC 39843 T ).

  15. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse...... aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground......-breaking identification of a number of lipid scramblases....

  16. Buruli Ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detail/buruli-ulcer-(mycobacterium-ulcerans-infection)","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Buruli ulcer on a regular basis to share information, coordinate disease control and research efforts, and monitor ...

  17. Characterization of a Mycobacterium leprae antigen related to the secreted Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein MPT32

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieles, B.; van Agterveld, M.; Janson, A.; Clark-Curtiss, J.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Harboe, M.; Thole, J.

    1994-01-01

    Secreted proteins may serve as major targets in the immune response to mycobacteria. To identify potentially secreted Mycobacterium leprae antigens, antisera specific for culture filtrate proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used to screen a panel of recombinant antigens selected previously

  18. Phenotypic assays for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Deboosere, Nathalie; Delorme, Vincent; Queval, Christophe J; Deloison, Gaspard; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Lafont, Frank; Baulard, Alain; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Brodin, Priscille

    2017-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major global threat, killing more than one million persons each year. With the constant increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to first- and second-line drugs, there is an urgent need for the development of new drugs to control the propagation of TB. Although screenings of small molecules on axenic M. tuberculosis cultures were successful for the identification of novel putative anti-TB drugs, new drugs in the development pipeline remains scarce. Host-directed therapy may represent an alternative for drug development against TB. Indeed, M. tuberculosis has multiple specific interactions within host phagocytes, which may be targeted by small molecules. In order to enable drug discovery strategies against microbes residing within host macrophages, we developed multiple fluorescence-based HT/CS phenotypic assays monitoring the intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis as well as its intracellular trafficking. What we propose here is a population-based, multi-parametric analysis pipeline that can be used to monitor the intracellular fate of M. tuberculosis and the dynamics of cellular events such as phagosomal maturation (acidification and permeabilization), zinc poisoning system or lipid body accumulation. Such analysis allows the quantification of biological events considering the host-pathogen interplay and may thus be derived to other intracellular pathogens. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. High-contrast imaging of mycobacterium tuberculosis using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Lee, Eungjang; Park, Seung-Han

    2015-07-01

    Nonlinear optical microcopy has become an important tool in investigating biomaterials due to its various advantages such as label-free imaging capabilities. In particular, it has been shown that third-harmonic generation (THG) signals can be produced at interfaces between an aqueous medium (e.g. cytoplasm, interstitial fluid) and a mineralized lipidic surface. In this work, we have demonstrated that label-free high-contrast THG images of the mycobacterium tuberculosis can be obtained using THG microscopy.

  20. Polymorphisms of twenty regulatory proteins between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are responsible for tuberculosis in humans or animals, respectively. Both species are closely related and belong to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). M. tuberculosis is the most ancient species from which M. bovis and the other members o...

  1. [Characterization of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from HIV positive individuals in Colombia, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Claudia; Ricardo, Alba; Zabaleta, Angie; Llerena, Claudia; Puerto, Gloria

    2017-01-24

    One third of the increase in tuberculosis cases is attributed to the spread of HIV. In 2012, 1,397 HIV-associated tuberculosis cases were reported in Colombia, i.e., 11.8% of the total cases. Molecular epidemiology tools help to understand the transmission of tuberculosis. To characterize clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from HIV-infected individuals, received at the Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia in the Instituto Nacional de Salud. This was a descriptive observational study. We analyzed 63 isolates of M. tuberculosis from HIV-infected individuals. Identification, drug susceptibility and genotyping assays were performed. Of the new cases evaluated, three (5.0%) were resistant to isoniazid combined with streptomycin; two (3.3%) to rifampicin, and one (1.6%) to isoniazid. Previously treated cases were sensitive. No multidrug resistance was evident. Among the predominant genotypes, 20 isolates were (31.7%) LAM9, eight (12.7%), H1, and seven (11.1%), T1. Nineteen isolates corresponded to orphan patterns. One single grouping was observed among tested isolates. We found no statistically significantdifference between the proportions of the antituberculous drug resistance and genotypes. We found resistant isolates to the most powerful drugs, rifampicin and isoniazid, among new cases, showing the transmission of resistant strains. Genetic families of M. tuberculosis LAM9, T1 and H1 correspond to those described in the general population. We detected no active transmission among studied isolates. More comprehensive studies are needed to assess the real situation of HIV associated tuberculosis in the country regarding sensitivity and transmission.

  2. Mycobacterium avium Infection after Acupoint Embedding Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhang, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Nontuberculous mycobacterium is a ubiquitous environmental organism that is unusual to cause a true infection, but it can cause severe cutaneous infections. In this case report, we present a successful treatment for a Chinese patient with Mycobacterium avium cutaneous infection after acupoint embedding therapy. We managed to conduct pathogenic detection, drug sensitive test, and multidisciplinary consultation. Finally, a systematic treatment strategy of nontuberculous mycobacterium was performed. Twenty-two-month follow-up revealed excellent outcome without any recurrence.

  3. Molecular Characterization of the Resistance of Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterize the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to second line drugs using a line probe assay. Methods: Multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated between December 2008 and December 2009 were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs ...

  4. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  5. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul

    2002-05-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  6. Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: In Burkina Faso, there is no recent data about the level of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains among newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update of the primary drug resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis among patients in Burkina faso. METHODS: ...

  7. MycoCAP - Mycobacterium Comparative Analysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Siew Woh; Ang, Mia Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Tan, Shi Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Heydari, Hamed; Mutha, Naresh V R; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah

    2015-12-15

    Mycobacterium spp. are renowned for being the causative agent of diseases like leprosy, Buruli ulcer and tuberculosis in human beings. With more and more mycobacterial genomes being sequenced, any knowledge generated from comparative genomic analysis would provide better insights into the biology, evolution, phylogeny and pathogenicity of this genus, thus helping in better management of diseases caused by Mycobacterium spp.With this motivation, we constructed MycoCAP, a new comparative analysis platform dedicated to the important genus Mycobacterium. This platform currently provides information of 2108 genome sequences of at least 55 Mycobacterium spp. A number of intuitive web-based tools have been integrated in MycoCAP particularly for comparative analysis including the PGC tool for comparison between two genomes, PathoProT for comparing the virulence genes among the Mycobacterium strains and the SuperClassification tool for the phylogenic classification of the Mycobacterium strains and a specialized classification system for strains of Mycobacterium abscessus. We hope the broad range of functions and easy-to-use tools provided in MycoCAP makes it an invaluable analysis platform to speed up the research discovery on mycobacteria for researchers. Database URL: http://mycobacterium.um.edu.my.

  8. Microaerobic growth and anaerobic survival of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Herndon Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS grew at equal rates in laboratory medium at 21% (air and 12% oxygen. Growth in 6% oxygen proceeded at a 1.4–1.8-fold lower rate. Colony formation was the same at 21% (air and 6% oxygen. The MAIS strains survived rapid shifts from aerobic to anaerobic conditions as measured by two experimental approaches (Falkinham (1996 [1]. MAIS cells grown aerobically to log phase in broth were diluted, spread on agar medium, and incubated anaerobically for up to 20 days at 37 °C. Although no colonies formed anaerobically, upon transfer to aerobic conditions, greater than 25% of the colony forming units (CFU survived after 20 days of anaerobic incubation (Prince et al. (1989 [2]. MAIS cells grown in broth aerobically to log phase were sealed and vigorous agitation led to oxygen depletion (Wayne model. After 12 days anaerobic incubation, M. avium and M. scrofulaceum survival were high (>50%, while M. intracellulare survival was lower (22%. M. avium cells shifted to anaerobiosis in broth had increased levels of glycine dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Growth of MAIS strains at low oxygen levels and their survival following a rapid shift to anaerobiosis is consistent with their presence in environments with fluctuating oxygen levels.

  9. Microaerobic growth and anaerobic survival of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy Herndon; Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-03-01

    Representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) grew at equal rates in laboratory medium at 21% (air) and 12% oxygen. Growth in 6% oxygen proceeded at a 1.4-1.8-fold lower rate. Colony formation was the same at 21% (air) and 6% oxygen. The MAIS strains survived rapid shifts from aerobic to anaerobic conditions as measured by two experimental approaches (Falkinham (1996) [1]). MAIS cells grown aerobically to log phase in broth were diluted, spread on agar medium, and incubated anaerobically for up to 20 days at 37°C. Although no colonies formed anaerobically, upon transfer to aerobic conditions, greater than 25% of the colony forming units (CFU) survived after 20 days of anaerobic incubation (Prince et al. (1989) [2]). MAIS cells grown in broth aerobically to log phase were sealed and vigorous agitation led to oxygen depletion (Wayne model). After 12 days anaerobic incubation, M. avium and M. scrofulaceum survival were high (>50%), while M. intracellulare survival was lower (22%). M. avium cells shifted to anaerobiosis in broth had increased levels of glycine dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Growth of MAIS strains at low oxygen levels and their survival following a rapid shift to anaerobiosis is consistent with their presence in environments with fluctuating oxygen levels. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipid Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsje Koenderink

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.

  11. Beta-lactamases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, C; Salvadó, M

    1997-09-01

    Re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria as well as the emergence of multiresistant strains of Mycobacterium has promoted the research on the use of beta-lactames in the treatment of such diseases. Mycobacteria produce beta-lactamases: M. tuberculosis produces a wide-spectrum beta-lactamase whose behaviour mimicks those of Gram-negative bacteria. M. kansasii produces also beta-lactamase which can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. An overview on beta-lactamases from both species is reported.

  12. Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...

  13. Total synthesis, stereochemical elucidation and biological evaluation of Ac(2)SGL; a 1,3-methyl branched sulfoglycolipid from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Danny; ter Horst, Bjorn; Lepore, Marco; Mori, Lucia; Puzo, Germain; Hirsch, Anna K. H.; Gilleron, Martine; de Libero, Gennaro; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), continues to represent a challenging pathogen causing many deaths. A reason for the persistence of this pathogen is the cell-envelope composition, which consists of long-tailed (glyco) lipids, involved in the modulation of the

  14. IL-1β, But Not Programed Death-1 and Programed Death Ligand Pathway, Is Critical for the Human Th17 Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Sharma, Varun Kumar; Das, Mrinmoy; Karnam, Anupama; Saha, Chaitrali; Lecerf, Maxime; Galeotti, Caroline; Kaveri, Srinivas V.; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2016-01-01

    The programed death-1 (PD-1)–programed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 co-inhibitory pathway has been implicated in the evasion strategies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Specifically, M. tuberculosis-induced PD-L1 orchestrates expansion of regulatory T cells and suppression of Th1 response. However, the role of PD pathway in regulating Th17 response to M. tuberculosis has not been investigated. In the present report, we demonstrate that M. tuberculosis and M. tuberculosis-derived antigen fractions have differential abilities to mediate human monocyte- and dendritic cell (DC)-mediated Th17 response and were independent of expression of PD-L1 or PD-L2 on aforementioned antigen-presenting cells. Importantly, we observed that blockade of PD-L1 or PD-1 did not significantly modify either the frequencies of Th17 cells or the production of IL-17 from CD4+ T cells though IFN-γ response was significantly enhanced. On the contrary, IL-1β from monocytes and DCs were critical for the Th17 response to M. tuberculosis. Together, our results indicate that IL-1β, but not members of the programed death pathway, is critical for human Th17 response to M. tuberculosis. PMID:27867382

  15. LipidPedia: a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Tseng, Yufeng Jane

    2018-04-10

    Lipids are divided into fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, sterols, prenol lipids and polyketides. Fatty acyls and glycerolipids are commonly used as energy storage, whereas glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and saccharolipids are common used as components of cell membranes. Lipids in fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols classes play important roles in signaling. Although more than 36 million lipids can be identified or computationally generated, no single lipid database provides comprehensive information on lipids. Furthermore, the complex systematic or common names of lipids make the discovery of related information challenging. Here, we present LipidPedia, a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase. The content of this database is derived from integrating annotation data with full-text mining of 3,923 lipids and more than 400,000 annotations of associated diseases, pathways, functions, and locations that are essential for interpreting lipid functions and mechanisms from over 1,400,000 scientific publications. Each lipid in LipidPedia also has its own entry containing a text summary curated from the most frequently cited diseases, pathways, genes, locations, functions, lipids and experimental models in the biomedical literature. LipidPedia aims to provide an overall synopsis of lipids to summarize lipid annotations and provide a detailed listing of references for understanding complex lipid functions and mechanisms. LipidPedia is available at http://lipidpedia.cmdm.tw. yjtseng@csie.ntu.edu.tw. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium heraklionense, and a Newly Proposed Species, "Mycobacterium virginiense" sp. nov., but Not Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, as Species of the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Causing Tenosynovitis and Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wengenack, Nancy L; Eke, Uzoamaka A; Benwill, Jeana L; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Mycobacterium terrae complex has been recognized as a cause of tenosynovitis, with M. terrae and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum reported as the primary etiologic pathogens. The molecular taxonomy of the M. terrae complex causing tenosynovitis has not been established despite approximately 50 previously reported cases. We evaluated 26 isolates of the M. terrae complex associated with tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis recovered between 1984 and 2014 from 13 states, including 5 isolates reported in 1991 as M. nonchromogenicum by nonmolecular methods. The isolates belonged to three validated species, one new proposed species, and two novel related strains. The majority of isolates (20/26, or 77%) belonged to two recently described species: Mycobacterium arupense (10 isolates, or 38%) and Mycobacterium heraklionense (10 isolates, or 38%). Three isolates (12%) had 100% sequence identity to each other by 16S rRNA and 99.3 to 100% identity by rpoB gene region V sequencing and represent a previously undescribed species within the M. terrae complex. There were no isolates of M. terrae or M. nonchromogenicum, including among the five isolates reported in 1991. The 26 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin (100%), rifabutin (100%), ethambutol (92%), and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70%). The current study suggests that M. arupense, M. heraklionense, and a newly proposed species ("M. virginiense" sp. nov.; proposed type strain MO-233 [DSM 100883, CIP 110918]) within the M. terrae complex are the major causes of tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis in the United States, with little change over 20 years. Species identification within this complex requires sequencing methods. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Comparative metabolic profiling of mce1 operon mutant vs wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Adriano; Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Marjanovic, Olivera; Nomura, Daniel K; Riley, Lee W

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis disrupted in a 13-gene operon (mce1) accumulates free mycolic acids (FM) in its cell wall and causes accelerated death in mice. Here, to more comprehensively analyze differences in their cell wall lipid composition, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to compare the lipid profiles of wild-type and mce1 operon mutant strains. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified >400 distinct lipids significantly altered in the mce1 mutant compared to wild type. These lipids included decreased levels of saccharolipids and glycerophospholipids, and increased levels of alpha-, methoxy- and keto mycolic acids (MA), and hydroxyphthioceranic acid. The mutant showed reduced expression of mmpL8, mmpL10, stf0, pks2 and papA2 genes involved in transport and metabolism of lipids recognized to induce proinflammatory response; these lipids were found to be decreased in the mutant. In contrast, the transcripts of mmpL3, fasI, kasA, kasB, acpM and RV3451 involved in MA transport and metabolism increased; MA inhibits inflammatory response in macrophages. Since the mce1 operon is known to be regulated in intracellular M. tuberculosis, we speculate that the differences we observed in cell wall lipid metabolism and composition may affect host response to M. tuberculosis infection and determine the clinical outcome of such an infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis by cyclic adenosine monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareen, Monica; Kaur, Harpinder; Khuller, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator and a cyclic AMP analogue, dibutyryl cyclic AMP have been used to examine the relationship between intracellular levels of cyclic AMP and lipid synthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Total phospholipid content was found to be increased in forskolin grown cells as a result of increased cyclic AMP levels caused by activation of adenylate cyclase. Increased phospholipid content was supported by increased [ 14 C]acetate incorporation as well as increased activity of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Pretreatment of cells with dibutyryl cyclic AMP had similar effects on lipid synthesis. Taking all these observations together it is suggested that lipid synthesis is being controlled by cyclic AMP in mycobacteria. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Whole genome sequence analysis of Mycobacterium suricattae

    KAUST Repository

    Dippenaar, Anzaan; Parsons, Sven David Charles; Sampson, Samantha Leigh; Van Der Merwe, Ruben Gerhard; Drewe, Julian Ashley; Abdallah, Abdallah; Siame, Kabengele Keith; Gey Van Pittius, Nicolaas Claudius; Van Helden, Paul David; Pain, Arnab; Warren, Robin Mark

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis occurs in various mammalian hosts and is caused by a range of different lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). A recently described member, Mycobacterium suricattae, causes tuberculosis in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in Southern Africa and preliminary genetic analysis showed this organism to be closely related to an MTBC pathogen of rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), the dassie bacillus. Here we make use of whole genome sequencing to describe the evolution of the genome of M. suricattae, including known and novel regions of difference, SNPs and IS6110 insertion sites. We used genome-wide phylogenetic analysis to show that M. suricattae clusters with the chimpanzee bacillus, previously isolated from a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in West Africa. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium africanum lineage 6 complex, showing the evolutionary relationship of M. africanum and chimpanzee bacillus, and the closely related members M. suricattae, dassie bacillus and Mycobacterium mungi.

  20. Whole genome sequence analysis of Mycobacterium suricattae

    KAUST Repository

    Dippenaar, Anzaan

    2015-10-21

    Tuberculosis occurs in various mammalian hosts and is caused by a range of different lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). A recently described member, Mycobacterium suricattae, causes tuberculosis in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in Southern Africa and preliminary genetic analysis showed this organism to be closely related to an MTBC pathogen of rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), the dassie bacillus. Here we make use of whole genome sequencing to describe the evolution of the genome of M. suricattae, including known and novel regions of difference, SNPs and IS6110 insertion sites. We used genome-wide phylogenetic analysis to show that M. suricattae clusters with the chimpanzee bacillus, previously isolated from a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in West Africa. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium africanum lineage 6 complex, showing the evolutionary relationship of M. africanum and chimpanzee bacillus, and the closely related members M. suricattae, dassie bacillus and Mycobacterium mungi.

  1. An oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine for wildlife produced in the absence of animal-derived reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Martin L; Lambeth, Matthew R; Aldwell, Frank E

    2009-09-01

    Cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comprising predominantly single-cell bacilli, were prepared in broth without animal-derived reagents. When formulated into a vegetable-derived lipid matrix, the vaccine was stable in vitro and was immunogenic in vivo upon feeding it to mice. This formulation could be useful for oral vaccination of wildlife against tuberculosis, where concern over transmissible prions may preclude the field use of vaccines containing animal products.

  2. Mycobacterium intracellulare Infection Mimicking Progression of Scleroderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Simon; Engelhart, Merete; Thybo, Sören

    2017-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with scleroderma who developed Mycobacterium intracellulare infection, which for more than a year mimicked worsening of her connective tissue disorder. The patient was diagnosed with scleroderma based on puffy fingers that developed into sclerodactyly, abnormal......, unfortunately with significant scarring. Immunodeficiency testing was unremarkable. In summary, an infection with Mycobacterium intracellulare was mistaken for an unusually severe progression of scleroderma....

  3. Whole-genome sequence analysis of the Mycobacterium avium complex and proposal of the transfer of Mycobacterium yongonense to Mycobacterium intracellulare subsp. yongonense subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejon, Maria; Menéndez, Maria Carmen; Comas, Iñaki; Vicente, Ana; Garcia, Maria J

    2018-06-01

    Bacterial whole-genome sequences contain informative features of their evolutionary pathways. Comparison of whole-genome sequences have become the method of choice for classification of prokaryotes, thus allowing the identification of bacteria from an evolutionary perspective, and providing data to resolve some current controversies. Currently, controversy exists about the assignment of members of the Mycobacterium avium complex, as is for the cases of Mycobacterium yongonense and 'Mycobacterium indicus pranii'. These two mycobacteria, closely related to Mycobacterium intracellulare on the basis of standard phenotypic and single gene-sequences comparisons, were not considered a member of such species on the basis on some particular differences displayed by a single strain. Whole-genome sequence comparison procedures, namely the average nucleotide identity and the genome distance, showed that those two mycobacteria should be considered members of the species M. intracellulare. The results were confirmed with other whole-genome comparison supplementary methods. According to the data provided, Mycobacterium yongonense and 'Mycobacterium indicus pranii' should be considered and renamed and included as members of M. intracellulare. This study highlights the problems caused when a novel species is accepted on the basis of a single strain, as was the case for M. yongonense. Based mainly on whole-genome sequence analysis, we conclude that M. yongonense should be reclassified as a subspecies of Mycobacterium intracellulareas Mycobacterium intracellularesubsp. yongonense and 'Mycobacterium indicus pranii' classified in the same subspecies as the type strain of Mycobacterium intracellulare and classified as Mycobacterium intracellularesubsp. intracellulare.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium phlei Type Strain RIVM601174

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, A. M.; Rashid, M.; Adroub, S. A.; Arnoux, M.; Ali, Shahjahan; van Soolingen, D.; Bitter, W.; Pain, Arnab

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium phlei is a rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is typically nonpathogenic, with few reported cases of human disease. Here we report the whole genome sequence of M. phlei type strain RIVM601174.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium phlei Type Strain RIVM601174

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-05-24

    Mycobacterium phlei is a rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is typically nonpathogenic, with few reported cases of human disease. Here we report the whole genome sequence of M. phlei type strain RIVM601174.

  6. Mycobacterium chelonae infections associated with bee venom acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun Young; Peck, Kyong Ran; Kim, Jungok; Ha, Young Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2014-03-01

    We report 3 cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infections after bee venom acupuncture. All were treated with antibiotics and surgery. Mycobacterium chelonae infections should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic skin and soft tissue infections following bee venom acupuncture.

  7. The draft genome of Mycobacterium aurum , a potential model organism for investigating drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Phelan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02 Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin. We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two emb B homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum , this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae.

  8. The draft genome of Mycobacterium aurum, a potential model organism for investigating drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody

    2015-06-04

    Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum) is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02 Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related) to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin). We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG) that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two embB homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum, this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae.

  9. The draft genome of Mycobacterium aurum, a potential model organism for investigating drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody; Maitra, Arundhati; McNerney, Ruth; Nair, Mridul; Gupta, Antima; Coll, Francesc; Pain, Arnab; Bhakta, Sanjib; Clark, Taane G.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum) is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02 Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related) to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin). We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG) that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two embB homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum, this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae.

  10. The draft genome of Mycobacterium aurum, a potential model organism for investigating drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Jody; Maitra, Arundhati; McNerney, Ruth; Nair, Mridul; Gupta, Antima; Coll, Francesc; Pain, Arnab; Bhakta, Sanjib; Clark, Taane G

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum) is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related) to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin). We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG) that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two embB homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum, this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae. Copyright © 2015 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative analysis of mycobacterium and related actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Abigail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org, including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Results Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Conclusions Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  12. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium and related Actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Abigail Manson; Weiner, Brian; Park, Sang Tae; Wapinski, Ilan; Raman, Sahadevan; Dolganov, Gregory; Peterson, Matthew; Riley, Robert; Zucker, Jeremy; Abeel, Thomas; White, Jared; Sisk, Peter; Stolte, Christian; Koehrsen, Mike; Yamamoto, Robert T; Iacobelli-Martinez, Milena; Kidd, Matthew J; Maer, Andreia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Regev, Aviv; Galagan, James

    2012-03-28

    The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org), including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  13. Enfermedad por Mycobacterium simiae y "Mycobacterium sherrisii" en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Barrera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información reunida retrospectivamente sobre casos de micobacteriosis originados por Mycobacterium simiae (n = 4 y "M. sherrisii" (n = 6. Los casos ocurrieron entre pacientes con sida (n = 6, historia de silicosis (n = 2 o tuberculosis previa (n = 1. Un caso se perdió luego de diagnosticado y nueve fueron tratados con esquemas terapéuticos basados en claritromicina, etambutol y quinolonas. La respuesta fue muy pobre: cinco pacientes fallecieron (cuatro eran HIV positivos, tres permanecieron crónicos y sólo uno curó. Estas micobacterias originaron 2.1% de los casos de micobacteriosis registrados en un período de ocho años. La distinción de estas micobacterias raras de otras más frecuentes por métodos moleculares rápidos, parece ser clínicamente útil para advertir sobre la dificultad que puede presentar el tratamiento. Sin embargo, la diferenciación genotípica entre M. simiae y "M. sherrisii" parecería no ser clínicamente relevante, dado que no quedaron expuestas características que distingan a los pacientes afectados por los dos microorganismos tan estrechamente relacionados.

  14. CD1b-mycolic acid tetramers demonstrate T-cell fine specificity for mycobacterial lipid tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Iwany, Sarah K; Fodran, Peter; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Gapin, Laurent; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Moody, D Branch

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesizes a thick cell wall comprised of mycolic acids (MA), which are foreign antigens for human T cells. T-cell clones from multiple donors were used to determine the fine specificity of MA recognition by human αβ T cells. Most CD1-presented lipid antigens contain

  15. Mycobacterium mageritense Parotitis in an Immunocompetent Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Taro; Sasahara, Teppei; Suzuki, Jun; Onishi, Tsubasa; Komura, Masayoshi; Hagiwara, Shigehiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Morisawa, Yuji

    2018-03-01

    Mycobacterium mageritense , a rapidly growing mycobacterium, is a rare clinical pathogen. Furthermore, parotitis due to non-tuberculosis mycobacterium is very rare in adults. Herein, we report the first case of M. mageritense parotitis in an immunocompetent adult. A 40-year-old man presented with swelling in a left parotid lesion. He was diagnosed with parotitis. The culture from the parotid abscess grew M. mageritense . He was unsuccessfully treated with levofloxacin monotherapy. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was added, leading to some clinical response; however, the erythema persisted despite 14 months of antibiotic therapy. Subsequently, the skin lesion was surgically removed. The antibiotic treatment was ceased a week after surgery as the postoperative course was uneventful and the lesion had improved. No recurrence was noted at 7 months after surgery. Although extremely rare, M. mageritense can cause parotitis in immunocompetent adults, and may not be sufficiently treated with antibiotics alone.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequence of the type strain Mycobacterium chimaera Fl-0169T, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). M. chimaera Fl-0169T was isolated from a patient in Italy and is highly similar to strains of M. chimaera isolated in Ireland, though Fl-0169T possesses unique virulence genes. Evidence suggests that M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. chimaera are differently virulent and a comparative genomic analysis is critically needed to identify diagnostic targets that reliably differentiate species of MAC. With treatment costs for Mycobacterium infections estimated to be >$1.8 B annually in the U.S., correct species identification will result in improved treatment selection, lower costs, and improved patient outcomes.

  17. Mycobacterium chelonae y Mycobacterium abscessus: patógenos emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica M. Ortegón

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium chelonae es el nombre correcto para la micobacteria aislada en 1903 de los pulmones enfermos de una tortuga marina. En una especie distinta de Mycobacterium fo/tuitum, aislado de ranas en 1905, y de Mycobacterium abscessus, considerado actualmente como una subespecie de M chelonae. Estas tres especies son las únicas patógenas para el hombre dentro del grupo de micobacterias ambientales o atipicas, de crecimiento rápido, las cuales se caracterizan por formar colonias en cultivo en menos de siete días. Son agentes etiológicos de nódulos y abscesos cutáneos, localizados y diseminados, de lesiones postoperatorias, usualmente en la cicatriz quirúrgica, de lesiones pulmonares y de linfadenitis granulomatosa, de osteomielitis y de queratitis, entre otras. Las lesiones cutáneas y de los tejidos blandos son las más frecuentes y resultan generalmente de la inoculación traumática de esta micobacteria. Histopatológicamente, los nódulos y abscesos muestran un proceso inflamatorio, supurativo y granulomatoso, mixto, en el que en la cuarta parte de los casos pueden demostrarse conglomerados de bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes, que tienden a estar situados en una vacuola en el centro del absceso. En Colombia, se han descrito tres brotes de abscesos subcutáneos producidos por bacterias ambientales, secundarios a la aplicación de inyecciones contaminadas con el germen causal: en 1981, en Bucaramanga, luego de la aplicación de la vacuna contra la fiebre amarilla, en 50 personas, la mayoría niños; en 1989, en Medellin, por la inyección subcutánea de alergenos, en 13 personas; y, en 1993, en varias ciudades de la costa atlántica, luego de aplicaciones subcutáneas de xilocaína, como tratamiento bionergético, en 297 pacientes. Existen otros informes aislados de casos posttraumáticos.La enfermedad diseminada por micobacterias de rápido crecimiento, se presenta en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. En la biopsia, predominan los

  18. Spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, Joanna L; Tyler, Arwen I I; Barriga, Hanna M G; Bramble, Jonathan P; Law, Robert V; Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M; Ces, Oscar; O'Shea, Paul

    2017-10-03

    An assay to study the spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles is described. A donor/acceptor vesicle system is employed, where neutrally charged acceptor vesicles are fluorescently labelled with the electrostatic membrane probe Fluoresceinphosphatidylethanolamine (FPE). Upon addition of charged donor vesicles, transfer of negatively charged lipid occurs, resulting in a fluorescently detectable change in the membrane potential of the acceptor vesicles. Using this approach we have studied the transfer properties of a range of lipids, varying both the headgroup and the chain length. At the low vesicle concentrations chosen, the transfer follows a first-order process where lipid monomers are transferred presumably through the aqueous solution phase from donor to acceptor vesicle. The rate of transfer decreases with increasing chain length which is consistent with energy models previously reported for lipid monomer vesicle interactions. Our assay improves on existing methods allowing the study of a range of unmodified lipids, continuous monitoring of transfer and simplified experimental procedures.

  19. Mycobacterium franklinii sp. nov., a species closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Nogueira, Christiane; Simmon, Keith E; Chimara, Erica; Cnockaert, Margo; Carlos Palomino, Juan; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard; Cardoso Leão, Sylvia

    2015-07-01

    Two isolates from water, D16Q19 and D16R27, were shown to be highly similar in their 16S rRNA, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hsp65 and rpoB gene sequences to 'Mycobacterium franklinii' DSM 45524, described in 2011 but with the name not validly published. They are all nonpigmented rapid growers and are related phenotypically and genetically to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group. Extensive characterization by phenotypic analysis, biochemical tests, drug susceptibility testing, PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene and ITS, DNA sequencing of housekeeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that 'M. franklinii' DSM 45524, D16Q19 and D16R27 belong to a single species that is separated from other members of the M. chelonae-M. abscessus group. On the basis of these results we propose the formal recognition of Mycobacterium franklinii sp. nov. Strain DSM 45524(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2149(T)) is the type strain.

  20. Photodynamic inactivation of the models Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Micah, R.; Gamm, U.; Hüttenberger, D.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2009-07-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of bacterial strains presents an attractive potential alternative to antibiotic therapies. Success is dependent on the effective accumulation in bacterial cells of photochemical substances called photosensitizers, which are usually porphyrins or their derivatives. The kinetics of porphyrin synthesis after treatment with the precursor ALA and the accumulation of the Chlorin e6 and the following illumination were studied. The goal was to estimate effectivity of the destructive power of these PS in vitro in respect of the physiological states of Mycobacteria. So the present results examine the cell destruction by PDI using ALA-induced Porphyrins and Chlorin e6 accumulated in Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium smegmatis, which serve as models for the important pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium bovis. We could show that both Mycobacterium after ALA and Chlorin e6 application were killed by illumination with light of about 662 nm. A reduction of about 97% could be reached by using a lightdose of 70 mW/cm2.

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by using PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F; Dadang-Sudrajat; Maria-Lina, R.

    1996-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) procedure using three primary set derived from repetitive DNA sequence specific to mycobacteria was used to diagnose pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The assay was specific for M. tuberculosis and could be used to detect the amount DNA less than 10 -9 g

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doroudchi M, Kremer K, Basiri EA, Kadivar MR,. Van Soolingen D, Ghaderi AA. IS6110‑RFLP and spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Iran. Scand J Infect. Dis 2000;32:663‑8. 13. Farnia P, Masjedi MR, Mirsaeidi M, Mohammadi F,. Jallaledin‑Ghanavi, Vincent V, et al. Prevalence of Haarlem I and Beijing ...

  3. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Alan M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A child with isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis, with features initially suggesting oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is presented. This patient illustrates the need to consider the possibility of tuberculosis as the cause of oligoarthritis in high-risk pediatric populations even in the absence of a tuberculosis contact history and without evidence of overt pulmonary disease.

  5. Investigating Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus Complex

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Keith Simmon, scientist at Isentio US discusses research that was done while he was at ARUP laboratories, discusses a new classification of Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus complex.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/22/2011.

  6. Safety assessment in primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is transmitted mainly through aerosolization of infected sputum which puts laboratory workers at risk in spite of the laboratory workersf risk of infection being at 3 to 9 times higher than the general public. Laboratory safety should therefore be ...

  7. Molecular Characterization of the Resistance of Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To characterize the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to second line drugs using a line probe assay. Methods: ... Marne-la-Coquette,. France). Bacterial isolates contained in 500 µl of liquid culture were heat- inactivated at 95 °C for 30 min and then sonicated for 12 min. Finally, the suspension was ...

  8. Peritoneal tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nebreda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.

  9. The epidemiology of Mycobacterium leprae: recent insight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, S. M.; de Wit, M. Y.; Klatser, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    Leprosy is still a health problem in many countries. Because the causative organism, Mycobacterium leprae cannot be cultured in vitro, it is virtually impossible to assess exposure, and the onset of infection and disease. As a consequence, the chain of infection, considered as the relationships

  10. Modelling the Transitional Dynamics of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Health Organization's targets of eliminating Tuberculosis (TB) by 2050 is challenged by the emergence and spread of drug resistance TB. However, the traditional mechanism of resistance is that of acquired resistance, whereby the mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) strain develops mutations under selective ...

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are ...

  12. Otomastoiditis Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen, Jakko; Looijmans, Frank; Mirck, Piet; Dekhuijzen, Richard; Boeree, Martin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2010-01-01

    To the Editor: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized as human pathogens (1). Otomastoiditis is a rare extrapulmonary NTM disease type first described in 1976; Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus group bacteria, which are rapidly growing NTM, are the most frequent causative

  13. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITY OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electrophoretic mobilities (EPMs) of thirty Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) organisms were measured. The EPMs of fifteen clinical isolates ranged from -1.9 to -5.0 µm cm V-1s-1, and the EPMs of fifteen environmental isolates ranged from -1...

  14. Chronic leg ulcer caused by Mycobacterium immunogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, Miriam A. M.; de Jong, Menno D.; van Soolingen, Dick; Wetsteyn, José C. F. M.; Faber, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Rare tropical skin diseases are seen more frequently in Western countries because of the increased popularity of visiting tropical regions. A 55-year-old white man developed a painless leg ulcer after traveling in Guatemala and Belize. A mycobacterium was cultured from a biopsy specimen and was

  15. Identification of Immunotopes against Mycobacterium leprae as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the surface epitopes of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) and evaluate their efficacy in the production of anti-M. leprae antibodies in an animal model. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 34 patients suffering from lepromatous leprosy. Antibodies were obtained from the samples, ...

  16. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium SSP paratuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy cattle in the Jimma zone of Ethiopia in 2011. A random sample of 29 herds was selected, and all mature cattle within these herds had a blood sample taken. Serum was tested in duplicate, ...

  17. Granulomatous lobular mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamyab, Armin

    2016-12-16

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast of unknown etiology. Most present as breast masses in women of child-bearing age. A 29-year-old female presented with a swollen, firm and tender right breast, initially misdiagnosed as mastitis. Core needle biopsy revealed findings consistent with granulomatous lobular mastitis, and cultures were all negative for an infectious etiology. She was started on steroid therapy to which she initially responded well. A few weeks later she deteriorated and was found to have multiple breast abscesses. She underwent operative drainage and cultures grew Mycobacterium fortuitum . Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast. The definitive diagnose entails a biopsy. Other causes of chronic or granulomatous mastitis should be ruled out, including atypical or rare bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum . This is the first reported case of granulomatous mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum . With pathologic confirmation of granulomatous mastitis, an infectious etiology must be ruled out. Atypical bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum may not readily grow on cultures, as with our case. Medical management is appropriate, with surgical excision reserved for refractory cases or for drainage of abscesses.

  18. Host Lipid Mediators in Leprosy: The Hypothesized Contributions to Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. M. Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of clinical forms observed in leprosy and its pathogenesis are dictated by the host’s immune response against Mycobacterium leprae, the etiological agent of leprosy. Previous results, based on metabolomics studies, demonstrated a strong relationship between clinical manifestations of leprosy and alterations in the metabolism of ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, and the diverse set of lipid mediators derived from PUFAs. PUFA-derived lipid mediators provide multiple functions during acute inflammation, and some lipid mediators are able to induce both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses as determined by the cell surface receptors being expressed, as well as the cell type expressing the receptors. However, little is known about how these compounds influence cellular immune activities during chronic granulomatous infectious diseases, such as leprosy. Current evidence suggests that specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs are involved in the down-modulation of the innate and adaptive immune response against M. leprae and that alteration in the homeostasis of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators versus SPMs is associated with dramatic shifts in the pathogenesis of leprosy. In this review, we discuss the possible consequences and present new hypotheses for the involvement of ω3 and ω6 PUFA metabolism in the pathogenesis of leprosy. A specific emphasis is placed on developing models of lipid mediator interactions with the innate and adaptive immune responses and the influence of these interactions on the outcome of leprosy.

  19. Enfermedad por Mycobacterium simiae y "Mycobacterium sherrisii" en la Argentina Disease due to Mycobacterium simiae and "Mycobacterium sherrisii" in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Barrera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información reunida retrospectivamente sobre casos de micobacteriosis originados por Mycobacterium simiae (n = 4 y "M. sherrisii" (n = 6. Los casos ocurrieron entre pacientes con sida (n = 6, historia de silicosis (n = 2 o tuberculosis previa (n = 1. Un caso se perdió luego de diagnosticado y nueve fueron tratados con esquemas terapéuticos basados en claritromicina, etambutol y quinolonas. La respuesta fue muy pobre: cinco pacientes fallecieron (cuatro eran HIV positivos, tres permanecieron crónicos y sólo uno curó. Estas micobacterias originaron 2.1% de los casos de micobacteriosis registrados en un período de ocho años. La distinción de estas micobacterias raras de otras más frecuentes por métodos moleculares rápidos, parece ser clínicamente útil para advertir sobre la dificultad que puede presentar el tratamiento. Sin embargo, la diferenciación genotípica entre M. simiae y "M. sherrisii" parecería no ser clínicamente relevante, dado que no quedaron expuestas características que distingan a los pacientes afectados por los dos microorganismos tan estrechamente relacionados.A revision of mycobacterial disease due to M simiae (n = 4 and "M. sherrisii" (n = 6 identified during an eight-year period is presented. Cases occurred among patients with AIDS (n = 6, previous history of silicosis (n = 2 or tuberculosis (n = 2. One case was lost to follow-up and the remaining nine responded poorly to chemotherapy based on clarithromycin, ethambutol and fluoroquinolones. Five patients died of whom four were HIV-positive, three remained chronic and one was cured. These microorganisms originated 2.1% of mycobacterioses cases detected in an eight-year period. Timely identification of this group of uncommon mycobacteria by molecular methods seems to be clinically relevant in order to warn of difficulties inherent to the treatment. However, the distinction between both closely related microorganisms might not be crucial for case

  20. Cryopreservation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Yumi Ikuta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research, development of new biotechnological methods, diagnostic tests, confirmation of results, and reinvestigations are possible because of the availability of well-preserved living organisms maintained without any changes. Cryopreservation is a simpler, more reliable and long-term stable method for culture maintenance. Storage temperature and composition of the suspending vehicle are factors that affect the viability of mycobacterial strains. Three vehicles and three storage temperatures were evaluated to define a suitable cryoprotective medium for the preservation of Mycobacterium bovis strains. Colonies of sixteen M. bovis isolates were used to prepare the suspensions, which were then added to three vehicles: sterile 0.85% saline solution (SS, Middlebrook 7H9 broth (7H9, and Middlebrook 7H9 broth with sodium pyruvate (7H9p replacing glycerol. Aliquots of these suspensions were frozen by three different methods, directly in the -20°C freezer, directly in the -80°C freezer, and at -196°C by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN. The frozen aliquots were thawed at room temperature after 45, 90 and 120 days. Mycobacterial viability was assessed by counting the living cells on plates of Stonebrink medium before and after the freezing procedure. Storage at -20°C exhibited a lower recovery of M. bovis compared to storage at -80°C (Dunn’s test, p=0.0018 and LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.0352. There was no statistically significant difference between storage at -80°C and in LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.1403, yet -80°C showed better results than LN. All three suspending vehicles showed no statistically significant difference in terms of viability (Friedman’s test, p=0.7765. Given the low loss proportion of 5% during storage at -20°C and the high cost equipment required for storage at -80°C and LN, we recommend storage at -20°C or -80°C, when this is available, for preservation of M. bovis field strains.

  1. Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov., a slowly growing mycobacterium isolated from human respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca M; DeGroote, Mary Ann; Marola, Jamie L; Buss, Sarah; Jones, Victoria; McNeil, Michael R; Freifeld, Alison G; Elaine Epperson, L; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Jackson, Mary; Iwen, Peter C; Salfinger, Max; Strong, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A novel slowly growing, non-chromogenic species of the class Actinobacteria was isolated from a human respiratory sample in Nebraska, USA, in 2012. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence supported placement into the genus Mycobacterium with high sequence similarity to a previously undescribed strain isolated from a patient respiratory sample from Oregon, USA, held in a collection in Colorado, USA, in 2000. The two isolates were subjected to phenotypic testing and whole genome sequencing and found to be indistinguishable. The bacteria were acid-fast stain-positive, rod-shaped and exhibited growth after 7-10 days on solid media at temperatures ranging from 25 to 42°C. Colonies were non-pigmented, rough and slightly raised. Analyses of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight profiles showed no matches against a reference library of 130 mycobacterial species. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical for the two isolates, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) between their genomes was 99.7 % and phylogenetic comparisons classified the novel mycobacteria as the basal most species in the slowly growing Mycobacterium clade. Mycobacterium avium is the most closely related species based on rpoB gene sequence similarity (92 %), but the ANI between the genomes was 81.5 %, below the suggested cut-off for differentiating two species (95 %). Mycolic acid profiles were more similar to M. avium than to Mycobacterium simiae or Mycobacterium abscessus. The phenotypic and genomic data support the conclusion that the two related isolates represent a novel Mycobacterium species for which the name Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE-TNMC-100812T (=ATCC BAA-2683T=DSM 46873T).

  2. Bone marrow infection with mycobacterium fortuitum in a diabetic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, L.; Abbasi, S.; Sattar, A.; Ikram, A.; Manzar, M.A.; Khalid, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection vary greatly by location and death is very rare except in disseminated disease in immunocompromised individuals. We present what we believe is the first case of bone marrow infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient. Bone marrow examination revealed presence of numerous acid fast bacilli which were confirmed as Mycobacterium fortuitum on culture and by molecular analysis. Patient was managed successfully with amikacin and ciprofloxacin. (author)

  3. Mycobacterium komaniense sp. nov., a rapidly growing non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species detected in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Rutten, Victor P M G; van Pittius, Nicolaas Gey; Naicker, Brendon; Michel, Anita L

    2018-05-01

    Some species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. Recently there has been an upsurge in the number of cases of NTM infections, such that some NTM species are now recognized as pathogens of humans and animals. From a veterinary point of view, the major significance of NTM is the cross-reactive immune response they elicit against Mycobacterium bovis antigens, leading to misdiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Four NTM isolates were detected from a bovine nasal swab, soil and water, during an NTM survey in South Africa. These were all found using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense. The isolates were further characterised by sequence analysis of the partial fragments of hsp65, rpoB and sodA. The genome of the type strain was also elucidated. Gene (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) and protein sequence data analysis of 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT 6) and 10 kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) revealed that these isolates belong to a unique Mycobacterium species. Differences in phenotypic and biochemical traits between the isolates and closely related species further supported that these isolates belong to novel Mycobacterium species. We proposed the name Mycobacterium komaniense sp. nov. for this new species. The type strain is GPK 1020 T (=CIP 110823T=ATCC BAA-2758).

  4. Mycobacterium ahvazicum sp. nov., the nineteenth species of the Mycobacterium simiae complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouam, Amar; Heidarieh, Parvin; Shahraki, Abodolrazagh Hashemi; Pourahmad, Fazel; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Baptiste, Emeline; Armstrong, Nicholas; Levasseur, Anthony; Robert, Catherine; Drancourt, Michel

    2018-03-07

    Four slowly growing mycobacteria isolates were isolated from the respiratory tract and soft tissue biopsies collected in four unrelated patients in Iran. Conventional phenotypic tests indicated that these four isolates were identical to Mycobacterium lentiflavum while 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded a unique sequence separated from that of M. lentiflavum. One representative strain AFP-003 T was characterized as comprising a 6,121,237-bp chromosome (66.24% guanosine-cytosine content) encoding for 5,758 protein-coding genes, 50 tRNA and one complete rRNA operon. A total of 2,876 proteins were found to be associated with the mobilome, including 195 phage proteins. A total of 1,235 proteins were found to be associated with virulence and 96 with toxin/antitoxin systems. The genome of AFP-003 T has the genetic potential to produce secondary metabolites, with 39 genes found to be associated with polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide syntases and 11 genes encoding for bacteriocins. Two regions encoding putative prophages and three OriC regions separated by the dnaA gene were predicted. Strain AFP-003 T genome exhibits 86% average nucleotide identity with Mycobacterium genavense genome. Genetic and genomic data indicate that strain AFP-003 T is representative of a novel Mycobacterium species that we named Mycobacterium ahvazicum, the nineteenth species of the expanding Mycobacterium simiae complex.

  5. Mycobacterium bovis and Other Uncommon Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Jaime; Muñoz-Egea, Maria-Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Since its discovery by Theobald Smith, Mycobacterium bovis has been a human pathogen closely related to animal disease. At present, M. bovis tuberculosis is still a problem of importance in many countries and is considered the main cause of zoonotic tuberculosis throughout the world. Recent development of molecular epidemiological tools has helped us to improve our knowledge about transmission patterns of this organism, which causes a disease indistinguishable from that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagnosis and treatment of this mycobacterium are similar to those for conventional tuberculosis, with the important exceptions of constitutive resistance to pyrazinamide and the fact that multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant M. bovis strains have been described. Among other members of this complex, Mycobacterium africanum is the cause of many cases of tuberculosis in West Africa and can be found in other areas mainly in association with immigration. M. bovis BCG is the currently available vaccine for tuberculosis, but it can cause disease in some patients. Other members of the M. tuberculosis complex are mainly animal pathogens with only exceptional cases of human disease, and there are even some strains, like "Mycobacterium canettii," which is a rare human pathogen that could have an important role in the knowledge of the evolution of tuberculosis in the history.

  6. 21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids...

  7. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...

  8. Infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, C A; Berning, S E

    1994-01-01

    To update readers on the clinical management of infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to provide a general description of the organism, culture and susceptibility testing, and clinical manifestations of the disease, and to provide several aspects of the treatment of the disease, including historical perspective, current approaches, and research opportunities for the future. The current medical literature, including abstracts presented at recent international meetings, is reviewed. References were identified through MEDLINE, MEDLARS II, Current Contents, and published meeting abstracts. Data regarding the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, culture and susceptibility testing, and treatment of tuberculosis are cited. Specific attention has been focused on the clinical management of patients with noncontagious infection and potentially contagious active disease (TB) caused by M. tuberculosis. Information contributing to the discussion of the topics selected by the authors is reviewed. Data supporting and disputing specific conclusions are presented. The incidence of TB is increasing in the US, despite the fact that available technologies are capable of controlling the vast majority of existing cases. Fueling the fire is the problem of coinfection with HIV and M. tuberculosis. Very few drugs are available for the treatment of TB, and few of these approach the potency of isoniazid and rifampin. Preventive therapy of patients exposed to multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is controversial and of unknown efficacy. Treatment of active disease caused by MDR-TB requires up to four times longer, is associated with increased toxicity, and is far less successful than the treatment of drug-susceptible TB. Strategies for the management of such cases are presented. The rising incidence of TB in the US reflects a breakdown in the healthcare systems responsible for controlling the disease, which reflects the past budgetary reductions. Although TB control

  9. [Identification and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis isolated from a cow with mastitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W B; Ji, L Y; Xu, D L; Liu, H C; Zhao, X Q; Wu, Y M; Wan, K L

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To understand the etiological characteristics and drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis isolated from a cow with mastitis and provide evidence for the prevention and control of infectious mastitis in cows. Methods: The milk sample was collected from a cow with mastitis, which was pretreated with 4 % NaOH and inoculated with L-J medium for Mycobacterium isolation. The positive cultures were initially identified by acid-fast staining and multi-loci PCR, then Mycobacterium species was identified by the multiple loci sequence analysis (MLSA) with 16S rRNA , hsp65 , ITS and SodA genes. The drug sensitivity of the isolates to 27 antibiotics was tested by alamar blue assay. Results: Two anti-acid stain positive strains were isolated from the milk of a cow with mastitis, which were identified as non- tuberculosis mycobacterium by multi-loci PCR, and multi-loci nucleic acid sequence analysis indicated that one strain was Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and another one was Mycobacterium elephantis . The results of the drug susceptibility test showed that the two strains were resistant to most antibiotics, including rifampicin and isoniazid, but they were sensitive to amikacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ethambutol, streptomycin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and linezolid. Conclusions: Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis were isolated in a cow with mastitis and the drug susceptibility spectrum of the pathogens were unique. The results of the study can be used as reference for the prevention and control the infection in cows.

  10. Nitazoxanide is active against Mycobacterium leprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Mai Ann; Na, Hana; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Gillis, Thomas P.; Lahiri, Ramanuj

    2017-01-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is an anti-parasitic drug that also has activity against bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our data using both radiorespirometry and live-dead staining in vitro demonstrate that NTZ similarly has bactericidal against M. leprae. Further, gavage of M. leprae-infected mice with NTZ at 25mg/kg provided anti-mycobacterial activity equivalent to rifampicin (RIF) at 10 mg/kg. This suggests that NTZ could be considered for leprosy treatment. PMID:28850614

  11. Comparative Mycobacteriology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Stephen V.; Behr, Marcel A.

    2015-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is a group of highly genetically related pathogens that cause tuberculosis (TB) in mammalian species. However, the very name of the complex underlines the fact that our knowledge of these pathogens is dominated by studies on the human pathogen, M. tuberculosis. Of course this is entirely justified; M. tuberculosis is a major global pathogen that exacts a horrendous burden in terms of mortality and morbidity so it is appropriate that it is...

  12. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Hesham M.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4±1 o C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: → We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. → Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. → Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  13. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Hesham M., E-mail: heshambadr_aea@yahoo.co.uk [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou Zaabal, P.O. Box 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-11-15

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4{+-}1 {sup o}C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: > We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. > Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. > Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  14. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins-Markle, Leslie; Kelly, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies. PMID:24073343

  15. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies.

  16. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, I?aki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation...

  18. Mycobacterium marinum infections in Denmark from 2004 to 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Inge K.; Kehrer, Michala; Andersen, Aase B.

    2018-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum) is a slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium. The incidence of M. marinum infections in Denmark is unknown. We conducted a retrospective nationwide study including all culture confirmed cases of M. marinum from 2004 to 2017 in Denmark. All available medical ...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.; Adroub, S. A.; Abadi, Maram; Al Alwan, B.; Alkhateeb, R.; Gao, G.; Ragab, A.; Ali, Shahjahan; van Soolingen, D.; Bitter, W.; Pain, Arnab; Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  20. Mycobacterium marinum kan være vanskelig at diagnosticere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Seersholm, Niels; Nielsen, Signe Ledou

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection is often delayed for months after presentation. In this case the diagnosis and correct treatment was delayed for ten months resulting in possible irreversible damage to the patient's infected finger. The main reason for the delay is lack...... of knowledge of the mycobacterium....

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  2. An orphan gyrB in the Mycobacterium smegmatis genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA gyrase is an essential topoisomerase found in all bacteria. It is encoded by gyrB and gyrA genes. These genes are organized differently in different bacteria. Direct comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis genomes reveals presence of an additional gyrB in M. smegmatis flanked by ...

  3. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type Strain Fl-0169

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequence of the type strain Mycobacterium chimaera Fl-0169T, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). M. chimaera Fl-0169T was isolated from a patient in Italy and is highly similar to strains of M. chimaera isolated in Ireland, though Fl-016...

  5. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    of a mass of hydrophobic lipid esters coved by phospholipid monolayer. The small size and unique architecture of LDs makes it complicated to study LD structure by modern experimental methods. We discuss coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of LD formation in systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2...... to coarse-grained simulations, the presence of PE lipids at the interface has a little impact on distribution of components and on the overall LD structure. (4) The thickness of the lipid monolayer at the surface of the droplet is similar to the thickness of one leaflet of a bilayer. Computer simulations......Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are composed...

  6. A PULMONARY INFECTION CAUSED BY MYCOBACTERIUM PEREGRINUM– A CASE REPORT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatina T. Todorova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium peregrinum is a member of the group of rapidly growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. It can be found in high frequency in natural and laboratory environments and is considered to be uncommonrare pathogen for both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. Currently, pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium peregrinum are unusual and diagnosed only in limited number of cases. Here, we present a clinical case of elderly man (72 years with 1 month history of non-specific respiratory symptomatic. The patient was without underlying immunosuppressive condition or lung disease. Chest X-ray demonstrated persistent pleural effusion, opacities and cavitations in the right lobe. One of the sputum culturesgrewa rapidly growing mycobacterium and the isolated strain was found to be Mycobacterium peregrinumas identified by molecular genetic detection (PCR and DNA strip technology. To our knowledge, this is the third case in the world to report Mycobacterium peregrinumas a possible causative agent of pulmonary infection.

  7. Mycobacterium malmesburyense sp. nov., a non-tuberculous species of the genus Mycobacterium revealed by multiple gene sequence characterization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gcebe, N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology: DOI 10.1099/ijsem.0.001678 Mycobacterium malmesburyense sp. nov., a non-tuberculous species of the genus Mycobacterium revealed by multiple gene sequence characterization Gcebe N Rutten V Gey...

  8. Immunological crossreactivity of the Mycobacterium leprae CFP-10 with its homologue in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, A.; van Meijgaarden, K. E.; Franken, K. L. M. C.; Wieles, B.; Arend, S. M.; Faber, W. R.; Naafs, B.; Ottenhoff, T. H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) (Rv3874) is considered a promising antigen for the immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) together with early secreted antigens of M. tuberculosis (ESAT-6). Both ESAT-6 and CFP-10 are encoded by the RD1 region that is deleted from all

  9. Bacteriological diagnosis and molecular strain typing of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, E; Corner, L A L; Costello, E; Rodriguez-Campos, S

    2014-10-01

    The primary isolation of a Mycobacterium sp. of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from an infected animal provides a definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, as Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae are difficult to isolate, particularly for animals in the early stages of disease, success is dependent on the optimal performance of all aspects of the bacteriological process, from the initial choice of tissue samples at post-mortem examination or clinical samples, to the type of media and conditions used to cultivate the microorganism. Each step has its own performance characteristics, which can contribute to sensitivity and specificity of the procedure, and may need to be optimized in order to achieve the gold standard diagnosis. Having isolated the slow-growing mycobacteria, species identification and fine resolution strain typing are keys to understanding the epidemiology of the disease and to devise strategies to limit transmission of infection. New technologies have emerged that can now even discriminate different isolates from the same animal. In this review we highlight the key factors that contribute to the accuracy of bacteriological diagnosis of M. bovis and M. caprae, and describe the development of advanced genotyping techniques that are increasingly used in diagnostic laboratories for the purpose of supporting detailed epidemiological investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  11. Impact of Mycobacterium ulcerans biofilm on transmissibility to ecological niches and Buruli ulcer pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marsollier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of biofilms in the pathogenesis of mycobacterial diseases remains largely unknown. Mycobacterium ulcerans, the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer, a disfiguring disease in humans, adopts a biofilm-like structure in vitro and in vivo, displaying an abundant extracellular matrix (ECM that harbors vesicles. The composition and structure of the ECM differs from that of the classical matrix found in other bacterial biofilms. More than 80 proteins are present within this extracellular compartment and appear to be involved in stress responses, respiration, and intermediary metabolism. In addition to a large amount of carbohydrates and lipids, ECM is the reservoir of the polyketide toxin mycolactone, the sole virulence factor of M. ulcerans identified to date, and purified vesicles extracted from ECM are highly cytotoxic. ECM confers to the mycobacterium increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, and enhances colonization of insect vectors and mammalian hosts. The results of this study support a model whereby biofilm changes confer selective advantages to M. ulcerans in colonizing various ecological niches successfully, with repercussions for Buruli ulcer pathogenesis.

  12. Mycobacterium marinum infection in fish and man: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, Emad; Merwad, Abdallah; Elgaml, Shimaa; Amer, Ali; Kamal, Huda; Elsadek, Ahmed; Marei, Ayman; Sitohy, Mahmoud

    2018-12-01

    Mycobacterium marinum is an opportunistic pathogen inducing infection in fresh and marine water fish. This pathogen causes necrotizing granuloma like tuberculosis, morbidity and mortality in fish. The cell wall-associated lipid phthiocerol dimycocerosates, phenolic glycolipids and ESAT-6 secretion system 1 (ESX-1) are the conserved virulence determinant of the organism. Human infections with Mycobacterium marinum hypothetically are classified into four clinical categories (type I-type IV) and have been associated with the exposure of damaged skin to polluted water from fish pools or contacting objects contaminated with infected fish. Fish mycobacteriosis is clinically manifested and characterized in man by purple painless nodules, liable to develop into superficial crusting ulceration with scar formation. Early laboratory diagnosis of M. marinum including histopathology, culture and PCR is essential and critical as the clinical response to antibiotics requires months to be attained. The pathogenicity and virulence determinants of M. marinum need to be thoroughly and comprehensively investigated and understood. In spite of accumulating information on this pathogen, the different relevant data should be compared, connected and globally compiled. This article is reviewing the epidemiology, virulence factors, diagnosis and disease management in fish while casting light on the potential associated public health hazards.

  13. Phosphorylation of InhA inhibits mycolic acid biosynthesis and growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molle, Virginie; Gulten, Gulcin; Vilchèze, Catherine; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Sacchettini, James C.; Jacobs, Jr, William R.; Kremer, Laurent (CNRS-UMR); (Einstein); (TAM)

    2011-08-24

    The remarkable survival ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in infected hosts is related to the presence of cell wall-associated mycolic acids. Despite their importance, the mechanisms that modulate expression of these lipids in response to environmental changes are unknown. Here we demonstrate that the enoyl-ACP reductase activity of InhA, an essential enzyme of the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway and the primary target of the anti-tubercular drug isoniazid, is controlled via phosphorylation. Thr-266 is the unique kinase phosphoacceptor, both in vitro and in vivo. The physiological relevance of Thr-266 phosphorylation was demonstrated using inhA phosphoablative (T266A) or phosphomimetic (T266D/E) mutants. Enoyl reductase activity was severely impaired in the mimetic mutants in vitro, as a consequence of a reduced binding affinity to NADH. Importantly, introduction of inhA{_}T266D/E failed to complement growth and mycolic acid defects of an inhA-thermosensitive Mycobacterium smegmatis strain, in a similar manner to what is observed following isoniazid treatment. This study suggests that phosphorylation of InhA may represent an unusual mechanism that allows M. tuberculosis to regulate its mycolic acid content, thus offering a new approach to future anti-tuberculosis drug development.

  14. Phosphorylation of InhA inhibits mycolic acid biosynthesis and growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Virginie; Gulten, Gulcin; Vilchèze, Catherine; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Sacchettini, James C; Jacobs, William R; Kremer, Laurent

    2010-12-01

    The remarkable survival ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in infected hosts is related to the presence of cell wall-associated mycolic acids. Despite their importance, the mechanisms that modulate expression of these lipids in response to environmental changes are unknown. Here we demonstrate that the enoyl-ACP reductase activity of InhA, an essential enzyme of the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway and the primary target of the anti-tubercular drug isoniazid, is controlled via phosphorylation. Thr-266 is the unique kinase phosphoacceptor, both in vitro and in vivo. The physiological relevance of Thr-266 phosphorylation was demonstrated using inhA phosphoablative (T266A) or phosphomimetic (T266D/E) mutants. Enoyl reductase activity was severely impaired in the mimetic mutants in vitro, as a consequence of a reduced binding affinity to NADH. Importantly, introduction of inhA_T266D/E failed to complement growth and mycolic acid defects of an inhA-thermosensitive Mycobacterium smegmatis strain, in a similar manner to what is observed following isoniazid treatment. This study suggests that phosphorylation of InhA may represent an unusual mechanism that allows M. tuberculosis to regulate its mycolic acid content, thus offering a new approach to future anti-tuberculosis drug development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., isolated from the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L

    2016-11-01

    Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Lipase Activity and Immunogenicity of LipL from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cao

    Full Text Available Lipids and lipid-metabolizing esterases/lipases are highly important for the mycobacterial life cycle and, possibly, for mycobacterial virulence. In this study, we expressed 10 members of the Lip family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Among the 10 proteins, LipL displayed a significantly high enzymatic activity for the hydrolysis of long-chain lipids. The optimal temperature for the lipase activity of LipL was demonstrated to be 37°C, and the optimal pH was 8.0. The lipase active center was not the conserved motif G-x-S-x-G, but rather the S-x-x-K and GGG motifs, and the key catalytic amino acid residues were identified as G50, S88, and K91, as demonstrated through site-directed mutagenesis experiments. A three-dimensional modeling structure of LipL was constructed, which showed that the GGG motif was located in the surface of a pocket structure. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of LipL was demonstrated to be on the mycobacterial surface by Western blot analysis. Our results revealed that the LipL protein could induce a strong humoral immune response in humans and activate a CD8+ T cell-mediated response in mice. Overall, our study identified and characterized a novel lipase denoted LipL from M. tuberculosis, and demonstrated that LipL functions as an immunogen that activates both humoral and cell-mediated responses.

  17. Is adipose tissue a place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Neyrolles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB, has the ability to persist in its human host for exceptionally long periods of time. However, little is known about the location of the bacilli in latently infected individuals. Long-term mycobacterial persistence in the lungs has been reported, but this may not sufficiently account for strictly extra-pulmonary TB, which represents 10-15% of the reactivation cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied in situ and conventional PCR to sections of adipose tissue samples of various anatomical origins from 19 individuals from Mexico and 20 from France who had died from causes other than TB. M. tuberculosis DNA could be detected by either or both techniques in fat tissue surrounding the kidneys, the stomach, the lymph nodes, the heart and the skin in 9/57 Mexican samples (6/19 individuals, and in 8/26 French samples (6/20 individuals. In addition, mycobacteria could be immuno-detected in perinodal adipose tissue of 1 out of 3 biopsy samples from individuals with active TB. In vitro, using a combination of adipose cell models, including the widely used murine adipose cell line 3T3-L1, as well as primary human adipocytes, we show that after binding to scavenger receptors, M. tuberculosis can enter within adipocytes, where it accumulates intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions and survives in a non-replicating state that is insensitive to the major anti-mycobacterial drug isoniazid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the abundance and the wide distribution of the adipose tissue throughout the body, our results suggest that this tissue, among others, might constitute a vast reservoir where the tubercle bacillus could persist for long periods of time, and avoid both killing by antimicrobials and recognition by the host immune system. In addition, M. tuberculosis-infected adipocytes might provide a new model to investigate dormancy and to evaluate new drugs for the treatment of

  18. Ergothioneine Maintains Redox and Bioenergetic Homeostasis Essential for Drug Susceptibility and Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb maintains metabolic equilibrium to survive during infection and upon exposure to antimycobacterial drugs are poorly characterized. Ergothioneine (EGT and mycothiol (MSH are the major redox buffers present in Mtb, but the contribution of EGT to Mtb redox homeostasis and virulence remains unknown. We report that Mtb WhiB3, a 4Fe-4S redox sensor protein, regulates EGT production and maintains bioenergetic homeostasis. We show that central carbon metabolism and lipid precursors regulate EGT production and that EGT modulates drug sensitivity. Notably, EGT and MSH are both essential for redox and bioenergetic homeostasis. Transcriptomic analyses of EGT and MSH mutants indicate overlapping but distinct functions of EGT and MSH. Last, we show that EGT is critical for Mtb survival in both macrophages and mice. This study has uncovered a dynamic balance between Mtb redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, which critically influences Mtb drug susceptibility and pathogenicity.

  19. The effect of ionizing radiation on the structural and ultrastructural organization of Mycobacterium rubrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poglazova, M.N.; Biryuzova, V.I.; Gromova, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    A description of a structural and ultrastructural organization of a normally developing and irradiated cell of Mycobacterium rubrum is given. The cytomorphological differentiation of membrane bacterial structures and radiation their functional role are shown. When ionizing role of membrane is used as a tool for decoding the structures their relationship with a certain cell function is confirmed. A description of damages of different individually functioning membrane systems under cell irradiation is given. It is shown that at suppression of peptidoglycane synthesis the mesosomes are absent in the cells, at their hypertrophy the hypersynthesis of cell wall material is observed. An increase in the level of cell metabolic processes results in an increase of the number of mitochondrial analogs. It is shown that the disturbance of the cell division function is caused by the damage of nucleoid DNA structure and degradation of nucleidosomes. Changes in carbohydrate and lipide metabolisms are observed

  20. Mesotherapy and cutaneous Mycobacterium fortuitum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difonzo, Elisa Margherita; Campanile, Grazia Lucia; Vanzi, Laura; Lotti, Lorena

    2009-06-01

    Cutaneous infections caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum usually are a complication of trauma or postsurgical wounds. A 41-year-old woman presented with numerous dusky red nodules, abscesses and sinuses on the right buttock and on the lateral surfaces of both thighs. The lesions developed at the injection sites of mesotherapy treatment. M. fortuitum was cultured from a biopsy specimen and purulent fluid drained from lesions. The lesions had cleared completely with ciprofloxacin 500 mg b.d. for 3 weeks, and then 250 mg b.d. for another 3 weeks. This case demonstrates the importance of suspecting mycobacterial etiology in patients with nodules and abscesses in the areas of mesotherapy treatment.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  2. Mycobacterium chimaera left ventricular assist device infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Leora B; Louie, Eddie; Hill, Fred; Levine, Jamie; Phillips, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after cardiac surgery has recently been linked to bioaerosols from contaminated heater-cooler units. The majority of cases have occurred after valvular surgery or aortic graft surgery and nearly half have resulted in death. To date, infections in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been characterized in the literature. We report two cases of device-associated M. chimaera infection in patients with continuous-flow LVADs and describe challenges related to diagnosis and management in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Skin granulomas due to Mycobacterium gordonae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengoux, P; Portaels, F; Lachapelle, J M; Minnikin, D E; Tennstedt, D; Tamigneau, P

    1987-04-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with small, ulcerated, red or bluish nodules on the right hand, clinically resembling mycobacterial granulomas; these appeared a few months after a bite by a rat, while the patient was collecting frogs in a pond in the Belgian Ardennes. The histopathologic picture was compatible with a diagnosis of mycobacterial infection and rare acid-fast bacilli could be found. Repeated bacteriologic investigations were performed and these led to the identification of a strain displaying characteristics of Mycobacterium gordonae. The skin condition responded well to rifampicin (300 mg/day) within 6 months.

  4. Strain specific transcriptional response in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Mi-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB, a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb remains a significant health problem worldwide with a third of the world population infected and nearly nine million new cases claiming 1.1 million deaths every year. The outcome following infection by Mtb is determined by a complex and dynamic host-pathogen interaction in which the phenotype of the pathogen and the immune status of the host play a role. However, the molecular mechanism by which Mtb strains induce different responses during intracellular infection of the host macrophage is not fully understood. To explore the early molecular events triggered upon Mtb infection of macrophages, we studied the transcriptional responses of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM to infection with two clinical Mtb strains, CDC1551 and HN878. These strains have previously been shown to differ in their virulence/immunogenicity in the mouse and rabbit models of pulmonary TB. Results In spite of similar intracellular growth rates, we observed that compared to HN878, infection by CDC1551 of BMM was associated with an increased global transcriptome, up-regulation of a specific early (6 hours immune response network and significantly elevated nitric oxide production. In contrast, at 24 hours post-infection of BMM by HN878, more host genes involved in lipid metabolism, including cholesterol metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis were up-regulated, compared to infection with CDC1551. In association with the differences in the macrophage responses to infection with the 2 Mtb strains, intracellular CDC1551 expressed higher levels of stress response genes than did HN878. Conclusions In association with the early and more robust macrophage activation, intracellular CDC1551 cells were exposed to a higher level of stress leading to increased up-regulation of the bacterial stress response genes. In contrast, sub-optimal activation of macrophages and induction of

  5. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim

    2005-01-01

    conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated......Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  6. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Mateja; Zajc, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Žele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd; Pirš, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2016-02-01

    Wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Slovenia is officially free of bTB, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. In this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in Slovenia belonging to the families Cervidae, Suidae, Canidae, Mustelidae and Bovidae. Mycobacteria were isolated from 36/306 (11.8%) animals (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar and jackal) and identified by PCR, commercial diagnostic kits and sequencing. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria identified in five species were Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dry-heat inactivation of "Mycobacterium canettii".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Garnotel, Eric; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-06-09

    "Mycobacterium canettii" is responsible for non-transmissible lymph node and pulmonary tuberculosis in persons exposed in the Horn of Africa. In the absence of direct human transmission, contaminated water and foodstuffs could be sources of contamination. We investigated the dry-heat inactivation of "M. canettii" alone and mixed into mock-infected foodstuffs by inoculating agar cylinders and milk with 10 4 colony-forming units of "M. canettii" CIPT140010059 and two "M. canettii" clinical strains with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv as a control. Exposed to 35 °C, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, "M canettii" CIPT140010059 and "M. canettii" 157 exhibited a survival rate of 108, 95 and 81%, which is significantly higher than that of "M. canettii" 173. However, all tested mycobacteria tolerated a 90-min exposure at 45 °C. In the foodstuff models set at 70 °C, no growing mycobacteria were visualized. This study supports the premise that "M. canettii" may survive up to 45 °C; and suggests that contaminated raw drinks and foodstuffs but not cooked ones may be sources of infection for populations.

  8. Images of mycobacterium for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.T.S.; Crispim, V.R.; Silva, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) tuberculosis is responsible for 2.9 million deaths annually worldwide. The necessity for optimizing time to detect the tuberculosis bacillus (mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the sputum samples of affected individuals (TB patients) led to the development of a methodology based on the doping with boron of the bacillus, submission of the samples to thermal neutron beam and ionizing particles, generating nuclear reactions of the types: 10 B (n,α) 7 Li and 10 B(α, p) 13 C. Images of these bacilli are obtained by means of the nuclear tracks produced in the CR-39 detector for particles products of these nuclear reactions, α and p. When the CR-39 is submitted to a chemical attack the traces are developed and the images of the microorganisms registered in the detector can be observed with a conventional light microscope, characterizing them by morphology. The use of this methodology results in images of the mycobacterium tuberculosis becoming more defined and enlarged than those obtained by bacilloscopy, in which the sample is submitted to the method of coloration of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and observed in light microscopy. (author)

  9. The evolution of lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y. H.; Sugai, A.; Uda, I.; Itoh, T.

    2001-01-01

    Living organisms on the Earth which are divided into three major domains - Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya, probably came from a common ancestral cell. Because there are many thermophilic microorganisms near the root of the universal phylogenetic tree, the common ancestral cell should be considered to be a thermophilic microorganism. The existence of a cell is necessary for the living organisms; the cell membrane is the essential structural component of a cell, so its amphiphilic property is vital for the molecule of lipids for cell membranes. Tetraether type glycerophospholipids with C 40 isoprenoid chains are major membrane lipids widely distributed in archaeal cells. Cyclization number of C 40 isoprenoid chains in thermophilic archaea influences the fluidity of lipids whereas the number of carbons and degree of unsaturation in fatty acids do so in bacteria and eucarya. In addition to the cyclization of the tetraether lipids, covalent bonding of two C 40 isoprenoid chains was found in hyperthermophiles. These characteristic structures of the lipids seem to contribute to their fundamental physiological roles in hyperthermophiles. Stereochemical differences between G-1-P archaeal lipids and G-3-P bacterial and eucaryal lipids might have occured by the function of some proteins long after the first cell was developed by the reactions of small organic molecules. We propose that the structure of lipids of the common ancestral cell may have been similar to those of hyperthermophilic archaea.

  10. Lysosomal lipid storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a "traffic jam." This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement.

  11. Lipid bilayers and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In biological systems lipid bilayers are subject to many different interactions with other entities. These can range from proteins that are attached to the hydrophilic region of the bilayer or transmembrane proteins that interact with the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer. Interaction between

  12. Radiometric assessment of the sensitivity to antituberculotics of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and Mycobacterium xenopi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, M.; Lindholm-Levy, P.; Heifets, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    The macrodilution radiometric method using Middlebrook's 7H12 liquid medium enriched with 14 C-palmitic acid, where the growth activity is monitored by measuring liberated 14 CO 2 , was applied to 25 strains of the Mycobacterium avium complex and to 20 strains of Mycobacterium xenopi to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the following chemotherapeutical agents: ciprofloxacine, clofazimine, rifampin, cycloserine, kanamycin, etionamide, ethambutol, and amikacin. In the case of the M. avium complex, slightly or completely resistant strains were found for the majority of drugs. The sensitive strain proportion was highest with clofazimine and amikacin. The M. xenopis strains exhibited generally lower minimal inhibitory concentrations than the avian mycobacteria for all drugs except for cycloserine and ethambutol. The radiometric method using the BACTEC system was found suitable for the determination of the sensitivity of mycobacteria to chemotherapeutic agents: the results are obtained rapidly, within 8 days following inoculation, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations can be evaluated quantitatively. 1 tab., 8 refs

  13. Distinct Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Peptidoglycan Synthesis between Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Botella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan (PG, a polymer cross-linked by d-amino acid-containing peptides, is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. We found that a fluorescent d-alanine analog (FDAA incorporates chiefly at one of the two poles in Mycobacterium smegmatis but that polar dominance varies as a function of the cell cycle in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: immediately after cytokinesis, FDAAs are incorporated chiefly at one of the two poles, but just before cytokinesis, FDAAs are incorporated comparably at both. These observations suggest that mycobacterial PG-synthesizing enzymes are localized in functional compartments at the poles and septum and that the capacity for PG synthesis matures at the new pole in M. tuberculosis. Deeper knowledge of the biology of mycobacterial PG synthesis may help in discovering drugs that disable previously unappreciated steps in the process.

  14. A Case of False-Positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium celatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gildeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium celatum is a nontuberculous mycobacterium shown to cause symptoms similar to pulmonary M. tuberculosis. Certain strains have been shown to cross-react with the probes used to detect M. tuberculosis, making this a diagnostic challenge. We present a 56-year-old gentleman who developed signs and symptoms of lung infection with computed tomography scan of the chest showing right lung apex cavitation. Serial sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli and nucleic acid amplification testing identified M. tuberculosis ribosomal RNA, resulting in treatment initiation. Further testing with high performance liquid chromatography showed a pattern consistent with M. celatum. This case illustrates the potential for M. celatum to mimic M. tuberculosis in both its clinical history and laboratory testing due to the identical oligonucleotide sequence contained in both. An increasing number of case reports suggest that early reliable differentiation could reduce unnecessary treatment and public health intervention associated with misdiagnosed tuberculosis.

  15. Triacylglycerol: nourishing molecule in endurance of Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pratap C Mali

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... solution, which serves as energy source by the production of acetyl-coA (Walker et .... dormant phase and become resistant to antibiotics (Gomez and Mckinney 2004). .... animals, plants and microorganisms. Prog. Lipid Res.

  16. [Cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium fortuitum]  Infeccion cutanea por Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rotela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria are aerobic, non-spore forming, gram positive, acid-fast bacilli, which affect skin, subcutaneous tissue, and other organs and systems. Mycobacterium fortuitum produces cellulitis, abscesses, papules-pustules, nodules and ulcers with serosanguinolent, purulent material, and subcutaneous necrosis. A 61-year-old woman, presents a case of two months of evolution that begins with reddish grain from an insect sting. After immersion in the Mexican Sea, it worsens, increases in quantity, is blistered and has brownish secretion; Physical examination shows erythematous plaque, with punctate orifices with hematic and meliceric crusts; Pustules and satellite papules, on the anterior aspect of the right leg. Histopathology: Suppurative dermal granulomas, centered by acute leukocyte infiltrate, with liquefactive tissue necrosis, surrounded by chronic inflammation with macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, multinucleated giant cells. The first skin culture returns negative; in the second skin culture, fast-growing, non-pigmented atypical mycobacteria. Molecular detection is performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction: Mycobacterium fortuitum. Treatment with Ciprofloxacin 500 mg every 12 hours, with resolution of the table to the eighth month. A case of cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium fortuitum, related to the immersion in the sea and corals, whose diagnostic process has been difficult and was achieved by techniques of advanced molecular biology.

  17. Chronic breast abscess due to Mycobacterium fortuitum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacNeill Fiona A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rapidly growing group of nontuberculous mycobacteria more common in patients with genetic or acquired causes of immune deficiency. There have been few published reports of Mycobacterium fortuitum associated with breast infections mainly associated with breast implant and reconstructive surgery. Case presentation We report a case of a 51-year-old Caucasian woman who presented to our one-stop breast clinic with a two-week history of left breast swelling and tenderness. Following triple assessment and subsequent incision and drainage of a breast abscess, the patient was diagnosed with Mycobacterium fortuitum and treated with antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement. Conclusion This is a rare case of a spontaneous breast abscess secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum infection. Recommended treatment is long-term antibacterial therapy and surgical debridement for extensive infection or when implants are involved.

  18. Buoyant density of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: implications for sputum processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, A. L.; Klatser, P. R.; Anthony, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    A tuberculosis (TB) research laboratory in the Netherlands. The concentration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells from sputum is almost universally performed by centrifugation after chemical liquefaction. These methods are thus dependent on the effective sedimentation of mycobacterial cells, and the

  19. Variable host-pathogen compatibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagneux, Sebastien; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Van, Tran; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Jong, Bouke C de; Narayanan, Sujatha; Nicol, Mark; Niemann, Stefan; Kremer, Kristin; Gutierrez, M Cristina; Hilty, Markus; Hopewell, Philip C; Small, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies have reported human pathogens to have geographically structured population genetics, some of which have been linked to ancient human migrations. However, no study has addressed the potential evolutionary

  20. EVIDENCE FOR THE MACROPHAGE INDUCING GENE IN MYCOBACTERIUM INTRACELLULARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) includes the species M. avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI), and possibly others. Organisms belonging to the MAC are phylogenetically closely related, opportunistic pathogens. The macrophage inducing gene (mig) is the only well-des...

  1. A robust SNP barcode for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc; McNerney, Ruth; Guerra-Assunç ã o, José Afonso; Glynn, Judith R.; Perdigã o, Joã o; Viveiros, Miguel; Portugal, Isabel; Pain, Arnab; Martin, Nigel; Clark, Taane G.

    2014-01-01

    Strain-specific genomic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is an important factor in pathogenesis that may affect virulence, transmissibility, host response and emergence of drug resistance. Several systems have been proposed

  2. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, I S; Larsen, A R; Sandven, P

    2003-01-01

    In the first attempt to establish a quality assurance programme for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones, 20 strains with different fluoroquinolone susceptibility patterns were distributed by the Supranational Reference Laboratory in Stockholm to the other...

  3. Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.

  4. Avanti lipid tools: connecting lipids, technology, and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Kacee H; Tytler, Ewan M; Tipton, John; Hill, Kasey L; Burgess, Stephen W; Shaw, Walter A

    2014-08-01

    Lipid research is challenging owing to the complexity and diversity of the lipidome. Here we review a set of experimental tools developed for the seasoned lipid researcher, as well as, those who are new to the field of lipid research. Novel tools for probing protein-lipid interactions, applications for lipid binding antibodies, enhanced systems for the cellular delivery of lipids, improved visualization of lipid membranes using gold-labeled lipids, and advances in mass spectrometric analysis techniques will be discussed. Because lipid mediators are known to participate in a host of signal transduction and trafficking pathways within the cell, a comprehensive lipid toolbox that aids the science of lipidomics research is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interactions between cellular components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG by a combination of systemic and oral routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, Bryce M; Denis, Michel; Aldwell, Frank E; Martin Vordermeier, H; Glyn Hewinson, R; Neil Wedlock, D

    2008-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivered to calves by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce similar levels of protection against bovine tuberculosis. The current study was aimed at determining whether a combination of delivering BCG by s.c. and oral routes would enhance levels of protection, compared to only one route of vaccination. Forty calves were randomly divided into four groups (10/group). Calves were vaccinated with 10(6)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG Pasteur by the s.c. route or orally with 10(9)CFU BCG incorporated into a lipid formulation. One group received a combination of BCG administered by both the s.c. and oral routes and a non-vaccinated group served as a control. The two groups of calves that received s.c. BCG produced strong IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) 3 weeks after vaccination. Cattle vaccinated just with oral BCG in a lipid matrix produced a strong IFN-gamma response 8 weeks after vaccination, and peaking at 11 weeks after vaccination. All calves were challenged by the intratracheal route with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and were euthanized and necropsied to assess protection at 17 weeks following challenge. BCG given s.c. or orally induced significant and comparable levels of protection against the virulent challenge. Vaccination of cattle by a combination of s.c./oral routes did not enhance protection beyond that achieved by s.c. or oral vaccination alone. We conclude that vaccination of cattle with BCG by a combination of routes has no beneficial additive effects, compared to a single s.c. administration of BCG or BCG given orally in a lipid formulation.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium xenopi Type Strain RIVM700367

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, A. M.; Rashid, M.; Adroub, S. A.; Elabdalaoui, H.; Ali, Shahjahan; van Soolingen, D.; Bitter, W.; Pain, Arnab

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium xenopi is a slow-growing, thermophilic, water-related Mycobacterium species. Like other nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. xenopi more commonly infects humans with altered immune function, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. It is considered clinically relevant in a significant proportion of the patients from whom it is isolated. We report here the whole genome sequence of M. xenopi type strain RIVM700367.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium xenopi Type Strain RIVM700367

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-05-24

    Mycobacterium xenopi is a slow-growing, thermophilic, water-related Mycobacterium species. Like other nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. xenopi more commonly infects humans with altered immune function, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. It is considered clinically relevant in a significant proportion of the patients from whom it is isolated. We report here the whole genome sequence of M. xenopi type strain RIVM700367.

  8. Mycobacterium chelonae empyema with bronchopleural fistula in an immunocompetent patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, Siraj

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium Calhoun is one of the rapidly growing mycobacteria that rarely cause lung disease. M chelonae more commonly causes skin and soft tissue infections primarily in immunosuppressed individuals. Thoracic empyema caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria and complicated with bronchopleural fistula is rarely reported, especially in immunocompetent patients. In this article we report the first immunocompetent Arabian patient presented with M chelonae- related empyema with bronchopleural fistula which mimics, clinically and radiologically, empyema caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (author)

  9. Mycobacterium Diversity and Pyrene Mineralization in Petroleum-Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Pui-Yi; Kinkle, Brian K.

    2001-01-01

    Degradative strains of fast-growing Mycobacterium spp. are commonly isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils. Little is known, however, about the ecology and diversity of indigenous populations of these fast-growing mycobacteria in contaminated environments. In the present study 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified using Mycobacterium-specific primers and separated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), and prominent bands were sequenced to compare the ...

  10. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  11. Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium heraklionense, and a Newly Proposed Species, “Mycobacterium virginiense” sp. nov., but Not Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, as Species of the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Causing Tenosynovitis and Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddy, Sruthi; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Eke, Uzoamaka A.; Benwill, Jeana L.; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium terrae complex has been recognized as a cause of tenosynovitis, with M. terrae and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum reported as the primary etiologic pathogens. The molecular taxonomy of the M. terrae complex causing tenosynovitis has not been established despite approximately 50 previously reported cases. We evaluated 26 isolates of the M. terrae complex associated with tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis recovered between 1984 and 2014 from 13 states, including 5 isolates reported in 1991 as M. nonchromogenicum by nonmolecular methods. The isolates belonged to three validated species, one new proposed species, and two novel related strains. The majority of isolates (20/26, or 77%) belonged to two recently described species: Mycobacterium arupense (10 isolates, or 38%) and Mycobacterium heraklionense (10 isolates, or 38%). Three isolates (12%) had 100% sequence identity to each other by 16S rRNA and 99.3 to 100% identity by rpoB gene region V sequencing and represent a previously undescribed species within the M. terrae complex. There were no isolates of M. terrae or M. nonchromogenicum, including among the five isolates reported in 1991. The 26 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin (100%), rifabutin (100%), ethambutol (92%), and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70%). The current study suggests that M. arupense, M. heraklionense, and a newly proposed species (“M. virginiense” sp. nov.; proposed type strain MO-233 [DSM 100883, CIP 110918]) within the M. terrae complex are the major causes of tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis in the United States, with little change over 20 years. Species identification within this complex requires sequencing methods. PMID:26962085

  12. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  13. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pyomyositis in an Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, ZA; Shehab, M

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic to many parts of the world. It may have variable clinical presentations, especially in the pediatric age group. Presented here is the case of a 9-month old infant who was referred for infectious disease opinion when his thigh induration failed to improve after surgical drainage and a course of oral antibiotic therapy. Mycobacterial PCR on the operative sample fluid was found to be positive; and mycobacterial culture grew M. tuberculosis. He received 9 months of treatment with anti-TB medications, with excellent results and complete recovery. This is the first report of TB pyomyositis in an infant; and highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion for unusual organisms when conventional therapy fails to demonstrate expected results. PMID:23919207

  14. Virulence factors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrellad, Marina A.; Klepp, Laura I.; Gioffré, Andrea; Sabio y García, Julia; Morbidoni, Hector R.; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Cataldi, Angel A.; Bigi, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) consists of closely related species that cause tuberculosis in both humans and animals. This illness, still today, remains to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The mycobacteria enter the host by air, and, once in the lungs, are phagocytated by macrophages. This may lead to the rapid elimination of the bacillus or to the triggering of an active tuberculosis infection. A large number of different virulence factors have evolved in MTBC members as a response to the host immune reaction. The aim of this review is to describe the bacterial genes/proteins that are essential for the virulence of MTBC species, and that have been demonstrated in an in vivo model of infection. Knowledge of MTBC virulence factors is essential for the development of new vaccines and drugs to help manage the disease toward an increasingly more tuberculosis-free world. PMID:23076359

  15. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  16. Advances in Proteomics of Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, O; Singh, B P

    2012-04-01

    Although Mycobacterium leprae was the first bacterial pathogen identified causing human disease, it remains one of the few that is non-cultivable. Understanding the biology of M. leprae is one of the primary challenges in current leprosy research. Genomics has been extremely valuable, nonetheless, functional proteins are ultimately responsible for controlling most aspects of cellular functions, which in turn could facilitate parasitizing the host. Furthermore, bacterial proteins provide targets for most of the vaccines and immunodiagnostic tools. Better understanding of the proteomics of M. leprae could also help in developing new drugs against M. leprae. During the past nearly 15 years, there have been several developments towards the identification of M. leprae proteins employing contemporary proteomics tools. In this review, we discuss the knowledge gained on the biology and pathogenesis of M. leprae from current proteomic studies. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Mycobacterium leprae: genes, pseudogenes and genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpendra; Cole, Stewart T

    2011-01-01

    Leprosy, which has afflicted human populations for millenia, results from infection with Mycobacterium leprae, an unculturable pathogen with an exceptionally long generation time. Considerable insight into the biology and drug resistance of the leprosy bacillus has been obtained from genomics. M. leprae has undergone reductive evolution and pseudogenes now occupy half of its genome. Comparative genomics of four different strains revealed remarkable conservation of the genome (99.995% identity) yet uncovered 215 polymorphic sites, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a handful of new pseudogenes. Mapping these polymorphisms in a large panel of strains defined 16 single nucleotide polymorphism-subtypes that showed strong geographical associations and helped retrace the evolution of M. leprae. PMID:21162636

  18. Consequences of genomic diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscolla, Mireia; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    The causative agent of human tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), comprises seven phylogenetically distinct lineages associated with different geographical regions. Here we review the latest findings on the nature and amount of genomic diversity within and between MTBC lineages. We then review recent evidence for the effect of this genomic diversity on mycobacterial phenotypes measured experimentally and in clinical settings. We conclude that overall, the most geographically widespread Lineage 2 (includes Beijing) and Lineage 4 (also known as Euro-American) are more virulent than other lineages that are more geographically restricted. This increased virulence is associated with delayed or reduced pro-inflammatory host immune responses, greater severity of disease, and enhanced transmission. Future work should focus on the interaction between MTBC and human genetic diversity, as well as on the environmental factors that modulate these interactions. PMID:25453224

  19. Associations between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains and Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Velji, Preya

    2010-01-01

    To inform development of tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, we characterized a total of 2,261 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by using multiple phenotypic and molecular markers, including polymorphisms in repetitive sequences (spoligotyping and variable-number tandem repeats [VNTRs]) and large sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The Beijing family was strongly associated with multidrug resistance (p = 0.0001), and VNTR allelic variants showed strong associations with spoligotyping families: >5 copies at exact tandem repeat (ETR) A, >2 at mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit 24, and >3 at ETR-B associated with the East African–Indian and M. bovis strains. All M. tuberculosis isolates were differentiated into 4 major lineages, and a maximum parsimony tree was constructed suggesting a more complex phylogeny for M. africanum. These findings can be used as a model of pathogen global diversity. PMID:20113558

  20. Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Infections in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hung, Chien-Ching; Yu, Chong-Jen; Lee, Li-Na; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex comprises a group of rapidly growing, multidrug-resistant, nontuberculous mycobacteria that are responsible for a wide spectrum of skin and soft tissue diseases, central nervous system infections, bacteremia, and ocular and other infections. M. abscessus complex is differentiated into 3 subspecies: M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. The 2 major subspecies, M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, have different erm(41) gene patterns. This gene provides intrinsic resistance to macrolides, so the different patterns lead to different treatment outcomes. M. abscessus complex outbreaks associated with cosmetic procedures and nosocomial transmissions are not uncommon. Clarithromycin, amikacin, and cefoxitin are the current antimicrobial drugs of choice for treatment. However, new treatment regimens are urgently needed, as are rapid and inexpensive identification methods and measures to contain nosocomial transmission and outbreaks.

  1. Autoradiographic and metabolic studies of Mycobacterium leprae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanolkar, S.R.; Ambrose, E.J.; Chulawala, R.G.; Bapat, C.V.

    1978-01-01

    Highly purified suspensions of Mycobacterium leprae show a progressive increase in incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]DOPA in short-term cultures as shown by scintillation counting. The intact bacilli are known to have a high permeability barrier. The experiments described suggest that [ 3 H]DOPA becomes trapped within this barrier and oxidized inside the bacilli. Tests by pre-treatment with diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC inhibitor of DOPA), cold DOPA or hyaluronidase distinguish the uptake of [ 3 H]DOPA by bacilli from the effects of connective tissue contamination. Similar increases in labelling of bacilli by scintillation counting of cultures, have been observed by autoradiography of the organisms. The scintillation method shows promise for rapidly identifying drug resistance in lepromatous patients relapsing while on treatment with dapsone (DDS) rifampicin, clofazimine or other anti-leprosy drugs. (author)

  2. Phenotypic and genomic comparison of Mycobacterium aurum and surrogate model species to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: implications for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namouchi, Amine; Cimino, Mena; Favre-Rochex, Sandrine; Charles, Patricia; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2017-07-13

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents one of the major challenges facing drug discovery initiatives worldwide. The considerable rise in bacterial drug resistance in recent years has led to the need of new drugs and drug regimens. Model systems are regularly used to speed-up the drug discovery process and circumvent biosafety issues associated with manipulating M. tuberculosis. These include the use of strains such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium marinum that can be handled in biosafety level 2 facilities, making high-throughput screening feasible. However, each of these model species have their own limitations. We report and describe the first complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium aurum ATCC23366, an environmental mycobacterium that can also grow in the gut of humans and animals as part of the microbiota. This species shows a comparable resistance profile to that of M. tuberculosis for several anti-TB drugs. The aims of this study were to (i) determine the drug resistance profile of a recently proposed model species, Mycobacterium aurum, strain ATCC23366, for anti-TB drug discovery as well as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium marinum (ii) sequence and annotate the complete genome sequence of this species obtained using Pacific Bioscience technology (iii) perform comparative genomics analyses of the various surrogate strains with M. tuberculosis (iv) discuss how the choice of the surrogate model used for drug screening can affect the drug discovery process. We describe the complete genome sequence of M. aurum, a surrogate model for anti-tuberculosis drug discovery. Most of the genes already reported to be associated with drug resistance are shared between all the surrogate strains and M. tuberculosis. We consider that M. aurum might be used in high-throughput screening for tuberculosis drug discovery. We also highly recommend the use of different model species during the drug discovery screening process.

  3. Comparison of the UDP-N-Acetylmuramate:l-Alanine Ligase Enzymes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Crick, Dean C.; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    In the peptidoglycan of Mycobacterium leprae, l-alanine of the side chain is replaced by glycine. When expressed in Escherichia coli, MurC (UDP-N-acetyl-muramate:l-alanine ligase) of M. leprae showed Km and Vmax for l-alanine and glycine similar to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MurC, suggesting that another explanation should be sought for the presence of glycine. PMID:11073931

  4. Comparison of the UDP-N-Acetylmuramate:l-Alanine Ligase Enzymes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Crick, Dean C.; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    In the peptidoglycan of Mycobacterium leprae, l-alanine of the side chain is replaced by glycine. When expressed in Escherichia coli, MurC (UDP-N-acetyl-muramate:l-alanine ligase) of M. leprae showed Km and Vmax for l-alanine and glycine similar to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MurC, suggesting that another explanation should be sought for the presence of glycine.

  5. Elucidation and chemical modulation of sulfolipid-1 biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Jessica C; Holsclaw, Cynthia M; Schelle, Michael W; Botyanszki, Zsofia; Gilmore, Sarah A; Tully, Sarah E; Niederweis, Michael; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Leary, Julie A; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2012-03-09

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses unique cell-surface lipids that have been implicated in virulence. One of the most abundant is sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), a tetraacyl-sulfotrehalose glycolipid. Although the early steps in SL-1 biosynthesis are known, the machinery underlying the final acylation reactions is not understood. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence for the activities of two proteins, Chp1 and Sap (corresponding to gene loci rv3822 and rv3821), that complete this pathway. The membrane-associated acyltransferase Chp1 accepts a synthetic diacyl sulfolipid and transfers an acyl group regioselectively from one donor substrate molecule to a second acceptor molecule in two successive reactions to yield a tetraacylated product. Chp1 is fully active in vitro, but in M. tuberculosis, its function is potentiated by the previously identified sulfolipid transporter MmpL8. We also show that the integral membrane protein Sap and MmpL8 are both essential for sulfolipid transport. Finally, the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin disrupts Chp1 activity in M. tuberculosis, suggesting an avenue for perturbing SL-1 biosynthesis in vivo. These data complete the SL-1 biosynthetic pathway and corroborate a model in which lipid biosynthesis and transmembrane transport are coupled at the membrane-cytosol interface through the activity of multiple proteins, possibly as a macromolecular complex.

  6. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  7. Multinucleated giant cell cytokine expression in pulmonary granulomas of cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogenic mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex such as Mycobacterium bovis, induce a characteristic lesion known as a granulomas. Granulomas represent a specific host response to chronic antigenic stimuli, such as foreign bodies, certain bacterial components, or persistent pathoge...

  8. Pott's disease: a case of Mycobacterium xenopi infection of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfreijat, Majd; Ononiwu, Chiagozie; Sexton, Carlton

    2012-01-01

    Pott's disease is an infection of the spine with Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes destruction of the spine elements resulting in progressive kyphosis. We are describing a rare case of Pott's disease where Mycobacterium xenopi was the inculpated organism.

  9. Membrane proteins bind lipids selectively to modulate their structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Reading, Eamonn; Allison, Timothy M; Ulmschneider, Martin B; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Baldwin, Andrew J; Robinson, Carol V

    2014-06-05

    Previous studies have established that the folding, structure and function of membrane proteins are influenced by their lipid environments and that lipids can bind to specific sites, for example, in potassium channels. Fundamental questions remain however regarding the extent of membrane protein selectivity towards lipids. Here we report a mass spectrometry approach designed to determine the selectivity of lipid binding to membrane protein complexes. We investigate the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and aquaporin Z (AqpZ) and the ammonia channel (AmtB) from Escherichia coli, using ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), which reports gas-phase collision cross-sections. We demonstrate that folded conformations of membrane protein complexes can exist in the gas phase. By resolving lipid-bound states, we then rank bound lipids on the basis of their ability to resist gas phase unfolding and thereby stabilize membrane protein structure. Lipids bind non-selectively and with high avidity to MscL, all imparting comparable stability; however, the highest-ranking lipid is phosphatidylinositol phosphate, in line with its proposed functional role in mechanosensation. AqpZ is also stabilized by many lipids, with cardiolipin imparting the most significant resistance to unfolding. Subsequently, through functional assays we show that cardiolipin modulates AqpZ function. Similar experiments identify AmtB as being highly selective for phosphatidylglycerol, prompting us to obtain an X-ray structure in this lipid membrane-like environment. The 2.3 Å resolution structure, when compared with others obtained without lipid bound, reveals distinct conformational changes that re-position AmtB residues to interact with the lipid bilayer. Our results demonstrate that resistance to unfolding correlates with specific lipid-binding events, enabling a distinction to be made between lipids that merely bind from those that modulate membrane

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Frog Pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans Ecovar Liflandii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, Nicholas J.; Doig, Kenneth D.; Medema, Marnix H.; Chen, Honglei; Haring, Volker; Moore, Robert; Seemann, Torsten; Stinear, Timothy P.

    In 2004, a previously undiscovered mycobacterium resembling Mycobacterium ulcerans (the agent of Buruli ulcer) was reported in an outbreak of a lethal mycobacteriosis in a laboratory colony of the African clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis. This mycobacterium makes mycolactone and is one of several

  11. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203 T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900 T and SN 1904 T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900 T (40 T =CECT 8763 T =DSM 43219 T ) and SN 1904 T (2409 T =CECT 8766 T =DSM 43532 T ) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  12. Lipid Cell Biology: A Focus on Lipids in Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Elisabeth M; Özbalci, Cagakan; Eggert, Ulrike S

    2018-06-20

    Cells depend on hugely diverse lipidomes for many functions. The actions and structural integrity of the plasma membrane and most organelles also critically depend on membranes and their lipid components. Despite the biological importance of lipids, our understanding of lipid engagement, especially the roles of lipid hydrophobic alkyl side chains, in key cellular processes is still developing. Emerging research has begun to dissect the importance of lipids in intricate events such as cell division. This review discusses how these structurally diverse biomolecules are spatially and temporally regulated during cell division, with a focus on cytokinesis. We analyze how lipids facilitate changes in cellular morphology during division and how they participate in key signaling events. We identify which cytokinesis proteins are associated with membranes, suggesting lipid interactions. More broadly, we highlight key unaddressed questions in lipid cell biology and techniques, including mass spectrometry, advanced imaging, and chemical biology, which will help us gain insights into the functional roles of lipids.

  13. Combating highly resistant emerging pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis with novel salicylanilide esters and carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyai, Zsuzsa; Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Szabó, Nóra; Senoner, Zsuzsanna; Horváti, Kata; Stolaříková, Jiřina; Dávid, Sándor; Bősze, Szilvia

    2015-08-28

    In the Mycobacterium genus over one hundred species are already described and new ones are periodically reported. Species that form colonies in a week are classified as rapid growers, those requiring longer periods (up to three months) are the mostly pathogenic slow growers. More recently, new emerging species have been identified to lengthen the list, all rapid growers. Of these, Mycobacterium abscessus is also an intracellular pathogen and it is the most chemotherapy-resistant rapid-growing mycobacterium. In addition, the cases of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are also increasing. Therefore there is an urgent need to find new active molecules against these threatening strains. Based on previous results, a series of salicylanilides, salicylanilide 5-chloropyrazinoates and carbamates was designed, synthesized and characterised. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity on M. abscessus, susceptible M. tuberculosis H37Rv, multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis MDR A8, M. tuberculosis MDR 9449/2006 and on the extremely-resistant Praha 131 (XDR) strains. All derivatives exhibited a significant activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the low micromolar range. Eight salicylanilide carbamates and two salicylanilide esters exhibited an excellent in vitro activity on M. abscessus with MICs from 0.2 to 2.1 μM, thus being more effective than ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. This finding is potentially promising, particularly, as M. abscessus is a threateningly chemotherapy-resistant species. M. tuberculosis H37Rv was inhibited with MICs from 0.2 μM, and eleven compounds have lower MICs than isoniazid. Salicylanilide esters and carbamates were found that they were effective also on MDR and XDR M. tuberculosis strains with MICs ≥1.0 μM. The in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50) was also determined on human MonoMac-6 cells, and selectivity index (SI) of the compounds was established. In general, salicylanilide

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  15. Pharmacogenetics of lipid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordovas Jose M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic basis for most of the rare lipid monogenic disorders have been elucidated, but the challenge remains in determining the combination of genes that contribute to the genetic variability in lipid levels in the general population; this has been estimated to be in the range of 40-60 per cent of the total variability. Therefore, the effect of common polymorphisms on lipid phenotypes will be greatly modulated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. This approach can also be used to characterise the individuality of the response to lipid-lowering therapies, whether using drugs (pharmacogenetics or dietary interventions (nutrigenetics. In this regard, multiple studies have already described significant interactions between candidate genes for lipid and drug metabolism that modulate therapeutic response--although the outcomes of these studies have been controversial and call for more rigorous experimental design and analytical approaches. Once solid evidence about the predictive value of genetic panels is obtained, risk and therapeutic algorithms can begin to be generated that should provide an accurate measure of genetic predisposition, as well as targeted behavioural modifications or drugs of choice and personalised dosages of these drugs.

  16. Lipids, lipid bilayers and vesicles as seen by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Lipid molecules self-assemble into bilayers in water with their hydrocarbon chains facing inward due to their amphiphilic nature. The structural and dynamical properties of lipids and lipid bilayers have been studied by neutron scattering intensively. In this article, 3 topics are shown as typical examples. 1) a time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering on uni-lamellar vesicles composed of deuterated and protonated lipids to determine lipid kinetics, 2) small-angle neutron scattering to investigate spontaneous formation of nanopores on uni-lamellar vesicles, and 3) neutron spin echo study to determine bending modulus of lipid bilayers. (author)

  17. Lipid management in ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Ines; Ach, Koussay; Chaieb, Larbi

    2015-05-01

    During Ramadan fast, Muslims must refrain from smoking, eating, drinking, having sexual activity, and consuming oral medications from sunrise to sunset. It has been previously shown that Ramadan fasting induces favourable changes on metabolic parameters, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and promotes cardiovascular benefits. Although ill people are exempted from fasting, most patients with chronic diseases are keen on performing this Islamic-ritual. During recent years, Risk stratification and treatment adjustment during Ramadan are well known and structured in several guidelines for patients with diabetes mellitus. Data related to the effect of Ramadan fast on lipid profiles are less known and several controversies have been reported. Here, we focus on lipid profile and lipid management during Ramadan taking into account comorbidities and cardiovascular risk.

  18. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  19. Analysis of the leprosy agents Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiang Y; Aung, Fleur M; Choon, Siew Eng; Werner, Betina

    2014-10-01

    To differentiate the leprosy agents Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis and correlate them with geographic distribution and clinicopathologic features. Species-specific polymerase chain reactions were used to detect each bacillus in archived skin biopsy specimens from patients with leprosy from Brazil (n = 52), Malaysia (n = 31), Myanmar (n = 9), and Uganda (n = 4). Findings were correlated with clinical and pathologic data. Etiologic species was detected in 46 of the 52 Brazilian patients, including 36 patients with M leprae, seven with M lepromatosis, and three with both bacilli. The seven patients with sole M lepromatosis all had tuberculoid leprosy, whereas only nine of the 36 patients infected with M leprae exhibited this type, and the rest were lepromatous (P leprae and two with M lepromatosis. Of the Malaysian and Ugandan patients, only M leprae was detected in 27 of the 31 Malaysians and two of the four Ugandans. The leprosy agents vary in geographic distribution. Finding M lepromatosis in Brazil and Myanmar suggests wide existence of this newly discovered species. The leprosy manifestations likely vary with the etiologic agents. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  20. [Ecology and transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsollier, L; Aubry, J; Saint-André, J-P; Robert, R; Legras, P; Manceau, A-L; Bourdon, S; Audrain, C; Carbonnelle, B

    2003-10-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is an environmental pathogen concerning mainly the tropical countries; it is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, which has become the third most important mycobacterial disease. In spite of water-linked epidemiological studies to identify the sources of M. ulcerans, the reservoir and the mode of transmission of this organism remain elusive. To determine the ecology and the mode of transmission of M. ulcerans we have set up an experimental model. This experimental model demonstrated that water bugs were able to transmit M. ulcerans by bites. In insects, the bacilli were localized exclusively within salivary glands, where it could both multiply contrary to other mycobacteria species. In another experimental study, we report that the crude extracts from aquatic plants stimulate in vitro the growth of M. ulcerans as much as the biofilm formation by M. ulcerans has been observed on aquatic plants. Given that the water bugs are essentially carnivorous, it is difficult to imagine a direct contact in the contamination of aquatic bugs and plants. It seems very likely that an intermediate host exists. In an endemic area of Daloa in Côte d'Ivoire, our observations were confirmed.

  1. DNA repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Vultos, Tiago; Mestre, Olga; Tonjum, Tone; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2009-05-01

    Our understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA repair mechanisms is still poor compared with that of other bacterial organisms. However, the publication of the first complete M. tuberculosis genome sequence 10 years ago boosted the study of DNA repair systems in this organism. A first step in the elucidation of M. tuberculosis DNA repair mechanisms was taken by Mizrahi and Andersen, who identified homologs of genes involved in the reversal or repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and related organisms. Genes required for nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, recombination, and SOS repair and mutagenesis were identified. Notably, no homologs of genes involved in mismatch repair were identified. Novel characteristics of the M. tuberculosis DNA repair machinery have been found over the last decade, such as nonhomologous end joining, the presence of Mpg, ERCC3 and Hlr - proteins previously presumed to be produced exclusively in mammalian cells - and the recently discovered bifunctional dCTP deaminase:dUTPase. The study of these systems is important to develop therapeutic agents that can counteract M. tuberculosis evolutionary changes and to prevent adaptive events resulting in antibiotic resistance. This review summarizes our current understanding of the M. tuberculosis DNA repair system.

  2. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Bi, Li-Jun; Zhou, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xian-En

    2008-02-01

    The nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase (PncA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in the activation of the important front-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide by converting it into the active form, pyrazinoic acid. Mutations in the pncA gene cause pyrazinamide resistance in M. tuberculosis. The properties of M. tuberculosis PncA were characterized in this study. The enzyme was found to be a 20.89 kDa monomeric protein. The optimal pH and temperature of enzymatic activity were pH 7.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry revealed that the enzyme was an Mn(2+)/Fe(2+)-containing protein with a molar ratio of [Mn(2+)] to [Fe(2+)] of 1 : 1; furthermore, the external addition of either type of metal ion had no apparent effect on the wild-type enzymatic activity. The activity of the purified enzyme was determined by HPLC, and it was shown that it possessed similar pyrazinamidase and nicotinamidase activity, by contrast with previous reports. Nine PncA mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Determination of the enzymatic activity and metal ion content suggested that Asp8, Lys96 and Cys138 were key residues for catalysis, and Asp49, His51, His57 and His71 were essential for metal ion binding. Our data show that M. tuberculosis PncA may bind metal ions in a manner different from that observed in the case of Pyrococcus horikoshii PncA.

  3. The transcriptional regulatory network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Sanz

    Full Text Available Under the perspectives of network science and systems biology, the characterization of transcriptional regulatory (TR networks beyond the context of model organisms offers a versatile tool whose potential remains yet mainly unexplored. In this work, we present an updated version of the TR network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, which incorporates newly characterized transcriptional regulations coming from 31 recent, different experimental works available in the literature. As a result of the incorporation of these data, the new network doubles the size of previous data collections, incorporating more than a third of the entire genome of the bacterium. We also present an exhaustive topological analysis of the new assembled network, focusing on the statistical characterization of motifs significances and the comparison with other model organisms. The expanded M.tb transcriptional regulatory network, considering its volume and completeness, constitutes an important resource for diverse tasks such as dynamic modeling of gene expression and signaling processes, computational reliability determination or protein function prediction, being the latter of particular relevance, given that the function of only a small percent of the proteins of M.tb is known.

  4. The cell envelope glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angala, Shiva Kumar; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Wheat, William H.; Jackson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the second most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent. The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the disease in humans, is a source of unique glycoconjugates and the most distinctive feature of the biology of this organism. It is the basis of much of Mtb pathogenesis and one of the major causes of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. At the same time, the unique structures of Mtb cell envelope glycoconjugates, their antigenicity and essentiality for mycobacterial growth provide opportunities for drug, vaccine, diagnostic and biomarker development, as clearly illustrated by recent advances in all of these translational aspects. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure and biogenesis of Mtb glycoconjugates with particular emphasis on one of most intriguing and least understood aspect of the physiology of mycobacteria: the translocation of these complex macromolecules across the different layers of the cell envelope. It further reviews the rather impressive progress made in the last ten years in the discovery and development of novel inhibitors targeting their biogenesis. PMID:24915502

  5. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Mariñas, Benito J

    2007-07-15

    The inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine was characterized by two stages: an initial phase at a relatively fast rate followed by a slower second stage of pseudo first-order kinetics. The inactivation rate of each stage was approximately the same for all experiments performed at a certain condition of pH and temperature; however, variability was observed for the disinfectant exposure at which the transition between the two stages occurred. This variability was not a function of the initial disinfectant concentration, the initial bacterial density, or the bacterial stock. However, the transition to the second stage varied more significantly at high temperatures (30 degrees C), while lower variability was observed at lower temperatures (5 and 20 degrees C). Experiments conducted at pH values in the range of 6-9 revealed that the inactivation of M. avium was primarily due to hypochlorous acid, with little contribution from hypochlorite ion within this pH range. The inactivation kinetics was represented with a two-population model. The activation energies for the resulting pseudo first-order rate constants for the populations with fast and slow kinetics were 100.3 and 96.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The magnitude of these values suggested that for waters of relatively high pH and low temperatures, little inactivation of M. avium would be achieved within treatment plants, providing a seeding source for distribution systems.

  6. Mycobacterium abscessus skin infection after tattooing - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Pétra Pereira; Cruz, Rossilene Conceição da Silva; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Westphal, Danielle Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that has been affecting people undergoing invasive procedures, such as videosurgery and mesotherapy. This bacterium has global distribution, being found in numerous niches. The frequency of published reports of infection by rapidly growing mycobacteria associated with tattooing procedures has increased in recent years. However, in Brazil there were no case reports of M. abscessus after tattooing in the literature until now. In this paper, we describe the case of a patient with a nine-month history of lesion on a tattoo site. The diagnosis of infection with Mycobacterium abscessus was established by correlation between dermatological and histopathological aspects, culture and molecular biology techniques. The patient had significant improvement of symptoms with the use of clarithromycin monotherapy. PMID:26560222

  7. MYCOBACTERIUM GENAVENSE IN AN AFRICAN PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kristian J; Reavill, Drury; Weldy, Scott H; Bradway, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    A 19-yr-old female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with labored breathing and anorexia. Radiographs revealed soft-tissue density lesions in the left lung fields and fluid in the right. The penguin died during the night. Postmortem examination demonstrated multiple granulomas in the lungs and air sacs. The right coelom was filled with opaque fluid. Histopathology of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen identified Mycobacterium as a primary disease etiology. Large numbers of acid fast-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were recognized on tissue staining. Mycobacterium genavense was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for the species. Further confirmation of M. genavense was accomplished using PCR with universal Mycobacterium spp. primers followed by sequencing of the amplicon obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycobacteriosis-and specifically M. genavense -in an African penguin. This case also demonstrates the similarities of presentation between the more commonly suspected and encountered aspergillosis and mycobacteriosis.

  8. Imaging features of mycobacterium in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jun; Sun Yue; Wei Liangui; Xu Yunliang; Li Xingwang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the imaging features of mycobacterium in AIDS patients. Methods: Twenty-three cases of mycobacterium tuberculosis and 13 patients of non-tuberculous mycobacteria were proved etiologically and included in this study. All patients underwent X-ray and CT examinations, imaging data were analyzed and compared. Results: The imaging findings of mycobacterium tuberculosis in AIDS patients included consolidation (n = 11), pleural effusion (n = 11), mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n = 11). Pulmonary lesions were always diffuse distribution, and 14 patients of extrapulmonary tuberculosis were found. Pulmonary lesions in non-tuberculous mycobacteria tend to be circumscribed. Conclusions: Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection in AIDS patients is more common and usually combined with other infections. Imaging features are atypical. (authors)

  9. In vivo induction of neutrophil extracellular traps by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filio-Rodríguez, Georgina; Estrada-García, Iris; Arce-Paredes, Patricia; Moreno-Altamirano, María M; Islas-Trujillo, Sergio; Ponce-Regalado, M Dolores; Rojas-Espinosa, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    In 2004, a novel mechanism of cellular death, called 'NETosis', was described in neutrophils. This mechanism, different from necrosis and apoptosis, is characterized by the release of chromatin webs admixed with microbicidal granular proteins and peptides (NETs). NETs trap and kill a variety of microorganisms. Diverse microorganisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are NET inducers in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine whether M. tuberculosis can also induce NETs in vivo and if the NETs are bactericidal to the microorganism. Guinea pigs were intradermally inoculated with M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and the production of NETs was investigated at several time points thereafter. NETs were detected as early as 30 min post-inoculation and were clearly evident by 4 h post-inoculation. NETs produced in vivo contained DNA, myeloperoxidase, elastase, histones, ROS and acid-fast bacilli. Viable and heat-killed M. tuberculosis, as well as Mycobacterium bovis BCG were efficient NET inducers, as were unilamellar liposomes prepared with lipids from M. tuberculosis. In vitro, guinea pig neutrophils also produced NETs in response to M. tuberculosis. However, neither the in vivo nor the in vitro-produced NETs were able to kill M. tuberculosis. Nevertheless, in vivo, neutrophils might propitiate recruitment and activation of more efficient microbicidal cells.

  10. Serovars of Mycobacterium avium Complex isolated from patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.

    1994-01-01

    Danish isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex were serotyped by the use of seroagglutination. The most prevalent serovars among patients with AIDS (n = 89) were 4 and 6, while among non-AIDS patients the most prevalent serovars were 1, 6, and 4, with no major differences between those in patients...... with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination....

  11. Radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarver, R.D.; Pearcy, E.A.; Conces, D.J. Jr.; Mathur, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 95 patients with the new diagnosis of atypical turberculosis were reviewed to determine if any significant differences between atypical tuberculosis and that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be discerned. Findings included upper lobe involvement in B4 of the 95 patients and cavities in 76, with nearly equal groups having no, moderate, or extensive surrounding alveolar disease. Nodules were common; in six patients a nodule was the sole manifestation of disease. Adenopathy was seen in 12 of the 95 patients, atlectasis in 45, pleural thickening in 90, and effusions in three. These radiographic findings did not allow the radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

  12. Lipid storage myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Claudio; Dimauro, Salvatore

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on disorders of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle exclusively or predominantly and to summarize recent clinical, genetic, and therapeutic studies in this field. Over the past 5 years, new clinical phenotypes and genetic loci have been described, unusual pathogenic mechanisms have been elucidated, and novel pharmacological approaches have been developed. At least one genetic defect responsible for the myopathic form of CoQ10 deficiency has been identified, causing a disorder that is allelic with the late-onset riboflavine-responsive form of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency. Novel mechanisms involved in the lipolytic breakdown of cellular lipid depots have been described and have led to the identification of genes and mutations responsible for multisystemic neutral lipid storage disorders, characterized by accumulation of triglyceride in multiple tissues, including muscle. Defects in lipid metabolism can affect either the mitochondrial transport and oxidation of exogenous fatty acid or the catabolism of endogenous triglycerides. These disorders impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness, or recurrent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis triggered by exercise, fasting, or infections. Clinical and genetic characterization of these disorders has important implications both for accurate diagnostic approach and for development of therapeutic strategies.

  13. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  14. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, A.; Gavelli, G.; Zompatori, M.; Galleri, C.; Zanasi, A.; Fabbri, M.; Bazzocchi, F.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  15. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  16. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  17. Evolutionary landscape of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from the viewpoint of PhoPR: implications for virulence regulation and application to vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broset, Esther; Martín, Carlos; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús

    2015-10-20

    Different members of the Mycobacterium genus have evolved to cause tuberculosis in diverse human populations and in a variety of animal species. Our cumulative knowledge of mycobacterial genomes indicates that mutations in the PhoPR two-component virulence system were acquired not only during the natural evolution of mycobacterial species but also during in vitro subculture, which has given rise to the attenuated reference strain H37Ra or to different daughter strains of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. PhoPR is a well-known regulator of pathogenic phenotypes, including secretion of the virulence factor ESAT-6, biosynthesis of acyltrehalose-based lipids, and modulation of antigen export, in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Evolutionarily conserved polymorphisms in PhoPR from Mycobacterium africanum, M. bovis, or M. tuberculosis H37Ra result in loss of functional phenotypes. Interestingly, some members of the MTBC have acquired compensatory mutations to counteract these polymorphisms and, probably, to maintain their pathogenic potential. Some of these compensatory mutations include the insertion of the IS6110 element upstream from phoPR in a particular M. bovis strain that is able to transmit between humans or polymorphisms in M. africanum and M. bovis that affect the regulatory region of the espACD operon, allowing PhoPR-independent ESAT-6 secretion. This review highlights the increasing knowledge of the significance of PhoPR in the evolution of the MTBC and its potential application in the construction of new attenuated vaccines based on phoPR inactivation. In this context, the live attenuated vaccine MTBVAC, based on a phoP fadD26 deletion mutant of M. tuberculosis, is the first vaccine of this kind to successfully enter into clinical development, representing a historic milestone in the field of human vaccinology. Copyright © 2015 Broset et al.

  18. Evolutionary Landscape of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from the Viewpoint of PhoPR: Implications for Virulence Regulation and Application to Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broset, Esther

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Different members of the Mycobacterium genus have evolved to cause tuberculosis in diverse human populations and in a variety of animal species. Our cumulative knowledge of mycobacterial genomes indicates that mutations in the PhoPR two-component virulence system were acquired not only during the natural evolution of mycobacterial species but also during in vitro subculture, which has given rise to the attenuated reference strain H37Ra or to different daughter strains of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. PhoPR is a well-known regulator of pathogenic phenotypes, including secretion of the virulence factor ESAT-6, biosynthesis of acyltrehalose-based lipids, and modulation of antigen export, in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Evolutionarily conserved polymorphisms in PhoPR from Mycobacterium africanum, M. bovis, or M. tuberculosis H37Ra result in loss of functional phenotypes. Interestingly, some members of the MTBC have acquired compensatory mutations to counteract these polymorphisms and, probably, to maintain their pathogenic potential. Some of these compensatory mutations include the insertion of the IS6110 element upstream from phoPR in a particular M. bovis strain that is able to transmit between humans or polymorphisms in M. africanum and M. bovis that affect the regulatory region of the espACD operon, allowing PhoPR-independent ESAT-6 secretion. This review highlights the increasing knowledge of the significance of PhoPR in the evolution of the MTBC and its potential application in the construction of new attenuated vaccines based on phoPR inactivation. In this context, the live attenuated vaccine MTBVAC, based on a phoP fadD26 deletion mutant of M. tuberculosis, is the first vaccine of this kind to successfully enter into clinical development, representing a historic milestone in the field of human vaccinology. PMID:26489860

  19. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offered a more quantitative and systematic approach to lipids research. Much of the effort has been led by a research consortium called LIPID MAPS. With funding from the National Institutes of ...

  20. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  1. Negative regulation by Ser/Thr phosphorylation of HadAB and HadBC dehydratases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis type II fatty acid synthase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Nawel; Leiba, Jade; Eynard, Nathalie; Daffé, Mamadou; Kremer, Laurent; Quémard, Annaïk; Molle, Virginie

    2011-09-02

    The type II fatty acid synthase system of mycobacteria is involved in the biosynthesis of major and essential lipids, mycolic acids, key-factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity. One reason of the remarkable survival ability of M. tuberculosis in infected hosts is partly related to the presence of cell wall-associated mycolic acids. Despite their importance, the mechanisms that modulate synthesis of these lipids in response to environmental changes are unknown. We demonstrate here that HadAB and HadBC dehydratases of this system are phosphorylated by Ser/Thr protein kinases, which negatively affects their enzymatic activity. The phosphorylation of HadAB/BC is growth phase-dependent, suggesting that it represents a mechanism by which mycobacteria might tightly control mycolic acid biosynthesis under non-replicating condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Essential Role of Cholesterol Metabolism in the Intracellular Survival of Mycobacterium leprae Is Not Coupled to Central Carbon Metabolism and Energy Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Maria Angela M; Berrêdo-Pinho, Marcia; Rosa, Thabatta L S A; Pujari, Venugopal; Lemes, Robertha M R; Lery, Leticia M S; Silva, Carlos Adriano M; Guimarães, Ana Carolina R; Atella, Georgia C; Wheat, William H; Brennan, Patrick J; Crick, Dean C; Belisle, John T; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium leprae induces the formation of lipid droplets, which are recruited to pathogen-containing phagosomes in infected macrophages and Schwann cells. Cholesterol is among the lipids with increased abundance in M. leprae-infected cells, and intracellular survival relies on cholesterol accumulation. The present study investigated the capacity of M. leprae to acquire and metabolize cholesterol. In silico analyses showed that oxidation of cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one (cholestenone), the first step of cholesterol degradation catalyzed by the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), is apparently the only portion of the cholesterol catabolic pathway seen in Mycobacterium tuberculosis preserved by M. leprae. Incubation of bacteria with radiolabeled cholesterol confirmed the in silico predictions. Radiorespirometry and lipid analyses performed after incubating M. leprae with [4-(14)C]cholesterol or [26-(14)C]cholesterol showed the inability of this pathogen to metabolize the sterol rings or the side chain of cholesterol as a source of energy and carbon. However, the bacteria avidly incorporated cholesterol and, as expected, converted it to cholestenone both in vitro and in vivo. Our data indicate that M. leprae has lost the capacity to degrade and utilize cholesterol as a nutritional source but retains the enzyme responsible for its oxidation to cholestenone. Thus, the essential role of cholesterol metabolism in the intracellular survival of M. leprae is uncoupled from central carbon metabolism and energy production. Further elucidation of cholesterol metabolism in the host cell during M. leprae infection will establish the mechanism by which this lipid supports M. leprae intracellular survival and will open new avenues for novel leprosy therapies. Our study focused on the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae and its capacity to metabolize cholesterol. The data make an important contribution for those interested in understanding the

  3. Immune Responses Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Teimourpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB. Approximately one-third of the world's population is infected with M. tuberculosis. Despite the availability of drug and vaccine, it remains one of the leading causes of death in humans especially in developing countries. Epidemiological studies have indicated that only 10-30% of people exposed to tubercle bacillus are infected with M. tuberculosis, and at least 90% of the infected people finally do not acquire TB. The studies have indicated that the host efficient immune system has essential roles in the control of TB infection such that the highest rate of mortality and morbidity is seen in immunocompromised patients such as people infected with HIV. M. tuberculosis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium. It enters the body mainly through the respiratory tract and alveolar macrophages combat this pathogen most commonly. In addition to alveolar macrophages, various T-cell subpopulations need to be activated to overcome this bacterium's resistance to the host defense systems. CD4+ T cells, through production of several cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, and CD8+ T cells, through cytotoxic activities and induction of apoptosis in infected cells, play critical roles in inducing appropriate immune responses against M. tuberculosis. Although cell-mediated immunity is the cornerstone of host responses against TB and the recent studies have provided evidence for the importance of humoral and innate immune system in the control of TB, a profound understanding of the immune responses would provide a basis for development of new generations of vaccines and drugs. The present study addresses immune responses involved in M. tuberculosis infection.

  4. Nicotine Impairs Macrophage Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiyuan; Stitzel, Jerry A; Bai, An; Zambrano, Cristian A; Phillips, Matthew; Marrack, Philippa; Chan, Edward D

    2017-09-01

    Pure nicotine impairs macrophage killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), but it is not known whether the nicotine component in cigarette smoke (CS) plays a role. Moreover, the mechanisms by which nicotine impairs macrophage immunity against MTB have not been explored. To neutralize the effects of nicotine in CS extract, we used a competitive inhibitor to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mecamylamine-as well as macrophages derived from mice with genetic disruption of specific subunits of nAChR. We also determined whether nicotine impaired macrophage autophagy and whether nicotine-exposed T regulatory cells (Tregs) could subvert macrophage anti-MTB immunity. Mecamylamine reduced the CS extract increase in MTB burden by 43%. CS extract increase in MTB was also significantly attenuated in macrophages from mice with genetic disruption of either the α7, β2, or β4 subunit of nAChR. Nicotine inhibited autophagosome formation in MTB-infected THP-1 cells and primary murine alveolar macrophages, as well as increased the intracellular MTB burden. Nicotine increased migration of THP-1 cells, consistent with the increased number of macrophages found in the lungs of smokers. Nicotine induced Tregs to produce transforming growth factor-β. Naive mouse macrophages co-cultured with nicotine-exposed Tregs had significantly greater numbers of viable MTB recovered with increased IL-10 production and urea production, but no difference in secreted nitric oxide as compared with macrophages cocultured with unexposed Tregs. We conclude that nicotine in CS plays an important role in subverting macrophage control of MTB infection.

  5. Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Barboza Pedrini

    Full Text Available Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati, Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned, Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush, Cavia aperea (restless cavy, Didelphis albiventris (skunk, Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog, and Gallictis vittata (ferret showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state.

  6. Expression of Mycobacterium smegmatis pyrazinamidase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers hypersensitivity to pyrazinamide and related amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshoff, H I; Mizrahi, V

    2000-10-01

    A pyrazinamidase (PZase)-deficient pncA mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, constructed by allelic exchange, was used to investigate the effects of heterologous amidase gene expression on the susceptibility of this organism to pyrazinamide (PZA) and related amides. The mutant was highly resistant to PZA (MIC, >2,000 microg/ml), in accordance with the well-established role of pncA in the PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis (A. Scorpio and Y. Zhang, Nat. Med. 2:662-667, 1996). Integration of the pzaA gene encoding the major PZase/nicotinamidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis (H. I. M. Boshoff and V. Mizrahi, J. Bacteriol. 180:5809-5814, 1998) or the M. tuberculosis pncA gene into the pncA mutant complemented its PZase/nicotinamidase defect. In both pzaA- and pncA-complemented mutant strains, the PZase activity was detected exclusively in the cytoplasm, suggesting an intracellular localization for PzaA and PncA. The pzaA-complemented strain was hypersensitive to PZA (MIC, /=20 microg/ml) and was also sensitive to benzamide (MIC, 20 microg/ml), unlike the wild-type and pncA-complemented mutant strains, which were highly resistant to this amide (MIC, >500 microg/ml). This finding was consistent with the observation that benzamide is hydrolyzed by PzaA but not by PncA. Overexpression of PzaA also conferred sensitivity to PZA, nicotinamide, and benzamide on M. smegmatis (MIC, 150 microg/ml in all cases) and rendered Escherichia coli hypersensitive for growth at low pH.

  7. Effect of chlorine on Mycobacterium gordonae and Mycobacterium chubuense in planktonic and Biofilm State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Soledad Oriani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence that drinking water could be a source of infections with pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM potentially risky to human health. The aim was to investigate the resistance of two NTM isolated from drinking water, Mycobacterium gordonae and Mycobacterium chubuense, at different concentrations of chlorine (as sodium hypochlorite, used in drinking water sanitation. Methods: The NTM were grown in suspension and in biofilms and were challenged with biocide for 10 and 60 min. Results: To obtain 7-log reduction from the initial population of M. chubuense, in the planktonic state, there were necessary 20 ppm of chorine and 60 min of exposure. The same effect was achieved in M. gordonae with 10 ppm for the same period. The maximum reduction of both NTM in biofilm was 3-log reduction and was achieved using 30 ppm for 60 min. The chlorine susceptibility of cells in biofilms was significantly lower than that of planktonic cells. The results highlight the resistance of both NTM to the concentrations used in routine water sanitation (0.2 ppm according to Argentine Food Code. Differences in chlorine resistance found between the two NTM in planktonic growth decrease when they are grown in biofilm. Conclusion: This suggests that current water disinfection procedures do not always achieve effective control of NTM in the public supply system, with the consequent health risk to susceptible population, and the need to take into account biofilms, because of their deep consequences in the way to analyze the survival of prokaryotic cells in different environments.

  8. Insights on the Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Analysis of Mycobacterium kansasii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joyce; McIntosh, Fiona; Radomski, Nicolas; Dewar, Ken; Simeone, Roxane; Enninga, Jost; Brosch, Roland; Rocha, Eduardo P.; Veyrier, Frédéric J.; Behr, Marcel A.

    2015-01-01

    By phylogenetic analysis, Mycobacterium kansasii is closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yet, although both organisms cause pulmonary disease, M. tuberculosis is a global health menace, whereas M. kansasii is an opportunistic pathogen. To illuminate the differences between these organisms, we have sequenced the genome of M. kansasii ATCC 12478 and its plasmid (pMK12478) and conducted side-by-side in vitro and in vivo investigations of these two organisms. The M. kansasii genome is 6,432,277 bp, more than 2 Mb longer than that of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and the plasmid contains 144,951 bp. Pairwise comparisons reveal conserved and discordant genes and genomic regions. A notable example of genomic conservation is the virulence locus ESX-1, which is intact and functional in the low-virulence M. kansasii, potentially mediating phagosomal disruption. Differences between these organisms include a decreased predicted metabolic capacity, an increased proportion of toxin–antitoxin genes, and the acquisition of M. tuberculosis-specific genes in the pathogen since their common ancestor. Consistent with their distinct epidemiologic profiles, following infection of C57BL/6 mice, M. kansasii counts increased by less than 10-fold over 6 weeks, whereas M. tuberculosis counts increased by over 10,000-fold in just 3 weeks. Together, these data suggest that M. kansasii can serve as an image of the environmental ancestor of M. tuberculosis before its emergence as a professional pathogen, and can be used as a model organism to study the switch from an environmental opportunistic pathogen to a professional host-restricted pathogen. PMID:25716827

  9. Generalized Tuberculosis in Llamas (Lama glama) Due to Mycobacterium microti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oevermann, A.; Pfyffer, G. E.; Zanolari, P.; Meylan, M.; Robert, N.

    2004-01-01

    Necropsy of two llamas revealed numerous caseous nodules containing abundant acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in various organs. The AFB were identified by spoligotyping as Mycobacterium microti, vole type. Infection caused by M. microti should be considered in the differential diagnosis of debilitating diseases in New World camelids. PMID:15071059

  10. Cytochemical and biological properties of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M

    1977-01-01

    It was the aim of the present communication to find a simple test for a reliable discrimination of Mycobacterium bovis BCG from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 26 BCG strains, out of them 10 Czechoslovak strains (2 lyophilized cultures of BCG of different batch, 6 strains isolated from abscesses of children after BCG-vaccination and 2 strains from fatal cases after BCG-vaccination) and 16 strains obtained from foreign laboratories, were used. Of the tested characteristics a combination of 3 tests, sensitivity to 1 microgram of 2-thiophene carbonylhydrazide (TCH), activity of 3 acylamidases (urease, nicotinamidase and pyrazinamidase) and a quantitative nitrate test, was found to be most advantageous. The Czechoslovak strains of Mycobacterium bovis BCG were fully sensitive to TCH, of the 3 acylamidases mentioned above only urease was positive and nitrate was reduced only little or not at all. On the other hand, strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were always resistant to TCH, had positive urease, nicotinamidase and pyrazinamidase and reduced nitrate very intensively.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of domesticated Asian elephants, Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Four Asian elephants were confirmed to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bacterial culture, other diagnostic procedures, and sequencing of 16S–23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, 16S rRNA, and gyrase B gene sequences. Genotyping showed that the infectious agents originated from 4 sources in Thailand. To identify infections, a combination of diagnostic assays is essential.

  12. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

  13. Mycobacterium bovis hip bursitis in a lung transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, J M; Crespo, M; Silveira, F P; Kaplan, R; Aslam, S

    2016-02-01

    We present a report of extrapulmonary Mycobacterium bovis infection in a lung transplant recipient. M. bovis is acquired predominantly by zoonotic transmission, particularly from consumption of unpasteurized foods. We discuss epidemiologic exposure, especially as relates to the Mexico-US border, clinical characteristics, resistance profile, and treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Siderocalin inhibits the intracellular replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Erin E; Srikanth, Chittur V; Sandgren, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Siderocalin is a secreted protein that binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial iron acquisition. While it has been shown to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in extracellular cultures, its effect on this pathogen within macrophages is not clear. Here, we show that sideroc...

  15. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Mycobacterium haemophilum infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L.E.; Soolingen, D. van; Prins, J.M.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slowly growing acid-fast bacillus (AFB) belonging to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) frequently found in environmental habitats, which can colonize and occasionally infect humans and animals. Several findings suggest that water reservoirs are a likely

  16. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Mycobacterium haemophilum infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L.E.S.; van Soolingen, D.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slowly growing acid-fast bacillus (AFB) belonging to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) frequently found in environmental habitats, which can colonize and occasionally infect humans and animals. Several findings suggest that water reservoirs are a likely

  17. Sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis to common beef processing interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, a relevant zoonosis that can spread to humans through inhalation or by ingestion. M. bovis multiplies slowly, so infected animals may be sent to slaughter during the early stages of the disease before diagnosis and when ...

  18. Polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Mycobacterium leprae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartskeerl, R. A.; de Wit, M. Y.; Klatser, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using heat-stable Taq polymerase is described for the specific detection of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. A set of primers was selected on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding the 36 kDa antigen of M. leprae. With this set

  19. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Undetected by Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. T.; Williams, A. J.; Brown, J. R.; Newton, S. M.; Šimšová, Marcela; Nicol, M. P.; Šebo, Peter; Levin, M.; Wilkinson, R. J.; Wilkinson, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 173, - (2006), s. 1038-1042 ISSN 1073-449X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : adenylate cyclase * diagnostic tests and procedures * mycobacterium tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.091, year: 2006

  20. Microevolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a tuberculosis patient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hajoj, S.A.; Akkerman, O.; Parwati, I.; Al-Gamdi, S.; Rahim, Z.; Soolingen, D. van; Ingen, J. van; Supply, P.; Zanden, A.G. van der

    2010-01-01

    Five Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained from three body sites from a Dutch patient. The isolates displayed a single genotype by 24-locus MIRU-VNTR typing (except for a single locus not amplified from one isolate) but were differentiated by small variations in IS6110 fingerprints,

  1. Structural studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structures of crystals of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecA, grown and analysed under different conditions, provide insights into hitherto underappreciated details of molecular structure and plasticity. In particular, they yield information on the invariant and variable features of the geometry of the P-loop, whose binding to ATP ...

  2. The Use Of Rap-PCR In Studying Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious agent. This study sought to detect M. tuberculosis genes, which were specifically expressed, or upregulated during intracellular infection of. J774 murine macrophages; as such genes may be potential targets for novel drug action. J774 murine ...

  3. Construction of an internal amplification control for Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) which mostly affects the lungs. The disease causes deaths of many people every year. There are different methods to detect MTB such as skin test, staining, culture and molecular techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a ...

  4. Modern lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is important to have unique insights into the dissemination dynamics and evolutionary genetics of this pathogen and for TB control as it allows the detection of suspected outbreaks and the tracing of transmission chains. Objective: To characterize M.

  5. Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, Judith R; Kremer, Kristin; Borgdorff, Martien W; Rodriguez, Mar Pujades; Soolingen, Dick van

    2006-01-01

    Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis is widespread, may be increasing, and may have a predilection for drug resistance. Individual-level data on >29,000 patients from 49 studies in 35 countries were combined to assess the Beijing genotype's prevalence worldwide, trends over time and with

  6. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Yabes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC has historically been described in the immunocompromised. The current epidemiologic research suggests that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections is increasing. We present a case of DMAC infection manifesting as hepatic granulomas in a 35-year-old immunocompetent female. This case suggests DMAC infection in a patient without traditional epidemiological risk factors.

  7. The transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in high burden settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates, Tom A.; Khan, Palwasha Y.; Knight, Gwenan M.; Taylor, Jonathon G.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Lipman, Marc; White, Richard G.; Cohen, Ted; Cobelens, Frank G.; Wood, Robin; Moore, David A. J.; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Unacceptable levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission are noted in high burden settings and a renewed focus on reducing person-to-person transmission in these communities is needed. We review recent developments in the understanding of airborne transmission. We outline approaches to measure

  8. Cloning and expression of mce1A gene from Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death in the world, especially wherever poverty, malnutrition and poor housing prevail. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strain is the most common strain that causes tuberculosis in Indonesia. The wide spread of tuberculosis has been further aggravated by ...

  9. Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Isolated From Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium (MA) is divided into four subspecies based primarily on host-range and consists of MA subsp. avium (birds), MA subsp. silvaticum (wood pigeons), MA subsp. paratuberculosis (broad, poorly-defined host range), and the recently described MA subsp. hominissuis (hu...

  10. Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in Cattle Slaughtered at Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to screen cattle slaughtered at the Sokoto Central Abattoir for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis. By the lateral flow technique (immunochromatography), using monoclonal antibodies for M. bovis (BioNote, Inc. Gyeonggi-do, Korea) and by post mortem examination. A total of 194 slaughtered ...

  11. Advances in the Laboratory Diagnosis of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the agent of human tuberculosis remains a leading cause of mortality globally. Its resurgence during the last two decades is a reflection of its opportunistic relationship with HIV. The challenges associated with the disease are enormous and often debilitating. The role of clinical and ...

  12. Adaptation and evolution of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergval, I.L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on drug resistance and the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Notwithstanding, many molecular mechanisms facilitating the emergence, adaptation and spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis have yet to be discovered. This thesis reports studies of the adaptive

  13. BACTEC MGIT 960 TM system for screening of Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed to evaluate the recent technique (BACTEC MGIT 960 TM system) for screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex among cattle in Egypt. From the 1180 cattle examined in three different Governorates (El-Sharkia, El-Gharbia and El-Monefeia) by single intradermal tuberculin test, 29 animals ...

  14. Degradation of morpholine by Mycobacterium sp. isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradation of morpholine has attracted much interest because morpholine causes environmental pollution. Ten species belonging to nine genera were tested for their abilities to degrade morpholine in mineral salts medium containing morpholine (1 g/l). Mycobacterium sp. isolated from polluted water sample ...

  15. Acanthamoeba Sp. S-11 phagocytotic activity on Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes leprosy. The presence of M. leprae in the environment is supported by microorganisms that act as the new host for M. leprae. Acanthamoeba's potential to be a host of M. leprae in the environment. Acanthamoeba sp. is Free Living ...

  16. Transmissie van Mycobacterium bovis tussen mens en dier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de G.; Beer, de J.; Bakker, D.; Soolingen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Nederland is officieel vrij van rundertuberculose. Toch komt af en toe nog Mycobacterium bovis-tuberculose voor bij relatief jonge autochtone Nederlanders. Ook zijn er recent nog wel boviene-uitbraken geweest. Dat roept de vraag op of er ook nu nog transmissie is van M.bovis tussen mens en dier.

  17. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM AND DRINKING WATER WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Human Mycobacterium avium infections are only known to be acquired from environmental sources such as water and soil. We compared M. avium isolates from clinical and drinking water sources using molecular tools. Methods: M. avium was isolated from water samples colle...

  18. Tuberkulose forårsaget af Mycobacterium africanum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Dorte; Kjeldsen, Marianne Kirstine; Hansen, Nikolaj Friis

    2010-01-01

    Tuberkulose (TB) forårsages af patogene arter fra Mycobacterium tuberculosis komplekset (MTBC) og har en incidens på cirka 7/100.000 i Danmark. På mistanke om TB hos en akut indlagt 40 årig afrikansk mand initieredes anti-TB behandling. Efter 13 timers indlæggelse afgik patienten ved døden. Fra...

  19. Host immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and risk of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Sascha Wilk; Soborg, Bolette; Agger, Else-Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immune responses to latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection (LTBI) may enable individuals to control Mtb infection and halt progression to tuberculosis (TB), a hypothesis applied in several novel TB vaccines. We aimed to evaluate whether immune responses to selected LTBI...

  20. Benzothiazinones kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by blocking arabinan synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Vadim; Manina, Giulia; Mikusova, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    New drugs are required to counter the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZs), a new class of antimycobacterial agents that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, ex vivo, and in mouse models of TB. Using genetics...

  1. A case of Manila type Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Osamu; Nakajima, Chie; Endo, Shiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Hirakata, Yoichi; Uchiyama, Bine; Kaku, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 76-year-old Japanese woman contracted a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB, Manila type) infection in Japan, despite never having traveled. However, her son was treated for TB in the Philippines 3 years before he stayed at her house. Spoligotyping allows us to identify the TB genotype and identify the route of infection. PMID:26273455

  2. Detection of Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium abscessus Group, and Mycobacterium fortuitum Complex by a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Directly from Clinical Samples Using the BD MAX System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Talita T; Silbert, Suzane; Gostnell, Alicia; Kubasek, Carly; Campos Pignatari, Antonio C; Widen, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    A new multiplex PCR test was designed to detect Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium abscessus group, and Mycobacterium fortuitum complex on the BD MAX System. A total of 197 clinical samples previously submitted for mycobacterial culture were tested using the new protocol. Samples were first treated with proteinase K, and then each sample was inoculated into the BD MAX Sample Buffer Tube. Extraction and multiplex PCR were performed by the BD MAX System, using the BD MAX ExK TNA-3 extraction kit and BD TNA Master Mix, along with specific in-house designed primers and probes for each target. The limit of detection of each target, as well as specificity, was evaluated. Of 197 clinical samples included in this study, 133 were positive and 60 were negative for mycobacteria by culture, and another 4 negative samples were spiked with M. chelonae ATCC 35752. The new multiplex PCR on the BD MAX had 97% concordant results with culture for M. abscessus group detection, 99% for M. chelonae, and 100% for M. fortuitum complex. The new multiplex PCR test performed on the BD MAX System proved to be a sensitive and specific test to detect M. chelonae, M. abscessus group, and M. fortuitum complex by real-time PCR on an automated sample-in results-out platform. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organization of the origins of replication of the chromosomes of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and isolation of a functional origin from M. smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, L; Fsihi, H; de Rossi, E; Riccardi, G; Rios, C; Cole, S T; Takiff, H E

    1996-04-01

    The genus Mycobacterium is composed of species with widely differing growth rates ranging from approximately three hours in Mycobacterium smegmatis to two weeks in Mycobacterium leprae. As DNA replication is coupled to cell duplication, it may be regulated by common mechanisms. The chromosomal regions surrounding the origins of DNA replication from M. smegmatis, M. tuberculosis, and M. leprae have been sequenced, and show very few differences. The gene order, rnpA-rpmH-dnaA-dnaN-recF-orf-gyrB-gyrA, is the same as in other Gram-positive organisms. Although the general organization in M. smegmatis is very similar to that of Streptomyces spp., a closely related genus, M. tuberculosis and M. leprae differ as they lack an open reading frame, between dnaN and recF, which is similar to the gnd gene of Escherichia coli. Within the three mycobacterial species, there is extensive sequence conservation in the intergenic regions flanking dnaA, but more variation from the consensus DnaA box sequence was seen than in other bacteria. By means of subcloning experiments, the putative chromosomal origin of replication of M. smegmatis, containing the dnaA-dnaN region, was shown to promote autonomous replication in M. smegmatis, unlike the corresponding regions from M. tuberculosis or M. leprae.

  4. Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium among HIV-infected patients after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. EuroSIDA Study Group JD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Gatell, J M; Mocroft, A

    2000-01-01

    the introduction of HAART, using data from the EuroSIDA study, a European, multicenter observational cohort of more than 7,000 patients. Overall incidences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were 0.8 and 1.4 cases/100 person-years of follow-up (PYF), decreasing from 1.8 (TB...

  5. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Cattle: Possible Public Health Relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Mandeep; Katoch, Vipin C.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infect both animals and humans. The disease epidemiology by these agents differs in developed and developing countries due to the differences in the implementation of the prevention and control strategies. The present study describes the detectio...

  6. Comparative Genomics and Proteomic Analysis of Four Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium Species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex : Occurrence of Shared Immunogenic Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Michel, Anita; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Rutten, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The Esx and PE/PPE families of proteins are among the most immunodominant mycobacterial antigens and have thus been the focus of research to develop vaccines and immunological tests for diagnosis of bovine and human tuberculosis, mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis,

  7. Mycobacterium malmesburyense sp. nov., a non-tuberculous species of the genus Mycobacterium revealed by multiple gene sequence characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Rutten, Victor; Pittius, Nicolaas Gey van; Naicker, Brendon; Michel, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment, and an increasing number of NTM species have been isolated and characterized from both humans and animals, highlighting the zoonotic potential of these bacteria. Host exposure to NTM may impact on cross-reactive immune responsiveness, which may affect diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and may also play a role in the variability of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against tuberculosis. In this study we characterized 10 NTM isolates originating from water, soil, nasal swabs of cattle and African buffalo as well as bovine tissue samples. These isolates were previously identified during an NTM survey and were all found, using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense. A polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterization, antibiotic susceptibility profiling, mycolic acid profiling and phylogenetic analysis of four gene loci, 16S rRNA, hsp65, sodA and rpoB, was employed to characterize these isolates. Sequence data analysis of the four gene loci revealed that these isolates belong to a unique species of the genus Mycobacterium. This evidence was further supported by several differences in phenotypic characteristics between the isolates and the closely related species. We propose the name Mycobacterium malmesburyense sp. nov. for this novel species. The type strain is WCM 7299T (=ATCC BAA-2759T=CIP 110822T).

  8. Mycobacterium angelicum sp. nov., a non-chromogenic, slow-growing species isolated from fish and related to Mycobacterium szulgai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad, Fazel; Pate, Mateja; Ocepek, Matjaž; Borroni, Emanuele; Cabibbe, Andrea M; Capitolo, Eleonora; Cittaro, Davide; Frizzera, Eliana; Jenčič, Vlasta; Mariottini, Alessandro; Marumo, Kenji; Vaggelli, Guendalina; Cirillo, Daniela M; Tortoli, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    The name 'Mycobacterium angelicum' dates back to 2003 when it was suggested for a slowly growing mycobacterium isolated from freshwater angelfish. This name is revived here and the novel species is proposed on the basis of the polyphasic characterization of four strains including the original one. The four strains presented 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Mycobacterium szulgai but clearly differed from M. szulgai for the milky white aspect of the colonies. The sequence similarity with the type strain of M. szulgai ranged, in eight additionally investigated genetic targets, from 78.9 to 94.3 %, an evident contrast with the close relatedness that emerged at the level of 16S rRNA gene. The average nucleotide identity between the genomes of M. szulgai DSM 44166T and strain 126/5/03T (type strain of the novel species) was 92.92 %, and supported the status of independent species. The confirmation of the name Mycobacterium angelicum sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 126/5/03T ( = CIP 109313T = DSM 45057T) as the type strain.

  9. Line probe assay for differentiation within Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Evaluation on clinical specimens and isolates including Mycobacterium pinnipedii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Marianne Kirstine; Bek, Dorte; Rasmussen, Erik Michael

    2009-01-01

    A line probe assay (GenoType MTBC) was evaluated for species differentiation within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). We included 387 MTBC isolates, 43 IS6110 low-copy MTBC isolates, 28 clinical specimens with varying microscopy grade, and 30 isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria...

  10. Cell wall proteome analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis strain MC2 155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Buck Jeroen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usually non-pathogenic soil bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis is commonly used as a model mycobacterial organism because it is fast growing and shares many features with pathogenic mycobacteria. Proteomic studies of M. smegmatis can shed light on mechanisms of mycobacterial growth, complex lipid metabolism, interactions with the bacterial environment and provide a tractable system for antimycobacterial drug development. The cell wall proteins are particularly interesting in this respect. The aim of this study was to construct a reference protein map for these proteins in M. smegmatis. Results A proteomic analysis approach, based on one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS, was used to identify and characterize the cell wall associated proteins of M. smegmatis. An enzymatic cell surface shaving method was used to determine the surface-exposed proteins. As a result, a total of 390 cell wall proteins and 63 surface-exposed proteins were identified. Further analysis of the 390 cell wall proteins provided the theoretical molecular mass and pI distributions and determined that 26 proteins are shared with the surface-exposed proteome. Detailed information about functional classification, signal peptides and number of transmembrane domains are given next to discussing the identified transcriptional regulators, transport proteins and the proteins involved in lipid metabolism and cell division. Conclusion In short, a comprehensive profile of the M. smegmatis cell wall subproteome is reported. The current research may help the identification of some valuable vaccine and drug target candidates and provide foundation for the future design of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies against mycobacterial diseases.

  11. Feline leprosy due to Mycobacterium lepraemurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Carolyn R; Malik, Richard; Globan, Maria; Reppas, George; McCowan, Christina; Fyfe, Janet A

    2017-07-01

    This paper, the second in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to Mycobacterium lepraemurium, the most common cause of feline leprosy worldwide. Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with M lepraemurium infection. A total of 145 cases of feline leprosy were scrutinised; 114 'new' cases were sourced from the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory records, veterinary pathology laboratories or veterinarians, and 31 cases were derived from six published studies. Sixty-five cats were definitively diagnosed with M lepraemurium infection. Typically, cats were 1-3 years of age when first infected, with a male gender predilection. Affected cats were generally systemically well. All had outdoor access. Lesions tended to consist of one or more cutaneous/subcutaneous nodules, typically located on the head and/or forelimbs, possibly reflecting the most likely locations for a rodent bite as the site of inoculation for organisms. Nodules had the propensity to ulcerate at some stage in the clinical course. The cytological and histological picture varied from tuberculoid, with relatively low bacterial numbers, to lepromatous with moderate to high bacterial numbers. Treatment was varied, although most cats underwent surgical resection of lesions with adjunctive medical therapy, most often using a combination of oral clarithromycin and rifampicin. Prognosis for recovery was generally good, and in two cases there was spontaneous remission without the requirement for medical intervention. Untreated cats continued to enjoy an acceptable quality of life despite persistence of the disease, which extended locally but had no apparent tendency to disseminate to internal organs. M lepraemurium causes high bacterial index (lepromatous) or low bacterial index (tuberculoid) feline

  12. Adaptation to Environmental Stimuli within the Host: Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretl, Daniel J.; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Zahrt, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pathogenic microorganisms encounter a variety of environmental stresses following infection of their respective hosts. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is an unusual bacterial pathogen in that it is able to establish lifelong infections in individuals within granulomatous lesions that are formed following a productive immune response. Adaptation to this highly dynamic environment is thought to be mediated primarily through transcriptional reprogramming initiated in response to recognition of stimuli, including low-oxygen tension, nutrient depletion, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, altered pH, toxic lipid moieties, cell wall/cell membrane-perturbing agents, and other environmental cues. To survive continued exposure to these potentially adverse factors, M. tuberculosis encodes a variety of regulatory factors, including 11 complete two-component signal transduction systems (TCSSs) and several orphaned response regulators (RRs) and sensor kinases (SKs). This report reviews our current knowledge of the TCSSs present in M. tuberculosis. In particular, we discuss the biochemical and functional characteristics of individual RRs and SKs, the environmental stimuli regulating their activation, the regulons controlled by the various TCSSs, and the known or postulated role(s) of individual TCSSs in the context of M. tuberculosis physiology and/or pathogenesis. PMID:22126994

  13. The Role of Biotin in Bacterial Physiology and Virulence: a Novel Antibiotic Target for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaemae, Wanisa; Booker, Grant W; Polyak, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    Biotin is an essential cofactor for enzymes present in key metabolic pathways such as fatty acid biosynthesis, replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and amino acid metabolism. Biotin is synthesized de novo in microorganisms, plants, and fungi, but this metabolic activity is absent in mammals, making biotin biosynthesis an attractive target for antibiotic discovery. In particular, biotin biosynthesis plays important metabolic roles as the sole source of biotin in all stages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis life cycle due to the lack of a transporter for scavenging exogenous biotin. Biotin is intimately associated with lipid synthesis where the products form key components of the mycobacterial cell membrane that are critical for bacterial survival and pathogenesis. In this review we discuss the central role of biotin in bacterial physiology and highlight studies that demonstrate the importance of its biosynthesis for virulence. The structural biology of the known biotin synthetic enzymes is described alongside studies using structure-guided design, phenotypic screening, and fragment-based approaches to drug discovery as routes to new antituberculosis agents.

  14. Revival and emended description of 'Mycobacterium paraffinicum' Davis, Chase and Raymond 1956 as Mycobacterium paraffinicum sp. nov., nom. rev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, Nadege; Adekambi, Toidi; Toney, Sean; Yakrus, Mitchell; Butler, W Ray

    2010-10-01

    The omission of the name 'Mycobacterium paraffinicum' from the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names was due to phenotypic confusion surrounding a close relationship with Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Correspondingly, 'M. paraffinicum' strains grew slowly in > 7 days, stained acid-alcohol-fast and produced yellow-pigmented, smooth, waxy colonies in the dark at an optimal temperature of 35°C. However, 'M. paraffinicum' strains demonstrated no activity for urease, nicotinamidase or pyrazinamidase and lacked growth at 42°C, unlike M. scrofulaceum. The mycolic acid pattern, as determined by HPLC, clustered 'M. paraffinicum' with M. scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum. Strains were fully susceptible to linezolid, rifabutin, clarithromycin and amikacin. Examination of the historical reference strain of 'M. paraffinicum', ATCC 12670, and five additional isolates using comparative studies with 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB gene and concatenated sequences showed that they formed a tight taxonomic group that was distinct from similar non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) analysis confirmed a close association of the five additional isolates with the reference strain of 'M. paraffinicum' with a genetic distance of 0.12 and showed that all six strains were distinct from other closely related species. These genetic results provided unambiguous evidence of the uniqueness of this slowly growing, scotochromogenic species and supported the revival of the name as Mycobacterium paraffinicum (ex Davis, Chase and Raymond 1956) sp. nov., nom. rev. We propose the previously deposited reference strain ATCC 12670(T) =DSM 44181(T) =NCIMB 10420(T), located in collections worldwide, as the type strain.

  15. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin infections like dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis but also bloodstream infections. Understanding the lipid metabolism in Malassezia is essential to understand its life style as skin commensal and p...

  16. Real-Time Measurement of Host Bioenergetics During Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0149 TITLE: “Real-Time Measurement of Host Bioenergetics During Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection...successfully adapted metabolic flux analysis using a Seahorse XF96 metabolic flux analyzer to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis energy metabolism in an...Mycobacterium tuberculosis function. In: Systems Biology of Tuberculosis . Editors: J McFadden, D Beste and A Kierzek. 2013. Springer, New York, NY. 2

  17. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. Method: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. Results: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent,...

  18. Cervical Lymphadenitis by Mycobacterium triplex in an Immunocompetent Child: Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, G.; Angotti, R.; Molinaro, F.; Benicchi, E.; Cerchia, E.; Messina, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium triplex was first described in 1996. This nontuberculous Mycobacterium causes a severe pulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients but it can involve also healthy patients. A literature search was made on the PubMed database and it produced only few cases of children with cervical lymphadenitis due to this Mycobacterium Triplex. We are describing a case of M. triplex cervical lymphadenitis in an immunocompetent child.

  19. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  20. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  1. Disseminated Infection by Mycobacterium sherrisii and Histoplasma capsulatum in an African HIV-Infected Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taján, Juan; Espasa, Mateu; Sala, Montserrat; Navarro, Marta; Font, Bernat; González-Martín, Julián; Segura, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium sherrisii is a new species of opportunistic, slow-growing, non-tuberculous Mycobacterium closely related to Mycobacterium simiae that can currently be identified with the sequence of 16S rARN gene and the heat-shock protein 65. Few cases of patients infected by this Mycobacterium have been reported and all of them were associated with human immunodeficiency virus or other immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical management is complex, because there is not a clear correlation between the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing and the patient's clinical outcome. PMID:23419367

  2. Lipids and membrane lateral organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eSonnino

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creations of these levels of order. In the late 80’s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts. Today, a PubMed search using the key word lipid rafts returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, ceramide returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews, and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as lipid raft-dependent. However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells have been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasize multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompasses their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes.

  3. Enzymatic exchange of mycolic acid in mycobacterium smegmatis involving free trehalose and trehalose 6-mono-mycolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyamoorthy, N.; Qureshi, N.; Takayama, K.

    1986-01-01

    When a dialyzed, cell-free extract of Mycobacterium smegmatis was incubated with [ 14 C]trehalose and unlabeled trehalose 6-monomycolate (TM), radiolabeled TM was formed. This appears to be an enzymatic mycolic acid exchange reaction. The TM was purified by DEAE cellulose and silicic acid column chromatography, followed by reverse-phase HPLC using a C 18 -bonded silica column with a linear gradient of 0-60% hexane-isopropanol (2:1, v/v) in isopropanol-water (9:1, v/v). The donor lipid, the 14 C-labeled product, and authentic TM all comigrated on HPLC. Three peak fractions were obtained from HPLC and analyzed by laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) and the structural series of mycolic acids were identified. The major TM components gave molecular ions (M+K) + at m/z 1486, 1500, and 1528. This corresponded to the presence of dienyl mycolic acids with M/sub r/ of 1106, 1120, and 1148, respectively. Using organically synthesized TM, the authors confirmed that the donor lipid as well as the labeled product of this reaction are indeed TM. This enzyme has now been partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and QAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography. This newly discovered mycolic acid exchange reaction might be an integral part of the last step in the biosynthesis of mycolic acid as well as the mycolic acid utilization pathway in Mycobacteria

  4. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin

  5. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Murphy, R.C.; Nishijima, M.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Wakelam, M.J.O.; Dennis, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is

  6. Activity of Scottish plant, lichen and fungal endophyte extracts against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordien, Andréa Y; Gray, Alexander I; Ingleby, Kevin; Franzblau, Scott G; Seidel, Véronique

    2010-05-01

    With tuberculosis the leading bacterial killer worldwide and other mycobacterial diseases on the increase, the search for new antimycobacterial agents is timely. In this study, extracts from plants, lichens and fungal endophytes of Scottish provenance were screened for activity against Mycobacterium aurum and M. tuberculosis H(37)Rv. The best activity against M. aurum was observed for extracts of Juniperus communis roots and Cladonia arbuscula (MIC = 4 microg/mL), and a fungal endophyte isolated from Vaccinium myrtillus (MIC = 8 microg/mL). The best activity against M. tuberculosis was observed for extracts of C. arbuscula, Empetrum nigrum, J. communis roots, Calluna vulgaris aerial parts, Myrica gale roots and stems (93 to 99% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). Potent antitubercular activity (90 to 96% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) was also observed for the ethanol extracts of Xerocomus badius, Chalciporus piperatus, Suillus luteus and of endophytes isolated from C. vulgaris, E. nigrum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus. The results obtained this study provide, in part, some scientific basis for the traditional use of some of the selected plants in the treatment of tuberculosis. They also indicate that fungal endophytes recovered from Scottish plants are a source of antimycobacterial agents worthy of further investigation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae biofilm formation under high and low nutrient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Stoodley, L; Keevil, C W; Lappin-Scott, H M

    1998-12-01

    The rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are broadly disbursed in the environment. They have been recovered from freshwater, seawater, wastewater and even potable water samples and are increasingly associated with non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease. There is scant evidence that non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and RGM form biofilms. Therefore, an experimental system was designed to assess the ability of RGM to form biofilms under controlled laboratory conditions. A flat plate reactor flow cell was attached to either a high or low nutrient reservoir and monitored by image analysis over time. Two surfaces were chosen for assessment of biofilm growth: silastic which is commonly used in medical settings and high density polyethylene (HDPE) which is prevalent in water distribution systems. The results show that Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. chelonae formed biofilms under both high and low nutrient conditions on both surfaces studied. These results suggest that RGM may form biofilms under a variety of conditions in industrial and medical environments. 1998 Society of Applied Microbiology.

  8. The Complete Structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis 70S Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jendrik Hentschel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome. Furthermore, we visualized actinobacterium-specific rRNA and protein expansions that extensively remodel the ribosomal surface with implications for polysome organization. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the idiosyncrasies of mycobacterial translation and reveal atomic details of the structure that will facilitate the design of anti-tubercular therapeutics.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Members Adapted to Wild and Domestic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kerri M; Gordon, Stephen V

    2017-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is composed of several highly genetically related species that can be broadly classified into those that are human-host adapted and those that possess the ability to propagate and transmit in a variety of wild and domesticated animals. Since the initial description of the bovine tubercle bacillus, now known as Mycobacterium bovis, by Theobald Smith in the late 1800's, isolates originating from a wide range of animal hosts have been identified and characterized as M. microti, M. pinnipedii, the Dassie bacillus, M. mungi, M. caprae, M. orygis and M. suricattae. This chapter outlines the events resulting in the identification of each of these animal-adapted species, their close genetic relationships, and how genome-based phylogenetic analyses of species-specific variation amongst MTBC members is beginning to unravel the events that resulted in the evolution of the MTBC and the observed host tropism between the human- and animal-adapted member species.

  10. Adhesion of Mycobacterium smegmatis to Charged Surfaces and Diagnostics Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorse, Diane; Dhinojwala, Ali; Moore, Francisco

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) causes more than 1 million deaths annually. Smear microscopy is a primary rapid detection tool in areas where 95 % of PTB cases occur. This technique, in which the sputum of a symptomatic patient is stained and examined using a light microscope for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) shows sensitivity between 20 and 60 %. Insufficient bacterial isolation during sample preparation may be a reason for low sensitivity. We are optimizing a system to capture bacteria on the basis of electrostatic interactions to more thoroughly isolate bacteria from suspension and facilitate more accurate detection. Silica supports coated with positively-charged polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), captured approximately 4.1 times more Mycobacterium smegmatis, a model organism for MTB, than was captured on negatively-charged silica substrates. Future experimentation will employ branched polymer systems and seek to justify the use of colloidal stability theories to describe initial capture. Supported by University of Akron, Department of Polymer Science, Department of Biology; LORD Corporation.

  11. Intraocular manifestations of mycobacterium tuberculosis: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Dalvin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis: is most commonly associated with pulmonary infection. However, tuberculosis (TB can also affect the eye. TB can affect nearly any tissue in the eye, and a high index of suspicion is required for accurate diagnosis, as many of the intraocular manifestations of TB can mimic other, more common diseases. Correct diagnosis is critical because systemic anti-tuberculosis treatment may be required, and vision loss or even loss of the affected eye can occur without proper treatment. Thus, it is important for ophthalmologists and infectious disease specialists to work together to accurately diagnose and treat intraocular TB. This article reports the various known presentations of intraocular TB and reviews important elements of diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: Mycobacterium, Tuberculosis, Choroidal granuloma, Retinal vasculitis

  12. Siderocalin inhibits the intracellular replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Erin E; Srikanth, Chittur V; Sandgren, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Siderocalin is a secreted protein that binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial iron acquisition. While it has been shown to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in extracellular cultures, its effect on this pathogen within macrophages is not clear. Here, we show that sideroc......Siderocalin is a secreted protein that binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial iron acquisition. While it has been shown to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in extracellular cultures, its effect on this pathogen within macrophages is not clear. Here, we show...... findings are consistent with an important role for siderocalin in protection against M.tb infection and suggest that exogenously administered siderocalin may have therapeutic applications in tuberculosis....

  13. Diversity and evolution of drug resistance mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Saeedi M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mashael Al-Saeedi, Sahal Al-Hajoj Department of Infection and Immunity, Mycobacteriology Research Section, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite the efficacy of antibiotics to protect humankind against many deadly pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nothing can prevent the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Several mechanisms facilitate drug resistance in M. tuberculosis including compensatory evolution, epistasis, clonal interference, cell wall integrity, efflux pumps, and target mimicry. In this study, we present recent findings relevant to these mechanisms, which can enable the discovery of new drug targets and subsequent development of novel drugs for treatment of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antibiotic resistance, compensatory evolution, epistasis, efflux pumps, fitness cost

  14. Cell-based lipid flippase assay employing fluorescent lipid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Stumph; Costa, Sara; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases in the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are transmembrane proteins unique for eukaryotes that act as lipid flippases, i.e., to translocate phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytofacial monolayer of cellular membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases, s...... flippase activities in the plasma membrane of cells, using yeast as an example.......P-type ATPases in the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are transmembrane proteins unique for eukaryotes that act as lipid flippases, i.e., to translocate phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytofacial monolayer of cellular membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases......, studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4-ATPases differ in their substrate specificities and mediate transport of a broader range of lipid substrates. Here, we describe an assay based on fluorescent lipid derivatives to monitor and characterize lipid...

  15. Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from Milk by Immunomagnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Irene R.; Ball, Hywel J.; Rowe, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    An immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique was developed to facilitate selective isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cells from milk. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against radiation-killed intact M. paratuberculosis cells were produced and used to coat sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) type M-280 Dynabeads. The rabbit anti-M. paratuberculosis IgG-coated beads (IMB) reacted strongly with laboratory strains of M. paratuberculosis as determined by slide agglutination, and microsc...

  16. Cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Associated with Mesotherapy Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkitisophon, Pranee; Rattanakaemakorn, Ploysyne; Tanrattanakorn, Somsak; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2011-02-18

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial skin infections have an increasing incidence. In immunocompetent patients, they usually follow local trauma. We present a case of cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus infection following mesotherapy. The lesions were successfully treated with a combination of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Atypical mycobacterial infection should be suspected in patients who develop late-onset skin and soft tissue infection after cutaneous injury, injection, and surgical intervention, particularly if they do not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

  17. Cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Associated with Mesotherapy Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Wongkitisophon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacterial skin infections have an increasing incidence. In immunocompetent patients, they usually follow local trauma. We present a case of cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus infection following mesotherapy. The lesions were successfully treated with a combination of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Atypical mycobacterial infection should be suspected in patients who develop late-onset skin and soft tissue infection after cutaneous injury, injection, and surgical intervention, particularly if they do not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

  18. Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-23

    This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  19. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare: a rare cause of subacromial bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Raj; Tuckett, John; Hide, Geoff; Dildey, Petra; Karsandas, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Septic subacromial bursitis is an uncommon disorder with only a few reported cases in the literature. The most common causative organism is Staphylococcus aureus. We report the case of a 61-year-old female with a septic subacromial bursitis where the causative organism was found to be Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). The diagnosis was only made following a biopsy, and we use this case to highlight the importance of recognising the need to consider a biopsy and aspiration in atypical situations.

  20. Structural and Functional Studies of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Iva; Snášel, Jan; Dostál, Jiří; Brynda, Jiří; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Singh, M.; Tarábek, Ján; Vaněk, O.; Bednárová, Lucie; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015), e0120682/1-e0120682/21 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 241587 - SYSTEMTB Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : crystal structure * noncovalent complexes * Mycobacterium tuberculosis * mechanism Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120682

  1. Studium role fosfofruktokinasy A a B v metabolismu Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Iva; Snášel, Jan; Pichová, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 5 (2014), s. 542 ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /14./. 13.05.2014-16.05.2014, Milovy] Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) FP7-245187 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Mycobacterium tuberculosis * phosphofructokinase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  2. Tumor necrosis factor blockers influence macrophage responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    HARRIS, JAMES; HARRIS, JAMES

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED umor necrosis factor (TNF)?? is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates inflammation in response to various pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but is also a key factor in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Three TNF???suppressing drugs have been approved to treat selected autoimmune diseases; 2 are monoclonal antibodies against TNF?? (adalimumab and infliximab), and the other is a soluble TNF receptor/Fc fusion protein (etanerce...

  3. Disseminated Mycobacterium abscessus infection in a peritoneal dialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent H.J.F. Mooren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A disseminated peritoneal dialysis-related Mycobacterium abscessus infection is very rare. M. abscessus belongs to the rapidly growing mycobacteria and can be misidentified as a diphtheroid bacterium, which in our case delayed diagnosis and optimal treatment. Due to intrinsic resistance to most antimicrobials, therapeutic options in M. abscessus infections are limited. Infection often leads to catheter loss. A fatal outcome, like in our case, is not exceptional.

  4. Mycobacterium bovis in milk samples: a preliminary investigation using PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achel, D.G.; Gyamfi, O.K.; Broni, F.; Gomda, Y.; Brown, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    PCR was used to screen milk samples (n=41) for Mycobacterium bovis. DNA samples were obtained through concentration by 50% sucrose addition and centrifugation. Sixteen (16) samples (or 39%) were positive for M. Bovis DNA and the rest 25 (or 61%) were negative. All four kraals had some samples testing positive for M. bovis; the highest being 50% (5/10) and the lowest being 13% (2/15). (au)

  5. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, S.A.; Kayser, Oliver; Muller, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the use of nanoparticles based on solid lipids for the parenteral application of drugs. Firstly, different types of nanoparticles based on solid lipids such as "solid lipid nanoparticles" (SLN), "nanostructured lipid carriers" (NLC) and "lipid drug conjugate" (LDC)

  6. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  7. Triple valve endocarditis by mycobacterium tuberculosis. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Quratulain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulomas caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis have been observed at autopsy in the heart, pre-dominantly in the myocardium and endocardium, but rarely involving the coronary vessels and valvular structures. Mycobacterium tuberculosis valvular endocarditis is extremely rare, with most reports coming from autopsy series. Case presentation We report the case of a 17 year old immunocompetent girl who presented with history of fever, malaise, foot gangrene and a left sided hemiparesis. On investigation she was found to have infective endocarditis involving the aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves. She had developed a right middle cerebral artery stroke. She underwent dual valve replacement and tricuspid repair. The vegetations showed granulomatous inflammation but blood cultures and other biological specimen cultures were negative for any organisms. She was started on antituberculous treatment and anticoagulation. Conclusion This is the first reported case of triple valve endocarditis by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in an immunocompetent host. Especially important is the fact that the right heart is involved which has been historically described in the setting of intravenous drug abuse. This implies that Tuberculosis should be considered in cases of culture negative endocarditis in endemic areas like Pakistan even in immunocompetent hosts.

  8. Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis in common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Andrea Herrera-Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired antibody production. It shows a wide spectrum of manifestations including severe and recurrent respiratory infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus and gastrointestinal (Campylobacter jejuni, rotavirus and Giardia lamblia. Viral infections caused by herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV and hepatitis C are rare. The opportunistic agents such as CMV, Pneumocystis jirovecii, cryptococcus and atypical mycobacteria have been reported as isolated cases. This paper reports the case of a 38-year-old female patient, who began six years before with weight loss of 7 kg in six months, fatigue, weakness, sweating, fever and abdominal pain. Furthermore, patient had intestinal obstruction and abdominal CT showed mesenteric lymph growth. The mesenteric lymph node biopsy revealed positives Mycobacterium PCR, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture for M. bovis. In the laparotomy postoperative period was complicated with nosocomial pneumonia, requiring mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Two years later, she developed right renal abscess that required surgical drainage, once again with a positive culture for Mycobacterium bovis. She was referred to highly specialized hospital and we documented panhypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia. Secondary causes of hypogammaglobulinemia were ruled out and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID was confirmed, we started IVIG replacement. Four years later she developed mixed cellularity Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Until today she continues with IVIG and chemotherapy. This report of a patient with CVID and Mycobacterium bovis infection, a unusual association, shows the cellular immunity susceptibility in this immunodeficiency, additional to the humoral defect.

  9. Host-directed strategies using lipid nanoparticles to reduce mycobacteria survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L. [Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the New University of Lisbon (Portugal); Diogo, J.; Mateus, R.; Pimentel, M.; Videira, M., E-mail: mvideira@ff.ul.pt [iMed.UL - Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Lisbon, Intracellular Trafficking Modulation for Advanced Drug Delivery InTraCell-ADD Research Group (Portugal)

    2015-02-15

    Antibiotic-resistant infections and the stagnations in the development of new drugs have increased the demand for new therapeutic approaches against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Innovative systems that are able to target and eradicate the bacteria in the infected host cells may represent a therapeutic breakthrough while avoiding latency. The development of nanosystems aiming a controlled and targeted intracellular drug release, have proved to increase cytosolic therapeutic concentration while reducing undesired side effects. This work’s main goal was to develop a host-directed strategy against mycobacterial infection through the design of a biocompatible nanocarrier for phage-derived protein delivery, using M. smegmatis as model. Since mycobacterial pathogenicity is strongly supported by the presence of lipids in the cell wall, their degradation induces bacterial destruction through cell wall hydrolysis. Phage-based lipolytic enzymes such as, LysB a mycolylarabinogalactan esterase, represent an appealing therapeutic approach. The herein proposed Ms6 LysB-containing lipid nanocarrier (SLN-LysB) explores the known advantages of nanomedicine-based systems for phagocytic cells selectively targeting thus allowing LysB intracellular accumulation and a more pronounced mycobacterial infection eradication. Adsorption efficiency value indicates the potential of this system as a protein nanocarrier. Moreover, promising outcomes were obtained in host-infected macrophages treated with SLN-LysB. The results show that the herein proposed strategy was more effective in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis than free LysB, which might be related to the nanocarrier internalization. Acting as effective protein nanocarriers, the protein-guided delivery in the infected phagocytic cells allows it to exert its hydrolytic action on the lipid layer of the Mycobacterium.

  10. Host-directed strategies using lipid nanoparticles to reduce mycobacteria survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L.; Diogo, J.; Mateus, R.; Pimentel, M.; Videira, M.

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistant infections and the stagnations in the development of new drugs have increased the demand for new therapeutic approaches against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Innovative systems that are able to target and eradicate the bacteria in the infected host cells may represent a therapeutic breakthrough while avoiding latency. The development of nanosystems aiming a controlled and targeted intracellular drug release, have proved to increase cytosolic therapeutic concentration while reducing undesired side effects. This work's main goal was to develop a host-directed strategy against mycobacterial infection through the design of a biocompatible nanocarrier for phage-derived protein delivery, using M. smegmatis as model. Since mycobacterial pathogenicity is strongly supported by the presence of lipids in the cell wall, their degradation induces bacterial destruction through cell wall hydrolysis. Phage-based lipolytic enzymes such as, LysB a mycolylarabinogalactan esterase, represent an appealing therapeutic approach. The herein proposed Ms6 LysB-containing lipid nanocarrier (SLN_LysB) explores the known advantages of nanomedicine-based systems for phagocytic cells selectively targeting thus allowing LysB intracellular accumulation and a more pronounced mycobacterial infection eradication. Adsorption efficiency value indicates the potential of this system as a protein nanocarrier. Moreover, promising outcomes were obtained in host-infected macrophages treated with SLN_LysB. The results show that the herein proposed strategy was more effective in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis than free LysB, which might be related to the nanocarrier internalization. Acting as effective protein nanocarriers, the protein-guided delivery in the infected phagocytic cells allows it to exert its hydrolytic action on the lipid layer of the Mycobacterium.

  11. Host-directed strategies using lipid nanoparticles to reduce mycobacteria survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.; Diogo, J.; Mateus, R.; Pimentel, M.; Videira, M.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant infections and the stagnations in the development of new drugs have increased the demand for new therapeutic approaches against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Innovative systems that are able to target and eradicate the bacteria in the infected host cells may represent a therapeutic breakthrough while avoiding latency. The development of nanosystems aiming a controlled and targeted intracellular drug release, have proved to increase cytosolic therapeutic concentration while reducing undesired side effects. This work’s main goal was to develop a host-directed strategy against mycobacterial infection through the design of a biocompatible nanocarrier for phage-derived protein delivery, using M. smegmatis as model. Since mycobacterial pathogenicity is strongly supported by the presence of lipids in the cell wall, their degradation induces bacterial destruction through cell wall hydrolysis. Phage-based lipolytic enzymes such as, LysB a mycolylarabinogalactan esterase, represent an appealing therapeutic approach. The herein proposed Ms6 LysB-containing lipid nanocarrier (SLN-LysB) explores the known advantages of nanomedicine-based systems for phagocytic cells selectively targeting thus allowing LysB intracellular accumulation and a more pronounced mycobacterial infection eradication. Adsorption efficiency value indicates the potential of this system as a protein nanocarrier. Moreover, promising outcomes were obtained in host-infected macrophages treated with SLN-LysB. The results show that the herein proposed strategy was more effective in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis than free LysB, which might be related to the nanocarrier internalization. Acting as effective protein nanocarriers, the protein-guided delivery in the infected phagocytic cells allows it to exert its hydrolytic action on the lipid layer of the Mycobacterium

  12. Dermal extracellular lipid in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L

    1990-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.

  13. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Loher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL, skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL. Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass, insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  14. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  15. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  16. Lipid and bile acid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argmann, Carmen A.; Houten, Sander M.; Champy, Marie-France; Auwerx, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Lipids are important body constituents that are vital for cellular, tissue, and whole-body homeostasis. Lipids serve as crucial membrane components, constitute the body's main energy reservoir, and are important signaling molecules. As a consequence of these pleiotropic functions, many common

  17. Lysosomal degradation of membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2010-05-03

    The constitutive degradation of membrane components takes place in the acidic compartments of a cell, the endosomes and lysosomes. Sites of lipid degradation are intralysosomal membranes that are formed in endosomes, where the lipid composition is adjusted for degradation. Cholesterol is sorted out of the inner membranes, their content in bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases, and, most likely, sphingomyelin is degraded to ceramide. Together with endosomal and lysosomal lipid-binding proteins, the Niemann-Pick disease, type C2-protein, the GM2-activator, and the saposins sap-A, -B, -C, and -D, a suitable membrane lipid composition is required for degradation of complex lipids by hydrolytic enzymes. Copyright 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective and therapeutic efficacy of Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing HBHA-hIL12 fusion protein against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a major worldwide health problem. The only vaccine against TB, Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, has demonstrated relatively low efficacy and does not provide satisfactory protection against the disease. More efficient vaccines and improved therapies are urgently needed to decrease the worldwide spread and burden of TB, and use of a viable, metabolizing mycobacteria vaccine may be a promising strategy against the disease. Here, we constructed a recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (rMS strain expressing a fusion protein of heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA and human interleukin 12 (hIL-12. Immune responses induced by the rMS in mice and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB were investigated. Administration of this novel rMS enhanced Th1-type cellular responses (IFN-γ and IL-2 in mice and reduced bacterial burden in lungs as well as that achieved by BCG vaccination. Meanwhile, the bacteria load in M. tuberculosis infected mice treated with the rMS vaccine also was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the rMS strain expressing the HBHA and human IL-12 fusion protein enhanced immunogencity by improving the Th1-type response against TB, and the protective effect was equivalent to that of the conventional BCG vaccine in mice. Furthermore, it could decrease bacterial load and alleviate histopathological damage in lungs of M. tuberculosis infected mice.

  20. Characterization of ML0314c of Mycobacterium leprae and deciphering its role in the immune response in leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkamajit; Sharma, Aashish; Narang, Tarun; Dogra, Sunil; Kaur, Jagdeep

    2018-02-15

    Mycobacterium leprae has a reduced genome size due to the reductive evolution over a long period of time. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the life cycle and pathogenesis of this bacterium. In comparison to 26 lip genes (Lip A-Z) of M. tuberculosis, M. leprae retained only three orthologs indicating their importance in its life cycle. ML0314c (LipU) is one of them. It is conserved throughout the mycobacterium species. Bioinformatics analysis showed the presence of an α/β hydrolase fold and 'GXSXG' characteristic of the esterases/lipases. The gene was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. It showed preference towards short chain esters with pNP-acetate as the preferred substrate. The enzyme showed optimal activity at 45°C and pH8.0. ML0314c protein was stable between temperatures ranging from 20 to 60°C and pH5.0-8.0, i.e., relatively acidic and neutral conditions. The active site residues predicted bioinformatically were confirmed to be Ser168, Glu267, and His297 by site directed mutagenesis. E-serine, DEPC and Tetrahydrolipstatin (THL) completely inhibited the activity of ML0314c. The protein was localized in cell wall and extracellular medium. Several antigenic epitopes were predicted in ML0314c. Protein elicited strong humoral immune response in leprosy patients, whereas, a reduced immune response was observed in the relapsed cases. No humoral response was observed in treatment completed patients. Overexpression of ml0314c in the surrogate host M. smegmatis showed marked difference in the colony morphology and growth rate. In conclusion, ML0314c is a secretary carboxyl esterase that could modulate the immune response in leprosy patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mycobacterium alsiense, a novel, slowly growing species isolated from two patients with pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Elvira; Tortoli, Enrico; Fischer, Arno

    2007-01-01

    A previously undescribed, slowly growing Mycobacterium species was isolated from pulmonary specimens of two patients, one from Denmark and one from Italy. The isolates showed unique 16S rRNA internal transcribed spacers and hsp65 sequences: the 16S rRNA was most closely related to Mycobacterium...

  2. Comparative genomics of archived pyrazinamide resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis is a ‘neglected zoonosis’ and its contribution to the proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infections in humans is unknown. A retrospective study on archived Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates from a reference laboratory in Uganda was undertaken to iden...

  3. Pott's disease: a case of Mycobacterium xenopi infection of the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Alfreijat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pott's disease is an infection of the spine with Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes destruction of the spine elements resulting in progressive kyphosis. We are describing a rare case of Pott's disease where Mycobacterium xenopi was the inculpated organism.

  4. Diffuse Lepromatous Leprosy Due to Mycobacterium lepromatosis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiang Y; Quintanilla, Marco

    2015-11-01

    A 43-year-old woman of Mayan origin from Quintana Roo, Mexico, was diagnosed with diffuse lepromatous leprosy. The etiologic bacillus was determined to be Mycobacterium lepromatosis instead of Mycobacterium leprae. This case likely represents the first report of this leprosy form and its agent in the southeastern tip of Mexico. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Environmental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis hosted by free-living amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is responsible for paratuberculosis in animals. This disease, leading to an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, has a high impact on animal health and an important economic burden. The environmental life cycle of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratube...

  6. Performance Assessment of the CapitalBio Mycobacterium Identification Array System for Identification of Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Yan, Zihe; Han, Min; Han, Zhijun; Jin, Lingjie; Zhao, Yanlin

    2012-01-01

    The CapitalBio Mycobacterium identification microarray system is a rapid system for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The performance of this system was assessed with 24 reference strains, 486 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, and 40 clinical samples and then compared to the “gold standard” of DNA sequencing. The CapitalBio Mycobacterium identification microarray system showed highly concordant identification results of 100% and 98.4% for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the CapitalBio Mycobacterium identification array for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were 99.6% and 100%, respectively, for direct detection and identification of clinical samples, and the overall sensitivity was 52.5%. It was 100% for sputum, 16.7% for pleural fluid, and 10% for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, respectively. The total assay was completed in 6 h, including DNA extraction, PCR, and hybridization. The results of this study confirm the utility of this system for the rapid identification of mycobacteria and suggest that the CapitalBio Mycobacterium identification array is a molecular diagnostic technique with high sensitivity and specificity that has the capacity to quickly identify most mycobacteria. PMID:22090408

  7. Characterization of Three Mycobacterium spp. with Potential Use in Bioremediation by Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sarbashis; Pettersson, B M Fredrik; Behra, Phani Rama Krishna; Ramesh, Malavika; Dasgupta, Santanu; Bhattacharya, Alok; Kirsebom, Leif A

    2015-06-16

    We provide the genome sequences of the type strains of the polychlorophenol-degrading Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum (DSM43826), the degrader of chlorinated aliphatics Mycobacterium chubuense (DSM44219) and Mycobacterium obuense (DSM44075) that has been tested for use in cancer immunotherapy. The genome sizes of M. chlorophenolicum, M. chubuense, and M. obuense are 6.93, 5.95, and 5.58 Mb with GC-contents of 68.4%, 69.2%, and 67.9%, respectively. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 3,254 genes are common and we predicted approximately 250 genes acquired through horizontal gene transfer from different sources including proteobacteria. The data also showed that the biodegrading Mycobacterium spp. NBB4, also referred to as M. chubuense NBB4, is distantly related to the M. chubuense type strain and should be considered as a separate species, we suggest it to be named Mycobacterium ethylenense NBB4. Among different categories we identified genes with potential roles in: biodegradation of aromatic compounds and copper homeostasis. These are the first nonpathogenic Mycobacterium spp. found harboring genes involved in copper homeostasis. These findings would therefore provide insight into the role of this group of Mycobacterium spp. in bioremediation as well as the evolution of copper homeostasis within the Mycobacterium genus. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Progression to active tuberculosis, but not transmission, varies by Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Bouke C.; Hill, Philip C.; Aiken, Alex; Awine, Timothy; Antonio, Martin; Adetifa, Ifedayo M.; Jackson-Sillah, Dolly J.; Fox, Annette; Deriemer, Kathryn; Gagneux, Sebastien; Borgdorff, Martien W.; McAdam, Keith P. W. J.; Corrah, Tumani; Small, Peter M.; Adegbola, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable variability in the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We hypothesized that Mycobacterium africanum was less likely than M. tuberculosis to transmit and progress to tuberculosis disease. METHODS: In a cohort study of patients with tuberculosis and their

  9. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare cellulitis occurring with septic arthritis after joint injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch David M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulitis caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has rarely been described. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is a rare cause of septic arthritis after intra-articular injection, though the causative role of injection is difficult to ascertain in such cases. Case presentation A 57-year-old with rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisone and azathioprine developed bilateral painful degenerative shoulder arthritis. After corticosteroid injections into both acromioclavicular joints, he developed bilateral cellulitis centered over the injection sites. Skin biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas, and culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Joint aspiration also revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Conclusion Although rare, skin and joint infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare should be considered in any immunocompromised host, particularly after intra-articular injection. Stains for acid-fast bacilli may be negative in pathologic samples even in the presence of infection; cultures of tissue specimens should always be obtained.

  10. Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov., a non-chromogenic, fast-growing strain isolated from sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Igual, José M; Jando, Marlen; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Sutcliffe, Iain; Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of a non-chromogenic, rapidly growing Mycobacterium strain that had been isolated from sputum. The strain, CECT 8775T, has chemotaxonomic and cultural properties consistent with its classification in the genus Mycobacterium and was distinguished from the type strains of closely related mycobacterial species, notably from Mycobacterium paraense DSM 46749T, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour, based on 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB gene sequence data. These organisms were also distinguished by a broad range of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features and by a digital DNA-DNA relatedness value of 22.8 %. Consequently, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of Mycobacterium for which the name Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov is proposed; the type strain is X82T (CECT 8775T=DSM 44358T).

  11. Mycobacterium shigaense Causes Lymph Node and Cutaneous Lesions as Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in an AIDS Patient: The Third Case Report of a Novel Strain Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Kaoru; Shigeta, Masayo; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Hodohara, Keiko; Andoh, Akira; Tanaka, Toshihide; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Mitarai, Satoshi; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old man complaining of progressive body weight loss was diagnosed to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Within 2 weeks after the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy, he developed fever, massive cervical lymphadenopathy and a protruding subcutaneous abscess. A lymph node biopsy and abscess drainage revealed non-caseous granuloma and mycobacterium. The mycobacterium belonged to Runyon II group, but it showed no matches to any previously reported species. According to sequence analyses, the strain was identified as Mycobacterium shigaense. After six months of antimycobacterial treatment, the lesions were all successfully cured. This is the third case report of the novel mycobacterium, M. shigaense, presenting in associatioin with immune reconstitution syndrome. PMID:27853087

  12. Coral lipids and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, V J

    1993-04-01

    Environmental monitoring of coral reefs is presently limited by difficulties in recognising coral stress, other than by monitoring coral mortality over time. A recent report described an experiment demonstrating that a measured lipid index declined in shaded corals. The technique described might have application in monitoring coral health, with a decline in coral lipid index as an indicator of coral stress. The application of the technique as a practical monitoring tool was tested for two coral species from the Great Barrier Reef. Consistent with the previous results, lipid index for Pocillopora damicornis initially declined over a period of three weeks in corals maintained in filtered seawater in the dark, indicating possible utilization of lipid stored as energy reserves. However, lipid index subsequently rose to near normal levels. In contrast, lipid index of Acropora formosa increased after four weeks in the dark in filtered seawater. The results showed considerable variability in lipid content between samples from the same colony. Results were also found to be dependent on fixation times and sample weight, introducing potential error into the practical application of the technique. The method as described would be unsuitable for monitoring environmental stress in corals, but the search for a practical method to monitor coral health should continue, given its importance in coral reef management.

  13. Lipid composition of human meibum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schnetler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of meibomian gland lipids in the tear film are highly complex. Evidence shows that the precorneal tear film consists of discrete layers: the inner mucin layer, the middle aqueous layer and the outer lipid layer. In this review we focus on the outer, biphasic lipid layer of the tear film which consists of a ‘thick’ outer, non-polar layer  and a ‘thin’ inner, polar layer. We discuss the main composition of the polar and non-polar lipids within meibum (wax esters, cholesteryl esters, mono-, di- and tri-acylglycerols, ceramides, phospholipids  et cetera. We address the composition of meibomian lipids in subjects suffering from various ocular diseases in comparison with the composition in healthy individuals. Further analysis is needed to determine whether a correlation exists between the etiology of various ocular diseases and the fluctuation on the lipids as well as to establish whether or not tear lipid analysis can be used as a diagnostic tool.

  14. Role of genotype® mycobacterium common mycobacteria/additional species assay for rapid differentiation between Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and different species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM may or may not have same clinical presentations, but the treatment regimens are always different. Laboratory differentiation between MTBC and NTM by routine methods are time consuming and cumbersome to perform. We have evaluated the role of GenoType® Mycobacterium common mycobacteria/additional species (CM/AS assay for differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM in clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 1080 clinical specimens were collected from January 2010 to June 2012. Diagnosis was performed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining followed by culture in BacT/ALERT 3D system (bioMerieux, France. A total of 219 culture positive clinical isolates (BacT/ALERT® MP cultures were selected for differentiation by p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB sensitivity test as and BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB test considering as the gold standard test. Final identification and differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM were further confirmed by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany. Results: Out of 219 BacT/ALERT® MP culture positive isolates tested by PNB as 153 MTBC (69.9% and by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay as 159 (72.6% MTBC and remaining 60 (27.4% were considered as NTM species. The GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay was proved 99.3% sensitive and 98.3% specific for rapid differentiation of MTBC and NTM. The most common NTM species were; Mycobacterium fortuitum 20 (33.3% among rapid growing mycobacteria and Mycobacterium intracellulare 11 (18.3% among slow growing mycobacteria. Conclusion: The GenoType® Mycobacterium assay makes rapid and accurate identification of NTM species as compared with different phenotypic and molecular diagnostic tool and helps in management of infections caused by different mycobacteria.

  15. Lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, H. D.; Beck, S. A.; Tisdale, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of cancer cachexia on the oxidative metabolism of lipids has been studied in mice transplanted either with the MAC16 adenocarcinoma, which induces profound loss of body weight and depletion of lipid stores, or the MAC13 adenocarcinoma, which is the same histological type, but which grows without an effect on host body weight or lipid stores. While oxidation of D-[U-14C]glucose did not differ between animals bearing tumours of either type and non-tumour bearing controls, oxidation o...

  16. Insights into the smooth-to-rough transitioning in Mycobacterium bolletii unravels a functional Tyr residue conserved in all mycobacterial MmpL family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernut, Audrey; Viljoen, Albertus; Dupont, Christian; Sapriel, Guillaume; Blaise, Mickaël; Bouchier, Christiane; Brosch, Roland; de Chastellier, Chantal; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    In mycobacteria, MmpL proteins represent key components that participate in the biosynthesis of the complex cell envelope. Whole genome analysis of a spontaneous rough morphotype variant of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii identified a conserved tyrosine that is crucial for the function of MmpL family proteins. Isogenic smooth (S) and rough (R) variants differed by a single mutation linked to a Y842H substitution in MmpL4a. This mutation caused a deficiency in glycopeptidolipid production/transport in the R variant and a gain in the capacity to produce cords in vitro. In zebrafish, increased virulence of the M. bolletii R variant over the parental S strain was found, involving massive production of serpentine cords, abscess formation and rapid larval death. Importantly, this finding allowed us to demonstrate an essential role of Tyr842 in several different MmpL proteins, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis MmpL3. Structural homology models of MmpL4a and MmpL3 identified two additional critical residues located in the transmembrane regions TM10 and TM4 that are facing each other. We propose that these central residues are part of the proton-motive force that supplies the energy for substrate transport. Hence, we provide important insights into mechanistic/structural aspects of MmpL proteins as lipid transporters and virulence determinants in mycobacteria. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Effect of Oral Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG on the Development of Tuberculosis in Captive European Badgers (Meles meles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mark A; Aldwell, Frank; Williams, Gareth A; Palmer, Si; Gowtage, Sonya; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna J; Davé, Dipesh; Weyer, Ute; Salguero, Francisco J; Nunez, Alejandro; Nadian, Allan K; Crawshaw, Timothy; Corner, Leigh A L; Lesellier, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    The European badger ( Meles meles ) is a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (TB) cases seen in cattle in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. An injectable preparation of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the UK and its use forms part of the bovine TB eradication plans of England and Wales. However, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badgers and a research priority is the development of an oral vaccine deliverable to badgers in bait. Previous studies reported the successful vaccination of badgers with oral preparations of 10 8 colony forming units (CFU) of both Pasteur and Danish strains of BCG contained within a lipid matrix composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. Protection against TB in these studies was expressed as a reduction in the number and apparent progression of visible lesions, and reductions in the bacterial load and dissemination of infection. To reduce the cost of an oral vaccine and reduce the potential for environmental contamination with BCG, it is necessary to define the minimal efficacious dose of oral BCG for badgers. The objectives of the two studies reported here were to compare the efficacy of BCG Danish strain in a lipid matrix with unformulated BCG given orally, and to evaluate the efficacy of BCG Danish in a lipid matrix at a 10-fold lower dose than previously evaluated in badgers. In the first study, both BCG unformulated and in a lipid matrix reduced the number and apparent progression of visible lesions and the dissemination of infection from the lung. In the second study, vaccination with BCG in the lipid matrix at a 10-fold lower dose produced a similar outcome, but with greater intra-group variability than seen with the higher dose in the first study. Further research is needed before we are able to recommend a final dose of BCG for oral vaccination of badgers against TB

  18. Muscle Lipid Metabolism: Role of Lipid Droplets and Perilipins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Esteban Morales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is one of the main regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in our organism, and therefore, it is highly susceptible to changes in glucose and fatty acid (FA availability. Skeletal muscle is an extremely complex tissue: its metabolic capacity depends on the type of fibers it is made up of and the level of stimulation it undergoes, such as acute or chronic contraction. Obesity is often associated with increased FA levels, which leads to the accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, oxidative stress, and autophagy in skeletal fibers. This lipotoxicity is one of the most common causes of insulin resistance (IR. In this scenario, the “isolation” of certain lipids in specific cell compartments, through the action of the specific lipid droplet, perilipin (PLIN family of proteins, is conceived as a lifeguard compensatory strategy. In this review, we summarize the cellular mechanism underlying lipid mobilization and metabolism inside skeletal muscle, focusing on the function of lipid droplets, the PLIN family of proteins, and how these entities are modified in exercise, obesity, and IR conditions.

  19. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...... into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL.......95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk...

  20. Transcriptional and physiological changes during Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivation from non-replicating persistence

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    Peicheng Du

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis can persist for years in the hostile environment of the host in a non-replicating or slowly replicating state. While active disease predominantly results from reactivation of a latent infection, the molecular mechanisms of M. tuberculosis reactivation are still poorly understood. We characterized the physiology and global transcriptomic profiles of M. tuberculosis during reactivation from hypoxia-induced non-replicating persistence. We found that M. tuberculosis reactivation upon reaeration was associated with a lag phase, in which the recovery of cellular physiological and metabolic functions preceded the resumption of cell replication. Enrichment analysis of the transcriptomic dynamics revealed changes to many metabolic pathways and transcription regulons/subnetworks that orchestrated the metabolic and physiological transformation in preparation for cell division. In particular, we found that M. tuberculosis reaeration lag phase is associated with down-regulation of persistence-associated regulons/subnetworks, including DosR, MprA, SigH, SigE and ClgR, as well as metabolic pathways including those involved in the uptake of lipids and their catabolism. More importantly, we identified a number of up-regulated transcription regulons and metabolic pathways, including those involved in metal transport and remobilization, second messenger-mediated responses, DNA repair and recombination, and synthesis of major cell wall components. We also found that inactivation of the major alternative sigma factors SigE or SigH disrupted exit from persistence, underscoring the importance of the global transcriptional reprogramming during M. tuberculosis reactivation. Our observations suggest that M. tuberculosis lag phase is associated with a global gene expression reprogramming that defines the initiation of a reactivation process.

  1. Quantitative proteomic analysis of ofloxacin resistant and sensitive clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu HUANG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the proteins related to ofloxacin (OFX resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. Methods Standard MTB H37Rv strain, clinical isolates of OFX resistant strain (OFXR and sensitive strain (OFXS were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and they were cultured in Sauton's medium, and then inactivated by 60Co. Whole cellular proteins were extracted from OFXR, OFXS and H37Rv strain of MTB, respectively. The peptides were labeled, separated and identified by isobaric tags of relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ combined with Nano LCMS/MS technology. Results One hundred and seventy-five and 134 differential expression proteins were identified in MTB OFXR compared with MTB OFXS and H37Rv, respectively. One hundred and four common differential expression proteins were identified in MTB OFXR compared with both MTB OFXS and H37Rv. The isoelectric point and theoretic relative molecular mass of differential expression proteins were widely distributed. The majority of the common differential expression proteins were involved in intermediary metabolism, respiration, and lipid metabolism. Twelve common differential expression proteins showed significant differences (the ratio>1.2 or <0.55 in MTB OFXR, including Rv0106, Rv0895, Rv2185c, Rv3248c and Rv3841 up-regulation and Rv2524c, Rv2986c, Rv3118 and Rv3597c down-regulation. Conclusion iTRAQ has been used to identify the common differential expression proteins in MTB OFXR compared with both MTB OFXS and H37Rv, which provides a basis for further study of the mechanism of OFX-resistance. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.06

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Innate Responses in a New Model of Lung Alveolar Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Minjeong; Wood, Connor; Kwon, Doyoon; Park, Kyu-Ho Paul; Fejer, György; Delorme, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Lung alveolar macrophages (AMs) are in the first line of immune defense against respiratory pathogens and play key roles in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) in humans. Nevertheless, AMs are available only in limited amounts for in vitro studies, which hamper the detailed molecular understanding of host- Mtb interactions in these macrophages. The recent establishment of the self-renewing and primary Max Planck Institute (MPI) cells, functionally very close to lung AMs, opens unique opportunities for in vitro studies of host-pathogen interactions in respiratory diseases. Here, we investigated the suitability of MPI cells as a host cell system for Mtb infection. Bacterial, cellular, and innate immune features of MPI cells infected with Mtb were characterized. Live bacteria were readily internalized and efficiently replicated in MPI cells, similarly to primary murine macrophages and other cell lines. MPI cells were also suitable for the determination of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug activity. The primary innate immune response of MPI cells to live Mtb showed significantly higher and earlier induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1α, and IL-1β, as compared to stimulation with heat-killed (HK) bacteria. MPI cells previously showed a lack of induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 to a wide range of stimuli, including HK Mtb . By contrast, we show here that live Mtb is able to induce significant amounts of IL-10 in MPI cells. Autophagy experiments using light chain 3B immunostaining, as well as LysoTracker labeling of acidic vacuoles, demonstrated that MPI cells efficiently control killed Mtb by elimination through phagolysosomes. MPI cells were also able to accumulate lipid droplets in their cytoplasm following exposure to lipoproteins. Collectively, this study establishes the MPI cells as a relevant, versatile host cell model for TB research, allowing a deeper understanding of AMs functions in this

  3. Phylogenetic detection of horizontal gene transfer during the step-wise genesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turenne Christine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, the availability of complete genome sequence data has greatly facilitated comparative genomic research aimed at addressing genetic variability within species. More recently, analysis across species has become feasible, especially in genera where genome sequencing projects of multiple species have been initiated. To understand the genesis of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a genus where the majority of species are harmless environmental organisms, we have used genome sequence data from 16 mycobacteria to look for evidence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT associated with the emergence of pathogenesis. First, using multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA of 20 housekeeping genes across these species, we derived a phylogeny that serves as the basis for HGT assignments. Next, we performed alignment searches for the 3989 proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv against 15 other mycobacterial genomes, generating a matrix of 59835 comparisons, to look for genetic elements that were uniquely found in M. tuberculosis and closely-related pathogenic mycobacteria. To assign when foreign genes were likely acquired, we designed a bioinformatic program called mycoHIT (mycobacterial homologue investigation tool to analyze these data in conjunction with the MLSA-based phylogeny. Results The bioinformatic screen predicted that 137 genes had been acquired by HGT at different phylogenetic strata; these included genes coding for metabolic functions and modification of mycobacterial lipids. For the majority of these genes, corroborating evidence of HGT was obtained, such as presence of phage or plasmid, and an aberrant GC%. Conclusion M. tuberculosis emerged through vertical inheritance along with the step-wise addition of genes acquired via HGT events, a process that may more generally describe the evolution of other pathogens.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Innate Responses in a New Model of Lung Alveolar Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjeong Woo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung alveolar macrophages (AMs are in the first line of immune defense against respiratory pathogens and play key roles in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb in humans. Nevertheless, AMs are available only in limited amounts for in vitro studies, which hamper the detailed molecular understanding of host-Mtb interactions in these macrophages. The recent establishment of the self-renewing and primary Max Planck Institute (MPI cells, functionally very close to lung AMs, opens unique opportunities for in vitro studies of host-pathogen interactions in respiratory diseases. Here, we investigated the suitability of MPI cells as a host cell system for Mtb infection. Bacterial, cellular, and innate immune features of MPI cells infected with Mtb were characterized. Live bacteria were readily internalized and efficiently replicated in MPI cells, similarly to primary murine macrophages and other cell lines. MPI cells were also suitable for the determination of anti-tuberculosis (TB drug activity. The primary innate immune response of MPI cells to live Mtb showed significantly higher and earlier induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-1α, and IL-1β, as compared to stimulation with heat-killed (HK bacteria. MPI cells previously showed a lack of induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 to a wide range of stimuli, including HK Mtb. By contrast, we show here that live Mtb is able to induce significant amounts of IL-10 in MPI cells. Autophagy experiments using light chain 3B immunostaining, as well as LysoTracker labeling of acidic vacuoles, demonstrated that MPI cells efficiently control killed Mtb by elimination through phagolysosomes. MPI cells were also able to accumulate lipid droplets in their cytoplasm following exposure to lipoproteins. Collectively, this study establishes the MPI cells as a relevant, versatile host cell model for TB research, allowing a deeper understanding of AMs functions

  5. Enhanced Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Immunity over Time with Combined Drug and Immunotherapy Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha E. Larsen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. This astounding statistic, in combination with costly and lengthy treatment regimens make the development of therapeutic vaccines paramount for controlling the global burden of tuberculosis. Unlike prophylactic vaccination, therapeutic immunization relies on the natural pulmonary infection with Mtb as the mucosal prime that directs boost responses back to the lung. The purpose of this work was to determine the protection and safety profile over time following therapeutic administration of our lead Mtb vaccine candidate, ID93 with a synthetic TLR4 agonist (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE, in combination with rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (RHZ drug treatment. We assessed the host inflammatory immune responses and lung pathology 7–22 weeks post infection, and determined the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment by enumeration of the bacterial load and survival in the SWR/J mouse model. We show that drug treatment alone, or with immunotherapy, tempered the inflammatory responses measured in brochoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma compared to untreated cohorts. RHZ combined with therapeutic immunizations significantly enhanced TH1-type cytokine responses in the lung over time, corresponding to decreased pulmonary pathology evidenced by a significant decrease in the percentage of lung lesions and destructive lung inflammation. These data suggest that bacterial burden assessment alone may miss important correlates of lung architecture that directly contribute to therapeutic vaccine efficacy in the preclinical mouse model. We also confirmed our previous finding that in combination with antibiotics therapeutic immunizations provide an additive survival advantage. Moreover, therapeutic immunizations with ID93/GLA-SE induced differential T cell immune responses over the course of infection that correlated

  6. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  7. Multiplexed Quantitation of Intraphagocyte Mycobacterium tuberculosis Secreted Protein Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel Sayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The pathogenic potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis largely depends on ESX secretion systems exporting members of the multigenic Esx, Esp, and PE/PPE protein families. To study the secretion and regulation patterns of these proteins while circumventing immune cross-reactions due to their extensive sequence homologies, we developed an approach that relies on the recognition of their MHC class II epitopes by highly discriminative T cell receptors (TCRs of a panel of T cell hybridomas. The latter were engineered so that each expresses a unique fluorescent reporter linked to specific antigen recognition. The resulting polychromatic and multiplexed imaging assay enabled us to measure the secretion of mycobacterial effectors inside infected host cells. We applied this novel technology to a large panel of mutants, clinical isolates, and host-cell types to explore the host-mycobacteria interplay and its impact on the intracellular bacterial secretome, which also revealed the unexpected capacity of phagocytes from lung granuloma to present mycobacterial antigens via MHC class II. : Sayes et al. develop an approach to express distinct fluorescent reporters that is based on the recognition of specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis MHC class II epitopes by highly discriminative T cell hybridomas. This multiplexed technology allows the study of secretion, subcellular location, and regulation patterns of these instrumental protein members. Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, type VII secretion systems, intracellular bacteria, T-cell hybridomas, mycobacterial virulence factors, bacterial antigen presentation, lentiviral vectors, reporter T cells, in vivo antigen presentation, protein localization

  8. Mycobacterium smegmatis infection of a prosthetic total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffo, Zaid; Ognjan, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The most common organisms causing prosthetic knee joint infections are staphylococci. However, arthroplasty infections with atypical microbial pathogens, such as Mycobacteria can occur. Due to the rarity of mycobacterial prosthetic joint infections, diagnosis, treatment, and management of these atypical infections represent a clinical challenge. A 71-year old female post-operative day 40 after a left total knee arthroplasty was hospitalized secondary to left knee pain and suspected arthroplasty infection. She had failed outpatient oral antimicrobial treatment for superficial stitch abscess; and outpatient IV/Oral antimicrobials for a clinical postoperative septic bursitis. Ultimately, resection arthroplasty with operative tissue acid fast bacterial cultures demonstrated growth of the Mycobacterium smegmatis group. Post-operatively, she completed a combination course of oral doxycycline and levofloxacin and successfully completed a replacement arthroplasty with clinical and microbial resolution of the infection. To our knowledge, literature review demonstrates three case of knee arthroplasty infection caused by the Mycobacterium smegmatis group. Correspondingly, optimal surgical procedures and antimicrobial management including antimicrobial selection, treatment duration are not well defined. Presently, the best treatment options consists of two step surgical management including prosthesis hardware removal followed by extended antimicrobial therapy, followed by consideration for re-implantation arthroplasty. Our case illustrates importance of considering atypical mycobacterial infections in post-operative arthroplasty infections not responding to traditional surgical manipulations and antimicrobials. For an arthroplasty infection involving the atypical Mycobacterium smegmatis group, two step arthroplasty revision, including arthroplasty resection, with a combination of oral doxycycline and levofloxacin can lead to successful infection resolution, allowing for a

  9. [Lipids of Aureobasidium (Pullularia) pullulans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinov, N P; Iurlova, N A; Efimova, T P

    1975-01-01

    Fractional composition of free and bound lipids was studied in Aureobasidium (Pullularia) pullulans 8 by preparative TLC on Silufol. Bound lipids contained a fraction (27.76 +/- 0.5%) of dark brown colour, similar to melanin. The composition of fatty acids was studied by GLC. The following fatty acids were identified and determined quantitatively: C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1+C15:2. The following fatty acids predominated in free and bound lipids: C16:0, C18:1+C18:2. The ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in all fractions of free and bound lipids was more than unity. The following parameters were determined for lipids; ester number (173.89 and 178.53); iodine number (44.1 and 33.10), and saponification number (181.17 and 206.03) (the values are given for free and bound lipids, respectively).

  10. Microbe Profile: Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Humanity's deadly microbial foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen V; Parish, Tanya

    2018-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an expert and deadly pathogen, causing the disease tuberculosis (TB) in humans. It has several notable features: the ability to enter non-replicating states for long periods and cause latent infection; metabolic remodelling during chronic infection; a thick, waxy cell wall; slow growth rate in culture; and intrinsic drug resistance and antibiotic tolerance. As a pathogen, M. tuberculosis has a complex relationship with its host, is able to replicate inside macrophages, and expresses diverse immunomodulatory molecules. M. tuberculosis currently causes over 1.8 million deaths a year, making it the world's most deadly human pathogen.

  11. Mycobacterium marinum infection following contact with reptiles: vivarium granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouricha, Mehdi; Castan, Bernard; Duchene-Parisi, Elisabeth; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-04-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with a 1.5-cm nodule on the first dorsal metacarpal ray. The patient denied having contact with fish tanks or fish, but recalled handling many reptiles without gloves in the vivarium where he worked. A culture of a skin biopsy specimen yielded Mycobacterium marinum. The clinical outcome was favourable after a 2-week course of intramuscular gentamicin (180 mg daily) combined with a 6-week course of oral clarithromycin (500 mg twice a day). Doctors should be aware that vivariums, in addition to fish tanks, can be sources of M. marinum exposure. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Occurring after Exposure to Mycobacterium marinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani S. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum have been attributed to aquarium or fish exposure after a break in the skin barrier. In most instances, the upper limbs and fingers account for a majority of the infection sites. While previous cases of necrotizing soft tissue infections related to M. marinum have been documented, the importance of our presenting case is to illustrate the aggressive nature of M. marinum resulting in a persistent necrotizing soft tissue infection of a finger that required multiple aggressive wound debridements, followed by an amputation of the affected extremity, in order to hasten recovery.

  13. Mycobacterium avium complex disseminated infection in a kidney transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, J; Rammaert, B; Laurent, S; Lanternier, F; Pol, S; Franck, N; Mamzer, M F; Dupin, N; Lortholary, O

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infections are well known in immunocompromised patients, notably in human immunodeficiency virus infection, but remain scarcely described in kidney transplantation. Moreover, cutaneous involvement in this infection is very unusual. We describe here a disseminated infection caused by MAC in a kidney transplant recipient revealed by cutaneous lesions. This case highlights the need for an exhaustive, iterative microbiologic workup in the context of an atypical disease presentation in a renal transplant patient, regardless of the degree of immunosuppression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Improved method for testing susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide.

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, W R; Kilburn, J O

    1982-01-01

    The acid medium required to test susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide (PZA) is a major problem in obtaining reliable test results. Satisfactory growth is usually obtained on Middlebrook and Cohn 7H10 medium at pH 5.5 if albumin-dextrose-catalase (ADC) supplement rather than oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase is used; however, some lots of ADC supplement still fail to support growth at this low pH. A rapid turbidimetric test was developed to determine the growth-suppo...

  15. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  16. Mycobacterium goodii endocarditis following mitral valve ring annuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Rohan B; Grant, Matthew

    2017-03-21

    Mycobacterium goodii is an infrequent human pathogen which has been implicated in prosthesis related infections and penetrating injuries. It is often initially misidentified as a gram-positive rod by clinical microbiologic laboratories and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. We describe here the second reported case of M. goodii endocarditis. Species level identification was performed by 16S rDNA (ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid) gene sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with mitral valve replacement and a prolonged combination of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Confirmation of the diagnosis utilizing molecular techniques and drug susceptibility testing allowed for successful treatment of this prosthetic infection.

  17. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum disease with prolonged pulmonary involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsche, Cecilie Blenstrup; Svensson, Erik; Wejse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium celatum is a rare cause of human infection, causing disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Infections localized to the lungs and the lymph nodes have also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The existing literature on the subject is limited as are experiences...... with treatment regimens and durations. In the case presented herein, two different treatment regimens were applied to an immunocompromised HIV-negative patient with primary skin involvement and extensive pulmonary involvement due to suspected relapse on isoniazid, ethambutol, and clarithromycin treatment....... The treatment regimen was changed to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide and the treatment duration was prolonged to a total of 24 months, with good effect....

  18. Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from thecomplete genome sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, S.T.; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1998-01-01

    Countless millions of people have died from tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus. The complete genome sequence of the best-characterized strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv, has been determined and analysed in order to improve our understanding....... tuberculosis differs radically from other bacteria in that a very large portion of its coding capacity is devoted to the production of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis, and to two new families of glycine-rich proteins with a repetitive structure that may represent a source of antigenic variation....

  19. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly...... origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human...

  20. Defining Lipid Transport Pathways in Animal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Richard E.; Sleight, Richard G.

    1985-09-01

    A new technique for studying the metabolism and intracellular transport of lipid molecules in living cells based on the use of fluorescent lipid analogs is described. The cellular processing of various intermediates (phosphatidic acid and ceramide) and end products (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) in lipid biosynthesis is reviewed and a working model for compartmentalization during lipid biosynthesis is presented.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Domesticated Korean Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Kim, Munki; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Young-Hoan; Do, Jae-Cheul; Kwak, Dongmi

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis, a chronic progressive disease, has been reported in bovine, swine, and primate species. Here, we report the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus). The owners this domesticated boar brought it to the Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory in Korea after it was found dead and severely emaciated. Demarcated yellowish white nodules were found around the larynx and retropharyngeal lymph node during necropsy. The lungs had diffuse fibrinous pleuritis, severe congestion, and scattered nodules. More nodules were found in the spleen. Tuberculosis is characterized by massive macrophage infiltration and central caseous necrosis; both characteristics were found in the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the alveolar lumen had marked fibrosis and exudates. Examination of the fluid revealed extensive macrophage permeation. To confirm a Mycobacterium infection, PCR was performed using two primer sets specific to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium was detected in the lungs and spleen. To identify the species of Mycobacterium, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis . The results revealed immunoreactivity against M. tuberculosis but not against M. bovis . The consumption of undercooked or raw meat from game animals may expose humans and other animals to sylvatic infection. Consequently, Koreans who ingest wild boar may be at risk of a tuberculosis infection. To reduce the risk of foodborne infection and maintain public health, continuous monitoring and control strategies are required.

  2. Description of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov., isolated from cattle (Bos taurus coreanae), emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae and creation of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Jun; Kim, Ga-Na; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeon, Che Ok; Jeong, Joseph; Lee, Seon Ho; Lim, Ji-Hun; Lee, Seung-Heon; Kim, Chang Ki; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2017-10-01

    Three rapidly growing mycobacterial strains, QIA-37 T , QIA-40 and QIA-41, were isolated from the lymph nodes of three separate Korean native cattle, Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae). These strains were previously shown to be phylogenetically distinct but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 35752 T by taxonomic approaches targeting three genes (16S rRNA, hsp6 and rpoB) and were further characterized using a polyphasic approach in this study. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of all three strains showed 99.7 % sequence similarity with that of the M. chelonae type strain. A multilocus sequence typing analysis targeting 10 housekeeping genes, including hsp65 and rpoB, revealed a phylogenetic cluster of these strains with M. chelonae. DNA-DNA hybridization values of 78.2 % between QIA-37 T and M. chelonae indicated that it belongs to M. chelonae but is a novel subspecies distinct from M. chelonae. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences revealed a 95.44±0.06 % average nucleotide identity (ANI) value with M. chelonae, slightly higher than the 95.0 % ANI criterion for determining a novel species. In addition, distinct phenotypic characteristics such as positive growth at 37 °C, at which temperature M. chelonae does not grow, further support the taxonomic status of these strains as representatives of a novel subspecies of M. chelonae. Therefore, we propose an emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae, and descriptions of M. chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov. and M. chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov. are presented; strains ATCC 35752 T (=CCUG 47445 T =CIP 104535 T =DSM 43804 T =JCM 6388 T =NCTC 946 T ) and QIA-37 T (=KCTC 39630 T =JCM 30986 T ) are the type strains of the two novel subspecies.

  3. Modeling growth, lipid accumulation and lipid turnover in submerged batch cultures of Umbelopsis isabellina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Akbari, P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2012-01-01

    The production of lipids by oleaginous yeast and fungi becomes more important because these lipids can be used for biodiesel production. To understand the process of lipid production better, we developed a model for growth, lipid production and lipid turnover in submerged batch fermentation. This

  4. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  5. par genes in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis are arranged in an operon transcribed from "SigGC" promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casart Yveth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ParA/Soj and ParB/Spo0J proteins, and the cis-acting parS site, participate actively in chromosome segregation and cell cycle progression. Genes homologous to parA and parB, and two putative parS copies, have been identified in the Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosomes. As in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the parA and parB genes in these two non-pathogenic mycobacteria are located near the chromosomal origin of replication. The present work focused on the determination of the transcriptional organisation of the ~6 Kb orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis by primer extension, transcriptional fusions to the green fluorescence protein (GFP and quantitative RT-PCR. Results The parAB genes were arranged in an operon. However, we also found promoters upstream of each one of these genes. Seven putative promoter sequences were identified in the orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG, whilst four were identified in the homologous region of M. smegmatis, one upstream of each open reading frame (ORF. Real-time PCR assays showed that in M. smegmatis, mRNA-parA and mRNA-parB levels decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. In M. bovis BCG, mRNA-parA levels also decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. However, parB expression was higher than parA expression and remained almost unchanged along the growth curve. Conclusion The majority of the proposed promoter regions had features characteristic of Mycobacterium promoters previously denoted as Group D. The -10 hexamer of a strong E. coli σ70-like promoter, located upstream of gidB of M. bovis BCG, overlapped with a putative parS sequence, suggesting that the transcription from this promoter might be regulated by the binding of ParB to parS.

  6. Mycobacterium alsense sp. nov., a scotochromogenic slow grower isolated from clinical respiratory specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortoli, Enrico; Richter, Elvira; Borroni, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    . Mycobacterium asiaticum is the most closely related species on the basis of the 16S rRNA sequence (similarity 99.3%); the average nucleotide Identity between the genomes of the two species is 80.72%, clearly below the suggested cutoff (95-96%). The name M. alsense is proposed here for the new species......"Mycobacterium alsiense", although reported in 2007, has not been validly published so far. The polyphasic characterization of the three strains available so far led us to the conclusion that they represent a distinct species within the genus Mycobacterium. The proposed new species grows slowly...

  7. Sporotrichoid-Like Spread of Cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae in an Immunocompromised Patient

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    Daria Marley Kemp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing mycobacterium found in water and soil that can cause local cutaneous infections in immunocompetent hosts but more frequently affects immunocompromised patients. Typically, patients will present with painful subcutaneous nodules of the joints or soft tissues from traumatic inoculation. However, exhibiting a sporotrichoid-like pattern of these nodules is uncommon. Herein, we report a case of sporotrichoid-like distribution of cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus on significant immunosuppressive medications. Clinicians treating immunocompromised patients should be cognizant of their propensity to develop unusual infections and atypical presentations.

  8. Uracil excision repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell-free extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Varshney, Umesh

    2011-05-01

    Uracil excision repair is ubiquitous in all domains of life and initiated by uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs) which excise the promutagenic base, uracil, from DNA to leave behind an abasic site (AP-site). Repair of the resulting AP-sites requires an AP-endonuclease, a DNA polymerase, and a DNA ligase whose combined activities result in either short-patch or long-patch repair. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, has an increased risk of accumulating uracils because of its G + C-rich genome, and its niche inside host macrophages where it is exposed to reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, two major causes of cytosine deamination (to uracil) in DNA. In vitro assays to study DNA repair in this important human pathogen are limited. To study uracil excision repair in mycobacteria, we have established assay conditions using cell-free extracts of M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis (a fast-growing mycobacterium) and oligomer or plasmid DNA substrates. We show that in mycobacteria, uracil excision repair is completed primarily via long-patch repair. In addition, we show that M. tuberculosis UdgB, a newly characterized family 5 UDG, substitutes for the highly conserved family 1 UDG, Ung, thereby suggesting that UdgB might function as backup enzyme for uracil excision repair in mycobacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Complete Structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis 70S Ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Jendrik; Burnside, Chloe; Mignot, Ingrid; Leibundgut, Marc; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    2017-07-05

    The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome. Furthermore, we visualized actinobacterium-specific rRNA and protein expansions that extensively remodel the ribosomal surface with implications for polysome organization. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the idiosyncrasies of mycobacterial translation and reveal atomic details of the structure that will facilitate the design of anti-tubercular therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum cutaneous infection associated with mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, C; Ramalle-Gómara, E; Perucha, M; Lezaun, M-E; Fernández-Vilariño, E; García-Morrás, P; Simal, G

    2010-05-01

    We describe an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum cutaneous infections associated with mesotherapy in La Rioja, Spain. Descriptive epidemiology. Private practice. Case subjects were customers of a single beauty salon who were treated with mesotherapy injections. Two skin biopsies were taken from each patient. Over the designated period, 138 women received mesotherapy. Of these women, 39, or 28.3%, developed lesions ultimately thought to be caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum infection. The number of lesions per patient varied from 3 to 20 in the most severe case. Most of the lesions were indurated, erythematous or violaceous papules, some progressing to become fluctuant boils with suppuration, fistulization and scarring. The individual lesions varied in diameter from 0.5 to 6 cm. Two patients (5.1%) developed inguinal or axillary adenopathy. Two others presented with fever. One reported muscular pain. In 12 of the 39 cases, M. fortuitum was isolated from the wound cultures. The patients were all successfully treated with clarithromycin and levofloxacin. We identified a large outbreak of rapidly growing mycobacterial lesions among women who received mesotherapy injections in a single beauty salon.

  11. Circumvention of the Mycobactin Requirement of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Norman E.

    1965-01-01

    Morrison, Norman E. (Johns Hopkins University-Leonard Wood Memorial Leprosy Research Laboratory, Baltimore, Md.). Circumvention of the mycobactin requirement of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 89:762–767. 1965.—The mycobactin growth requirement of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was circumvented on glucose-containing synthetic medium with an initial pH of 5.5. Mycobactin was required during the first transfer on the synthetic medium. Subsequent transfers have grown in the absence of mycobactin. The growth of mycobactin-“independent” strains of M. paratuberculosis on the synthetic medium was found to be stimulated by low concentrations of mycobactin. The circumvention of the mycobactin requirement appears to depend upon the properties of the medium and not upon having created conditions which promote endogenous mycobactin synthesis. Investigation of the glucose-containing synthetic medium showed that: (i) growth stimulatory compounds were formed during autoclaving, and (ii) compared with neutrality a pH of 5.5 gave markedly increased pellicle yields. It was suggested that the growth-stimulatory compounds formed during autoclaving may in part be responsible for the circumvention of the mycobactin requirement. PMID:14273658

  12. Structural Implications of Mutations Conferring Rifampin Resistance in Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedithi, Sundeep Chaitanya; Malhotra, Sony; Das, Madhusmita; Daniel, Sheela; Kishore, Nanda; George, Anuja; Arumugam, Shantha; Rajan, Lakshmi; Ebenezer, Mannam; Ascher, David B; Arnold, Eddy; Blundell, Tom L

    2018-03-22

    The rpoB gene encodes the β subunit of RNA polymerase holoenzyme in Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). Missense mutations in the rpoB gene were identified as etiological factors for rifampin resistance in leprosy. In the present study, we identified mutations corresponding to rifampin resistance in relapsed leprosy cases from three hospitals in southern India which treat leprosy patients. DNA was extracted from skin biopsies of 35 relapse/multidrug therapy non-respondent leprosy cases, and PCR was performed to amplify the 276 bp rifampin resistance-determining region of the rpoB gene. PCR products were sequenced, and mutations were identified in four out of the 35 cases at codon positions D441Y, D441V, S437L and H476R. The structural and functional effects of these mutations were assessed in the context of three-dimensional comparative models of wild-type and mutant M. leprae RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), based on the recently solved crystal structures of RNAP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, containing a synthetic nucleic acid scaffold and rifampin. The resistance mutations were observed to alter the hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions of rifampin and the 5' ribonucleotide of the growing RNA transcript. This study demonstrates that rifampin-resistant strains of M. leprae among leprosy patients in southern India are likely to arise from mutations that affect the drug-binding site and stability of RNAP.

  13. Subversion of Schwann Cell Glucose Metabolism by Mycobacterium leprae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Rychelle Clayde Affonso; Girardi, Karina do Carmo de Vasconcelos; Cardoso, Fernanda Karlla Luz; Mietto, Bruno de Siqueira; Pinto, Thiago Gomes de Toledo; Gomez, Lilian Sales; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Gandini, Mariana; Amaral, Julio Jablonski; Antunes, Sérgio Luiz Gomes; Corte-Real, Suzana; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Batista-Silva, Leonardo Ribeiro; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Oliveira, Marcus Fernandes; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular etiological agent of leprosy, infects Schwann promoting irreversible physical disabilities and deformities. These cells are responsible for myelination and maintenance of axonal energy metabolism through export of metabolites, such as lactate and pyruvate. In the present work, we observed that infected Schwann cells increase glucose uptake with a concomitant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, the key enzyme of the oxidative pentose pathway. We also observed a mitochondria shutdown in infected cells and mitochondrial swelling in pure neural leprosy nerves. The classic Warburg effect described in macrophages infected by Mycobacterium avium was not observed in our model, which presented a drastic reduction in lactate generation and release by infected Schwann cells. This effect was followed by a decrease in lactate dehydrogenase isoform M (LDH-M) activity and an increase in cellular protection against hydrogen peroxide insult in a pentose phosphate pathway and GSH-dependent manner. M. leprae infection success was also dependent of the glutathione antioxidant system and its main reducing power source, the pentose pathway, as demonstrated by a 50 and 70% drop in intracellular viability after treatment with the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine, and aminonicotinamide (6-ANAM), an inhibitor of G6PDH 6-ANAM, respectively. We concluded that M. leprae could modulate host cell glucose metabolism to increase the cellular reducing power generation, facilitating glutathione regeneration and consequently free-radical control. The impact of this regulation in leprosy neuropathy is discussed. PMID:27555322

  14. Infection by Mycobacterium bovis in a dog from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne Cambuí Figueiredo Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB is a chronic disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC. This disease rarely affects dogs. Canine infections are usually caused by M. tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis infections are rare in dogs and associated with consumption of raw milk or contaminated products. Here, we report a Boxer dog who had a M. bovis infection and was admitted to a Brazilian veterinary hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of chronic ehrlichiosis. Despite receiving treatment for chronic ehrlichiosis, it progressed to death. TB was diagnosed during post-mortem examinations using histopathological analysis. Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed acid-fast bacilli in the kidneys, liver, mesentery, and a mass adhered to the liver. Further, PCR-restriction analysis was performed to identify mycobacteria in the samples. A restriction profile compatible with MtbC was found in the lungs. In addition, PCR-based MtbC typing deletions at different loci of chromosome 9 enabled the identification of M. bovis in the lungs. Therefore, it is very essential to perform differential diagnosis of TB in dogs with non-specific clinical signs and who do not respond to treatment, particularly those who had been in contact with TB-infected cattle or owners. Further, we highlight the use of molecular methods for the identification of bacilli, improving the diagnosis and aiding epidemiological studies.

  15. Ready Experimental Translocation of Mycobacterium canettii Yields Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fériel; Brégeon, Fabienne; Lepidi, Hubert; Donoghue, Helen D; Minnikin, David E; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-12-01

    Mycobacterium canettii , which has a smooth colony morphology, is the tuberculous organism retaining the most genetic traits from the putative last common ancestor of the rough-morphology Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. To explore whether M. canettii can infect individuals by the oral route, mice were fed phosphate-buffered saline or 10 6 M. canettii mycobacteria and sacrificed over a 28-day experiment. While no M. canettii was detected in negative controls, M. canettii -infected mice yielded granuloma-like lesions for 4/4 lungs at days 14 and 28 postinoculation (p.i.) and positive PCR detection of M. canettii for 5/8 mesenteric lymph nodes at days 1 and 3 p.i. and 5/6 pooled stools collected from day 1 to day 28 p.i. Smooth M. canettii colonies grew from 68% of lungs and 36% of spleens and cervical lymph nodes but fewer than 20% of axillary lymph nodes, livers, brown fat samples, kidneys, or blood samples throughout the 28-day experiment. Ready translocation in mice after digestive tract challenge demonstrates the potential of ingested M. canettii organisms to relocate to distant organs and lungs. The demonstration of this relocation supports the possibility that populations may be infected by environmental M. canettii . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium caprae strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska-Wędzina, Monika; Kozińska, Monika; Orłowska, Blanka; Weiner, Marcin; Szulowski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Anusz, Krzysztof; Smith, Noel H

    2018-03-10

    Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB, bTB) is caused by bovine bacilli: Mycobacterium bovis and M caprae The studies conducted in Poland, in the National Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, show that animal tuberculosis in Poland is also caused by M caprae We here describe the identification and genotypic assessment of 52 isolates of M caprae obtained from Polish cattle and wild animals over the last five years. We show that strains isolated from bison have significant genotypic diversity and are distinct compared with the genotypes of strains isolated from cattle. Similarly, isolates from cattle herds can be highly genotypically variable. Formal designation of the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is controversial in Poland; there is a gap in veterinary legislation with regard to bTB and no explicit mention of M caprae causing tuberculosis in animal. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  18. Rapid drug susceptibility test of mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.

  19. Identification of new genomospecies in the Mycobacterium terrae complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Fong Ngeow

    Full Text Available Members of the Mycobacterium terrae complex are slow-growing, non-chromogenic acid-fast bacilli found in the natural environment and occasionally in clinical material. These genetically closely-related members are difficult to differentiate by conventional phenotypic and molecular tests. In this paper we describe the use of whole genome data for the identification of four strains genetically similar to Mycobacterium sp. JDM601, a newly identified member of the M. terrae complex. Phylogenetic information from the alignment of genome-wide orthologous genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms show consistent clustering of the four strains together with M. sp. JDM601 into a distinct clade separate from other rapid and slow growing mycobacterial species. More detailed inter-strain comparisons using average nucleotide identity, tetra-nucleotide frequencies and analysis of synteny indicate that our strains are closely related to but not of the same species as M. sp. JDM601. Besides the 16S rRNA signature described previously for the M. terrae complex, five more hypothetical proteins were found that are potentially useful for the rapid identification of mycobacterial species belonging to the M. terrae complex. This paper illustrates the versatile utilization of whole genome data for the delineation of new bacterial species and introduces four new genomospecies to add to current members in the M. terrae complex.

  20. Lipids, lipid droplets and lipoproteins in their cellular context; an ultrastructural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Lipids are essential for cellular life, functioning either organized as bilayer membranes to compartmentalize cellular processes, as signaling molecules or as metabolic energy storage. Our current knowledge on lipid organization and cellular lipid homeostasis is mainly based on biochemical data.

  1. Phylogenomics and Comparative Genomic Studies Robustly Support Division of the Genus Mycobacterium into an Emended Genus Mycobacterium and Four Novel Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S; Lo, Brian; Son, Jeen

    2018-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium contains 188 species including several major human pathogens as well as numerous other environmental species. We report here comprehensive phylogenomics and comparative genomic analyses on 150 genomes of Mycobacterium species to understand their interrelationships. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for the 150 species based on 1941 core proteins for the genus Mycobacterium , 136 core proteins for the phylum Actinobacteria and 8 other conserved proteins. Additionally, the overall genome similarity amongst the Mycobacterium species was determined based on average amino acid identity of the conserved protein families. The results from these analyses consistently support the existence of five distinct monophyletic groups within the genus Mycobacterium at the highest level, which are designated as the " Tuberculosis-Simiae ," " Terrae," " Triviale ," " Fortuitum-Vaccae ," and " Abscessus-Chelonae " clades. Some of these clades have also been observed in earlier phylogenetic studies. Of these clades, the " Abscessus-Chelonae" clade forms the deepest branching lineage and does not form a monophyletic grouping with the " Fortuitum-Vaccae " clade of fast-growing species. In parallel, our comparative analyses of proteins from mycobacterial genomes have identified 172 molecular signatures in the form of conserved signature indels and conserved signature proteins, which are uniquely shared by either all Mycobacterium species or by members of the five identified clades. The identified molecular signatures (or synapomorphies) provide strong independent evidence for the monophyly of the genus Mycobacterium and the five described clades and they provide reliable means for the demarcation of these clades and for their diagnostics. Based on the results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analyses and numerous identified molecular signatures, which consistently and strongly support the division of known mycobacterial species into the five described clades, we

  2. Phylogenomics and Comparative Genomic Studies Robustly Support Division of the Genus Mycobacterium into an Emended Genus Mycobacterium and Four Novel Genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S.; Lo, Brian; Son, Jeen

    2018-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium contains 188 species including several major human pathogens as well as numerous other environmental species. We report here comprehensive phylogenomics and comparative genomic analyses on 150 genomes of Mycobacterium species to understand their interrelationships. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for the 150 species based on 1941 core proteins for the genus Mycobacterium, 136 core proteins for the phylum Actinobacteria and 8 other conserved proteins. Additionally, the overall genome similarity amongst the Mycobacterium species was determined based on average amino acid identity of the conserved protein families. The results from these analyses consistently support the existence of five distinct monophyletic groups within the genus Mycobacterium at the highest level, which are designated as the “Tuberculosis-Simiae,” “Terrae,” “Triviale,” “Fortuitum-Vaccae,” and “Abscessus-Chelonae” clades. Some of these clades have also been observed in earlier phylogenetic studies. Of these clades, the “Abscessus-Chelonae” clade forms the deepest branching lineage and does not form a monophyletic grouping with the “Fortuitum-Vaccae” clade of fast-growing species. In parallel, our comparative analyses of proteins from mycobacterial genomes have identified 172 molecular signatures in the form of conserved signature indels and conserved signature proteins, which are uniquely shared by either all Mycobacterium species or by members of the five identified clades. The identified molecular signatures (or synapomorphies) provide strong independent evidence for the monophyly of the genus Mycobacterium and the five described clades and they provide reliable means for the demarcation of these clades and for their diagnostics. Based on the results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analyses and numerous identified molecular signatures, which consistently and strongly support the division of known mycobacterial species into the five

  3. Phylogenomics and Comparative Genomic Studies Robustly Support Division of the Genus Mycobacterium into an Emended Genus Mycobacterium and Four Novel Genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey S. Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mycobacterium contains 188 species including several major human pathogens as well as numerous other environmental species. We report here comprehensive phylogenomics and comparative genomic analyses on 150 genomes of Mycobacterium species to understand their interrelationships. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for the 150 species based on 1941 core proteins for the genus Mycobacterium, 136 core proteins for the phylum Actinobacteria and 8 other conserved proteins. Additionally, the overall genome similarity amongst the Mycobacterium species was determined based on average amino acid identity of the conserved protein families. The results from these analyses consistently support the existence of five distinct monophyletic groups within the genus Mycobacterium at the highest level, which are designated as the “Tuberculosis-Simiae,” “Terrae,” “Triviale,” “Fortuitum-Vaccae,” and “Abscessus-Chelonae” clades. Some of these clades have also been observed in earlier phylogenetic studies. Of these clades, the “Abscessus-Chelonae” clade forms the deepest branching lineage and does not form a monophyletic grouping with the “Fortuitum-Vaccae” clade of fast-growing species. In parallel, our comparative analyses of proteins from mycobacterial genomes have identified 172 molecular signatures in the form of conserved signature indels and conserved signature proteins, which are uniquely shared by either all Mycobacterium species or by members of the five identified clades. The identified molecular signatures (or synapomorphies provide strong independent evidence for the monophyly of the genus Mycobacterium and the five described clades and they provide reliable means for the demarcation of these clades and for their diagnostics. Based on the results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analyses and numerous identified molecular signatures, which consistently and strongly support the division of known mycobacterial species

  4. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an urban area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcio Roberto; Rocha, Adalgiza da Silva; da Costa, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Alencar, Andrea Padilha; de Oliveira, Vania Maria; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Sales, Mariana Lázaro; Issa, Marina de Azevedo; Filho, Paulo Martins Soares; Pereira, Omara Tereza Vianello; dos Santos, Eduardo Calazans; Mendes, Rejane Silva; Ferreira, Angela Maria de Jesus; Mota, Pedro Moacyr Pinto Coelho; Suffys, Philip Noel; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2013-05-01

    In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB) patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis). Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Stonebrink (SB)-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks). One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6%) of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials.

  5. Mixed Cutaneous Infection Caused by Mycobacterium szulgai and Mycobacterium intermedium in a Healthy Adult Female: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs are ubiquitous and are being increasingly reported as human opportunistic infection. Cutaneous infection caused by mixed NTM is extremely rare. We encountered the case of a 46-year-old female, who presented with multiple discharging sinuses over the lower anterior abdominal wall (over a previous appendectomy scar for the past 2 years. Microscopy and culture of the pus discharge were done to isolate and identify the etiological agent. Finally, GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS assay proved it to be a mixed infection caused by Mycobacterium szulgai and M. intermedium. The patient was advised a combination of rifampicin 600 mg once daily, ethambutol 600 mg once daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily to be taken along with periodic follow-up based upon clinical response as well as microbiological response. We emphasize that infections by NTM must be considered in the etiology of nonhealing wounds or sinuses, especially at postsurgical sites.

  6. [Usefulness of the variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis for complex infections of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunematsu, Noriko; Goto, Mieko; Saiki, Yumiko; Baba, Michiko; Udagawa, Tadashi; Kazumi, Yuko

    2008-09-01

    The bacilli which were isolated from a patient suspected of the mixed infections with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, were analyzed. The genotypes of M. avium in the sedimented fractions of treated sputum and in some colonies isolated from Ogawa medium were compared by the Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats (VNTR). A woman, aged 57. Mycobacterial species isolated from some colonies by culture in 2004 and 2006 and from the treated sputum in 2006, were determined by DNA sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Also, by using VNTR, the genotype of mycobacteria was analyzed. [Results] (1) The colony isolated from Ogawa medium in 2004 was monoclonal M. avium. (2) By VNTR analyses of specimens in 2006, multiple acid-fast bacteria were found in the sputum sediment and in isolated bacteria from Ogawa medium. (3) By analyses of 16S rRNA DNA sequence, M. avium and M. intracellulare were found in the colonies isolated from the sputum sediment and the Ogawa medium in 2006. (4) The same VNTR patterns were obtained in M. avium in 2004 and 2006 when single colony was analyzed. (5) From the showerhead and culvert of the bathroom in the patient's house, M. avium was not detected. By VNTR analyses, it was considered that the mixed infections of M. avium and M. intracellulare had been generated during treatment in this case. Therefore, in the case of suspected complex infection, VNTR analysis would be a useful genotyping method in M. avium complex infection.

  7. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an urban area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis. Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ and Stonebrink (SB-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks. One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6% of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials.

  8. Gene therapy for lipid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lipid disorders are associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease, and therapy is associated with a substantial reduction in cardiovascular events. Current approaches to the treatment of lipid disorders are ineffective in a substantial number of patients. New therapies for refractory hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are needed: somatic gene therapy is one viable approach. The molecular etiology and pathophysiology of most of the candidate diseases are well understood. Animal models exist for the diseases and in many cases preclinical proof-of-principle studies have already been performed. There has been progress in the development of vectors that provide long-term gene expression. New clinical gene therapy trials for lipid disorders are likely to be initiated within the next few years.

  9. Analysis of Lipid Experiments (ALEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husen, Peter; Tarasov, Kirill; Katafiasz, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Global lipidomics analysis across large sample sizes produces high-content datasets that require dedicated software tools supporting lipid identification and quantification, efficient data management and lipidome visualization. Here we present a novel software-based platform for streamlined data...... processing, management and visualization of shotgun lipidomics data acquired using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The platform features the ALEX framework designed for automated identification and export of lipid species intensity directly from proprietary mass spectral data files......, and an auxiliary workflow using database exploration tools for integration of sample information, computation of lipid abundance and lipidome visualization. A key feature of the platform is the organization of lipidomics data in "database table format" which provides the user with an unsurpassed flexibility...

  10. Coinfección por Mycobacterium malmoense y Mycobacterium tuberculosis en paciente con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian María Mederos Cuervo

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de coinfección por Mycobacterium malmoense y Mycobacterium tuberculosis en un paciente cubano con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (sida, que producía enfermedad respiratoria y hepática respectivamente. Los cultivos realizados a partir de las muestras de esputo demostraron la presencia de una cepa micobacteriana no pigmentada de crecimiento lento perteneciente al grupo III de Runyon e identificada como Mycobacterium malmoense. A partir de los cultivos del tejido hepático extraído laparoscópicamente se aisló una cepa posteriormente identificada como Mycobacterium tuberculosis. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó el diagnóstico de tuberculosis, el paciente recibió tratamiento específico y evolucionó clínicamente bien. Se reporta un caso infrecuente de coinfección por Mycobacterium, el cual describe el primer reporte de tuberculosis hepática en una paciente con sida en Cuba.

  11. Assessment of different formulations of oral Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in rodent models for immunogenicity and protection against aerosol challenge with M. bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Smith, Alan; Court, Pinar; Vipond, Julia; Nadian, Allan; Hewinson, R Glyn; Batchelor, Hannah K; Perrie, Yvonne; Williams, Ann; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-10-29

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is causing considerable economic loss to farmers and Government in the United Kingdom as its incidence is increasing. Efforts to control bTB in the UK are hampered by the infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) that represent a wildlife reservoir and source of recurrent M. bovis exposure to cattle. Vaccination of badgers with the human TB vaccine, M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), in oral bait represents a possible disease control tool and holds the best prospect for reaching badger populations over a wide geographical area. Using mouse and guinea pig models, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy, respectively, of candidate badger oral vaccines based on formulation of BCG in lipid matrix, alginate beads, or a novel microcapsular hybrid of both lipid and alginate. Two different oral doses of BCG were evaluated in each formulation for their protective efficacy in guinea pigs, while a single dose was evaluated in mice. In mice, significant immune responses (based on lymphocyte proliferation and expression of IFN-gamma) were only seen with the lipid matrix and the lipid in alginate microcapsular formulation, corresponding to the isolation of viable BCG from alimentary tract lymph nodes. In guinea pigs, only BCG formulated in lipid matrix conferred protection to the spleen and lungs following aerosol route challenge with M. bovis. Protection was seen with delivery doses in the range 10(6)-10(7) CFU, although this was more consistent in the spleen at the higher dose. No protection in terms of organ CFU was seen with BCG administered in alginate beads or in lipid in alginate microcapsules, although 10(7) in the latter formulation conferred protection in terms of increasing body weight after challenge and a smaller lung to body weight ratio at necropsy. These results highlight the potential for lipid, rather than alginate, -based vaccine formulations as suitable delivery

  12. Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis Indicates that Mycobacterium marinum Customizes Its Virulence Mechanisms for Survival and Replication in Different Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    Weerdenburg, Eveline M.

    2015-02-17

    The interaction of environmental bacteria with unicellular eukaryotes is generally considered a major driving force for the evolution of intracellular pathogens, allowing them to survive and replicate in phagocytic cells of vertebrate hosts. To test this hypothesis on a genome-wide level, we determined for the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium marinum whether it uses conserved strategies to exploit host cells from both protozoan and vertebrate origin. Using transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), we determined differences in genetic requirements for survival and replication in phagocytic cells of organisms from different kingdoms. In line with the general hypothesis, we identified a number of general virulence mechanisms, including the type VII protein secretion system ESX-1, biosynthesis of polyketide lipids, and utilization of sterols. However, we were also able to show that M. marinum contains an even larger set of host-specific virulence determinants, including proteins involved in the modification of surface glycolipids and, surprisingly, the auxiliary proteins of the ESX-1 system. Several of these factors were in fact counterproductive in other hosts. Therefore, M. marinum contains different sets of virulence factors that are tailored for specific hosts. Our data imply that although amoebae could function as a training ground for intracellular pathogens, they do not fully prepare pathogens for crossing species barriers.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a novel esterase Rv0045c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lipeng; Guo, Jiubiao; Zheng, Xiangdong; Wen, Tingyi; Sun, Fei; Liu, Siguo; Pang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    The novel esterase Rv0045c from M. tuberculosis was expressed and purified to homogeneity. The crystals of native and SeMet-labelled Rv0045c protein that were obtained diffracted to resolutions of 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. The Rv0045c protein is predicted to be an esterase that is involved in lipid metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The Rv0045c protein crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.7 Å using a synchrotron-radiation source and belonged to space group P3 1 or P3 2 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.465, c = 48.064 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Purified SeMet-labelled Rv0045c protein was also crystallized and formed crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 3.0 Å using an in-house X-ray radiation source

  14. Use of an adipocyte model to study the transcriptional adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to store and degrade host fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Rastogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During its persistence in the infected host, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb accumulates host-derived fatty acids in intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions as triacylglycerols which serve primarily as carbon and energy reserves. The Mtb genome codes for more than 15 triacylglycerol synthases, 24 lipase/esterases, and seven cutinase-like proteins. Hence, we looked at the expression of the corresponding genes in intracellular bacilli persisting amidst the host triacylglycerols. We used the Mtb infected murine adipocyte model to ensure persistence and transcripts were quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Dormancy and glyoxylate metabolism was confirmed by the upregulated expression of dosR and icl, respectively, by intra-adipocyte bacilli compared with in vitro growing bacilli. The study revealed that tgs1, tgs2, Rv3371, and mycolyltransferase Ag85A are the predominant triacylglycerol synthases, while lipF, lipH, lipJ, lipK, lipN, lipV, lipX, lipY, culp5, culp7, and culp6 are the predominant lipases/esterases used by Mtb for the storage and degradation of host-derived fat. Moreover, it was observed that many of these enzymes are used by Mtb during active replication rather than during nonreplicating persistence, indicating their probable function in cell wall synthesis.

  15. The FBPase Encoding Gene glpX Is Required for Gluconeogenesis, Bacterial Proliferation and Division In Vivo of Mycobacterium marinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jingfeng; Meng, Lu; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Lixia; Lyu, Liangdong; Wang, Chuan; Li, Yang; Gao, Qian; Yang, Chen; Niu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Lipids have been identified as important carbon sources for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to utilize in vivo. Thus gluconeogenesis bears a key role for Mtb to survive and replicate in host. A rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is encoded by the gene glpX. The functions of glpX were studied in M. marinum, a closely related species to Mtb. The glpX deletion strain (ΔglpX) displayed altered gluconeogenesis, attenuated virulence, and altered bacterial proliferation. Metabolic profiles indicate an accumulation of the FBPase substrate, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP) and altered gluconeogenic flux when ΔglpX is cultivated in a gluconeogenic carbon substrate, acetate. In both macrophages and zebrafish, the proliferation of ΔglpX was halted, resulting in dramatically attenuated virulence. Intracellular ΔglpX exhibited an elongated morphology, which was also observed when ΔglpX was grown in a gluconeogenic carbon source. This elongated morphology is also supported by the observation of unseparated multi-nucleoid cell, indicating that a complete mycobacterial division in vivo is correlated with intact gluconeogenesis. Together, our results indicate that glpX has essential functions in gluconeogenesis, and plays an indispensable role in bacterial proliferation in vivo and virulence of M. marinum.

  16. Mycobacterium fortuitum skin infections after subcutaneous injections with Vietnamese traditional medicine: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Kolader, Marion-Eliëtte; van Dung, Nguyen; Campbell, James I.; Tham, Nguyen Thi; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Le, Dien Hoa

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic skin and soft tissue infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria are described with increasing frequency, especially among immunocompromised patients. Here, we present an immunocompetent patient with extensive Mycobacterium fortuitum skin and soft tissue infections after subcutaneous

  17. AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine-scale genotyping methods are necessary in order to identify possible sources of human exposure to opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was evaluated for fingerprintin...

  18. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; Ingen, J. van; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2016-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen.

  19. Chronic Mycobacterium marinum Infection Acts as a Tumor Promoter in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An accumulating body of research indicates there is an increased cancer risk associated with chronic infections. The genus Mycobacterium contains a number of species, including M tuberculosis, which mount chronic infections and have been implicated in higher cancer risk. Several ...

  20. Antimicrobial treatment for early, limited Mycobacterium ulcerans infection : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, Willemien A.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Thompson, William A.; Awuah, Peter C.; Abass, K. Mohammed; Tuah, Wilson; Awua-Boateng, Nana Yaa; Ampadu, Edwin O.; Siegmund, Vera; Schouten, Jan P.; Adjei, Ohene; Bretzel, Gisela; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgical debridement was the standard treatment for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer disease) until WHO issued provisional guidelines in 2004 recommending treatment with antimicrobial drugs (streptomycin and rifampicin) in addition to surgery. These recommendations were

  1. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia detected by the Isolator lysis-centrifugation blood culture system.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiehn, T E; Gold, J W; Brannon, P; Timberger, R J; Armstrong, D

    1985-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by the Isolator lysis-centrifugation blood culture system from the blood of a patient with tuberculosis of the breast. The organism also grew on conventional laboratory media inoculated with pleural fluid from the patient.

  3. Genetic Determinants of Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Their Diagnostic Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farhat, M.R.; Sultana, R.; Iartchouk, O.; Bozeman, S.; Galagan, J.; Sisk, P.; Stolte, C.; Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, H.; Jacobson, K.; Sloutsky, A.; Kaur, D.; Posey, J.; Kreiswirth, B.N.; Kurepina, N.; Rigouts, L.; Streicher, E.M.; Victor, T.C.; Warren, R.M.; Soolingen, D. van; Murray, M.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: The development of molecular diagnostics that detect both the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples and drug resistance-conferring mutations promises to revolutionize patient care and interrupt transmission by ensuring early diagnosis. However, these tools require the

  4. Supplementary Material for: Whole genome sequencing reveals genomic heterogeneity and antibiotic purification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Black, PA; Vos, M. de; Louw, GE; Merwe, RG van der; Dippenaar, A.; Streicher, EM; Abdallah, AM; Sampson, SL; Victor, TC; Dolby, T.; Simpson, JA; Helden, PD van; Warren, RM; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Whole genome sequencing has revolutionised the interrogation of mycobacterial genomes. Recent studies have reported conflicting findings on the genomic stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during the evolution of drug

  5. Postgenomic approach to identify novel Mycobacterium leprae antigens with potential to improve immunodiagnosis of infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Annemieke; Klein, Michèl R.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Wieles, Brigitte; Pereira, Kelly Cristina; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Klatser, Paul R.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Spencer, John S.; Williams, Diana L.; Pessolani, Maria C. V.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2005-01-01

    Early detection of Mycobacterium leprae infection is considered an important component of strategies aiming at reducing transmission of infection, but currently available diagnostic tools often lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity to reach this goal. Recent comparative genomics have revealed

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B. Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention.

  7. DIGITAL DETECTION SYSTEM DESIGN OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS THROUGH EXTRACTION OF SPUTUM IMAGE USING NEURAL NETWORK METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franky Arisgraha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TBC is an dangerous disease and many people has been infected. One of many important steps to control TBC effectively and efficiently is by increasing case finding using right method and accurate diagnostic. One of them is to detect Mycobacterium Tuberculosis inside sputum. Conventional detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis inside sputum can need a lot of time, so digitally detection method of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis was designed as an effort to get better result of detection. This method was designed by using combination between digital image processing method and Neural Network method. From testing report that was done, Mycobacterium can be detected with successful value reach 77.5% and training error less than 5%.

  8. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  9. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis predicted serine protease is associated with acid stress and intraphagosomal survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen that persists inside host macrophages despite severe oxidative stress and nutrient deprivation. Intrabacterial pH homeostasis is vital to pathogenic mycobacteria to preserve cellular biological processes and stability of ...

  10. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on Löwen......We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  11. Tracing Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by whole genome sequencing in a high incidence setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorn-Mortensen, K; Soborg, B; Koch, A

    2016-01-01

    In East Greenland, a dramatic increase of tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been observed in recent years. Classical genotyping suggests a genetically similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain population as cause, however, precise transmission patterns are unclear. We performed whole genome...

  12. Composition and potency characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis purified protein derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) purified protein derivatives (PPDs) are immunologic reagents prepared from cultured filtrates of the type strain ATCC 19698. Traditional production consists of floating culture incubation at 37oC, organism inactivation by autoclaving, coarse filtrat...

  13. Emergence and spread of a human-transmissible multidrug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryant, Josephine M; Grogono, Dorothy M; Rodriguez-Rincon, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Lung infections with Mycobacterium abscessus, a species of multidrug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria, are emerging as an important global threat to individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), in whom M. abscessus accelerates inflammatory lung damage, leading to increased morbidity and mortality....

  14. Genome-wide analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc; Phelan, Jody; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Nair, Mridul; Mallard, Kim; Ali, Shahjahan; Abdallah, Abdallah; Alghamdi, Saad; Alsomali, Mona; Ahmed, Abdallah O.; Portelli, Stephanie; Oppong, Yaa; Alves, Adriana; Bessa, Theolis Barbosa; Campino, Susana; Caws, Maxine; Chatterjee, Anirvan; Crampin, Amelia C.; Dheda, Keertan; Furnham, Nicholas; Glynn, Judith R.; Grandjean, Louis; Minh Ha, Dang; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Hibberd, Martin L.; Joloba, Moses; Jones-Ló pez, Edward C.; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Miranda, Anabela; Moore, David J.; Mocillo, Nora; Panaiotov, Stefan; Parkhill, Julian; Penha, Carlos; Perdigã o, Joã o; Portugal, Isabel; Rchiad, ‍ Zineb; Robledo, Jaime; Sheen, Patricia; Shesha, Nashwa Talaat; Sirgel, Frik A.; Sola, Christophe; Oliveira Sousa, Erivelton; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Helden, Paul Van; Viveiros, Miguel; Warren, Robert M.; McNerney, Ruth; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G.

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the genetic determinants of resistance to antituberculosis drugs, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6,465 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from more than 30 countries. A GWAS approach within a mixed

  15. Lipids in citrus sinensis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, S.; Liaquat, L.; Khalid, B.; Khan, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    The seed oil of citrus sinensis when subjected to different physicochemical tests showed moisture 13.2%, ash 7.5%, ester value 1.29%, free fatty acid 0.4%. iodine value 65.0% and protein value 6.0%. According to lipid analysis. the oil was classified into hydrocarbons. wax esters, sterol esters, triglycerides. free fatty acids, 1,3 and 1,2 diglycerides, alcohols, sterols, monoglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. The fatty acid (C/sub 12.0/ - C/sub 21.0/) composition of all lipid classes was determined with the help of thin layer and gas liquid chromatography. (author)

  16. Sensing voltage across lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of electrical potentials across lipid bilayers by specialized membrane proteins is required for many fundamental cellular processes such as the generation and propagation of nerve impulses. These membrane proteins possess modular voltage-sensing domains, a notable example being the S1-S4 domains of voltage-activated ion channels. Ground-breaking structural studies on these domains explain how voltage sensors are designed and reveal important interactions with the surrounding lipid membrane. Although further structures are needed to fully understand the conformational changes that occur during voltage sensing, the available data help to frame several key concepts that are fundamental to the mechanism of voltage sensing. PMID:19092925

  17. Blood lipid metabolites and meat lipid peroxidation responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... Fat and protein contents of thigh muscle and abdominal fat weight were measured and reported. Chickens fed LPO had greater serum triacylglycerol and very low ... favour lipid peroxidation, inhibit synthesis of higher homologous of ... The ambient temperature was gradually decreased from 33 °C at first.

  18. Blood lipid metabolites and meat lipid peroxidation responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from broilers to evaluate serum biochemical metabolites on day 41. Thigh meat samples were provided and analysed after 1, 5 and 10 days' storage to evaluate lipid peroxidation at the end of the experiment. Fat and protein contents of thigh muscle and abdominal fat weight were measured ...

  19. Mycobacterium smegmatis Has Two Pyrazinamidase Enzymes, PncA and PzaA

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ming; Sun, Zhonghe; Zhang, Ying

    2000-01-01

    The Mycobacterium smegmatis pncA gene, encoding nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase, was identified. While it was similar to counterparts from other mycobacteria, the M. smegmatis PncA had little homology to the other M. smegmatis pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase, encoded by the pzaA gene. Transformation of Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG with M. smegmatis pncA or pzaA conferred susceptibility to pyrazinamide.

  20. Mycobacterium smegmatis has two pyrazinamidase enzymes, PncA and pzaA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M; Sun, Z; Zhang, Y

    2000-07-01

    The Mycobacterium smegmatis pncA gene, encoding nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase, was identified. While it was similar to counterparts from other mycobacteria, the M. smegmatis PncA had little homology to the other M. smegmatis pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase, encoded by the pzaA gene. Transformation of Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG with M. smegmatis pncA or pzaA conferred susceptibility to pyrazinamide.

  1. A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Tim J; Gilbert, Sarah C; Sridhar, Saranya; Linedale, Richard; Dierkes, Nicola; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Hermon-Taylor, John

    2007-11-28

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes systemic infection and chronic intestinal inflammation in many species including primates. Humans are exposed through milk and from sources of environmental contamination. Hitherto, the only vaccines available against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis have been limited to veterinary use and comprised attenuated or killed organisms. We developed a vaccine comprising a fusion construct designated HAV, containing components of two secreted and two cell surface Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins. HAV was transformed into DNA, human Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) delivery vectors. Full length expression of the predicted 95 kDa fusion protein was confirmed. Vaccination of naïve and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected C57BL/6 mice using DNA-prime/MVA-boost or Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocols was highly immunogenic resulting in significant IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses by splenocytes against recombinant vaccine antigens and a range of HAV specific peptides. This included strong recognition of a T-cell epitope GFAEINPIA located near the C-terminus of the fusion protein. Antibody responses to recombinant vaccine antigens and HAV specific peptides but not GFAEINPIA, also occurred. No immune recognition of vaccine antigens occurred in any sham vaccinated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected mice. Vaccination using either protocol significantly attenuated pre-existing Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection measured by qPCR in spleen and liver and the Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocol also conferred some protection against subsequent challenge. No adverse effects of vaccination occurred in any of the mice. A range of modern veterinary and clinical vaccines for the treatment and prevention of disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are needed. The present vaccine proved to be highly

  2. A Cutaneous Ulcer Resulting from Mycobacterium ulcerans—Leishmania braziliensis Coinfection in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Benjamin; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Hasseine, Lilia; Martin, Ludovic; Cottin, Jane; Pomares, Christelle; Delaunay, Pascal; Marty, Pierre; Ravel, Christophe; Chabasse, Dominique; Abgueguen, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its mode of transmission is not yet clearly understood. We report here a cutaneous ulcer in a European traveler in South America resulting from a coinfection detected specifically for Mycobacterium ulcerans and Leishmania braziliensis DNA with real-time polymerase chain reaction. This observation of a unique cutaneous ulcer raises the issue about possible modes of transmission of those two pathogens by the same vector. PMID:22049045

  3. Mean effective sensitivity for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility is influe......Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility...

  4. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Treetong, Alongkot; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok (Thailand); Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit, E-mail: uracha@nanotec.or.th [Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2010-03-26

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of {gamma}-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the {gamma}-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the {sup 1}H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of {gamma}-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the {sup 1}H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in {gamma}-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in {gamma}-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of {gamma}-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of {gamma}-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models

  5. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Meejoo Smith, Siwaporn; Treetong, Alongkot; Pratontep, Sirapat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2010-03-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of γ-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812® as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the γ-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the 1H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of γ-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the 1H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in γ-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in γ-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models representing the distribution of γ-oryzanol and

  6. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo; Treetong, Alongkot; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong; Pratontep, Sirapat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2010-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of γ-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the γ-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the 1 H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of γ-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the 1 H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in γ-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in γ-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models representing the distribution of γ-oryzanol and

  7. Lactoferricin Peptides Increase Macrophages' Capacity To Kill Mycobacterium avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia; Moreira, Ana C; Nazmi, Kamran; Moniz, Tânia; Vale, Nuno; Rangel, Maria; Gomes, Paula; Bolscher, Jan G M; Rodrigues, Pedro N; Bastos, Margarida; Gomes, Maria Salomé

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterial infections cause a significant burden of disease and death worldwide. Their treatment is long, toxic, costly, and increasingly prone to failure due to bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics. New therapeutic options are thus clearly needed. Antimicrobial peptides represent an important source of new antimicrobial molecules, both for their direct activity and for their immunomodulatory potential. We have previously reported that a short version of the bovine antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin with amino acids 17 to 30 (LFcin17-30), along with its variants obtained by specific amino acid substitutions, killed Mycobacterium avium in broth culture. In the present work, those peptides were tested against M. avium living inside its natural host cell, the macrophage. We found that the peptides increased the antimicrobial action of the conventional antibiotic ethambutol inside macrophages. Moreover, the d-enantiomer of the lactoferricin peptide (d-LFcin17-30) was more stable and induced significant killing of intracellular mycobacteria by itself. Interestingly, d-LFcin17-30 did not localize to M. avium -harboring phagosomes but induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the formation of lysosomes and autophagosome-like vesicles. These results lead us to conclude that d-LFcin17-30 primes macrophages for intracellular microbial digestion through phagosomal maturation and/or autophagy, culminating in mycobacterial killing. IMPORTANCE The genus Mycobacterium comprises several pathogenic species, including M. tuberculosis , M. leprae , M. avium , etc. Infections caused by these bacteria are particularly difficult to treat due to their intrinsic impermeability, low growth rate, and intracellular localization. Antimicrobial peptides are increasingly acknowledged as potential treatment tools, as they have a high spectrum of activity, low tendency to induce bacterial resistance, and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we

  8. Vertebral Osteomyelitis Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus Surgically Treated Using Antibacterial Iodine-Supported Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus infections rarely develop in healthy individuals, and mostly they occur in immunocompromised hosts. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Mycobacterium abscessus is very rare and only three previous cases of spinal infection caused by Mycobacterium abscessus have been reported. Mycobacterium abscessus isolates are uniformly resistant to antituberculous agents and can display a virulent biofilm-forming phenotype. The patient was a 67-year-old woman with vertebral osteomyelitis of the L1-2. She was healthy without immune-suppressed condition, history of trauma, or intravenous drug use. The smear examination of the specimen harvested by CT-guided puncture of the paravertebral abscess revealed Mycobacterium abscessus. Her disease condition did not abate with conservative treatment using antimicrobial chemotherapy. Radical debridement of the vertebral osteomyelitis and anterior reconstruction from T12 to L2 using antibacterial iodine-supported instrumentation were performed. Chemotherapy using clarithromycin, amikacin, and imipenem was applied for 6 months after surgery as these antibiotics had been proven to be effective to Mycobacterium abscessus after surgery. Two years after surgery, the infected anterior site healed and bony fusion was successfully achieved without a recurrence of infection.

  9. Evaluation of Genetic Pattern of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacterium Using VNTR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorozi J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Epidemiological studies of Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium is important because of the drug resistance pattern and worldwide dissemination of these organisms. One of genetic fingerprinting methods for epidemiological studies is VNTR (Variable Number Tandem Repeat. In this study genetic pattern of atypical Mycobacterium was evaluated by VNTR method for epidemiologic studies. Methods: 48 pulmonary and non pulmonary specimens separated from patients with the symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and identified as Non-tuberculosis Mycobacteriumby phenotypic and PCR-RFLP methods were selected for this study. Clinical samples and their standard strains were evaluated according to VNTR pattern using the 7 genetic loci including ETR-B. ETR-F. ETR-C. MPTR-A. ETR-A. ETR-E. ETR-D.Results: The results of VNTR method showed that none of the 7 loci had any polymorphism in the standard strains of atypical mycobacterium. Some of these variable number tandem repeat in 42 clinical samples of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium were polymorphic while the PCR product (for any loci was not found in the remaining 6 specimens. Conclusion: Although the used genetic loci of this study were suitable for epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, these loci were not able to determine the diversity of genetics of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium Therefore, it seems necessary that other loci be studied using VNTR method.

  10. Evaluation of GenoType NTM-DR Assay for Identification of Mycobacterium chimaera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Simone; Rogers, Thomas R; Fitzgibbon, Margaret

    2017-06-01

    Identification of species within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is difficult, and most current diagnostic laboratory tests cannot distinguish between species included in the complex. Differentiation of species within the MAC is important, as Mycobacterium chimaera has recently emerged as a major cause of invasive cardiovascular infections following open heart surgery. A new commercial diagnostic assay, GenoType NTM-DR ver. 1.0, is intended to differentiate between three species within the MAC, namely, Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium intracellulare , and Mycobacterium chimaera In this study, we investigated an archival collection of 173 MAC isolates using 16S rRNA and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequencing, and GenoType NTM-DR was evaluated for identifying M. chimaera and other species belonging to the MAC. Species identification of 157/173 (91%) isolates with the GenoType NTM-DR assay was in agreement with 16S rRNA and 16S-23S ITS gene sequencing results. Misidentification occurred with 16 isolates which belonged to four species included in the MAC that are rarely encountered in clinical specimens. Despite some limitations of this assay, GenoType NTM-DR had 100% specificity for identifying M. chimaera This novel assay will enable diagnostic laboratories to differentiate species belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex and to accurately identify M. chimaera It can produce rapid results and is also more cost efficient than gene sequencing methods. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov., a rapidly growing species isolated from haemodialysis water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Trovato, Alberto; Droz, Sara; Haidarieh, Parvin; Borroni, Emanuele; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Mannino, Roberta; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Tortoli, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    The characterization of five Iranian isolates, four from hospital haemodialysis water and one from the sputum of a patient, led to the detection of a novel mycobacterium species. The strains were characterized by mucoid colonies developing in 3-5 days at temperatures ranging from 25 to 37 °C. The biochemical test pattern was unremarkable while the HPLC profile of mycolic acids resembled that of Mycobacterium fortuitum. The sequences of three major housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were unique and differed from those of any other mycobacterium. Mycobacterium brisbanense, which is the species that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.03 %), was distinct, as shown by the average nucleotide identity and by the genome to genome distance values (91.05 and 43.10 %, respectively). The strains are thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RW6T (=DSM 104277T=CIP111198T).

  12. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of slaughtered rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2015-06-11

    Rabbits are susceptible to infection by different species of the genus Mycobacterium. Particularly, development of specific lesions and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, both subspecies of the M. avium complex, has been reported in wildlife conditions. Although, rabbit meat production worldwide is 200 million tons per year, microbiological data on this source of meat is lacking and more specifically reports of mycobacterial presence in industrially reared rabbit for human consumption have not been published. To this end, we sought mycobacteria by microbiological and histopathological methods paying special attention to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits from commercial rabbitries from the North East of Spain. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was not detected either by culture or PCR. However, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was detected in 15.15% (10/66) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 1.51% (1/66) of gut associated lymphoid tissue of sampled animals by PCR, whereas caecal contents were negative. 9% (6/66) of the animals presented gross lesions suggestive of lymphoid activation, 6% (4/66) presented granulomatous lesions and 3% (2/66) contained acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterial isolation from samples was not achieved, although colonies of Thermoactinomycetes sp. were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing in 6% (4/66) of sampled animals. Apparently healthy farmed rabbits that go to slaughter may carry M. avium subspecies in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

  13. Cellular immune responses to ESAT-6 discriminate between patients with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex and those with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lein, A D; von Reyn, C F; Ravn, P

    1999-01-01

    ESAT-6 (for 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target) is a secreted antigen found almost exclusively in organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We compared in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells to this antigen in patients with pulmonary...... disease due to either Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis with those in healthy, skin test-negative, control subjects. Significant IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 were detected in 16 (59%) of 27 M. tuberculosis pulmonary disease patients, 0 (0%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 0...... (0%) of 8 controls. Significant IFN-gamma responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative were detected in 23 (85%) of 27 M. tuberculosis disease patients, 2 (25%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 5 (63%) of 8 healthy controls. M. avium sensitin was recognized in 24 (89%) of 27 M. tuberculosis...

  14. Lipid profile in cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togha, Mansoureh; Gheini, Mohamad Reza; Ahmadi, Babak; Khashaiar, Patricia; Razeghi, Soodeh

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the lipid profile have been suggested as a risk factor for developing ischemic stroke. Their role in intra-cerebral hemorrhage, however, is not clear. The present study was designed to evaluate the lipid profile levels of patients who had experienced an acute stroke during the first 24-hour and to compare these levels in different patients suffering from the stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, 258 consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted to the neurology department of our center during September 2006 and September 2007 were studied. As for the control group, 187 apparently healthy subjects living in the same community and matched for age and sex were selected. Lipid profile was measured and compared between the three groups. In the patients' group, 65 suffered from hemorrhagic stroke (group 1) and the other 193 had ischemic stroke (group 2). Except for TG values, there was no significant difference among the ischemic and hemorrhagic lipid profile. Age, cholesterol, and LDL influenced the risk of developing an ischemic stroke; TG was not reported as a risk factor or a protective one. While the comparison of data retrieved from patients suffering from hemorrhagic strokes with the controls, revealed LDL as the risk factor contributing to the development of ICH whereas TG was reported as a protective factor. It could be concluded that LDL level can be considered as a risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebral events.

  15. Future directions in lipid therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Cholesterol management to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease is a major public health concern. Despite widespread recognition of lipid abnormalities as cardiovascular risk factors, significant cardiovascular event reductions with cholesterol-lowering therapies, and dissemination of treatment guidelines, most high-risk patients are not at target lipid levels. In addition to lifestyle changes, four major drug classes are available to modify lipid levels: fibrates, niacin, resins, and statins. High efficacy and tolerability in clinical trials make statins the most widely prescribed of these agents. Newer, more potent members of this class and novel formulations of niacin and resins may provide more effective therapy for dyslipidemia with fewer side effects. Several agents in development (cholesterol-absorption inhibitors and ACAT inhibitors) exploit mechanisms of action complementary to those of current treatments and combined with statins may produce greater improvements in lipid profiles than are now possible. These innovations should enable a greater number of patients to achieve more aggressive cholesterol goals, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.

  16. Lipid flopping in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    Bile is synthesized in the liver and is essential for the emulsification of dietary lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. It is a complex mixture of amphiphilic bile acids (BAs; which act as detergent molecules), the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesterol and a variety of endogenous metabolites and waste products. Over the last 20 years, the combined effort of clinicians, geneticists, physiologists and biochemists has shown that each of these bile components is transported across the canalicular membrane of the hepatocyte by its own specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. The bile salt export pump (BSEP) ABCB11 transports the BAs and drives bile flow from the liver, but it is now clear that two lipid transporters, ABCB4 (which flops PC into the bile) and the P-type ATPase ATP8B1/CDC50 (which flips a different phospholipid in the opposite direction) play equally critical roles that protect the biliary tree from the detergent activity of the bile acids. Understanding the interdependency of these lipid floppases and flippases has allowed the development of an assay to measure ABCB4 function. ABCB4 harbours numerous mis-sense mutations which probably reflects the spectrum of liver disease rooted in ABCB4 aetiology. Characterization of the effect of these mutations at the protein level opens the possibility for the development of personalized prognosis and treatment. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Computer Simulations of Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier F. Fernandez-Luengo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles (LNP are promising soft matter nanomaterials for drug delivery applications. In spite of their interest, little is known about the supramolecular organization of the components of these self-assembled nanoparticles. Here, we present a molecular dynamics simulation study, employing the Martini coarse-grain forcefield, of self-assembled LNPs made by tripalmitin lipid in water. We also study the adsorption of Tween 20 surfactant as a protective layer on top of the LNP. We show that, at 310 K (the temperature of interest in biological applications, the structure of the lipid nanoparticles is similar to that of a liquid droplet, in which the lipids show no nanostructuration and have high mobility. We show that, for large enough nanoparticles, the hydrophilic headgroups develop an interior surface in the NP core that stores liquid water. The surfactant is shown to organize in an inhomogeneous way at the LNP surface, with patches with high surfactant concentrations and surface patches not covered by surfactant.

  18. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebæk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized...... dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex...... meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly....

  19. Serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium abscessus complex infection in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tania; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2015-01-01

    Early signs of pulmonary disease with Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) can be missed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A serological method could help stratify patients according to risk. The objective of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a novel method for investigating...... and after culture conversion.307 patients had 3480 respiratory samples cultured and were then tested with the anti-MABSC IgG ELISA. Patients with MABSC pulmonary disease had median anti-MABSC IgG levels six-fold higher than patients with no history of infection (434 versus 64 ELISA units; p... sensitivity was 95% (95% CI 74-99%) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 67-78%). A diagnostic algorithm was constructed to stratify patients according to risk.The test accurately identified patients with pulmonary disease caused by MABSC and was suited to be used as a complement to mycobacterial culture....

  20. Hepatite granulomatosa em bovino causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.F Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples from intestines, liver, and lymph nodes were collected from a dairy steer with clinical suspicion of paratuberculosis. The samples were processed for histologic examination with hematoxylin-eosin and Zihel-Neelsen (ZN staining for the detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB, and submitted to immunohistochemistry (IHC. Macroscopic changes were observed in the small intestines, with thickening and corrugation of the mucosa. The main microscopic changes were found in small intestines, lymph vessels in the mesentery, and mesenteric lymph nodes characterized by enteritis, lymphangiectasia, and lymphadenitis. Liver presented with granulomatous hepatitis, an uncommon histopathological feature for paratuberculosis. The clinical features associated with positive culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and detection of AFB by ZN and IHC in the cytoplasm of macrophages (epithelioid in the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, lymph nodes, and liver were important to confirm the diagnosis of paratuberculosis.

  1. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.

  2. Isolation of Mycobacterium massiliense from a corneal biopsy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulandai, Lily Therese; Lakshmipathy, Dhanurekha; Ramasubban, Gayathri; Rao, Madhavan Hajib Narahari

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are ubiquitous and are usually considered as saprophytes, and have been recovered from the environment, particularly in dust, watery soil and water distribution systems. However, Mycobacterium massiliense is a rare causative agent of ocular infection. We report a case of M. massiliense in a 44-year-old female with signs and symptoms of a corneal ulcer. We carried out PCR-based DNA sequencing targeting the hsp 65 gene for the identification of M. massiliense . To confirm the identification, we also performed PCR-based RFLP targeting the hsp65 gene and PCR-based DNA sequencing targeting the internal transcribed spacer region, which showed 97 % nucleotide identity with M. massiliense . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in India to report the detection of M. massiliense from a corneal biopsy.

  3. Bioenergetics of Mycobacterium: An Emerging Landscape for Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Khan Iqbal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb exhibits remarkable metabolic flexibility that enables it to survive a plethora of host environments during its life cycle. With the advent of bedaquiline for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, oxidative phosphorylation has been validated as an important target and a vulnerable component of mycobacterial metabolism. Exploiting the dependence of Mtb on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, several components of this pathway have been targeted for the development of new antimycobacterial agents. This includes targeting NADH dehydrogenase by phenothiazine derivatives, menaquinone biosynthesis by DG70 and other compounds, terminal oxidase by imidazopyridine amides and ATP synthase by diarylquinolines. Importantly, oxidative phosphorylation also plays a critical role in the survival of persisters. Thus, inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation can synergize with frontline TB drugs to shorten the course of treatment. In this review, we discuss the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and development of its inhibitors in detail.

  4. Bioenergetics of Mycobacterium: An Emerging Landscape for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Iram Khan; Bajeli, Sapna; Akela, Ajit Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) exhibits remarkable metabolic flexibility that enables it to survive a plethora of host environments during its life cycle. With the advent of bedaquiline for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, oxidative phosphorylation has been validated as an important target and a vulnerable component of mycobacterial metabolism. Exploiting the dependence of Mtb on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, several components of this pathway have been targeted for the development of new antimycobacterial agents. This includes targeting NADH dehydrogenase by phenothiazine derivatives, menaquinone biosynthesis by DG70 and other compounds, terminal oxidase by imidazopyridine amides and ATP synthase by diarylquinolines. Importantly, oxidative phosphorylation also plays a critical role in the survival of persisters. Thus, inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation can synergize with frontline TB drugs to shorten the course of treatment. In this review, we discuss the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and development of its inhibitors in detail. PMID:29473841

  5. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Jäger, Günter; Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Economou, Christos; Benjak, Andrej; Busso, Philippe; Nebel, Almut; Boldsen, Jesper L; Kjellström, Anna; Wu, Huihai; Stewart, Graham R; Taylor, G Michael; Bauer, Peter; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Tucker, Katie; Roffey, Simon; Sow, Samba O; Cole, Stewart T; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes

    2013-07-12

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly of the ancient bacterial genome could be achieved through shotgun sequencing alone. The ancient M. leprae sequences were compared with those of 11 modern strains, representing diverse genotypes and geographic origins. The comparisons revealed remarkable genomic conservation during the past 1000 years, a European origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human pathogen evolution.

  6. Mycobacterium iranicum bacteremia and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean Lapierre, Simon; Toro, Alexandre; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-08-08

    Mycobacterium iranicum has recently been recognised as an opportunistic human pathogen. Although infectious conditions represent frequent triggers for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections are rarely associated with this entity. To this date, M. iranicum infection has never been reported in France, has never been associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and has never been found to be multi-resistant on standardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We report a case of a French Caucasian man with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in the context of M. iranicum bacteraemia and Hodgkin's disease. We review available data concerning M. iranicum antimycobacterial susceptibility testing and treatment outcomes. We also review the association between hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. Interpretation of M. iranicum positive cultures remains a clinical challenge and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections need to be considered in secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis differential diagnosis.

  7. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  8. Origins and properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy W; Bothamley, Graham H; Drobniewski, Francis; Gillespie, Stephen H; McHugh, Timothy D; Pitman, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Using similarities of IS6110 banding patterns, isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a population-based study in London were assigned to 12 large groups termed 'superfamilies' (sfams). Analysis of patient data showed a marked geographical association in the distribution of these sfams. In particular, isolates from patients born in Europe were from different sfams than those born elsewhere, indicating that there had been relatively little transmission of tuberculosis in London from immigrant communities into the endogenous population. Multivariate analysis showed that certain sfams were significantly associated with pulmonary rather than extrapulmonary disease, or with sputum smear negativity, independently of country of birth or ethnicity, suggesting that the properties of the infecting organism play a role in the nature of the disease process.

  9. Metabolic principles of persistence and pathogenicity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrt, Sabine; Schnappinger, Dirk; Rhee, Kyu Y

    2018-04-24

    Metabolism was once relegated to the supply of energy and biosynthetic precursors, but it has now become clear that it is a specific mediator of nearly all physiological processes. In the context of microbial pathogenesis, metabolism has expanded outside its canonical role in bacterial replication. Among human pathogens, this expansion has emerged perhaps nowhere more visibly than for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Unlike most pathogens, M. tuberculosis has evolved within humans, which are both host and reservoir. This makes unrestrained replication and perpetual quiescence equally incompatible strategies for survival as a species. In this Review, we summarize recent work that illustrates the diversity of metabolic functions that not only enable M. tuberculosis to establish and maintain a state of chronic infection within the host but also facilitate its survival in the face of drug pressure and, ultimately, completion of its life cycle.

  10. Disseminated nontuberculous infections with Mycobacterium genavense during sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dumouchel-Champagne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease characterised by the development and accumulation of granulomas in multiple organs. We report two observations of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in patients with proven sarcoidosis. High fever and abdominal pain appeared at 8 and 18 months following the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. Abdominal computed tomography scans of the patients showed diffuse mesenteric lymphadenitis and splenomegaly. The diagnosis was obtained on bone marrow specimens for both patients with numerous acid-fast bacteria at direct examination and positive specific mycobacterial identification by nucleic acid amplification test. Despite prompt antimycobacterial therapy, occurrence of complications (peritonitis post-splenectomy surgery and lung carcinoma resulted in a fatal outcome for both patients. These cases highlight that opportunistic infections like M. genavense or other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections should be considered for long-standing immunocompromised patients with sarcoidosis.

  11. Mycobacterium icosiumassiliensis sp. nov., a New Member in the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Isolated from Surface Water in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouadi, Lydia N; Levasseur, Anthony; Khalil, Jacques Bou; Blanc-Taileur, Caroline; Asmar, Shady; Ghiloubi, Wassila; Natèche, Farida; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-08-01

    An acid-fast, rapidly growing, rod-shaped microorganism designated 8WA6 was isolated from a lake in Algiers, Algeria. The lake water was characterized by a temperature of 18 °C, a pH of 7.82, a copper concentration of 8.6 µg/L, and a cadmium concentration of 0.6 µg/L. First-line molecular identification confirmed the 8WA6 isolate to be a member of the Mycobacterium terrae complex, sharing 99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with M. arupense AR-30097, 98.2 % partial hsp65 gene sequence similarity with M. terrae 28K766, and 97.1 % partial rpoB gene sequence similarity with Mycobacterium sp. FI-05396. Its 4.89-Mb genome exhibits a 66.8 GC % and an average nucleotide identity of 64.5 % with M. tuberculosis, 70.5 % with M. arupense, and 75 % with M. asiaticum. In the M. terrae complex, Mycobacterium 8WA6 was unique in exhibiting growth at 42 °C, negative reaction for nitrate reduction, urease activity and Tween 80 hydrolysis, and a positive reaction for α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Its protein profile determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed a unique spectrum similar to M. arupense and M. terrae, exhibiting eleven specific peaks at 3787.791, 4578.019, 6349.630, 6855.638, 7202.310, 8149.608, 8775.257, 10,224.588, 10,484.116, 12,226.379, and 12,636.871 m/z. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for antibiotics, determined by microdilution, indicated a broad spectrum resistance, except for rifabutin (MIC, 0.5 g/L) and cefoxitin (MIC, 16 g/L). We concluded that the 8WA6 isolate is a representative isolate of a previously undescribed species in the M. terrae complex, which was named M. icosiumassiliensis sp. nov. with strain 8WA6 (Collection de Souches de l'Unité des Rickettsies, CSUR P1561, Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, DSM 100711) as the type strain.

  12. High genetic diversity among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Azimi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB still remains an important public health problem in Iran. The genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is expected to lead to a better understanding of M. tuberculosis transmission in Tehran, the most populated city of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 2300 clinical specimens were obtained from TB suspected patients who were referred to a TB center in Tehran from Jan 2014 to Dec 2016. Identification was performed using both conventional and molecular methods. The presence of resistance to rifampicin was examined by the GeneXpert MTB/RIF. The standard 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing method was applied to genotype of clinical isolates. Results: Of 2300 specimens, 80 isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis by using biochemical and molecular tests. Of 80 M. tuberculosis isolates, 76 (95% had unique genotypic profiles and 4 (5% shared a profile with one or more other strains. Based on single loci variation (SLV 4 clonal complexes were observed. NEW-1 was found to be the most predominant lineage (22.5% followed by West African (1.25%, Central Asian (CAS/Delhi (1.25%, Bovis (1.25%, H37Rv (1.25% and multiple matches (1.25%. Loci MIRU10, MIRU26, MTUB21 and QUB26 were found as highly discriminative. No mutation was detected in the hotspot region of rifampicin by using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Conclusions: Our study findings show that there was considerable genotypic diversity among M. tuberculosis isolates in Tehran. The 15-locus MIRU-VNTR showed high HGDI and could be used as a first-line genotyping method for epidemiological studies. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Genotyping, MIRU-VNTR, Tehran, Iran

  13. Morphologic characterization of Mycobacterium marinum by neutron radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jaqueline Michele da; Crispim, Verginia Reis, E-mail: vrcrispim@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (CT/UFRJ) Centro Tecnologico, Engenharia Nuclear, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marlei Gomes da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (CCS/UFRJ), Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium shares many characteristics with the genera Corynebacterium and Actinomyces, among which, similar genome content of bases Guanine-Cytosine and the production of branched long-chain fatty acids called mycolic acids should be enhanced. Mycobacteria are strict aerobic, considered weakly Gram-positive, rod-shaped microorganisms, not possessing flagella. They are intracellular infecting and proliferating in the interior of macrophages, they do not form spores, produce toxins or have capsule. Optimal growth temperature and rate are variable. The genus encompasses approximately 120 known species; however, the present study focuses the characterization of Mycobacterium marinum. This species is generally pathogenic causing deep skin infections. Colonies grow slowly at temperatures around 37 degree C. The aim of this study is to speed the process of M. Marinum morphologic characterization and, in the future, apply it to other species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. In relation to conventional microbiologic essays that usually demand 28 days for colony growth, nuclear testing, using the neutron radiography technique, prove to be much faster. The samples were initially sterilized at the Mycobacteria Laboratory/IMPPG/UFRJ using hypochlorite solution, gluta + formaldehyde and warmed distilled water, according conventional protocols. Then, they were incubated with sodium borate, deposited over CR-39 sheets, fixed with casein (only the first and third sample) and irradiated with a thermal neutron beam generated at the J-9 channel of the Argonauta reactor from the IEN/CNEN. To this end, the following parameters were optimized: incubation time, irradiation time and CR-39 developing time. The images registered in CR-39 were visualized with the help of a Nikon E-400 optical microscope and captured with a Cool pix 995 digital camera. The results showed that the technique produces enlarged images, making it easier the morphologic characterization of

  14. Differential growth of Mycobacterium leprae strains (SNP genotypes) in armadillos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Pena, Maria; Subramanian, Ramesh; Chouljenko, Vladmir; Kim, Joohyun; Kim, Nayong; Caskey, John; Baudena, Marie A; Adams, Linda B; Truman, Richard W

    2018-04-14

    Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) has occurred throughout human history, and persists today at a low prevalence in most populations. Caused by Mycobacterium leprae, the infection primarily involves the skin, mucosa and peripheral nerves. The susceptible host range for Mycobacterium leprae is quite narrow. Besides humans, nine banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) are the only other natural hosts for M. leprae, but only armadillos recapitulate the disease as seen in humans. Armadillos across the Southern United States harbor a single predominant genotypic strain (SNP Type-3I) of M. leprae, which is also implicated in the zoonotic transmission of leprosy. We investigated, whether the zoonotic strain (3I) has any notable growth advantages in armadillos over another genetically distant strain-type (SNP Type-4P) of M. leprae, and if M. leprae strains manifest any notably different pathology among armadillos. We co-infected armadillos (n = 6) with 2 × 10 9 highly viable M. leprae of both strains and assessed the relative growth and dissemination of each strain in the animals. We also analyzed 12 additional armadillos, 6 each individually infected with the same quantity of either strain. The infections were allowed to fulminate and the clinical manifestations of the disease were noted. Animals were humanely sacrificed at the terminal stage of infection and the number of bacilli per gram of liver, spleen and lymph node tissue were enumerated by Q-PCR assay. The growth of M. leprae strain 4P was significantly higher (P leprae strains within armadillos suggest there are notable pathological variations between M. leprae strain-types. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Mycobacterium leprae genomes from naturally infected nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honap, Tanvi P; Pfister, Luz-Andrea; Housman, Genevieve; Mills, Sarah; Tarara, Ross P; Suzuki, Koichi; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Rosenberg, Michael S; Stone, Anne C

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is caused by the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Apart from humans, animals such as nine-banded armadillos in the Americas and red squirrels in the British Isles are naturally infected with M. leprae. Natural leprosy has also been reported in certain nonhuman primates, but it is not known whether these occurrences are due to incidental infections by human M. leprae strains or by M. leprae strains specific to nonhuman primates. In this study, complete M. leprae genomes from three naturally infected nonhuman primates (a chimpanzee from Sierra Leone, a sooty mangabey from West Africa, and a cynomolgus macaque from The Philippines) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the cynomolgus macaque M. leprae strain is most closely related to a human M. leprae strain from New Caledonia, whereas the chimpanzee and sooty mangabey M. leprae strains belong to a human M. leprae lineage commonly found in West Africa. Additionally, samples from ring-tailed lemurs from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, and chimpanzees from Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, were screened using quantitative PCR assays, to assess the prevalence of M. leprae in wild nonhuman primates. However, these samples did not show evidence of M. leprae infection. Overall, this study adds genomic data for nonhuman primate M. leprae strains to the existing M. leprae literature and finds that this pathogen can be transmitted from humans to nonhuman primates as well as between nonhuman primate species. While the prevalence of natural leprosy in nonhuman primates is likely low, nevertheless, future studies should continue to explore the prevalence of leprosy-causing pathogens in the wild.

  16. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon L. Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the

  17. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joon L.; Ng, Kee P.; Ong, Chia S.; Ngeow, Yun F.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii) are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a) recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b) recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c) the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the diversification

  18. Epidemic of Postsurgical Infections Caused by Mycobacterium massiliense▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rafael Silva; Lourenço, Maria Cristina Silva; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Amorim, Efigenia de Lourdes T.; Rocha, Ingrid L. L.; Coelho, Fabrice Santana; Viana-Niero, Cristina; Gomes, Karen Machado; da Silva, Marlei Gomes; de Oliveira Lorena, Nádia Suely; Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Ferreira, Rosa M. C.; de Oliveira Garcia, Márcio Henrique; de Oliveira, Gisele Pinto; Lupi, Otilia; Vilaça, Bruno Rios; Serradas, Lúcia Rodrigues; Chebabo, Alberto; Marques, Elizabeth Andrade; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of infections after video-assisted surgery (1,051 possible cases) caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and involving 63 hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, occurred between August 2006 and July 2007. One hundred ninety-seven cases were confirmed by positive acid-fast staining and/or culture techniques. Thirty-eight hospitals had cases confirmed by mycobacterial culture, with a total of 148 available isolates recovered from 146 patients. Most (n = 144; 97.2%) isolates presented a PRA-hsp65 restriction pattern suggestive of Mycobacterium bolletii or Mycobacterium massiliense. Seventy-four of these isolates were further identified by hsp65 or rpoB partial sequencing, confirming the species identification as M. massiliense. Epidemic isolates showed susceptibility to amikacin (MIC at which 90% of the tested isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 8 μg/ml) and clarithromycin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) but resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, ≥32 μg/ml), cefoxitin (MIC90, 128 μg/ml), and doxycycline (MIC90, ≥64 μg/ml). Representative epidemic M. massiliense isolates that were randomly selected, including at least one isolate from each hospital where confirmed cases were detected, belonged to a single clone, as indicated by the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. They also had the same PFGE pattern as that previously observed in two outbreaks that occurred in other Brazilian cities; we designated this clone BRA100. All five BRA100 M. massiliense isolates tested presented consistent tolerance to 2% glutaraldehyde. This is the largest epidemic of postsurgical infections caused by RGM reported in the literature to date in Brazil. PMID:19403765

  19. Morphologic characterization of Mycobacterium marinum by neutron radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jaqueline Michele da; Crispim, Verginia Reis; Silva, Marlei Gomes da

    2011-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium shares many characteristics with the genera Corynebacterium and Actinomyces, among which, similar genome content of bases Guanine-Cytosine and the production of branched long-chain fatty acids called mycolic acids should be enhanced. Mycobacteria are strict aerobic, considered weakly Gram-positive, rod-shaped microorganisms, not possessing flagella. They are intracellular infecting and proliferating in the interior of macrophages, they do not form spores, produce toxins or have capsule. Optimal growth temperature and rate are variable. The genus encompasses approximately 120 known species; however, the present study focuses the characterization of Mycobacterium marinum. This species is generally pathogenic causing deep skin infections. Colonies grow slowly at temperatures around 37 degree C. The aim of this study is to speed the process of M. Marinum morphologic characterization and, in the future, apply it to other species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. In relation to conventional microbiologic essays that usually demand 28 days for colony growth, nuclear testing, using the neutron radiography technique, prove to be much faster. The samples were initially sterilized at the Mycobacteria Laboratory/IMPPG/UFRJ using hypochlorite solution, gluta + formaldehyde and warmed distilled water, according conventional protocols. Then, they were incubated with sodium borate, deposited over CR-39 sheets, fixed with casein (only the first and third sample) and irradiated with a thermal neutron beam generated at the J-9 channel of the Argonauta reactor from the IEN/CNEN. To this end, the following parameters were optimized: incubation time, irradiation time and CR-39 developing time. The images registered in CR-39 were visualized with the help of a Nikon E-400 optical microscope and captured with a Cool pix 995 digital camera. The results showed that the technique produces enlarged images, making it easier the morphologic characterization of

  20. Genomics of glycopeptidolipid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium abscessus and M. chelonae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Gilles

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outermost layer of the bacterial surface is of crucial importance because it is in constant interaction with the host. Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs are major surface glycolipids present on various mycobacterial species. In the fast-grower model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis, GPL biosynthesis involves approximately 30 genes all mapping to a single region of 65 kb. Results We have recently sequenced the complete genomes of two fast-growers causing human infections, Mycobacterium abscessus (CIP 104536T and M. chelonae (CIP 104535T. We show here that these two species contain genes corresponding to all those of the M. smegmatis "GPL locus", with extensive conservation of the predicted protein sequences consistent with the production of GPL molecules indistinguishable by biochemical analysis. However, the GPL locus appears to be split into several parts in M. chelonae and M. abscessus. One large cluster (19 genes comprises all genes involved in the synthesis of the tripeptide-aminoalcohol moiety, the glycosylation of the lipopeptide and methylation/acetylation modifications. We provide evidence that a duplicated acetyltransferase (atf1 and atf2 in M. abscessus and M. chelonae has evolved through specialization, being able to transfer one acetyl at once in a sequential manner. There is a second smaller and distant (M. chelonae, 900 kb; M. abscessus, 3 Mb cluster of six genes involved in the synthesis of the fatty acyl moiety and its attachment to the tripeptide-aminoalcohol moiety. The other genes are scattered throughout the genome, including two genes encoding putative regulatory proteins. Conclusion Although these three species produce identical GPL molecules, the organization of GPL genes differ between them, thus constituting species-specific signatures. An hypothesis is that the compact organization of the GPL locus in M. smegmatis represents the ancestral form and that evolution has scattered various pieces throughout the

  1. Lipids in the cell: organisation regulates function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana L; Preta, Giulio

    2018-06-01

    Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling. Lipid organisation is tightly regulated and can be observed across different model organisms, including bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that lipid organisation is evolutionarily conserved. In this review, we summarise the importance and function of specific lipid domains in main cellular organelles and discuss recent advances that investigate how these specific and highly regulated structures contribute to diverse biological processes.

  2. Lipids and essential oils as antimicrobial agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thormar, Halldor

    2011-01-01

    ... of Antimicrobial Lipids on Cell Membranes 20 1.7 Conclusions 21 Acknowledgements 21 References 22 2 Antibacterial Effects of Lipids: Historical Review (1881 to 1960) Halldor Thormar 2.1 Introduction 2....

  3. Characterization of Carbamazepine-Loaded Solid Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by RESS as well as their characterization has been achieved in this study. Keywords: Rapid expansion of supercritical fluid, Stearic acid, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Carbamazepine, Co-precipitation ...

  4. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuerschner

    Full Text Available Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine, accumulated to mitochondria and induced morphological changes and cellular apoptosis. These data indicate that edelfosine could exert its pro-apoptotic power by targeting and damaging mitochondria and thereby inducing cellular apoptosis. In general, this study implies an important role of mitochondria in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking.

  5. Comportamento tintorial do Mycobacterium leprae: revisão histórica Tinctorial behavior of Mycobacterium leprae: a historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Góes Siqueira

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita revisão histórica sobre os corantes utilizados na identificação do Mycobacterium leprae. Foram analisadas para cada corante, sua composição química, propriedades tintoriais e a capacidade de assimilação pelo bacilo nas diversas técnicas de coloração.A historical review was made of the dyes utilized to identify the Mycobacterium leprae. The chemical composition and the tinctorial properties of these substances and the dye assimilation capacity of the bacilli were analyzed.

  6. Formation of milk lipids: a molecular perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McManaman, James L

    2009-01-01

    Lipids, primarily triglycerides, are major milk constituents of most mammals, providing a large percentage of calories, essential fatty acids and bioactive lipids required for neonatal growth and development. To meet the caloric and nutritional demands of newborns, the mammary glands of most species have evolved an enormous capacity to synthesize and secrete large quantities of lipids during lactation. Significant information exists regarding the physiological regulation of lipid metabolism i...

  7. Lipid Neuroprotectants and Traumatic Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    not in individuals suffering from glaucoma (endogenous lipids ). The proposed research is to develop several such lipids as potential glaucoma...The proposed research will further assess the efficacy of the new lipids to lower IOP using mouse and monkeys that can develop glaucoma naturally or...of seminars and posters. Two high school students during summer (as part of their HHMI research program) learned hands-on about lipid analyses. A

  8. Polymorphism of lipid self-assembly systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    When lipid molecules are dispersed into an aqueous medium, various self-organized structures are formed, depending on conditions (temperature, concentration, etc), in consequence of the amphipathic nature of the molecules. In addition, lipid self-assembly systems exhibit polymorphic phase transition behavior. Since lipids are one of main components of biomembranes, studies on the structure and thermodynamic properties of lipid self-assembly systems are fundamentally important for the consideration of the stability of biomembranes. (author)

  9. Electrodiffusion of Lipids on Membrane Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    Random lateral translocation of lipids and proteins is a universal process on membrane surfaces. Local aggregation or organization of lipids and proteins can be induced when this lateral random diffusion is mediated by the electrostatic interactions and membrane curvature. Though the lateral diffusion rates of lipids on membrane of various compositions are measured and the electrostatic free energies of predetermined protein-membrane-lipid systems can be computed, the process of the aggregati...

  10. Effects of Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on the Body Composition and Protein Status of Early-Weaned Mice Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borges, Maria Carolina; de Castro, Inar Alves; Pires, Ivanir S. O.; Borelli, Primavera; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk, favors protein anabolism. Early-weaned babies are deprived of this source of glutamine, in a period during which endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress, mainly during infections. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on the body composition and visceral protein status of early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Mice were weaned early on their 14th day of life and seperated into two groups, one of which was fed a glutamine-free diet (n = 16) and the other a glutamine-supplemented diet (40 g/kg diet) (n = 16). At 21 days of age, some mice were intraperitoneally injected with BCG. Euthanasia was performed at the 28th day of age. BCG inoculation significantly reduced body weight (P < 0.001), lean mass (P = 0.002), water (P = 0.006), protein (P = 0.007) and lipid content (P = 0.001) in the carcass. Dietary glutamine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 (P = 0.019) and albumin (P = 0.025) concentration, muscle protein concentration (P = 0.035) and lipid content (P = 0.002) in the carcass. In conclusion, dietary glutamine supplementation had a positive influence on visceral protein status but did not affect body composition in early-weaned mice inoculated with BCG. PMID:22254124

  11. Effects of Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on the Body Composition and Protein Status of Early-Weaned Mice Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanir S. O. Pires

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk, favors protein anabolism. Early-weaned babies are deprived of this source of glutamine, in a period during which endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress, mainly during infections. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on the body composition and visceral protein status of early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG. Mice were weaned early on their 14th day of life and seperated into two groups, one of which was fed a glutamine-free diet (n = 16 and the other a glutamine-supplemented diet (40 g/kg diet (n = 16. At 21 days of age, some mice were intraperitoneally injected with BCG. Euthanasia was performed at the 28th day of age. BCG inoculation significantly reduced body weight (P < 0.001, lean mass (P = 0.002, water (P = 0.006, protein (P = 0.007 and lipid content (P = 0.001 in the carcass. Dietary glutamine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 (P = 0.019 and albumin (P = 0.025 concentration, muscle protein concentration (P = 0.035 and lipid content (P = 0.002 in the carcass. In conclusion, dietary glutamine supplementation had a positive influence on visceral protein status but did not affect body composition in early-weaned mice inoculated with BCG.

  12. Surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas J

    2011-03-25

    Human meibomian lipids are the major part of the lipid layer of the tear film. Their surfactant properties enable their spread across the aqueous layer and help maintain a stable tear film. The purpose of this study was to investigate surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids in vitro and to determine effects of different physical conditions such as temperature and increased osmolarity, such as occur in dry eye, on these properties. Human meibomian lipids were spread on an artificial tear solution in a Langmuir trough. The lipid films were compressed and expanded to record the surface pressure-area (Π-A) isocycles. The isocycles were recorded under different physical conditions such as high pressure, increasing concentration and size of divalent cations, increasing osmolarity, and varying temperature. Π-A isocycles of meibomian lipids showed that they form liquid films that are compressible and multilayered. The isocycles were unaffected by increasing concentration or size of divalent cations and increasing osmolarity in the subphase. Temperature had a marked effect on the lipids. Increase in temperature caused lipid films to become fluid, an expected feature, but decrease in temperature unexpectedly caused expansion of lipids and an increase in pressure suggesting enhanced surfactant properties. Human meibomian lipids form highly compressible, non-collapsible, multilayered liquid films. These lipids have surfactants that allow them to spread across an aqueous subphase. Their surfactant properties are unaffected by increasing divalent cations or hyperosmolarity but are sensitive to temperature. Cooling of meibomian lipids enhances their surfactant properties.

  13. Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins In this thesis, I studied the intra- and intercellular transport of lipidic molecules, in particular glycosphingolipids and lipid-modified proteins. The first part focuses on the intracellular transport of

  14. Two DD-carboxypeptidases from Mycobacterium smegmatis affect cell surface properties through regulation of peptidoglycan cross-linking and glycopeptidolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Satya Deo; Pal, Shilpa; Kumar N, Ganesh; Bansal, Ankita; Mallick, Sathi; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2018-05-07

    of Glycopeptidolipids (a significant surface lipid present in many non-tuberculous mycobacteria including Mycobacterium smegmatis ) and affect other physiological parameters like cell morphology, growth rate, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility and existence within murine macrophages. Thus, unraveling the physiology of DD-CPases might help us design anti-mycobacterial therapeutics in future. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  16. The 2.5 Å Structure of CD1c in Complex with a Mycobacterial Lipid Reveals an Open Groove Ideally Suited for Diverse Antigen Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Louise; Li, Nan-Sheng; Hawk, Andrew J.; Garzón, Diana; Zhang, Tejia; Fox, Lisa M.; Kazen, Allison R.; Shah, Sneha; Haddadian, Esmael J.; Gumperz, Jenny E.; Saghatelian, Alan; Faraldo-Gómez, José D.; Meredith, Stephen C.; Piccirilli, Joseph A.; Adams, Erin J. (Harvard); (UC); (MXPL-G); (UW-MED)

    2011-08-24

    CD1 molecules function to present lipid-based antigens to T cells. Here we present the crystal structure of CD1c at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution, in complex with the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen mannosyl-{beta}1-phosphomycoketide (MPM). CD1c accommodated MPM's methylated alkyl chain exclusively in the A pocket, aided by a unique exit portal underneath the {alpha}1 helix. Most striking was an open F pocket architecture lacking the closed cavity structure of other CD1 molecules, reminiscent of peptide binding grooves of classical major histocompatibility complex molecules. This feature, combined with tryptophan-fluorescence quenching during loading of a dodecameric lipopeptide antigen, provides a compelling model by which both the lipid and peptide moieties of the lipopeptide are involved in CD1c presentation of lipopeptides.

  17. Development and analysis of an in vivo-compatible metabolic network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifman Jaques

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis confronts a generally hostile and nutrient-poor in vivo host environment. Existing models and analyses of M. tuberculosis metabolic networks are able to reproduce experimentally measured cellular growth rates and identify genes required for growth in a range of different in vitro media. However, these models, under in vitro conditions, do not provide an adequate description of the metabolic processes required by the pathogen to infect and persist in a host. Results To better account for the metabolic activity of M. tuberculosis in the host environment, we developed a set of procedures to systematically modify an existing in vitro metabolic network by enhancing the agreement between calculated and in vivo-measured gene essentiality data. After our modifications, the new in vivo network contained 663 genes, 838 metabolites, and 1,049 reactions and had a significantly increased sensitivity (0.81 in predicted gene essentiality than the in vitro network (0.31. We verified the modifications generated from the purely computational analysis through a review of the literature and found, for example, that, as the analysis suggested, lipids are used as the main source for carbon metabolism and oxygen must be available for the pathogen under in vivo conditions. Moreover, we used the developed in vivo network to predict the effects of double-gene deletions on M. tuberculosis growth in the host environment, explore metabolic adaptations to life in an acidic environment, highlight the importance of different enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid-cycle under different limiting nutrient conditions, investigate the effects of inhibiting multiple reactions, and look at the importance of both aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration during infection. Conclusions The network modifications we implemented suggest a distinctive set of metabolic conditions and requirements faced by M. tuberculosis during

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipolytic enzymes as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Brust

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New diagnosis tests are urgently needed to address the global tuberculosis (TB burden and to improve control programs especially in resource-limited settings. An effective in vitro diagnostic of TB based on serological methods would be regarded as an attractive progress because immunoassays are simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may offer the possibility to detect cases missed by standard sputum smear microscopy. However, currently available serology tests for TB are highly variable in sensitivity and specificity. Lipolytic enzymes have recently emerged as key factors in lipid metabolization during dormancy and/or exit of the non-replicating growth phase, a prerequisite step of TB reactivation. The focus of this study was to analyze and compare the potential of four Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipolytic enzymes (LipY, Rv0183, Rv1984c and Rv3452 as new markers in the serodiagnosis of active TB. METHODS: Recombinant proteins were produced and used in optimized ELISA aimed to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies against the four lipolytic enzymes. The capacity of the assays to identify infection was evaluated in patients with either active TB or latent TB and compared with two distinct control groups consisting of BCG-vaccinated blood donors and hospitalized non-TB individuals. RESULTS: A robust humoral response was detected in patients with active TB whereas antibodies against lipolytic enzymes were infrequently detected in either uninfected groups or in subjects with latent infection. High specifity levels, ranging from 93.9% to 97.5%, were obtained for all four antigens with sensitivity values ranging from 73.4% to 90.5%, with Rv3452 displaying the highest performances. Patients with active TB usually exhibited strong IgG responses but poor IgM responses. CONCLUSION: These results clearly indicate that the lipolytic enzymes tested are strongly immunogenic allowing to distinguish active from latent TB infections. They appear as potent

  19. Distinct Responses of Mycobacterium smegmatis to Exposure to Low and High Levels of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a natural oxidant produced by aerobic organisms and gives rise to oxidative damage, including DNA mutations, protein inactivation and lipid damage. The genus Mycobacterium utilizes redox sensors and H2O2 scavenging enzymes for the detoxification of H2O2. To date, the precise response to oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. Here, we compared the effects of different levels of H2O2 on transcription in M. smegmatis using RNA-sequencing. A 0.2 mM H2O2 treatment had little effect on the growth and viability of M. smegmatis whereas 7 mM H2O2 was lethal. Analysis of global transcription showed that 0.2 mM H2O2 induced relatively few changes in gene expression, whereas a large proportion of the mycobacterial genome was found to be differentially expressed after treatment with 7 mM H2O2. Genes differentially expressed following treatment with 0.2 mM H2O2 included those coding for proteins involved in glycolysis-gluconeogenesis and fatty acid metabolism pathways, and expression of most genes encoding ribosomal proteins was lower following treatment with 7 mM H2O2. Our analysis shows that M. smegmatis utilizes the sigma factor MSMEG_5214 in response to 0.2 mM H2O2, and the RpoE1 sigma factors MSMEG_0573 and MSMEG_0574 in response to 7 mM H2O2. In addition, different transcriptional regulators responded to different levels of H2O2: MSMEG_1919 was induced by 0.2 mM H2O2, while high-level induction of DevR occurred in response to 7 mM H2O2. We detected the induction of different detoxifying enzymes, including genes encoding KatG, AhpD, TrxB and Trx, at different levels of H2O2 and the detoxifying enzymes were expressed at different levels of H2O2. In conclusion, our study reveals the changes in transcription that are induced in response to different levels of H2O2 in M. smegmatis.

  20. Rapid Detection of Cell-Free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Nanying; Yang, Xinting; Liu, Zichen; Li, Kun; Chen, Xiaoyou

    2017-05-01

    Tuberculous pleurisy is one of the most common types of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, but its diagnosis remains difficult. In this study, we report for the first time on the detection of cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in pleural effusion and an evaluation of a newly developed molecular assay for the detection of cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. A total of 78 patients with pleural effusion, 60 patients with tuberculous pleurisy, and 18 patients with alternative diseases were included in this study. Mycobacterial culture, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, the adenosine deaminase assay, the T-SPOT.TB assay, and the cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA assay were performed on all the pleural effusion samples. The cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA assay and adenosine deaminase assay showed significantly higher sensitivities of 75.0% and 68.3%, respectively, than mycobacterial culture and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, which had sensitivities of 26.7% and 20.0%, respectively ( P pleural effusion showed the highest sensitivity of 95.0% but the lowest specificity of 38.9%. The cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA assay detected as few as 1.25 copies of IS 6110 per ml of pleural effusion and showed good accordance of the results between repeated tests ( r = 0.978, P = 2.84 × 10 -10 ). These data suggest that the cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA assay is a rapid and accurate molecular test which provides direct evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis etiology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Lipid processing in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been touted as “green” alternatives to traditional molecular solvents and have many unique properties which make them extremely desirable substitutes. Among their most attractive properties are their lack of vapour pressure, broad liquid range, strong solvating power and ...... and the ability to tailor properties of individual ILs to meet specific requirements. This article highlights current research as well as the vast potential of ILs for use as media for reactions, separation and processing in the lipid area....

  2. Proton permeation of lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamer, D W

    1987-10-01

    Proton permeation of the lipid bilayer barrier has two unique features. First, permeability coefficients measured at neutral pH ranges are six to seven orders of magnitude greater than expected from knowledge of other monovalent cations. Second, proton conductance across planar lipid bilayers varies at most by a factor of 10 when pH is varied from near 1 to near 11. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this anomalous behavior: proton conductance related to contaminants of lipid bilayers, and proton translocation along transient hydrogen-bonded chains (tHBC) of associated water molecules in the membrane. The weight of evidence suggests that trace contaminants may contribute to proton conductance across planar lipid membranes at certain pH ranges, but cannot account for the anomalous proton flux in liposome systems. Two new results will be reported here which were designed to test the tHBC model. These include measurements of relative proton/potassium permeability in the gramicidin channel, and plots of proton flux against the magnitude of pH gradients. (1) The relative permeabilities of protons and potassium through the gramicidin channel, which contains a single strand of hydrogen-bonded water molecules, were found to differ by at least four orders of magnitude when measured at neutral pH ranges. This result demonstrates that a hydrogen-bonded chain of water molecules can provide substantial discrimination between protons and other cations. It was also possible to calculate that if approximately 7% of bilayer water was present in a transient configuration similar to that of the gramicidin channel, it could account for the measured proton flux. (2) The plot of proton conductance against pH gradient across liposome membranes was superlinear, a result that is consistent with one of three alternative tHBC models for proton conductance described by Nagle elsewhere in this volume.

  3. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization. PMID:11389682

  4. Mechanics of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas R.

    All cells have membranes. The plasma membrane encapsulates the cell's interior, acting as a barrier against the outside world. In cells with nuclei (eukaryotic cells), membranes also form internal compartments (organelles) which carry out specialized tasks, such as protein modification and sorting in the case of the Golgi apparatus, and ATP production in the case of mitochondria. The main components of membranes are lipids and proteins. The proteins can be channels, carriers, receptors, catalysts, signaling molecules, or structural elements, and typically contribute a substantial fraction of the total membrane dry weight. The equilibrium properties of pure lipid membranes are relatively well-understood, and will be the main focus of this article. The framework of elasticity theory and statistical mechanics that we will develop will serve as the foundation for understanding biological phenomena such as the nonequilibrium behavior of membranes laden with ion pumps, the role of membrane elasticity in ion channel gating, and the dynamics of vesicle fission and fusion. Understanding the mechanics of lipid membranes is also important for drug encapsulation and delivery.

  5. Identification and characterization of the ESAT-6 homologue of Mycobacterium leprae and T-cell cross-reactivity with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Annemieke; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Subronto, Yanri W.; Wieles, Brigitte; Arend, Sandra M.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; de Boer, Tjitske; Faber, William R.; Naafs, Ben; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe identification and characterization of Mycobacterium leprae ESAT-6 (L-ESAT-6), the homologue of M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 (T-ESAT-6). T-ESAT-6 is expressed by all pathogenic strains belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex but is absent from virtually all other mycobacterial

  6. Molecular analysis of clinical isolates previously diagnosed as Mycobacterium intracellulare reveals incidental findings of "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" genotypes in human lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Young; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Han, Seung-Jung; Shin, Sung Jae; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-09-30

    Mycobacterium intracellulare is a major cause of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in many countries. Molecular studies have revealed several new Mycobacteria species that are closely related to M. intracellulare. The aim of this study was to re-identify and characterize clinical isolates from patients previously diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease at the molecular level. Mycobacterial isolates from 77 patients, initially diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease were re-analyzed by multi-locus sequencing and pattern of insertion sequences. Among the 77 isolates, 74 (96 %) isolates were designated as M. intracellulare based on multigene sequence-based analysis. Interestingly, the three remaining strains (4 %) were re-identified as "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" according to distinct molecular phylogenetic positions in rpoB and hsp65 sequence-based typing. In hsp65 sequevar analysis, code 13 was found in the majority of cases and three unreported codes were identified. In 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequevar analysis, all isolates of both species were classified within the Min-A ITS sequevar. Interestingly, four of the M. intracellulare isolates harbored IS1311, a M. avium-specific element. Two of three patients infected with "M. indicus pranii" had persistent positive sputum cultures after antibiotic therapy, indicating the clinical relevance of this study. This analysis highlights the importance of precise identification of clinical isolates genetically close to Mycobacterium species, and suggests that greater attention should be paid to nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease caused by "M. indicus pranii".

  7. Identification of a novel 27-kDa protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture fluid by a monoclonal antibody specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambukkana, A.; Das, P. K.; Kolk, A. H.; Burggraaf, J. D.; Kuijper, S.; Harboe, M.

    1993-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens inducing species-specific immune responses are likely to be particularly important for serodiagnosis or for skin testing of tuberculosis. In the present study, we describe the characterization of two novel monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) A3h4 (IgG2a) and B5g1 (IgM)

  8. Fat & fabulous: bifunctional lipids in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkant, Per; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2014-08-01

    Understanding biological processes at the mechanistic level requires a systematic charting of the physical and functional links between all cellular components. While protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid networks have been subject to many global surveys, other critical cellular components such as membrane lipids have rarely been studied in large-scale interaction screens. Here, we review the development of photoactivatable and clickable lipid analogues-so-called bifunctional lipids-as novel chemical tools that enable a global profiling of lipid-protein interactions in biological membranes. Recent studies indicate that bifunctional lipids hold great promise in systematic efforts to dissect the elaborate crosstalk between proteins and lipids in live cells and organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipid Biosynthesis as an Antifungal Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, commonly including phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sterols, and triacylglycerols (TAGs, are important biomolecules for the viability of all cells. Phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols are important constituents of biological membranes. Many lipids play important roles in the regulation of cell metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Neutral lipids, including TAGs and sterol esters (STEs, are important storage lipids in cells. In view of the importance of lipid molecules, this review briefly summarizes the metabolic pathways for sterols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, and neutral lipids in fungi and illustrates the differences between fungal and human (or other mammalian cells, especially in relation to lipid biosynthetic pathways. These differences might provide valuable clues for us to find target proteins for novel antifungal drugs. In addition, the development of lipidomics technology in recent years has supplied us with a shortcut for finding new antifungal drug targets; this ability is important for guiding our research on pathogenic fungi.

  10. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2008-04-15

    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  11. Stratum Corneum Barrier Lipids in Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, V; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Rasmussen, G

    2000-01-01

    emerged. When the corneocyte reaches the transitional stage to the stratum corneum, the Odland bodies accumulate near the cell membrane and discharge their contents of lipid and enzymes. The lipids are reorganized into multiple long sheets of lamellar structures that embrace the keratinized corneocytes......, as seen in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier. In this study we draw the attention to the facts that the cholesteatoma epithelium is capable of producing not only cholesterol, but also several lipids, and that the lipid molecules are organized in multilamellar structures......Specimens from primary cholesteatomas were examined under the electron microscope using a lipid-retaining method that is best suited for intracellular lipids and a method that is best for intercellular lipids. In the stratum granulosum of the squamous epithelium, a large number of Odland bodies...

  12. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A Nanostructured Lipid System as a Strategy to Improve the in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Copper(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia B. da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the in vitro antibacterial activity of copper(II complexes. New compounds with the general formulae [CuX2(INH2]·nH2O (X = Cl− and n = 1 (1; X = NCS− and n = 5 (2; X = NCO− and n = 4 (3; INH = isoniazid, a drug widely used to treat tuberculosis derived from the reaction between the copper(II chloride and isoniazid in the presence or absence of pseudohalide ions (NCS− or NCO− were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, melting points and complexometry with 2,2′,2′′,2′′′-(Ethane-1,2-diyldinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA. The characterization techniques allowed us to confirm the formation of the copper(II complexes. The Cu(II complexes were loaded into microemulsion (MEs composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol, 10% surfactant [soy oleate and Brij® 58 (1:2] and 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4 prepared by sonication. The Cu(II complex-loaded MEs displayed sizes ranging from 158.0 ± 1.060 to 212.6 ± 1.539 nm, whereas the polydispersity index (PDI ranged from 0.218 ± 0.007 to 0.284 ± 0.034. The antibacterial activity of the free compounds and those that were loaded into the MEs against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922, as evaluated by a microdilution technique, and the cytotoxicity index (IC50 against the Vero cell line (ATCC® CCL-81TM were used to calculate the selectivity index (SI. Among the free compounds, only compound 2 (MIC 500 μg/mL showed activity for S. aureus. After loading the compounds into the MEs, the antibacterial activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was significantly increased against E. coli (MIC’s 125, 125 and 500 μg/mL, respectively and S. aureus (MICs 250, 500 and 125 μg/mL, respectively. The loaded compounds were less toxic against the Vero

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycobacterium tuberculosis 名詞 一般 * * * * 結核...菌 ケッカクキン ケッカクキン Thesaurus2015 200906007893342100 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  15. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  16. Effect of pasteurization on survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, A; Mutharia, L; Chen, S; Rahn, K; Odumeru, J

    2002-12-01

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Mptb) is the causative agent of Johne's disease of ruminant animals including cattle, goats, and sheep. It has been suggested that this organism is associated with Crohn's disease in humans, and milk is a potential source of human exposure to this organism. A total of 18, including 7 regular batch and 11 high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization experiments, were conducted in this study. Raw milk or ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk samples were spiked at levels of 10(3), 10(5), and 10(7) cfu of Mptb/ml. Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains at 10(7) cfu/ml were used as controls. Pasteurization experiments were conducted using time and temperature standards specified in the Canadian National Dairy Code: regular batch pasteurization method: 63 degrees C for 30 min, and HTST method: 72 degrees C for 15 s. The death curve of this organism was assessed at 63 degrees C. No survivors were detected after 15 min. Each spiked sample was cultured in Middlebrook 7H9 culture broth and Middlebrook 7H11 agar slants. Samples selected from 15 experiments were also subjected to BACTEC culture procedure. Survival of Mptb was confirmed by IS900-based PCR of colonies recovered on slants. No survivors were detected from any of the slants or broths corresponding to the seven regular batch pasteurization trials. Mptb survivors were detected in two of the 11 HTST experiments. One was by both slant and broth culture for the sample spiked to 10(7) cfu/ml of Mptb, while the other was detected by BACTEC for the sample spiked to 10(5) cfu/ml. These results indicate that Mptb may survive HTST pasteurization when present at > or = 10(5) cfu/ml in milk. A total of 710 retail milk samples collected from retail store and dairy plants in southwest Ontario were tested by nested IS900 PCR for the presence of Mptb. Fifteen percent of these samples (n = 110) were positive. However, no survivors were isolated from the broth and agar cultures of

  17. Networked T cell death following macrophage infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Stephen H-F Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depletion of T cells following infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb impairs disease resolution, and interferes with clinical test performance that relies on cell-mediated immunity. A number of mechanisms contribute to this T cell suppression, such as activation-induced death and trafficking of T cells out of the peripheral circulation and into the diseased lungs. The extent to which Mtb infection of human macrophages affects T cell viability however, is not well characterised. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that lymphopenia (<1.5 × 10(9 cells/l was prevalent among culture-positive tuberculosis patients, and lymphocyte counts significantly improved post-therapy. We previously reported that Mtb-infected human macrophages resulted in death of infected and uninfected bystander macrophages. In the current study, we sought to examine the influence of infected human alveolar macrophages on T cells. We infected primary human alveolar macrophages (the primary host cell for Mtb or PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells with Mtb H37Ra, then prepared cell-free supernatants. The supernatants of Mtb-infected macrophages caused dose-dependent, caspase-dependent, T cell apoptosis. This toxic effect of infected macrophage secreted factors did not require TNF-α or Fas. The supernatant cytotoxic signal(s were heat-labile and greater than 50 kDa in molecular size. Although ESAT-6 was toxic to T cells, other Mtb-secreted factors tested did not influence T cell viability; nor did macrophage-free Mtb bacilli or broth from Mtb cultures. Furthermore, supernatants from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG- infected macrophages also elicited T cell death suggesting that ESAT-6 itself, although cytotoxic, was not the principal mediator of T cell death in our system. CONCLUSIONS: Mtb-Infected macrophages secrete heat-labile factors that are toxic to T cells, and may contribute to the immunosuppression seen in tuberculosis as well as

  18. Transcriptional analysis of ESAT-6 cluster 3 in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardi Giovanna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ESAT-6 (early secreted antigenic target, 6 kDa family collects small mycobacterial proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly in the early phase of growth. There are 23 ESAT-6 family members in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. In a previous work, we identified the Zur- dependent regulation of five proteins of the ESAT-6/CFP-10 family (esxG, esxH, esxQ, esxR, and esxS. esxG and esxH are part of ESAT-6 cluster 3, whose expression was already known to be induced by iron starvation. Results In this research, we performed EMSA experiments and transcriptional analysis of ESAT-6 cluster 3 in Mycobacterium smegmatis (msmeg0615-msmeg0625 and M. tuberculosis. In contrast to what we had observed in M. tuberculosis, we found that in M. smegmatis ESAT-6 cluster 3 responds only to iron and not to zinc. In both organisms we identified an internal promoter, a finding which suggests the presence of two transcriptional units and, by consequence, a differential expression of cluster 3 genes. We compared the expression of msmeg0615 and msmeg0620 in different growth and stress conditions by means of relative quantitative PCR. The expression of msmeg0615 and msmeg0620 genes was essentially similar; they appeared to be repressed in most of the tested conditions, with the exception of acid stress (pH 4.2 where msmeg0615 was about 4-fold induced, while msmeg0620 was repressed. Analysis revealed that in acid stress conditions M. tuberculosis rv0282 gene was 3-fold induced too, while rv0287 induction was almost insignificant. Conclusion In contrast with what has been reported for M. tuberculosis, our results suggest that in M. smegmatis only IdeR-dependent regulation is retained, while zinc has no effect on gene expression. The role of cluster 3 in M. tuberculosis virulence is still to be defined; however, iron- and zinc-dependent expression strongly suggests that cluster 3 is highly expressed in the infective process, and that the cluster

  19. Elevated host lipid metabolism revealed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jun [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Yang, Yongtao [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Department of Neurology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chen, Jin; Cheng, Ke; Li, Qi; Wei, Yongdong; Zhu, Dan; Shao, Weihua; Zheng, Peng [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Xie, Peng, E-mail: xiepeng@cqmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Department of Neurology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-10-30

    Purpose: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remains to be one of the most deadly infectious diseases. The pathogen interacts with the host immune system, the process of which is largely unknown. Various cellular processes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) centers around lipid metabolism. To determine the lipid metabolism related proteins, a quantitative proteomic study was performed here to identify differential proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from TBM patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Methods: CSF samples were desalted, concentrated, labelled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ™), and analyzed by multi-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Gene ontology and proteomic phenotyping analysis of the differential proteins were conducted using Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. ApoE and ApoB were selected for validation by ELISA. Results: Proteomic phenotyping of the 4 differential proteins was invloved in the lipid metabolism. ELISA showed significantly increased ApoB levels in TBM subjects compared to healthy controls. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated ApoB levels could distinguish TBM subjects from healthy controls and viral meningitis subjects with 89.3% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Conclusions: CSF lipid metabolism disregulation, especially elevated expression of ApoB, gives insights into the pathogenesis of TBM. Further evaluation of these findings in larger studies including anti-tuberculosis medicated and unmedicated patient cohorts with other center nervous system infectious diseases is required for successful clinical translation. - Highlights: • The first proteomic study on the cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients using iTRAQ. • Identify 4 differential proteins invloved in the lipid metabolism. • Elevated expression of ApoB gives

  20. Elevated host lipid metabolism revealed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Jun; Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Ke; Li, Qi; Wei, Yongdong; Zhu, Dan; Shao, Weihua; Zheng, Peng; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remains to be one of the most deadly infectious diseases. The pathogen interacts with the host immune system, the process of which is largely unknown. Various cellular processes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) centers around lipid metabolism. To determine the lipid metabolism related proteins, a quantitative proteomic study was performed here to identify differential proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from TBM patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Methods: CSF samples were desalted, concentrated, labelled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ™), and analyzed by multi-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Gene ontology and proteomic phenotyping analysis of the differential proteins were conducted using Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. ApoE and ApoB were selected for validation by ELISA. Results: Proteomic phenotyping of the 4 differential proteins was invloved in the lipid metabolism. ELISA showed significantly increased ApoB levels in TBM subjects compared to healthy controls. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated ApoB levels could distinguish TBM subjects from healthy controls and viral meningitis subjects with 89.3% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Conclusions: CSF lipid metabolism disregulation, especially elevated expression of ApoB, gives insights into the pathogenesis of TBM. Further evaluation of these findings in larger studies including anti-tuberculosis medicated and unmedicated patient cohorts with other center nervous system infectious diseases is required for successful clinical translation. - Highlights: • The first proteomic study on the cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients using iTRAQ. • Identify 4 differential proteins invloved in the lipid metabolism. • Elevated expression of ApoB gives