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Sample records for mushrooms edible poisonous

  1. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  2. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  3. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  4. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  5. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. METHODS: Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland and the

  6. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: The collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    Background. Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. Methods. Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. Results. From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland

  7. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Key words: Edible mushrooms; food composition. INTRODUCTION. Mushrooms are saprophytes. ... riboflavin, biotin and thiamine (Chang and Buswell,. 1996). Ogundana and Fagade (1981) indicated that ... Four edible mushroom species were analyzed for food composition according to the Association of Official Analytical ...

  8. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  9. DEHYDRATION OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Salas de la Torre, N.; Bazán, D.; Osorio, A.; Cornejo, O.; Carrero, E.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have been subjected to thermal, chemical and thermal-chemical treatment. The results show that the chemical treatment produces a more effective enzymatic inactivation compared to the other two treatments. Also, the experimental study of fungi dehydration carried out at 55 ° C reveals that the critical moisture content is 10.4 kg water / kg dry solids, the equilibrium moisture is 0.22 kg water / kg of solid . Los hongos comestibles Pleurotus ostreatus...

  10. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  11. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    israelikk

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Key words: Edible mushroom, mineral composition, proximate analysis. ... than beef, pork and chicken that contain similar nutrients. .... legumes and meat. In earlier studies, Gruen and Wong. (1982) indicated that edible mushrooms were highly nutritional and compared favourably with meat, egg and milk.

  12. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  13. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    Furthermore, extension agents should monitor beneficiaries of such loans to ensure ... Mushrooms belong to a group of living things ... environment, knowledge of simple and low cost .... =Taxes (naira) ... Inheritance ... Table 7 revealed that Alesi marketers made profit margin of N 60,000.00 per .... Guide to Edible Mushroom.

  14. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heim and Coprinus disseminatus (Pers.: Fr.) S. F. Gray. Among the local people, names of edible mushrooms are based on the substrates on which they grow, their association with insects, and unrelated taxa are given collective names. Rural people believe mushrooms have medicinal values and can serve as blood tonic, ...

  15. 137Cs content in edible mushrooms of the Transcarpathian region

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    O. O. Parlag

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms (Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr. and Leccinum scabrum (Bull.: Fr. S.F.Gray of Transcarpathian region were analyzed on content of 137Cs. Specific activity of 137Cs in collected mushrooms did not exceed 354 ± 53 Bq/kg (dry substance. Estimation of the contribution into internal exposure dose of population for the condi-tion of 1 kg of mushrooms consumption is carried out.

  16. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

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    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  17. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. - Highlights: • Popular edible mushrooms display large variations in Cd and Pb content. • Low accumulating species are Sparassis crispa, Boletus luridus, or Boletus badius. • High accumulating species are Agaricus ssp., Russula vesca, or Calvatia gigantea. • Cd and Pb content in wild growing edible mushrooms were mostly above EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. • Cd and Pb content in commercial mushrooms cultures were regularly below EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. - Commercial mushroom cultures can be integrated into ‘Edible City’ approaches, but majority of wild growing mushroom samples highly accumulate trace metals

  18. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela ... The socio-economic characteristics of sellers, profit margin and marketing ... One hundred and twenty respondents were interviewed at three different markets in three selected ... The concentration of sellers is low while entry is free.

  19. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms.

  20. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  1. Effect of Edible Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on Type-2 Diabetics

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    M. Abu Sayeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD like diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD are on the increase globally and predominantly in the South East Asian Region (SEAR. The increasing NCD and its complications burdened the health cost of Bangladesh. The available literatures suggest that edible mushrooms are effective in controlling metabolic risks like hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. The study addressed the metabolic effects of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in diabetic individuals and to assess the undesirable effects of mushroom. A total of 5000 newly registered diabetic women were screened for eligible participants (urban housewives, age 30 – 50y, BMI 22 – 27, FBG 8 – 12 mmol/l; free from complications or systemic illnesses and agreed to adhere to the study for 360 days. The investigations included weight and height for BMI, waist- and hip-girth for WHR, BP, FBG, 2ABF, T-chol, TG, HDL, LDL, ALT and Creatinine starting from the day 0 (baseline and each subsequent follow-up days: 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 for comparison between placebo and mushroom groups and also within group (baseline vs. follow up days, individually for placebo and mushroom. The daily intake of mushroom was 200g for the mushroom group and an equivalent calorie of vegetables for the placebo group. Overall, 73 diabetic housewives (mushroom / placebo = 43 /30 volunteered. The mean (with SEM values of BMI, WHR, BP, FBG, 2ABF, T-chol, TG, HDL, LDL, ALT and Creatinine of the placebo group were compared with the mushroom group. Compared with the placebo, the mushroom group showed significant reductions of FBG (p<0.001, 2ABF (p<0.001, T-chol (p<0.001, TG (p=0.03 and LDL (p<0.001; whereas, no difference was observed for BMI, SBP, DBP, HDL, Hb, creatinine and ALT. The comparison within groups (baseline vs. follow-up there were significant reduction of these variables in mushroom but not in the

  2. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

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    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  3. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  4. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms

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    S. E. Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivated mushroom species, namely, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus florida and two wild growing species Lentinus cladopus and Pleurotus djamor were studied for their mineral contents such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Pb, and Cd by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and also Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, (AAS. Phosphorus was estimated by spectrophotometric method. K, Ca, Na, and P were in higher concentrations ranging from 59.3 mg to 3634 mg, 8.27 mg–174.9 mg, 22.2 mg–327.4 mg, and 100.5 mg–769.9 mg/100 g dry weight respectively in the four mushroom species studied. Fe, Zn, Mg and Se were ranging from 6.27 mg to 35.3 mg, 1.58 mg–9.44 mg, 21.1 mg–40.7 mg and 0.048 mg–0.182 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, amongst the mushroom species analyzed. However, Ni, Cu, and Mn contents showed relatively lower concentrations, whereas Pb and Cd were below detectable level. The mushrooms were safe for consumption, in accordance with the permissible tolerance limits of the estimated toxic metals. Implications of the mineral contents on mushroom nutritional value are highlighted.

  5. Identification of medicinal and poisonous mushroom from Khorramabad, Iran

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    seyede zahra Hosseini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms grow in a very wide range of ecological conditions, however their growth vary in different conditions. Mushrooms are a valuable source for antibiotics and they are known as drugs in traditional medicine. Identification and characterization of mushrooms is the first step of their exploitations in drug industry. There are many poisonous species of mushrooms, so their identification is essential for better health of societies and also a good indication for physicians in identification of mushroom poisonings and their cure. Material and Method: In this research the samples of mushroom were collected in Khorramabad district during spring and fall of 2008 and 2009. The macroscopic and microscopic characters of collected mushrooms were observed in field and laboratory and these criteria aligned to the species characters in scientific resources. Results: eight mushroom species namely Collybia maculate coprinus atramentarius three species of Boletus (B. luridus, B. felleus and B. satanas two species of Lactarius (L. piperatus and L. vellereus and Hypholoma capnoides were identified . Discussions: Based on the results of biodiversity of mushrooms in khorramabad district found in the present research, it is concluded that there are valuable resources of mushrooms for medicinal purposes in this area.

  6. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  7. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  8. Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential.

  9. Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñónez-Martínez, Miroslava; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Aguilar-Moreno, Ivonne Estela; Garza-Ocañas, Fortunato; Lebgue-Keleng, Toutcha; Lavín-Murcio, Pablo Antonio; Enríquez-Anchondo, Irma Delia

    2014-09-17

    The Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua in Northern Mexico is inhabited by indigenous Raramuris, mestizos, and other ethnic groups. The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus. A great diversity of potentially edible mushrooms is found in forests of the Municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting and eating these during the "rainy season." However, despite the wide diversity of edible mushrooms that grow in these areas, residents have a selective preference. This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Using a semi-structured technique, we surveyed 197 habitants from seven locations in Urique, Bocoyna, and the Cusarare area from 2010 to 2012. Known fungi, local nomenclature, species consumed, preparation methods, appreciation of taste, forms of preservation, criteria for differentiating toxic and edible fungi, other uses, economic aspects, and traditional teaching were recorded. To identify the recognized species, photographic stimuli of 22 local edible species and two toxic species were used. The respondents reported preference for five species: Amanita rubescens, Agaricus campestris, Ustilago maydis, Hypomyces lactifluorum, and the Amanita caesarea complex. No apparent differences were found between ethnic groups in terms of preference, although mestizos used other species in Bocoyna (Boletus edulis and B. pinophilus). Some different uses of fungi are recognized by respondents, i.e. home decorations, medicine, as food in breeding rams, etc. The studied population shows a great appreciation towards five species, mainly the A. caesarea complex, and an apparent lack of knowledge of nearly 20 species which are used as food in other areas of Mexico. There are no

  10. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

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    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  11. [The influence of cooking on radiocaesium contamination of edible mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibniewska, K A; Smoczyński, S S

    1999-01-01

    Radiocaesium concentration in some kinds of edible mushrooms collected in October 1990 has been determined to evaluate the radiocaesium activity 5 years after Chernobyl accident. The highest activity was found in Xerocomus subtomentosus (1080.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight), then in Rozites caperata (768.5 Bq/kg) and Xerocomus badius (562.5 Bq/kg); the lowest--in Suillus luteus (52.0 Bq/kg) and Cantharellus cibarius (63.0 Bq/kg). Studies on the influence of cooking on radiocaesium activity revealed that parboiling and boiling of mushrooms led to high, even 85% losses of radiocaesium in the product. Samples of Xerocomus badius collected in various sites of North-East Poland in 1995 averaged to 195.4 +/- 125.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight.

  12. The influence of cooking on radiocesium contamination of edible mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skibniewska, K.A.; Smoczynski, S.S.

    1999-01-01

    Radiocesium concentration in some kinds of edible mushrooms collected in October 1990 has been determined to evaluate the radiocesium activity 5 years after Chernobyl accident. The highest activity was found in Xerocomus subtomentosus (1080.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight), then in Rozites caperata (768.5 Bq/kg) and Xerocomus badius (562.5 Bq/kg); the lowest - in Suillus luteus (52.0 Bq/kg) and Cantharellus cibarius (63.0 Bq/kg). Studies on the influence of cooking on radiocesium activity revealed that parboiling and boiling of mushrooms led to high, even 85% losses of radiocesium in the product. Samples of Xerocomus badius collected in various sites of North-East Poland in 1995 averaged to 195.4 ± 125.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight. (author)

  13. Mushroom poisoning in children: liver MDCT findings in three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Banu; Kirbas, Ismail; Cevik, Belma; Teksam, Mehmet; Coskun, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Wild mushroom poisoning occurs quite frequently in Turkey, usually during late summer and autumn when climatic conditions favour fungal growth. We report the MDCT findings of the liver in three children after mushroom poisoning. In all three patients, precontrast MDCT findings showed diffuse reduction of hepatic attenuation compared with the spleen. Contrast-enhanced MDCT images showed homogeneous contrast enhancement of the liver. All three patients recovered after medical treatment. A follow-up precontrast MDCT examination was performed in one patient in whom the density of the liver parenchyma had returned to normal. (orig.)

  14. Radical scavenging potential and DNA damage protection of wild edible mushrooms of Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsheen Shameem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushrooms Verpa bohemica and Morchella esculenta are locally used for dietary and antioxidant in tribal areas of Kashmir Himalaya. In the present study, sequences of solvents on the basis of their polarity were used for the extraction from selected mushrooms. The comprehensive antioxidant activity of all edible mushroom extracts was evaluated by seven different methods. V. bohemica exhibited significant inhibitory activity of radicals among all the mushrooms while Morchella extracts protected the DNA damage from OH· radicals. This study provides us the substantiation for the use of these mushrooms as antioxidants besides being already eaten as food.

  15. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (price samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Evaluation of Pediatric Cases with Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Hizel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autmn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. The symptoms, the initial time of the symptoms, the arrival time to the hospital, the physical examination findings, laboratory datas, treatments that were applied, the time kept in the hospital and the prognoses of the cases with mushroom intoxication diagnosis in the pediatry department were recorded between 1 October and 31 November 2006. During the time described above, a total of 24 cases with mushroom poisoning were determined. 8 of the cases (33.3 % were refered to another hospital, 16 of them (66.7 % were hospitalizated and observed. Gastrointestinal complaints was the symptom determined in every patient at the application time to the hospital whereas only 3 patients (12.5 % had neurologic symptoms. Symptoms occured within 6 hours of consumption of mushrooms in 7 cases (29.2 %. Elevated liver enzymes was determined in 4 patients (16.6 % whereas renal functions were normal in all of the cases. 16 cases who were hospitalizated, completely recovered and were discharged. However, 2 patients (8.3 % who were refered, died. Mushroom poisoning is an important health problem because of its high mortality and the best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. Therefore alerting the public, informing them about the symptoms and making them resort to hospitals with the first detected initial symptoms, by improving and strengthening the public education projects will reduce the mortality. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 341-344

  17. The Evaluation of Pediatric Cases with Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Hizel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autmn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. The symptoms, the initial time of the symptoms, the arrival time to the hospital, the physical examination findings, laboratory datas, treatments that were applied, the time kept in the hospital and the prognoses of the cases with mushroom intoxication diagnosis in the pediatry department were recorded between 1 October and 31 November 2006. During the time described above, a total of 24 cases with mushroom poisoning were determined. 8 of the cases (33.3 % were refered to another hospital, 16 of them (66.7 % were hospitalizated and observed. Gastrointestinal complaints was the symptom determined in every patient at the application time to the hospital whereas only 3 patients (12.5 % had neurologic symptoms. Symptoms occured within 6 hours of consumption of mushrooms in 7 cases (29.2 %. Elevated liver enzymes was determined in 4 patients (16.6 % whereas renal functions were normal in all of the cases. 16 cases who were hospitalizated, completely recovered and were discharged. However, 2 patients (8.3 % who were refered, died. Mushroom poisoning is an important health problem because of its high mortality and the best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. Therefore alerting the public, informing them about the symptoms and making them resort to hospitals with the first detected initial symptoms, by improving and strengthening the public education projects will reduce the mortality. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 341-344

  18. Mushroom poisoning in children: clinical presentation and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.A.; Khan, Z.; Siddiqui, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    A variable clinical picture characterizes mushroom poisoning. The Amatoxin, the main toxic component of these fungi, are responsible for gastrointestinal symptoms as well as hepatic and renal failure. As acute gastroenteritis is extremely common in our set up, so every patient presenting with these symptoms is treated as gastroenteritis of viral aetiology. The authors present the clinical picture of the phalloid syndrome, its treatment and immediate outcome. All children age less than 16 years admitted in Saidu Hospital Swat from January to December 2006 with mushroom poisoning were included in the study. Patients with doubtful history or with associated illness were not included. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture of the patient, history and the laboratory data. In addition to maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and treating sepsis, oral Silymarin and intravenous penicillin was started. Liver function tests, renal functions tests, serum electrolytes and coagulation profile was done in all the patients. The severity of poisoning was graded according to hepatic transaminase elevations and prolongation of prothrombin time. Of the 18 patients, fifteen were above five years of age. Female were twice in number. Fifteen patients developed hepatic failure and three patients developed renal failure. Thirteen patients expired. To start timely management, Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with food poisoning particularly coming in groups. Delay in diagnosis is associated with high mortality. (author)

  19. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

  20. The Most Popular Edible Wild Mushrooms in Vezirköprü District of Samsun Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanem Bulam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible wild mushrooms are becoming more and more important in our diet for their nutritional and pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to gather information about edible wild mushroom species existed in mycobiota of Vezirköprü district of Samsun province that are economically important and are collected from nature by the villagers and sold in the local markets. The mushroom samples were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. The information, obtained on the collecting time, local names and habitats of the mushrooms was inquired from the sellers, consumers and traders. Cantharellus cibarius, Morchella spp. and Boletus edulis species are not only sold in the Vezirköprü market but also exported. Amanita caesarea, Cantharellus ferruginascens, Craterellus cornucopioides, Clitocybe geotropa, Hydnum repandum, H. rufescens, Lactarius deliciosus, L. semisanguifluus, L. vellereus, L. vinosus, Macrolepiota procera, Ramaria spp., Russula delica and Tricholoma terreum are species of mushrooms with high edible quality and economical importance.

  1. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms and characteristics of cesium accumulation by the edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hisashi; Morita, Yohoji; Kato, Fumio

    2000-01-01

    Mushrooms collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji and some other locations in Japan in 1996 were analyzed for radiocesium. The 137 Cs concentrations in 37 mushrooms varied widely from 1.6 to 783 Bqkg -1 fresh wt. The characteristics of Cs accumulation were analyzed by culturing fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1 (P. ostreatus Y-1). The 137 Cs and stable Cs accumulation expressed as the concentration ratio (CR, 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the dried fruiting body/ 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the fresh medium) were in good agreement, indicating similar migration. The CR of Cs grown on medium containing both 0.1% Cs and 0.1% K, 10.2, showed a decrease of about 30 percent as compared with that containing 0.1% Cs only. These CR values suggested that Cs accumulation by the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 is affected by the presence of K similarly to previous observations in the mycelia. The 133 Cs-NMR spectra from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 showed two resonance signals, whereas those from the media after harvesting of fruiting bodies showed only one signal. Just before growth of the fruiting bodies, bunches consisting of many mycelia were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant differences in the elemental distribution (Cs, K, P and C) were detected in the mycelium surface by SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. (author)

  2. Edible wild mushrooms of the Western Ghats: Data on the ethnic knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namera C. Karun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible wild mushrooms are most important in food security of ethnic groups and tribals throughout the world. Various indigenous strategies are followed to trace wild mushrooms suitable for human consumption. Data presented in this article projects ethnic knowledge on 51 edible wild mushrooms (in 23 genera in the Western Ghats region of India. Information collected with support of ethnic groups/tribals pertains to habitats, substrates, mutualistic association, extent of availability, extent of edibility and method of processing of wild mushrooms. Extensive field visits and interactions with ethnic groups were performed to collect the data on each mushroom. Initially, most of these mushrooms were identified based on the indigenous methods and designated with vernacular names (Are-Gowda, Kodava and Tulu. Based on macromorphology (in field and micromorphology (in laboratory, each mushroom was identified with its systematic name. Among the 51 wild mushrooms irrespective of extent of availability, the most preferred include Astraeus hygrometricus, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Fistulina hepatica, Lentinus sajor-caju, Pleurotus (5 spp. and Scleroderma citrinum and Termitomyces (18 spp.. This data forecasts the importance of documentation of traditional knowledge, protection of habitats, management of resources (tree species and substrates and sustainable exploitation of wild mushrooms.

  3. Edible mushroom powder (Agaricus bisporus) and flavophospholipol improve performance and blood parameters of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi, Sepideh; Seidavi, Alireza; Rahati, Maliheh; G Nieto, José Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Background: flavophospholipol is an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP). The current ban of AGP in some countries is controversial because their benefits on the environment and economy by saving feed and reducing nitrogen excretion have been overlooked. White button mushrooms have important nutritional properties and the industry discards large quantities of waste that could be fed to animals. Objective: to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of five levels of edible mushroom powder (EMP) a...

  4. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  6. A Case of Mushroom Poisoning with Russula subnigricans: Development of Rhabdomyolysis, Acute Kidney Injury, Cardiogenic Shock, and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jong Tae; Han, Jin Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Mushroom exposures are increasing worldwide. The incidence and fatality of mushroom poisoning are reported to be increasing. Several new syndromes in mushroom poisoning have been described. Rhabdomyolytic mushroom poisoning is one of new syndromes. Russula subnigricans mushroom can cause delayed-onset rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury in the severely poisoned patient. There are few reports on the toxicity of R. subnigricans. This report represents the first record of R. subnigricans poisoning with rhabdomyolysis in Korea, describing a 51-year-old man who suffered from rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, severe hypocalcemia, respiratory failure, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, and death. Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the evaluation of rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause. Furthermore, R. subnigricans should be considered in the mushroom poisoning with rhabdomyolysis.

  7. Lentinula edodes based GIS mapping, biometabolites and antiinflamatory activity of wild edible mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2016-03-01

    The biodiversity rich state of Meghalaya, India located in the realms of mega-biodiversity hotspots, is home to numerous species of wild edible macrofungi that are used extensively by the mycophillic ethnic population, as a part of their traditional cuisine and medicine systems. However, habitat loss, due to deforestation and climate change, is destroying the natural population of these mushrooms, depleting their availability to the local communities. In the present investigation, a GIS guided habitat search, using Lentinula edodes as a representative species, was used in mapping the habitats of wild edible macrofungi of the study region. Sampling of around 4 000 specimens per distinct morphological type available in the traditional markets and “sacred grove” forests indicated presence of ten common genera, belonging to nine different families of wild edible mushrooms. Nutritional profiling of the representative species Lentinula edodes was carried out by evaluation of its moisture, total fat, crude protein and carbohydrates contents by standard methods. Similarly, bioactive components determination was performed by estimation of total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopenes. Bioactivity of the mushrooms extracts was studied using the DPPH radical scavenging and Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization assays. The present investigation successfully attempted to explore remote sensing technologies and GIS (Geographic Information System) based system to predict the natural habitats of wild edible mushrooms of Meghalaya, India which we believe will lead to the generation of a mushroom specific non-wood forest resource mapping system in the near future. Results of nutritional profiling and biological activity studies on the representative species of wild edible mushrooms from the studied region revealed that it is a rich source of essential nutrients and antioxidants.

  8. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  9. Risk evaluation of radioactive contamination in some species of edible mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droujinina, I.; Schinner, F.; Dromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: edible mushrooms play an important role even in modern society - far beyond their value as food supply. The search for and gathering of edible mushrooms is one of the last possibilities of urbanized man to satisfy his drive as a hunter and collector in nature and thus an important part of the cultural heritage. Deprivation of this recreational activity due to radioactive contamination is considered simply a certain loss of quality of life and thus may have a strong emotional and sociological impact. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor on 26 April 1986 led to considerable amounts of radioactive material being distributed over a large area of Europe with Austria as one of the highest contaminated western countries. 13 years after the accident at Chernobyl, the long-lived isotopes such as cesium 137 (physical half-life of 30.2 years) and others are still of concern. Several publications suggest that the consumption of wild growing mushrooms has to be regarded as risky. The aim of our study is to provide some new investigations on the process of accumulation of radioactive Cs in ecosystems with the focus of attention on fungi, Therefore factors and processes limiting isotope accumulation of edible mushrooms are being determined, using standard microbiological and physical methods. Through a series of experiments and evaluations some factors limiting the accumulation of radionuclides in mycelia and in fruit bodies of selected mushrooms with a main emphasis placed on taxonomic position of each species and type of metabolism are being defined. On this basis careful extrapolation to the industrially cultivated species and to the most popular objects amongst mushroom-collectors is to be achieved. Our approach of assessing the risk of radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms, which is applicable for any assumed scenario, will be discussed. (authors)

  10. Intracellular Biosynthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran MIRUNALINI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly approach. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using some commonly available edible mushroom extracts and their antimicrobial activity was demonstrated in the current study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV, FTIR and SEM and antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion method. From the results it is confirmed the successful formation of silver nanoparticles using mushroom extracts; they performed their role as a reducing and capping agent and also exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus (gram positive bacteria. Thus the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract will deserve to be a good candidate as an antibacterial agent.

  11. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-01-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm -2 s -1 for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  12. 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in edible mushrooms at the territory of the Lithuanian SSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauskurdis, S.I.; Tamulenajte, O.P.; Nedvetskajte, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    Results of studying 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in edible mushrooms in Lithuania before and after the Chernobyl accident (1984-1986) are presented. It is shown that after accident release in 1986 mushroom contamination with cesium isotopes increased about 4 times as compared to 1985 and 90 Sr activity preserved the same level. Radioisotope accumulation in mushrooms after the Chernobyl accident is studied depending on the mechanical composition of soil, pH and Ca quantity. It is ascertained that in carbonate, alkaline, reach with Ca and K soils 90 Sr and 137 Cs mobility is reduced and their absorption by mushroom is weakened. In light by mechanical composition (sandy), depleted by Ca soil 90 Sr arrival to mushrooms is 2.4 times higher than in soils with high Ca content. The quantity of water-soluble 90 Sr is maximal in soil with low pH and minimal content of exchange Ca. Radioactive contamination of mushrooms depends on the terrain relief and type of mushrooms. It is shown that radioactive contamination of mushrooms in 1986 did not exceede the admissible standard. 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... effects related to their disposal (Mshandete et al., 2008). Cultivation of mushroom can .... The holes facilitated drainage, aeration (free diffusion of gases and .... sium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc and cobalt) were determined.

  14. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  15. Molecular and Antibacterial Profile of Edible Oyster Mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    2014-09-24

    Sep 24, 2014 ... Phenol/Chloroform DNA extraction protocol and the DNA was ... DNA from oyster mushroom fermentation broth, mycelia or fruiting bodies. .... Sample preparation: The different strains of Pleurotus were obtained in test- tubes.

  16. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Used to Fingerprint Five Wild-Grown Edible Mushrooms (Boletaceae Collected from Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wild-grown edible mushrooms which are natural, nutritious, and healthy get more and more popular by large consumers. In this paper, UV spectra of different Boletaceae mushrooms with the aid of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA were shown to be a practical and rapid method for discrimination purpose. The specimens of Boletus edulis, Boletus ferrugineus, Boletus tomentipes, Leccinum rugosiceps, and Xerocomus sp. were described based on the UV spectra. From the results, all the specimens were characterized by strong absorption at the wavelengths of 274 and 284 nm and showed the shoulder at 296 nm. However, changes could be seen in the peak heights at the same wavelength for different samples. After analyzing by chemometrics, visual discrimination among samples was presented and the relationships among them were also obtained. This study showed that UV spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods could be used successfully as a simple and effective approach for characterization of these five wild-grown edible mushrooms at species and genus levels. Meanwhile, this rapid and simple methodology could also provide reference for the discrimination of edible mushrooms.

  17. [Mercury content in edible mushrooms in the Wyzyna Wieluńska region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Hałaczkiewicz, J

    1999-01-01

    Mercury concentration was determined in the caps and stalks of nine species of edible mushrooms collected at the area of Wieluńska Upland in district of Czestochowa in 1995-96. The mushroom species examined were such as: yellow-cracking bolete Xerocomus subtomentosus, brown birch scaber stalk Leccinum scabrum, slippery Jack Suillus luteus, larch bolete Suillus grevillei, gray knight-cap Tricholoma terreum, parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera, horse mushroom Agaricus arvensis, fennel funnel cap Clitocybe odora, fairy-ring mushroom Marasmius oreades and tacky green brittle gills Russula aereuginea. The method of mercury measurement was cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) after wet digestion of the samples with concentrated nitric acid in a whole glass system. The parasol mushroom and horse mushroom showed a highest mercury concentrations and contained, respectively, 4500 +/- 1700 and 4400 +/- 2400 ng/g dry wt in caps, and 2800 +/- 1300 and 2800 +/- 2100 ng/g dry wt in stalks. In the case of fennel funnel cap and fairy-ring mushroom the mean total mercury concentrations in caps was above 500 ng/g dry wt, and for other species were between 150 +/- 50 and 500 +/- 230 ng/g dry wt. The stalks of the mushroom species examined in all cases showed lower contamination with mercury than caps. The mean total mercury concentrations noted in caps and stalks of mushrooms examined were usually higher than was reported till now in the same species elsewhere in Poland, while a maximum values found in an individual fruiting bodies are within the range of the concentrations noted in specimens collected from an unpolluted areas.

  18. Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms: Emerging Brain Food for the Mitigation of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2017-01-01

    There is an exponential increase in dementia in old age at a global level because of increasing life expectancy. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) will continue to rise steadily, and is expected to reach 42 million cases worldwide in 2020. Despite the advancement of medication, the management of these diseases remains largely ineffective. Therefore, it is vital to explore novel nature-based nutraceuticals to mitigate AD and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Mushrooms and their extracts appear to hold many health benefits, including immune-modulating effects. A number of edible mushrooms have been shown to contain rare and exotic compounds that exhibit positive effects on brain cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we summarize the scientific information on edible and culinary mushrooms with regard to their antidementia/AD active compounds and/or pharmacological test results. The bioactive components in these mushrooms and the underlying mechanism of their activities are discussed. In short, these mushrooms may be regarded as functional foods for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Elemental profile of edible mushrooms from a forest near a major Romanian city

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    Zsigmond Andreea R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We determined the elemental profile of 16 edible mushroom species from the Făget Forest, near Cluj-Napoca, and of 12 species from the Apuseni Mountains. One-way ANOVA showed no difference in the elemental content of mushrooms when the two regions were compared. Some species accumulated high amounts of trace elements, i.e. Boletus edulis (Ag, S, Zn, Macrolepiota procera (Cu, Lactarius volemus (Co, Russula emetica (Mn, Armillariella mellea, and Chantarellus cibarius (Cr. The cadmium content was the highest in the case of Leccinum scabrum and Boletus edulis. These two species presented elevated risk levels for all age-groups when they are consumed regularly.

  20. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  1. Structures of hydroxy fatty acids as the constituents of triacylglycerols in Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible Philippine mushrooms including Ganoderma lucidum have many health benefits. We have recently reported the identities and the contents of 77 molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) in this mushroom. The structures of these HFA were proposed using the electrospra...

  2. Identification of the molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids in wild edible mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible Philippine mushrooms including Ganoderma lucidum have many health benefits. Seventy-two molecular species of triacylglycerols and five molecular species of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in the lipid extract of this mushroom were identified by HPLC and MS. The mono-, di- ...

  3. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Sulyok, M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques...

  4. Effect of ionizing radiations on some organoleptic characteristics of edible mushroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.; Vas, K.

    1974-01-01

    Organoleptic characteristics - colour, odour, flavour and texture - of edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) in different stages of ripeness (half-ripe, ripe) were examined as a function of radiation dose, storage time as well as storage temperature, and humidity (3-5 0 C, 70-90% RH; 16 0 C, 65-75% RH). Immediately after irradiation the mushrooms assumed a slight brownish hue which, however, did not change on further storage. The brown discoloration of untreated mushroom progressed in the course of storage. The colour of the irradiated mushroom scarcely changed with storage time, tested on the 6th, 11th or 13th day. Other properties examined (odour, flavour, texture) were not affected by irradiation, either immediately upon treatment or during further storage. Ionizing radiation was found to exert favourable influence upon the organoleptic properties of picked mushrooms, and to delay the deterioration of these properties. Radiation treatment was found to preserve the characteristic mushroom odour and this is considered an advantage in canning. (F.J.)

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the appearance and composition of edible mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Darwish, Y.M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Fresh edible mushrooms picked with closed caps, and irradiated at 0, 1.0 and 2.5 kGy doses were stored for 8 days at 20+-2 0 C and investigated for the changes in ascorbic acid, protein contents, free alpha-amino N and total phenols. It was observed that during storage free alpha-amino N decreased significantly, while the protein contents remained somewhat constant till 4th day of storage. The ascorbic acid increased in the beginning and then decreased significantly. Total phenols decreased in the beginning and then accumulated during further storage. Irradiation had no effect on the proteins, but decreased ascorbic acid contents of mushrooms. The levels of free alpha-amino N and total phenols were significantly higher in irradiated treatments as compared to unirradiated mushrooms. (author)

  6. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de

    2008-01-01

    Artificial and natural radionuclides are commonly found in several compartments of the earth's crust. Some mushroom species have a high capacity to absorb radionuclides and toxic elements from the soil. Diet is considered as one of the main routes of radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactivity measurements in the environment and in food are extremely important to monitor the radiation levels that human can be exposed to either directly or indirectly. Environmental bio monitoring has demonstrated that diverse organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful when evaluating both the contamination and the quality of the ecosystems. There are actually several radionuclides that can be accumulated in mushrooms, including 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U. There are few studies in the Southern hemisphere countries, on the natural and artificial radioactivity levels in mushrooms. The present study evaluated 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U in commercialized edible mushrooms in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The edible mushroom samples were acquired in different commercial establishments in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, specifically in Municipal Markets. Some samples were acquired directly from producers located in the cities of Mogi das Cruzes, Mirandopolis, Suzano and Juquitiba. About 400g were collected for each edible mushroom species, which included Agaricus sp, Pleurotus sp and Lentinula sp species. All the samples were prepared and stored in polyethylene bottles for approximately 35 days, so that secular equilibrium could be established before counting. The 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U gamma activities were measured by gamma spectrometry. The equipment consisted of a Hyper pure Germanium detector connected to an electronic system. The detector efficiency was obtained from measurements of reference materials: IAEA-300, IAEA-327 and IAEA-375. The results for the specific activities in edible mushrooms samples ranged fi-om 461 to 1535 Bq kg -1

  7. Some Edible Mushrooms of Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt

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    Ali Keleş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted on macrofungi collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt between the years of 2010 and 2011. The colorful photographs of macrofungi in the natural habitat were taken and their morphological and ecological features were determined and the information on macrofungi given by local people was recorded. According to the field and laboratory studies; 44 edible macrofungi taxa belonging to 14 families and 5 ordos located in Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes classes were identified.

  8. Bioconcentration of artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms: in situ and in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dementyev, Dmitry V.; Manukovsky, Nikolai S.; Bolsunovsky, Alexander Ya.; Alexandrova, Yuliyana V. [Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Some areas of the Yenisei River basin are affected by the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC), producing weapons-grade plutonium. Flood plain soils of the Yenisei contain a wide range of artificial radionuclides, including transuranium elements, which can be accumulated by living organisms. Concentrations of artificial radionuclides and heavy metals accumulated by mushrooms may be several orders of magnitude higher than those accumulated by plants, and, thus, mushrooms may be used as bio-concentrators of radionuclides and heavy metals for bioremediation of contaminated areas. The purposes of this study were to investigate 1) species specificity of accumulation of artificial radionuclides by edible mushrooms in radioactively contaminated areas of the Yenisei River flood plain and 2) accumulation rates of artificial radionuclides, including transuranium elements, in mushrooms under laboratory conditions. Species specificity of accumulation of artificial radionuclides and uranium by mushrooms was analyzed for 12 species of edible mushrooms. The study was performed at the sites affected by MCC operation, which were divided into two groups: 1) the sites only affected by aerosol-bound radionuclides and 2) the sites that also received waterborne radionuclides. Field studies showed great interspecific variations in Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms. Activity concentrations of Cs-137 in bioindicator species Suillus granulatus and S. Luteus reached 10 kBq/kg dry weight. S. granulatus and S. luteus are concentrators of Cs-137, as suggested by the analysis of concentration factors (CFs), which reached 0.7-16 for these mushroom species. The CF of U-238 in fruiting bodies of the mushrooms was no greater than 0.11. Yenisei flood plain soils contain a wide range of transuranium elements, which can accumulate in environmental objects. Laboratory experiments on accumulation of Am-241 from solution by mycelium and Am-241 accumulation by fruiting bodies of mushrooms

  9. [Nutrient transfer and growth of Pinus greggii Engelm. inoculated with edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms in two substrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Chávez, María C; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Cetina-Alcalá, Víctor M; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz

    An ectomycorrhiza is a mutualistic symbiosis of paramount importance in forestry and tree production. One of the selection criteria of ectomycorrhizal fungi that has currently gained importance is their edibility due to the economic, ecological and cultural relevance of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms as a non-timber forest product. The effect of the inoculation with three edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms: Laccaria laccata, Laccaria bicolor y Hebeloma leucosarx, which are widely sold in Mexico, on the growth and nutrient contents of Pinus greggii grown in an experimental substrate and a commercial substrate enriched with a slow-release fertilizer, was evaluated. Two years after sowing, differences in terms of shoot and root biomass and macro and micronutrient contents between inoculated and non-inoculated plants, were recorded independently of the fungal species and the substrate. Despite the fact that plants grown in the commercial substrate had higher growth and nutrient contents, their ectomycorrhizal colonization percentages were smaller than those of the plants grown in the experimental substrate. The differences in the nutrient transfer to the inoculated plant shoots among the evaluated fungal species were recorded. Ca mobilization by L. laccata, Na by L. bicolor and Mn by H. leucosarx were observed in the plants growing in the experimental substrate. It has been demonstrated that the selection of substrates constitutes an important factor in the production of ectomycorrhizal plants and that the three evaluated species of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms have an enormous potential in the controlled mycorrhization of P. greggii. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms

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    Liping Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA to TAA was 0.13–0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%–54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  11. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of three wild edible mushrooms collected from northwest Tunisia

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    ibtissem Kacem Jedidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, many people collect wild edible mushrooms as pickers for their own consumption. The present work aims at contributing to the determination of the chemical composition, non volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids and minerals and trace elements of three popular Tunisian wild edible mushrooms species collected from the northwest of Tunisia (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius.All investigated mushrooms revealed that these species are rich sources of proteins (123.70 – 374.10 g kg-1 dry weight (DW and carbohydrates (403.3 – 722.40 g kg-1 DW, and low content of fat (28.2 – 39.9 g kg-1 DW; the highest energetic contribution was guaranteed by C. cibarius (1542.71 kJ / 100 g. A. compestris (33.14 mg/g DW showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids. The composition in individual sugars was also determined, mannitol and trehalose being the most abundant sugars. C. cibarius revealed the highest concentrations of carbohydrates (722.4 g kg-1 DW and A. compestris the lowest concentration (403.3 g kg-1 DW. Potassium (K and sodium (Na are the most abundant minerals in analyzed samples (A. compestris showed the highest concentrations of K and Na, 49141.44 and 9263.886 µg/g DW respectively.

  12. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

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    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  13. Amino and Fatty Acids of Wild Edible Mushrooms of the Genus Boletus

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    Dmitri O. Levitsky

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on the free amino acids of 15 wild edible mushroom species belonging to the genus Boletus (phylum Basidiomycota was developed. The major amino acids in the fruit bodies were arginine , alanine, glutamine, and glutamic acid. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic ( 9- 18:1, linoleic acid (9,12-18:2 , and palmitic acid (16:0, but a great variation of the ester composition from one to another one was found. Chemical constituents were characterized by GC-MS, and other chemical methods.

  14. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  15. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts.The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum asthe longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for theirvalorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  16. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts. The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum as the longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for their valorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  17. Correlation between the pattern volatiles and the overall aroma of wild edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, P Guedes; Ribeiro, Bárbara; Gonçalves, Rui F; Baptista, Paula; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2008-03-12

    Volatile and semivolatile components of 11 wild edible mushrooms, Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius, were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and by liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty volatiles and nonvolatiles components were formally identified and 13 others were tentatively identified. Using sensorial analysis, the descriptors "mushroomlike", "farm-feed", "floral", "honeylike", "hay-herb", and "nutty" were obtained. A correlation between sensory descriptors and volatiles was observed by applying multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchic cluster analysis) to the sensorial and chemical data. The studied edible mushrooms can be divided in three groups. One of them is rich in C8 derivatives, such as 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, trans-2-octen-1-ol, 3-octanone, and 1-octen-3-one; another one is rich in terpenic volatile compounds; and the last one is rich in methional. The presence and contents of these compounds give a considerable contribution to the sensory characteristics of the analyzed species.

  18. UTILIZATION OF AREN (Arenga pinnata Merr. SAWMILLING WASTE FOR EDIBLE MUSHROOM CULTIVATION MEDIA

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    Djarwanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr. is a multipurpose tree that can be utilized for palm sugar, alcoholic drinks, beverages and construction wood. The use of aren sawdust has not been studied intensively. This study examines the utilization of aren sawdust as cultivation media for edible mushrooms. Aren sawdust was mixed with rice bran, CaCO3, gypsum, fertilizers and distilled water before sterilization in 30 minutes pressurized autoclave at 1210C and 1.5atm. The mixed media was inoculated with pure cultures containing four mushrooms species (Pleurotus flabellatus, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes and incubated for five weeks to allow mycelium growth producing fruit bodies. The fruit bodies were harvested everyday within four months and examined for its gained mushroom-weight and biological conversion efficiency/BE. The core part of aren trunk was cut into smaller pieces of 10 cm (width by 5 cm (thickness, by 120 cm (length. Each core sample was bored from the surface inward, creating holes with a particular distance apart. Each hole was inoculated with pure cultures containing 6 mushroom species (four species above, P. cystidiosus and Auricularia polytricha. The inoculated samples were slanted on bamboo support, and placed in a bamboo hut. Harvesting was carried out everyday after the fruiting body became mature and examined for its gained mushroom weight. Results show that the use of sawdust supplemented with nutritious material is more likely to improve the mushroom yield than that of aren sawn-timber core. In this case, the BE values with aren-sawdust media were 21.97-89.45% (P. flabellatus, 15.36-105.36% (P. ostreatus, 63.88-76.86% (P. sajor-caju, and up to 62.88% (L. edodes. Meanwhile, the yields (gained mushroom weight with aren sawn-timber media were 210g (P. ostreatus, 368g (P. flabellatus, 331g (P. sajor-caju and 48g (A. polytricha; however, P. cystidiosus and L. edodes inoculated on aren stem core failed to grow.

  19. Olive Mill Waste Enhances α-Glucan Content in the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

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    Sharon Avni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus. Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.

  20. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of dried wild edible mushrooms from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzki, Wojciech; Sławińska, Aneta; Jabłońska-Ryś, Ewa; Gustaw, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    In this study 6 species of wild edible mushrooms were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay methods. The mushrooms, namely Armillaria mellea, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus, and Boletus badius, were dried using both freeze drying and convection drying at 50°C. The amounts of phenolic compounds varied from 3.0 ± 0.1 to 12.8 ± 0.4 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (for water extracts) and from 2.4 ± 0.1 to 11 ± 0.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (for ethanolic extracts). The species that presented the highest antioxidant potential were B. badius and S. luteus. The impact of hot-air drying on the antioxidant activity of water and ethanolic extracts was evaluated. We demonstrated that hot-air drying may have either a negative or positive influence on phenolics and antioxidant activity, depending on the mushroom species. However, a negative effect was more frequent.

  1. Comparative study on free amino acid composition of wild edible mushroom species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bárbara; Andrade, Paula B; Silva, Branca M; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Valentão, Patrícia

    2008-11-26

    A comparative study on the amino acid composition of 11 wild edible mushroom species (Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius) was developed. To define the qualitative and quantitative profiles, a derivatization procedure with dabsyl chloride was performed, followed by HPLC-UV-vis analysis. Twenty free amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, proline, arginine, isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, cysteine, ornithine, lysine, histidine, and tyrosine) were determined. B. edulis and T. equestre were revealed to be the most nutritional species, whereas F. hepatica was the poorest. The different species exhibited distinct free amino acid profiles. The quantification of the identified compounds indicated that, in a general way, alanine was the major amino acid. The results show that the analyzed mushroom species possess moderate amino acid contents, which may be relevant from a nutritional point of view because these compounds are indispensable for human health. A combination of different mushroom species in the diet would offer good amounts of amino acids and a great diversity of palatable sensations.

  2. STUDIES ON ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS BOLETUS EDULIS AND CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS

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    Daniela Elena ZAVASTIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antimicrobial effects of both ethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts of the fruiting bodies of wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis (penny bun and Cantharellus cibarius (golden chanterelle sampled in Poiana Stampei (Suceava county, Romania. The total phenolic contents of extracts were also determined. Boletus edulis hydromethanolic extract showed the highest total phenolic content (72.78±0.29 mg/g. This extract was also the most active as scavenger of DPPH and ABTS radicals (EC50=151.44±0.85 and 65.4±0.4 µg/mL, respectively and reducing agent (EC50=46.77±0.34 µg/mL. Cantharellus cibarius ethanolic extract showed high ferrous ion chelating (EC50=82.9±0.6 µg/mL, 15-lipoxygenase (EC50=236.7±1.5 µg/mL and α-glucosidase (EC50=9.77±0.06 μg/mL inhibitory activities. For both mushrooms, the ethanolic extracts were more active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 than the hydromethanolic ones. The antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects revealed in this study support further investigations for a possible valorization of both mushrooms in the dietary supplement and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Antioxidant activities of extracts from five edible mushrooms using different extractants

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    Suphaphit Boonsong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractions were performed of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of five edible mushroom samples—Lentinus edodes, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus eous, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Auricularia auricular—using three different extractants. Among the three different extractants, 50% (volume per volume; v/v ethanol was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction from the mushroom samples. The 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes contained higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than in the other mushroom extract samples. The antioxidant activities of 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes showed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay (64.34% compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. The ethanolic extract showed a lower reducing power of 0.10 compared to BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. Moreover, the L. edodes ethanolic extract also had the highest chelating ability (66.28% which was lower than for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at 500 μg/mL and showed the strongest superoxide radical-scavenging activity (64.17% compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Therefore, the 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of L. edodes could be used as a potential natural antioxidative source or as an ingredient in the fish and fishery product industries.

  4. [An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by poisonous Boletus mushroom in Sichuan, China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-jun; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Lun-guang; Zhang, Li-jie; Shi, Guo-qing; Wang, Qi-xing

    2012-12-01

    To identify the source of infection and risk factors and to provide control measures regarding an outbreak of gastroenteritis involving 30 villagers. Who attended the same wedding party held on March 5(th), 2012, a survey was carried out. Case was defined as having onset of vomiting, nausea, stomachache or diarrhea among the attendees of a wedding party. We randomly selected and interviewed 140 from 470 attendees on their symptoms and food exposures at the wedding. We compared food-specific attack rates (AR) for gastroenteritis in a retrospective cohort study. The leftover foods were tested for Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. The leftover Boletus mushrooms were examined and species determined by the Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Of the 140 attendees 61% (85) developed gastroenteritis. Case-attendees had vomiting (94%), nausea (89%), stomachache (53%), and diarrhea (51%). The AR among attendees who ate Boletus mushroom was 69% (81/118), compared to 18% (4/22) of those who did not (RR = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.2). When comparing the ARs between the attendees on consumption of other foods, data did not show statistically significant differences. Among the 7 species of Boletus identified from the leftover mushrooms, 3 (B. venenatus, B. sinicus and B. magnificus) were toxic. Store keepers bought dried or fresh mushrooms from local villagers who had picked up them from the mountains. Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus tests on those leftover food showed negative results. Poisonous Boletus mushroom contributed to this outbreak. We recommended that education should be targeted on mushroom-pickers regarding how to recognize the poisonous mushrooms. Regulations and laws should also be developed to facilitate the necessary process.

  5. A Model to Estimate Willingness to Pay for Harvest Permits for Wild Edible Mushrooms: Application to Andalusian Forests

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    Pablo de Frutos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Public demand for harvesting wild edible mushrooms has risen in recent decades and currently affects many forested areas around the world. The idea of introducing permits for users has been conceived as a tool for ecosystem management. The problem is that policy-makers lack the necessary means to help guide them when establishing prices for such harvesting permits. Valuing the recreational benefits which mushroom harvesters derive from harvesting wild edible mushrooms may provide certain guidelines as to how much people would be willing to pay and may also justify future payments levied on harvesters. The aim of the present article is to estimate a model for determining citizens’ willingness to pay for a harvesting permit in a forest in Andalusia (Spain using contingent valuation methods. Results show that mean willingness to pay is 22.61 Euros (USD28.18 per harvester and season. This amount depends on several socioeconomic factors and preferences related to harvesters’ experiences.

  6. Contents of carboxylic acids and two phenolics and antioxidant activity of dried portuguese wild edible mushrooms.

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    Ribeiro, Barbara; Rangel, Joana; Valentão, Patrícia; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2006-11-01

    The organic acids and phenolics compositions of nine wild edible mushrooms species (Suillus bellini, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Suillus luteus, and Suillus granulatus) were determined by HPLC-UV and HPLC-DAD, respectively. The antioxidant potential of these species was also assessed by using the DPPH* scavenging assay. The results showed that all of the species presented a profile composed of at least five organic acids: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, and fumaric acids. In a general way, the pair of malic plus quinic acids were the major compounds. Only very small amounts of two phenolic compounds were found in some of the analyzed species: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (in A. rubescens, R. cyanoxantha, and T. equestre) and quercetin (in S. luteus and S. granulatus). All of the species exhibited a concentration-dependent scavenging ability against DPPH*. T. rutilans revealed the highest antioxidant capacity.

  7. Efficient CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Disruption System in Edible-Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps militaris

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    Bai-Xiong Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris is a well-known edible medicinal mushroom in East Asia that contains abundant and diverse bioactive compounds. Since traditional genome editing systems in C. militaris were inefficient and complicated, here, we show that the codon-optimized cas9, which was used with the newly reported promoter Pcmlsm3 and terminator Tcmura3, was expressed. Furthermore, with the help of the negative selection marker ura3, a CRISPR-Cas9 system that included the Cas9 DNA endonuclease, RNA presynthesized in vitro and a single-strand DNA template efficiently generated site-specific deletion and insertion. This is the first report of a CRISPR-Cas9 system in C. militaris, and it could accelerate the genome reconstruction of C. militaris to meet the need for rapid development in the fungi industry.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of crude fractions and morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms of North western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2017-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms (Morchella esculenta and Verpa bohemica) from Kashmir valley was investigated against different clinical pathogens. The butanol crude fraction of most popular or true morel M. esculenta showed highest 19 mm IZD against E.coli while as same fraction of Verpa bohemica exhibited 15 mm IZD against same strain. The ethyl acetate and butanol crude fractions of both morels also exhibited good antifungal activity with highest IZD shown against A. fumigates. The three morel compounds showed quite impressive anti bacterial and fungal activities. The Cpd 3 showed highest inhibitory activity almost equivalent to the synthetic antibiotics used as control. The MIC/MBC values revealed the efficiency of isolated compounds against the pathogenic strains. In the current study significant inhibitory activity of morel compounds have been obtained paying the way for their local use from ancient times. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin jing; Shi, Liang; Chen, Hui; Sun, Yun qi; Zhao, Ming wen; Ren, Ang; Chen, Ming jie; Wang, Hong; Feng, Zhi yong

    2014-01-01

    Hypsizygus marmoreus is one of the major edible mushrooms in East Asia. As no efficient transformation method, the molecular and genetics studies were hindered. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene of H. marmoreus was isolated and its promoter was used to drive the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in H. marmoreus. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied in H. marmoreus. The transformation parameters were optimized, and it was found that co-cultivation of bacteria with protoplast at a ratio of 1000:1 at a temperature of 26 °C in medium containing 0.3 mM acetosyringone resulted in the highest transformation efficiency for Agrobacterium strain. Besides, three plasmids, each carrying a different promoter (from H. marmoreus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinula edodes) driving the expression of an antibiotic resistance marker, were also tested. The construct carrying the H. marmoreus gpd promoter produced more transformants than other constructs. Our analysis showed that over 85% of the transformants tested remained mitotically stable even after five successive rounds of subculturing. Putative transformants were analyzed for the presence of hph gene by PCR and Southern blot. Meanwhile, the expression of EGFP in H. marmoreus transformants was detected by fluorescence imaging. This ATMT system increases the transformation efficiency of H. marmoreus and may represent a useful tool for molecular genetic studies in this mushroom species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological effects and ISSR analysis of 60Co γ-irradiation on edible mushroom mycelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Weiming; Feng Weilin; Jin Qunli; Fan Lijun; Wu Yongzhi

    2009-01-01

    Mycelia of Agaricus bitorquis, Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at the dose of 0, 200, 500 and 800 Gy. The results showed that irradiation inhibited their mycelia growth positively. Of the three edible mushroom, Agaricus bitorquis was the most sensitive one to irradiation, its mycelia died at the dose of 800 Gy. Germination rate, growth rate and vigor of all mycelia irradiated with un-lethal doses increased along with the times of transfer of culture. Electrical conductivity (EC) analysis showed that irradiation increased EC of leaching solution of mycelia positively. The EC of leaching solution of mycelia of Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii irradiated with 500 Gy, Agaricus bitorquis irradiated with 200 Gy, were significantly higher than CK. ISSR analysis revealed that 60 Co γ irradiation effect on DNA variation of Agaricus bitorquis, Flammulina velutipes and pleurotus eryngii mycelia in varying degrees. Number of polymorphic bands changed after irradiation. Flawing bands and increasing bands were observed in amplified bands of 14 selected ISSR primers. The ISSR variation rates of Agaricus bitorquis for 200 Gy and 599 Gy treatments were 33.3% and 50.5%; the ISSR variation rates of Flammulina velutipes for 200 Gy, 500 Gy and 800 Gy treatments were 2.3%, 2.3% and 3.1%, that of Pleurotus eryngii were 8.6%, 13.4% and 20.0%. It is possible to use 60 Co γ irradiation as a mutagen to screen new mushroom varieties. (authors)

  11. Analysis of several heavy metals in wild edible mushrooms from regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Qiu, Guan-Zhou

    2009-08-01

    The metal (Cu, Ni, Cd, Hg, As, Pb) contents in wild edible mushrooms collected from three different sites in China were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. A total of 11 species was studied, five being from the urban area and six from rural areas in China. The As content ranged from 0.44 to 1.48 mg/kg. The highest As content was seen in Macrolepiota crustosa from the urban area, and the lowest in Russula virescens from rural areas. A high Ni concentration (1.35 mg/kg) was found in Calvatia craniiformis from the urban area. The lowest Ni level was 0.11 mg/kg, for the species R. virescens and Cantharellus cibarius. The Cu content ranged from 39.0 to 181.5 mg/kg. The highest Cu content was seen in Agaricus silvaticus and the lowest in C. cibarius. The Pb content ranged from 1.9 to 10.8 mg/kg. The highest Pb value was found in C. craniiformis. The Cd content ranged from 0.4 to 91.8 mg/kg. The highest Cd value was found in M. crustosa. The Hg content ranged from 0.28 to 3.92 mg/kg. The highest Hg level was found in Agaricus species. The levels of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, and Hg in the studied mushroom species from urban area can be considered high. The metal-to-metal correlation analysis supported they were the same source of contamination. High automobile traffic was identified as the most likely source of the contamination. Based upon the present safety standards, consumption of those mushrooms that grow in the polluted urban area should be avoided.

  12. Comparative study of mycelial growth and basidiomata formation in seven different species of the edible mushroom genus Hericium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Han Gyu; Park, Hyuk Gu; Park, Sang Ho; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Park, Won Mok

    2005-09-01

    The potential of using several agricultural by-products as supplements of sawdust substrate for the production of edible mushroom Hericium was evaluated using seven Hericium species. All the tested supplements (rice bran, wheat bran, barley bran, Chinese cabbage, egg shell, and soybean powder) were found to be suitable for the mycelial growth of all the tested species. In mycelial growth, soybean powder was the best supplement for Hericium americanum, Hericium coralloides, and Hericium erinaceum while barley bran was the best for Hericium alpestre, Hericium laciniatum, and Hericium erinaceus. For Hericium abietis, rice bran and Chinese cabbage was the best. The possibility of mushroom production on oak sawdust substrate with 20% rice bran supplement was demonstrated with H. coralloides, H. americanum, H. erinaceus, and H. erinaceum which showed 26-70% biological efficiency. Our results also showed that strain selection is important to improve biological efficiency and mushroom yield in Hericium cultivation.

  13. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  14. Determination of mineral contents of wild Boletus edulis mushroom and its edible safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiuyan; Zhang, Ji; Li, Jieqing; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2018-04-06

    This study aimed to determine the contents of main mineral elements of wild Boletus edulis and to assess its edible safety, which may provide scientific evidence for the utilization of this species. Fourteen mineral contents (Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr, V and Zn) in the caps and stipes of B. edulis as well as the corresponding surface soils collected from nine different geographic regions in Yunnan Province, southwest China were determined. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) after microwave digestion. Measurement data were analyzed using variance and Pearson correlation analysis. Edible safety was evaluated according to the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of heavy metals recommended by United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Mineral contents were significantly different with the variance of collection areas. B. edulis showed relative abundant contents of Ca, Fe, Mg and Na, followed by Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn, and the elements with the lower content less were Cd, Co, Ni, Sr and V. The elements accumulation differed significantly in caps and stipes. Among them, Cd and Zn were bioconcentrated (BCF > 1) while others were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). The mineral contents in B. edulis and its surface soil were positively related, indicating that the elements accumulation level was related to soil background. In addition, from the perspective of food safety, if an adult (60 kg) eats 300 g fresh B. edulis per week, the intake of Cd in most of tested mushrooms were lower than PTWI value whereas the Cd intakes in some other samples were higher than this standard. The results indicated that the main mineral contents in B. edulis were significantly different with respect to geographical distribution, and the Cd intake in a few of regions was higher than the acceptable intakes with a potential risk.

  15. Mating system of five edible species of the mushroom, genus Lentinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhitaphichit, P.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the types of mating system of five edible mushrooms in the genus Lentinus, i.e. Lentinus squarrosulus, L. polychrous, L. strigosus, L. giganteus and L. sajor-caju including the well-known edible, medicinal and industrialized species, Lentinula edodes. Lentinus and Lentinula are closely related species. The experiments were carried out by crossing each pair of 12 single spore isolates (SSIs, monokaryons from one single fruiting body of each species in all combinations by placing each pair of the inocula, about 2 cm apart, on a PDA plate at 30oC for 1 week for all species of Lentinus, or on a MEA plate at 25oC for 2-3 weeks for Lentinula edodes, followed by examination of clamp connections on the hyphae at the contact zone. The presence or absence of clamps indicates compatible or incompatible mating, respectively. The ratios of the number of compatible matings to the number of total matings of all the species were determined to be 1:4. This ratio indicated that the sexuality of all the six species is bifactorial (tetrapolar heterothallism. These results indicated to some extent that species belonged to the same or related genus tend to have the same mating type. This is the first report about mating system of Lentinus species except that of Lentinula edodes. The results of the 12 SSIs were also separated into four groups according to their four mating types (i.e. A1B1, A1B2, A2B1 and A2B2.

  16. Photocatalytic, antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised using forest and edible mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramulu, Mohana; Sumathi, Shanmugam

    2017-12-01

    Mushroom has been part of the human diet for thousands of years, and in recent times, the amounts consumed have risen greatly, involving a large number of species. Mushrooms used for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. In this study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using an edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and forest mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) extract. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, powder XRD and SEM. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised at room temperature and at 60 °C. FTIR results recognised the presence of bioactive functional groups responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. From the XRD, it was observed that the nanoparticles are silver with an average size of 10-80 nm. The silver nanoparticles are explored for photocatalytic activity and biological activities such as in vitro antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus organisms. 98% of textile dye (direct blue 71) degradation was noticed under UV light within 150 min for forest mushroom synthesised silver nanoparticles at room temperature.

  17. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species II. A comparison of aluminium, barium and nutritional element contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare accumulation efficiency of Al, Ba and nutritional elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na) exhibited by six edible mushrooms collected in particular regions of Poland during the last 20 years. The studied mushroom species were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus and Xerocomus badius. The highest and the lowest concentrations of the elements in tested mushroom species were 11 - 410, 34 - 337, 16785 - 34600, 140 - 607, 12 - 75 and 16 - 143 mg kg(-1)d.m., respectively. The highest average concentrations of Al, Mg and Mn were observed in Suillus luteus fruiting bodies, while for Ba, Ca, K and Na it was in Lactarius deliciosus. BCF >1 was found for K and Mg in all tested mushroom species and additionally for the highest Ca and Na concentrations of all tested mushroom species except for C. cibarius and S. luteus, respectively. For the other tested elements (Al, Ba, Fe and Mn) BCF values < 1 were recorded.

  18. MERCURY IN EDIBLE WILD-GROWN MUSHROOMS FROM HISTORICAL MINING AREA – SLOVAKIA: BIOACCUMULATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we focused on assessment of the contamination levels of five species (n = 33 of edible wild mushrooms (Macrolepiota procera, Boletus reticulatus, Suillus grevillei, Russula xerampelina and Xerocomellus chrysenteron. We collected samples of above-ground parts of the macroscopic fungi species in historical mining and processing area surrounding Banská Bystrica (Central Slovakia in 2014. Within 2 m radius of the samples, we also took samples of underlying substrate. On the basis of the substrate, along with the monitored contaminant – mercury, we calculated bioaccumulation factors for individual species and their anatomical parts (cap and stipe. From the obtained results of the mercury content in the edible mushrooms, we then determined provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI. The limit value for mercury (0.350 mg Hg kg-1 for an individual with average weight of 70 kg is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO. Our results suggest that despite the relatively low level of Hg in the underlying substrate, the species Macrolepiota procera (1.98 mg kg-1 ± 68.2 (0.41 - 3.20 mg kg-1 DW is characterized by extremely high bioaccumulation ability, as confirmed by the bioaccumulation factors (BAFc = 15.3; BAFs = 8.02. PTWI value was exceeded by almost 20%. In case of the other studied edible wild mushroom species, we did not record any increased risk of mercury intake by consumers. Generally it can be stated that consumption of wild mushrooms represents a relatively small but significant risk of negative impact on the consumer´s health.

  19. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation.

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    Lianfu Chen

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation.

  20. Evaluation of edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii cultivation on different lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Li, Zhiming; Liu, Yu; Rong, Chengbo; Wang, Shouxian

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the mycelial growth rate, mycelial colonization time, yield, and biological efficiency of the edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii were determined, and the effects of different substrate combinations on productivity, chemical contents and amino acids were evaluated. Lignocellulosic wastes, such as cottonseed hull, sawdust, corncob, and their combinations supplemented with 18% wheat bran and 2% lime, were used for the cultivation of O. canarii. The biological efficiency (BE) and essential amino acid content of treatment T1, which consisted of 80% cottonseed hull, were the highest among all the tested treatments. Mixtures that included sawdust, such as treatments T2 (80% sawdust), T4 (40% sawdust + 40% cottonseed hull), and T6 (40% sawdust + 40% corncob), exhibited lower yield and BE. Corncob was good for O. canarii production in terms of yield and BE, whereas the mycelial growth rate and colonization time were lower compared to those on other substrates. Comparing the BE, essential amino acids, and other traits of the six treatments, treatment T1 (80% cottonseed hull) was the best formula for O. canarii cultivation and should be extended in the future.

  1. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianfu; Gong, Yuhua; Cai, Yingli; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Zhangyi; Liu, Yin; Lei, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gangzheng; Guo, Mengpei; Ma, Xiaolong; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation. PMID:27500531

  2. Identification of rare 6-deoxy-D-altrose from an edible mushroom (Lactarius lividatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Masakuni; Dobashi, Yahiko; Tamaki, Yukihiro; Konishi, Teruko; Yamada, Masashi; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto

    2012-03-01

    6-Deoxy-L-altrose is well known as a constituent sugar moiety of lipopolysaccharides in Gram-negative bacteria. However, its isomer, 6-deoxy-D-altrose, is little known. Identification of 6-deoxy-D-altrose isolated from a polysaccharide extracted from an edible mushroom (Lactarius lividatus), its comparison with chemically synthesized 6-deoxy-D-altrose using (1)H and (13)C NMR including COSY, HMQC spectroscopy, and investigation of its specific optical rotation were all conducted in this study. The 6-deoxy-hexose isolated from acid hydrolysate of the polysaccharide extracted from L. lividatus was involved in four anomeric isomers (α-pyranose and β-pyranose, and α-furanose and β-furanose), as was chemically synthesized 6-deoxy-d-altrose in an aqueous solution because of mutarotation. Almost all signals of 1D ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and 2D (COSY and HMQC)-NMR spectra agreed with those of the authentic 6-deoxy-D-altrose. The specific optical rotation [α](589) of 6-deoxy-sugar showed a value of +18.2°, which was in agreement with that of authentic 6-deoxy-D-altrose. Consequently, 6-deoxy-hexose was identified as the 6-deoxy-D-altrose. This work is the first complete identification of 6-deoxy-D-altrose in a natural environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the common edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Maria E; Irazoqui, Fernando J; Lardone, Ricardo D; Nores, Gustavo A; Curtino, Juan A; Capaldi, Stefano; Perduca, Massimiliano; Monaco, Hugo L

    2004-04-01

    The lectin from the common edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (ABL) belongs to the group of proteins that have the property of binding the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T-antigen) selectively and with high affinity, but does not show any sequence similarity to the other proteins that share this property. The ABL sequence is instead similar to those of members of the saline-soluble fungal lectins, a protein family with pesticidal properties. The presence of different isoforms has been reported. It has been found that in order to be able to grow diffraction-quality crystals of the lectin, it is essential to separate the isoforms, which was performed by preparative isoelectric focusing. Using standard procedures, it was possible to crystallize the most basic of the forms by either vapour diffusion or equilibrium dialysis, but attempts to grow crystals of the other more acidic forms were unsuccessful. The ABL crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 93.06, b = 98.16, c = 76.38 A, and diffract to a resolution of 2.2 A on a conventional source at room temperature. It is expected that the solution of this structure will yield further valuable information on the differences in the T-antigen-binding folds and will perhaps help to clarify the details of the ligand binding to the protein.

  4. Phytochemicals and heavy metals analysis of methanolic extract of edible mushrooms collected from Karak District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To qualitatively evaluate the phytochemicals and quantitatively determine the heavy metals of three species of edible mushrooms collected from the Karak area of Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. Methods: The plant sample was subjected to methanolic extraction. The extraction was then concentrated by using rotary evaporator. The methanolic extract was screened for the qualitative study of various phytochemicals and quantitative measurement of heavy metals. Results: A maximum of phytochemicals were confirmed by carring out different tests. Among the different phytochemicals, alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and carbohydrates were found to be present in the extracts, while saponins and glycosides were not detected. Similarly quantitative study of heavy metals was also conducted on the same extracts of the edible mushrooms. The results suggested that iron was present in maximum concentration than all other metals and nickel was found to be present in little amount when compared with other metals. All the metals were found present. Conclusions: The concentrations of heavy metals were investigated in the samples which were different in all samples. The presence of different phytochemicals in the mushroom is the key for its active biological profile.

  5. Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these mushrooms have effects similar to the drug LSD . Sometimes Called: shrooms, magic mushrooms How It's Used: ... this topic for: Teens Drugs: What to Know LSD Dealing With Addiction Marijuana Bath Salts Depressants GHB ...

  6. 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwynn, Justin P.; Nalbandyan, Anna; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses activity concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb, 40 K and 137 Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of 210 Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of 210 Po and 40 K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate 210 Po and/or translocate 210 Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of 137 Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by 210 Po, while for berries, 40 K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 40 K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of 210 Po. - Highlights: ► 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were typically less than one for berries. ► 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were all greater than one for mushrooms. ► Dose rates from mushrooms were dominated by 210 Po and by 40 K for berries. ► Wild foods can give a significant contribution to total annual ingestion dose.

  7. Characterization of edible marijuana product exposures reported to United States poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dazhe; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Bronstein, Alvin C; Hoyte, Christopher O

    2016-11-01

    Edible marijuana products are sold as brownies, cookies, and candies, which may be indistinguishable from counterparts without marijuana and are palatable to children and adults. The consumption of an entire product containing multiple dose-units may result in overdose. To characterize edible marijuana exposures reported to US poison centers with subgroup analysis by age. We analyzed single substance, human exposure calls coded to marijuana brownies, candies, cookies, beverages, or other foods reported to the National Poison Data System from January 2013 to December 2015. Calls were analyzed by state, age, gender, exposure route, clinical effect, therapies, and level of healthcare facility utilization. Four-hundred and thirty calls were reported: Colorado (N = 166, 1.05/100,000 population/year) and Washington (96, 0.46) yielded the highest number of exposures. Three hundred and eighty-one (91%) calls occurred in states with decriminalized medical/recreational marijuana. The number of calls increased every year of the study. The most common age groups were: ≤5 years (N = 109, 0.15/100,000 population/year) and 13-19 (78, 0.09). The most frequent clinical effects were drowsiness/lethargy (N = 118, percentage = 43%), tachycardia (84, 31%), agitated/irritable (37, 14%), and confusion (37, 14%). Children ≤5 years have more drowsiness/lethargy, ataxia, and red eye/conjunctivitis. No deaths were reported. The most common therapies administered were intravenous fluids (85, 20%), dilute/irrigate/wash (48, 11 %), and benzodiazepines (47, 11%). Three patients (ages 4, 10, and 57 years) received intubation. 97 (23%), 217 (50%), and 12 (3%) calls were managed at home, treated/released, admitted to a critical care unit, respectively. Although most clinical effects are minor, ventilatory support may be necessary for children and adults. We speculate the increasing exposures may be related to a combination of delayed absorption kinetics of Δ9

  8. Macro and trace elements in edible mushrooms, Shiitake, Shimeji and Cardoncello from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylei Monteiro Gonçalves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of twenty-five elements (Al, As, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb , Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V and Zn were determined in three edible mushrooms, Shiitake (Lentinula edodes, Black Shimeji (Pleurotus ostreatusi and Cardoncello (Pleurotus eryngyii from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected along the year 2010 and their preparations were made after drying, milling, an acid pre-digestion and a decomposition procedure in a muffle furnace. The analytical techniques employed for the elements determination were Mass Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Two certified reference materials, Apple Leaves and Mussel Tissue, were used for the evaluation of the analytical procedure and recovery values around 98% were obtained. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms have high levels of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn containing more than 30% the recommended daily intake for these nutrients according to Brazilian legislation. These mushrooms presented a very low ratio Na/K. Regarding the levels of some contaminants, the mushrooms had concentrations of Cd, Pb and As below the recommended maximum limits allowed by Brazilian legislation.

  9. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation.

  10. [Knowledge of students of tourism and recreation Academy of Physical Education on wild mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Prophylaxis of acute poisoning with mushrooms is justified because of the relatively high risk of death associated with these intoxications. Mushrooming in Poland has a long tradition and knowledge about mushrooms is usually passed on in families. In recent years the mushrooming becomes an organized form of recreation. Graduates of tourism and recreation should have a minimum of reliable knowledge about mushrooms, to ensure the safety of persons entrusted to their care. The knowledge of wild mushrooms among students of tourism and recreation was tested by means of questionnaire. Mushrooms gathered 108 out of 125 respondents. The primary source of knowledge about mushrooms for 84% of the mushrooms pickers were the parents. Up to 70% of respondents considered at least one of irrational methods useful to distinguish edible mushrooms from the poisonous. Thirteen percent of those polled believed that by simple means mushrooms may be deprived of their toxic properties. Knowledge of the only one deadly poisonous mushrooms growing in Poland was 53%. The tourism and recreation students must pass basic knowledge about mushrooms and identify reliable sources of knowledge in this field.

  11. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  12. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECI SALES-CAMPOS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. (“marupá”, Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. (“pau-de-balsa” and Anacardium giganteum (“cajuí” sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (“pupunheira” stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse. The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18 – 21.5% varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  13. Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific Northwest: a preface to managing commercial harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Molina; Thomas O' Dell; Daniel Luoma; Michael Amaranthus; Michael Castellano; Kenelm. Russell

    1993-01-01

    The commercial harvest of edible forest fungi has mushroomed into a multimillion dollar industry with several thousand tons harvested annually. The development of this special forest product industry has raised considerable controversy about how this resource should be managed, especially on public lands. Concerns center around destruction of forest habitat by repeated...

  14. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em cogumelos comestiveis por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-07-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  15. A Comparative Study of Temperature Optimal Control in a Solid State Fermentation Process for Edible Mushroom Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Gurubel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, optimal control strategies for temperature trajectory determination in order to maximize thermophilic bacteria in a fed-batch solid-state fermentation reactor are proposed. This process is modeled by nonlinear differential equations, which has been previously validated experimentally with scale reactor temperature profiles. The dynamic input aeration rate of the reactor is determined to increase microorganisms growth of a selective substrate for edible mushroom cultivation. In industrial practice, the process is comprised of three thermal stages with constant input air flow and three types of microorganisms in a 150-hour lapse. Scytalidium thermophilum and actinobacteria are desired in order to obtain a final biomass composition with acceptable microorganisms concentration. The Steepest Descent gradient algorithm in continuous time and the Gradient Projection algorithm in discrete-time are used for the process optimal control. A comparison of simulation results in the presence of disturbances is presented, where the resulting temperature trajectories exhibit similar tendencies as industrial data.

  16. HPLC detection of soluble carbohydrates involved in mannitol and trehalose metabolism in the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannet, W J; Hermans, J H; van Der Drift, C; Op Den Camp, H J

    2000-02-01

    A convenient and sensitive method was developed to separate and detect various types of carbohydrates (polyols, mono- and disaccharides, and phosphorylated sugars) simultaneously using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method consists of a chromatographic separation on a CarboPac PA1 anion-exchange analytical column followed by pulsed amperometric detection. In a single run (43 min) 13 carbohydrates were readily resolved. Calibration plots were linear over the ranges of 5-25 microM to 1. 0-1.5 mM. The reliable and fast analysis technique, avoiding derivatization steps and long run times, was used to determine the levels of carbohydrates involved in mannitol and trehalose metabolism in the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Moreover, the method was used to study the trehalose phosphorylase reaction.

  17. Edible wild mushroom tourism as a source of income and employment in rural areas. The case of Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frutos Madrazo, P. de; Martinez Pena, F.; Esteban Laleona, S.

    2012-11-01

    Edible wild mushroom picking is becoming an important source of income in rural areas. The wide range of activities which add value to mycological production (initial sale, transformation, marketing, etc.) include those related to tourism which can attract visitors to mushroom producing areas, leading to so-called mycological tourism. To date, no research exists quantifying the importance thereof in rural areas endowed with such resources. The present research provides the first model to estimate this activity contribution to the economy of rural areas in the region of Castilla y Leon. The main finding to emerge evidences a close link between influx of visitors, who come principally to pick, and mycological productivity in the region. Based on this relation, we estimate four key variables to determine the impact which said activity has on the regional economy as a whole: the number of overnight stays and trips made by mycological tourists, as well as associated expenditure and employment created. Findings underscore the importance of this activity in the regional tourism industry and point to its significance as a major market niche, particularly during the hotel low season. The need for public administrators to implement a related management policy is also inferred. (Author) 35 refs.

  18. Genetic diversity of edible mushroom pleurotus spp. revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic dna fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N. A.; Awan, F. S.; Khan, A. I.; Waseem, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus) cultivation is a profitable agribusiness and having high significance due its nutritive and therapeutic value. Due to deficient knowledge on Pleurotus mushroom genetics seven strains of Oyster mushroom, two local and five exotic were studied for their genetic diversity through RAPD markers. It was clear from similarity matrix that similarity index ranges from 45 to 72%. The cluster analysis of combined data set of all the markers resulted in three major clades, while isolate P-17 remains ungrouped and shown to be the most diverse strain of the seven. During amplification of genomic DNA yielded 70 fragments that could be scored, of which 41 were polymorphic, with an average of 2.73 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments with random primers ranged from three to six. Polymorphism ranged from 0% to 83.33%, with an overall 58% polymorphism. The allele frequency of RAPD primers ranged from 0.71 to 1.00 while the polymorphic information content highest for the primer GL-C-20 (0.29) followed by the primers GL A-20 and GL C-16 that is zero, indicating medium level of polymorphism among the strains of Oyster mushroom. The objective of the study was to characterize Pleurotus strains collected from different origins and to find out the variability at molecular level. (author)

  19. DNA marking of some quantitative trait loci in the cultivated edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivolapova, A.B.; Shnyreva, A.V.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Pleurotus, in particular, species Pleurotus ostreatus (common oyster mushroom) are among most cultivated fungi in the world. Due to intense rates of development of studies in this field, efficient breeding programs are highly required in the search for new P. ostreatus strains.

  20. Use of edible and medicinal mushrooms spent compost in remediation of polluted soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šašek, Václav; Eggen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-3 (2001), s. 215 ISSN 1521-9437. [Perspectives of Medicinal Mushrooms in Health Care and Nutrition in the 21th Century. 12.09.2001-14.09.2001, Kiev] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  1. Names of Inedible and Poisonous Mushrooms in Ukrainian and Polish – Semantic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jóźwikiewicz Przemysław

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The author of the article attempts to initiate a scholarly discourse on mycological vocabulary, especially the names of macrofungi (macromycetes, a valid issue which still has not been fully described. He proposes a contrastive analysis (Ukrainian-Polish of the discourse on the contemporary mycological vocabulary functioning in various texts: scientific, popular science, literature, as well as folklore. Purpose: The purpose of the article was to characterize selected sources of mycological vocabulary and present Ukrainian and Polish research. Furthermore, the author wanted to propose a preliminary semantic analysis of selected Ukrainian and Polish names of inedible and poisonous mushrooms (particularly those that can be found in both countries. Results: Myconims are direct or indirect references to the specific characteristics of fungi. The article contains a table containing 92 official names of the most common inedible and poisonous fungi in Poland and Ukraine (Latin, Ukrainian, and Polish names. This list can be expanded with further hundreds of names, since, as mycologists and mushroom researchers claim, there is approx. 4 thousand species of macrofungi on the territory of Ukraine and Poland. In the article the official names of Ukrainian and Polish inedible and poisonous mushrooms were classified into eight groups. Elements most frequently co-creating the collected myconims (comparable for both languages are lexemes indicating: the color of the cap or the fruiting body, the place and manner of its occurrence, the overall appearance of the fruiting body. Significant, especially for the Ukrainian names of mushrooms, is the presence of Latinisms, which is characteristic of Ukrainian specialized terminology, such as the medical one (eg. cirrhosis hepatis, цироз печінки; glomerulonephritis, гломерулонефрит; appendicitis acuta, апендицит etc.. Most myconims, both Polish and Ukrainian, are two

  2. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene in the Mycelium and Fruit Body of the Edible Mushroom Flammulina velutipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Koo, Ja Sun

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene is known to be expressed in plants, and is involved in the differentiation, growth and synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, its expression in fungi remains to be explored. To understand its expression in mushroom fungi, the PAL gene of the edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes (Fvpal) was cloned and characterized. The cloned Fvpal consists of 2,175 bp, coding for a polypeptide containing 724 amino acids and having 11 introns. The translated amino acid sequence of Fvpal shares a high identity (66%) with that of ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake. Distinctively, the Fvpal expression in the mycelium was higher in minimal medium supplemented with L-tyrosine than with other aromatic amino acids. During cultivation of the mushroom on sawdust medium, Fvpal expression in the fruit body correspondingly increased as the mushroom grew. In the fruiting body, Fvpal was expressed more in the stipe than in the pileus. These results suggest that F. velutipes PAL activity differs in the different organs of the mushroom. Overall, this is first report to show that the PAL gene expression is associated with mushroom growth in fungi. PMID:26539050

  3. Characterization of Species of Cladobotryum which Cause Cobweb Disease in Edible Mushrooms Grown in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Back, Chang-Gi; Lee, Chang-Yun; Seo, Geon-Sik; Jung, Hee-Young

    2012-01-01

    Four Cladobotryum isolates were collected from four different commercially grown mushroom types infected with cobweb disease in Cheongdo-gun and Chilgok-gun of Gyeongbuk Province, Korea in 2010. The isolates were identified as C. mycophilum from Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii, C. varium from Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus marmoreus. The cultural characteristics of the four isolates were investigated using potato dextrose agar (PDA) media under nine different temperatures ranging...

  4. THE BIOMINERAL CONCENTRATIONS AND ACCUMULATION IN SOME WILD GROWING EDIBLE SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cristina Elekes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mushrooms species are known to accumulate metals to a higher level than the plants and are considered as a source of proteins, vitamins – riboflavin, biotin and thiamine, fats, carbohydrates, amino acids and minerals. The trace metals concentrations were established by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry method. The aim of this paper is to determinate the minerals content of some wild growing mushrooms, which may be useful in the phytopharmaceutical biotechnologies in order to obtain important quantities of biominerals accessible for the human body. The results are varying with the analyzed species of mushrooms between 11869.85 and 32088.68 mg/kg for potassium, 240.81 to 716.98 mg/kg for calcium and between 0 to 5350 mg/kg for phosphorus. The highest concentration if potassium was founded in B. griseus species, 32088.68 mg/kg. Only two species, Hygrophorus virgineus and Marasmius oreades show a phosphorus concentration in the fruiting body higher than in soil, indicating the accumulation capacity.

  5. Selenium and Zinc content and radical scavenging capacity of edible mushrooms Armilaria mellea and Lycoperdon saccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zeković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria mellea and Lycoperdon saccatum are two delicious mushrooms growing widely trough all Balkan region. Investigation of A. mellea and L. saccatum antioxidant properties includes preparation of mushrooms extracts, determination of Selenium and Zinc content and evaluation of theirs antioxidant activity involving scavenging activity of ˙O2- radicals, DPPH and reducing power assay. Higher extraction yield of 24.48 % has been achieved for L. saccatum, but higher content of Selenium and Zinc was determined in A. mallea extract, 2.359 mg/kg and 50.380 mg/kg, respectively. The radical scavenging activity was found to exhibit 50 % of inhibition value (IC50 value at the extracts concentration of 0.0161±0.0001 mg/ml for the L. saccatum extract and 0.0108±0.0002 mg/ml for A. mallea extract. The determined relative inhibition of ˙O2- radicals for L. sacatum extract is lower than for A. malea. It was determined that both mushrooms extract posses’ reductive capabilities and thus were capable of reducing iron (III.

  6. Characterization of Species of Cladobotryum which Cause Cobweb Disease in Edible Mushrooms Grown in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Chang-Gi; Lee, Chang-Yun; Seo, Geon-Sik; Jung, Hee-Young

    2012-09-01

    Four Cladobotryum isolates were collected from four different commercially grown mushroom types infected with cobweb disease in Cheongdo-gun and Chilgok-gun of Gyeongbuk Province, Korea in 2010. The isolates were identified as C. mycophilum from Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii, C. varium from Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus marmoreus. The cultural characteristics of the four isolates were investigated using potato dextrose agar (PDA) media under nine different temperatures ranging from 5~32℃. Rapid growth of the isolates to colony diameters of 47~82 mm was observed at conditions of 18~22℃. No growth was observed at 32℃. C. mycophilum produced a yellowish red pigment while C. varium produced a cream colored pigment after cultivation for 25 days on PDA. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and partial 28S rDNA from the four isolates confirmed they were C. mycophilum and C. varium. Cross pathogenicity tests revealed that the two isolates of C. mycophilum were highly pathogenic toward three mushroom types, but not toward H. marmoreus. The two isolates of C. varium were less pathogenic than those of C. mycophilum, but were pathogenic toward all mushroom types evaluated.

  7. Bio- and toxic elements in edible wild mushrooms from two regions of potentially different environmental conditions in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezicha-Cirocka, Justyna; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Falandysz, Jerzy; Szefer, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the composition of bio-elements (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn) and toxic elements (Ag, Cd) in seven edible mushrooms from the rural and woodland region of Morąg (north-eastern Poland) and the rural and industrial region of the Tarnobrzeska Upland (south-eastern Poland) were investigated using a validated method. The species examined were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Leccinum aurantiacum, Leccinum versipelle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Suillus luteus, and Xerocomus subtomentosus. Final determination was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) after microwave-assisted decomposition of sample matrices with solutions of concentrated nitric acid in the pressurized polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. The contents of the alkali elements and alkali earth elements were determined in the species surveyed. The alkali elements, earth alkali elements, and transition metals (Ag, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) were at typical concentrations as was determined for the same or similar species elsewhere in Poland and Europe. The results may suggest a lack of local and regional emissions of those metallic elements from industrialization of some sites in the Tarnobrzeska Plain. Cadmium was at elevated concentrations in L. versipelle from the Tarnobrzeska Plain but the reason-pollution or geogenic source-was unknown, while it was at typical concentrations in other species.

  8. [Effect of substrate of edible mushroom on continuously cropping obstacle of Rehmannia glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Rui-Hong; Li, Xuan-Zhen; Hunag, Xiao-Shu; Gao, Feng; Wang, Jian-Ming; Li, Ben-Yin; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2014-08-01

    The continuous cultivation of Rehmannia glutinosa causes the accumulation of phenolic acids in soil. It is supposed to be the reason of the so called "continuously cropping obstacle". In this study, phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, eugenol, vanillin and ferulic acid) were degraded by the extracta of all the tested spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and the maximal degradation rate was 75.3%, contributed by extraction of SMS of Pleurotus eryngii. Pot experiment indicated that hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillin in soil were also degraded effectively by SMS of P. eryngii. The employment of SMS enhanced ecophysiology index to near the normal levels, such as crown width, leaves number, leaf length, leaf width and height. At the same time, the fresh and dry weight and total catalpol concentration of tuberous root weight of R. glutinosa was increased to 2.70, 3.66, 2.25 times by employment of SMS, respectively. The increase of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes numbers in rhizosphere soil were observed after the employment of SMS by microbial counts. The employment of SMS also enhanced the enzyme activity in soils, such as sucrase, cellulase, phosphalase, urease and catelase. These results indicated that the employment of SMS alleviated the continuously cropping obstacle of R. glutinosa in some extent.

  9. Antioxidant Capacity and the Correlation with Major Phenolic Compounds, Anthocyanin, and Tocopherol Content in Various Extracts from the Wild Edible Boletus edulis Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7±0.23 and 56±0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and the correlation with major phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, and tocopherol content in various extracts from the wild edible Boletus edulis mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Emanuel; Nita, Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7 ± 0.23 and 56 ± 0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds.

  11. Current Overview of Mushroom Production in the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royse, Daniel J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Tan, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Edible, medicinal, and wild mushrooms are the three major components of the global mushroom industry. World production of cultivated, edible mushrooms has increased more than 30‐fold since 1978. China is the main producer of cultivated, edible mushrooms. Lentinus edodes is now the world's leading

  12. Measurement of activity concentrations for "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in edible wild mushrooms collected from Mangshi, Yunnan province and evaluation of dose to adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo Fei; Xu Cuihua; Zhang Jing; Li Wenhong; Zhou Qiang; Zhang Qing; Su Xu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity concentration of radionuclides for "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in edible wild mushrooms, and to evaluate the extent of radioactive contamination and ingestion doses to adults from consumption of these wild mushrooms. Methods: A total of 33 samples for 18 edible wild mushroom species were collected from natural forest Mangshi, Yunnan province. The activity concentrations of "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K were analyzed by using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. Results: Except for one sample that was below the MDA, "1"3"7Cs artificial radionuclides were detected in other 32 samples, with activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs in the range of 0.45-339.58 Bq/kg (dry weight) and an average of 25.47 Bq/kg (dry weight). In regards to "4"0K in edible mushrooms, all species presented the activity concentrations for this radionuclide and the levels varied from 453.4 to 1882.6 Bq/kg (dry weight), with an average of 815.1 Bq/kg (dry weight). After species of mushroom with only one sample were eliminated, there was significant difference for "1"3"7Cs(F = 21.13, P < 0.05) among 6 species of mushroom named Gomphus floccosus (Schw.) Sing., Boletus edulis bull, Boletus edulis bull, Tylopllus bolloul (Peck) Sing., Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. and Boletus brunneissimus W.F.Chin, but without significant difference for "4"0K. Conclusions: These 6 different mushroom species have different capacity to retain radionuclides of "1"3"7Cs in soil. These wild mushrooms, such as Gomphus floccosus (Schw.) Sing. and Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. have large affinity ability for radionuclides"1"3"7Cs. The effective dose to adults attributable to consuming these kinds of mushrooms is small and below the level that could cause harm. (authors)

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon James

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms are well recognized for their culinary properties as well as for their potency to enhance immune response. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of an edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in vitro and in vivo. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line and murine splenocytes were incubated with the oyster mushroom concentrate (OMC, 0-100 μg/ml in the absence or presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS or concanavalin A (ConA, respectively. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Expression of cytokines and proteins was measured by ELISA assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. DNA-binding activity was assayed by the gel-shift analysis. Inflammation in mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Results OMC suppressed LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and IL-12p40 from RAW264.7 macrophages. OMC inhibited LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO through the down-regulation of expression of COX-2 and iNOS, respectively. OMC also inhibited LPS-dependent DNA-binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Oral administration of OMC markedly suppressed secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice challenged with LPS in vivo. Anti-inflammatory activity of OMC was confirmed by the inhibition of proliferation and secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-6 from concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Conclusions Our study suggests that oyster mushroom possesses anti-inflammatory activities and could be considered a dietary agent against inflammation. The health benefits of the oyster mushroom warrant further clinical studies.

  14. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Flour from the Wild Edible Mushroom Termitomyces heimii Natarajan Harvested in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Ahipo Due

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, especially, in Côte d’Ivoire, the wild edible mushroom Termitomyces heimii Natarajan is the most prized and widely consumed for different reasons such as taste, flavour, attractiveness, uses as substitutes for meat or fish and medicinal values. The present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition and functional properties of T. heimii flour for further food products formulation. Fresh mushroom T. heimii were obtained from the market of Aboisso (5° 28′ 06″ N and3° 12′ 25″ W in Côte d’Ivoire. The fresh mushrooms were dried and ground to obtain the crude flour. Chemical composition and functional properties were investigated using standard methods. The chemical composition revealed that it contains crude protein about 23.75%, crude fat 3.58%, moisture 11.59 %, ash 7.40%, total carbohydrate 54.70% and energy value of 345.90 kcal/ 100 g. These results suggest that T. heimii can be used in human diet to prevent undernourishment due to protein. Furthermore, the low fat content suggest that it would be an ideal food for obese persons and useful in preventing hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. The functional properties showed that it has high bulk density and water absorption capacity with values of 0.737 g/mL and 315.15 ± 45.74% respectively. This flour exhibited also good foaming properties. All these characteristics make it suitable as good thickeners in food products, useful in foods such as bakery products which require hydration and attractive for products like cakes or whipping topping where foaming is important. The mushroom T. heimii could be utilized for making some low-fat foodstuffs and snacks with considerable protein content. The mushroom flour shows good functional characteristics for use in many food industries.

  15. Edible Mushroom Cultivation for Food Security and Rural Development in China: Bio-Innovation, Technological Dissemination and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoqi Zhang; Wei Geng; Yueqin Shen; Yanling Wang; Yu-Cheng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms traditionally collected from forests and now more cultivated have recently become the products of the fifth-largest agricultural sector in China. It was estimated that more than 25 million farmers in China are currently engaged in the collection, cultivation processing and marketing of mushrooms. The total value of mushroom products amounted to 149 billion RMB Yuan (24 billion USD) in 2011. The raw materials have expanded from a few hardwoods to a variety of woods and increasing mor...

  16. Content of selected elements and low-molecular-weight organic acids in fruiting bodies of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. from unpolluted and polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Gąsecka, Monika; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Zalicka, Sylwia; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) investigate the potential of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. to accumulate 53 elements from unpolluted acidic sandy soil and polluted alkaline flotation tailing sites in Poland, (ii) to estimate the low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) profile and contents in fruit bodies, and finally (iii) to explore the possible relationship between elements and LMWOA content in mushrooms. The content of most elements in fruiting bodies collected from the flotation tailings was significantly higher than in mushrooms from the unpolluted soils. The occurrence of elements determined in fruiting bodies of B. badius has been varied (from 0.01 mg kg -1 for Eu, Lu, and Te up to 18,932 mg kg -1 for K). The results established the high importance of element contents in substrate. Among ten organic acids, nine have been found in wide range: from below 0.01 mg kg -1 for fumaric acid to 14.8 mg g -1 for lactic acid. Lactic and succinic acids were dominant in both areas, and citric acid was also in high content in polluted area. The correlation between element contents and the individual and total content of LMWOAs was confirmed.

  17. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Lactarius deliciosus L. wild edible mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barreira, João C.M.; Botelho, M. Luísa; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    TThe short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation and a particular interest arises for wild species. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. Herein, the effects of gamma irradiation on Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S. F....

  19. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic

  20. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home. Regularly test and replace the batteries. Poisoning treatment Treatment depends on the person and the type ... Injury Prevention, Prevention and Wellness, Staying HealthyTags: chemical ... poison treatments, snakebite, syrup of ipecac July 12, 2017 Featured ...

  1. Antitubercular activity and inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus activation of sterols and polyisoprenepolyols from an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Franzblau, Scott Gary; Tokuda, Harukuni; Tagata, Masaaki; Ukiya, Motohiko; Matsuzawa, Tsunetomo; Metori, Koichi; Kimura, Yumiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Yasukawa, Ken

    2005-06-01

    Seven sterols (1-7) and eight polyisoprenepolyols (8-15), isolated from the non-saponifiable lipid fraction of the dichloromethane extract of an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus (Buna-shimeji), were tested for their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA). Six sterols (2-7) and two polyisoprenepolyols (8, 12) showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 1-51 microg/ml, while the others (1, 9-11, 13-15) were inactive (MIC>128 microg/ml). The seven sterols (1-7) and three polyisoprenepolyols (8, 10, 12) were further evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. Sterols 6 and 7 showed potent inhibitory effects while preserving the high viability of Raji cells.

  2. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fungicide resistance among Cladobotryum spp. – causal agents of cobweb disease of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Helen M.; Gaze, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of fungicide resistance among isolates of the mushroom pathogens Cladobotryum mycophilum and C. dendroides Types I and II was undertaken, with respect to the active ingredients thiabendazole, carbendazim (benzimidazoles) and prochloraz manganese following an epidemic in Britain and Ireland in 1994/95. The majority of isolates (41/57) were strongly resistant to thiabendazole (ED50 > 200 ppm) and were exclusively C. dendroides Type II. All C. mycophilum and C. dendroides Type I isolate...

  4. Intrastrain Comparison of the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus, and Its Potent Neuritogenic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Phan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of Pleurotus giganteus (commercial and wild were tested for their ability to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 and mouse neuroblastoma-2a (N2a cells. Treatment with the mushroom extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation, but not nerve growth factor (NGF production. Linoleic acid (4.5–5.0%, w/w which is a major fatty acid present in the ethanol extract promoted NGF biosynthesis when augmented with low concentration of NGF (5 ng/mL. The two strains of mushroom were found to be high in protein (154–192 g kg−1, total polysaccharides, phenolics, and flavonoids as well as vitamins B1, B2, and B3. The total phenolics present in the mushroom extracts were positively correlated to the antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. To conclude, P. giganteus could potentially be used in well-balanced diet and as a source of dietary antioxidant to promote neuronal health.

  5. In vitro inhibitory effects of pulvinic acid derivatives isolated from Chinese edible mushrooms, Boletus calopus and Suillus bovinus, on cytochrome P450 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Onose, Jun-ichi; Abe, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Kunie

    2009-04-23

    Increasing attention has been focused on food-drug interactions. We have investigated the inhibitory effect of Chinese edible mushrooms, Boletus calopus and Suillus bovinus, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4, the main drug-metabolizing enzymes. Three pulvinic acid derivatives, atromentic acid (1), variegatic acid (2), and xerocomic acid (3), isolated from Boletus calopus and Suillus bovinus, revealed nonspecific inhibitory effects on all four CYPs. Using these compounds, the maximum IC50 values obtained with CYP3A4 in vitro were atromentic acid (1), 65.1+/-3.9 microM; variegatic acid (2), 2.2+/-0.1 microM; and xerocomic acid (3), 2.4+/-0.1 microM. Variegatic acid (2) and xerocomic acid (3) were effective inhibitors, comparable to cimetidine, dicoumarol, erythromycin, safrole, and uniconazole. Variegatic acid (2) and xerocomic acid (3) efficiently reduced ferryl myoglobin in CYPs. Reduction of ferryl heme to ferric heme is likely the mechanism of the nonspecific inhibitory effects of these compounds on CYPs.

  6. New sesquiterpenoids from the edible mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus and their inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and PTP1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qiao-Qiao; Ma, Ke; Bao, Li; Wang, Kai; Han, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Xia; Huang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Nine new sesquiterpenoids, clitocybulol derivatives, clitocybulols G-O (1-9) and three known sesquiterpenoids, clitocybulols C-E (10-12), were isolated from the solid culture of the edible fungus Pleurotus cystidiosus. The structures of compounds 1-12 were determined by spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-9 were assigned via the circular dichroism (CD) data analysis. Compounds 1, 6 and 10 showed moderate inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 49.5, 38.1 and 36.0μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Bioremediation of recalcitrant chemical pollutant-contaminated soil. Applying edible mushroom cultivation waste to bioremediation; Kinoko kinsho ni yoru nanbunkaisei busshitsu osendo no bioremidiation. Kinoko kinsho no rigunin bunkai koso kassei to takan hokozoku tanka suiso no bunkaino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, S.; Oide, E.; Oshima, Y.; Tsuji, H. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    Bioremediation is a viable and cost effective method for soil contaminated with a variety of chemical pollutants. White-rot fungi, with emitted extracellular free radicals, are known to be able to decompose lignin, which is usually nonbiodegradable by most bacteria. The decomposition mechanism has been shown to be attributed, at least in part, to lignolytic peroxidases. We examined a method that utilizes edible mushroom cultivation waste as the microbial source, and found that these waste materials have high lignolytic peroxidase activity and degradated polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sands. (author)

  8. Radioactive artificial 137Cs and natural 40K activity in 21 edible mushrooms of the genus Boletus species from SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Zalewska, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    This study, for the first time, presents the results of activity concentration determinations for 137 Cs and 40 K in a high number (21 species, 87 composite samples, and 807 fruiting bodies) of mushrooms of the genus Boletus from across Yunnan in 2011-2014 and Sichuan (Boletus tomentipes) using high-resolution high-purity germanium detector. Activity concentrations of 137 Cs demonstrated some variability and range from Boletus species from different sampling sites. No activity concentrations from 134 Cs were detected in any mushrooms. Internal dose rates estimated were from intake of 1 kg of mushrooms per annum for 137 Cs range for species and regions from around Boletus species.

  9. Symbiosis and synergy: Can mushrooms and timber be managed together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Recreational and tribal use of mushrooms has been historically important, and during the last two decades, commercial demand for mushrooms has burgeoned. A large nontimber forest product market in the Pacific Northwest is for various species of wild edible mushrooms. Many of these species grow symbiotically with forest trees by forming nutrient exchange structures...

  10. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  11. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  12. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of four edible mushrooms from the Central Anatolia, Eskisehir - Turkey: Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Yamac, Mustafa

    2008-09-01

    The methanolic extracts of Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating activities in addition to their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid and DPPH systems, L. deterrimus and B. edulis showed the strongest activity patterns. Their activities were as strong as the positive controls. The reducing power of the species was excellent. Chelating capacity of the extracts was increased with the increasing concentration. On the other hand, B. edulis found to have the highest phenolic content. Total flavonoid content of S. collitinus found the superior to the other mushrooms.

  13. Isolation of an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Protein with Antihypertensive Effect in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats from the Edible Wild Mushroom Leucopaxillus tricolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueran Geng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An 86-kDa homodimeric angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory protein designated as LTP was isolated from fruit bodies of the mushroom Leucopaxillus tricolor. The isolation procedure involved ultrafiltration through a membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 10-kDa, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, and finally fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. LTP exhibited an IC50 value of 1.64 mg∙mL−1 for its ACE inhibitory activity. The unique N-terminal amino acid sequence of LTP was disclosed by Edman degradation to be DGPTMHRQAVADFKQ. In addition, seven internal sequences of LTP were elucidated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. Results of the Lineweaver-Burk plot suggested that LTP competitively inhibited ACE. Both LTP and the water extract of L. tricolor exhibited a clear antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  14. The Use of an Edible Mushroom-Derived Renewable Carbon Material as a Highly Stable Electrocatalyst towards Four-Electron Oxygen Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhong Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900 as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for the ORR via facile all-solid-state multi-step pyrolysis of bioprotein-enriched enoki mushroom as a starting material, and inexpensive carbon nanoparticles as the inserting matrix and conducting agent at controlled temperatures. Results show that the N-BC@CNP-900 catalyst exhibits the best ORR electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.94 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE and high stability. Meanwhile, this catalyst significantly exhibits good selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway in an alkaline electrolyte. It is notable that pyridinic- and graphtic-nitrogen groups that play a key role in the enhancement of the ORR activity may be the catalytically active structures for the ORR. We further propose that the pyridinic-nitrogen species can mainly stabilize the ORR activity and the graphitic-nitrogen species can largely enhance the ORR activity. Besides, the addition of carbon support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, promoting the ORR electrocatalytic activity.

  15. The Use of an Edible Mushroom-Derived Renewable Carbon Material as a Highly Stable Electrocatalyst towards Four-Electron Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaozhong; Sun, Lingtao; Liao, Wenli; Li, Zhongbin

    2015-12-23

    The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900) as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for the ORR via facile all-solid-state multi-step pyrolysis of bioprotein-enriched enoki mushroom as a starting material, and inexpensive carbon nanoparticles as the inserting matrix and conducting agent at controlled temperatures. Results show that the N-BC@CNP-900 catalyst exhibits the best ORR electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.94 V ( versus reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE) and high stability. Meanwhile, this catalyst significantly exhibits good selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway in an alkaline electrolyte. It is notable that pyridinic- and graphtic-nitrogen groups that play a key role in the enhancement of the ORR activity may be the catalytically active structures for the ORR. We further propose that the pyridinic-nitrogen species can mainly stabilize the ORR activity and the graphitic-nitrogen species can largely enhance the ORR activity. Besides, the addition of carbon support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, promoting the ORR electrocatalytic activity.

  16. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China: herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Kang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in Han (i.e. Chinese nationality villages in central China, including famine plants used in the respondents' childhood. A valley adjacent to the extremely species-rich temperate forest vegetation of the Taibai Nature Reserve was chosen. Eighty-two people from 5 villages took part in the study. Altogether, 159 wild food plant species and 13 fungi folk taxa were mentioned by informants. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high (24.8; median – 21.5. An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables (mean – 17, me- dian – 14.5, a few wild fruits (mean – 5.9 and median – 6 and very few fungi (mean – 1.9, median – 1, which they had eaten. Over 50% of respondents mentioned gathering the young shoots or leaves of Celastrus orbiculatus, Staphylea bumalda and S. holocapra, Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pimpinella sp., Amaranthus spp., Matteucia struthiopteris, Allium spp., Cardamine macrophylla and Chenopodium album. Only one species of fruits (Schisandra sphenanthera and none of the mushrooms were mentioned by over half of the respondents. Although very diverse, it can be noted that the use of wild vegetables has decreased compared to the second half of the 20th century, as informants listed several plants which they had stopped using (e.g. Abelia engleriana due to the availability of cultivated vegetables and other foodstuffs. On the other hand, the collection of the most well-known wild vegetables is maintained by selling them to tourists visiting agritourist farms, and restaurants.

  17. CULTIVATION OF THE EDIBLE MUSHROOM OUDEMANSIELLA CANARII (JUNGH. HÖHN. IN LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES Cultivo do cogumelo comestível Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn. em substratos lignocelulósicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Silveira Ruegger

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn is common in the Brazilian territory, being found in different biomas, where they colonize several plant species. In this study, the O. canarii cultivation was evaluated in polypropilene bags containing sugar-cane bagasse (200 g or eucalyptus sawdust (200 g supplemented with wheat bran (50 g. The composts were sterilized at 121ºC for 1 hour, after cooling they were inoculated with 3 g of spawn and then remained incubated at 25ºC until the basidiomata primordia formation. The mushrooms, harvested after the pilei opening, presented varied sizes reaching 9 cm of diameter and 10 cm of height. The fresh mushrooms presented mild taste and soft consistency. When kept at 4ºC, they maintained good appearance and good consistency for 7 days. In a period of 60 days, the largest basidiomata production was obtained in the compost with sugar-cane bagasse, showing greater productivity (4.47% ± 1.34, biological efficiency (55.66% ± 20.41 and compost consumption (38.78% ± 4.59 averages. Wilcoxon's non-parametric statistical analysis used to compare the biomass production in the two composts, showed significant differences at 5% significance level.O cogumelo comestível Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn., é comum no território brasileiro, sendo encontrado em diferentes biomas, onde colonizam várias espécies vegetais. Neste estudo, o cultivo deste basidiomiceto foi realizado em sacos plásticos contendo bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (200 g ou serragem de eucalipto (200 g suplementados com farelo de trigo (50 g. Os substratos foram esterilizados a 121ºC por 1 hora, inoculados com 3 g de grãos de trigo colonizados por micélio do fungo e permaneceram incubados a 25ºC até a formação dos primórdios dos basidiomas. Os cogumelos, colhidos após a abertura do píleo, apresentaram tamanhos variados chegando a atingir 9 cm de diâmetro por 10 cm de altura. Os cogumelos frescos apresentaram paladar

  18. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  19. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  20. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  1. Radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.; Ylipieti, J.

    2010-02-01

    Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137 Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137 Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137 Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137 Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137 Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137 Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137 Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137 Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137 Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus

  2. Russula subnigricans Poisoning: From Gastrointestinal Symptoms to Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shide; Mu, Maoyuan; Yang, Fangwan; Yang, Chunfei

    2015-09-01

    Wild mushroom poisoning is often reported to cause acute liver or renal failure. However, acute rhabdomyolysis caused by wild mushroom poisoning has rarely been reported. We describe 7 patients of 1 family with Russula subnigricans Hongo poisoning. Their clinical manifestations varied from gastrointestinal symptoms to rhabdomyolysis, with 1 fatality. Our report provides supporting evidence that rhabdomyolysis may result from ingestion of R subnigricans mushrooms. A key to survival for patients with rhabdomyolysis caused by R subnigricans poisoning may be early recognition and intensive supportive care. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Vilcinskaite, Jolita; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2005-01-01

    The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms (species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia) is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly (within 0.5-1 hour after ingestion), producing ataxia, hyperkinesis, and hallucinations. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms, treatment and prognosis.

  4. Mercury in wild mushrooms and underlying soil substrate from Koszalin, North-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Jedrusiak, Aneta; Lipka, Krzysztof; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kawano, Masahide; Gucia, Magdalena; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Dadej, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 221 caps and 221 stalks of 15 species of wild growing higher fungi/mushrooms and 221 samples of corresponding soil substrate collected in 1997-98 in Manowo County, near the city of Koszalin in North-central Poland. Mean mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of the mushroom species examined and soils varied between 30+/-31 and 920+/-280, 17+/-11 and 560+/-220, and 10+/-9 and 170+/-110 ng/g dry matter, respectively. Cap to stalk mercury concentration quotients were from 1.0+/-0.4 in poison pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.8+/-0.7 in slippery jack (Suillus luteus). Brown cort (Cortinarius malicorius), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), orange-brown ringless amanita (A. fulva), red-aspen bolete (Leccinum rufum) and mutagen milk cap (Lactarius necator) contained the highest concentrations of mercury both in caps and stalks, and mean concentrations varied between 600+/-750 and 920+/-280 and 370+/-470 and 560+/-220 ng/g dry matter, respectively. An estimate of daily intake of mercury from mushroom consumption indicated that the flesh of edible species of mushrooms may not pose hazards to human health even at a maximum consumption rate of 28 g/day. However, it should be noted that mercury intake from other foods will augment the daily intake rates. Species such as the sickener (Russula emetica), Geranium-scented russula (R. fellea) and poison pax (P. involutus) did not concentrate mercury as evidenced from the bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations in mushroom/concentration in soil substrate), which were less than 1. Similarly, red-hot milk cap (L. rufus), rickstone funnel cap (Clitocybe geotropa) and European cow bolete (S. bovinus) were observed to be weak accumulators of mercury. Fly agaric (A. muscaria) accumulated great concentrations of mercury with BCFs reaching 73+/-42 and 38+/-22 in caps and stalks, respectively. Mercury BCFs of between 4.0+/-2.3 and 23

  5. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  6. Identification of Tanzanian saprophytic edible mushrooms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUU SUMMAYYAH

    After trimming of non-overlapping start/end positions of sequences as well as excluding ambiguously aligned regions, there were a total of 499 and 519 positions in the final datasets of LSU and ITS, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships. The phylogenetic tree using LSU datasets revealed two major clades. The first clade.

  7. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    mycelium in the substrate upon which the fungus feeds; most often their mycelia are buried in the soil around the ... morning from farmlands in Egbe, Yagba West L.G.A. of Kogi State. .... that caution must be exercise in eating Chlorophyllum.

  8. Especies tóxicas de Agaricales halladas en la Argentina: nueva cita de Amanita pantherina y reevaluación de la comestibilidad de Tricholoma equestre Poisonous species of Agaricales found in Argentina: new record of Amanita pantherina and revaluation of the edibility of Tricholoma equestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo E. Lechner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los hongos comestibles en la Argentina no constituyen una parte importante de la dieta, algunas personas colectan y consumen especies silvestres. Esto ha ocasionado en los últimos años la intoxicación de un número importante de adultos y niños. En el presente trabajo se cita por primera vez para la Argentina el hongo tóxico Amanita pantherina, se describen las colecciones halladas y se provee una clave para la determinación de las especies de Amanita Secc. Amanita. A su vez se describe y se reevalúa la comestibilidad de Tricholoma equestre causante de un nuevo síndrome de intoxicación, por lo cual fue recientemente prohibido en varios países de la comunidad Europea.Mushrooms are not usually included in the traditional eating habits of the Argentinean population. Nevertheless, there are some people that consume wild species. This practice has caused poisoning to important number of adults and children over the last years. In the present paper we describe the poisonous mushroom Amanita pantherina as a new record for Argentina and we provide a key for the identification of the species of Amanita belonging to Secc. Amanita found in our country. We also describe and explain a new poisoning syndrome caused by Tricholoma equestre. This species was recently prohibited in some countries of Europe.

  9. Mushroom cultivation, processing and value added products: a patent based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Somya; Rasane, Prasad; Kaur, Sawinder; Garba, Umar; Singh, Jyoti; Raj, Nishant; Gupta, Neeru

    2018-06-03

    Edible mushrooms are an abundant source of carbohydrates, proteins, and multiple antioxidants and phytonutrients. This paper presents a general overview on the edible fungus describing the inventions made in the field of its cultivation, equipment and value added products. To understand and review the innovations and nutraceutical benefits of mushrooms as well as to develop interest regarding the edible mushrooms. Information provided in this review is based on the available research investigations and patents. Mushrooms are an edible source of a wide variety of antioxidants and phytonutrients with a number of nutraceutical properties including anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic. Thus, several investigations are made for cultivation and improvement of the yield of mushrooms through improvisation of growth substrates and equipment used for mushroom processing. The mushroom has been processed into various products to increase its consumption, providing the health and nutritional benefit to mankind. This paper summarizes the cultivation practices of mushroom, its processing equipments, methods of preservation, value added based products, and its nutraceutical properties. The review also highlights the various scientific feats achieved in terms of patents and research publications promoting mushroom as a wholesome food. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  11. Household methods to reduce 137Cs contents of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.

    2005-01-01

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the 137 Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce 137 Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the 137 Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times

  12. The use of residual geothermal energy in an edible mushroom production plant, Los Humeros geothermal fields (Mexico): Achievements and alternatives; El uso de la energia geotermica residual en la planta productora de hongos comestibles del campo geotermico Los Humeros (Mexico): Logros y alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel Rangel, Maria Elena [Proteccion ambiental, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A plant for raising edible mushrooms with residual geothermal energy is a project of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The results reflect important achievements in the development of technology for the productions of wholesome and available food with geothermal heat instead of conventional energy sources. The installations have an enormous technological and commercial potential- demonstrated by the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), which success has awakened the interest of research institutions. The Instituto of Ecologia, A.C., has begun a joint project with CFE cultivating shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) with geothermal energy. These achievements mark a clear trend toward the integral use of facilities, the establishment of a crop with greater economic advantages, and the diffusion of this project. [Spanish] La planta productora de hongos comestibles es un proyecto de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) para dar un uso alterno a la energia geotermica residual. Los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento reflejan logros importantes en la generacion de tecnologia propia para la produccion de un alimento sano y accesible, sustituyendo la energia proveniente de combustibles convencionales por calor geotermico. Las instalaciones creadas cuentan con un enorme potencial tecnologico y comercial demostrando con el cultivo de las setas (Pleurotus ostreatus) con un exito tal que ha despertado el interes de instituciones dedicadas a la investigacion. Tal es el caso de Instituto de Ecologia, A.C que acualmente se encuentra involucrado en un proyecto conjunto sobre el cultivo del hongo Lentinula edodes (shiitake) utilizando energia geotermica en su proceso productivo. Con lo anterior, se esta marcando una clara tendencia hacia el aprovechamiento integral de las instalaciones, el establecimiento de un cultivo con mayores ventajas economicas y la difusion de este proyecto.

  13. Mushrooms, trees, and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the pacific northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Susan J; Pilz, David; Weber, Nancy S; Brown, Ed; Rockwell, Victoria A

    2002-07-01

    Wild edible mushrooms are harvested in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where both trees and mushrooms grow in the same landscape. Although there has been some discussion about the value of trees and mushrooms individually, little information exists about the joint production of, and value for, these two forest products. Through four case studies, the information needed to determine production and value for three wild mushroom species in different forests of the Pacific Northwest is described, and present values for several different forest management scenarios are presented. The values for timber and for mushrooms are site- and species-specific. On the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, timber is highly valued and chanterelles are a low-value product by weight; timber has a soil expectation value (SEV) 12 to 200 times higher than chanterelles. In south-central Oregon, timber and American matsutake mushrooms have the potential to have about the same SEV. In eastern Oregon, timber is worth 20 to 110 times as much as the morels that grow in the forest. Production economics is concerned with choices about how much and what to produce with what resources. The choices are influenced by changes in technical and economic circumstances. Through our description and analysis of the necessary definitions and assumptions to assess value in joint production of timber and wild mushrooms, we found that values are sensitive to assumptions about changes in forest management, yields for mushrooms and trees, and costs.

  14. The use of the ITS region in marketable mushrooms authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Liliana; Oliveira, Ivo; Baptista, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Edible mushrooms, due to their flavour and nutritional characteristics, are very popular in many dishes. Some species are high valuated and reaching high market values. There are frequent reports of adulteration of these kinds of products due to the presence of fungal species less expensive among others with high-value market. This adulteration occurs especially in products in which the flavour is not prominent and in which the mushrooms are difficult to examine. In this work we utilized the ...

  15. Oyster Mushroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pastoralists have been hopelessly trying to get rid of the bush through ... mushroom cultivation the mentioned problems can be solved yielding nutritious ..... Mean values within the same column with no common superscript letter differ at the 95% confidence level and the .... Encroachment in the Borana Low Land.

  16. Disponibilidad de esporomas de hongos comestibles en los bosques de pino-encino de Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca Edible mushroom sporocarp availability in pine-oak forests in Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Garibay-Orijel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos comestibles son recursos forestales cuyo aprovechamiento sustentable depende del conocimiento de la distribución y productividad de sus esporomas. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la disponibilidad de 81 hongos comestibles por medio de la abundancia, distribución temporal y espacial de sus esporomas. Estas variables se integraron en un índice de importancia ecológica (VI que brinda una medida para estimar la disponibilidad de sus esporomas en los bosques. El estudio se realizó durante 2001 y 2002 en los bosques de Pinus-Quercus de Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca. Las especies más abundantes fueron Laccaria laccata var. pallidifolia, Gymnopus confluens y Laccaria vinaceobrunnea. La especie con mayor producción de biomasa húmeda de esporomas (2.21 Kg/sitio de muestreo fue Laccaria laccata var. Pallidifolia. Sólo G. confluens y G. dryophilus produjeron esporomas desde principios de junio hasta finales de octubre. Las especies con mayor disponibilidad fueron L. laccata var. pallidifolia, G. confluens, L. vinaceobrunnea y H. purpurascens. La riqueza de hongos comestibles silvestres en Ixtlán es alta (96 especies, pero su disponibilidad es muy heterogénea (de L. laccata var. pallidifolia VI = 0.7905, a Helvella infula VI = 0.0055. Dentro del mismo bosque, en sitios relativamente cercanos la composición de especies es diferente y su producción de esporomas y biomasa son contrastantes.Wild edible mushrooms are non timber forest products whose sustainable use must have an ecological basis. In this work, we measured the availability of 81 edible mushrooms by means of their abundance, frequency, biomass production, temporal and spatial distribution of their fruiting bodies. These variables were integrated into an ecological importance index (IV which describes sporome availability in the forest. The research was carried out during 2001 and 2002 in the Pinus-Quercus forests of Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca. The most abundant species were

  17. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  18. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbcane poisoning; Leopard lily poisoning; Tuft root poisoning ... Get the following information: Person's age, weight, and condition Parts of the plant that were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed

  19. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... Time of the sting Location of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  6. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Contents of folates in edible mushrooms commercialised in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Teor de folatos em cogumelos comestíveis comercializados na cidade de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Prado Zanes Furlani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, folates were evaluated in the main species of mushroom cultivated in Brazil. The species analysed were Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom, Lentinula edodes (shiitake and Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. The five main forms of folate found in foods were determined: tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, 10-methyl folic acid (10MFA, 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (5MTHFA, 10-formyl folic acid (10FFA and 5-formy tetrahydrofolic acid (5FTHFA. The methodology employed used extraction with phosphate buffer, clean up with trichloroacetic acid and separation of the vitamins by high-performance liquid chromatography, with simultaneous ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. The results obtained for total folate were 551 to 1404 µg.100 g -1 for the button mushroom, 606 to 727 µg.100 g -1 for shiitake and 460 to 1325 µg.100 g-1 for shimeji. The data showed that mushrooms could be considered as sources of folates and that their contribution of these vitamins to the diet was meaningful.O teor de folatos nas principais espécies de cogumelos cultivados no Brasil foi avaliado neste trabalho. As espécies analisadas foram Agaricus bisporus (champignon de Paris, Lentinula edodes (shiitake e Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. Foram determinadas as cinco principais formas de folatos presentes em alimentos: tetrahidro ácido fólico (THAF, 10-metil ácido fólico (10MAF, 5-metil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5MTHAF, 10-formil ácido fólico (10FAF e 5formil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5FTHAF. A metodologia empregada utilizou extração com tampão fosfato, limpeza com ácido tricloroacético e separação das vitaminas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, com detecção em série por fluorescência e ultravioleta. Os resultados obtidos para o total de folatos foram 551 a 1404 µg.100 g -1 para o champignon de Paris, 606 a 727 µg.100 g -1 para o shiitake e 460 a 1325 µg.100 g -1 para o shimeji. Os dados mostram que os cogumelos podem ser considerados fontes

  12. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities of Wild Boletales Mushrooms from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Sylvie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Vitou, Manon; Boudard, Frédéric; Guzman, Caroline; Poucheret, Patrick; Fons, Françoise; Rapior, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    We selected edible and inedible mushrooms growing in the Mediterranean area of France to screen their biological activity: Caloboletus calopus, Rubroboletus lupinus, R. pulchrotinctus, R. satanas, Gyroporus castaneus, Suillus luteus, and Omphalotus olearius. Mushrooms were sequentially extracted using cyclohexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. The antiproliferative activity against the HCT116 colon adenocarcinoma cell line and the antioxidant properties (DPPH radical scavenging assay, Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of the Boletales extracts were evaluated and compared. Among the 28 mushroom extracts evaluated, 11 presented antiproliferative activity against HCT116 cells. These activities were not linked to antioxidant capacity. Among the antioxidant extracts, most were aqueous extracts in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, whereas the highest values on the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays were noted for chloroform, ethanol, or aqueous extracts, depending on the mushroom species. Further studies are necessary to identify bioactive compounds and to valorize the mushrooms-for edible species, directly as health foods, or, for inedible mushrooms, as ingredients in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  13. Biological resources and breeding for improvements in the production of the button mushroom in small-scale farming

    OpenAIRE

    Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Gourmet mushrooms may contribute to the development of a new agriculture by addressing the consumer demand and some of the non-nutritional uses of agricultural productions. The value of recycling with gourmet and medicinal mushrooms is clearly understood and wastes can be viewed as positive products, at least in term of providing new economic opportunities and positive environmental consequences. Important cultivated edible and medicinal mushrooms are members of the Agaricus genus. They are s...

  14. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from bacterial infection. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of the bio-processed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from the edible Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial mushroom culture supplemented...

  15. Merthiolate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merthiolate poisoning is difficult to treat. How well a person does depends on the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment was received. The faster a person gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery. Kidney dialysis ( ...

  16. Benzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be admitted to the hospital if the poisoning is severe. ... benzene they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The ... Poisoning can cause rapid death. However, deaths have occurred ...

  17. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  18. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  19. Functional foods from mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms are defined as “a macro fungus with distinctive fruiting bodies that could be hypogeous or epigeous, large enough to be seen by naked eyes and to be picked by hands.” The Basidiomycetes and some species of Ascomycetes are categorized as mushrooms. Mushrooms constitute 22,000 known species ...

  20. Shiitake dermatitis recorded by French Poison Control Centers - new case series with clinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, D; Landreau, A; Bruneau, C; Garnier, R; Pulce, C; Labadie, M; de Haro, L; Harry, P

    2014-07-01

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom which was initially grown in Japan and China and is now sold on the European market. Flagellate erythema may arise following shiitake consumption and was first described in Japan in 1974. This paper reports a French shiitake dermatitis case series. The findings of retrospective study of shiitake dermatitis cases, reported to French Poison Control Centres (PCC) from January 2000 to December 2013, are reported. Among 32 exposed patients, 15 presented flagellate urticarial lesions after raw shiitake consumption. The first case of this series was reported in 2006 and the last nine cases were reported as of 2012. After shared meals, no symptoms were reported among guests, who preferred cooked shiitake to the raw mushroom. In this series, rashes appeared 12 h to 5 days (median: 24 h) after raw shiitake ingestion. Linear and itchy urticarial lesions formed on the trunk, arms, and legs within a few hours and persisted for 3-21 days. In four cases, rash and pruritus were either triggered or worsened by sun exposure. Eleven patients received corticosteroids, antihistamines, or both. All patients completely recovered. Due to the rapidly increasing consumption of exotic food in Western countries, it is no surprise that cases of shiitake dermatitis are now appearing in Europe. The mechanism of shiitake dermatitis is thought to be toxic and due to lentinan, a polysaccharide component of the mushroom. There is no specific validated treatment for shiitake dermatitis. Health professionals and the general population should be aware of both the risk associated with raw shiitake consumption and of the good prognosis of this very spectacular and uncomfortable toxic dermatitis.

  1. An Overview of Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms in Neurodegeneration and Neurotrauma Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Ng, Chai-Chee; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Yow, Yoon-Yen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2017-01-01

    Culinary and medicinal mushrooms have been appreciated since prehistoric times as valuable resources for food and medicine. Edible mushrooms represent an untapped source of nutraceuticals and valuable palatable food. Long considered tonics, they are now treasured as functional foods that can improve human health and quality of life. Numerous studies have provided insights into the neuroprotective effects of edible mushrooms, which are attributed to their antioxidant, antineuroinflammatory, and cholinesterase inhibitory properties, and their ability to prevent neuronal death. Here we review the recent literature on the role of culinary and medicinal mushrooms in the management of neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma. We highlight some of the molecular mechanisms for how these alternative medicines provide health benefits that could help us to harness their neuroprotective effects.

  2. Phytochemical characterization of wild edible Boletus sp. from Northeast Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2010-01-01

    Our research has been focused on the documentation of nutritional composition and nutraceutical potential of wild mushrooms, making the information available for a better management and conservation of these species and related habitats. In the present work, the chemical composition and bioactivity of three wild edible Boletus sp. (Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, Boletus reticulatus) from Northeast Portugal were evaluated, in order to valorise these species as sources of important...

  3. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.; Navarro, M.J.; Gea, F.

    2017-01-01

    Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  4. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, J.; Navarro, M.J.; Gea, F.

    2017-07-01

    Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  5. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  6. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carrasco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of biomass of some invasive weed species as substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintesnot, Birara; Ayalew, Amare; Kebede, Ameha

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed the bioconversion of Agriculture wastes like invasive weeds species (Lantana camara, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus) as a substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species) cultivation together with wheat straw as a control. The experiment was laid out in factorial combination of substrates and three edible oyster mushroom species in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Pleurotus ostreatus gave significantly (p mushroom cultivation could contribute to alleviating ecological impact of invasive weed species while offering practical option to mitigating hunger and malnutrition in areas where the invasive weeds became dominant.

  8. Diseases and pests noxious to Pleurotus spp. mushroom crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Marcelo B; Bellettini, Sebastião; Fiorda, Fernanda A; Pedro, Alessandra C; Bach, Fabiane; Fabela-Morón, Miriam F; Hoffmann-Ribani, Rosemary

    The Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. It is an edible mushroom that possesses biological effects, as it contains important bioactive molecules. It is a rich source of nutrients, particularly proteins, minerals as well as vitamins B, C and D. In basidiomycete fungi, intensive cultivations of edible mushrooms can often be affected by some bacterial, mold and virus diseases that rather frequently cause dramatic production loss. These infections are facilitated by the particular conditions under which mushroom cultivation is commonly carried out such as warm temperatures, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels and presence of pests. There is not much bibliographic information related to pests of mushrooms and their substrates. The updated review presents a practical checklist of diseases and pests of the Pleurotus genus, providing useful information that may help different users. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  11. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  12. Mycophilic or mycophobic? Legislation and guidelines on wild mushroom commerce reveal different consumption behaviour in European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Peintner

    Full Text Available Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour.

  13. Radiation damage to mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains newspaper cuttings and correspondence with various ministries in Hessen on the subject of radiation damage to mushrooms from the Odenwald area. The reader is given, amongst other things, detailed information on radiation damage to different types of mushroom in 1986. (MG) [de

  14. Effects of Crude Oil and Oil Products on Growth of Some Edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetative growth response of three local edible mushrooms: Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pp), Pleurotus tuber-regium (Pt) and Lentinus squarrosulus (Ls) on different concentrations of Crude oil (COIL), Automotive Gasoline Oil (AGO), Fresh Engine Oil (ENGOIL) and Spent Engine Oil (SENGOIL) was investigated. The result ...

  15. Arsenic hyperaccumulation and speciation in the edible ink stain bolete (.i.Cyanoboletus pulverulentus./i.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braeuer, S.; Goessler, W.; Kameník, J.; Konvalinková, T.; Žigová, Anna; Borovička, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 242, 1 March (2018), s. 225-231 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : edible mushrooms * dimethylarsinic acid * soil * health risk * HPLC-ICPMS Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  16. How (post-)genomic insights can provide new leads for improvements of mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Post, H.; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, E.; Heck, A.; Hildén, K.; Kabel, M.A.; Makela, M.R.; Altelaar, Maarten; Vries, De Ronald P.

    2016-01-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on
    decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest
    litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in

  17. How (post-)genomic insights can provide new leads for improvements of mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert; Hildén, Kristiina S.; Kabel, Mirjam; Mäkelä, Miia R.; Altelaar, Maarten; de Vries, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass.

  18. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  19. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuhwa, Donatha Damian

    2012-09-21

    Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely affected by wild animals. In order

  20. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibuhwa Donatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Methods Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Results Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7% as an alternative

  1. FUNGI: A REVIEW ON MUSHROOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abulude, F. Olawale; Ndamitso, M. Muhammed

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews a fungus – mushrooms. In this paper, identification, cultivation, uses, side effects, nutritional and medicinal values, storage, marketing and other uses of mushrooms were discussed. From the review too it was observed that its usefulness surpasses the side effects. These side effects could be eliminated if proper ‘processing’ could be employed. Due to advances in both basic knowledge and practical technology relevant to mushroom farming, mushroom products and mushroom bior...

  2. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  3. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safely , for more information . If you use an e-cigarette, keep the liquid nicotine refills locked up out ... to a child. See Liquid Nicotine Used in E-Cigarettes Can Kill Children . Never place poisonous products in ...

  4. Sachet poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  5. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Farmer B, Seger DL. ... Textbook of Critical Care . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 153. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...

  6. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  7. Differences in Cu content in selected mushroom species growing in the same unpolluted areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Gąsecka, Monika; Rissmann, Iwona; Goliński, Piotr; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate copper (Cu) accumulation efficiency in whole-fruiting bodies of 18 edible and non-edible wild growing mushrooms collected from 27 places in the Wielkopolska Voivodeship. Mushrooms were collected each time from the same places to estimate the diversity in Cu accumulation between tested mushroom species within 3 consecutive years of study (2011-2013). The study results revealed various accumulation of Cu in the whole-tested mushroom fruiting bodies. The highest mean accumulation of Cu was observed in Macrolepiota procera (119.4 ± 20.0 mg kg(-1) dm), while the lowest was in Suillus luteus and Russula fellea fruiting bodies (16.1 ± 3.0 and 18.8 ± 4.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively). Significant differences in Cu accumulation between mushroom species collected in 2011 and in the two following years (2012 and 2013) were observed. The results indicated that sporadic consumption of these mushrooms was not related to excessive intake of Cu for the human body (no toxic influence on health).

  8. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  9. Are mushrooms radioactive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Benada, J.; Singert, M.; Horyna, J.

    1988-01-01

    Tabulated is the content of 137 Cs in dry matter of higher mushrooms collected in the years 1986 to 1987. The radioactive level of mushrooms collected in Czechoslovakia such as Boletus badius and B. chrysenteron reached 20 to 50 kBq/kg of dry matter. The individual dose at mean consumption of these mushrooms was estimated at 0.2 to 0.3 mSv/year which amounted to 20 to 30% of the dose from the natural background. (J.B.). 1 tab

  10. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  11. LETHAL MUSHROOM TOXINS: ANALYSIS OF THE AMANITINS AND APPLICATION OF LATERAL FLOW IMMUNOASSAY

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Ertuğrul

    2018-01-01

    Deaths from mushroom poisoning, due to the ingestionofmushrooms containing amatoxins, seem to be increasingboth in Turkey andworldwide. The amatoxinsfound in Amanita phalloides (also called thedeath capmushroom) are most toxic agents, and they are responsible for more than 95% ofthe cases of deadlymushroom poisoning. Alpha amanitin is best known toxin ofthis group. Alpha amanitin analysis can be carried out with special methodssuch as chromatography and ELISA. ELISA method is suitable in orde...

  12. Cesium fixation in mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1990-01-01

    It has been found that the various mushroom species accumulate Cs-137 in very different quantities. Whereas specimens of the species Xeromus badius always contained high amounts of Cs-137, analyses of specimens of the related species Boletus edulis showed only weak accumulation of the radionuclide. It is assumed that this general difference in accumulation of Cs-137 is due to a difference in the organic constituents of the mushrooms. (orig.) [de

  13. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... they generate adverse environmental and economic effects related to their .... (i) Sisal decortication residue was used instead of cereal straws. ... diameter of 6 mm and there were 50 holes on the entire plastic sheet. The holes ...

  14. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... the medium to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Prior to addition to ... was used before any degradation had occurred. The dried biomass ... Each hole had a diameter of 6 mm and there were 50 holes on the entire plastic sheet.

  15. Effect of gamma radiations on some organoleptic qualities of mushroom (Agraricus Bisporus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.

    1985-01-01

    Edible mushrooms were picked at a stretched-veil stage and irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. The samples were studied for the organileptic characteristics in function of storage time and irradiation doses. No significant difference of irradiation was observed immediately on the colour, odour, flavour or texture of mushrooms. During storage the colour and texture of irradiated lots were superior as compared to unirradiated samples. Higher doses of irradiation brought about significantly favourable results in these qualities during storage. Odour and flavour did not differ significantly in all the treatments. Irradiated mushrooms were found to be better (hard) in texture when the measurements were made with a texturometer. Ionizing radiation exerted a favourable influence upon the organoleptic properties of picked mushrooms. (author)

  16. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  17. To Study the Influence of Different Substrate on Shiitake Mushroom Fruiting (the First Production Report in IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Razeghi yadak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstarct Shiitake mushroom [Lentinula edodes(Berk Singer/Pegler] has the second production class among the most important edible mushrooms. For a long time this mushroom has draw attention due to its unique flavor and taste and also therapeutic properties. ِDue to the importance of this mushroom in the world and also the effect of substrate on the production of this medicinal mushroom, a research were conducted in randomized complete block design with 6 replications on 4 different substrate formulations including: 1 sawdust, wheat bran, millet; 2 sawdust, wheat bran, molasses, chalk, calcium super phosphate; 3sawdust, wheat bran, tea waste; 4sawdust, saccharose, citric acid, chalk and calcium carbonate on L.edodes production for determining the suitable substarte on early fruiting, yield, biological effeciency, average mushroom numbers and weights per block. Results showed that substrate formulation 1 caused earlier fruiting than others (58 days from incubation time, this formulation also had the highest yield (112/3 g/log and biological effeciency (35/09% between the others formula. mashroom number was the most in substrate formulation 1 (16/67 n/log and the highest mushroom wieght was obtained from formulation 4 (14/33 g/per mushroom. there wasn’t any significant differences at (p≤0.05 between substrate formulation 1 and 2. Keywords: Shiitake, Substrate formulation, Yield, Biological effeciency, Mushroom number and weight

  18. Cultivation of Schizophyllum commune mushroom on different wood substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Dasanayaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune is an edible mushroom grown on wood under natural conditions. Present study focused on cultivation of S.commune on different wood substrates since it is not commercially cultivated. A pure culture of S. commune was obtained by growing a tissue of the mushroom on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. Spawns were produced by growing the mycelium on paddy grains. Mushroom was cultivated on sawdust of seven different wood substrates. The maximum yield was observed in sawdust of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus followed by sawdust of rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum and country almond (Terminaliacatappa. A significant difference was not observed when mango (Mangiferaindica elephant apple (Dilleniaindica, tulip wood tree (Harpulliaarborea and thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust used as substrate. The lowest yield was observed in thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust. Effect of some additives on the yield was studied and significant difference in yield was observed when rice bran and used-tea leaves used as additives. Effect of rice bran on yield was studied using different ratios of sawdust to rice bran and the highest was observed in 2:1 ratio of sawdust to rice bran. The best incubating temperature for mycelial growth on the substrate was 350C. The composition of the mushroom on a dry weight basis was; 71.4% moisture, 23.35% crude protein and 6% ash. Tested wood species are promising substrates for cultivation of S.communeas cottage industry.

  19. Radiocesium activity reduction in mushrooms by heat pressure treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Dolezalova, J.; Benova, K.; Ohera, M.

    2008-01-01

    The total activity of radiocesium is decreasing in forest ecosystems more slowly than it was expected. Hence it is topical to find technology that reduces the radiocesium content in foodstuffs. Some kinds of mushrooms including consumable ones cumulate significant amount of radiocesium (Cs-137) from the environment. The samples of edible boletus (Xerosomus badius) always originate from the same location, i.e. the Bohemian-Moravian Uplands, where the contamination of Cs-137 has been monitored for a long time using a laboratory semiconductor gamma-spectrometry. To reduce the radiocesium content in the wet samples a pressure cooker was applied with the boiling time of 15 minutes. After cooling juice was separated from the samples. This technology offers 65 percent activity reduction on average in boiled mushrooms. (authors)

  20. Radioactivity in mushrooms in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G.A.; Degetto, S.; Gerbasi, R.; Sbrignadello, G.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide activities in common edible mushrooms, collected in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The highest levels were found in Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Cantharellus lutescens and Boletus cavipes. In addition, a large number of soil samples was collected in the same area. From the 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratios, its was possible to differentiate the radiocesium contribution from pre-Chernobyl fallout in both fungi and soil. The contour maps for 137 Cs and 134 Cs distributions are reported. The radioactivity detected in the mushrooms is not related in a simple manner to the contamination level of the corresponding soil. Some species tend to concentrate cesium and silver nuclides, whilst others show little affinity for these and other nuclides. Explanations for the different behavioral characteristics of the species are suggested. (author)

  1. Free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides in Finnish forest mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Hanna; Rotola-Pukkila, Minna; Aisala, Heikki; Hopia, Anu; Laaksonen, Timo

    2018-05-01

    Edible mushrooms are valued because of their umami taste and good nutritional values. Free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides and nucleosides were analyzed from four Nordic forest mushroom species (Lactarius camphoratus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis) using high precision liquid chromatography analysis. To our knowledge, these taste components were studied for the first time from Craterellus tubaeformis and Lactarius camphoratus. The focus was on the umami amino acids and 5'-nucleotides. The free amino acid and 5'-nucleotide/nucleoside contents of studied species differed from each other. In all studied samples, umami amino acids were among five major free amino acids. The highest concentration of umami amino acids was on L. camphoratus whereas B. edulis had the highest content of sweet amino acids and C. cibarius had the highest content of bitter amino acids. The content of umami enhancing 5'-nucleotides were low in all studied species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Collecting and learning to identify edible fungi in southeastern Poland: age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczaj, Lukasz; Nieroda, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    The gathering of 17 folk taxa of edible fungi (most commonly Boletus edulis, Leccinum spp., Xerocomus spp., Suillus spp., Cantharellus cibarius, Armillaria spp., Russula spp., Lactarius salmonicolor, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus erythropus) was recorded in three villages in southeast Poland, but only 13 of them are gathered by children. Gender and age differences were small (apart from the fact that more adults than children collect non-Boletaceae species), and relatives of both sexes took part in teaching children about mushrooms, although fathers were most frequently mentioned as first teachers. Collecting mushrooms, mainly for own use, sometimes for sale, is still a culturally significant activity.

  3. Natural products and biological activity of the pharmacologically active cauliflower mushroom Sparassis crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Sparassis crispa, also known as cauliflower mushroom, is an edible mushroom with medicinal properties. Its cultivation became popular in Japan about 10 years ago, a phenomenon that has been attributed not only to the quality of its taste, but also to its potential for therapeutic applications. Herein, I present a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action of its bioactive components, such as beta-glucan, and other physiologically active substances. In particular, the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the beta-glucan components are presented herein in detail.

  4. Liberalization of the energy market. Outline of the mushroom cultivation; Liberalisering energiemarkt. Verkenning champignonteelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wel, A.J.; Bakker, R.

    2000-07-01

    As a result of a new Dutch Electricity Law and the liberalization of the natural gas market the mushroom cultivation business requires insight in the consequences of those developments for the energy costs. Also attention is paid to the consequences of the abolition of the limited exemption of the Regular Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch). Finally, insight is given into the consequences of changes in the government policy on the so-called long-range agreements on energy efficiency (sector edible mushrooms)18 refs.

  5. Natural Products and Biological Activity of the Pharmacologically Active Cauliflower Mushroom Sparassis crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparassis crispa, also known as cauliflower mushroom, is an edible mushroom with medicinal properties. Its cultivation became popular in Japan about 10 years ago, a phenomenon that has been attributed not only to the quality of its taste, but also to its potential for therapeutic applications. Herein, I present a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action of its bioactive components, such as beta-glucan, and other physiologically active substances. In particular, the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the beta-glucan components are presented herein in detail.

  6. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison ivy rash Overview Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin called urushiol (u-ROO-she-ol). This oil is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  7. How four U.S. states are regulating recreational marijuana edibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, Camille; Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine; Wiley, Jenny; Cates, Sheryl

    2017-05-01

    Sales of edible marijuana products have been strong in Colorado and Washington State since the legalization of recreational marijuana. Initially, these states did not have comprehensive labelling or packaging requirements in place. In response to increases in marijuana-related emergency room visits and poison control centre calls, additional regulations were implemented. Currently, Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington each have passed into law various labelling and packaging requirements for edibles. This article presents the primary legal research findings of relevant statutes and regulations for edibles in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington. These laws were identified by using Boolean terms and connectors searches in these states' legal databases in LexisNexis. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington vary greatly in how they regulate labelling and packaging. Colorado, Oregon and Washington require a Universal Symbol to be affixed to edibles, but only Oregon and Washington require that the use of pesticides be disclosed on the label. Only Colorado and Oregon require that the packaging for edibles bear a Nutrition Facts Panel on the label. Δ 9 -Tetrahydracannabinol (THC) in a single serving or single edible product as Alaska and Oregon. All four states prohibit the manufacture or packaging of edibles that appeal to youth. State laws governing recreational marijuana edibles have evolved since the first recreational edible products were available for sale. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington now require edible product labels to disclose a variety of product information, including risk factors associated with consumption. However, there still remain concerns about the regulatory gaps that exist in each of these states, inherent difficulties in enforcing laws around the labelling, packaging, and manufacturing of edibles, and the outstanding question of whether these edible laws are actually informing consumers and keeping the public safe. Copyright

  8. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  9. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  10. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Investigation on Possibility of Transferring OysterMushroom (Pleurotusostreatus Manganese Peroxidase Gene (mnp to the White Button Mushroom (Agaricusbisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Parvandi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The white button mushroom does not produce remarkable yield in the third flash. Nutritional deficiency and the inability of this mushroom to efficient use of compost are mentioned as its reasons. Basically, compost includes two major food components, lignocellulose and microbial biomass. But this microbial biomass provides just 10% of button mushroom food needs. According to research studies, differentenzymes in both white button mushroom and oyster mushroom are responsible for decomposition of lignin compounds in compost media, from begin of mycelium grows to the end of fruiting. Lacasse, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, glyoxal oxidase enzymes contribute to degradation of lignin compounds in degradation mushroom has proven by researchers however itis dependent on mushroom types. Manganese peroxidase enzyme (EC. 1.11.1.13 is an extracellular parser lignin enzyme that has a central peroxidase core. Manganese peroxidase enzyme oxidizesMn2+ to Mn3+ and then Mn3+ oxidizes phenolic structure to fonoxile radical. Produced Mn3+ is very active and makes complex by chelating organic acids that is produced by mushrooms such as oxalate or malate. Mn3+ ions become stable by helping of these chelates and it can penetrate through materials such as wood. On the other hand, in recent years, plant biotechnology provides new solutions for old problems such as use of microorganisms, particularly using bacteria for gene transfer and improvement of superlatives. For a sample of this method, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system can be noted. In addition, the use of suitable promoters for heterologous genes expression in suitable hosts is an important strategy in functional biotechnology that has been raised in edible mushroom genetic engineering. The lack of efficient and sufficient use of compost, low power of white button mushroom in competition with other rivals, lack of yield per area unit due to production costs, pests and diseases

  12. Influence of enriched soaking water on shiitake (Lentinus edodes (Berk. Singer mushroom yield and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim RANJBAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake is an edible mushroom native to East Asia. In the present research, the soaking water was targeted as the vehicle to enrich the substrate. The amount of nutrients in the substrate is severely reduced by mycelium growth and development during spawn running and browning period. Some part of this reduction can be compensated by soaking the substrate in the enriched soaking water. In this study, soaking water was enriched by some complement materials and enrichment effects on some important properties of shiitake mushroom were evaluated. The highest biological efficiency (69.88 % was gained with soaking the blocks in wheat bran extraction suspension. The highest dry matter of mushroom was obtained by rice bran extraction suspension as the enriched soaking water. The results of this research showed that some important properties of shiitake mushroom can be improved by soaking the blocks with enriched soaking water. According to the results, wheat bran extraction suspension was the best enriched solution to increase productivity of shiitake mushrooms and rice bran extraction suspension was suitable to improve quality of mushrooms.

  13. Arsenic hyperaccumulation and speciation in the edible ink stain bolete (Cyanoboletus pulverulentus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braeuer, S.; Gössler, W.; Kameník, Jan; Konvalinková, Tereza; Žigová, A.; Borovička, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 242, č. 3 (2018), s. 225-231 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34839L; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Edible mushrooms * Dimethylarsinic acid * Soil * Health risk * HPLC-ICPMS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  14. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  15. Mycorrhizal and Saprophytic edible fungi as biological indicators for environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaso, M.I.; Segovia, N.; Cervantes, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    40 K and 137 Cs specific activities were determined in soil and in 137 mushroom samples belonging to 32 edible mushroom species from a forest ecosystem located in Mexico. Among all the species investigated, 15 were mycorrhizal fungi and 15 were saprophytes. 40 K specific activities lay within a range from 332 to 2070 (Bq kg -1 , dry weight), with the lower value corresponding to the saprophytic fungi Clitocybe gibba and the higher value to the ectomycorrhizal Amanita cesarea. The 137 Cs concentration determined in mycorrhizal fungi was also higher than in saprophytes. The contribution from mushrooms to the dietary intake of 40 K was estimated to be several times higher than the corresponding component of annual intake calculated for 137 Cs. (orig.)

  16. Mycorrhizal and Saprophytic edible fungi as biological indicators for environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso, M.I.; Segovia, N.; Cervantes, M.L. [ININ, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs specific activities were determined in soil and in 137 mushroom samples belonging to 32 edible mushroom species from a forest ecosystem located in Mexico. Among all the species investigated, 15 were mycorrhizal fungi and 15 were saprophytes. {sup 40}K specific activities lay within a range from 332 to 2070 (Bq kg{sup -1}, dry weight), with the lower value corresponding to the saprophytic fungi Clitocybe gibba and the higher value to the ectomycorrhizal Amanita cesarea. The {sup 137}Cs concentration determined in mycorrhizal fungi was also higher than in saprophytes. The contribution from mushrooms to the dietary intake of {sup 40}K was estimated to be several times higher than the corresponding component of annual intake calculated for {sup 137}Cs. (orig.)

  17. Feasibility of flotation concentration of fungal spores as a method to identify toxigenic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzle LJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lisa J Bazzle,1 Marc A Cubeta,2 Steven L Marks,1 David C Dorman3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Center for Integrated Fungal Research, 3Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Purpose: Mushroom poisoning is a recurring and challenging problem in veterinary medicine. Diagnosis of mushroom exposure in animals is hampered by the lack of rapid diagnostic tests. Our study evaluated the feasibility of using flotation concentration and microscopic evaluation of spores for mushroom identification. Evaluation of this method in living animals exposed to toxigenic mushrooms is limited by ethical constraints; therefore, we relied upon the use of an in vitro model that mimics the oral and gastric phases of digestion. Methods: In our study, mycologist-identified toxigenic (poisonous and nontoxigenic fresh mushrooms were collected in North Carolina, USA. In phase 1, quantitative spore recovery rates were determined following magnesium sulfate, modified Sheather's sugar solution, and zinc sulfate flotation (n=16 fungal species. In phase 2, mushrooms (n=40 fungal species were macerated and digested for up to 2 hours in a salivary and gastric juice simulant. The partially digested material was acid neutralized, filtered, and spores concentrated using zinc sulfate flotation followed by microscopic evaluation of spore morphology. Results: Mean spore recovery rates for the three flotation fluids ranged from 32.5% to 41.0% (P=0.82. Mean (± standard error of the mean Amanita spp. spore recovery rates were 38.1%±3.4%, 36.9%±8.6%, and 74.5%±1.6% (P=0.0012 for the magnesium sulfate, Sheather's sugar, and zinc sulfate solutions, respectively. Zinc sulfate flotation following in vitro acid digestion (phase 2 yielded spore numbers adequate for microscopic visualization in

  18. CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging investigation of stable paramagnetic species and their antioxidant activities in dry shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Hara, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activities and locations of stable paramagnetic species in dry (or drying) shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9 GHz EPR imaging. CW 9 GHz EPR detected paramagnetic species (peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) = 0.57 mT) in the mushroom. Two-dimensional imaging of the sharp line using a 9 GHz EPR imager showed that the species were located in the cap and shortened stem portions of the mushroom. No other location of the species was found in the mushroom. However, radical locations and concentrations varied along the cap of the mushroom. The 9 GHz EPR imaging determined the exact location of stable paramagnetic species in the shiitake mushroom. Distilled water extracts of the pigmented cap surface and the inner cap of the mushroom showed similar antioxidant activities that reduced an aqueous solution of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activities of the edible mushroom extracts are much weaker than those of ascorbic acid. Thus, CW EPR and EPR imaging revealed the location and distribution of stable paramagnetic species and the antioxidant activities in the shiitake mushroom for the first time.

  19. Arsenic and Other Elemental Concentrations in Mushrooms from Bangladesh: Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Harunur Rashid

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom cultivation has been increasing rapidly in Bangladesh. Arsenic (As toxicity is widespread in the world and Bangladesh faces the greatest havoc due to this calamity. Rice is the staple food in Bangladesh and among all the crops grown, it is considered to be the main cause of As poisoning to its population after drinking water. Consequently, rice straw, an important growing medium of mushrooms in Bangladesh, is known to have high As content. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the concentrations of As in mushrooms cultivated in Bangladesh and to assess the health risk as well. It also considered other elements, including Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn concentrations in mushrooms from Bangladesh. The mean concentrations (mg/kg of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn in mushrooms were 0.51, 0.38, 0.28, 0.01, 13.7, 0.31, 11.7, 0.12, 0.28, and 53.5, respectively. Based on the dietary intake of mushrooms, the weekly intakes of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn from mushrooms for adults were 0.0042, 0.0030, 0.0024, 0.0001, 0.1125, 0.0019, 0.1116, 0.0011, 0.0023, and 0.4734 mg, respectively. Due to the low concentrations of As and other trace elements observed in mushrooms from Bangladesh, as well as relatively lower consumption of this food in people’s diet, it can be inferred that consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed will cause no toxicological risk.

  20. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Salvador

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura. Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.

  1. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Cátia; Martins, M Rosário; Vicente, Henrique; Caldeira, A Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura). Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.

  2. Relationships between selenium and mercury in the fruiting bodies of some mushrooms growing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Kubotal, R.; Kunito, T.; Bielawski, L.; Brzostowski, A.; Gucia, M.; Jedrusiak, A.; Lipka, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    The relationships between concentrations of total selenium and mercury were investigated for the whole fruiting bodies, caps and/or stalks of King bolete (Boletus edulis), Brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), Poison pax (Paxillus involutus) and Fly agaric (Amatiita niuscaria) collected from the various sites in Poland. The mushroom species examined varied largely due to the contents and proportions between the total selenium and mercury concentrations, what seems to indicate on species-dependent strategy of co-uptake and accumulation of these elements.

  3. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  4. Radioactive contamination of wild mushrooms: mycological approach and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droujinina, I.

    2001-11-01

    Recent investigations of the wide range of polluted environments have proven that different toxic elements, especially long-lived radionuclides of caesium and strontium, can be accumulated in fruit bodies of fungi. Therefore, consumption of wild mushrooms can be regarded as a risky activity. Radiocaesium, which was released into the environment by atomic weapons testing and accidents in the nuclear industry, is now accumulated particularly in the upper, mainly organic horizons of forest soils and it is assumed that fungal mycelium play a substantial role for the retention of this pollutant in top layers of soil. Nowadays macromycete fungi become a key point of the forest radioecology because of the extremely high level of the inter- and intraspecific variability of the radionuclide accumulation (from two to four orders of magnitude). The latter significantly complicates all efforts to predict the future migration of radionuclides in the ecosystem and creates a high uncertainty in the radioecological models. At the same time, mechanisms of radiocaesium uptake by fungal mycelium remain poorly understood. In this work, physiological mechanisms of radiocaesium accumulation by fungal mycelium (complex in vitro mycological approach) were investigated along with the pilot sociological study of the perception of the contamination of wild edible mushrooms by citizens of different countries. Such bilateral approach allows the comparison of an expert's perception of the problem with the mental model of those people who consume wild mushrooms. The revealed difference should be useful in future risk communication efforts when interested population should be informed. (author)

  5. Global collection of mushroom pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Korsten, L.

    2013-01-01

    In many places in the world, increasingly less chemical crop protection agents are available for use in mushroom cultivation. As a consequence, mushroom cultivation will loose the ability to use crop protection agents. As a consequence, good hygiene management, early detection and monitoring of

  6. Geographic identification of Boletus mushrooms by data fusion of FT-IR and UV spectroscopies combined with multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sen; Li, Tao; Li, JieQing; Liu, HongGao; Wang, YuanZhong

    2018-06-01

    Boletus griseus and Boletus edulis are two well-known wild-grown edible mushrooms which have high nutrition, delicious flavor and high economic value distributing in Yunnan Province. In this study, a rapid method using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopies coupled with data fusion was established for the discrimination of Boletus mushrooms from seven different geographical origins with pattern recognition method. Initially, the spectra of 332 mushroom samples obtained from the two spectroscopic techniques were analyzed individually and then the classification performance based on data fusion strategy was investigated. Meanwhile, the latent variables (LVs) of FT-IR and UV spectra were extracted by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and two datasets were concatenated into a new matrix for data fusion. Then, the fusion matrix was further analyzed by support vector machine (SVM). Compared with single spectroscopic technique, data fusion strategy can improve the classification performance effectively. In particular, the accuracy of correct classification of SVM model in training and test sets were 99.10% and 100.00%, respectively. The results demonstrated that data fusion of FT-IR and UV spectra can provide higher synergic effect for the discrimination of different geographical origins of Boletus mushrooms, which may be benefit for further authentication and quality assessment of edible mushrooms.

  7. Ligninolytic peroxidase genes in the oyster mushroom genome: heterologous expression, molecular structure, catalytic and stability properties, and lignin-degrading ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena Fernández-Fueyo; Francisco J Ruiz-Dueñas; María Jesús Martinez; Antonio Romero; Kenneth E Hammel; Francisco Javier Medrano; Angel T. Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Background: The genome of Pleurotus ostreatus, an important edible mushroom and a model ligninolytic organism of interest in lignocellulose biorefineries due to its ability to delignify agricultural wastes, was sequenced with the purpose of identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for lignin degradation. ...

  8. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: Button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik, Ivana; Stepanović, Miloš; Rekanović, Emil; Todorović, Biljana; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) and shiitake (Lentinus edodes). Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal a...

  9. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  10. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-01

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  12. Enhancement of β-Glucan Content in the Cultivation of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) by Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Ryu, Sung-Ryul

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, β-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the β-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the β-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms.

  13. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenejad, F; Yakhchali, B; Rasooli, I

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms such as Agaricus bisporus, are cultivated for food worldwide. Fruit body initiation in Agaricus bisporus is a phase change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage which depends on the presence of a casing layer with particular physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The phase change is achieved practically by environmental manipulation and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria such as Pseuodomonas putida. In this study, 274 individual bacterial isolates were collected by screening the casing layer of 14 edible mushroom farms. The isolates were analysed with respect to biochemical properties, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore and growth in the presence of volatile compound of 1-octen-3-ol. It was found that approximately 97% of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 36% were able to solubilize phosphorus. Among the isolates, 23 strains were selected as potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) for inoculation of the casing layer. Field experiments using these strains showed various promoting effects on production of mushroom. Finally, 2 strains (strains Bt4 and Ps7) showing the highest increase in A. bisporus production, were characterized as Pseuodomonas putida by molecular methods and identified as the best suited growth promoting inoculants for application in production farms for increasing the mushroom yield.

  14. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw.

  15. Contamination of mushrooms with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.

    2013-01-01

    There is 27 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the half-life of 137 Cs is 30 years. The radioactive cloud hit both former Czechoslovakia, but also very distant cities throughout Europe. In this work, author focused on recovery of radiocesium content in mushrooms from various sites in Slovakia, Poland and England. Author evaluated 28 samples of dried mushrooms. 137 Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra). Elevated levels have been reported occasionally in mushroom not only in Slovakia but also in distant England. The values obtained are lower than recommended standard (author)

  16. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  17. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  18. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  19. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  20. Diagnosis of acute poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    functional tissue damage in ... cury or alcohol) .... †The degree of poisoning, together with drug or poison levels, usually determines the .... monoxide, caffeine and the sym- .... the brain. It usually occurs when two or more drugs, which increase.

  1. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  2. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  3. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  4. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the effect of water elimination and the effect of burn-up residue boron, thereby reduce the effect of burnable poison rods as the neutron poisons at the final stage of reactor core lifetime. Constitution: In a burnable poison rod according to the present invention, a hollow burnable poison material is filled in an external fuel can, an inner fuel can mounted with a carbon rod is inserted to the hollow portion of the burnable poison material and helium gases are charged in the outer fuel can. In such a burnable poison rod, the reactivity worths after the burning are reduced to one-half as compared with the conventional case. Accordingly, since the effect of the burnable poison as the neutron poisons is reduced at the final stage of the reactor core of lifetime, the excess reactivity of the reactor core is increased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  6. Biomethane digestate from horse manure, a new waste usable in compost for growing the button mushroom , Agaricus bisporus ?

    OpenAIRE

    Savoie, Jean-Michel; Vedier, R.; Blanc, Frederic; Minvielle, Nathalie; Rousseaut, T.; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is a direct utilization of their ecological role of organic matter degradation in the bioconversion of solid wastes generated from industry and agriculture into edible biomass, which could also be regarded as a functional food or as a source of drugs and pharmaceuticals. Significant changes are expected in the integrated management of wastes streams in the future due to the use of plant biomass for biofuel and energy production and other non-food crops. On the one ...

  7. Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Rupcic, Zeljka; Rascher, Monique; Kanaki, Sae; Köster, Reinhard W.; Stadler, Marc; Wittstein, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    Basidiomycetes of the genus Hericium are among the most praised medicinal and edible mushrooms, which are known to produce secondary metabolites with the potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This activity has been attributed to the discovery of various terpenoids that can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor (NGF) or (as established more recently) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cell-based bioassays. The present study reports on the metabolite profiles of a Li...

  8. Cytotoxic Effect on Human Myeloma Cells and Leukemic Cells by the Agaricus blazei Murill Based Mushroom Extract, Andosan™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon-Magnus Tangen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which has been found to contain a number of compounds with antitumor properties, such as proteoglycans and ergosterol. In the present investigation, we show that the commercial mushroom product Andosan, which contains 82.4% Agaricus blazei Murill, together with medicinal mushrooms Hericium erinaceus (14.7% and Grifola frondosa (2.9%, has a cytotoxic effect on primary myeloma cells, other myeloma cell lines, and leukemia cell lines in vitro. Although the exact content and hence the mechanisms of action of the Andosan extract are unknown, we have found in this investigation indications of cell cycle arrest when myeloma cell lines are cultivated with Andosan. This may be one of the possible explanations for the cytotoxic effects of Andosan.

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of fleshy pored mushrooms: Neoboletus luridiformis and Hortiboletus rubellus from western Himalayan range of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, S.; Khalid, N.; Dentinger, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fleshy pored mushrooms is the name given to boletes due to their porous hymenium and fleshy nature. These are ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes found in all continents except Antarctica. These mushrooms are important economically due to their edibility and medicinal value. This research work highlights the diversity of boletes in Pakistan and their correct identification by using molecular phylogenetic techniques. Western Himalayan range (WHR) of Pakistan is considered as diversity rich area. During present investigation regarding diversity of boletes in these areas, two bolete taxa viz. Hortiboletus rubellus and Neoboletus luridiformis were found under conifers. These mushrooms were collected and analyzed morphologically as well as phylogenetically by using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA sequences, and compared with their allies. All description and comparison with related taxa is provided in detail. These boletes are first time analyzed using molecular method from Pakistan. (author)

  10. Effect of superfine grinding on the physico-chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric properties of Lentinus edodes mushroom powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jian; Chen, Long; Hong, Hui; Li, Jinlong

    2015-09-01

    Lentinus edodes is an edible mushroom commonly known as shiitake, which is the second most produced and consumed edible mushroom in the world and is an important nutrient source in the human diet. To fully use L. edodes, the mushrooms are occasionally ground into powder as a flavourful and functional food additive. This study produces powders from the cap and stipe of Lentinus edodes mushrooms through superfine grinding. These powders are composed of sub-micron range particles with various size distributions. The superfine grinding process is then compared with shear pulverisation to determine the different effects on both the cap and stipe powders in terms of particle size and physico-chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric properties. When average particle size was reduced to 0.54 and 0.46 µm, respectively, the moisture and protein content, angles of repose and slide, and water holding capacity of the powders decreased to varied extents. However, soluble dietary fibre, water solubility index, and swelling capacity increased. Scanning electron microscope images suggested that the superfine grinding process effectively changed the original surface structure of the L. edodes powders. The curves of thermogravimetric analysis and those of the derivatives of thermogravimetry indicated that superfine grinding can improve the thermostability of L. edodes powders. Furthermore, superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be used as pharmaceutical or food additives in various fields. The present study suggests that superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be applied in various fields as pharmaceutical or food additives. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and foods (particularly certain species of mushroom and fish ). However, almost any substance ingested in sufficiently large ... changes in consciousness, body temperature, heart rate, and breathing and many others, depending on the organs affected. ...

  12. Radioprotective effect of edible herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Huang Meiying; Zhu Genbo; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1992-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the plasma also were increased. (4) The activity of SOD (superoxide dimutase) was risen. (5) the edible herbs have the function to protect the structure of organs of thymus and testes

  13. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  14. Ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish on the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Spanier, Ehud

    2007-09-01

    The consumption of edible fish (e.g., Siganus spp) was assumed to have caused ciguatera poisoning at an atypical site, the eastern Mediterranean. This pilot study assesses the presence of ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel. Samples of Siganus rivulatus from polluted seawater (Haifa Bay), Siganus rivulatus from relatively clean seawater (Dor), and fish from the freshwater Sea of Galilee not inhabited by toxic algae were analyzed during summertime. Ciguatoxin-like substances were tested by a membrane immunobead assay that yields a color reaction (positive, weakly positive, negative). Significantly more large and small fish from Haifa Bay yielded positive color reactions compared to fish from Dor. Sea of Galilee fish gave no positive color reactions. Our results suggest the presence of ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish of the eastern Mediterranean. Additional analyses are needed to determine whether these substances are ciguatoxins or related polyethers.

  15. Caracterização da produção em toros do cogumelo comestível Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler na região oeste do Estado de São Paulo = Characterization of log cultivation of the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler in western São Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilene Ferreira de Queiroz Neves

    2008-10-01

    control and to the inappropriate growing system. In 2004, there were 45,000 Shiitake-inoculated logs in this region, and the yield stood around 200 g of fresh mushroom/log. The mushrooms arepacked in boxes of 200 g, and are sold mainly to Ceasa in open markets.

  16. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and itching. Aluminum acetate ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  17. Effectiveness of Training Programme on Mushroom Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Sazzadur; Hossain, Kh. Zulfikar; Ali, Md. Sekender; Afroz, Fauzia

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness is one of the key parameters to assess success of any programs. However, the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation was not well addressed. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation and to explore the relationships of each of the selected characteristics of the trained mushroom farmers with their effectiveness of training programme. Data were collected from the trained mushroom farmers of s...

  18. [Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

    2013-01-03

    Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal ... On the other hand, if nutrition analysis reveals different nutrition parameters for both types of mushrooms, 43.3% opted for cultivated mushroom, 42.2%, wild; 12.2% both; while 2.2% would eat ... Keywords: Consumption pattern, Lentinus squarrosulus, nutrition, perception, wild mushroom ...

  20. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  1. The heavy metals content in wild growing mushrooms from burdened Spiš area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the rate of entry of heavy metals into the edible parts of wild mushrooms, from central Spiš area. The area is characterized by extremely high content of heavy metals particularly mercury in abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The toxicity of heavy metals is well known and described. Known is also the ability of fungi to accumulate contaminants from substrates in which mushrooms grow. We have collected commonly consumed species of mushrooms (Russula vesca., Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Lecinum piceinum, Boletus reticulatus. Sampling was conducted for two years 2012 and 2013. The samples taken mushrooms and substrates on which to grow, we determined heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Cu, including total mercury content modified by atomic absorption spectrometry (AMA - 254. In the substrate, we determined the humus content and pH value. The heavy metal content in soils were evaluated according to Law no. 220/2004 Z.z The exceedance limit values of Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg was recorded. Most significantly the respective limit was recorded in soil samples in the case of mercury. The determined concentration Hg was 39.01 mg.kg-1. From the results, we evaluated the degree of ability to bioaccumulate heavy metals different kinds of fungi. We also evaluated the health safety of the consumption of these fungi on the comparison with the limit values provided in the food code of SR. We recorded a high rate of accumulation of mercury in the species Boletus reticulatus and Macrolepiota procera. For these types we recorded the most significant than allowed concentrations of mercury in mushrooms. The highest recorded concentration reached 17.64 mg.kg-1 Hg in fresh matter. The limit value was exceeded also in the case of copper. We do not recommend to increased consumption of wild mushrooms in the reference area.

  2. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I - ) and 32 kGy/h (I + ). Both I + and I - showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L * value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L * value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I - . Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I - contained more phenols than I + and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered (p≤0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I + . Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I + , contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly (p≤0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I - than in I + . It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I + was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I + than in I -

  3. Nutritional value of huitlacoche, maize mushroom caused by Ustilago maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYDOĞDU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smutty maize cobs, caused by Ustilago maydis ((DC Corda., a fungus belonging to Basidiomycetes, can be seen wherever maize is grown. It is considered as a fungal disease limiting maize yield worldwide. However, in Mesoamerica, it is called as “huitlacoche” and evaluated as an edible mushroom. The present study was conducted to examine nutritional characteristics of this mushroom. In the study, smutty cobs naturally infected by U. maydis were randomly gleaned from plants in maize producing areas in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, in 2015. Huitlacoche was analyzed in terms of proximate composition, fatty acids, mineral elements, total phenolic and flavonoid matters and antioxidant activity. Average protein content was 12%, while fatty acids ranged from 0.44 to 42.49% (dry basis. Of the 11 fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids had the highest percentages. Phosphorus (342.07 mg/kg and magnesium (262.69 mg/kg were found in high quantities. As for total phenolic and flavonoid matters were 113.11 mg GAE/kg and 28.51 mg CE/kg, respectively. The study suggests that huitlacoche has numerous good nutritional features for human diet, thus, it can be evaluated as a valuable food source in international cuisines.

  4. Map of radioactive contamination in mushrooms of Poland in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Jasinska, M.; Kubica, B.; Kozak, K.; Macharski, P.

    1992-01-01

    Results from part of the Polish Government programme for forests radioactive contamination studies are presented. 278 samples of edible mushroom (Xerocomus badius) were analysed for radiocesium 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and 40 K using low-background gamma spectrometer with a germanium detector. Samples were collected from all districts of Poland in October 1991 by forest inspectors. In consequence maps of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and for 40 K concentration in ''Xerocomus badius'' are presented. The method of measurements is also presented. Large differences in radiocesium contamination levels are observed for various parts of the country. The higher radiocesium contamination level is observed in Czestochowa-Opole region. Maximum value for 137 Cs is equal to 157 kBq/kg d.m. and that for 134 Cs is equal to 16.3 kBq/kg d.m. The 40 K content level is nearly constant and equal to c.a. 1.3 kBq/kg d.m. Minimum values for caesium contamination were observed in the Bieszczady Mountains. The effective dose equivalent estimation due to the consumption of mushrooms is performed. The limits of ingestion amounts are calculated. (author). 15 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Characteristics of radiocesium concentration by mushrooms and microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Kuwahara, Chikako; Shibata, Hisashi; Maeda, Yoko; Kato, Fumio

    2000-01-01

    The 137 Cs values in cultured edible fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1 (P. ostreatus) were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those in the wild mushrooms. The concentration ratio (CR, 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the dried cultured fruiting bodies or mycelia/ 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the fresh medium) suggested that 137 Cs in the medium actively migrated into the mushroom. The 137 Cs and stable Cs uptake by the cultured fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus were affected by the presence of K the same as the mycelia. Streptomyces lividans TK24 (S.lividans) and Streptomyces sp. TOHO-2 (Streptomyces sp.), one of the soil microorganisms, grown in the presence of Cs showed high accumulation of Cs in the mycelia. Elementary analysis of P. ostreatus and S. lividans were performed using a scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. The ratio of Cs in the stationary phase to that in the proliferation phase at the mycelial root of P. ostreatus formed in the early stage was about five times that at the mycelial tip. S. lividans and Streptomyces sp. grown on the YM agar plate containing CsCl showed white spots locating at a similar intervals. Concentrations of Cs, P, O and Mg in the white spots were higher than those in other regions. (author)

  6. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  7. Radiotracer experiments on the uptake of radionuclides by mushrooms and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Kei

    1996-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments were performed to study radionuclide uptake by mushrooms and plants. Four mushroom species, Hebeloma vinosophyllum, Flammulina velutipes, Agrocybe cylindracea and Coprinus phlyctidosporus were cultivated in a flask containing medium with the radiotracers 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 54 Mn, 60 Co and 65 Zn. Mushrooms tended to accumulate Cs, Mn and Zn. The concentration ratio of Cs between mushroom and medium ranged from 2.6 to 21. The highest was observed in H. vinospohyllum. The concentration ratio of Mn was about 10, while the ratio of Zn ranged from 15 to 30. No noticeable accumulations were found for Sr or Co. Transfer factors (TFs) of radionuclides from soil to leaf vegetables (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce) were also studied using Andosol (a representative Japanese soil). The TFs of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 54 Mn, 60 Co and 65 Zn for edible parts of these vegetables were (mean value) 0.11, 0.24, 0.61, 0.05 and 0.52, respectively. The TFs of Mn, Co and Zn for spinach were higher than those for the other vegetables. The distributions of Cs in different organs of the leaf vegetables were rather uniform. The TFs of Sr and Mn were higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In contrast to Sr and Mn, TFs of Zn for younger leaves were higher than those for older ones

  8. Recycling of Date-Palm Fiber to Produce Pleurotus Cornucopiae Var. Citrinopileatus Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some local available organic matters, which are including wheat straw (Triticum aestivum, sawdust, and fiber of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., were used for growing and cultivating of bright yellow oyster mushroom Pleurotus cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus. The possibility of using date palm fiber (in mixtures with other organic residues as a substrate for the cultivation and production of fruiting bodies of P. cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus was investigated. This mushroom is capable of biorecycling and utilization of some mixtures of lignocellulosic substrates successfully, especially the mixture S3 (50% wheat straw, 30% sawdust, and 20% date palm fiber. The lower mycelia completion time was 17 days, that shown in bags of the S3 substrate. Date-palm fiber substrate exhibited best growth intensity level (moderate significantly (p<0.05. The total yield and biological efficiency percent recorded approx. 90 g and 23% on the S3 substrate respectively, as a higher percent significantly (p<0.05, while sawdust substrate alone was an unsuitable medium for cultivation and production of this mushroom. Finally, the use of date-palm fibers in mixtures is usefulness in producing a fresh edible and medicinal mushroom.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2016, page: 56-65

  9. Modification of growth conditions by mm-waves of wood-decaying mushrooms cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avagyan, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Basidial macromycetes are not only value food, but can be used as source of such biological active compounds as the genistein, β -glucans, glioxal-oxidase et al. In this work we used different frequencies of extremely high frequency of electromagnetic irradiation (EHF EMI) with the aim of obtaining mushroom cultures with increased fermentative activity by the modulation of its growth conditions during growth on the peptone media. We investigated the influence of the non-thermal extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves in the interval of 45-53 GHz on β-glucosidase activities of two species of wood-decaying mushroom. In this study we examined the most popular edible wood-decaying mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, which is wide-spread in the forests and commercial mushroom Lentinula edodes, under influence of such an abiotic factor as the extremely high frequency waves in the interval of 45 GHz - 53 GHz during 20 and 40 min on the 7th day of mycelial culture's growth. After the treatment of cultures we continued their growth and on the 3th day we examined the influence of these waves on fermentative activity of mycelial extracts. The some conditions of such treatment led to significant rising of β-glucosidase activities in the extracts of mycelial cultures

  10. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjosheva Melania

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species.

  11. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  12. Metals in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Wild Edible Plants Used by the Polish Community in Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    We studied the cultural significance of wild edible plants for Eastern European migrants who settled in rural subtropical areas of South America. In 50 interviews with Polish migrants and their descendants in northern Misiones, Argentina, we recorded the use of 41 botanical species and two mushroom taxa. Different cultural significance indices were applied and sociodemographic factors such as gender, age and origin were addressed. Out of the ten most salient species, nine were fruits ( Eugenia uniflora , Eugenia involucrata , Rollinia salicifolia , Campomanesia xanthocarpa , Syagrus romanzoffiana , Allophylus edulis , Plinia peruviana , Plinia rivularis , Eugenia pyriformis ) and only one was a green vegetable ( Hypochaeris chillensis ). None of our informants reported famine foods, recreational teas or condiments. Men mentioned more wild edible species than women due to their more extensive knowledge of the forest plants growing further from settlements.

  14. [Liver albumin dialysis (MARS)--treatment of choice in Amanita phalloides poisoning?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydzik, Piotr; Gawlikowski, Tomasz; Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Kwella, Norbert; Sein Anand, Jacek; Wójcicki, Maciej; Lubikowski, Jerzy; Czupryńska, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    Amanita phalloides is a direct life-threatening poisoning because of acute multiorgan failure. Urgent liver transplantation (LTx) is the last chance to save patient's life in severe cases. In many cases of mushroom poisoning the patient dies because of unavailability of a liver graft. Liver albumin dialysis (MARS) is a promising treatment to bridge the patient to LTx or stabilize his or her condition until spontaneous liver regeneration occurs. Four family members (father, mother and two sons) were eating self-collected mushrooms (Russula vesca). Typically for the Amanita phalloides poisoning, the first symptoms appeared in all persons more than 12 hours after mushroom ingestion. Because they did not improve, the whole family was admitted to the Regional Hospital in Ketrzyn (24 hours after mushroom ingestion). Mycological examination of gastric washings was positive only in the mother, in whom the Amanita phalloides spores were found. During the first 48 hours of poisoning the biochemical indexes of liver injury were observed in all persons. The whole family members were sent to centers where liver albumin dialysis could be performed: the mother was admitted to the Department of Nephrology and Dialysis Therapy in Olsztyn, the father and the first son were admitted to the Clinical Toxicology Department in Krak6w, and the second son was admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine and Acute Poisonings in Gdańsk. Three albumin dialysis procedures were performed in the case of mother with complete liver recovery. After the first liver albumin dialysis, the father of the family was disqualified from the following procedures because of severe coagulation disturbances (GI bleeding), and died the fourth day after mushroom ingestion. The first son fulfilled the King's College criteria and was accepted for high urgency liver transplantation. After two albumin dialysis procedures had been able and the patient was urgently sent to the Department of General and

  15. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  16. Effects of ergothioneine from mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) on melanosis and lipid oxidation of kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirono, Ikuo; Ushio, Hideki; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2010-02-24

    The antimelanosic and antioxidative properties of a hot water extract prepared from the fruiting body of the edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) were evaluated by dietary supplementation in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) for possible aquaculture application. The extract contained ergothioneine (ERT) at a level of 2.05 mg/mL. A commercial standard of l-ergothioneine (l-ERT) and the mushroom extract showed inhibitory activity against mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Feeding of the extract had no adverse effects on the immune systems of the shrimp under the present experimental conditions. Supplementation of the extract in the diet significantly suppressed PPO activities in the hemolymphs of the shrimp. Expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in the hemocyte of the Kuruma shrimp fed with the mushroom extract. Consequently, development of melanosis was significantly suppressed in the supplement fed shrimp during ice storage. Lipid oxidation was also effectively controlled in the supplement fed group throughout the storage period. In vitro experiments showed that l-ERT effectively inhibited the activation of proPO in the hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS). The transcript of the proPO gene in the hemocyte showed lower expression in the l-ERT-treated HLS. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of the mushroom extract in shrimp could be a promising approach to control post mortem development of melanosis and lipid oxidation in shrimp muscles.

  17. Gamma irradiation of mushrooms, preliminary studies: effect on O-diphenyl oxidase activity and amino acid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, S.; Gebicka, L.

    1992-01-01

    Mushrooms are a valuable food raw materials because of their nutritional and taste values. Post-harvest ripening, chemical composition (94% water) and possible microbial contamination decrease not only organoleptic and nutritional value, but also the shelf-life. As an objective method of evaluation of irradiated mushrooms we adopted activity determination of o-diphenyl oxidase (o-DPO) which is responsible for discoloration of the edible mushrooms and altered qualitative and quantitative content of amino acids. It was observed that doses up to 2 kGy did not cause any increase in the activity of o-DPO; irradiation also did not affect the taste. Mushrooms irradiated with doses up to 4 kGy were of good quality after 5 days of storage at 4 C, while the control samples (unirradiated) after the same time were considerably changed, probably due too post-harvest ripening. Immediately after exposure the activity of o-DPO increased in proportion to the dose used. During subsequent storage, however, no increase in o-DPO activity was observed. Irradiation used in the range from 0.2 to 0.4 kGy did not affect the nutritional value of the raw material. The results are an additional confirmation that radiation can be used for efficient preservation of mushrooms. (author). 14 refs, 6 tabs

  18. Exceedingly biocompatible and thin-layered reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using an eco-friendly mushroom extract strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Bai, Renu Geetha; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Sudheer, Surya Mudavasseril; Lim, Hong Ngee; Loh, Hwei-San; Huang, Nay Ming; Chia, Chin Hua; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A simple, one-pot strategy was used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by utilizing an easily available over-the-counter medicinal and edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum. Methods The mushroom was boiled in hot water to liberate the polysaccharides, the extract of which was then used directly for the reduction of graphene oxide. The abundance of polysaccharides present in the mushroom serves as a good reducing agent. The proposed strategy evades the use of harmful and expensive chemicals and avoids the typical tedious reaction methods. Results More importantly, the mushroom extract can be easily separated from the product without generating any residual byproducts and can be reused at least three times with good conversion efficiency (75%). It was readily dispersible in water without the need of ultrasonication or any surfactants; whereas 5 minutes of ultrasonication with various solvents produced RGO which was stable for the tested period of 1 year. Based on electrochemical measurements, the followed method did not jeopardize RGO’s electrical conductivity. Moreover, the obtained RGO was highly biocompatible to not only colon (HT-29) and brain (U87MG) cancer cells, but was also viable towards normal cells (MRC-5). Conclusion Besides being eco-friendly, this mushroom based approach is easily scalable and demonstrates remarkable RGO stability and biocompatibility, even without any form of functionalization. PMID:25759577

  19. Traceability of Boletaceae mushrooms using data fusion of UV-visible and FTIR combined with chemometrics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sen; Li, Tao; Liu, HongGao; Li, JieQing; Wang, YuanZhong

    2018-04-01

    Boletaceae mushrooms are wild-grown edible mushrooms that have high nutrition, delicious flavor and large economic value distributing in Yunnan Province, China. Traceability is important for the authentication and quality assessment of Boletaceae mushrooms. In this study, UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were applied for traceability of 247 Boletaceae mushroom samples in combination with chemometrics. Compared with a single spectroscopy technique, data fusion strategy can obviously improve the classification performance in partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and grid-search support vector machine (GS-SVM) models, for both species and geographical origin traceability. In addition, PLS-DA and GS-SVM models can provide 100.00% accuracy for species traceability and have reliable evaluation parameters. For geographical origin traceability, the accuracy of prediction in the PLS-DA model by data fusion was just 64.63%, but the GS-SVM model based on data fusion was 100.00%. The results demonstrated that the data fusion strategy of UV-visible and FTIR combined with GS-SVM could provide a higher synergic effect for traceability of Boletaceae mushrooms and have a good generalization ability for the comprehensive quality control and evaluation of similar foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The preliminary study of prebiotic potential of Polish wild mushroom polysaccharides: the stimulation effect on Lactobacillus strains growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Renata; Nowacka-Jechalke, Natalia; Juda, Marek; Malm, Anna

    2018-06-01

    According to the vast body of evidence demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota is undoubtedly linked with overall health, including cancer risk, searching for functional foods and novel prebiotic influencing on beneficial bacteria is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of polysaccharides from 53 wild-growing mushrooms to stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and to determine the digestibility of polysaccharide fractions. Mushroom polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol from aqueous extracts. Determination of growth promoting activity of polysaccharides was performed in U-shaped 96-plates in an ELISA reader in relation to the reference strain of L. acidophilus and two clinical strains of L. rhamnosus. The digestibility of mushroom polysaccharides was investigated in vitro by exposing them to artificial human gastric juice. Obtained results revealed that fungal polysaccharides stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus strains stronger than commercially available prebiotics like inulin or fructooligosaccharides. Moreover, selected polysaccharides were subjected to artificial human gastric juice and remain undigested in more than 90%. Obtained results indicate that mushroom polysaccharides are able to pass through the stomach unchanged, reaching the colon and stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria. Majority of 53 polysaccharide fractions were analysed for the first time in our study. Overall, our findings suggest that polysaccharide fractions from edible mushrooms might be useful in producing functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  1. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  2. Poisoning - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  3. Arsenical poisoning of racehorses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.

    1964-03-07

    A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.

  4. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  5. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  6. 7 CFR 981.7 - Edible kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Edible kernel. 981.7 Section 981.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.7 Edible kernel. Edible kernel means a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel that is not inedible. [41 FR 26852, June 30, 1976] ...

  7. [Poisonous plants: An ongoing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Monseny, A; Martínez Sánchez, L; Margarit Soler, A; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-05-01

    A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012. During the period of study, 18 patients had ingested possible toxic plants. In 14 cases, it was considered to be potentially toxic: broom, oleander, mistletoe, butcher's-broom, and vulgar bean (2), Jerusalem tomato, castor (2), Jimson weed, potus, marijuana, and mushrooms with digestive toxicity (2). Among the potentially toxic cases, the ingestion was accidental in 10 patients, 2 cases were classed as infantile mistreatment, 1 case had recreational intention, and another one suicidal intentions. The ingestion of oleander, castor and Jimson weed had major toxicity. The potential gravity of the ingestion of plant substances and the variety of the exposure mechanism requires the pediatrician to bear in mind this possibility, and to be prepared for its diagnosis and management. Specific preventive information measures need to be designed for the families and for the regulation of toxic plants in playgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...

  9. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  10. Edible insects and research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    The recent research interest is illustrated by the many refereed articles that appeared during the last years. Only in 2016, there were 47 articles listed in Web of Science (consulted 15 February 2017) when using ‘edible insects’ compared to only 25 during the entire five-year period 2006-2010. At

  11. Collection, identification and shelf life enhancement of wild edible fungi used by ethnic tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Singh; Alpana; Gautam, Satendra; Shukla, Shashita; Deshmukh, Reena

    2015-01-01

    An extensive survey for collection and identification of wild edible fungi was undertaken in three districts namely Mandla, Dindori and Shahdol of Northern Hill Region of Chhattisgarh (An Agro-climatic Zone) belonging to Madhya Pradesh. A total of 9 species were documented as wild edible fungi used for food purpose by ethnic tribes of selected region. These wild edible fungi make a substantial contribution to the food security of tribal people of Madhya Pradesh. Identification was done on the basis of morphological characteristics. Termitomyces spp. recorded highest no. of spp. (7) followed by Scleroderma spp (1spp.) and Russula spp. (1spp). For shelf life enhancement, wild edible fungi were irradiated with 0,1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy gamma radiation doses, packed in LDPE bags and stored at 50℃. T. heimii Natrajan showed 15 days, T. radicatus Natarajan 9 days, Scleroderma spp. Showed 24 days of shelf life treated with 1.5 kGy dose whereas Russula Spp., T. eurhizus (Berk) R.heim treated with 1.0 kGy radiation dose showed 9 days of shelf life in terms of all sensory attributes. All the irradiated mushrooms had lower PLW (Physiological Loss in Weight) and better microbial quality as compared to control. Nutritional quality of wild edible fungi was not affected adversely by gamma radiation. This type of study could contribute significantly to improve food security in tribal areas, whose potential as source of nutrition is currently undervalued. (author)

  12. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  13. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  14. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical surfaces with hair-like ... urushiol". These are called Rhus plants after the old scientific name (it was changed to toxidendron). A ...

  15. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in fumes produced any time you burn fuel in cars or trucks, small engines, stoves, lanterns, ... prevent CO poisoning in my home? Install a battery-operated or battery back-up CO detector in ...

  17. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  18. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activated charcoal, which is used to treat other types of poisoning does not effectively treat (adsorb) sodium hydroxide. For skin exposure, treatment may include: Surgical removal of burned skin (debridement) Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn ...

  19. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  20. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  1. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  2. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  3. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours a day, 7 days a week. Be Smart about Storage Store all medicines and household products ... call medicine "candy." Identify poisonous plants in your house and yard and place them out of reach ...

  4. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  5. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  6. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  7. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education/Medical; 2013:chap 6. Review Date ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  8. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2013:chap 24. Kulig K. General ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  9. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the reactor core lifetime by decreasing the effect of neutron absorption of burnable poison rods by using material with less neutron absorbing effect. Constitution: Stainless steels used so far as the coating material for burnable poison rods have relatively great absorption in the thermal neutral region and are not preferred in view of the neutron economy. Burnable poison rods having fuel can made of zirconium alloy shows absorption the thermal neutron region lower by one digit than that of stainless steels but they shows absorption in the resonance region and the cost is higher. In view of the above, the fuel can of the burnable poison material is made of aluminum or aluminu alloy. This can reduce the neutron absorbing effect by stainless steel fuel can and effectively utilize neutrons that have been wastefully absorbed and consumed in stainless steels. (Takahashi, M.)

  10. Economic assessment of mushroom project commercialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Meswan Maskom

    2010-01-01

    The market value of mushroom is worth US $45 billion comprising: US $28-30 billion from food, US $9-10 billion from medicinal products and US $3.5-4 billion from wild mushroom. Malaysian import deficit of mushroom over the year 2001-2007 was 40,933 metric ton that worth of RM 187.7 million. The existing local market is lucrative and the potential world market is very large. Having cultivation technology in placed, understanding key value chains of cultivation technology processes, this paper assesses the case study of project economic of mushroom commercialization. (author)

  11. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša; Vuković-Ercegović Gordana; Šegrt Zoran; Đorđević Snežana; Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collecte...

  12. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  13. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  14. Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Branà

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most harmful mycotoxin that occurs as natural contaminant of agricultural commodities, particularly maize. Practical solutions for detoxification of contaminated staples and reduction of agricultural wastes are scarce. We investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus Plerotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom to degrade AFB1 both in vitro and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrate similar to that routinely used in mushroom farms. In malt extract broth, degradation of AFB1 (500 ng/mL by nine isolates of P. eryngii ranged from 81 to 99% after 10 days growth, and reached 100% for all isolates after 30 days. The growth of P. eryngii on solid medium (malt extract-agar, MEA was significantly reduced at concentrations of AFB1 500 ng/mL or higher. However, the addition of 5% wheat straw to the culture medium increased the tolerance of P. eryngii to AFB1 and no inhibition was observed at a AFB1 content of 500 ng/mL; degradation of AFB1 in MEA supplemented with 5% wheat straw and 2.5% (w/v maize flour was 71-94% after 30 days of growth. Further, AFB1 degradation by P. eryngii strain ITEM 13681 was tested in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation. The mushroom growth medium contained 25% (w/w of maize spiked with AFB1 to the final content of 128 μg/kg. Pleurotus eryngii degraded up to 86% of the AFB1 in 28 days, with no significant reduction of either biological efficiency or mushroom yield. Neither the biomass produced on the mushroom substrate nor the mature basidiocarps contained detectable levels of AFB1 or its metabolite aflatoxicol, thus ruling out the translocation of these toxins through the fungal thallus. These findings make a contribution towards the development of a novel technology for remediation of AFB1- contaminated corn through the exploitation of the degradative capability of P. eryngii and its bioconversion into high nutritional value material intended for feed production.

  15. Molecular phylogenetics of porcini mushrooms (Boletus section Boletus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Bryn T M; Ammirati, Joseph F; Both, Ernst E; Desjardin, Dennis E; Halling, Roy E; Henkel, Terry W; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Nagasawa, Eiji; Soytong, Kasem; Taylor, Andy F; Watling, Roy; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; McLaughlin, David J

    2010-12-01

    Porcini (Boletus section Boletus: Boletaceae: Boletineae: Boletales) are a conspicuous group of wild, edible mushrooms characterized by fleshy fruiting bodies with a poroid hymenophore that is "stuffed" with white hyphae when young. Their reported distribution is with ectomycorrhizal plants throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Little progress has been made on the systematics of this group using modern molecular phylogenetic tools because sampling has been limited primarily to European species and the genes employed were insufficient to resolve the phylogeny. We examined the evolutionary history of porcini by using a global geographic sampling of most known species, new discoveries from little explored areas, and multiple genes. We used 78 sequences from the fast-evolving nuclear internal transcribed spacers and are able to recognize 18 reciprocally monophyletic species. To address whether or not porcini form a monophyletic group, we compiled a broadly sampled dataset of 41 taxa, including other members of the Boletineae, and used separate and combined phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and the mitochondrial ATPase subunit six gene. Contrary to previous studies, our separate and combined phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of porcini. We also report the discovery of two taxa that expand the known distribution of porcini to Australia and Thailand and have ancient phylogenetic connections to the rest of the group. A relaxed molecular clock analysis with these new taxa dates the origin of porcini to between 42 and 54 million years ago, coinciding with the initial diversification of angiosperms, during the Eocene epoch when the climate was warm and humid. These results reveal an unexpected diversity, distribution, and ancient origin of a group of commercially valuable mushrooms that may provide an economic incentive for conservation and support the hypothesis of a tropical

  16. Toward the antioxidant and chemical characterization of mycorrhizal mushrooms from northeast Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Heleno, Sandrina A; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Martins, Anabela; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated all over the world for their nutritional properties and pharmacological value as sources of important bioactive compounds. Mycorrhizal macrofungi associate with plant roots constituting a symbiotic relationship. This symbiosis could influence the production of secondary metabolites, including bioactive compounds. We focused on the evaluation of antioxidant potential and chemical composition of mycorrhizal mushrooms species from Northeast Portugal: Amanita caesarea, Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Chroogomphus fulmineus, Cortinarius anomalus, Cortinarius collinitus, Cortinarius violaceus, Lactarius quietus, Lactarius volemus, Russula sardonia, Suillus luteus, and Tricholoma ustale. A similar profile of metabolites was observed in the studied species with the order sugars > fat > ascorbic acid > phenolic compounds > tocopherols. Nevertheless, the samples revealed different compositions: prevalence of sugars in L. volemus, fat and ascorbic acid in A. muscaria, phenolic compounds in C. anomalus and tocopherols, and antioxidant activity in S. luteus. Chemical characterization of 12 mycorrhizal mushrooms was achieved. They are sources of nutraceuticals, such as sugars and fatty acids, and contain bioactive compounds, such as vitamins and phenolic acids. Edible species can be incorporated in diets as sources of antioxidants, while nonedible species can be explored as sources of bioactive metabolites. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  19. Edible insects are the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect speci...

  20. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  1. Accuracy of sampling during mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments described in this report were performed to increase the accuracy of the analysis of the biological efficiency of Agaricus bisporus strains. Biological efficiency is a measure of the efficiency with which the mushroom strains use dry matter in the compost to produce mushrooms (expressed

  2. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  3. Temperature Control System for Mushroom Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, I. A.; Indah, Nur; Sebayang, D.; Adam, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    The main problem in mushroom cultivation is the handling after the harvest. Drying is one technique to preserve the mushrooms. Traditionally, mushrooms are dried by sunshine which depends on the weather. This affects the quality of the dried mushrooms. Therefore, this paper proposes a system to provide an artificial drying for mushrooms in order to maintain their quality. The objective of the system is to control the mushroom drying process to be faster compared to the natural drying at an accurate and right temperature. A model of the mushroom dryer has been designed, built, and tested. The system comprises a chamber, heater, blower, temperature sensor and electronic control circuit. A microcontroller is used as the controller which is programmed to implement a bang-bang control that regulates the temperature of the chamber. A desired temperature is inputted as a set point of the control system. Temperature of 45 °C is chosen as the operational drying temperature. Several tests have been carried out to examine the performance of the system including drying speed, the effects of ambient conditions, and the effects of mushroom size. The results show that the system can satisfy the objective.

  4. Electronic nose in edible insects area

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Adámek; Anna Adámková; Marie Borkovcová; Jiří Mlček; Martina Bednářová; Lenka Kouřimská; Josef Skácel; Michal Řezníček

    2017-01-01

    Edible insect is appraised by many cultures as delicious and nutritionally beneficial food. In western countries this commodity is not fully appreciated, and the worries about edible insect food safety prevail. Electronic noses can become a simple and cheap way of securing the health safety of food, and they can also become a tool for evaluating the quality of certain commodities. This research is a pilot project of using an electronic nose in edible insect culinary treatment, and this manusc...

  5. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  6. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  7. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by γ- radiation and AAPH in rat liver and brain mitochondria by mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmi, B.; Janardhanan, K.K.; Tilak, J.C.; Devasagayam, T.P.A.; Adhikari, S.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to radiation or 2.2' Azobis(2-amidopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) especially hydroxyl radical ( . OH) and peroxyl radical (ROO . ), which are capable of inducing lipid peroxidation. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that extracts of the medicinal and edible mushrooms Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Phellinus rimosus possessed significant antioxidant activity, measured as radical scavenging. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of these mushroom extracts against radiation- and AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation using rat liver and brain mitochondria as model systems. The results obtained showed that the investigated mushroom extracts significantly inhibited the formation of lipid hydroperoxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, indicating membrane protective effects. The finding suggests the profound protective effect of the extracts of the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and P. rimosus against lipid peroxidation by two major forms of ROS capable of inducing this type of damage in a major organelle, the mitochondria from both rat liver and brain. This observation can possibly explain the health benefits of these mushrooms. (author)

  9. Antioxidant Potential and DNA Damage Protection by the Slate Grey Saddle Mushroom, Helvella lacunosa (Ascomycetes), from Kashmir Himalaya (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2016-01-01

    This study pertains to the radical scavenging potential of and DNA protection by Helvella lacunosa, an edible mushroom from Kashmir Himalaya (India). Different solvents, on the basis of their polarities, were used to extract all solvent-soluble bioactive compounds. Seven different antioxidant methods were also used to determine extensive radical scavenging activity. The mushroom ethanol extract and butanol extract showed effective scavenging activity of radicals at 95% and 89%, respectively. At 800 µg/mg, the ethanol extract was potent enough to protect DNA from degradation by hydroxyl radicals. It is evident from these findings that the presence of antioxidant substances signifies the use of H. lacunosa as food in the mountainous valleys of the Himalayan region.

  10. Preliminary researches regarding edible jet printing inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, M. R.; Brasoveanu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The automatic reproduction of images with edible materials is a new method used lately to decorate cakes. An important component of this technology is the ink. The paper presents the results obtained by using different physical methods for analysis of some jet printing inks types. The analysed inks were the Canon inks and edible inks from Thailand. The main considered methods were the spectrocolourymetrical, rheological, electrochemical. Choosing as a chromatic standard the Canon inks and for the physicochemical properties the edible inks from Thailand, it was prepared a yellow edible printing ink which was characterized by same methods

  11. Mushroom flora and associated insect fauna in Nsukka Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communites is indicaed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests ...

  12. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  13. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  14. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  15. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Wray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students. Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide poisoning. If caught early CO poisoning is reversible with oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Objectives: The learner will assess a patient with altered mental status and weakness, ultimately identifying that the patient has carbon monoxide poisoning. The learner will treat the patient with oxygen and admit/transfer the patient for hyperbaric oxygenation. Method: Oral boards case

  17. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  19. "Those edibles hit hard": Exploration of Twitter data on cannabis edibles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Francois R; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Carlson, Robert G

    2016-07-01

    Several states in the U.S. have legalized cannabis for recreational or medical uses. In this context, cannabis edibles have drawn considerable attention after adverse effects were reported. This paper investigates Twitter users' perceptions concerning edibles and evaluates the association edibles-related tweeting activity and local cannabis legislation. Tweets were collected between May 1 and July 31, 2015, using Twitter API and filtered through the eDrugTrends/Twitris platform. A random sample of geolocated tweets was manually coded to evaluate Twitter users' perceptions regarding edibles. Raw state proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles were ajusted relative to the total number of Twitter users per state. Differences in adjusted proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles between states with different cannabis legislation status were assesed via a permutation test. We collected 100,182 tweets mentioning cannabis edibles with 26.9% (n=26,975) containing state-level geolocation. Adjusted percentages of geolocated Twitter users posting about edibles were significantly greater in states that allow recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The differences were statistically significant. Overall, cannabis edibles were generally positively perceived among Twitter users despite some negative tweets expressing the unreliability of edible consumption linked to variability in effect intensity and duration. Our findings suggest that Twitter data analysis is an important tool for epidemiological monitoring of emerging drug use practices and trends. Results tend to indicate greater tweeting activity about cannabis edibles in states where medical THC and/or recreational use are legal. Although the majority of tweets conveyed positive attitudes about cannabis edibles, analysis of experiences expressed in negative tweets confirms the potential adverse effects of edibles and calls for educating edibles-naïve users, improving edibles labeling, and testing their THC

  20. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family by acting wisely in case of a power outage and learning the symptoms of CO poisoning. How to Recognize CO Poisoning The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. People who are sleeping or who ...

  1. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide is known as the silent killer, being colorless, odourless, and tasteless. Initially non-irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter due to insufficient oxygen supply that prevents complete oxidation of carbon to C02. During World War II, Nazis used gas vans to kill an estimated over 700,000 prisoners by carbon monoxide poisoning. This method was also used in the gas chambers ofseveral death camps. The true number of incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning is unknown, since many non-lethal exposures go undetected From the available data, carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. Clinical features and management: The signs of carbon monoxide poisoning vary with concentration and length of exposure. Subtle cardiovascular or neurobehavioural effects occur at low concentration. The onset of chronic poisoning is usually insidious and easily mistaken for viral prodrome, depression, or gastroenteritis in children. The classic sign of carbon monoxide poisoning which is actually more often seen in the dead than the living is appearing red-cheeked and healthy. Cherry pink colour develops in nails, skin and mucosa. In acute poisoning, common abnormalities of posture and tone are cogwheel rigidity, opisthotonus, spasticity or flaccidity and seizures. Retinal haemorrhages and the classic cherry red skin colour are seldom seen. Different people andpopulations may have different carbon monoxide tolerance levels. On average, exposures at 100ppm or greater is dangerous to human health. Treatment and prevention: The mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen administration until the COHb level is normal When the patient is stable enough to be transported, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT should be considered This treatment is safe and well tolerated Public education about the danger of carbon monoxide, with

  3. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as media for mushroom cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husin; Tajuddin Osman; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    The mushroom strains Pleurotus sajor caju(grey oyster mushroom), Pleurotus flavellatus((pink oyster mushroom), Pleurotus cystidiosus(abalone mushroom) and Auricularia polytricha (black jelly mushroom) grow satisfactorily on the EFB media treated with lime. Based on their Biological Efficiency (BE) or yield, the strain Pleurotus sajor caju was selected for further investigation. The BE of the Pleurotus sajor caju was 73.8 %. The lime treatment, aeration and four weeks incubation period was necessary for fruiting

  4. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiya; Retno Lantarsih; Titop Dwiwinarno*

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrome...

  5. Performance of mushroom fruiting for large scale commercial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rosol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the determination of mushroom fruiting yield, which is vital to economics of mushroom production. Consistency in mushroom yields enabling an estimation to be made for revenues and hence profitability could be predicted. It has been reported by many growers, there are a large variation in mushroom yields over different times of production. To assess such claims we have run four batches of mushroom fruiting and the performance fruiting body productions are presented. (author)

  6. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Bao

    Full Text Available Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom, is a highly nutritious food source that is widely cultivated on a commercial scale in many parts of Asia using agricultural wastes (rice straw, cotton wastes as growth substrates. However, developments in V. volvacea cultivation have been limited due to a low biological efficiency (i.e. conversion of growth substrate to mushroom fruit bodies, sensitivity to low temperatures, and an unclear sexuality pattern that has restricted the breeding of improved strains. We have now sequenced the genome of V. volvacea and assembled it into 62 scaffolds with a total genome size of 35.7 megabases (Mb, containing 11,084 predicted gene models. Comparative analyses were performed with the model species in basidiomycete on mating type system, carbohydrate active enzymes, and fungal oxidative lignin enzymes. We also studied transcriptional regulation of the response to low temperature (4°C. We found that the genome of V. volvacea has many genes that code for enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The molecular genetics of the mating type system in V. volvacea was also found to be similar to the bipolar system in basidiomycetes, suggesting that it is secondary homothallism. Sensitivity to low temperatures could be due to the lack of the initiation of the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, trehalose and glycogen biosyntheses in this mushroom. Genome sequencing of V. volvacea has improved our understanding of the biological characteristics related to the degradation of the cultivating compost consisting of agricultural waste, the sexual reproduction mechanism, and the sensitivity to low temperatures at the molecular level which in turn will enable us to increase the industrial production of this mushroom.

  7. Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Straw Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Dapeng; Gong, Ming; Zheng, Huajun; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Jianping; Wu, Lin; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Gang; Zhou, Yan; Li, Chuanhua; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Guoping; Tan, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom, is a highly nutritious food source that is widely cultivated on a commercial scale in many parts of Asia using agricultural wastes (rice straw, cotton wastes) as growth substrates. However, developments in V. volvacea cultivation have been limited due to a low biological efficiency (i.e. conversion of growth substrate to mushroom fruit bodies), sensitivity to low temperatures, and an unclear sexuality pattern that has restricted the breeding of improved strains. We have now sequenced the genome of V. volvacea and assembled it into 62 scaffolds with a total genome size of 35.7 megabases (Mb), containing 11,084 predicted gene models. Comparative analyses were performed with the model species in basidiomycete on mating type system, carbohydrate active enzymes, and fungal oxidative lignin enzymes. We also studied transcriptional regulation of the response to low temperature (4°C). We found that the genome of V. volvacea has many genes that code for enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The molecular genetics of the mating type system in V. volvacea was also found to be similar to the bipolar system in basidiomycetes, suggesting that it is secondary homothallism. Sensitivity to low temperatures could be due to the lack of the initiation of the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, trehalose and glycogen biosyntheses in this mushroom. Genome sequencing of V. volvacea has improved our understanding of the biological characteristics related to the degradation of the cultivating compost consisting of agricultural waste, the sexual reproduction mechanism, and the sensitivity to low temperatures at the molecular level which in turn will enable us to increase the industrial production of this mushroom. PMID:23526973

  8. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  9. Book reviews

    OpenAIRE

    NN

    2004-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this book, important developments in biotechnology and mushroom production made a new, revised version necessary. As it is written for the mushroom industry, it emphasizes on nutritional, medical, and cultivating aspects of edible and medicinal fungi. A short introduction deals with a definition of fungi and the world of fungi, including edible and poisonous species, and the relation between fungi and man. Two chapters deal with edible and medicin...

  10. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  11. Purification and Characterization of Melanogenic Enzyme Tyrosinase from Button Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it’s taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19 U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95 kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933 mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications.

  12. Biology, cultivation, and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sokół

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers. is an edible fungus of great significance in medicine. It is rarely found in Europe, in contrast, it is common in Japan and North America. Its fruitbodies have been well-known for hundreds of years in traditional Chinese medicine and cuisine. A cradle of H. erinaceum cultivation is Asia. In Eastern Europe is rare in natural habitats, but can be successfully cultivated. Both fruitbodies and mycelia are rich in active, health promoting substances. Tests of substances extracted from this mushroom carried out on animals and in vitro have given good results. They can be used in the treatment of cancer, hepatic disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, wound healing. They improve cognitive abilities, support the nervous and immune systems. Promising results have been reported in clinical trials and case reports about the human treatment (e.g., recovery from schizophrenia, an improvement of the quality of sleep, alleviation of the menopause symptoms. The subject of this paper is to summarize information about the development of mycelium, the best conditions for cultivation of fruitbodies, bioactive substances and their use in medicine.

  13. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  14. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animals can also be poisoned by carbon monoxide. People who have pets at home may notice that their animals become ... or unresponsive from carbon monoxide exposure. Often the pets will ... these conditions. This can lead to a delay in getting help.

  16. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  17. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done more than 1 hour after touching the plant's sap. Flush the eyes out with water. Take care to clean under the fingernails well to remove ... room. If you are concerned, call your health care provider or poison control. At the ... Take a sample of the plant with you to the doctor or hospital, if ...

  18. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  19. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  20. Optimization of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii Substrate Using Lignocellulosic Affordable Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad janpoor

    2018-03-01

    . eryngii. Materials and Methods: Sawdust was utilized as the main substrate obtained from beech and populous trees (1:1. After being rinsed off in water and supplemented with calcium sulfate (3% and calcium carbonate (3%, the substrate was filled in 20 × 40 cm polyethylene bags weighted to 800 grams. Sterilization was performed at 121 °C under pressure of 1.5 bars for two hours. A cultivated P. eryngii strain was then inoculated in the cooled material at a rate of 3% of dry/fresh substrate. The experiments were conducted based on a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications, measuring mycelial growth (MG, number of fruiting bodies (NFB, mushroom weight, and biological efficiency (BE. AMG was measured in both test tubes and in petri plates in different pH levels (5.5, 7, and 8.5. Data were analyzed by JAMP 4.0, while graphs were drawn by Microsoft Excel 2007 and SigmaPlot 12.0 software. Results and Discussion: The pH of 7 was found to be the best for obtaining maximal MG under all treatments after seven days. The highest amount of MG was obtained with substrate No. 1, while the least was observed in the culture of substrate No. 5. The substrates No. 1 and No. 5 generated the highest and lowest NFBs (p≤0.05. However, there was no significant difference (p≥0.05 in NFB between substrates No. 1 and 3 or between substrates No. 2, 4 and 5. The BE percentages obtained from experimental treatments No. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 64.81, 49.74, 59.22, 28.72, and 19.8, respectively. The comparison of means of different growth characteristics revealed that there was no significant difference between substrates No. 1 and 3 or between substrates No. 4 and 5 (p≥0.05. Conclusion: In this time, only two species (Agaricus bisporus and P. ostreatus are producing in Iran, whereas at least 10 species of edible mushrooms are cultivating in the world. King oyster mushroom has low cost of production and distinguishable characteristics. Therefore, this mushroom can

  1. Reducing Shrinkage in Canned and Frozen Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Walshe, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The process involving a preliminary soaking of the mushrooms in water for 20 min followed by a chill storage period followed by a further water soak for 2 hr, and known as the 3S process, gave a considerable reduction in total shrinkage in both brown and white strain canned mushrooms compared with the control samples. Water uptake by the mushrooms in the 3S process was greatest when the soaking water temperature was between 20 and 30°C and had a pH of 8. Citric acid in the blanch water enhanc...

  2. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  3. Accumulation factors of mercury in mushrooms from Zaborski Landscape Park, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Lipka, Krzysztof; Gucia, Magdalena; Kawano, Masahide; Strumnik, Katarzyna; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2002-11-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 117 samples of caps, 117 of stalks and 47 of whole fruiting bodies of 13 species of wild mushrooms and in 164 underlying soil substrate collected from Zaborski Landscape Park during 1997 and 1998. The study area is a background, forested site with rural landscape and no known local sources of mercury emission. Mean mercury concentrations in mushrooms varied widely (range: 50 +/- 20 to 3700 +/- 1700 ng/g, dry matter) depending on the site and mushroom species investigated. However, mercury concentrations in soil samples varied less (range: 3.0 +/- 3.0 to 43 +/- 17 ng/g dry matter). Fruiting bodies of Common Puffball (Lycoperdon perlatum) and King Bolete (Boletus edulis) contained the greatest concentrations of mercury of 3700 +/- 1700 and 2600 +/- 1200 ng/g dry matter, respectively. A positive correlation existed between mercury concentrations in the caps of Slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) and Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria) (p Suillus grevillei) and King Bolete (B. edulis) and varied between 130 +/- 78 and 160 +/- 120, while for the other species BCFs were between 4.0 +/- 6.0 and 61 +/- 20 in caps, and 4.4 +/- 3.1 and 70 +/- 68 in stalks. The concentration ratios of Hg in cap to stalk were from 1.1 +/- 0.5 for Poison Pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.7 +/- 1.7 in Larch Bolete (S. grevillei).

  4. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrometer and nozzle, and education and training bookkeeping, marketing, and processing waste into mushroom compost. The results showed an increase in the production of mushroom seen from the Biological Conversion Efficiency (BCE are in the top 30 percent. Partners also has a business bookkeeping and have Blog to market the mushroom by on-line. Partners also have the skills to process the manure (compost made from the waste of mushroom which can be used to help fertilize their crops.

  5. Ameliorative Effect of Different Concentration of Mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    ameliorative effect of mushroom in the post-experimental stage. Samples of liver and ... except in the liver which showed mild periportal chronic inflammatory cell. However, the .... alcohol for 12 hours and through absolute alcohol to remove ...

  6. Investigations on Mushroom Storage and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Dündar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers on storage and quality properties of mushrooms cultivated in the world and Turkey have been investigated. Mushrooms contain some important minerals and vitamins such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper and folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B, C, D and also they are a good source of carbohydrate and protein. After harvest, to extend the shelf life of mushrooms, some applications such as pre-cooling, storage in appropriate temperature, use of different types of polyethylene packaging, modified atmosphere packaging, nitric oxide and UV light applications were done on mushrooms. The effects of these applications on physical and chemical features such as like weight loss, firmness, cap opening rate, cap diameter, stem diameter, browning, colour, respiration rate, enzymatic reactions, total phenols, total sugars, aminoacid content were investigated.

  7. India Edible Oil Consumption: A Censored Incomplete Demand Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A Censored Incomplete Demand System is applied to household expenditures for edible oil in India. The results show that edible peanut oil is still a luxury good in India, whereas expenditure elasticities for other edible oils are relatively low. The food habit, location, education of household heads, and other demographic variables have significant effects on the choice of edible oils.

  8. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiqun; Sun Chengye

    2004-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  9. Flagellate dermatitis following consumption of shiitake mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Voon Loo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese dermatologists were the first to describe the very characteristic flagellate dermatitis following consumption of under-cooked or raw shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes. These similar eruptions were also reported in patients treated with bleomycin, in dermatomyositis and adult onset Still’s disease. We report a case where a 40 year old chinese female developed flagellate dermatitis following ingestion of a bun containing shiitake mushroom.

  10. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and especially 210 Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of 210 Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg -1 d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg -1 d.w.). The 210 Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg -1 d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg -1 d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of 210 Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of 210 Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of 210 Po were higher than those of 210 Pb. 210 Po and 210 Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by 137 Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  11. Distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa, E-mail: Kaisa.Vaaramaa@Helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Solatie, Dina [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, FI-96500 Rovaniemi (Finland); Aro, Lasse [Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), Parkano Research Unit, FI-39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The activity concentrations and distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and especially {sup 210}Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.). The {sup 210}Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were higher than those of {sup 210}Pb. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  12. Traditional knowledge and use of wild mushrooms by Mixtecs or Ñuu savi, the people of the rain, from Southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Faustino Hernández; Moreno, Jesús Pérez; Cázares, Beatriz Xoconostle; Suárez, Juan José Almaraz; Trejo, Enrique Ojeda; de Oca, Gerardo Mata Montes; Aguilar, Irma Díaz

    2016-09-05

    Mexico is an important global reservoir of biological and cultural richness and traditional knowledge of wild mushrooms. However, there is a high risk of loss of this knowledge due to the erosion of traditional human cultures which is related with the rapid acculturation linked to high migration of rural populations to cities and the U.S.A., and the loss of natural ecosystems. The Mixtec people, the third largest native group in Mexico only after the Nahua and the Maya, maintain ancient traditions in the use and knowledge of wild mushrooms. Paradoxically, there are few studies of the Mixtec ethnomycology. This study shows our ethnomycological research, mainly focused on knowledge and use of wild mushrooms in communities of the Mixteca Alta, in southeastern Mexico. We hypothesized that among the studied communities those with a combination of higher vegetation cover of natural pine and oak forests, lower soil erosion and higher economic margination had a greater richness and knowledge of wild mushrooms. Our study therefore aimed to record traditional knowledge, use, nomenclature and classification of wild mushrooms in four Mixtec communities and to analyze how these aspects vary according to environmental and cultural conditions among the studied communities. In order to analyze the cultural significance of wild mushrooms for the Mixtec people, 116 non-structured and semi-structured interviews were performed from 2009 to 2014. Information about the identified species, particularly the regional nomenclature and classification, their edibility, toxicity and ludic uses, the habitat of useful mushrooms, traditional recipes and criteria to differentiate between toxic and edible species, and mechanisms of knowledge transmission were studied. The research had the important particularity that the first author is Mixtec, native of the study area. A comparative qualitative analysis between the richness of fungal species used locally and the official information of the natural

  13. POTENSI EDIBLE FILM ANTIMIKROBA SEBAGAI PENGAWET DAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskiyah (Maskiyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh meat are highly perishable due to their enriched nutrient composition which is easily contaminated by almost any microorganisms. The application of antimicrobial edible films is one of the effective method to extend the shelf life of fresh meat. This study aimed to get antimicrobial edible films formula that have the potential to preserve fresh meat. The study consisted of several steps: 1 research for making a fresh garlic extract, 2 extraction of gelatin from chicken feet, 3 formulation and manufacturing of antimicrobial edible films and 4 the application of edible films on fresh meat. Gelatin-based antimicrobial edible films was the best one that can be applied on fresh meat. Characteristics of the antimirobial edible film: color L 97.28; elongation: 20 mm; tensile strength <0.1 kgf; thickness 0.06 mm; WVTR 15.49 g/(mm.jam; Aw 0.526; moisture content: 22.73%, and has antimicrobial characteristic because of it’s inhibition ability to the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. (Key words: Antimicrobial, Edible film, Meat

  14. Characterization and cultivation of a wild mushroom species isolated in Brazil
    Caracterização e cultivo de uma espécie de cogumelo silvestre isolado no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia Doretto Paccola-Meirelles; Cristina Sayuri Maki

    2002-01-01

    Wild mushrooms were collected close to cattle manure in pasture areas in Tamarana (Paraná/Brazil), with the objective of finding and domesticating new non-exploited basidiomycetes. An edible basidiomycete of the Agaricales order was classified as belonging to the Macrolepiota bonaerensis species (=Lepiota procera, form bonaerensis (Speg.) Rick or M. procera (Scop.:Fr) Sing.). The mycelia was isolated and characterized for growth rate in different culture media. A vigorous growth was observed ...

  15. Development of new strains and related SCAR markers for an edible mushroom, Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Y; Park, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jia; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Ro, Hyeon-Su

    2012-02-01

    New fast-growing and less bitter varieties of Hypsizygus marmoreus were developed by crossing monokaryotic mycelia from a commercial strain (Hm1-1) and a wild strain (Hm3-10). Six of the better tasting new strains with a shorter cultivation period were selected from 400 crosses in a large-scale cultivation experiment. We attempted to develop sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers to identify the new strain from other commercial strains. For the SCAR markers, we conducted molecular genetic analysis on a wild strain and the eight most cultivated H. marmoreus strains collected from various areas in East Asia by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Ten unique DNA bands for a commercial Hm1-1 strain and the Hm3-10 strain were extracted and their sequences were determined. Primer sets were designed based on the determined sequences. PCR reactions with the primer sets revealed that four primer sets successfully discriminated the new strains from other commercial strains and are thus suitable for commercial purposes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sesquiterpenoids with PTP1B Inhibitory Activity and Cytotoxicity from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qiao-Qiao; Ma, Ke; Bao, Li; Wang, Kai; Han, Jun-Jie; Wang, Wen-Zhao; Zhang, Jin-Xia; Huang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2016-05-01

    One new perhydrobenzannulated 5,5-spiroketal sesquiterpene, pleurospiroketal F (1), as well as six new modified bisabolene sesquiterpenes pleurotins A-F (2-7) were isolated from solid-state fermentation of Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis, while the absolute configurations of 3-7 were assigned using the in situ dimolybdenum circular dichroism method and circular dichroism data comparison. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B plays a crucial role as a negative regulator of the insulin-dependent signal cascades. Therefore, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitor can be used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Compounds 2 and 6 showed moderate inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 s of 32.1 µM and 30.5 µM, respectively. The kinetic study confirmed compound 2 to be a noncompetitive inhibitor. Compounds 1-7 did not show cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines (IC50 > 50 µM). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Biological potential of extracts of the wild edible Basidiomycete mushroom Grifola frondosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaus, A.; Kozarski, M.; Vunduk, N.; Todorovic, N.; Jakovlejevic, D.; Zizak, Z.; Pavlovic, V.; Levic, S.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides (FP) and hot alkali extract (FNa) obtained from fruiting bodies of the wild basidiomycete Grifola frondosa were examined for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. The structural properties of FP and FNa samples were investigated by FT-IR and high

  18. The edible mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus as potential source of natural antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaus, A.; Kozarski, M.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Todorovic, N.; Stefanoska, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Hot water extract (LN), partially purified polysaccharides (LP) and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides (LNa) obtained from fruiting bodies of the wild basidiomycete Laetiporus sulphureus were examined for their antioxidant activities. LNa was the most active antioxidant, as shown by the median

  19. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  20. Accumulation and distribution of metallic elements and metalloids in edible Amanita fulva mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2017-03-01

    Baseline concentrations of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sr, Tl, V, U and Zn were presented in Amanita fulva collected from unpolluted areas in Poland. There is no previous data published on the bio-element constituents of A. fulva. A very narrow range of values was determined by ICP-DRC-MS and ICP-AES for the trace elements Ag, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn in caps and of Ag, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, U and Zn in stipes and also for the macro elements K, P, Na and Mg. The fruitbodies of A. fulva from the northern (Baltic Sea coastal forests) and southwestern (Lower Silesia forests) sites differed substantially in cadmium, lead and uranium, and those from the Lower Silesia region showed them in greater concentrations. This observation may imply that A. fulva under typical geochemical site conditions is able to regulate the accumulation of many of the elements mentioned in fruiting bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  2. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  3. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  4. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  5. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  6. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  7. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    treatment, six task forces formulated recom- mendations for a national structure of prehospital EM by family physicians, ambulance nurses , and hospital...competencies between ambulance nurses and prehospital physicians. Eur J Emerg Med 2011; 18:322 327. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Vikhyat S. Bebarta...the study model (limited to 60 min after the start of cyanide infusion) and the hemodynamic parameters as end points, instead of long-term sequelae

  8. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  9. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  10. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  11. Food poisoning. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askar, A.; Treptow, H.

    1982-01-15

    In the present study information about food poisoning is compared and reviewed. From the viewpoint of a food technologist the toxic substances are represented in four sections: 1. Residues of substances used by plants and animals: pesticides, antibiotics, sexual hormones and psychopharmaces. 2. Environmental contaminants: heavy metals, radionuclides and polycyclic hydrocarbons. 3. Substances developing during the manufacture: food additives, asbest, parts of packing materials, and residual solvents. 4. Substances arising from processing: smoked and roasted food, non enzymatic reaction, oxidized and heated fats and irradiated foods. The mere presence of toxic substances does not make food unsafe or poisonous. Dangerous, because of their toxic or carcinogenic effects are: Pesticides (especially chlorinated organic pesticides), heavy metals (especially lead, mercury and cadmium), polycyclic hydrocarbons (3,4-benzpyren), nitrosamines and vinyl chloride. The other components are only dangerous if they are present in large ammounts. A good and responsible practise of agriculture and food manufacture processes, a watchful and competent official food control and well informed consumers can limit the danger of food poisoning and human health.

  12. Estimate of the prevalence and burden of food poisoning by natural toxic compounds in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have attempted to accurately estimate the overall number of cases of foodborne illness, but there have not been many attempts to estimate the burden of foodborne disease caused by natural toxic compounds. This study estimated the number of cases due to specific natural toxins (seafood toxins, plant toxins, and mycotoxins) during 2008-2012 in South Korea, using data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA), while accounting for uncertainty in the estimate. The estimated annual occurrences of foodborne illness from natural toxic agents were 1088 (90% credible interval [CrI]: 883-1315), which suggests there are 21 times more cases than are reported, with 45.6% (n=496 [388-614]) and 54.4% (n=592 [423-790]), accounting for inpatient stays and outpatient visits, respectively. Among toxins, mushroom and plant toxins caused the highest illnesses, followed by toxic agents in seafood and mycotoxins. The 55-59year olds had the highest proportion of illnesses and those over the age of 40 accounted for 70.6% of all cases. The cases caused by mushroom poison, poisonous plants, and seafood toxins showed clear seasonal and regional differences. These results will be useful to food safety policymakers for the prevention and control of natural food poisons in South Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  14. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  15. Yield and nutritional composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostak Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and chemical composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh. Strains of Pleurotus high‑king (strain PHK, P. ostreatus (strain PO2, and P. geesteranus (strains PG1 and PG3 were evaluated as to yield components and proximate composition. Pleurotus ostreatus was used as control. Pleurotus high‑king showed fastest growth of primordia, but moderate flush of effective fruiting bodies. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 showed higher economic yield and biological performance, and better chemical composition, especially in terms of protein and mineral contents. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 shows better performance than P. ostreatus (PO2, the most commercially cultivated edible species in Bangladesh, and, therefore, it should be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  16. Isoindolinone-containing meroterpenoids with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from mushroom Hericium caput-medusae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Li, Zheng-Hui; Yao, Jian-Neng; Peng, Yue-Ling; Huang, Rong; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2017-10-01

    Hericium caput-medusae is an edible and medicinal mushroom closely relative to H. erinaceus. According to our detailed chemical investigation, two novel isoindolinone-containing meroterpene dimers, caputmedusins A (1) and B (2), as well as nine analogues, caputmedusins C-K (3-11), were isolated from the fermentation broth of H. caput-medusae. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were speculated based on the specific optical rotation and biogenetic consideration. The absolute configurations of 10 and 11 were rationalized by the calculation of 1 H NMR chemical shifts. Caputmedusins A-C (1-3) showed moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with the IC 50 values of 39.2, 36.2 and 40.8μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.

  18. Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on petroleum ... of chains of hydrocarbon in a petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated substrate over time. ... Keywords: Mycoremediation, Mycelia, Contaminated Soil, Oyster Mushroom ...

  19. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation technique using re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... using re-usable substrate containers and comparison of ... oyster mushrooms in combination with other vegetables complements availability of various essential ..... higher than from oyster mushrooms produced from any.

  20. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  1. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Diagnosis of acute poisoning | Tygerberg Poison Information Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...

  3. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in t...

  4. Mushroom cultivation in Brazil: challenges and potential for growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Eustáquio Souza

    2010-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is rapidly expanding in Brazil because Brazilians have discovered the medicinal and culinary value of mushrooms and their economic situation has improved. However, the horticultural technology for cultivating mushrooms under Brazilian conditions is lacking. For many years, the mushroom cultivation technology used in Brazil was adapted from developed countries whose materials and climate were different from those of Brazil. In order to exploit the Brazilian potential for m...

  5. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-01-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30 o C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

  6. Whole Genome and Global Gene Expression Analyses of the Model Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveal a High Capacity for Lignocellulose Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Jin; Baek, Jeong Hun; Lee, Seonwook; Kim, Changhoon; Rhee, Hwanseok; Kim, Hyungtae; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Park, Hae-Ran; Yoon, Dae-Eun; Nam, Jae-Young; Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Guk; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Hee-Wan; Cho, Jae-Yong; Song, Eun-Sung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yoo, Young-Bok; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Kong, Won-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes is a fungus with health and medicinal benefits that has been used for consumption and cultivation in East Asia. F. velutipes is also known to degrade lignocellulose and produce ethanol. The overlapping interests of mushroom production and wood bioconversion make F. velutipes an attractive new model for fungal wood related studies. Here, we present the complete sequence of the F. velutipes genome. This is the first sequenced genome for a commercially produced edible mushroom that also degrades wood. The 35.6-Mb genome contained 12,218 predicted protein-encoding genes and 287 tRNA genes assembled into 11 scaffolds corresponding with the 11 chromosomes of strain KACC42780. The 88.4-kb mitochondrial genome contained 35 genes. Well-developed wood degrading machinery with strong potential for lignin degradation (69 auxiliary activities, formerly FOLymes) and carbohydrate degradation (392 CAZymes), along with 58 alcohol dehydrogenase genes were highly expressed in the mycelium, demonstrating the potential application of this organism to bioethanol production. Thus, the newly uncovered wood degrading capacity and sequential nature of this process in F. velutipes, offer interesting possibilities for more detailed studies on either lignin or (hemi-) cellulose degradation in complex wood substrates. The mutual interest in wood degradation by the mushroom industry and (ligno-)cellulose biomass related industries further increase the significance of F. velutipes as a new model. PMID:24714189

  7. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  8. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polluting macrophytes Colombian lake Fúquene used as substrate by edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Nieto, Patricia; García-Gómez, Gustavo; Mora-Ortiz, Laura; Robles-Camargo, George

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aquatic plants from Lake Fúquene (Cundinamarca, Colombia), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.) have been removed mechanically from the lake and can be used for edible mushrooms production. The growth of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on these aquatic macrophytes was investigated in order to evaluate the possible use of fruiting bodies and spent biomass in food production for human and animal nutrition, respectively. Treatments included: water hyacinth, Brazilian elodea, sawdust, rice hulls and their combinations, inoculated with P. ostreatus at 3%. Water hyacinth mixed with sawdust stimulated significantly fruiting bodies production (P = 3.3 × 10(-7)) with 71% biological efficacy, followed by water hyacinth with rice husk (55%) and elodea with rice husk (48%), all of these have protein contents between 26 and 47%. Loss of lignin (0.9-21.6%), cellulose (3.7-58.3%) and hemicellulose (1.9-53.8%) and increment in vitro digestibility (16.7-139.3%) and reducing sugars (73.4-838.4%) were observed in most treatments. Treatments spent biomass presented Relative Forage Values (RFV) from 46.1 to 232.4%. The results demonstrated the fungus degrading ability and its potential use in aquatic macrophytes conversion biomass into digestible ruminant feed as added value to the fruiting bodies production for human nutrition.

  10. Layer-by-Layer Alginate and Fungal Chitosan Based Edible Coatings Applied to Fruit Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Punotai, Kaylin; Olson, Donald; Williams, Tina; Wood, Delilah; Rodov, Victor; Poverenov, Elena; McHugh, Tara

    2018-05-30

    Food waste is currently being generated at an increasing rate. One proposed solution would be to convert it to biopolymers for industrial applications. We recovered chitin from mushroom waste and converted it to chitosan to produce edible coatings. We then used layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic deposition of the polycation chitosan and the polyanion alginate to coat fruit bars enriched with ascorbic acid. The performance of the LbL coatings was compared with those containing single layers of fungal chitosan, animal origin chitosan and alginate. Bars containing alginate-chitosan LbL coatings showed increased ascorbic acid content, antioxidant capacity, firmness and fungal growth prevention during storage. Also, the origin of the chitosan did not affect the properties of the coatings. Mushroom stalk bases could be an alternative source for isolating chitosan with similar properties to animal-based chitosan. Also, layer-by-layer assembly is a cheap, simple method that can improve the quality and safety of fruit bars. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Wen Wang; Shean-Shong Tzean

    2015-01-01

    To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum); a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila); and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora). Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared ...

  12. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  13. A resource efficiency assessment of the industrial mushroom production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Becerra Ramírez, Henry A.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the exergetic performance of a conventional industrial mushroom production chain with a mushroom production chain where part of the compost waste is recycled and reused as raw material. The critical exergy loss points (CEPs) identified are the cooking-out process of the spent mushroom

  14. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  15. Radioactive contamination of wild mushrooms: a cross-cultural risk perception study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhinina, I. E-mail: druzhini@mail.zserv.tuwien.ac.at; Palma-Oliveira, J.M

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the public perception of radioactive contamination of wild mushrooms, to confront this perception with an expert opinion, and to determine those factors that are perceived differently by specialists and lay people. The Internet appeared to be a useful tool in attaining these goals by finding the appropriate people across the world. The statistically significant differences in the perception of various aspects of mushroom pollution were revealed between respondents from three world regions, which were differently affected by the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, the majority of people have demonstrated a considerable difference in the perception of the global contamination of the environment versus the pollution of their local counties. The socio-psychological explanations of data are given. In general, there is a steady consistency in the perception of factors, which may control the radioactive contamination of edible fungi, by the majority of respondents. However, experts (radioecologists) rank the factor of fungal species as an extremely important parameter, while other people perceive the factors of the distance from the source of the pollution and the time thereafter as the most important parameters. Such discrepancies between professional and unprofessional opinions are discussed and some recommendations for risk communications are presented.

  16. A Status Review of the Bioactive Activities of Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathamby, Neeranjini; Phan, Chia-Wei; Seow, Syntyche Ling-Sing; Baskaran, Asweni; Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; Abd Malek, Sri N; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2017-01-01

    Edible and medicinal mushrooms are regularly used in natural medicines and home remedies since antiquity for ailments like fever, inflammation, and respiratory disorders. Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden is a polypore found in Malaysia and other regions in South East Asia. It can be located on a spot where a tigress drips milk while feeding, hence the name "tiger's milk mushroom." The sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis is highly sought after by the native communities in Malaysia to stave off hunger, relieve cough and asthma, and provide stamina. The genomic features of L. rhinocerotis have been described. The pharmacological and toxicity effects, if any, of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium have been scientifically verified in recent years. In this review, the validated investigations including the cognitive function, neuroprotection, immune modulation, anti-asthmatic, anti-coagulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial/ anti-viral, anti-obesity, anti-cancer/ anti-tumor, and antioxidant properties are highlighted. These findings suggest that L. rhinocerotis can be considered as an alternative and natural medicine in the management of non-communicable diseases. However, there is a paucity of validation studies including human clinical trials of the mycochemicals of L. rhinocerotis .

  17. Molecular identification and artificial cultivation of a wild isolate of oyster mushroom in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Merkuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of a wild mushroom macroscopically recognised as Pleurotus ostreatus were observed on an oak trunk in a mixed wood of northern Albania. Pure cultures of the fungus were then obtained on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Molecular analyses of genomic DNA of the fungus confirmed its identification. The rDNA ITS region nucleotide sequence of the studied Pleurotacea matched at 99% those of two P. ostreatus strains already present in NCBI GenBank database. The rDNA ITS nucelotide sequences of two pure cultures of the Albanian P. ostreatus were deposited in EMBL database under the accession numbers LN849458 and LN849459. One of the fungus isolates was subsequently cultivated under protected and semi-natural conditions. Productivity and biological efficiency of the Albanian P. ostreatus ranged from about 10% to 16% and from 33 to 53.33%, respectively. This seems to be the first report on the artificial cultivation of P. ostreatus in Albania and could have, in the next future, a high economic impact on development and diffusion of this important edible mushroom over the country.

  18. Content and Bioaccumulation of Nine Mineral Elements in Ten Mushroom Species of the Genus Boletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations and bioconcentration potential of nine elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn in ten species of wild edible Boletus and the corresponding underlying soils were analyzed. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. Boletus showed relative abundant contents of P, K, Fe, Mg, Ca, and Na and less of Zn, Cu, and Mn. Caps compared to stalks were enriched in P, K, Cu, Mg, and Zn, while stalks were enriched in Mn. The elements such as P and K were accumulated (BCF>1, while Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Na were excluded (BCF<1 in the fruiting bodies. The correlation analysis indicated high correlations between Cu, Mn, Ca, and Fe in the mushrooms as compared to the corresponding soils. Significant correlations were also obtained between Cu-P (r=0.775, Fe-P (r=0.728, and Zn-P (r=0.76 for caps and Cu-Mg (r=0.721, Fe-Mg (r=0.719, Zn-Mg (r=0.824, and Zn-P (r=0.818 for stalks. The results of this study imply that ability of fungi to accumulate elements from substrate could be influenced by mushroom species and underlying soil substrates.

  19. Structure of a lectin with antitumoral properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Carrizo, Maria E; Capaldi, Stefano; Perduca, Massimiliano; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2011-08-01

    A novel lectin has been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Boletus edulis (king bolete, penny bun, porcino or cep) by affinity chromatography on a chitin column. We propose for the lectin the name BEL (B. edulis lectin). BEL inhibits selectively the proliferation of several malignant cell lines and binds the neoplastic cell-specific T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc. The lectin was structurally characterized: the molecule is a homotetramer and the 142-amino acid sequence of the chains was determined. The protein belongs to the saline-soluble family of mushroom fruiting body-specific lectins. BEL was also crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray diffraction to 1.15 Å resolution. The structure is similar to that of Agaricus bisporus lectin. Using the appropriate co-crystals, the interactions of BEL with specific mono- and disaccharides were also studied by X-ray diffraction. The six structures of carbohydrate complexes reported here provide details of the interactions of the ligands with the lectin and shed light on the selectivity of the two distinct binding sites present in each protomer.

  20. Content and Bioaccumulation of Nine Mineral Elements in Ten Mushroom Species of the Genus Boletus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Liu, Hong-Gao

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and bioconcentration potential of nine elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn) in ten species of wild edible Boletus and the corresponding underlying soils were analyzed. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. Boletus showed relative abundant contents of P, K, Fe, Mg, Ca, and Na and less of Zn, Cu, and Mn. Caps compared to stalks were enriched in P, K, Cu, Mg, and Zn, while stalks were enriched in Mn. The elements such as P and K were accumulated (BCF > 1), while Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Na were excluded (BCF < 1) in the fruiting bodies. The correlation analysis indicated high correlations between Cu, Mn, Ca, and Fe in the mushrooms as compared to the corresponding soils. Significant correlations were also obtained between Cu-P (r = 0.775), Fe-P (r = 0.728), and Zn-P (r = 0.76) for caps and Cu-Mg (r = 0.721), Fe-Mg (r = 0.719), Zn-Mg (r = 0.824), and Zn-P (r = 0.818) for stalks. The results of this study imply that ability of fungi to accumulate elements from substrate could be influenced by mushroom species and underlying soil substrates.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of spent mushroom substrate under thermophilic conditions: performance and microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zheng; Lin, Manhong; Fan, Jinlin; Chen, Yixuan; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is the residue of edible mushroom production occurring in huge amounts. The SMS residue can be digested for biogas production in the mesophilic anaerobic digestion. In the present study, performance of batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) of SMS was investigated as well as the interconnected microbial population structure changes. The analyzed batch TAD process lasted for 12 days with the cumulative methane yields of 177.69 mL/g volatile solid (VS). Hydrolytic activities of soluble sugar, crude protein, and crude fat in SMS were conducted mainly in the initial phase, accompanied by the excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids and low methane yield. Biogas production increased dramatically from days 4 to 6. The degradation rates of cellulose and hemicellulose were 47.53 and 55.08%, respectively. The high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that Proteobacteria (56.7%-62.8%) was the dominant phylum in different fermentative stages, which was highly specific compared with other anaerobic processes of lignocellulosic materials reported in the literature. Crenarchaeota was abundant in the archaea. The most dominant genera of archaea were retrieved as Methanothermobacter and Methanobacterium, but the latter decreased sharply with time. This study shows that TAD is a feasible method to handle the waste SMS.

  2. Radioactive contamination of wild mushrooms: a cross-cultural risk perception study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinina, I.; Palma-Oliveira, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the public perception of radioactive contamination of wild mushrooms, to confront this perception with an expert opinion, and to determine those factors that are perceived differently by specialists and lay people. The Internet appeared to be a useful tool in attaining these goals by finding the appropriate people across the world. The statistically significant differences in the perception of various aspects of mushroom pollution were revealed between respondents from three world regions, which were differently affected by the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, the majority of people have demonstrated a considerable difference in the perception of the global contamination of the environment versus the pollution of their local counties. The socio-psychological explanations of data are given. In general, there is a steady consistency in the perception of factors, which may control the radioactive contamination of edible fungi, by the majority of respondents. However, experts (radioecologists) rank the factor of fungal species as an extremely important parameter, while other people perceive the factors of the distance from the source of the pollution and the time thereafter as the most important parameters. Such discrepancies between professional and unprofessional opinions are discussed and some recommendations for risk communications are presented

  3. A Status Review of the Bioactive Activities of Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke Ryvarden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeranjini Nallathamby

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible and medicinal mushrooms are regularly used in natural medicines and home remedies since antiquity for ailments like fever, inflammation, and respiratory disorders. Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke Ryvarden is a polypore found in Malaysia and other regions in South East Asia. It can be located on a spot where a tigress drips milk while feeding, hence the name “tiger's milk mushroom.” The sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis is highly sought after by the native communities in Malaysia to stave off hunger, relieve cough and asthma, and provide stamina. The genomic features of L. rhinocerotis have been described. The pharmacological and toxicity effects, if any, of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium have been scientifically verified in recent years. In this review, the validated investigations including the cognitive function, neuroprotection, immune modulation, anti-asthmatic, anti-coagulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial/ anti-viral, anti-obesity, anti-cancer/ anti-tumor, and antioxidant properties are highlighted. These findings suggest that L. rhinocerotis can be considered as an alternative and natural medicine in the management of non-communicable diseases. However, there is a paucity of validation studies including human clinical trials of the mycochemicals of L. rhinocerotis.

  4. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  5. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  6. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  7. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  9. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  10. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  11. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera...... of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated....

  12. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  13. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  14. Bio- and toxic elements in mushrooms from the city of Umeå and outskirts, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędyk, Małgorzata; Grembecka, Małgorzata; Brzezicha-Cirocka, Justyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-08-03

    Edible mushrooms (Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus edulis, Clitocybe odora, Gomphidius glutinosus, Leccinum scabrum, Leccinum versipelle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Suillus bovinus, Suillus luteus, and Xerocomus subtomentosus) collected from unpolluted areas of the city of Umeå and its outskirts in the northern part of Sweden were examined for contents of toxic metallic elements (Cd, Pb, and Ag) and essential macro- and microelements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) using a validated method and a final measurement by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). The median values of the toxic metallic element concentrations (in mg kg -1 dry biomass, db) ranged from: 0.12-3.9, 0.46-5.1, and 0.91-6.2 for Ag, Cd and Pb, respectively. For the essential metallic elements, the median values of concentrations ranged from: 24000-58000, 15-2000, 59-610, 520-1900, 2.0-97, 16-150, 15-120, and 4.3-26 mg kg -1 db for K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn, respectively. The baseline concentrations of the metallic elements determined in mushrooms were mainly affected by the fungal species. The assessed probable maximal dietary intake of Cd (0.002 mg kg -1 body mass) solely from a mushroom meal was only slightly below a revised value of the tolerable weekly intake for this element, while for Pb (0.003 mg kg -1 body mass) it was tenfold below the provisionally tolerable weekly intake.

  15. Wild mushroom--an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuhwa, Donatha D

    2013-07-10

    This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20-30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400-900 annually. This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood.

  16. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... treatment should be continued during ECTR. (4) Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent. This report provides detailed descriptions of the rationale for all recommendations. In summary, patients with long-acting barbiturate poisoning should be treated with ECTR provided at least......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...

  17. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim Report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Brunfeldt, Minna; Rasilainen, Tiina

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) are the major contributors to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation of the population. Especially haz-ardous are the decay products of U: 210Pb, 210Po and 226Ra in soils, water and plants. The most important exposure route to 210Pb and 210Po...... will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mush-rooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sam-pling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO...... and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups...

  18. Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 α/β TCR-double positive cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hirofumi; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Akemi; Kushi, Yasunori

    2008-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 regulate many types of immune responses. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii induced secretion of IFN- γ and IL-4 from T cells in a CD11c-positive cell-dependent manner similar to that of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) and isoglobotriaosylceramide (iGb3), although activated T cells by AGLs showed less secretion of cytokine than those activated by α-GalCer. In addition, stimulation of these mushroom AGLs induced proliferation of NK1.1 α/β TCR-double positive cells in splenocytes. Administration of a mixture of α-GalCer and AGLs affected the stimulation of α-GalCer and generally induced a subtle Th1 bias for splenocytes but induced an extreme Th2 bias for thymocytes. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation

  19. Analytical aspects of diterpene alkaloid poisoning with monkshood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Maria Laura; Bugatti, Carlo; Davanzo, Franca; Persico, Andrea; Ballabio, Cinzia; Restani, Patrizia

    2009-11-01

    A sensitive and specific method for aconitine extraction from biological samples was developed. Aconitine, the main toxic alkaloid from plants belonging to Aconitum species (family Ranunculaceae), was determined in plant material by an external standard method, and by a standard addition calibration method in biological fluids. Described here is one fatal case and five intoxications of accidental aconitine poisoning following the ingestion of aconite mistaken for an edible grass, Aruncus dioicus (Walt.) Fernald, "mountain asparagus", and Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallroth. The aconitine content in urine was in the range 2.94 microg/mL (dead patient)-0.20 microg/mL (surviving patients), which was almost two to four times higher than that in plasma.

  20. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  1. Endosulfan poisoning: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Qadir, Tooba Fatima; Moin, Ariba; Fatima, Huda; Hussain, Syed Ather; Madadin, Mohammed; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Al Rubaish, Fatima A; Senthilkumaran, S

    2017-10-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine (OC) insecticide, is a widely used agricultural pesticide, despite its life threatening toxic effects. In this review, the pharmacokinetics of endosulfan, mechanism of endosulfan toxicity, clinical presentations and management, histopathological findings, and toxicological analysis are described, in addition to its environmental toxicity. The toxic effects of endosulfan can affect many organs and systems presenting in a wide array of signs and symptoms. Although termed a restricted OC-classed pesticide, it continues to be used, especially in the developing world, owing to its beneficial effects on agriculture. Several cases of endosulfan poisoning have been reported from different regions of the world. Whether accidental or intentional, endosulfan ingestion proves to be fatal unless immediate, aggressive treatment is initiated. Management is mainly supportive as no antidote exists for endosulfan poisoning as yet. The use of endosulfan needs to be strictly regulated and eventually banned worldwide altogether to lower the current morbidity and mortality resulting from this pesticide. Additionally, monitoring biological samples, using non-invasive techniques such as breast milk sampling, can provide an effective method of observing the elimination of this environmentally persistent organic pollutant from the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-05-17

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha(2) adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate.

  3. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Radiocaesium - 137 in cultivated and woodland mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, S.; Stankovic, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the results obtained for activity levels of 137 Cs in samples of cultivated mushrooms (Champignons - Agaricus Silvicola Vitt. Peck.) and woodland fruits ( Chantarelle - Cantarelus Cibarius Fr.; Bollets -Boletus Edulis. ex Fr. and Black Trumpets - Cratarelus Conucopioides) are presented. These samples were collected from 1991 to 1996. Biodiversity of the mushrooms regarding their uptake of radionuclides was found. Thus, the maximum value of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of dry Bollets 375 Bq/kg in 1993. Moreover, the mean activity level of this species was much higher (126 + - 10 Bq/kg) in 1996. than, levels found in any samples taken from the same environment. (author)

  5. Rating of cesium contamination of wild mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Zapletal, M.; Friedrich, M.; Haider, W.

    1988-08-01

    'Rating' means here a 5-fold scale with the ranges: more than 100 nCi/kg raw weight - 'very high'; 300 - 100; 3 - 30; 1 - 3; less than 1 nCi/kg - 'very low'. A list of some 50 - 60 different kinds of mushrooms are listed and evaluated in this scale, as from 1988 and from a region with a high Chernobyl fallout. As a comparison, contamination values of 12 mushroom sorts from before the Chernobyl accident, coming from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, are also given. 2 figs., 5 tabs. (qui)

  6. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Brunfeldt, M.; Rasilainen, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Skipperud, L.; Valle, L.; Popic, J.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Life Science, Aas (Norway); Roos, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) are the major contributors to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation of the population. Especially hazardous are the decay products of U: {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and {sup 226}Ra in soils, water and plants. The most important exposure route to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that {sup 210}Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In berries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the {sup 210}Po levels in certain edible mushroom species may be as high as a few hundred Bq/kg, leading to effective doses of several mSv/year among certain consumer groups. The intake of wild forest products varies greatly among the population, but the public should be informed of the exposure risk and ways to minimize it. In this study, NORs and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mushrooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sampling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO standards were used when applicable, to make all stages of the work harmonized between partners. For the analytical work, samples will be sent to partners with suitable analytical facilities. The analyses will be done during the year 2013 and the results reported in the final report and in scientific publications. (Author)

  7. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, T.; Brunfeldt, M.; Rasilainen, T.; Skipperud, L.; Valle, L.; Popic, J.M.; Roos, P.; Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) are the major contributors to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation of the population. Especially hazardous are the decay products of U: 210 Pb, 210 Po and 226 Ra in soils, water and plants. The most important exposure route to 210 Pb and 210 Po is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that 210 Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In berries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the 210 Po levels in certain edible mushroom species may be as high as a few hundred Bq/kg, leading to effective doses of several mSv/year among certain consumer groups. The intake of wild forest products varies greatly among the population, but the public should be informed of the exposure risk and ways to minimize it. In this study, NORs and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mushrooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sampling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO standards were used when applicable, to make all stages of the work harmonized between partners. For the analytical work, samples will be sent to partners with suitable analytical facilities. The analyses will be done during the year 2013 and the results reported in the final report and in scientific publications. (Author)

  8. Lentin, a novel and potent antifungal protein from shitake mushroom with inhibitory effects on activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Patrick H K; Ng, T B

    2003-11-14

    From the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lentinus edodes, a novel protein designated lentin with potent antifungal activity was isolated. Lentin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The N-terminal sequence of lentin manifested similarity to endoglucanase. Lentin, which had a molecular mass of 27.5 kDa, inhibited mycelial growth in a variety of fungal species including Physalospora piricola, Botrytis cinerea and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Lentin also exerted an inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of leukemia cells.

  9. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  10. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...

  11. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the

  12. Bioprospecting of powdered pineapple rind as an organic supplement of composted sawdust for Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narh Mensah, Deborah L; Addo, Peter; Dzomeku, Matilda; Obodai, Mary

    2018-03-01

    Pineapple rind is a by-product of the pineapple processing industry and contains nutrients and other compounds which must be utilized as a bioresource for socio-economic benefits while preventing the potential problems of improper agroindustrial biomass disposal methods. Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible oyster mushroom with medicinal properties and can be cultivated on various agroindustrial biomass, including sawdust containing supplements. Pineapple rind was powdered and used as a supplement of composted sawdust at 2%, 5%, 10%, 12%, 15%, and 20% (w/w) on dry weight basis. A control treatment consisted of composted sawdust supplemented with rice bran at 12% (the most utilized composition in Ghana). P. ostreatus strain EM-1 was cultivated on these treatments. Factors investigated included the spawn run period, yield, fruiting body weight and size, biological efficiency, and nutritional composition (proximate composition and Copper, Zinc and Lead content) of fruiting bodies harvested from selected high-yielding treatments and the control treatment. Full colonization of all treatments occurred by the 34th day of incubation. Enhanced yield, fruiting body weight and size, and biological efficiency were generally recorded with supplementation at lower concentrations (2% and 5%) compared to treatments supplemented at higher concentrations. There was also a supplement concentration-dependent alteration of the nutritional composition of the mushroom. Powdered pineapple rind can be utilized as an organic supplement at relatively low concentrations in composted sawdust for P. ostreatus strain EM-1 cultivation. The use of lower concentrations of powdered pineapple rind in composted sawdust is advantageous as relatively less input will be required to produce higher P. ostreatus strain EM-1 yields. Utilization of pineapple rind for mushroom cultivation will extend the pineapple plant value chain, intensify mushroom production in a sustainable way, and minimize agricultural

  13. Experimental lead poisoning in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silven, L.

    1967-01-01

    Poisoning of water fowl due to the intake of lead shot is not rare in the USA. In order to study this kind of poisoning more closely domestic fowl were given varying amounts of lead shot and lead powder. This treatment did not provoke any symptoms of poisoning. Chemical analyses of different organs, muscles, skeleton and eggs yielded low lead values. It is concluded that the low toxicity of lead administered as lead shot to the domestic fowl is due to a low absorption rate from the gastro-intestinal tract.

  14. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  15. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Occult carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J N

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

  17. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  18. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Convery, Rory P; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri R; Elborn, J Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis remains an important industrial disease in mushroom workers. It has a significant morbidity, and early diagnosis and removal from exposure to the antigen are critically important in its management. Recently, several new allergens have been described, particularly those from mushroom species originating in the Far East, which are of clinical significance to workers occupationally exposed to such allergens in cultivation, picking, and packing of commercial mushroom crops. Importing of exotic mushrooms including Shiitake is common in EU countries, and some of the exotic species of mushrooms are cultivated for local markets. This practice may contribute to an increase in clinical cases of mushroom hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This update reviews the recent literature and examines changing trends of mushroom worker's lung, with increased movement of commercial product and labour markets worldwide.

  19. Shelf-life increase of fresh mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moda, Evelise Moncaio

    2008-01-01

    The production and consumption of edible mushrooms has been increasing in the last years due to its nutritional composition and sensory quality. The irradiation of mushrooms has been used with the purpose of maintaining the fresh product characteristics during shelf-life. The present study evaluated the effect of different radiation doses on the conservation of mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju, through by chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters. The packaging consisted on polystyrene trays with 250 g of sample, wrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The mushrooms were irradiated with doses of 125, 250, 500 and 750 Gy in a Gamma cell 220 type irradiator, and stored at 4 ± 1 deg C and 90% UR for 10 days. The proximate composition (moisture, crude fibre, total protein, total fat and ash), total soluble solids, pH, texture, color (L, a, b, Chroma and ho), enzymatic activity (polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase), microbiological (total coliform, Escherichia coli and total psychotropic bacteria) and sensory evaluation (color, taste and appearance) were determined in the 1st, 5th and 10th storage days. For the respiratory rate analysis, 30 g of sample were placed in jars and stored at 4 ± 1 deg C and 90% UR for 8 days. CO 2 was analyzed every day using a gaseous chromatograph. The results were submitted to variance analysis and average test using the SAS statistical package. The total protein and total fat values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods, while the moisture, crude fibre and ash values differ between treatments and periods. The dose of 750 Gy darkness the mushroom in the last evaluation, and texture was better in control during the storage period. The color (L, a), texture and proximate composition values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods. A significant increase was observed for soluble solids, b * and enzymatic activity values in all treatments at the end of the storage period

  20. Using poison center exposure calls to predict methadone poisoning deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Dasgupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC. In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in overdose mortality. METHODS: We used PC call counts for methadone that were reported to the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS® System in 2006 and 2007. US death certificate data were used to identify deaths due to methadone. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship of deaths and poison center calls. RESULTS: Compared to decedents, poison center callers tended to be younger, more often female, at home and less likely to require medical attention. A strong association was found with PC calls and methadone mortality (b=0.88, se=0.42, t=9.5, df=1, p<0.0001, R(2 =0.77. These findings were robust to large changes in a sensitivity analysis assessing the impact of underreporting of methadone overdose deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that calls to poison centers for methadone are correlated with poisoning mortality as identified on death certificates. Calls received by poison centers may be used for timely surveillance of mortality due to methadone. In the midst of the prescription opioid overdose epidemic, electronic surveillance tools that report in real-time are powerful public health tools.