WorldWideScience

Sample records for mushroom marasmius oreades

  1. Insights in the antioxidant synergistic effects of combined edible mushrooms: phenolic and polysaccharidic extracts of Boletus edulis and Marasmius oreades

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Vanessa; Marques, Azucena; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C.M.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    In a previous work, we reported the presence of Marasmius oreades in mixtures with antioxidant synergistic effects, and the mixture Boletus edulis and Marasmius oreades (50% of each) as having the highest antioxidant activity, but without synergism among the phenolic extracts. Herein, phenolic and polysaccharidic extracts from both species were combined in different proportions (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 87.5%) and compared to controls (individual samples), in order to give insight in ...

  2. Comparison of the binding properties of the mushroom Marasmius oreades lectin and Griffonia simplicifolia I-B isolectin to alphagalactosyl carbohydrate antigens in the surface phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J

    2004-01-01

    The binding of two alpha-galactophilic lectins, Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA), and Griffonia simplicifolia I isolectin B(4) (GS I-B(4)) to neoglycoproteins and natural glycoproteins were compared in a surface phase assay. Neoglycoproteins carrying various alpha-galactosylated glycans and lam...

  3. Efeitos sinergistas da atividade antioxidante de cogumelos comestíveis: mistura de extratos fenólicos e polissacarídicos de Boletus edulis e Marasmius oreades.

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Azucena; Vieira, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C.M.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Os cogumelos são uma excelente fonte de proteínas, glúcidos, fibras e vitaminas. Constituem um alimento muito apreciado devido essencialmente ao seu aroma e textura, sendo preparados/processados de diversas formas, ou utilizados como aromatizantes em sopas e molhos [1]. São ainda conhecidos pela sua bioatividade, quer antimicrobiana, antitumoral ou antioxidante. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a atividade antioxidante de diferentes misturas de Marasmius oreades e Boletus edulis (...

  4. Mercury in the fairy-ring of Gymnopus erythropus (Pers.) and Marasmius dryophilus (Bull.) P. Karst. mushrooms from the Gongga Mountain, Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Dryżałowska, Anna; Saba, Martyna; Wang, Jipeng; Zhang, Dan

    2014-06-01

    Gongga Mountain or Minya Konka, like the Himalayan Dimension Mountains, has its own microclimate and a 'circum-polar' climate and hence is sensitive to contamination by persistent pollutants that are trapped by cold temperature and wet precipitation. Elemental mercury (Hg) as vapour easy diffuses into the atmosphere and the rate of Hg deposition from global fallout is dependent on locally ambient temperature and precipitation. We investigated the accumulation and distribution of total Hg in two species of mushrooms, Gymnopus erythropus and Marasmius dryophilus, which grew on Gongga Mountain. The fruiting bodies were collected at a height of 2946m above see level. Both species efficiently accumulated Hg. The median values for caps of M. dryophilus and G. erythropus were 1.168 and 3.078, and for stipes 0.573 and 1.636mg/kg dry matter, respectively, and in the beneath litter and soil were 0.13 and 0.15mg/kg dry matter. The Hg contents of the caps of M. dryophilus and the beneath litter and soils from pristine Himalayan forest of 1.168, 0.132 and 0.116mg/kg dry matter (respectively) is high compared to values reported for similar species and soils from background areas in Poland -0.58-0.70 and 0.047-0.048mg/kg dry matter. The absence of industrial activities, urbanization and Hg ore deposits at Gongga Mountain suggests that long-range atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition is the major source of elevated Hg observed in the mushrooms, litter and surface layer of soils in the outskirts of Gongga Mountain maritime glacier that has a peak of 7556m above sea level.

  5. Human exposure to heavy metals and possible public health risks via consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árvay, Július; Tomáš, Ján; Hauptvogl, Martin; Massányi, Peter; Harangozo, Ľuboš; Tóth, Tomáš; Stanovič, Radovan; Bryndzová, Štefánia; Bumbalová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The contamination level of 92 samples (12 species) of wild edible mushrooms and underlying substrates with heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the Slovak Paradise National Park that borders with a region of historical mining and processing of polymetallic ores, were determined. The collected samples were analyzed using of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metals were determined separately in hymenophore (H) and rest of fruit bodies (RFB). Bioaccumulation factor as well as ratio of metal content in H and RFB were calculated. Cadmium and lead contents in hymenophore exceeded statutory limits of the EU (Cd: 0.5 mg/kg dry weight (dw), Pb: 1.0 mg/kg dw) for edible mushrooms in 96% and 83% of the samples, respectively. The risk from the consumption of the collected mushroom species was calculated based on the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values, and the highest health risk arising with consumption of particularly Macrolepiota procera, Marasmius oreades and Russula vesca from the observed area was demonstrated. It was shown that average weekly consumption of tested mushrooms species results the threat of exceeding of PTWI limits in the case of cadmium values (by 164%, 86% and 4% of PTWI for M. oreades, R. vesca and R. puellaris, respectively) and of mercury (by 96% of PTWI for M. procera) but not lead.

  6. Ocorrência do gênero Marasmius Fr. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of the genus Marasmius Fr. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales in the Reserva Biologica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenires Queiroz de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Marasmius Fr. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales compreende fungos comumente conhecidos como cogumelos. São cosmopolitas, mas muito mais numerosos em corpos de frutificação e espécies nas regiões tropicais do que em regiões temperadas ou frias. Ocorrem mais freqüentemente sobre madeira ou folhas mortas ou vivas e mais raramente entre musgos ou gramíneas no solo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo de estudo os representantes do gênero Marasmius Fr. ocorrentes na Reserva Biológica Walter Alberto Egler, município de Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas. As coletas foram realizadas no período de dezembro de 2000 a junho de 2001 e seguiu-se a metodologia usual para identificação de Agaricales. Foi estudado um total de nove espécies: Marasmius bellus, Marasmius haedinus var. haedinus,Marasmius cf. leoninus, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. ruber,Marasmius cf. setulosifolius, Marasmius tageticolor, Marasmius cf. variabiliceps var. variabiliceps e Marasmius sp. Os táxons Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. setulosifolius e Marasmius cf. variabiliceps var. variabiliceps são citados pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Com exceção de M. tageticolor Berk, as demais espécies são citadas pela primeira vez para a Reserva Walter Egler. São apresentadas descrições morfológicas, chave para identificação dos taxa e ilustrações.The genus Marasmius Fr. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales take in fungus commonly well-known as mushrooms. It's cosmopolitan, but much more numerous in carpophore production and number of species in the tropical regions than in the temperate and frigid zones. Most frequently on wood or leaves, dead or living, more rarely among mosses or grasses on earth. A study of the representatives of the genus Marasmius occurring in the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Rio Preto da Eva, in the Amazon State, was carried out. The collection was carried out from December 2000 to June 2001 and the mushrooms were identified based

  7. The selenium content of edible mushrooms in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepponen, S; Liukkonen-Lilja, H; Kuusi, T

    1983-01-01

    In this investigation the selenium contents of 142 mushroom samples were determined. The majority of the samples were wild Finnish mushroom species generally used for human consumption. The selenium contents of some cultivated mushrooms were also determined. In all, the material analyzed consisted of 38 different mushroom species. Selenium concentrations were assayed after modified wet and dry ashing, by atomic-absorption spectrometry using the hydride technique and the standard-addition procedure. The reliability of the method was tested with certified standard reference materials. The results of analysis obtained indicate that selenium contents vary considerably between different mushroom species. Of the species investigated, by far the highest selenium contents were found in Boletus edulis (mean 17 mg/kg dry weight). Other mushrooms having considerable selenium contents included Macrolepiota (5.0 mg/kg), wild Agaricus spp. (2.7 mg/kg), Gasteromycetes (1.9 mg/kg), Lactarius torminosus (1.9 mg/kg) and Marasmius oreades (1.6 mg/kg). The contents in these mushrooms are sufficient to provide an amount of selenium that is nutritionally significant in relation to the total daily intake of selenium of the Finnish population. Other edible mushrooms generally used in Finnland, e.g. species belonging to Cantharellaceae, Russula, Boletaceae (other than B. edulis) and Lactarius (other than L. torminosus) contained only small amounts of selenium. The importance of these mushrooms as a source of selenium is therefore marginal. The selenium content of Lactarius torminosus decreased by an average of 32% during the blanching necessary before consumption of these mushrooms.

  8. Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough doses, have effects similar to the drug LSD . Hallucinogenic mushrooms might be either fresh or dried. ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Drugs: What to Know LSD Dealing With Addiction Marijuana Bath Salts Depressants GHB ...

  9. Furlough Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  10. Medida de los fenoles totales y de la capacidad antioxidante y antirradicalaria de los hongos comestibles marasmius oreades, lactarius deliciosus y macrolepiota procera y su degradación a diferentes tiempos y temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Herrador, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    El tratamiento térmico que se utilizamos en cocina elimina diferentes sustancias bioactivas beneficiosas para nuestro organismo, entre otras destacan los polifenoles presentes en distintas setas silvestres recogidas en CyL, que poseen actividad antioxidante y antirradicalaria, conceptos relacionados con el envejecimiento celular.

  11. Simmered Mushrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Ingredients: 150 grams dried mushrooms, 75 grams oil, 25 grams sugar, cooking wine, soy sauce, scallions and minced ginger for taste. Method: 1. Clean and soak the mushrooms until they become soft. Put them in a bowl With some Water, sugar, minced Scallions and ginger and steam for about

  12. Decolourisation Capabilities of Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Marasmius cladophyllus UMAS MS8 on Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Other Azo Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Ngieng Ngui Sing; Ahmad Husaini; Azham Zulkharnain; Hairul Azman Roslan

    2017-01-01

    Marasmius cladophyllus was examined for its ability to degradatively decolourise the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and screened for the production of ligninolytic enzymes using specific substrates. Monitoring dye decolourisation by the decrease in absorbance ratio of A592/A500 shows that the decolourisation of RBBR dye was associated with the dye degradation. Marasmius cladophyllus produces laccase and lignin peroxidase in glucose minimal liquid medium containing RBBR. Both...

  13. Medicinal mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargano, Maria Letizia; Griensven, van Leo J.L.D.; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S.; Lindequist, Ulrike; Venturella, Giuseppe; Wasser, Solomon P.; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2017-01-01

    Higher Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes mushrooms possess various immunological and anticancer properties. They also offer important health benefits and exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, cytotoxic, immunomodulating,

  14. Hallucinogenic mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R H; Smith, D E

    1988-02-01

    Ingestion of mushrooms containing psilocybin produces hallucinogenic effects and has become a popular form of substance abuse among some adolescents and young adults. We have reviewed the medical literature on psilocybin mushrooms and describe current patterns of use, provide background material on the botony and pharmacology of these crude drugs, and report results of a small study on usage patterns among identified adolescent drug abusers. Among 174 adolescents already identified as substance abusers, 45 (26%) reported having used hallucinogenic mushrooms, frequently in conjunction with alcohol or other drugs. An average intake of 2-4 mushrooms was obtained for about +8, and led to intoxication for 5-6 hours. Mixing of intoxicants such as alcohol, marijuana, and psilocybin mushrooms was the rule. The acute adverse reactions may have been the result of drug synergy. Pediatricians should become aware of the specific patterns of the use of hallucinogenic drugs by adolescents and consider the possibility of such use when evaluating a delirious or psychotic adolescent.

  15. Carnivorous mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, R G; Barron, G L

    1984-04-06

    Ten species of gilled fungi, including the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), have been shown to attack and consume nematodes. It is suggested that these wood-decay fungi utilize the nutrients in their prey to supplement the low levels of nitrogen available in wood. This mode of nutrition is similar in principle to that of carnivorous higher plants.

  16. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  17. On Archetypical Images in Hilda Doolittle' s Oread%杜丽特尔·希尔达《山林女神》中意象的原型视角阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳芳

    2012-01-01

    This thesis tries to study the images and their characteristics in Hilda Doolittle's poem Oread from the perspective of archetype.%本论文尝试从原型的角度对杜立特尔·希尔达的《山林女神》中的意象进行研究。

  18. Mushrooms and Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FLORA CHANG

    1996-01-01

    NUMEROUS varieties of edible mushrooms are highly beneficial to health. Mushrooms enhance the mental and physical development of children and are highly beneficial to recovering cancer patients. People have developed an affinity for the taste of mushrooms and have in turn developed numerous recipes for cooking same. Pine mushrooms are commonly found in northeast China. with locals, especially women and children, heading to forests to collect same following periods of rain.

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2013-07-01

    The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  20. ANTIOXIDANT MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Preeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms have been extensively studied and many antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids identified. The various antioxidant mechanisms of the mushroom species extracts may be attributed to strong hydrogen-donating ability, metal-chelating ability, and their effectiveness as good scavengers of superoxide and free radicals. This indicates the potential of mushrooms as panacea for many diseases and also reveals a novel potential to fight against tumors in man.

  1. Chemical Constituents of the Basidiomycetes Marasmius maximus Hongo%大皮伞化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛芸

    2013-01-01

    大皮伞(Marasmius maximus Hongo)是食用菌类,在我国各地均有分布,对其主要化学成分进行研究具有重要的意义.通过运用多种分离与分析方法(CC、TLC、prep.TLC、MPLC、HPLC等)以及波谱学技术(1D NMR、2D NMR、MS、HR-MS、UV/Vis等)并借助必要的化学手段对其发酵液进行化学成分的研究,共分离得到5个化合物.分别为:麦角甾-4,6,8 (14)22-四烯-3-酮、(22E,24R)-麦角甾-7,22-二烯-3β,5α,6β-三醇、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯、三亚麻油酸甘油酯、5-Hydroxymethl-1-2-呋喃甲醛.

  2. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  3. Canning Tests on Mushroom Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); MacCanna, C.

    1980-01-01

    Canning tests were carried out on 5 mushroom strains from 2 flushes of 4 separate crops. Particular attention was given to the ratio of whole closed canned mushrooms to that of whole closed canned mushrooms plus canned stems and pieces - i.e. total yield. Factors considered in the tests included grading prior to processing, blanching and retort losses, shrinkage in size and mushroom whiteness. Cream and off-white strains had the highest level of open and misshapen mushrooms prior to processin...

  4. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia.

  5. The mushroom message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M

    1992-04-28

    A basic law of ecology is that living things are tightly dependent on one another, often in ways that are not easy to imagine. Who, for example, would have predicted that when the last dodo was killed in 1675, that death would lead to the slow extermination of the tambalocoque tree, whose fruits germinate only after passing through the dodo's digestive system? Now no natural strands of tambalocoque younger than 300 years can be found. Or who would have predicted that clear-cutting tropical rainforests would so significantly alter local weather patterns that the tropical rainforest biome itself and its vast diversity of life might not survive? Such interactions are worth noting because of the possible ramifications of a phenomenon that ecologists have just begun to document. Mushrooms worldwide appear to be in a catastrophic state of decline. Throughout Europe, in countries with terrains as diverse as Holland, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and England, wild mushrooms are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Those fungi that are found are significantly smaller than those found years ago. Preliminary data suggest that the same troubling situation is occurring throughout North American as well. The decline has been so precipitous that biologists have begun to refer to it as a mass extinction. The 2 obvious explanations for the demise of the mushrooms--habitat destruction and overpicking of edible types by an ever growing human population--have been ruled out. Sophisticated sampling schemes designed by ecologists control for the fact that there is less land available for wild mushrooms; they have been declining at a rate that far exceeds the rate at which land is being developed. The fact that the decline has affected both edible and inedible mushrooms equally indicates that humans hunting for tasty treats are not the main cause of the problem. The loss of wild mushrooms worldwide might not seem like that big a deal, but the consequences may well be grave

  6. Decolourisation Capabilities of Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Marasmius cladophyllus UMAS MS8 on Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Other Azo Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngieng Ngui Sing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marasmius cladophyllus was examined for its ability to degradatively decolourise the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR and screened for the production of ligninolytic enzymes using specific substrates. Monitoring dye decolourisation by the decrease in absorbance ratio of A592/A500 shows that the decolourisation of RBBR dye was associated with the dye degradation. Marasmius cladophyllus produces laccase and lignin peroxidase in glucose minimal liquid medium containing RBBR. Both enzyme activities were increased, with laccase activity recorded 70 times higher reaching up to 390 U L−1 on day 12. Further in vitro RBBR dye decolourisation using the culture medium shows that laccase activity was correlated with the dye decolourisation. Fresh RBBR dye continuously supplemented into the decolourised culture medium was further decolourised much faster in the subsequent round of the RBBR dye decolourisation. In vitro dye decolourisation using the crude laccase not only decolourised 76% of RBBR dye in just 19 hours but also decolourised 54% of Orange G and 33% of Congo red at the same period of time without the use of any exogenous mediator. This rapid dye decolourisation ability of the enzymes produced by M. cladophyllus thus suggested its possible application in the bioremediation of dye containing wastewater.

  7. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  8. Browning sensitivity of button mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Bastiaan-Net, S.; Hendrix, E.A.H.J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    To study the sensitivity of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms to bruising, a reproducible method was developed to apply mechanical damage to mushroom caps and quantify the subsequent discoloration. The newly developed bruising device can apply damage to the cap tissue of intact button mushrooms by a

  9. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lindequist

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly.

  10. Browning sensitivity of button mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Bastiaan-Net, S.; Hendrix, E.A.H.J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    To study the sensitivity of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms to bruising, a reproducible method was developed to apply mechanical damage to mushroom caps and quantify the subsequent discoloration. The newly developed bruising device can apply damage to the cap tissue of intact button mushrooms by a slip-

  11. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  12. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  13. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality.

  14. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  15. Bistability, mushrooms, and isolas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathisubramanian, N.; Showalter, Kenneth

    1984-05-01

    The iodate oxidation of arsenous acid exhibits single-hysteresis bistability in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor. Other patterns of multiple stationary states including mushrooms and isolas are exhibited by this system when a constant flow of solvent is introduced to the CSTR in addition to the usual flow of reactants. A simple empirical rate law model provides a near quantitative description of the behavior. This model is analyzed and compared to other model systems.

  16. Mushroom and Eggplant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 150 grams eggplant, 50 grams mushroom, 100 grams pork,one egg and some corn starch. scallion, ginger, salt, hot pepper and MSG (optional). Method: 1. Peel the eggplant and cut into large pieces; slice each piece halfway, so that it can be sandwiched with a filling. 2.Mince the pork and add chopped scallion and ginger,hot pepper.salt,and MSG to taste.Fill the eggplant with the meat.

  17. Open Mushrooms: Stickiness revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dettmann, Carl P

    2010-01-01

    We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical systems with sharply divided phase space. For typical values of the control parameter of the system $\\rho$, an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits (MUPOs) exist making the system sticky in the sense that unstable orbits approach regular regions in phase space and thus exhibit regular behaviour for long periods of time. The problem of finding these MUPOs is expressed as the well known problem of finding optimal rational approximations of a real number, subject to some system-specific constraints. By introducing a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe a zero measure set of control parameter values $\\rho\\in(0,1)$ for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is less sticky. The open mushroom (billiard with a hole) is then considered in order to quantify the stickiness exhibited and exact leading order expressions for the algebraic decay of the survival probability function $P(t)$ are ca...

  18. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  20. [Factors determining students' knowledge on wild mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian; Cisoń-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted among students of university schools in Nowy Sacz, Biała Podlaska and Zamość to determine the guidelines of mushroom poisoning prevention. The study included 580 people. The dependence of knowledge about mushrooms from the place of origin of students, frequency of participation in mushrooming, preferred sources of information about mushrooms, major of study and self-competence in discsriminating of mushrooms was determined. Mushrooms gathered nearly 80% of respondents. Residents of large cities more often that those living in villages and small towns have difficulites in distinguishing the edible and poisonous mushrooms. People often participating in mushrooming retain proper habits during the harvesting and processing of mushrooms. Irrational ways of distinguishing edible mushrooms from poisonous are often rejected by inexperienced people than by frequently gathering mushrooms. Nearly 20% of respondents, regardless of their own experience and self-assessment of their competence in discriminating mushrooms belive that after culinary preparation can by safely consume even deadly poisonous species. The primary source of knowledge on mushrooms for the majority of responents are parents. There was no correlation between the preferred source of information about mushrooms and belief in the myths about them. Knowledge on the mushrooms of medical students (nursing, emergency medical service) is not greater than students other courses.

  1. Purification of a new isoform of laccase from a Marasmius quercophilus strain isolated from a cork oak litter (Quercus suber L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnet, A M; Criquet, S; Pocachard, E; Gil, G; Ferre, E

    2002-01-01

    A new isoform of laccase from Marasmius quercophilus is described in this study. The strain of this white-rot fungus was isolated for the first time on a cork oak litter. This isoform exhibited certain common properties of laccases (a molecular weight of 65 Kda, an optimum pH of 6.2 with syringaldazine). But this laccase has also particularly novel features: the best activity measured was observed at high temperatures (80 C) and this isoform was not inhibited with EDTA. Furthermore, this induced laccase was able to transform most of the aromatic compounds tested without the addition of mediators to the reaction mixture, and the transformation of certain chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol) by a laccase isoform from M. quercophilus is reported here for the first time. We also demonstrate the importance of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as a mediator since it allowed veratryl alcohol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid transformation. Moreover, new products of transformation were observed using the combination of ABTS with this isoform of laccase.

  2. Focusing properties of mushroom microlenses

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskin, A V; Benson, T; Sewell, P; Nosich, A I

    2010-01-01

    Focusing properties of a novel type photoresist microlens are studied. A specific character of the microlens is its mushroom shape. Recently it was predicted and experimentally revealed that such a lens integrated with a light-emitting diode is capable of enhancing its output efficiency and directivity. In our paper we describe the true electromagnetic performance of a mushroom lens by applying a mathematically rigorous method of boundary integral equations. Numerical results are presented for the mushroom lens illuminated with a plane E-polarized wave and include figures describing the evolution of the lens focal spot and near field maps.

  3. Mushroom and Rape Heart Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    100 grams mushrooms12 rape hearts5 grams salt2 grams MSG20 grams (2 tbsp) cooking oilWash mushrooms and slice. Clean the rape hearts, and cross-cut stem ends.Heat oil in a wok, and stir-fry the rape hearts for the short time it takes till their color changes. Add 750 grams (1 1/2 cups) of water. When boiling, add salt, MSG, and mushroom slices. Bring to the boil once more. Serve.Features: clear and refreshing.Effect: Nourishes the heart and stomach.

  4. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  5. Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Baeza, A

    2014-07-01

    Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored.

  6. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... and marketed for the fresh market, or imported into the United States and marketed for the...

  7. Mushroom Processing Retaining Colour Without Losing Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Walshe, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Processed mushrooms must be blanched so that they will retain an acceptable white colour. However,. This can lead to a weight loss of between 20 and 30 per cent, which is bad economy for the processor. Research at Kinsealy Research Centre has come up with some solution for this problem. Breading of unblanched mushrooms prior to freezing is one. Another successful technique is to treat mushrooms with xanthan gum prior to blanching in the case of frozen or canned mushrooms.

  8. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  9. Modern aspects of mushroom culture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C

    2004-06-01

    The production and culture of new species of mushrooms is increasing. The breeding of new strains has significantly improved, allowing the use of strains with high yield and resistance to diseases, increasing productivity and diminishing the use of chemicals for pest control. The improvement and development of modern technologies, such as computerized control, automated mushroom harvesting, preparation of compost, production of mushrooms in a non-composted substrate, and new methods of substrate sterilization and spawn preparation, will increase the productivity of mushroom culture. All these aspects are crucial for the production of mushrooms with better flavor, appearance, texture, nutritional qualities, and medicinal properties at low cost. Mushroom culture is a biotechnological process that recycles ligninocellulosic wastes, since mushrooms are food for human consumption and the spent substrate can be used in different ways.

  10. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  11. NMR and Mushrooms : imaging post harvest senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, H.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this thesis was to explore the potentials of NMR for the study of water relations in harvested mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ). Since harvested mushrooms tend to continue their growth after harvest, their morphogenesis is heavily influenced by the external cli

  12. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Karahan Research Fellow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications.

  13. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  14. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  15. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  16. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  17. New bioactive compounds from korean native mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2013-12-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described.

  18. Unravelling the bruising discoloration of Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.

    2013-01-01

      In this research the browning-discoloration caused by bruising of button mushrooms was analysed. Brown-discoloration of mushrooms can amongst others be caused by the picking and storage of mushrooms. Current day commercial hybrids can not be used for mechanical harvesting because mushrooms

  19. Genotyping and evaluation of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sumiati, E.

    2005-01-01

    Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) represent one of the most popular mushroom species grown in Indonesia. There is a need for strains that are better adapted to the climate conditions at Java, where most mushrooms in Indonesia are produced. Strains that can produce mushrooms at 22 to 28 oC and h

  20. Unravelling the bruising discoloration of Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.

    2013-01-01

      In this research the browning-discoloration caused by bruising of button mushrooms was analysed. Brown-discoloration of mushrooms can amongst others be caused by the picking and storage of mushrooms. Current day commercial hybrids can not be used for mechanical harvesting because mushrooms a

  1. Genotyping and evaluation of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sumiati, E.

    2005-01-01

    Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) represent one of the most popular mushroom species grown in Indonesia. There is a need for strains that are better adapted to the climate conditions at Java, where most mushrooms in Indonesia are produced. Strains that can produce mushrooms at 22 to 28 oC and

  2. 78 FR 34037 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... pieces. The certain preserved mushrooms covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis. ``Certain Preserved Mushrooms'' refers to mushrooms that have been prepared...

  3. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... and pieces. The preserved mushrooms covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis. ``Preserved mushrooms'' refer to mushrooms that have been prepared or preserved...

  4. Sensory Evaluation and Textural Properties of Mushroom Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Lu; Yuqin Chen; Chengyun He; Jia Li; Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Fresh mushroom was used as primary material to produce mushroom sausages and their qualities was assessed by sensory evaluation and textural analysis. The processing procedures include clean, slice, blanch, crush and pulp, add accessories, stuff, heat and cool. Ingredients for mushroom sausage are mushroom 100, chicken 0~10, soybean protein isolate 10, corn starch 10, oil 2, spice 2.4, salt 1, sugar 1 and carrageenan 0.8. The optimal mushroom for sausage processing is Pleurotus nebrodensis an...

  5. Reducing Shrinkage in Canned and Frozen Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Walshe, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The process involving a preliminary soaking of the mushrooms in water for 20 min followed by a chill storage period followed by a further water soak for 2 hr, and known as the 3S process, gave a considerable reduction in total shrinkage in both brown and white strain canned mushrooms compared with the control samples. Water uptake by the mushrooms in the 3S process was greatest when the soaking water temperature was between 20 and 30°C and had a pH of 8. Citric acid in the blanch water enhanc...

  6. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999) (Mushroom Antidumping Duty Order), remains...

  7. EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS ON MUSHROOM QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KULSHRESHTHA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized bed drying of mushroom was undertaken to study the drying characteristics and quality of the dried mushrooms. Drying was done at drying air temperatures of 50, 70, and 90oC and air velocities of 1.71 and 2.13 m/s. Two batch sizes, namely, 0.5 kg and 1 kg of sliced milky mushrooms were dried. Drying characteristics and the quality of dried mushrooms were analyzed. The results indicated that the drying time decreased only marginally with increase in air velocity. Drying air temperature of 50oC was better as it resulted in a dried product having better rehydration characteristics, lesser shrinkage and lighter color. Highest energy efficiency (79.74% was observed while drying a batch size of 1 kg at a drying air temperature of 50oC, using an air velocity of 1.7 m/s.

  8. Thin layer convection-drying of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, U.S.; Chakraverty, A. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1997-06-01

    Dehydration characteristics of the Oyster Pleurotus variety of mushroom were studied. Both untreated and treated (steam blanching followed by sulphiting and citric acid pretreatment before drying) mushrooms were dried in the thin layer experimental equipment at each of the drying air temperatures of 45, 50 and 60{sup o}C with air velocities of 0.9 and 1.6 m/s. Studies on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of both untreated and treated dehydrated mushrooms were performed at different relative humidities ranging from 11.2 to 86.3% at 30{sup o}C. Taking drying time and quality of the dehydrated product into account, a combination of a drying air temperature of 50{sup o}C and an air velocity of 0.9 m/s appears to be suitable for drying of both untreated and treated mushrooms for a good dehydrated product. (author)

  9. Mushrooms and Lichens in Bulgarian Ethnomycology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagoy Angelov Uzunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents ethnomycological data on ritual, medicinal, tinder, and kindling usage of mushrooms and lichens in Bulgaria from prehistoric times till nowadays. It is based on the analysis of 17 ethnomycological sources recently available and on the authors inquiries and field trip data from the country made in the period 1986–2015. In total 18 mushrooms and 4 lichens with their usage are enlisted.

  10. Arsenic and its compounds in mushrooms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Rizal, Leela M

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the detail concentration of arsenic in some species of mushrooms as well as organic and inorganic forms of arsenic in the substrates where wild and cultivated edible mushrooms grow. We also briefly review the molecular forms of arsenic in mushrooms. There is still a lack of experimental data from the environment for a variety of species from different habitats and for different levels of geogenic arsenic in soil. This information will be useful for mushrooms consumers, nutritionists, and food regulatory agencies by describing ways to minimize arsenic content in edible mushrooms and arsenic intake from mushroom meals.

  11. Mushroom Cosmetics: The Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzheng Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds for centuries and have recently been exploited for potential components in the cosmetics industry. Numerous mushrooms and their ingredients have been known to be beneficial to the skin and hair. The representative ingredients are as follows: phenolics, polyphenolics, terpenoids, selenium, polysaccharides, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds. These compounds show excellent antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects, which make them ideal candidates for cosmetics products. This review provides some perspectives of mushrooms (and/or extracts and their ingredients presently used, or patented to be used, in both cosmeceuticals for topical administration and nutricosmetics for oral administration. With the small percentage of mushrooms presently identified and utilized, more mushroom species will be discovered, verified, and cultivated in the future, boosting the development of relevant industry. Combining with progress in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems pharmacology, mushrooms can find their way into cosmetics with multiple approaches.

  12. Can mushrooms fix atmospheric nitrogen?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Jayasinghearachchi; Gamini Seneviratne

    2004-09-01

    It is generally reported that fungi like Pleurotus spp. can fix nitrogen (N2). The way they do it is still not clear. The present study hypothesized that only associations of fungi and diazotrophs can fix N2. This was tested in vitro. Pleurotus ostreatus was inoculated with a bradyrhizobial strain nodulating soybean and P. ostreatus with no inoculation was maintained as a control. At maximum mycelial colonization by the bradyrhizobial strain and biofilm formation, the cultures were subjected to acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Another set of the cultures was evaluated for growth and nitrogen accumulation. Nitrogenase activity was present in the biofilm, but not when the fungus or the bradyrhizobial strain was alone. A significant reduction in mycelial dry weight and a significant increase in nitrogen concentration were observed in the inoculated cultures compared to the controls. The mycelial weight reduction could be attributed to C transfer from the fungus to the bradyrhizobial strain, because of high C cost of biological N2 fixation. This needs further investigations using 14C isotopic tracers. It is clear from the present study that mushrooms alone cannot fix atmospheric N2. But when they are in association with diazotrophs, nitrogenase activity is detected because of the diazotrophic N2 fixation. It is not the fungus that fixes N2 as reported earlier. Effective N2 fixing systems, such as the present one, may be used to increase protein content of mushrooms. Our study has implications for future identification of as yet unidentified N2 systems occurring in the environment.

  13. Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of cucumber ... to determine the effects of spent mushroom compost (SMC), which is a waste product ... processing through a year, on greenhouse cucumber growth as an organic

  14. Sensory Evaluation and Textural Properties of Mushroom Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh mushroom was used as primary material to produce mushroom sausages and their qualities was assessed by sensory evaluation and textural analysis. The processing procedures include clean, slice, blanch, crush and pulp, add accessories, stuff, heat and cool. Ingredients for mushroom sausage are mushroom 100, chicken 0~10, soybean protein isolate 10, corn starch 10, oil 2, spice 2.4, salt 1, sugar 1 and carrageenan 0.8. The optimal mushroom for sausage processing is Pleurotus nebrodensis and the following is Pleurotus ostreatus and other white or light color mushrooms. Mushroom sausages possess many advantages as far as nutrition, safety, cost and processing compared to normal sausages. This study shows that sausage is a potential and effective method for mushroom processing.

  15. Wild 'Death Cap' Mushroom Seriously Sickens 14 in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166143.html Wild 'Death Cap' Mushroom Seriously Sickens 14 in California Foraging by ... News) -- A bumper crop of deadly wild "death cap" mushrooms in northern California is likely to blame ...

  16. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  17. Are mushroom bodies cerebellum-like structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Sarah M

    2011-07-01

    The mushroom bodies are distinctive neuropils in the protocerebral brain segments of many protostomes. A defining feature of mushroom bodies is their intrinsic neurons, masses of cytoplasm-poor globuli cells that form a system of lobes with their densely-packed, parallel-projecting axon-like processes. In insects, the role of the mushroom bodies in olfactory processing and associative learning and memory has been studied in depth, but several lines of evidence suggest that the function of these higher brain centers cannot be restricted to these roles. The present account considers whether insight into an underlying function of mushroom bodies may be provided by cerebellum-like structures in vertebrates, which are similarly defined by the presence of masses of tiny granule cells that emit thin parallel fibers forming a dense molecular layer. In vertebrates, the shared neuroarchitecture of cerebellum-like structures has been suggested to underlie a common functional role as adaptive filters for the removal of predictable sensory elements, such as those arising from reafference, from the total sensory input. Cerebellum-like structures include the vertebrate cerebellum, the electrosensory lateral line lobe, dorsal and medial octavolateral nuclei of fish, and the dorsal cochlear nucleus of mammals. The many architectural and physiological features that the insect mushroom bodies share with cerebellum-like structures suggest that it might be fruitful to consider mushroom body function in light of a possible role as adaptive sensory filters. The present account thus presents a detailed comparison of the insect mushroom bodies with vertebrate cerebellum-like structures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of heavy metals in edible mushrooms consumed in Shahrekord

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhshi A; Sedehi M; Shakeri K

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Heavy metal pollution is a major problem in the environmental and health concerns of food. Toxic elements in the environment of mushrooms may be attracted to them, in which case the problem will create mushroom consumption. This study was aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals, manganese, chromium, iron, lead, zinc and copper in mushroom consumed in Shahrekord. Methods: This study was a cross- sectional research. 6 samples of the edible mushroom cultiv...

  19. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  20. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivated mushroom species, namely, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus florida and two wild growing species Lentinus cladopus and Pleurotus djamor were studied for their mineral contents such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Pb, and Cd by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and also Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, (AAS. Phosphorus was estimated by spectrophotometric method. K, Ca, Na, and P were in higher concentrations ranging from 59.3 mg to 3634 mg, 8.27 mg–174.9 mg, 22.2 mg–327.4 mg, and 100.5 mg–769.9 mg/100 g dry weight respectively in the four mushroom species studied. Fe, Zn, Mg and Se were ranging from 6.27 mg to 35.3 mg, 1.58 mg–9.44 mg, 21.1 mg–40.7 mg and 0.048 mg–0.182 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, amongst the mushroom species analyzed. However, Ni, Cu, and Mn contents showed relatively lower concentrations, whereas Pb and Cd were below detectable level. The mushrooms were safe for consumption, in accordance with the permissible tolerance limits of the estimated toxic metals. Implications of the mineral contents on mushroom nutritional value are highlighted.

  1. A medicinal mushroom: Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tongbo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chen, Chang-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Phellinus Linteus (Berkeley & M. A. Curtis) Teng (PL) is a medicinal mushroom that has been practiced in oriental countries for centuries to prevent ailments as diverse as gastroenteric dysfunction, diarrhea, haemorrhage and cancers. In an effort to translate the Asian traditional medicines into western-accepted therapies, scientists have demonstrated that the extracts from fruit-bodies or mycelium of PL not only stimulate the hormonal and cell-mediated immune function and quench the inflammatory reactions caused by a variety of stimuli, but also suppress the tumor growth and metastasis. Mounting evidence from different research groups has shown that PL induces apoptosis in a host of murine and human carcinomas without causing any measurable toxic effects to their normal counterparts. Recently, research has been focused on the anti-tumor effect of PL, and in particular, on its ability to enhance some conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. These studies suggest PL to be a promising candidate as an alternative anticancer agent or a synergizer for existing antitumor drugs. Hereinafter, we summarize the present progress in elucidating the mechanisms underlying the potency of PL and its anti-tumor function. The fractionation and identification of the biologically active components from PL are also briefly introduced.

  2. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  3. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Shinpei, E-mail: Ogawa.Shimpei@eb.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji [Advanced Technology R and D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-Honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Kimata, Masafumi [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  4. The Biotechnological Potential of Mushroom Tyrosinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio de Faria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there has been a significant interest in developing biotechnological applications of tyrosinases. These applications include the production of L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine from L-tyrosine, the production of cross-linked protein networks for use as novel food additives and the detection of phenolic compounds in wastewater or their removal from it. Much of the research into these applications has involved mushroom tyrosinases. We review the potential biotechnological applications of mushroom tyrosinases and evaluate the state of knowledge about their production, recovery and immobilization. We conclude that much more research is necessary in these areas if mushroom tyrosinases are to fulfill their biotechnological potential.

  5. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    to provide data for the evaluation of whether the consumption of the cultivated mushroom constitutes a human risk. The present report summarises the Nordic seminar which had the aim to present Nordic studies and to promote exchange of information between chemists and toxicologists in the field of Agaricus...... bisporus research. American, English and Czech researchers gave an up-to-date overview on the cultivated mushroom and its hydrazines and reviewed their ongoing research. Finally, Nordic researchers summarised their chemical and toxicological studies on behalf of the Nordic Project Group on Phenylhydrazines...

  6. Lignolytic Enzymes Production from Selected Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Shantaveera Swamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ligninase enzymes produced by selected mushrooms have been reported. We collected mushrooms from Western Ghats, most of them were edible food. Thirty samples isolated were tested using a plate assay through direct agar plate assay by using ABTS, decolourisation containing the fifteen isolates were able to decolourise the dye, indicating a lignin-degrading ability. Spectrophotometric enzyme assays from all selected isolates were carried out to examine the production of Ligninolytic enzymes (Laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. Ten selected isolates produced all three kinds of enzymes tested. Lignolytic enzymes are groups of enzymes these are actively involved in bioremediation.

  7. Status and Future Outlook of Cultivated Mushroom Sector in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Eren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom production that started in 1960's in Turkey gained economic value from the 1990's and it started improving as a commercial sector after that time. While Turkey mushroom production was 80 tons in 1973, it increased up to 45.000 tons in 2014. There is a rapid changes and improvement in cultivated mushroom production and consumption in Turkey. The object of the study is to reveal current status of mushroom production in the world and Turkey, and the problems of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the necessary precautions and ways to solve these problems. The data obtained from the inspections of the mushroom enterprises that in mushroom production regions of Turkey, and the secondary data obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK and Union of Antalya Exporters (AIB and also national and international publication’ data has been used in this study. In Turkey, Mediterranean and Marmara Regions rank first in mushroom production and consumption with the share of 61.5 and 40%, respectively. It has been determined that big enterprises producing mushroom and compost established in the Central Anatolia in this study. The number of enterprises producing mushroom by using technology increases and 15-20% of the total production are provided by the big enterprises having 2000 m2 and over mushroom production areas. Recent years, there are serious increases in the production of different mushroom species such as especially Pleurotus ostreatus. In addition, precision agriculture applications are widespread with the time. For the continuation of growth of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the solving of the sector problems, there are needs both in making the necessary changes in legislation and to be given priority researches related to mushroom production in university and public research institutions and also to support them.

  8. Melanin biosynthesis pathway in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.; Bastiaan-Net, S.; Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    With the full genome sequence of Agaricus bisporus available, it was possible to investigate the genes involved in the melanin biosynthesis pathway of button mushrooms. Based on different BLAST and alignments, genes were identified in the genome which are postulated to be involved in this pathway.

  9. [Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attema-de Jonge, M E; Portier, C B; Franssen, E J F

    2007-12-29

    Two young men, 25 and 32 years old, presented with severe automutilation by knife wounds after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms. The first patient had also used cocaine, cannabis and alcohol, while the second patient had only used the hallucinogenic mushrooms. Both patients were treated symptomatically and survived despite their severe stab wounds. Psilocybin-containing mushrooms are used as mind-altering drugs. These drugs may sometimes induce 'bad trips', a psychotic reaction accompanied by fear, panic, and dangerous behaviour, especially when used in combination with other drugs and alcohol or by psychiatrically unstable patients. During a bad trip, patients may hurt themselves. Because the duration of the psychotic and sympathicomimetic effects of psilocybin after ingestion of mushrooms is short (up to 6 h), and since psilocin itself causes no permanent organ toxicity, the treatment of psilocybin intoxication is only symptomatic. The diagnosis ofpsilocybin intoxication is hampered by the lack of routinely available, rapid and sensitive, analytical methods for the quantification ofpsilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin.

  10. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan ŠIRIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr. Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr. Sing.,. Completely developed and mature fruiting bodies were collected at random selection in localities of Trakošćan, Jaska and Petrova gora. At the same time, the substrate soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-10. Determination of heavy metals in mushrooms and the substrate soil were carried out by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The data obtained were analysed by means of the statistical program SAS V9.2. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd between analysed species of mushrooms and localities of sampling (P 1. The consumption of investigated mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to human health due to low concentrations analysed metals.

  11. Cultivable microbiome of fresh white button mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, W; Korsten, L

    2017-02-01

    Microbial dynamics on commercially grown white button mushrooms is of importance in terms of food safety assurance and quality control. The purpose of this study was to establish the microbial profile of fresh white button mushrooms. The total microbial load was determined through standard viable counts. Presence and isolation of Gram-negative bacteria including coagulase-positive Staphylococci were performed using a selective enrichment approach. Dominant and presumptive organisms were confirmed using molecular methods. Total mushroom microbial counts ranged from 5·2 to 12·4 log CFU per g, with the genus Pseudomonas being most frequently isolated (45·37% of all isolations). In total, 91 different microbial species were isolated and identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry, PCR and sequencing. Considering current food safety guidelines in South Africa for ready-to-eat fresh produce, coliform counts exceeded the guidance specifications for fresh fruit and vegetables. Based on our research and similar studies, it is proposed that specifications for microbial loads on fresh, healthy mushrooms reflect a more natural microbiome at the point-of-harvest and point-of-sale. Presence and persistence of micro-organisms within the microbiome of fresh produce is important when identifying a potential niche for foodborne pathogens. Most foodborne outbreaks can be attributed to microbial imbalances or lack of diversity within the associated host surface and residing microbial population. Agaricus bisporus samples analysed during this study showed a higher microbial load (5·2 up to 12·4 log CFU per g) compared to known values for other fresh produce. These mushrooms were considered to carry microbial loads representing a healthy and safe product, fit for consumption, despite showing a high indicator incidence. Although foodborne pathogens may be associated on occasion with fresh mushrooms, it remains a low

  12. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay.

  13. [Disinfection of wood in mushroom growing cellars with Mycetox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, J; Wazny, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the use od phenolic disinfectants for impregnating and disinfecting of wood in mushroom--growing cellars was banned in Poland for ecologic and hygienic reasons, the new product, namely Mycetox, containing quaternary ammonium compound and boric acid has been registered for this purpose. Mycetox belongs to new generation products and is non toxic for man and the environment. It is first Polish product developed for the general disinfection as well as for impregnating purposes in mushroom farms. The efficacy of Mycetox in mushroom-growing cellars has been evaluated basing on its fungicidal properties in the different substrates used for the cultivation of mushrooms. Also its influence on mushroom spawn growth, crop yield, and the penetration of spawn into wooden cages impregnated with Mycetox as well as its influence on blanching of mushrooms has been investigated.

  14. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  15. Effect of spent mushroom compost tea on mycelial growth and yield of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Francisco J; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Tello, Julio C; Navarro, María J

    2012-08-01

    Preliminary studies suggested that the use of compost tea made from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) may be regarded as a potential method for biologically controlling dry bubble disease in button mushroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SMS compost tea on the host, the button mushroom, to ascertain whether the addition of these water extracts has a toxic effect on Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth and on mushroom yield. In vitro experiments showed that the addition of SMS compost tea to the culture medium inoculated with a mushroom spawn grain did not have an inhibitory effect on A. bisporus mycelial growth. The effect of compost teas on the quantitative production parameters of A. bisporus (yield, unitary weight, biological efficiency and earliness) was tested in a cropping trial, applying the compost teas to the casing in three different drench applications. Quantitative production parameters were not significantly affected by the compost tea treatments although there was a slight delay of 0.8-1.4 days in the harvest time of the first flush. These results suggest that compost teas have no fungitoxic effect on A. bisporus so that they can be considered a suitable biocontrol substance for the control of dry bubble disease.

  16. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  17. Effect of mushroom powder in fresh pasta development

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Paula; Esteves, Sabrina; Guiné, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Fresh pastas with Shiitake mushroom flour (MF) were produced. The MF was produced by drying the mushrooms at 40, 50, and 60 ᵒC. Proportions of 5%, 10%, and 15% MF were used to prepare the fresh pastas (FP), with two types of wheat flour (regular (RWF) and 30% semolina wheat flour (SWF)). Mushroom pastas were analysed before (FP) and after cooking (CP). FP presented moisture and water acidity lower than 35% and 0.95, respectively. The L* and b* colo...

  18. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  19. Radiocesium uptake mechanisms in wild and culture mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi (Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)); Isomura, Kimio; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Shibata, Hisashi

    1993-12-01

    Concentrations of [sup 137]Cs and stable Cs in wild mushrooms, cultivated mushrooms and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The average concentration of [sup 137]Cs in 80 wild mushrooms in Japan was 87.5 Bq/kg (wet wt.), and concentration of [sup 137]Cs in mycorrhizal mushrooms was higher than that of saprophytic mushrooms. High concentrations of [sup 137]Cs were found in Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1, saprophytic mushrooms, cultivated in culture substrates containing high [sup 137]Cs. Clear correlations with 5% level of significance were found between wild mushroom-to-substrate ratios (wet/dry) of [sup 137]Cs concentration and those of stable Cs. Cultivated P. ostreatus-to-culture substrate ratios (wet/wet) of [sup 137]Cs concentration were stable in the order of 10[sup 0] when the culture substrate was containing 10 000 Bq/kg (wet wt.) of [sup 137]Cs or 1 000 mg/kg (wet wt.) of stable Cs. The ratios of [sup 137]Cs concentration in cultivated mushrooms were about equal to those in wild mushrooms. Higher concentration of [sup 137]Cs in culture substrate after sampling P. ostreatus was observed at the upper layer where mycelium density was high. (author).

  20. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  1. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  2. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIRIĆ, Ivan; KOS, Ivica; Ante KASAP; Fran PETKOVIĆ; Držaić, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr.) Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) Sing.,). Completely developed and mature ...

  3. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  4. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits.

  5. Determination of Listeria monocytogenes Growth during Mushroom Production and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Leong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if its numbers do not exceed 100 CFU/g throughout the shelf-life of the food. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Challenge studies to determine the ability of a food to support growth of L. monocytogenes are essential as predictive modelling often overestimates the growth ability of L. monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine if growth of L. monocytogenes was supported during the production and distribution of mushrooms. A three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated onto three independent batches of whole mushrooms, sliced mushrooms, mushroom casing and mushroom substrate at a concentration of about 100–1000 CFU/g. The batches were incubated at potential abuse temperatures, as a worst case scenario, and at intervals during storage L. monocytogenes numbers, % moisture and pH were determined. The results showed that the sliced and whole mushrooms had the ability to support growth, while mushroom casing allowed survival but did not support growth. Mushroom substrate showed a rich background microflora that grew on Listeria selective media and this hindered enumeration of L. monocytogenes. In the case of this study, Combase predictions were not always accurate, indicating that challenge studies may be a necessary part of growth determination of L. monocytogenes.

  6. [The toxicological aspects of poisonings by psilocybine-containing mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhanian, R V; Bushuev, E S; Kazankov, S P; Kostyrko, T A

    1997-01-01

    Cases involving the investigation of psylocybin-containing mushrooms became more frequent in forensic chemical and criminological expert evaluation in recent years. The authors present the data on the main chemical factors contained in these mushrooms, on the mechanism of their toxic effect, clinical picture of poisoning, and methods of chemical and toxicological analysis.

  7. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  8. Mushroom Bodies Suppress Locomotor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-René; Ernst, Roman; Heisenberg, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Locomotor activity of single, freely walking flies in small tubes is analyzed in the time domain of several hours. To assess the influence of the mushroom bodies on walking activity, three independent noninvasive methods interfering with mushroom body function are applied: chemical ablation of the mushroom body precursor cells; a mutant affecting Kenyon cell differentiation (mushroom body miniature1); and the targeted expression of the catalytic subunit of tetanus toxin in subsets of Kenyon cells. All groups of flies with mushroom body defects show an elevated level of total walking activity. This increase is attributable to the slower and less complete attenuation of activity during the experiment. Walking activity in normal and mushroom body-deficient flies is clustered in active phases (bouts) and rest periods (pauses). Neither the initiation nor the internal structure, but solely the termination of bouts seems to be affected by the mushroom body defects. How this finding relates to the well-documented role of the mushroom bodies in olfactory learning and memory remains to be understood. PMID:10454382

  9. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  10. Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus) are useful for utilizing lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ADEBAYO

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... industrial lignocellulosic wastes due to their production of ligninolytic and ... technologies developed between oyster mushrooms and. Adebayo ..... The cost of mushroom is directly dependent on the substrate ... Coconut leaves. 31. 585 ..... poultry and as additives to wheat flour for improving the quality of ...

  11. More efficient mushroom canning through pinch and exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.; Westerik, Nieke; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Dewi, Belinda P.C.; Boom, Remko M.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional production of canned mushrooms involves multiple processing steps as vacuum hydration, blanching, sterilization, etc. that are intensive in energy and water usage. We analyzed the current mushroom processing technique plus three alternative scenarios via pinch and exergy analysis. Th

  12. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  14. Review: on published data and methods for selenium in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2013-05-01

    Selected data published on selenium in several species of mushrooms are outlined and discussed in light of performance of analytical methods employed. Data was shown to be either dubious or concentrations too high to be credible and valid in some data reported by authors. Examples of methods and specifically the measurement techniques of Se as reported by authors studying mushrooms are outlined. Also examples of valid and incorrect data on Se in a given mushroom species with data by two or more analytical methods are illustrated. Excessive values reported due to selection of improper method of determination of Se in mushrooms relate largely to improper use of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The biased analytical data published gave a false picture on the composition and nutritional value of mushrooms with respect to selenium.

  15. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's... antidumping duty orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant...

  16. Drying and rehydration of oyster mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini Pasiznick Apati; Sandra Aparecida Furlan; João Borges Laurindo

    2010-01-01

    Dehydration and rehydration processes of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies were investigated in this work. Mushroom samples were dehydrated at 40, 50 and 60 ºC, using drying air with relative humidity of 75 %. The rehydration was investigated at different temperatures of immersion water (25, 55 and 85 ºC) and different immersion times (30, 75 and 120 minutes). The best rehydration occurred for the samples dried at 40 ºC. The rehydration could be done in water at room temperature, during 30 ...

  17. [Poisoning with selected mushrooms with neurotropic and hallucinogenic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Beata; Ferenc, Tomasz; Kusowska, Joanna; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Picking mushrooms, especially in summer and autumn, is still very popular in Poland. Despite raising awareness of poisonous mushrooms in the Polish society, year after year hospitals treat many patients diagnosed with poisoning with the most common toxic species of mushroom found in our country. Furthermore, growing interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms among young people has become a serious medical problem of our time. Websites make it incredibly easy for people to obtain information on the morphology and appearance of mushrooms with psychoactive properties, which leads inexperienced pickers to misidentification, resulting frequently in a fatal outcome. The article explores the subject of poisoning with the most common mushrooms with neurotropic effects, these are: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Inocybe rubescens, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe rivulosa and Psilocybe semilanceata. Toxins found in these species show symptoms that affect the central nervous system, parasympathetic system as well as the gastro-intestinal system. The effects of poisoning in the mushroom species mentioned above are mild in general, liver and kidney damage occur rarely, but the symptoms depend on both the dosage of the consumed toxins and individual susceptibility. In most cases the treatment is of symptomatic nature. There is no specific treatment. Medical procedures mainly involve induced gastrolavage--stomach pumping (providing that the patient is conscious), prescription of active carbon as well as replacement of lost body fluids and electrolytes. If the muscarinic symptoms prevail it is generally advised to dose atropine. Patients showing the signs of hyperactivity receive tranquilizers or narcoleptics to eliminate psychotic symptoms.

  18. Radiocaesium and natural gamma emitters in mushrooms collected in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, Antonio; Guillen, Fco. Javier [Department of Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Hernandez, Santiago [Department of Techniques, Means and Elements of Construction, Polytechnical School, University de Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Moreno, Gabriel; Manjon, Jose Luis [Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid 28871 (Spain); Pascual, Rosario [Department of Zootechnics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain)

    2004-01-05

    Mushrooms can accumulate heavy metals in general, including radionuclides found in the nature. However, little attention has been paid to the radioactive content of mushrooms collected in Spain and the dose for the population due to their ingestion. To address this, we analysed the contents of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 7}Be present in different species of mushrooms, according to their genus and nutritional mechanism. We observed that mycorrhizal mushrooms accumulate {sup 137}Cs more than saprophytes, and vice versa for {sup 7}Be. {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra are accumulated to the same degree by the two groups of mushrooms. We estimated the dose due to ingestion of mushrooms in Spain to be 2 {mu}Sv/year, and the contribution of {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra to be generally greater than that of {sup 137}Cs. The contribution of {sup 137}Cs to the dose was calculated by taking into account the results of an experiment carried out under the controlled laboratory conditions, which showed that approximately 98% of {sup 134}Cs was associated with the readily digestible fraction of the mushrooms.

  19. Radiocaesium and natural gamma emitters in mushrooms collected in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Antonio; Hernández, Santiago; Guillén, Fco Javier; Moreno, Gabriel; Manjón, José Luis; Pascual, Rosario

    2004-01-05

    Mushrooms can accumulate heavy metals in general, including radionuclides found in the nature. However, little attention has been paid to the radioactive content of mushrooms collected in Spain and the dose for the population due to their ingestion. To address this, we analysed the contents of 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra and 7Be present in different species of mushrooms, according to their genus and nutritional mechanism. We observed that mycorrhizal mushrooms accumulate 137Cs more than saprophytes, and vice versa for 7Be. 40K and 226Ra are accumulated to the same degree by the two groups of mushrooms. We estimated the dose due to ingestion of mushrooms in Spain to be 2 microSv/year, and the contribution of 40K and 226Ra to be generally greater than that of 137Cs. The contribution of 137Cs to the dose was calculated by taking into account the results of an experiment carried out under the controlled laboratory conditions, which showed that approximately 98% of 134Cs was associated with the readily digestible fraction of the mushrooms.

  20. Biological Activities of a Thai Luminescent Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraporn BURAKORN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruit bodies of luminescent mushrooms were collected from wood stumps over a period covering August to October 2011 in the Kosumpisai forest, Mahasarakham province, in the Northeast of Thailand. A study of the morphological and genetic characteristics of the luminescent mushroom suggested that it was Neonothopanus nimbi KS. The fruiting bodies and mycelium of Neonothopanus nimbi KS were assayed for their antimicrobial activities, antifungal activity, inhibitory activity against avian influenza H5N1 neuraminidase (NA, and anticancer activity, using organic solvent extracts. The results showed that only the methanol extract of mycelia was effective against Bacillus sphaericus, with the widest inhibition zone of 11.66±2.71 mm, but this was not effective against the other 3 bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Escherichia coli. On the other hand, all of the fruit body extracts were inactive against all four bacteria. The ethylacetate extract of mycelia inhibited the NCI-H187 small lung cancer cell line, KB oral cavity cancer cell line, and the MCF7 breast cancer cell line, including Magnaporthe grisea and Curvularia lunata. The methanol extract of mycelia inhibited the KB oral cavity cell cancer cell line, Magnaporthe grisea, and Curvularia lunata at 96.66, 95.32 and 95.41 %, respectively. The results imply that polar extracts of mycelia are a resource of bioactive compounds, whereas extracts of fruit bodies have less inhibitory activity against cancer, phytopathogenic-fungi and H5N1 neuraminidase.

  1. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas.

  2. Chromelosporium fulvum in the mushroom industry: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available The peat mould, Chromelosporium fulvum (Link McGinty, Hennebert and Korf is a cosmopolitan fungus commonly occur­ring in greenhouses and on mushroom beds. In South Africa, however, this fungus remains relatively poorly known. In this paper the sometimes conflicting literature concerning the role of the peat mould in the mushroom industry is reviewed. Vari­ous aspects, including the characteristics and detrimental effects of the fungus on mushroom beds, as well as control meas­ures, are discussed.

  3. Diversity of Mushrooms and Their Metabolites of Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K. Rahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are well known for their nutritional as well as therapeutic values worldwide. Interest in mushrooms has peaked because immunity and cellular protection are important issues for health conscious consumers and for those individuals who are dealing with serious health issues. Mushrooms generally belong to Basidiomycetes which harbors numerous mushroom species with diversity of metabolites of nutraceutical and therapeutic significance. They have been reported to be the most valuable ones for humans. Investigations on the therapeutic and nutritional properties of mushrooms are underway throughout the world. Researchers are providing crucial data on the array of bioactive compounds found within these fascinating fungi. People are now accepting mushrooms more as food and food supplements. Various academic and research institutes are all involved actively in research on bioactive metabolites of mushrooms. The present paper aims at reviewing the diversity of mushrooms and the types of metabolites especially of nutraceutical and therapeutic importance present in these mushrooms and their role as bioactive agents.

  4. Food, medicinal and environmental values of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Alekseenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the literature review describing food, medicinal and ecological properties of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom. It is shown that the mushroom is adequate foodstuff for human beings. It provides with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts. Protein of the oyster mushrooms’ mycothallus contains 18 amino acids, eight of which were essential (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and valine. Therapeutic value of the mushroom is characterised by a content of water-soluble (thiamine B1, riboflavin B2, niacin, B5, PP, pyridoxine B6, biotin B7, ascorbic and pantothenic acid and liposoluble (calciferol, ergosterol, tocopherol vitamins. The considerable gains from the farm wastes use for the mushrooms raising with subsequent application of the substrate in plant cultivation and animal husbandry are stated.

  5. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

  6. An insect-like mushroom body in a crustacean brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Gabriella Hannah; Thoen, Hanne Halkinrud; Marshall, Justin; Sayre, Marcel E

    2017-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects. However, neuroanatomy-based cladistics suggesting close phylogenetic proximity of insects and stomatopod crustaceans conflicts with genomic evidence showing hexapods closely related to simple crustaceans called remipedes. We discuss whether corresponding anatomical phenotypes described here reflect the cerebral morphology of a common ancestor of Pancrustacea or an extraordinary example of convergent evolution. PMID:28949916

  7. Integrated microcalorimeters using Ir TES and Sn mushroom absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Dr., Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)]. E-mail: Galeazzi@physics.miami.edu; Bogorin, D. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Dr., Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Chen, C. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Dr., Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    University of Miami has recently started a program to fabricate fully integrated microcalorimeter arrays using iridium thin films as Transition Edge Sensors (TES) and tin mushroom absorbers. We present our preliminary results in both areas.

  8. Assessing the potential of mushroom cultivation in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Agricultural technology, Market for mushrooms, Uganda. Introduction. Kabale is one of ... would reduce pressure on land, increase farmers' incomes and improve food security. ..... sales and yield were scarcely available. However, an attempt.

  9. Production and application of transgenic mushroom mycelium and fruitbodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooibroek, A.; Rhee, van de M.D.; Huizing, H.J.; Rats, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    The invention involves different methods to modify genetic characteristics of homobasidiomycetes in particular commercial homobasidiomycetes such as the common or button mushroom Agaricus bisporus via treatment with donor DNA or fusions using protoplasts and via matings between strains. The methods

  10. Poisonous mushrooms: a review of the most common intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A D L; Costa Fortes, R; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R; Percário, S

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms have been used as components of human diet and many ancient documents written in oriental countries have already described the medicinal properties of fungal species. Some mushrooms are known because of their nutritional and therapeutical properties and all over the world some species are known because of their toxicity that causes fatal accidents every year mainly due to misidentification. Many different substances belonging to poisonous mushrooms were already identified and are related with different symptoms and signs. Carcinogenicity, alterations in respiratory and cardiac rates, renal failure, rhabidomyolisis and other effects were observed in toxicity studies with various species including edible and therapeutic ones. Proper identification is important to avoid accidents and toxicity studies are necessary to assure the safe use of mushrooms as food and for medicinal purposes.

  11. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Hungarian wild-growing mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ványolós, Attila; Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Hohmann, Judit

    2014-08-01

    Mushrooms represent a remarkable and yet largely unexplored source of new, biologically active natural products. In this work, we report on the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of 47 wild-growing mushrooms native to Hungary. Aqueous and organic (n-hexane, chloroform, and 50% methanol) extracts of selected mushrooms from different families were screened for their XO inhibitory activities. Among the 188 extracts investigated, the chloroform and 50% methanol fractions proved to be the most effective. Some species exhibited high inhibitory activity, e.g., Hypholoma fasciculare (IC50  =67.76 ± 11.05 µg/mL), Suillus grevillei (IC50  =13.28 ± 1.58 µg/mL), and Tricholoma populinum (IC50  =85.08 ± 15.02 µg/mL); others demonstrated moderate or weak activity. Additional studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the XO inhibitory activity of mushroom extracts.

  12. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  13. wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in nigeria abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Department of Crop and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323 ... (Received 20 September, 2016; accepted 10 February, 2017) ... was cultivated using standard methods for mushroom cultivation and both ...

  14. Biomedical effects of mushrooms with emphasis on pure compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Russell M Paterson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal mushrooms show great promise for disease treatments. They have been employed in the Orient and Occident for thousands of years, although the practice has persisted in the East. They remain highly valuable. Authentic human trials and pure compounds are emphasized in this review of the most current literature. Polysaccharides from the fungi appear effective in cancer treatments and low-molecular-weight compounds also attract much interest. However, reports of toxicity must be taken seriously. Prescriptions for mushrooms and preparations need to be given by qualified medical practitioners. The reason why these preparations are not more widely used in the West is related to problems of (A intellectual property rights, (B mass production, and (C obtaining pure compounds that retain activity. Mushroom compounds require testing against infectious diseases such as those caused by bacteria, because the current antibiotics are failing from resistances. Overall, the future is assured for medicinal mushrooms.

  15. Biomedical effects of mushrooms with emphasis on pure compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms show great promise for disease treatments. They have been employed in the Orient and Occident for thousands of years, although the practice has persisted in the East. They remain highly valuable. Authentic human trials and pure compounds are emphasized in this review of the most current literature. Polysaccharides from the fungi appear effective in cancer treatments and low-molecular-weight compounds also attract much interest. However, reports of toxicity must be taken seriously. Prescriptions for mushrooms and preparations need to be given by qualified medical practitioners. The reason why these preparations are not more widely used in the West is related to problems of (A) intellectual property rights, (B) mass production, and (C) obtaining pure compounds that retain activity. Mushroom compounds require testing against infectious diseases such as those caused by bacteria, because the current antibiotics are failing from resistances. Overall, the future is assured for medicinal mushrooms.

  16. Heavy metals intake by cultured mushrooms growing in model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dursun, Nesim; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2013-10-01

    Micro element and heavy metal contents of mushrooms were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was seen an increase in the heavy metal contents (except Cu and Zn) of the mushrooms until the second dose. A decrease was seen in heavy metal intake of the mushroom in the application of the third dose. The highest accumulation occurred from the upper soils treated with the second dose. Amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, which were accumulated in the mushroom after the application of this dose, were detected as 5.7, 23.1, 75.7, 62.8 and 99.3 ppm, respectively.

  17. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... biological efficiency of the three Tanzanian wild edible mushrooms, Coprinus ..... chloride pipe (Simba Plastics, Dar es Salaam), were 2.5 cm height ... other hand, the layer spawning method was employed for C. cinereus.

  18. Speciation of selenium in pleurotus ostreatus and lentinula edodes Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Laélia Soares de; Fernández, M. G.; García Barrera, Tamara; Gómez Ariza, José Luis; KASUYA, M. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes are two of the most commercialized mushrooms species in the world and exhibit the potential to accumulate selenium (Se). The form of Se in the protein extracts of P. ostreatus and L. edodes mushrooms enriched with Se has been investigated with the aim of obtaining a protein extract with high concentrations of selenomethionine (SeMet). For an approach to the speciation of Se incorporated in P. ostreatus proteins, size exclusion high performance liquid c...

  19. Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential.

  20. [Poisoning with spotted and red mushrooms--pathogenesis, symptoms, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupalska-Wilczyńska, K; Ignatowicz, R; Poziemski, A; Wójcik, H; Wilczyński, G

    1996-01-01

    Amanita pantherina and Amanita muscaria are commonly occurring mushrooms in Polish forests. They contain ibotenic acid and muscimol: the substances reacting with neurotransmitter receptors in central nervous system. The ingestion of these mushrooms produces a distinctive syndrome consisting of alternating phases of drowsiness and agitation with hallucinations, and sometimes with convulsions. The diagnosis of Amanita pantherina or Amanita muscaria poisoning is established by means of mycologic investigation of gastric lavage. The treatment is only symptomatic, and the prognosis is usually good.

  1. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  2. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  3. Pathogenicity Of Mycogone Perniciosa Isolates Collected On Polish Mushroom Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szumigaj-Tarnowska Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycogone perniciosa is the fungal pathogen causing the wet bubble of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus. The main symptoms of disease are undifferentiated, irregular forms of mushroom tissue, cap spotting and development of amber liquid droplets on the distorted mushrooms. The aim of the research was to assess the pathogenicity of M. perniciosa isolates that were obtained from the infected sporophores. Six isolates from Polish mushroom farms as well reference strain of Hypomyces perniciosus CBS 322.52 were used in this study. The pathogenicity of isolates was assessed on the basis of severity of disease symptoms and crop reduction in the first flush. Mushroom crop was infected with different suspensions containing of M. perniciosa aleuriospores. Significant variability was shown between tested isolates. It was stated that the pathogenicity of isolates and concentration of conidia had a significant influence on the mushroom yield. The isolate of high pathogenicity caused significant yield losses, after inoculation with 1.3 × 104·m−2, whereas the isolate with fairly pathogenicity did not produce symptoms of wet bubble disease or caused slight deformation of single sporophores, even when the casing soil was inoculated with 1.3 × 106·m−2 spores.

  4. Drying and rehydration of oyster mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini Pasiznick Apati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration and rehydration processes of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies were investigated in this work. Mushroom samples were dehydrated at 40, 50 and 60 ºC, using drying air with relative humidity of 75 %. The rehydration was investigated at different temperatures of immersion water (25, 55 and 85 ºC and different immersion times (30, 75 and 120 minutes. The best rehydration occurred for the samples dried at 40 ºC. The rehydration could be done in water at room temperature, during 30 minutes. Water sorption isotherms of samples were determined at 30, 40 and 50 ºC. Both GAB and BET models satisfactorily represented the experimental data of moisture sorption of dried mushrooms.Processos de desidratação e de rehidratação de cogumelos da espécie Pleurotus ostreatus foram avaliados neste trabalho. Os cogumelos foram desidratados a 40, 50 e 60 ºC, com umidade relativa do ar de 75 %. O processo de rehidratação foi avaliado para diferentes temperaturas de água de imersão (25, 55 e 85 ºC e diferentes tempos de imersão (30, 75 e 120 minutos. A melhor temperatura de secagem foi 40 ºC, levando em consideração a melhor rehidratação dos cogumelos desidratados nesta temperatura. A rehidratação pode ser feita em água a temperatura ambiente, por 30 minutos. Isotermas de sorção de umidade de amostras foram determinadas a 30, 40 e 50 ºC.Tanto o modelo de GAB quanto o de BET representaram satisfatoriamente os dados experimentais de isoterma de sorção de umidade.

  5. [Knowledge of students of tourism and recreation Academy of Physical Education on wild mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Prophylaxis of acute poisoning with mushrooms is justified because of the relatively high risk of death associated with these intoxications. Mushrooming in Poland has a long tradition and knowledge about mushrooms is usually passed on in families. In recent years the mushrooming becomes an organized form of recreation. Graduates of tourism and recreation should have a minimum of reliable knowledge about mushrooms, to ensure the safety of persons entrusted to their care. The knowledge of wild mushrooms among students of tourism and recreation was tested by means of questionnaire. Mushrooms gathered 108 out of 125 respondents. The primary source of knowledge about mushrooms for 84% of the mushrooms pickers were the parents. Up to 70% of respondents considered at least one of irrational methods useful to distinguish edible mushrooms from the poisonous. Thirteen percent of those polled believed that by simple means mushrooms may be deprived of their toxic properties. Knowledge of the only one deadly poisonous mushrooms growing in Poland was 53%. The tourism and recreation students must pass basic knowledge about mushrooms and identify reliable sources of knowledge in this field.

  6. Total contents of arsenic and associated health risks in edible mushrooms, mushroom supplements and growth substrates from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2014-11-01

    The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (pGalicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements.

  7. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tibuhwa, Donatha Damian

    2012-01-01

    .... This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly...

  8. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of 18 different wild Cantharellus mushrooms of northwestern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, D; Reddy, M S; Upadhyay, R C

    2011-12-01

    A total of 18 wild edible mushrooms of Cantharellus species were collected from northwestern Himalayan region of India. The basic composition (moisture, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, crude fat, ash, nitrogen and protein) and amino acid contents (by high-performance liquid chromatography) of these wild edible mushrooms were determined. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild mushrooms were rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity from water and methanolic extracts of these mushrooms were also determined. These wild mushrooms also had significant amount of phenol content and antioxidant capacity. Studies also provide the precise antioxidant status of 18 indigenous species of mushrooms, which can serve as a useful database for the selection of mushrooms for the function of preparation of mushroom-based nutraceutics.

  9. Physiological characteristics and commercial application of edible mushroom dietary fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chenju; Xu Chunhua; Yu Xiaobing; Zheng Huihua; Chen Hui

    2014-01-01

    Edible mushrooms are considered as healthy food because they are low in calories and fat but rich in proteins minerals and dietary fiber (DF). Edible mushrooms are recognized as new potential resource of DF since the components of edible mushroom dietary fiber (EMDF) have shown special physiological and pharma-cological effects on human and animals. In this article,the soluble and insoluble fractions of DF in different edi-ble mushroom species have been evaluated. Biological effects of EMDF are related to promoting desired re-sponses,for example,reducing blood cholesterol,protecting cells from free radicals attack by antioxidative ef-fects,attenuating levels and fluctuations of blood glucose and selectively supporting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. The EMDF plays an important role in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases,diabetes mellitus and intestinal diseases. The non-starch polysaccharides (NSP),a kind of EMDF,is the best known and most po-tent mushroom-derived substances with antitumor and immunomodulatory properties. EMDF has also been re-ported to take part in the control of body weight,lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity due to its effect on specific chemical structures and physical properties. Many pharmaceutical substances with potent and unique health-enhancing properties were isolated recently from edible mushrooms and distributed worldwide. Mush-room-based dietary supplements (DSs) with potential therapeutic effects are produced from the mycelia or the fruiting bodies of mushrooms,and are consumed in the forms of capsules,tablets,or extracts. The EMDF, based on its special physiological functions on human health,shows a wide range of potential application pros-pects.

  10. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms and characteristics of cesium accumulation by the edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Shibata, Hisashi; Morita, Yohoji; Kato, Fumio

    2000-10-01

    Mushrooms collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji and some other locations in Japan in 1996 were analyzed for radiocesium. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in 37 mushrooms varied widely from 1.6 to 783 Bqkg{sup -1} fresh wt. The characteristics of Cs accumulation were analyzed by culturing fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1 (P. ostreatus Y-1). The {sup 137}Cs and stable Cs accumulation expressed as the concentration ratio (CR, {sup 137}Cs or Cs concentration in the dried fruiting body/{sup 137}Cs or Cs concentration in the fresh medium) were in good agreement, indicating similar migration. The CR of Cs grown on medium containing both 0.1% Cs and 0.1% K, 10.2, showed a decrease of about 30 percent as compared with that containing 0.1% Cs only. These CR values suggested that Cs accumulation by the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 is affected by the presence of K similarly to previous observations in the mycelia. The {sup 133}Cs-NMR spectra from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 showed two resonance signals, whereas those from the media after harvesting of fruiting bodies showed only one signal. Just before growth of the fruiting bodies, bunches consisting of many mycelia were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant differences in the elemental distribution (Cs, K, P and C) were detected in the mycelium surface by SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. (author)

  11. A Case of Anaphylactic Reaction Following Matsutake Mushroom Ingestion: Demonstration of Histamine Release Reaction of Basophils

    OpenAIRE

    Takako Toda; Masao Yamaguchi; Yuko Nakase; Naoya Sugimoto; Maho Suzukawa; Hiroyuki Nagase; Ken Ohta

    2010-01-01

    Background: Matsutake mushroom is not recognized as a common food allergen. However, several case reports have suggested that this mushroom can induce anaphylaxis on rare occasions. Case Summary: We report a woman with bronchial asthma, who experienced two episodes of Matsutake-induced anaphylaxis. Both the prick-to-prick test and basophil histamine release test showed positive reactions to this mushroom in this patient, but not in control subjects. Discussion: Matsutake mushroom can, o...

  12. Growth and Yield Response of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Grown on Different Locally Available Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini; Diana M. Earnshaw; Michael T. Masarirambi

    2012-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) production is low despite its high demand in Swaziland. Most communal farmers dispose of their agricultural waste while it can be used usefully as substrates for the production of mushrooms. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different agricultural wastes used as mushroom substrates on growth, development and yield of mushroom. The substrates investigated were banana leaves, sugarcane tops, maize stover and maize stover and cobs (1:1...

  13. Laccases production by A.blazei mushroom grown either in composted or non-composted substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Matute, Ramiro; Figlas, Norma Débora; Curvetto, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei is an edible and medicinal mushroom commonly cultivated on compost. However, non-composted substrates are being particularly studied for specialty mushrooms because their economic and labour advantages. Addition of salt minerals to the substrate or casing materials may stimulate both the synthesis and activity of enzymes involved in the mushroom substrate biotransformation and eventually lead to an increase not only in mushroom productivity but in the fruitbody mineral content...

  14. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and... (April 2010), entitled Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia: Investigation...

  15. 75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR), February 1... Department received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a domestic...

  16. 75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration (A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia for the period of review (POR), February... Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a domestic interested party in the above-referenced...

  17. 78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The NSR covers Shandong... order are certain preserved mushrooms, whether imported whole, sliced, diced, or as stems and...

  18. 77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR) of February 1... 19 CFR 351.213(b), the Department received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc....

  19. 76 FR 56732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... preliminary results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic...

  20. 76 FR 70112 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended... results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  1. 75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of... requests for new shipper reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic...

  2. 75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period February 1, 2002, through January 31... the final results of the 2002-2003 administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from...

  3. 77 FR 19620 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation... request for a new shipper review (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... February 19, 1999, the Department published the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms...

  4. 76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation... request for a new shipper review (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final Determination of...

  5. 78 FR 18315 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of... a NSR. Therefore, we are rescinding this NSR. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the...

  6. 76 FR 16604 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for Shandong Fengyu Edible Fungus Corporation... Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

  7. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  8. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States... duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission... orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to...

  9. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaso eBontognali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries. More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS – the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  10. Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  11. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON THE AGARICUS BISPORUS MUSHROOMS DEHYDRATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA I. MIHALCEA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms are foods with high nutritional value, delicious and therapeutic products. The main objective of this research was to investigate the influence of different temperatures of the dehydration process on the microstructure and color of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Tray drying conditions were: constant air velocity, 50, 60 and 70 °C suited to relative humidity (RH values of 12.17, 4.8 and 2.26 % respectively. Mathematical modeling of drying process, effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy calculations were presented. The effective moisture diffusivity was between (1.09665 – 2.11723·10-10 m2∙s-1 for white and (0.99522 – 1.69885·10-10 m2∙s-1 for brown mushrooms. The activation energy values indicate a higher energy input for the white mushrooms drying. SEM micrographs revealed the overall integrity of the tissue and some hyphae from the stipes of brown and white mushroom appeared intact and similar. At 70 °C, the presence of these crystals is more emphasis due to calcium.

  12. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Rostagno, Mauricio A; Villares, Ana; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2010-10-01

    Edible mushrooms are a valuable source of nutrients and bioactive compounds in addition to a growing appeal for humans by their flavors and culinary features. Recently, they have become increasingly attractive as functional foods for their potential beneficial effects on human health. Hence, food industry is especially interested in cultivated and wild edible mushrooms. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Several investigations have shown the influence of mushrooms intake on some metabolic markers (total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, fasting triacylglycerol, homocysteine, blood pressure, homeostatic function and oxidative and inflammatory damage), which potentially may reduce the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases. Relevant nutritional aspects of mushrooms include a high fiber supply, a low fat content with low trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids and a low concentration of sodium as well as the occurrence of components such as eritadenine, phenolic compounds, sterols (such as ergosterol), chitosan, triterpenes, etc., which are considered as important responsible agents for some hitherto healthy properties. The aims of this review are to report putative positive effects of mushrooms consumption on cardiovascular diseases risk markers and to identify some putative bioactive compounds involved in these effects.

  13. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant properties from mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Preventive medicine and food industry have shown an increased interest in the development of natural antioxidants, since those most commonly used synthetic antioxidants may have restricted use in food. This could explain why there is currently much research on the antioxidant properties from natural products such as mushrooms. Many mushrooms have been reported to possess antioxidant properties, which enable them to neutralize free radicals. The oxygen molecule is a free radical, which lead to the generation of the reactive oxygen species and can damage the cells. Cell damage caused by free radicals appears to be a major contributor to aging and degenerative diseases. Mushrooms antioxidant components are found in fruit bodies, mycelium and culture both, which include polysaccharides, tocopherols, phenolics, carotenoids, ergosterol and ascorbic acid among others. Fruit bodies or mycelium can be manipulated to produce active compounds in a relatively short period of time, which represent a significant advantage in antioxidant compounds extraction from mushrooms. Antioxidant compounds may be extracted to be used as functional additives or mushrooms can be incorporated into our food regime, representing an alternative source of food to prevent damage caused by oxidation in the human body.

  14. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, Tomaso; D'Angeli, Ilenia; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano; Gonzales, Esteban; DeWaele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries). More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) - the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  15. Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  16. Advances in Mushroom Research in the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Pan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of progress in mushroom science and biotechnology in the last decade. The optimization of PFGE separation of fungal chromosomes allowed the study of the molecular karyotype of mushrooms and the assignment of genes to chromosomes. There are 115 genes encoded from different species of mushrooms. Cross breeding continues to be the principal method, but it is accompanied by the analyses of RAPD or RFLPs methods. The genetic makers are used and introduced into commercial large hybrids via introgression breeding. The complex traits such as yield, resistance to disease and quality characteristics, and quantitative traits more than one quantitative trait locus (QTL are found and used in practice. The transformants or transgenic mutant strains were obtained by Agrobacterium system or particle bombardment. At least 651 species representing 182 genera of hetero- and homobasidiomycetes mushrooms were researched containing antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides. Ergosterol in the lipid fraction was identified as one of the most active constituents. New sesquiterpenoid hydroquinones, steroids, oxalic acid, triterpenes, water-soluble lignins, sulfated polysaccharides, protein-bound polysaccharides are researched intensively as antimicrobial or antiviral agents. Many small molecular mass compounds exhibit cytotoxic activities, such as illudins, leaianafulvene, triterpenes (ganoderic acids, acetoxyscirpenediol, ergosterol peroxide, sterols. There are many other compounds or activities found in the mushrooms, such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic action, anti-inflammatory effect, hepatoprotective compounds, psychoactive compounds and activities.

  17. Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi Mushroom) and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Ahmet; Nayir, Erdinc; Kirca, Onder; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Having a long historical past in traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma Lucidum (G. Lucidum) is a type of mushroom believed to extend life and promote health. Due to the increasing consumption pattern, it has been cultivated and marketed intensively since the 1970s. It is claimed to be effective in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, and in addition, it exerts anticancer properties. Almost all the data on the benefits of G. Lucidum are based on laboratory and preclinical studies. The few clinical studies conducted are questionable. Nevertheless, when the findings obtained from laboratory studies are considered, it turns that G. Lucidum is likely to have some benefits for cancer patients. What is important at this point is to determine the components that will provide these benefits, and use them in drug development, after testing their reliability. In conclusion, it would be the right approach to abstain from using and incentivizing this product, until its benefits and harms are set out clearly, by considering its potential side effects.

  18. Aerodynamics of puffball mushroom spore dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Guillermo; Barberie, Alex; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Puffball mushrooms Lycoperdon are spherical fungi that release a cloud of spores in response to raindrop impacts. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate the aerodynamics of this unique impact-based spore-dispersal. We characterize live puffball ejections by high speed video, the geometry and elasticity of their shells by cantilever experiments, and the packing fraction and size of their spores by scanning electron microscope. We build a dynamically similar puffball mimic composed of a tied-off latex balloon filled with baby powder and topped with a 1-cm slit. A jet of powder is elicited by steady lateral compression of the mimic between two plates. The jet height is a bell-shaped function of force applied, with a peak of 18 cm at loads of 45 N. We rationalize the increase in jet height with force using Darcy's Law: the applied force generates an overpressure maintained by the air-tight elastic membrane. Pressure is relieved as the air travels through the spore interstitial spaces, entrains spores, and exits through the puffball orifice. This mechanism demonstrates how powder-filled elastic shells can generate high-speed jets using energy harvested from rain.

  19. Paleogene radiation of a plant pathogenic mushroom.

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    Martin P A Coetzee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species. METHODS: The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP, Maximum Likelihood (ML and Bayesian Inference (BI. A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. LCMS-QTOF Determination of Lentinan-Like β-D-Glucan Content Isolated by Hot Water and Alkaline Solution from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and Selected Local Market Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Azreen Mohd Jamil; Norasfaliza Rahmad; Noraswati Mohd Nor Rashid; Mohd Hafis Yuswan Mohd Yusoff; Nur Syahidah Shaharuddin; Norihan Mohd Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Lentinan, 1152 Dalton β-D-glucan found in Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes), has been claimed to have anticancer and immunomodulatory activity. Several extraction methods have been used by researchers to isolate Lentinan including hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH). In this study, hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH) were used to extract the Lentinan-like β-D-glucan (1151 Dalton) from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and selected local market mushrooms. The isola...

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  2. Chemical composition and biological activities of the Agaricus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Munkhgerel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Agaricus mushroom grown in Mongolia were analyzed for their element content. Biological activity and chemical components study of Agaricus, grown in the Mongolian flora has been investigated for the first time. The ethanol extracts of dried Agaricus sp. mushrooms were analyzed for antioxidant activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and interferon-like activity. The ethanol extracts from Agaricus arvensis showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. The IC50 of A. silvaticus and A. arvensis were 216 and 17.75 g/ml respectively. Among the twenty three mushroom extracts, the extracts from A. silvatisus and A. arvensis have shown the interferon-like activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.197Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p41-45

  3. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  4. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaras, Michael D; Richie, John P; Calcagnotto, Ana; Beelman, Robert B

    2017-10-15

    While mushrooms are the highest dietary source for the unique sulfur-containing antioxidant ergothioneine, little is known regarding levels of the major biological antioxidant glutathione. Thus, our objectives were to determine and compare levels of glutathione, as well as ergothioneine, in different species of mushrooms. Glutathione levels varied >20-fold (0.11-2.41mg/gdw) with some varieties having higher levels than reported for other foods. Ergothioneine levels also varied widely (0.15-7.27mg/gdw) and were highly correlated with those of glutathione (r=0.62, Pglutathione compared to the first flush, possibly as a response to increased oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that certain mushroom species are high in glutathione and ergothioneine and should be considered an excellent dietary source of these important antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomolecule Profiles in Inedible Wild Mushrooms with Antioxidant Value

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    Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products isolated from mushrooms, included inedible species, against infection, cancer diseases and other oxidative-stress related diseases is one of the cornerstones of modern medicine. In the present work, the antioxidant molecule profiles of inedible mushroom species were evaluated and compared with those of edible species. The order of antioxidant abundance found in inedible wild mushrooms was: phenolics > flavonoids > ascorbic acid > tocopherols > carotenoids, similar to that of edible species. Furthermore the same energetic biomolecules were found including the disaccharide trehalose, the monosaccharide alcohol derivative mannitol and the fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Fomitopsis pinicola revealed a very high phenolics concentration (388 mg GAE/g extract and powerful antioxidant properties, mainly reducing power (EC50 value 60 μg/mL similar to the standard Trolox®. It could find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases as a source of bioactive compounds.

  6. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.E.R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  7. Mushroom spore dispersal by convectively-driven winds

    CERN Document Server

    Dressaire, Emilie; Song, Boya; Roper, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of fungal species rely on mushroom spores to spread across landscapes. It has long been thought that spores depend on favorable airflows for dispersal -- that active control of spore dispersal by the parent fungus is limited to an impulse delivered to the spores to carry them clear of the gill surface. Here we show that evaporative cooling of the air surrounding the mushroom pileus creates convective airflows capable of carrying spores at speeds of centimeters per second. Convective cells can transport spores from gaps that may be only a centimeter high, and lift spores ten centimeters or more into the air. The work reveals how mushrooms tolerate and even benefit from crowding, and provides a new explanation for their high water needs.

  8. Evaluation of different mushroom species as indicator organisms[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Stensrud, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    To investigate the differences between accumulation capacity and transfer factor from soil to different mushroom species, 25 species were collected at 9 locations in south and central parts of Norway. Yearly sampling has been carried since 1988 and a total of 1283 samples analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Entire, fresh fruit bodies were collected, homogenized and measured fresh weight. Levels of ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in Norway were taken from a nationwide sampling program carried out by National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in 1986 following the Chernobyl accident. The estimated ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs (Bq m{sup -2}) and the corresponding activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in mushrooms were used to calculate the ratio between activity concentration in mushroom and ground deposition (transfer factor, TF). Both the mushroom and the soil data are decay corrected to 2004. Considerable differences in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in different mushroom species were found. The Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, and Rozites caperata were found to have the highest levels. Followed by two Cortinarius species, C. brunneus and C. traganus. The highest transfer factors were found in the Cortinarius armillatus and C. brunneus, but also Tricoloma album and Rozites caperata had high transfer factors. Other mushroom species, e.g. Leccinum versipelle (Orange Birch Bolete), Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric), Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete), Collybia butyracea (Butter Cap) generally show a low radiocaesium uptake and are therefore not considered as good indicators. Even though Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, C. brunneus, C. traganus, and Rozites caperata accumulate high levels of {sup 137}Cs, their seasonality and local occurrence should be evaluated before they are considered as good indicator organisms. (LN)

  9. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, S P

    2002-11-01

    The number of mushrooms on Earth is estimated at 140,000, yet maybe only 10% (approximately 14,000 named species) are known. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Many, if not all, Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, culture broth. Data on mushroom polysaccharides have been collected from 651 species and 7 infraspecific taxa from 182 genera of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. These polysaccharides are of different chemical composition, with most belonging to the group of beta-glucans; these have beta-(1-->3) linkages in the main chain of the glucan and additional beta-(1-->6) branch points that are needed for their antitumor action. High molecular weight glucans appear to be more effective than those of low molecular weight. Chemical modification is often carried out to improve the antitumor activity of polysaccharides and their clinical qualities (mostly water solubility). The main procedures used for chemical improvement are: Smith degradation (oxydo-reducto-hydrolysis), formolysis, and carboxymethylation. Most of the clinical evidence for antitumor activity comes from the commercial polysaccharides lentinan, PSK (krestin), and schizophyllan, but polysaccharides of some other promising medicinal mushroom species also show good results. Their activity is especially beneficial in clinics when used in conjunction with chemotherapy. Mushroom polysaccharides prevent oncogenesis, show direct antitumor activity against various allogeneic and syngeneic tumors, and prevent tumor metastasis. Polysaccharides from mushrooms do not attack cancer cells directly, but produce their antitumor effects by activating different immune responses in the host. The antitumor action of

  10. Arsenic in Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Liu, Hong-Gao; Li, Shi-Jun; Li, Jie-Qing; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Many species of wild-grown mushrooms are appreciated as food and also found use in traditional medicine. As arsenic is one of the most hazardous elements due to the carcinogenic risk, the contents of total arsenic in 48 species of wild-grown edible and medicinal mushrooms in China were determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the highest content was found in Scleroderma citrinum (1.70 mg kg-1 dry weight, dw), whereas the lowest content was found in Termitomyces eurrhius (0.17 mg kg-1 dw).

  11. Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Peyvast

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr. Singer] was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw/dw, and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75 and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was also shorter on oilseed rape straw. Protein content of the fruit bodies obtained with oilseed rape straw was highest among all substrates. Oilseed rape straw thus appears to be a suitable substrate for oyster mushroom production.

  12. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  13. Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing.

  14. Nutritional Analysis of Cultivated Mushrooms in Bangladesh - Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, Tae Soo

    2008-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation has been started recently in Bangladesh. Awareness of the nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms is not extensive. In this study, the nutritional values of dietary mushrooms- Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajorcaju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica that are very popular among the cultivated mushrooms in Bangladesh have been determined. These mushrooms were rich in proteins (20~25%) and fibers (13~24% in dry samples) and contained a lower amount of lipid (...

  15. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  16. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  17. Culinary-medicinal mushrooms: must action be taken?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the Western world, the mushroom industry suffers from overproduction. Expectations are stronger than reality, and as a result, production is too high and prices are too low. Because bulk production has taken the lead, which not only happens in the West, overproduction occurs regularly. Low

  18. nutritional profile and yield of oyster mushroom cultivated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research on mushroom production and products is gaining more grounds globally and in particular Nigeria. This ... bodies, the highest fat content being on plantain leaves (1.72 g 100 g-1) and the ... Starch content for fruiting bodies was highest on sawdust (5.31 g 100 g-1) and lowest on ..... as potent dietary supplements.

  19. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; Kersten, M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to

  20. Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

  1. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1

  2. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  3. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1 comp

  4. Bacterial selection by mycospheres of Atlantic Rainforest mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Joshua Andrew; de Cássia Pereira E Silva, Michele; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on the selection exerted on bacterial communities in the mycospheres of mushrooms collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. A total of 24 paired samples (bulk soil vs. mycosphere) were assessed to investigate potential interactions between fungi and bacteria present in fungal mycospheres. Prevalent fungal families were identified as Marasmiaceae and Lepiotaceae (both Basidiomycota) based on ITS partial sequencing. We used culture-independent techniques to analyze bacterial DNA from soil and mycosphere samples. Bacterial communities in the samples were distinguished based on overall bacterial, alphaproteobacterial, and betaproteobacterial PCR-DGGE patterns, which were different in fungi belonging to different taxa. These results were confirmed by pyrosequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene (based on five bulk soil vs. mycosphere pairs), which revealed the most responsive bacterial families in the different conditions generated beneath the mushrooms, identified as Bradyrhizobiaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. The bacterial families Acetobacteraceae, Chrhoniobacteraceae, Planctomycetaceae, Conexibacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae were found in all mycosphere samples, composing the core mycosphere microbiome. Similarly, some bacterial groups identified as Koribacteriaceae, Acidobacteria (Solibacteriaceae) and an unclassified group of Acidobacteria were preferentially present in the bulk soil samples (found in all of them). In this study we depict the mycosphere effect exerted by mushrooms inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, and identify the bacteria with highest response to such a specific niche, possibly indicating the role bacteria play in mushroom development and dissemination within this yet-unexplored environment.

  5. The war of the mushrooms: A Russian folktale revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous versions of a Russian folktale, War of the Mushrooms. The tale is indexed in standard folkloristic references as tale type 297B. Unfortunately, it is not included in the best known collection of Russian folktales translated into English, that of Alexander Afanesiev. It was first r...

  6. Potential for manipulating the polysaccharide content of shiitake mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiitake mushroom growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide gr...

  7. Culinary-medicinal mushrooms: must action be taken?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the Western world, the mushroom industry suffers from overproduction. Expectations are stronger than reality, and as a result, production is too high and prices are too low. Because bulk production has taken the lead, which not only happens in the West, overproduction occurs regularly. Low pricin

  8. Mineral element levels in wild edible mushrooms from Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Shi, Yundong; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2012-06-01

    Ten species of wild edible mushrooms (Boletus griseus, Boletus speciosus, Lactarius hygrophoroides, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Macrocybe gigantea, Melanoleuca arcuata, Morchella deliciosa, Mycena haematopus, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, and Tricholoma matsutake) collected from Yunnan province of China, were analyzed for ten mineral elements (calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc) contents using ICP-AES. The minimum and maximum element contents of mushrooms were determined as milligrams per kilograms dry weight for Ca (38-470), Cr (0.45-6.3), Co (0.29-2.3), Cu (13-58), Fe (22-510), Mg (84-550), Mn (1.4-70), K (1,300-4,600), Na (190-670), and Zn (16-160). The mushrooms species with the highest levels of mineral elements were B. griseus for K and Na, P. ravenelii for Cu, M. deliciosa for Mn, L. giganteus for Cr and Fe, M. gigantea for Ca, Mg and Zn, T. matsutake for Co. These results demonstrate that the mineral element contents in mushrooms are considerably species dependent and affected by environmental factors.

  9. Microbial Community Structure of Casing Soil During Mushroom Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wei-Ming; YAO Huai-Ying; FENG Wei-Lin; JIN Qun-Li; LIU Yue-Yan; LI Nan-Yi; ZHENG Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The culturable bacterial population and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)profile of casing soil were investigated at different mushroom (Agaricus bisporusI cropping stages.The change in soil bacterial PLFAs was always accompanied by a change in the soil culturable bacterial population in the first flush.Comparatively higher culturable bacterial population and bacterial PLFAs were found in the casing soil at the primordia formation stage of the first flush.There was a significant increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs during mushroom growth.Multivariate analysis of PLFA data demonstrated that the mushroom cropping stage could considerably affect the microbial community structure of the casing soil.The bacterial population increased significantly from casing soil application to the primordia formation stage of the first flush.Casing soil application resulted in an increase in the ratio of gram-negative bacterial PLFAs to gram-positive bacterial PLFAs,suggesting that some gram-negative bacteria might play an important role in mushroom sporophore initiation.

  10. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; Kersten, M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to in

  11. [Dry matter losses in mushroom (Lactarius rufus) by blanching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkela, R; Holmström, B

    1976-01-01

    According to recommended international standards edible fungi are blanched before salting and freezing. A study was conducted on the solution losses of Lactarius rufus due to blanching. Weight losses, changes of dry matter, raw fat, total nitrogen, amino nitrogen and ash contents as well as the pH value were determined when various methods of blanching were used. 3 min blanching at 95-100 degrees C was able to inactivate catalase and peroxydase while 6 min blanching was needed for inactivating polyphenoloxydase totally. After blanching there were 1/10 - 1/100 of spores left. During the 3 min blanching in water five times the quantity of mushrooms the losses of dry matter were about 10%; when doubling the quantity of blanching water the losses increased to 2-3 fold. The doubling of blanching time had no significant influence on the losses. The soluble dry matter content of blanched mushrooms was less than 50% of that of the fresh. Total nitrogen of fresh mushrooms was equal to that of the blanched but the amino nitrogen decreased to one tenth by blanching. The mineral element content of blanched mushrooms was about the half of that of the fresh. Blanching caused a slight decrease in the pH value. The necessity of the blanching of all edible fungi before freezing was discussed.

  12. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  13. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Sulyok, M.; Frisvad, J.C.; Somorin, Y.M.; Warth, B.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.; Krska, R.; Odebode, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques and mo

  14. Ostreolysin enhances fruiting initiation in the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, S.; Pohleven, J.; Vidic, I.; Rebolj, K.; Pohleven, F.; Turk, T.; Macek, P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Sepcic, K.

    2007-01-01

    Fruiting initiation in mushrooms can be triggered by a variety of environmental and biochemical stimuli, including substances of natural or synthetic origin. In this work ostreolysin, a cytolytic protein specifically expressed during the formation of primordia and fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus

  15. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation technique using re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... The mineral content of oyster mushroom grown on rice straws, ... environment from disposed plastic bags which are non-biodegradable and if burned may cause ill-health effect to ... straw bales and plastic bags and bottles for.

  16. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  17. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%. Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8% and Mycenas rosea (44.8% presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4% and Russula delica (53.1%. Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract. This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other

  18. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širić, Ivan; Humar, Miha; Kasap, Ante; Kos, Ivica; Mioč, Boro; Pohleven, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals cause serious problems in the environment, and they can be accumulated in organisms, especially in the higher fungi. The concentration of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in 10 species of edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia was therefore determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruiting bodies. The contents of nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The highest concentrations of Ni (3.62 mg kg(-1)), Cr (3.01 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (2.67 mg kg(-1)) were determined in Agaricus campestris. The highest concentration of Pb (1.67 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Macrolepiota procera, and the highest concentration of Hg (2.39 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Boletus edulis. The concentration of all heavy metals significantly differed (p mushrooms. Considering anatomical part of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably higher concentration of the analyzed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bioconcentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bioexclusors of Ni, Cr, and Pb and bioaccumulators of Cd and Hg. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals revealed great phenotypic similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation.

  19. Safety assessment of the post-harvest treatment of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R R; Borzelleca, J F; DeLuca, H F; Weaver, C M

    2013-06-01

    Wild mushrooms are an excellent source of vitamin D. The presence of vitamin D in mushrooms is attributed to sunlight exposure, which catalyzes the conversion of fungal ergosterol to vitamin D2 via a series of photochemical/thermal reactions. Mushroom growers now incorporate UV light treatments during processing to produce mushrooms with levels of vitamin D that compare to those in wild mushrooms. Presented herein is a comprehensive review of information relevant to the safety of introducing vitamin D mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, to the food supply. Historical reference to the use of UV light for production of vitamin D is discussed, and studies evaluating the nutritional value and safety of vitamin D mushrooms are reviewed. Traditional safety evaluation practices for food additives are not applicable to whole foods; therefore, the application of substantial equivalence and history-of-safe-use is presented. It was demonstrated that vitamin D in mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, are equivalent to vitamin D in mushrooms exposed to sunlight, and that UV light has a long-history of safe use for production of vitamin D in food. Vitamin D mushrooms produced using UV light technologies were therefore considered safe and suitable for introduction to the marketplace.

  20. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. METHODS: Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland and the

  2. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: The collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    Background. Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. Methods. Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. Results. From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland

  3. Segmentation of Mushroom and Cap width Measurement using Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser Sert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom is one of the commonly consumed foods. Image processing is one of the effective way for examination of visual features and detecting the size of a mushroom. We developed software for segmentation of a mushroom in a picture and also to measure the cap width of the mushroom. K-Means clustering method is used for the process. K-Means is one of the most successful clustering methods. In our study we customized the algorithm to get the best result and tested the algorithm. In the system, at first mushroom picture is filtered, histograms are balanced and after that segmentation is performed. Results provided that customized algorithm performed better segmentation than classical K-Means algorithm. Tests performed on the designed software showed that segmentation on complex background pictures is performed with high accuracy, and 20 mushrooms caps are measured with 2.281 % relative error.

  4. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  5. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (pmushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations.

  6. Use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Irene; Moro, Carlos; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Villares, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their excellent nutritional and sensory properties. However, they are highly perishable and rapidly lose their organoleptic characteristics. Many methods have been employed for mushroom storage, such as packaging, blanching, canning, or freeze drying. Among them, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been widely employed for preserving fresh mushrooms. MAP provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. Several factors, including optimum CO2 and O2 partial pressures, permeability, package material, thickness, or product weight, must be considered in order to design a suitable modified atmosphere package for mushrooms. Thus, different strategies are available to preserve mushroom quality after harvest. The article presents some promising patents on use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

  7. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) ...

  8. Effects of Various Substrates on Growth and Yield of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Masarirambi; Mpendulo B. Mamba; Diana M. Earnshaw

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms are increasingly becoming an important component of diets worldwide and it is of paramount importance to choose appropriate substrates in a given place to grow them. The experiment was conducted at the University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture, in the Crop Production Department Mushroom Laboratory. The objective was to determine the effects of some of the locally available substrate materials on the growth and yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq. Et Fr). Banana ...

  9. Ultrastructural Studies of Raw and Processed Tissue of the Major Cultivated Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinki, E. M.; Stemberger, B.; Walsh, R.; Kilara, A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial mushroom processors currently lose approximately 30 percent of the mushroom weight due to shrinkage during processing (blanching and canning) , resulting in substantial economic losses . Microscopy was used to assess the extent and type of chemical and structural changes induced by processing mushrooms and causing shrinkage. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the processing operations including vacuum hydration , blanching , and thermal treatment do not damage the integrity...

  10. Nutritional and Antioxidant Values of Oyster Mushroom (P. sajor-caju Cultivated on Rubber Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Nuran Mohd Rashidi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— Grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju is one of the edible mushrooms from Pleurotus family, which is cultivated commercially in Malaysia. The global mushroom market has shown remarkable growth in recent years and has attractive market potential for the future. This study aimed to determine nutritional value and antioxidant properties of fresh grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju with the intention to give better information on nutritional composition of fresh oyster mushroom cultivated on rubber sawdust. Grey oyster mushrooms were freshly harvested from Teloi Agro Farm, Kedah, Malaysia. The proximate analysis was used to determine nutrient composition of grey oyster mushroom. Highest nutritional value of grey oyster mushroom is the moisture content (90.10±0.09%, followed by crude fibre content (17.27±1.08%, protein content (4.00±0.31%, carbohydrates content (3.54±0.09%, while the lowest nutritional value was possessed by fat content (1.18±0.33% and ash content (1.16±0.02%. The antioxidant activities of the mushroom were measure using total phenolic content (TPC by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH assay. The hot water extract showed mushroom powder possessed 2.21±0.03 mg GAE/g of dried mushroom powder for total phenolic content and at concentration of 0.1g/ml it can inhibit 89.29% of DPPH radicals. By virtue of having high fibre with low fat and high antioxidant activity, grey oyster mushroom can be considered as a functional food, which can provide health benefits.

  11. LCMS-QTOF Determination of Lentinan-Like β-D-Glucan Content Isolated by Hot Water and Alkaline Solution from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and Selected Local Market Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azreen Mohd Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentinan, 1152 Dalton β-D-glucan found in Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes, has been claimed to have anticancer and immunomodulatory activity. Several extraction methods have been used by researchers to isolate Lentinan including hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH. In this study, hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH were used to extract the Lentinan-like β-D-glucan (1151 Dalton from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and selected local market mushrooms. The isolated Lentinan-like β-D-glucan from both hot water and alkaline solution was analyzed by LCMS-QTOF. Commercial Lentinan standard from Lentinus edodes was used as a reference. The results showed significant differences on chromatogram patterns of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan between both extracts. The peak of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan was only found in isolated polysaccharide glucan of hot water extracts. The isolated polysaccharide glucans from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom and Termite Mushroom were found to have 0.74±0.12 μg/mg and 0.53±0.07 μg/mg Lentinan-like β-D-glucan. Button Mushroom, Shiitake Mushroom, and Oyster Mushroom showed the presence of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan at 16.16±4.15 μg/mg, 0.22±0.04, and 0.10±0.01 μg/mg, respectively.

  12. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  13. Genetic diversity of Dahongjun, the commercially important "Big Red Mushroom" from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called "Dahongjun" or "Big Red Mushroom" by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five local populations representing the known distribution ranges of this mushroom in southern China. We investigated the genetic diversity and geographic structure of this mushroom using sequences from four DNA fragments. Our analyses identified that this mushroom contained at least three divergent lineages: one corresponds to a recently described species Russula griseocarnosa from southern China and the remaining two likely represent two novel species. While these lineages were prominently structured geographically based on ITS sequences, evidence for ancient and/or recent gene flow was also identified within individual lineages. In addition, a local population from Ailaoshan in central Yunnan Province where 85 of our 122 specimens came from showed clear evidence of recombination. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The ectomycorrhizal mushroom "Dahongjun" from southern China is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages. These lineages are largely geographically structured and there is evidence for recombination in nature. Our results indicate mature Dahongjun mushrooms with abundant basidiospores are important for the reproduction of this mushroom in nature and that individual populations of this species should be managed separately.

  14. Discrimination training with multimodal stimuli changes activity in the mushroom body of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Balkenius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mushroom bodies of the insect brain play an important role in olfactory processing, associative learning and memory. The mushroom bodies show odor-specific spatial patterns of activity and are also influenced by visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Functional imaging was used to investigate changes in the in vivo responses of the mushroom body of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta during multimodal discrimination training. A visual and an odour stimulus were presented either together or individually. Initially, mushroom body activation patterns were identical to the odour stimulus and the multimodal stimulus. After training, however, the mushroom body response to the rewarded multimodal stimulus was significantly lower than the response to the unrewarded unimodal odour stimulus, indicating that the coding of the stimuli had changed as a result of training. The opposite pattern was seen when only the unimodal odour stimulus was rewarded. In this case, the mushroom body was more strongly activated by the multimodal stimuli after training. When no stimuli were rewarded, the mushroom body activity decreased for both the multimodal and unimodal odour stimuli. There was no measurable response to the unimodal visual stimulus in any of the experiments. These results can be explained using a connectionist model where the mushroom body is assumed to be excited by olfactory stimulus components, and suppressed by multimodal configurations. CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination training with multimodal stimuli consisting of visual and odour cues leads to stimulus specific changes in the in vivo responses of the mushroom body of the hawkmoth.

  15. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  16. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stihi, Claudia; Gheboianu, Anca; Radulescu, Cristiana; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela; Bancuta, Iulian

    2011-10-01

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  17. Cordyceps militaris (L.: Fr. Link – An Important Medicinal Mushroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Patel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris is an important medicinal mushroom useful for the extraction of several bio-metabolites for natural drugs to revitalize the various physiological systems of the body from the ancient era. The constituents of C. militaris are now using widely in the modern pharmaceutical industries. The active principles of C. militaris are beneficial to act principally as pro-sexual, anti- cancer, immunomodulatory, and anti-oxidant agent, let alone its others beneficial activities for most of the systems of the body. In addition, it has lots of clinical applications. The prospects of this novel mushroom could be used not only for modern medicinal manufacturers, but also for the community people for the betterment of their health.

  18. Monitoring of changes in substrate characteristics during mushroom compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gary A; Sharma, H S Shekhar; Kilpatrick, Mairead; Cheung, Linda; Moore, Solveig

    2006-06-28

    Substrates from three mushroom compost facilities in Northern Ireland, employing similar production technologies, were examined to assess the quality of the compost produced. Biochemical investigation highlighted changes in substrates through each step of the production cycle. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provided useful information on fiber fraction content and extent of substrate breakdown. A comparison of productivity, chemical, and thermal data permitted assessment of the degree of bioconversion that had occurred in the decomposition from raw materials to finished substrate for each composter. One of the composters consistently produced substrate of inferior quality compared to the other two, indicating production inefficiencies during composting. Results demonstrated that allied to chemical analyses, TGA is a useful tool, providing valuable information on substrate quality and, in particular, for studying the bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials in mushroom compost.

  19. [Levels of psilocybin and psilocin in various types of mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stríbrný, J; Borovicka, J; Sokol, M

    2003-07-01

    Psilocin and psilocybin are psychoactive components of mushrooms of the genus Psilocybe and many others (Panaeolus, Inocybe, Pluteus etc.). In our republic, several species of Psilocybe with a high content of these components can be found. In the present study, we give a semiquantitative content of psilocin and psilocybin in some of our mushrooms in dry substance (Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe bohemica, Psilocybe arcana, Psilocybe cyanescens, Panaeolus acuminatus sensu Ricken, Inocybe haemacta and Pluteus salicinus). For quantification, the GC/MS instrumentation was applied. Psilocin and psilocybin were silylated by the derivatization agent N-methyl-N-trimet-hylsilyltrifluoroacetamide. As an internal standard, 5-methoxytryptamin was used. The results of this study prove the presence of at least three species of Psilocybe with a high content of psychoactive components growing in our republic: Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe bohemica and Psilocybe arcana.

  20. Medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus as an alternative cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Alternative cancer treatment with nutritional/dietary supplements containing a wide variety of herbal products is on the rise in Western countries. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that mushrooms may prevent against different types of cancers. Phellinus linteus is a well-known Oriental medicinal fungus with a variety of biological activities, including immunomodulatory or direct antitumor activities. The activity of P. linteus and its extracts is associated with the presence of p...

  1. Nutritional elements and alu- minium accumulation in Xerocomus badius mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Mleczek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper constitutes a supplementary study of the research conducted to assess accumulation efficiency of selected trace elements by Xerocomus badius fruiting bodies picked in some regions of Poland in selected years. Material  and methods. Atomic absorption/emission spectrometry techniques (FAAS and AES were applied to determine in the fruiting bodies of this mushroom species the total contents of Ca, K, Mg and Na, as well as Al as a metal capable of entering into easy interactions with nutritional elements and inhibiting their proper action in the human organism. Results. The highest concentrations of Al, K and Mg were determined in mushroom fruiting bodies collected in the Lower Silesia Voivodeship, amounting to 28.08 ±5.81 mg·kg-1d.w., 2.39 ±0.21 g·kg-1d.w. and 372.31 ±90.55 mg·kg-1d.w., respectively. On the other  hand, the highest concentrations of Ca (78.08 ±24.64 mg·kg-1 d.w. were recorded in mushrooms from the Łódź Voivodeship, while the highest concentrations of Na (77.03 ±20.46 mg·kg-1d.w. – in those from the Pomeranian Voivodeship were observed. In general, BCF > 1 was found only for K accumulation. Conclusion. Concentrationsof nutritional elements determined in this study revealed that the consumption of X. badius fruiting bodies supplied only small quantities of these constituents in comparison with the amounts consumed in other products. The detected Al concentrations showed that fruiting bodies of this mushroom species consumed in Poland during the past 20 years could not lead to health problems caused by the presence of this metal.

  2. Variations in IC50 Values with Purity of Mushroom Tyrosinase

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Neeley; George Fritch; Autumn Fuller; Jordan Wolfe; Jessica Wright; William Flurkey

    2009-01-01

    The effects of various inhibitors on crude, commercial and partially purified commercial mushroom tyrosinase were examined by comparing IC50 values. Kojic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, tropolone, methimazole, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate had relatively similar IC50 values for the crude, commercial and partially purified enzyme. 4-Hexylresorcinol seemed to have a somewhat higher IC50 value using crude extracts, compared to commercial or purified tyrosinase. Some inhibitors (NaCl, esculetin,...

  3. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  4. IMPORTANCE OF SUBSTRAT DIZINFECTION ON OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS SP. CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana FICIOR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest for oyster mushrooms is increasing very much in the last years due to their special taste and nutritional value. One of the most important aspects on mushroom culture is represented by substrate disinfection. The yield can be compromised if the competitive microorganisms are not removed from the cellulosic materials. The aim of these researches was to determine the most efficient method of disinfection. We have chosen five different methods of disinfection: material boiled for one hour, material boiled for 10 minutes, material scalded with boiled water (100 degree, material disinfected with a fungicide (Derosal 0.01% and material soaked in water for 24 hours with no disinfection. It has been noticed that method of disinfection affects the mycelium development, date of fructification and yield. The best yields have been obtained for variants with material scalded with boiled water (100 degree, material disinfected with a fungicide (Derosal 0.01% and material boiled for one hour. Mushrooms grown on material without disinfection have recorded very low yields.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.

  6. Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Maribeth O; Fischer, Mark W F; Money, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation.

  7. Evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for production of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, P; Kalyani, N; Prathiba, K

    2008-12-01

    The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55-65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%) for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, together with the content of cellulose, lignin, and phenols, was studied in spent substrates on seventh, 17th, and 27th days of spawning, and these values were used as indicators of the extent of lignocellulosic degradation by mushroom. Both the mushroom species proved to be efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass of paddy straw and sorghum stalk, and the extent of cellulose degradation was 63-72% of dry weight (d.w.), and lignin degradation was 23-30% of the d.w. In banana pseudostem, the extent of the degradation was observed to be only 15-22% of the d.w. for both lignin and cellulose. Preferential removal of cellulose during initial growth period and delayed degradation of lignin were observed in all three substrates. This is associated with decrease in activity of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase and increase in laccase activity with spawn aging in spent substrates. Thus, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. eous and L. connotus offers a promising way to convert low-quality biomass into an improved human food.

  8. Analysis of hallucinogenic constituents in Amanita mushrooms circulated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Mohri, Hiroyuki; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko; Gohda, Akinaga; Fukushima, Sunao; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kishi, Tohru

    2006-12-20

    The constituents of seven mushrooms sold as Amanita muscaria or Amanita pantherina (five A. muscaria and two A. pantherina) and four "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products that are currently circulated in Japan were determined. All mushroom samples were identified as A. muscaria or A. pantherina by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The dissociative constituents, ibotenic acid (IBO) and muscimol (MUS), were extracted with 70% methanol twice and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The IBO (as the hydrate)/MUS contents were in the range of muscaria and 188-269ppm/1554-1880ppm in the cap of A. pantherina. In the caps, these compounds had a tendency to be more concentrated in the flesh than in the cuticle. On the other hand, the IBO/MUS contents in the stem were far lower than in the caps. In the "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products, IBO/MUS were detected below the lower limit of calibration curve (Amanita mushrooms that are circulated in the drug market.

  9. Effects of Various Substrates on Growth and Yield of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Masarirambi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are increasingly becoming an important component of diets worldwide and it is of paramount importance to choose appropriate substrates in a given place to grow them. The experiment was conducted at the University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture, in the Crop Production Department Mushroom Laboratory. The objective was to determine the effects of some of the locally available substrate materials on the growth and yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq. Et Fr. Banana leaves, sugarcane tops, common thatch grass (Hyparrhenia hirta and cattle manure were milled, bagged and autoclaved for 5 h at 120ºC, cooled and then inoculated with actively growing mushroom culture on sorghum grain. The bags were incubated until mycelium had fully colonized the substrate and then taken to the cropping house. Sugarcane tops had significantly (p<0.05 lower number of contaminated bags and in increasing order of contamination followed by banana leaves, thatch grass and lastly kraal manure. Kraal manure in all bags was contaminated and was subsequently discarded. There were significant (p<0.05 differences in total mushroom yield, marketable yield, mushroom stalk length and mushroom cap diameter. Sugarcane tops produced the highest total mushroom yield, marketable yield and mushroom cap diameter, followed in decreasing order by banana leaves and thatch grass. However thatch grass produced the longest mushroom stalks followed in decreasing order by banana leaves and lastly sugarcane tops. The experiment showed that, in decreasing order, sugarcane tops, banana leaves and thatch grass can be used as one of the best locally available substrate for mushroom production in Swaziland, for the growth and yield parameters measured.

  10. Utilizing Mushrooms to Reduce Overall Sodium in Taco Filling Using Physical and Sensory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kristin M; Decker, Eric A; Autio, Wesley R; Toong, Ken; DiStefano, Garett; Kinchla, Amanda J

    2017-08-30

    This project investigated the use of integrating mushrooms into beef taco filling as a means to reduce overall sodium for food service applications. Initial product development used physical characterization analysis (moisture, yield, color, and texture) to determine initial threshold of mushroom inclusion with minimal differences against an all-meat control. Increasing mushroom inclusion increased moisture and yield before draining but decreased yield after draining, lightness, redness, and texture. Results showed that inclusion under 50% by weight minimized physical attribute deviation from an all-meat control. Additional physical analysis investigated a variety of other factors (mushroom type, blanching, and particle size) to determine if other attributing mushroom characteristics would yield statistical similarity to the all-meat control. Results showed that a formulation containing up to 45% mushrooms can be integrated into beef fillings using un-blanched, white button mushrooms with small grind (1 to 5 mm), which maximized mushroom usage while minimizing differences from the all-meat control. Additional sodium analysis showed that varying salt level in formulations did not affect physical characteristics and mushroom inclusion could not significantly reduce overall sodium level. Optimized mushroom samples were then fielded in a hedonic sensory study to untrained consumers to evaluate product liking attributes (overall liking, aroma, color, flavor, juiciness, saltiness, and texture). Samples with overall liking scores that closely matched the control were then fielded in a paired-preference test to determine acceptance. Consumers preferred a 45% mushroom with reduced sodium taco filling compared to its full sodium counterpart in a food service fielded paired-preference sensory test. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Versatile applications of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii (Berk.) Maas G. (Higher Basidiomycetes): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Oh, Deuk-Sil; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii has become attractive as a natural health product because of its antihypertensive effects on human health. Moreover, the food industry is especially interested in the preparation of the nutritional tonic of this mushroom. Various studies on this mushroom have shown that it has antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antioxidant effects. The aim of this review is to report the present findings from studies on this mushroom and to discuss its future prospects.

  12. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyp...

  13. 75 FR 18151 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to Final Court...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final Results... amending the final results of the 2000-2001 administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from India... mushrooms from India covering the period of review of February 1, 2000, through January 31, 2001....

  14. [The mushroom bodies of the lower nematocera: a link between those of the higher Diptera and other mecopteroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Nematoceran Diptera are nonuniform in the structure of their mushroom bodies. Members of the more basal families (Ptychopteridae, Pediciidae, and Tipulidae) have bipartite mushroom bodies, characteristic of members of the other mecopteroid complex orders. In members of Bibionomorpha (Bibionidae and Anisopodidae), tripartite mushroom bodies have been found characteristic of Brachycera Orthorrhapha.

  15. 75 FR 60076 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... International Trade Administration (A-570-851) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

  16. 76 FR 41215 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms... Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  17. 76 FR 4287 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of... mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation...

  18. 75 FR 3896 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Notice of... the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC... Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sixth Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

  19. 76 FR 16727 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2010, to July 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  20. White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) (WBM) constitute 90 percent of the total mushrooms consumed in the United States; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well studied...

  1. In vitro supplementation with white button mushroom promotes maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) constitute 90 percent of the total mushroom market in the US; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well-studied. Furthermore, littl...

  2. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  3. 76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR) of February 1... (Agro Dutch Industries Limited), Himalya International Ltd., Hindustan Lever Ltd. (formerly Ponds...

  4. 78 FR 26319 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR) of February 1... India, Ltd.) (Hindustan), Transchem Ltd. (Transchem), and Weikfield Foods Pvt. Ltd (Weikfield)....

  5. Biocrude production via supercritical hydrothermal co-liquefaction of spent mushroom compost and aspen wood sawdust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasiunas, Lukas; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    2017-01-01

    The work investigates a new potential feedstock source for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) driven biocrude production. Specifically, the focus is set on utilizing spent mushroom compost (SMC), the primary waste by-product from mushroom farming. It is considered as a feedstock for HTL conversion due...

  6. 76 FR 12704 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ...) all fresh and chilled mushrooms, including ``refrigerated'' or ``quick blanched mushrooms;'' (3) dried... have benefitted from these subsidies and to disregard prices from these countries.\\11\\ Additionally... subsidies. See, e.g., Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the ] People's Republic of...

  7. Heat and mass transfer in the mushroom-shaped head of mantle plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirdyashkin Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental and theoretical modeling of free-convection flows in the melt of the plume conduit and in the mushroom-shaped head are presented. It was shown that the plumes with the mushroom-shaped heads can be responsible for the batholith formation. The main parameters of such plumes are estimated.

  8. Mushroom contamination by mercury, cadmium and lead; Contaminazione di funghi commestibili con mercurio, cadmio e piombo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojmi Di Delupis, G.; Dojmi Di Delupis, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1996-12-01

    Occurrence and bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium and lead were found in mushrooms by various researchers. Such mushrooms were often found in polluted areas. Pollution was mainly caused by industrial or mining plants, by some agricultural treatments and by road traffic. Considerations and recommendations concerning food consumption are made.

  9. A Rapid PCR-RFLP Method for Monitoring Genetic Variation among Commercial Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Presley; Muruke, Masoud; Hosea, Kenneth; Kivaisi, Amelia; Zerwas, Nick; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    We report the development of a simplified procedure for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mushrooms. We have adapted standard molecular techniques to be amenable to an undergraduate laboratory setting in order to allow students to explore basic questions about fungal diversity and relatedness among mushroom species. The…

  10. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission... the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review February 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved...

  11. Mushroom body volumes and visual interneurons in ants: comparison between sexes and castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmer, Birgit; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2004-02-01

    The mushroom bodies are brain centers involved in complex behaviors such as learning and orientation. Here we examine the organization of mushroom bodies in ants, focusing on visual input. We describe the structure of visual neurons and compare the volume of brain structures involved in visual processing, especially the optic lobes and parts of the mushroom bodies receiving visual input in males, winged females, and workers of carpenter ants (Camponotus). A relatively small number of neurons connect the medulla with the mushroom bodies, and these neurons have relatively large dendritic fields in the medulla, suggesting low spatial resolution in ants. These neurons terminate in different yet overlapping strata in the mushroom bodies' collar region. While males have larger optic lobes than workers, their collar region is smaller than in females. Male ants have an additional type of medulla-mushroom body neuron with dendrites probing the distal medulla. These neurons are absent in female and worker ants. Most mushroom body Kenyon cells that are postsynaptic to visual input neurons appear to integrate visual as well as antennal input. This is in contrast to honey bees, where visual input to the mushroom bodies is more prominent and where Kenyon cells are not known to combine visual and antennal input.

  12. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function.

  13. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  14. Mushroom polysaccharides: chemistry and antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticancer, and antibiotic properties in cells, rodents, and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. More than 2,000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the...

  15. Lecanicillium fungicola: causal agent of dry dubble disease in white-button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, R.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Kalkhove, S.I.; Lugones, L.G.; Wösten, H.A.B.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease in commercially cultivated mushroom. This review summarizes current knowledge on the biology of the pathogen and the interaction between the pathogen and its most important host, the white-button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The ecology of the pathog

  16. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335μgAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed.

  17. Formation of mushrooms and lignocellulose degradation encoded in the genome sequence of Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt W.; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. Stephen; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han A.B.

    2010-07-12

    The wood degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is a model system for mushroom development. Here, we describe the 38.5 Mb assembled genome of this basidiomycete and application of whole genome expression analysis to study the 13,210 predicted genes. Comparative analyses of the S. commune genome revealed unique wood degrading machinery and mating type loci with the highest number of reported genes. Gene expression analyses revealed that one third of the 471 identified transcription factor genes were differentially expressed during sexual development. Two of these transcription factor genes were deleted. Inactivation of fst4 resulted in the inability to form mushrooms, whereas inactivation of fst3 resulted in more but smaller mushrooms than wild-type. These data illustrate that mechanisms underlying mushroom formation can be dissected using S. commune as a model. This will impact commercial production of mushrooms and the industrial use of these fruiting bodies to produce enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  18. Quality Characteristics of Microwave-Vacuum Dried Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Giri & Suresh Prasad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus slices as well as whole mushrooms were dried by microwave-vacuum drying technique to a moisture content of around 6 %(d.b.. The dehydrated mushrooms were compared with hot-air dried products on the basis of different quality attributes such as colour, texture, rehydration ratio and sensory score. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant difference among the drying methods for all the attributes at p ≤ 0.05. Microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms had significantly higher rehydration potential, lower density, better colour and softer texture than those obtained by air drying. The microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms were rated much better than air dried products by a sensory panel in terms of appearance, color and overall acceptability.

  19. Effect of storage conditions on the quality of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of quality factors were studied during storage of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus at 2°C in controlled atmospheres. A concentration of 15% CO2 and 1.5-2% O2 and an atmosphere with a continuous flow of nitrogen retarded cap expansion and stipe elongation, while 10% CO2 retarded only cap expansion. Controlled atmospheres suppressed the growth of some microorganisms. The toughness of mushrooms stored in a normal atmosphere at 2°C markedly decreased during storage, while 10% CO2 and nitrogen atmosphere did not influence toughness as compared to initial mushrooms. The acceptability value of mushrooms in controlled atmospheres was lower during 13 days of storage as compared to normal atmosphere. Normal atmosphere appeared to keep whiteness of mushrooms longer than did other treatments.

  20. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, M

    2007-05-28

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focus on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.

  1. Ethnomycological studies of some wild medicinal and edible mushrooms in the Kashmir Himalayas (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Shauket Ahmed; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Bhat, Mohmmad Yaqoub

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of mushrooms has a very long tradition in Asian countries because of their use as a valuable tonic, food, and in herbal medicines. A study was carried out to document the indigenous uses of various mushrooms growing in the Kashmir Himalayas. After consulting local herbal healers (Hakims) and people from tribal communities inhabiting inaccessible hinterlands of the region regarding the use of mushrooms growing in their locality, it was found that 35 species of mushrooms belonging to different ecological and taxonomical groups were used for their nutritional and medicinal values. These mushrooms were used for their activities against a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple skin diseases to present-day complex diseases such as diabetes and tumors.

  2. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephan R; Brunner, Ivano; Horvat, Milena; Jacobs, Anna; Frey, Beat

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg(-1) dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg(-1) dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg.

  3. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  4. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Vos, Aurin M; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J P; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2016-08-01

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom forming basidiomycete using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphology, cap expansion rate, and total number and biomass of mushrooms were not affected by over-expression of c2h2. However, yield per day of the c2h2 over-expression strains peaked 1 day earlier. These data and expression analysis indicate that C2H2 impacts timing of mushroom formation at an early stage of development, making its encoding gene a target for breeding of commercial mushroom strains.

  5. Enrichment of mushrooms: an interesting strategy for the acquisition of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assunção, Laélia Soares; da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Vieira, Patrícia Aparecida Fontes; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-09-15

    The capability of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom to accumulate lithium (Li) and the accessibility of this Li compared with lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)), often used as psychiatric medicine, were investigated. Mushrooms were produced on a substrate-based on coffee husk, with different added concentrations of lithium chloride (LiCl). Biological efficiency (BE), the crude protein content, the concentration of Li and other elements present in mushrooms were determined. The sequential extraction and in vitro test were used to verify the accessibility and the degree of solubility of this element. Li concentration in mushrooms was directly influenced by increasing LiCl concentration in the substrate (Postreatus mushrooms, enriched with lithium can be an alternative source of Li, as well as being a food with high nutritional value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement of quality attributes of sponge cake using infrared dried button mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Asadi, Fereshteh; Najafi, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Infrared-hot air method, when properly applied, can be used for achieving a high-quality product. The objective of this study was to determine the rheological properties of cake batters and physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties of sponge cake supplemented with four different levels (control, 5 %, 10 %, and 15 %) of button mushroom powder. The button mushroom slices were dried in an infrared-hot air dryer (250 W and 60 °C). The physical (volume, density, color) and chemical (moisture, protein, fat and ash) attributes were determined in the cakes. Increasing the level of substitution from 5 % to 15 % button mushroom powder significantly (p button mushroom powder levels whereas the density, consistency, hardness, gumminess, chewiness and crumb L, b values of samples showed a reverse trend. Sensory evaluation results indicated that cake with 10 % button mushroom powder was rated the most acceptable.

  7. Effect of different pretreatments on the quality of mushrooms during solar drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurdeep

    2013-02-01

    Freshly harvested mushrooms are highly perishable because of high moisture content metabolism and susceptible to enzymatic browning. Mushroom is a fungal fruiting body which is cultivated throughout the world. Effect on quality of dried mushrooms was studied for various chemical pretreatments viz. 1.0% potassium metabisulphite, 0.5% citric acid, 0.5% potassium metabisulphite + 0.2% citric acid, control and low cost drying methods viz. domestic solar dryer, medium size solar dryer and open sun drying. It was observed that application of 1% potassium metabisulphite treatment prior to drying using medium size solar dryer gave best quality dried mushrooms with results in accordance with statistical analysis. The drying time and final moisture content was also comparatively less than the mushrooms dried under shading plates and open sun drying.

  8. Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Felkner-Poźniakowska, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in edible mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland. Material consisted of two species of fungi: Xerocomus mushrooms (Xerocomus badius), Boletus mushrooms (Boletus edulis). The dried samples (cups and cut-up material) were extracted with Soxhlet method in order to obtain lipid substances. In the fat chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined by Ludwicki et al. (1996) method. The separation and quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted with the method of gas chromatography using an electron capture detector - ECD. In all tested samples the presence of γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDE, DDD) was detected. The higher content of γ-HCH was found in Xerocomus mushrooms (average 0.125 μg/kg of mushrooms); in the Boletus mushrooms -0.11 μg/kg of mushrooms. The content of ΣDDT in cups of Xerocomus mushrooms was more than 2-fold higher than in those of Boletus mushrooms (3.78:1.71 mg/kg of mushrooms). The opposite relationship was observed for cut-up material. The higher concentration of ΣDDT was found in Boletus mushrooms (2.26 mg/kg of mushrooms) while in Xerocomus mushrooms this content was 0.91 mg/kg of mushrooms. Despite the fact that chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in all samples under study, their contents do not exceed acceptable levels indicating that the consumption of mushrooms does not pose a health risk to consumers from the organochlorine compounds.

  9. Performance assessment of broiler chickens given mushroom extract alone or in combination with probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, W L; Isikhuemhen, O S; Ibrahim, S A

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of combined Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract with probiotics (PrimaLac) on the growth and health of broiler chickens. In trial 1, 540 d-of-hatch chicks were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups, replicated 3 times, with 15 males and 15 females per pen for 3 wk. Dietary probiotics and mushroom treatments were as follows: 1) control feed + ad libitum tap water; 2) control feed + skip-a-day mushroom water; 3) control feed + ad libitum mushroom water; 4) probiotic feed + ad libitum tap water; 5) probiotic feed + skip-a-day mushroom water; 6) probiotic feed + ad libitum mushroom water. Body weight gain, feed consumption and efficiency, mortality, bursa, liver, and spleen relative weights of chicks were taken. In trial 2, the performance of broilers 3 to 7 wk withdrawn from the mushroom extract was evaluated along with the comparative level of fecal biofidobacteria in the control and mushroom extract treatment (trt). Mortality, weight gain, feed consumption and efficiency, carcass yield, fat pads, bursa weights and fecal bifidobacteria were measured in trial 2. In trial 1, significant differences (P probiotics feed in treatments 4, 5, and 6, but not in the female broilers. These results indicate that performance differences in gender occur with additives during different grow-out periods, and mushroom extract promotes bifidobacteria growth in broiler chickens after 4 wk of withdrawal. It appears that probiotics and mushroom extract offered no combination potential for weight gain, which was compromised in this study, but possible health-enhanced attributes.

  10. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...... of the mushroom diets was equivalent to an intake of agaritine, the major phenylhydrazine derivative occurring in the mushroom, of 92 or 166 mg/kg body weight per day. The intake of CP was 106 mg/kg body weight per day. Neither the;freeze-dried mushroom nor CP induced statistically significant increased numbers...

  11. Genetic diversity of Kenyan native oyster mushroom (Pleurotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Ojwang D; Onyango, Calvin; Onguso, Justus Mungare; Matasyoh, Lexa G; Wanjala, Bramwel W; Wamalwa, Mark; Harvey, Jagger J W

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genus Pleurotus, also commonly known as oyster mushroom, are well known for their socioeconomic and biotechnological potentials. Despite being one of the most important edible fungi, the scarce information about the genetic diversity of the species in natural populations has limited their sustainable utilization. A total of 71 isolates of Pleurotus species were collected from three natural populations: 25 isolates were obtained from Kakamega forest, 34 isolates from Arabuko Sokoke forest and 12 isolates from Mount Kenya forest. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to thirteen isolates of locally grown Pleurotus species obtained from laboratory samples using five primer pair combinations. AFLP markers and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of the ribosomal DNA were used to estimate the genetic diversity and evaluate phylogenetic relationships, respectively, among and within populations. The five primer pair combinations generated 293 polymorphic loci across the 84 isolates. The mean genetic diversity among the populations was 0.25 with the population from Arabuko Sokoke having higher (0.27) diversity estimates compared to Mount Kenya population (0.24). Diversity between the isolates from the natural population (0.25) and commercial cultivars (0.24) did not differ significantly. However, diversity was greater within (89%; P > 0.001) populations than among populations. Homology search analysis against the GenBank database using 16 rDNA ITS sequences randomly selected from the two clades of AFLP dendrogram revealed three mushroom species: P. djamor, P. floridanus and P. sapidus; the three mushrooms form part of the diversity of Pleurotus species in Kenya. The broad diversity within the Kenyan Pleurotus species suggests the possibility of obtaining native strains suitable for commercial cultivation.

  12. Agronomic assessment of spent substrates for mushroom cultivation

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    Picornell-Buendía, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. In this work the agronomic viability of substrates based on spent Agaricus bisporus Imbach (Lange substrates (SAS and spent Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. substrates (SPS is studied. Objectives. The aim of this work is the qualitative agronomic evaluation of SPS and SAS and the mixture of thereof in different proportions, such as lignocellulosic sources in new growing cycles of P. ostreatus. Method. In addition to the commercial substrate used as a control reference, six different treatments are considered. In this experiment, SPS and SAS were mixed in different amounts. SAS was subjected to a heat treatment in a growing room ("cook out" and then to a maturation treatment which consisted of a controlled recomposting process in cameras. SPS was subjected to a pasteurizing heat treatment (60 °C – 65 °C, 8 h and a progressive temperature decrease for at least 15 h to a "seeding" temperature (25 °C. Results. SPS (3,600 g + SAS (2,400 g and SPS (3,000 g + SAS (3,000 g were prepared substrates that achieved acceptable crude protein content in their fruiting bodies. Additionally, we obtained higher ash content, lightness, yellow-blue (y-b and red-green (r-g chromaticity, breaking strength (Bs, and compression energy (CE in these mushrooms. These values were higher than the mean values, and even higher than the commercial substrate. Conclusions. Increased SAS participation in the mixture of the processed substrate (and the consequent reduction of SPS participation resulted in mushrooms that require higher Bs, and CE. These formulation-based composts degraded by the growth of P. ostreatus, could be a low-cost substrate with selective and balanced nutrients for growth and development of oyster mushrooms.

  13. Lanostane triterpenoids from the inedible mushroom Fomitopsis spraguei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Dang Ngoc; Arakawa, Yuuki; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-07-01

    Investigation of the methanolic extract of the inedible mushroom Fomitopsis spraguei (Polyporaceae) led to the isolation of five lanostane-type triterpenoids (1-5): three new compounds named fomitopsins A-C (2-4), and two known compounds, quercinic acid C (1) and 3alpha-carboxyacetyl-12beta-hydroxyquercinic acid (5). Their structures were determined by 2D NMR, MS, IR, UV spectra, and X-ray crystallographic analyses. An X-ray crystal structure analysis of quercinic acid C (1) established its stereochemistry as 3R,12R-dihydroxy-24R-methyl-23-oxo-25S-lanost-8-en-26-oic acid.

  14. Pleurostrin, an antifungal peptide from the oyster mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, K T; Xia, Lixin; Ng, T B

    2005-11-01

    A 7kDa peptide, with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in the fungi Fusaerium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Physalospora piricola, was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the oyster mushroom. The isolation procedure entailed extraction with an aqueous buffer, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The protein was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. It demonstrated an N-terminal sequence different from known antifungal proteins and peptides.

  15. Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Peyvast

    2008-01-01

    Oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer] was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw/dw), and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75) and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was also shorter on oilseed rape straw. Protein content of the fruit bodies obtained with oilseed rape straw was highest among all substrat...

  16. Thermal processing of spent mushroom compost; Thermische verwerking champost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stam, A.F.; Erbrink, J.J. [KEMA Technical and Operational Services, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study is to conduct an exploratory research of the options of using spent mushroom compost as fuel, possibly combined with other biomass flows, to generate energy. The exploratory study consists of a desk study in which a chemical, physical analysis of the fuel is also conducted and focuses primarily on combustion techniques [Dutch] Het doel van de studie is een verkennend onderzoek uitvoeren naar de mogelijkheden om met champost als brandstof, eventueel samen met andere biomassastromen, in te zetten voor de opwekking van energie. Het verkennend onderzoek is een bureaustudie, waarbij tevens voorzien is in een chemisch fysische analyse van de brandstof en richt zich primair op verbrandingstechnieken.

  17. Three New Lanostanoids from the Mushroom Ganoderma tropicum

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    Shuang-Shuang Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new lanostanoid triterpenes—ganotropic acid (1, 3β,7β,15α,24-tetra- hydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8-en-26-oic acid (2 and 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23- dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3—were isolated from the n-BuOH extract of the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Ganoderma tropicum. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as HR-EI-MS data.

  18. Nutritional Analysis of Cultivated Mushrooms in Bangladesh - Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, Tae Soo

    2008-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation has been started recently in Bangladesh. Awareness of the nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms is not extensive. In this study, the nutritional values of dietary mushrooms- Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajorcaju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica that are very popular among the cultivated mushrooms in Bangladesh have been determined. These mushrooms were rich in proteins (20~25%) and fibers (13~24% in dry samples) and contained a lower amount of lipid (4 to 5%). The carbohydrate contents ranged from 37 to 48% (on the basis of dry weight). These were also rich in mineral contents (total ash content is 8~13%). The pileus and gills were protein and lipid rich and stripe was carbohydrate and fiber-rich. The moisture content of mushrooms ranged from 86 to 87.5%. Data of this study suggest that mushrooms are rich in nutritional value.

  19. Nutritional Analysis of Cultivated Mushrooms in Bangladesh - Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

    2008-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation has been started recently in Bangladesh. Awareness of the nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms is not extensive. In this study, the nutritional values of dietary mushrooms- Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajorcaju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica that are very popular among the cultivated mushrooms in Bangladesh have been determined. These mushrooms were rich in proteins (20~25%) and fibers (13~24% in dry samples) and contained a lower amount of lipid (4 to 5%). The carbohydrate contents ranged from 37 to 48% (on the basis of dry weight). These were also rich in mineral contents (total ash content is 8~13%). The pileus and gills were protein and lipid rich and stripe was carbohydrate and fiber-rich. The moisture content of mushrooms ranged from 86 to 87.5%. Data of this study suggest that mushrooms are rich in nutritional value. PMID:23997631

  20. Ethno-Edible Mushroom of Pleurotus sp., Clytocybe nebularis and Auricularia auricula in Ranupani Village, East Java

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    Jehan Ramdani Haryati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper documented the knowledge about the wild edible fungal flora of Ranupani Village of East Java Indonesia that used by indigenous Tenggerese tribes. Study was conducted by using semi-structured interview and purposive sampling. Data were analyzed quantitatively descriptive. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS was used to evaluate the importance of non-wood forest’s yields for local people. Identification of edible mushrooms was based on Guidelines of Flora Diversity Data Collection. This study was focus on the three edible mushrooms which are eaten mostly by the villagers, i.e. Pleurotus sp., Clytocybe nebularis and Auricularia auricula. The result is the Ranupani residents’ perception of edible mushrooms and its potential as an alternative source of food based on local knowledge and local wisdom of Tenggerese. Pleurotus sp. has the highest preference and intensity to be consumed with 3,2 ICS. It means culturally, this edible mushroom were not too important but intensively used as a secondary food sources such as soup (added or sauted, chips (dried and fried. Ranupani Villagers always consumed edible mushrooms in rainy season. The ability of residents to distinguish edible mushrooms are equal to the searching ability to find edible mushroom substrate. The residents will recognized the substrate of edible mushrooms on dead trunks of Pasang Tree (Lithocarpus sundaicus, Danglu (Engelhardia spicata, Kemlandingan (Albizia Montana, Casuarina (Casuarina junghuhniana and acacia (Acacia decurens. Residents who do not have the ability to distinguish and searching were consumer, get the edible mushrooms by buying from the searcher or distributor in packs. The characteristics of an edible mushrooms are a discrete soft flesh of the fruit body, dark color, no ring on the stipe, the presence of insects (e.g. moths in the lamellae and the type of mushroom substrate. There were also assisted growths of wild mushrooms by the residents’ raw chop the

  1. Detection limit of Clostridium botulinum spores in dried mushroom samples sourced from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Pradeep K; Plowman, June; Aldus, Clare F; Xing, Zengtao; Zhao, Yong; Peck, Michael W

    2013-08-16

    A survey of dried mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Auricularia auricula (Wood Ear)) sourced from China was carried out to determine the natural contamination of these mushrooms with spores of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. The mushrooms were collected from supermarkets and retailers in 21 cities in China during October 2008. Spore loads of C. botulinum in mushrooms have a degree of uncertainty and variability and this study contributes valuable data for determining prevalence of spores of C. botulinum in mushrooms. An optimized detection protocol that combined selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR was used to test for spores of proteolytic and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Detection limits were calculated, using a maximum likelihood protocol, from mushroom samples inoculated with defined numbers of spores of proteolytic C. botulinum or non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Based on the maximum likelihood detection limit, it is estimated that dried mushroom A. auricula contained <550spores/kg of proteolytic C. botulinum, and <350spores/kg of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Dried L. edodes contained <1500spores/kg of proteolytic C. botulinum and it was not possible to determine reliable detection limits for spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum using the current detection protocol.

  2. Bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Yanni, Amalia E; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Aloupi, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Crude composition, fatty acids, sterols, total phenolic content (TPC), individual polyphenols and terpenic acids were determined in five wild edible mushrooms species (Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Russula delica, Suillus bellinii) from Lesvos Island, Greece. In addition, the DPPH scavenging capacity, the ferric ion reducing power (FRAP) and the ferrous ion chelating activity of mushroom methanolic extracts were assessed. Among sterols, ergosterol predominated at concentrations 9.2-18.0mg/100g fw. Total phenolic content of mushroom extracts ranged from 6.0 to 20.8mg GAE/100g fw. Up to 19 simple polyphenols were determined in mushrooms extracts, the more abundant being p-OH-benzoic acid, p-OH-phenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chrysin. In addition, the triterpenic acids oleanolic and ursolic were detected for the first time in mushrooms. All species exerted antioxidant activity and ferrous ion chelating capacity. Principal component analysis revealed good correlations between TPC, DPPH and FRAP but not with metal chelating activity. It seems that mushrooms polyphenols exert antiradical and reducing activities, but they are not strong metal chelators, the observed chelating ability being probably due to other classes of compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant activity of wild Greek edible mushrooms.

  3. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimala, R., E-mail: vimararagu@yahoo.co.in [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Das, Nilanjana [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q{sub max} 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q{sub max} 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  4. Medicinal uses of mushrooms in Nigeria: towards full and sustainable exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been appreciated as sources of food nutrients and pharmacologically important compounds useful in medicine. Yet not all the medicinal properties of mushrooms have been exploited. The above statement is more pertinent to mushrooms that are indigenous to Nigeria. There are inadequate data on the identity and medicinal properties of these wild mushrooms. Information on the ethnomedicinal uses of some mushrooms such as Pleurotus tuber-regium used for headache, stomach pain fever, cold, constipation; Lentinus squarullosus for mumps, heart diseases; Termitomyces microcarpus for gonorrhea; Calvatia cyathiformis for leucorrhea, barreness; Ganoderma lucidum for treating arthritis, neoplasia; G. resinaceum used for hyperglycemia, liver diseases (hepatoprotector); G. applanatum used as antioxidant and for diabetes had been gathered through survey. The above information is mostly obtained from traditional herbalists who in most cases will not disclose their preparation compositions. A lot of these mushrooms are obtained only in the wild. Scientific documents of the identities and medicinal properties are still scanty. Preliminary studies on some species of Temitomyces, Lenzites and Lentinus species showed that they possess appreciable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Moreover, molecular characterization also reveals that they are not 100% homologous with existing sequences under the same name in GenBank. It is therefore pertinent that well structured studies on their ecology, identification and medicinal uses be carried out. This will make the full exploitation of the medicinal potentials of mushrooms indigenous to Nigeria realizable.

  5. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of shiitake mushrooms cultivated on agricultural waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kérley Braga Pereira Bento Casaril

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of shiitake mushrooms were evaluated in four isolates of Lentinula edodes. Mushrooms were cultivated on artificial logs, based on eucalyptus sawdust enriched with 20% rice, wheat, or soybean bran, or combination of 10% of two of these supplements. The substrates were humidified with a 0.1% mate tea extract or water. Logs of Eucalyptus grandis were also used to cultivate the shiitake mushrooms. The antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract, corresponding to 40 mg of mushroom dry matter, was in some cases, depending on the isolate, able to inhibit both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K-12, independent of substrate composition or the growth stage of the mushrooms. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations varied according to the substrate on which the mushrooms were cultivated, being, generally, higher with cultivation on artificial rather than natural eucalyptus logs. It could be concluded that, in addition to the fungal isolate, substrate composition and, processing methods must be considered during the production of antimicrobial substance(s as well as in the mushroom nutritional composition.

  7. [The amount of sulphites in wild mushrooms from Iaşi and Suceava districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnaru, Claudia; Agoroaei, Luminiţa; Mircea, Cornelia; Tănase, C; Chinan, V; Bârsan, C; Butnaru, Elena

    2006-01-01

    As a part of a larger study regarding the contamination of mushrooms from Moldavia by chemical pollutants, we aimed at proposing sulphites determination in samples harvested from different zones from Iaşi and Suceava districts, from April to September 2005. We analysed elements (gills, cap, stem) of 68 mushrooms (48 different species). The sulphites were extracted with water, and were analysed spectrophotometrically in the aqueous extract by West-Gaeke method. Results were expressed in microg SO2/g dried product at 105 degrees C. Higher levels of sulphites were found in Clitopilus prunulus (865.36-stem) and Cantharelus cibarius (444.49-cap) for very good edible mushrooms; in Chalciporus piperatus (1016.13-stem) and Pseudohydnum gelatinosum (737.17-all mushroom) for mediocre edible mushrooms; in Panaeolus sphinctrinus (490.11-stem) for toxic ones. In 34 samples (50.74%), the highest level of sulphites was noted mostly in the mushroom stem than in its cap. The mushrooms capacity of sulphite accumulation is very varied, and the results do not allow a correlation between the amount of sulphites found in stem and the one found in cap or gills.

  8. The effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder as prebiotic agent on yoghurt quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupamahu, Ivana Putri Christantia; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Mushroom has already been known as a good source of proteins, carbohydrates and some vitamins. It is then the objective of this research to find out the effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder addition on yoghurt fermentation. The resulting yoghurt product will be monitor by measuring its total lactic acids, acidity (pH), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, and the organoleptic properties, including colour, taste, flavour and texture. The mushroom were dried and grinded into powder up to 200 mashes, continued with its addition in yoghurt making process. Mushroom powder concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% were added on the milk to be fermented. The result showed that mushroom powder addition resulting in increase lactic acid concentration, reduced its acidity, and increased LAB viability. Based on the lactic acid counts, acidity, and LAB viability, a concentration of 1.5% powder addition is the optimal concentration for fermentation, but the product is not preferred by the panelists. The addition of 1% mushroom powder resulting in increased yoghurt quality, and the preferred yoghurt product by most of the panelists. It is then proven that the addition of mushroom powder will increase yoghurt quality and public acceptance.

  9. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  10. Concentration of selected trace elements in Xerocomus badius mushroom bodies - a health risk for humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Mleczek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. As regards a signifi cant intake of wild growing edible mushrooms, especially in East and Central Europe, concentrations of toxic elements should be periodically analysed. The aim of the study was to assess changes in concentrations of selected trace elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn in a mushroom species, Xerocomus badius. Material and methods. Xerocomus badius fruiting bodies were collected from fi ve regions of Poland within the last 20 years (selected years when these mushrooms were growing. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS was used for determination of 10 elements while for Hg cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS was used. Results. Generally the results show no signifi cant differences in the accumulation effi ciency of individual elements by mushrooms collected from different regions of Poland, but signifi cant differences were observed in the accumulation effi ciency of these elements by mushrooms collected in particular years of their harvest. The highest accumulation indicated by bioconcentration factors (BCFs was observed for Cu (10.03, Hg (148.15 and Zn (4.88. Conclusion. Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn in the tested mushrooms were found to be lower than the values of the recommended dietary allowances (RDA, therefore the levels of these elements are not toxic for people. In our opinion, occasional consumption of these mushroom fruiting bodies within the last 20 years in Poland did not provide signifi cant amounts of analysed trace elements (no more than other foods.

  11. Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources

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    Tran Hai Bang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7 mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms.

  12. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, R; Das, Nilanjana

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q(max) 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q(max) 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  13. Investigation of antioxidative, antityrosinase and cytotoxic effects of extract of irradiated oyster mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutsuda Banlangsawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Fries. is rich in nutrition and has many medicinal properties such as antioxidant and anticancer activities. It also contains a high amount of ergosterol which can be converted to vitamin D2 when exposing to UV light. Oyster mushroom powder was irradiated with UV-B for 180 min and extracted with 95% ethanol. Mushroom extract was determined for vitamin D2 concentration, total phenolic compound, antioxidative activity, tyrosinase inhibitory property and cytotoxicity effect on human keratinocytes (HaCaT and murine melanoma cells (B16F10 by MTT assay. The results demonstrated that the concentration of vitamin D2 of irradiated oyster mushroom extract was 153.96 µg/g, which is 13 times higher than that of non-irradiated mushroom extract. Total phenolic content, antioxidative and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the two mushroom extracts were not significantly different. Neither oyster mushroom extract had a cytotoxic effect on keratinocytes, but on the other hand both inhibited the growth of murine melanoma cells.

  14. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Ganoderma-mushroom extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekar, S. U.; Khollam, Y. B.; Koinkar, P. M.; Mirji, S. A.; Mane, R. S.; Naushad, M.; Jadhav, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    Present study reports the biochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from aqueous medium by using the extract of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma, as a reducing and stabilizing agents. The Ag-NPs are prepared at room temperature by the reduction of Ag+ to Ag in aqueous solution of AgNO3. The resultant particles are characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement techniques. The formation of Ag-NPs is confirmed by recording the UV-visible absorption spectra for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) where peak around 427 nm. The prominent changes observed in FTIR spectra supported the reduction of Ag+ to Ag. The morphological features of Ag-NPs are evaluated from HRTEM. The spherical Ag-NPs are observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The particle size distribution is found to be nearly uniform with average particle size of 2 nm. The Ag-NPs aged for 15, 30, 60 and 120 days showed no profound effect on the position of SPR peak in UV-visible studies, indicating the protecting/capping ability of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma in the synthesis of Ag-NPs.

  15. Characteristics of radiocesium concentration by mushrooms and microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi [National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Kuwahara, Chikako [Kanagawa Prefectural Public Health Laboratory, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Shibata, Hisashi [Yamanashi Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Masuho, Yamanashi (Japan); Maeda, Yoko [Hitachi Instruments Service Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, Fumio [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The {sup 137}Cs values in cultured edible fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1 (P. ostreatus) were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those in the wild mushrooms. The concentration ratio (CR, {sup 137}Cs or Cs concentration in the dried cultured fruiting bodies or mycelia/{sup 137}Cs or Cs concentration in the fresh medium) suggested that {sup 137}Cs in the medium actively migrated into the mushroom. The {sup 137}Cs and stable Cs uptake by the cultured fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus were affected by the presence of K the same as the mycelia. Streptomyces lividans TK24 (S.lividans) and Streptomyces sp. TOHO-2 (Streptomyces sp.), one of the soil microorganisms, grown in the presence of Cs showed high accumulation of Cs in the mycelia. Elementary analysis of P. ostreatus and S. lividans were performed using a scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. The ratio of Cs in the stationary phase to that in the proliferation phase at the mycelial root of P. ostreatus formed in the early stage was about five times that at the mycelial tip. S. lividans and Streptomyces sp. grown on the YM agar plate containing CsCl showed white spots locating at a similar intervals. Concentrations of Cs, P, O and Mg in the white spots were higher than those in other regions. (author)

  16. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, C N; Sulyok, M; Frisvad, J C; Somorin, Y M; Warth, B; Houbraken, J; Samson, R A; Krska, R; Odebode, A C

    2013-04-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques and molecular studies, while the spectrum of microbial metabolites including mycotoxins was analyzed by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method covering 320 metabolites. Molds such as Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma and aflatoxigenic species of Aspergillus (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus) were recovered from all samples at varying levels. None of the mycotoxins addressed by regulatory limits in the EU was positively identified in the samples. However, 26 other fungal metabolites occurred at sub- to medium μg/kg levels in the samples, including aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin bio-precursors, bis-anthraquinone derivatives from Talaromyces islandicus, emerging toxins (e.g. enniatins) and other Fusarium metabolites, and clavine alkaloids. Although little is known on the toxicology of these substances, the absence of aflatoxins and other primary mycotoxins suggests that dried mushrooms may represent a relatively safe type of food in view of mycotoxin contamination.

  17. Decolourisation of mushroom farm wastewater by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Suyén; García Oduardo, Nora; Bermúdez Savón, Rosa C; Fernández Boizán, Maikel; Augur, Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Mushroom production on coffee pulp as substrate generates an intense black residual liquid, which requires suitable treatment. In the present study, Pleurotus ostreatus growth in wastewater from mushroom farm was evaluated as a potential biological treatment process for decolourisation as well as to obtain biomass (liquid inoculum). Culture medium components affecting mycelial growth were determined, evaluating colour removal. Laccase activity was monitored during the process. P. ostreatus was able to grow in non diluted WCP. Highest biomass yield was obtained when glucose (10 g/l) was added. The addition of this carbon source was necessary for efficient decolourisation. Agitation of the culture improved biodegradation of WCP as well as fungal biomass production. Laccase and manganese-independent peroxidase activities were detected during fungal treatment of the WCP by P. ostreatus CCEBI 3024. The laccase enzyme showed good correlation with colour loss. Both wastewater colour and pollution load (as chemical oxygen demand) decreased more than 50% after 10 days of culture. Phenols were reduced by 92%.

  18. Metal concentration and antioxidant activity of edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil

    2015-05-15

    This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.

  19. A case of mushroom shape temporal bone osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Rica; Fukui, Tsuyoshi; Miyasaka, Muneo; Yamada, Shinya

    2009-09-20

    A cranial vault Osteoma is relatively common benign tumor. Mushroom shaped skull osteoma is, however, extremely rare. Twenty seven years old female developed slow growing hard mass posterior to the ear. CT scan revealed a mushroom shaped osseous mass approximately 2.5 cm in diameter protruding from the temporal bone at the site of asterion. And the tumor was located over the right sigmoid sinus. The sigmoid sinus engraved approximately 4mm to the tumor and had a branching to one emissaries' vein. Operation was performed under general anesthesia. The tumor was excised first by cutting the base of the tumor, and then residual tumor was grinded using a round head cutting bar. A chisel dissection was not recommended because of underlining sinus. Histological findings were consistent with a benign osteoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. CT examination immediately done after operation revealed no evidence of intracranial hemorrhage, or injury of vessels. Osetoma was excised, and the surface of cranial bone at the operation site was smooth and cosmetically acceptable. At 6-months follow up, patient remains asymptomatic and recurrence free. CT examination with Multi Planer Reconstruction imaging or 3D reconstruction is highly recommended for the operational planning of cranial osteoma.

  20. Characterization of phytase activity from cultivated edible mushrooms and their production substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collopy, Patrick D; Royse, Daniel J

    2004-12-15

    Phytase is used commercially to maximize phytic acid degradation and to decrease phosphorus levels in poultry and swine manure. To determine phytase content in edible mushrooms, basidiomata of Agaricus bisporus and three specialty mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus cornucopiae) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were surveyed. Enzyme activity ranged from 0.046 to 0.074 unit/g of tissue for four A. bisporus types (closed and open whites and closed and open browns) grown at The Pennsylvania State University's Mushroom Test Demonstration Facility (MTDF). The addition of various nutrient supplements to phase II mushroom production substrate did not alter phytase activity in A. bisporus. Portabella mushrooms (open brown) obtained from a commercial farm had significantly higher levels of phytase activity (0.211 unit/g of tissue) compared to A. bisporus grown at the MTDF. Of the specialty mushrooms surveyed, maitake (G. frondosa) had 20% higher phytase activity (0.287 unit/g of tissue) than commercial portabella mushrooms. The yellow oyster mushroom (P. cornucopiae) ranked second in level of phytase activity (0.213 unit/g of tissue). Shiitake (L. edodes) contained the least amount of phytase in basidiomata (0.107 unit/g of tissue). Post-crop steam treatment (60 degrees C, 24 h) of SMS reduced phytase activity from 0.074 to 0.018 unit/g. Phytase was partially purified from commercially grown portabella basidiomata 314-fold with an estimated molecular mass of 531 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The optimum pH for activity was 5.5, but appreciable phytase activity was observed over the range of pH 5.0-8.0. Partially purified A. bisporus phytase was inactivated following a 10-min incubation at > or =60 degrees C.

  1. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health.

  2. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garibay-Orijel Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby. Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic.

  3. Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Raphael-John H.; Lu, Zhiren; Bogusz, Jaimee M.; Williams, Jennifer E.; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms exposed to sunlight or UV radiation are an excellent source of dietary vitamin D2 because they contain high concentrations of the vitamin D precursor, provitamin D2. When mushrooms are exposed to UV radiation, provitamin D2 is converted to previtamin D2. Once formed, previtamin D2 rapidly isomerizes to vitamin D2 in a similar manner that previtamin D3 isomerizes to vitamin D3 in human skin. Continued exposure of mushrooms to UV radiation results in the production of lumisterol2 and ...

  4. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.; Villesen, P.

    2004-01-01

    of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom...... family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated...

  5. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibuhwa Donatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Methods Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Results Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7% as an alternative

  6. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange. Imbach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span of fruiting body harvests.

  7. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.; Villesen, P.;

    2004-01-01

    of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom...... family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated...

  8. Rime Mushrooms - Extreme Rime Ice Buildup on Mountain Summits of Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes are known among mountain climbers for a meteorological phenomenon that occurs there but is unknown in many other mountain areas. The phenomenon is the buildup of rime ice in large bulbous or mushroom-shaped accretions on the windward side of projecting mountain summits, ridges and exposed near-vertical rock faces. These "ice mushrooms" have never been investigated scientifically. This talk will introduce the audience to ice mushrooms, describe where they are found, consider the meteorological factors leading to their formation, and illustrate how they are negotiated by mountain climbers using photographs and descriptions from Southern Patagonia.

  9. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta F. Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mold aeroallergens might explain severe food reactions to cross-reacting homologs mushroom proteins.

  10. [Comparative histology of mushroom bodies in carnivorous beetles of the suborder polyphaga (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom bodies in beetles of the families Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Cantharidae, Trogossitidae, Peltidae, Cleridae, Malachiidae, and Coccinellidae are shown to be rather poorly developed. The calyx region of the mushroom bodies in these beetles never forms two separate cups, and the peduncular apparatus includes a unified shaft almost over its entire length. Only the pedunculus contains two separate shafts in a few cases. Two proliferative centers consisting of one to three neuroblasts are often found in each Kenyon cell group. The shift from carnivorous to feeding on pollen or leaves, which has taken place in some taxa, does not visibly affect the degree of mushroom body development.

  11. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercu, V., E-mail: vbercu@gmail.co [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Negut, C.D., E-mail: dnegut@nipne.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Duliu, O.G., E-mail: duliu@b.astral.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania)

    2010-12-15

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of {gamma}-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel-Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom-Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle-Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom-Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  12. [Leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): mushroom body simplification in the course of progressive evolution of the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Members of different subfamilies of Chrysomelidae differ strongly in the degree of mushroom body development. The mushroom bodies are especially strongly developed (with the calyx in the form of large cups and double shafts of the peduncular apparatus) in the evolutionarily primitive subfamilies Sagrinae and Criocerinae, and considerably reduced in members of more evolved subfamilies, with the calyx region weakly developed and shafts of the peduncular apparatus fused together. It is suggested that this mushroom body reduction can be related to the closer connection of the head with the prothorax, which is found in the more evolved leaf beetle subfamilies.

  13. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Ting; Wasser, Solomon P

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs

  14. Purification and characterization of phytase with a wide pH adaptation from common edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea (Straw mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijing; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-02-01

    A novel phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea (Straw mushroom). The isolation procedure involved successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel, Q-Sepharose and Superdex-75. The enzyme was a monomeric protein and was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel, but was adsorbed on Q-Sepharose. The enzyme was purified 51.6-fold from the crude extract with 25.9% yield. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence GEDNEHDTQA exhibited low homology to the other reported phytases. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme was 5 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was quite stable over the pH range of 3.0 to 9.0 with less than 30% change in its activity, suggesting that it can be used in a very wide pH range. The enzyme exhibited broad substrate selectivity towards various phosphorylated compounds, but lacked antifungal activity against tested plant pathogens.

  15. Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belle, J S; Heisenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the "original" genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8790424

  16. Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belle, J S; Heisenberg, M

    1996-09-03

    Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the "original" genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors.

  17. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Ha Thi; Wang, Chun-Li

    2015-03-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28℃. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms.

  18. Brown mushroom symptom expression following infection of an Agaricus bisporus crop with MVX associated dsRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Archibald, Caoimhe; Ruggiero, Angela; Grogan, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Mushroom Virus X (MVX) is associated with a range of symptoms observed in mushroom crops. The most prominent symptom in Ireland is the occurrence of 'brown' or 'off-white' mushrooms in white strain crops. The browning symptoms are associated with the presence of four low molecular weight dsRNAs: MVX(0.6), MVX(0.8), MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0), however viral dsRNAs also occur in non-symptomatic mushrooms. Three virus-infected mushroom cultures containing MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0) were used to infect experimental crops at different rates and at different times in the crop cycle to test the effect on symptom expression. Mushroom colour was measured by chromometer, and the ΔE value calculated. RT-PCR was used to test for the presence of MVX(1.8) dsRNA in harvested mushrooms. Results indicate that following infection, browning symptom expression is variable both within and between crops. Control mushrooms from 1st and 2nd flush had ΔE values of 7-12, with most being 10 while 2nd flush mushrooms had ΔE values similar to controls. Only mushrooms with ΔE > 15 appeared visibly brown or off colour. The transient and inconsistent nature of MVX-associated browning symptoms is discussed.

  19. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Ha Thi

    2015-01-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28℃. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms. PMID:25892910

  20. Effect of different packaging films on postharvest quality and selected enzyme activities of Hypsizygus marmoreus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zengtao; Wang, Yaosong; Feng, Zhiyong; Tan, Qi

    2008-12-24

    Freshly harvested Hypsizygus marmoreus mushrooms were packaged using different packaging films, and physiological changes associated with postharvest deterioration, together with the activities of selected enzymes thought to play a role in senescence, were monitored during subsequent storage for 16-24 days at 4 degrees C and 65-70% relative humidity. A biaxially oriented polypropylene film (BOPP) maintained the postharvest appearance of the mushrooms most effectively by significantly reducing the incidence of unsightly aerial hyphae on the pileal surface and restricting mushroom softening. These samples also exhibited smaller initial decreases in soluble protein, smaller increases in reducing sugar content, and lower levels of malondialdehyde accumulation during early storage. Smallest increases in proteinase activity were recorded in samples wrapped with BOPP and polyoletin packaging, and superoxide dismutase and polyphenol oxidase levels were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the former. Choice of packaging can significantly affect postharvest quality loss in H. marmoreus and improve mushroom shelf life.

  1. The influence of compost on carbohydrates and minerals content in the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on the carbohydrates and mineral composition of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus was carried out. In this study the strain Somycel 11 was used. It was found that mannitol, glucose and fructose contents in mushrooms growing on broiler chicken manure were significantly higher than on horse manure. Noticeable differences of macro- and microelement contents were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost. Phosphorus content in mushroom tissue of the first three flushes growing on horse manure was 2.7 times higher than in those from broiler chicken manure. Boron level in mushrooms in all flushes growing on broiler chicken manure was four times higher as compared with that on horse manure.

  2. Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Mushrooms as Influenced by Physiological and Environmental Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Bech, K.; Lundsten, K.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of irradiation with β (10 MeV fast electrons)- and γ-rays were studied on several characters in strains of the cultured mushroom under different physiological and environmental conditions, including uncut and cut mushrooms, tightness of packing, and relative humidity. Weight loss...... was greatest in the non-irradiated mushrooms owing to evaporation from an increased surface area resulting from expansion and ripening which were greatly retarded in the irradiated samples. Twenty-five krads of β- or γ-rays had a significant, but transitory, effect on the veil opening. The inhibition became...... opening rates. Expansion and elongation were retarded significantly by 100 krads. The effect improved further with increasing dose. Irradiation improved the skin colour when the mushrooms were stored uncovered or in boxes with perforated PVC-foil. The opposite was the case when the boxes were sealed...

  3. Dried shiitake (Lentinulla edodes and oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms as a good source of nutrient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Reguła

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to presented in literature potential health benefits of shiitake Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegl. and oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. Kumm., chemical composition as well as Fe, Cu and Zn ions sorption (in conditions related to human digestive tract by dried shiitake and oyster were investigated. Both dried mushrooms had the high content of dietary fiber, Fe, Cu, Mg, K but low of fat, Na and Ca. Relatively low sorption of micronutrients was found in pH = 1.8, while the high sorption of Cu and Fe was observed in pH = 8.7. Dried mushrooms satisfied the maximum permissible level standards concerning toxic metals. The results of the research suggest that dried shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be used as additives in food products.

  4. Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed A. Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents.

  5. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  6. Nutraceutical properties of the methanolic extract of edible mushroom Cantharellus cibarius (Fries)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Vunduk, Jovana; Zizak, Zeljko; Niksic, Miomir; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    The methanolic extract of the wild edible mushroom Cantharellus cibarius Fr. (chanterelle) was analyzed for in vitro antioxidative, cytotoxic, antihypertensive and antibacterial activities. Various primary and secondary metabolites were found. Phenols were the major antioxidant components found

  7. Mushrooms-Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique: Exploring a "Third Food Kingdom"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo Feeney, Mary; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms' increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers' efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms' nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology.

  8. On the Basket Stinkhorn Mushroom Phallus merulinus (Phallaceae in Mangalore, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Sridhar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Basket Stinkhorm Mushroom Phallus merulinus is reported from the monocot debris of Mangalore University Arbortum. Its occurrence, growth and characteristics are compared with other Phallus spp.

  9. Drosophila Mushroom Bodies Are Dispensable for Visual, Tactile, and Motor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Reinhard; Wittig, Tobias; Liu, Li; Wustmann, Gerold; Eyding, Dirk; Heisenberg, Martin

    1998-01-01

    A total of 18 associative learning/memory tests have been applied to Drosophila melanogaster flies lacking mushroom bodies. Only in paradigms involving chemosensory cues as conditioned stimuli have flies been found to be compromised by a block in the mushroom body pathway. Among the learning tasks not requiring these structures are a case of motor learning (yaw torque/heat), a test of the fly’s spatial orientation in total darkness, conditioned courtship suppression by mated females, and nine different examples of visual learning. The latter used the reinforcers of heat, visual oscillations, mechanical shaking, or sucrose, and as conditioned stimuli, color, intensity contrast, as well as stationary and moving visual patterns. No forms of consolidated memory have been tested in mushroom body-less flies. With respect to short-term memory the mushroom bodies of Drosophila are specially required for chemosensory learning tasks, but not for associative learning and memory in general. PMID:10454381

  10. A Mushroom-shaped Structure from the Impact of a Cloud with the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Kudoh, T

    2004-01-01

    We propose that the mushroom-shaped structure of the Galactic worm GW 123.4--1.5 is created by a cloud collision with the Galactic gas disk. A hydrodynamic simulation shows that a mushroom-shaped structure is created after the cloud crosses the Galactic midplane. The lifetime of the mushroom-shaped structure is of order the dynamical time scale of the disk, \\sim 10^7 years. We find that the velocities across the cap of the mushroom-shaped structure in the simulation are consistent with the observed values. The simulation also predicts a structure on the opposite side of the Galactic plane which is created by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability after the cloud passes through the disk.

  11. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps.

  12. Royal sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis Ka21 (higher Basidiomycetes), as a functional food in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Liu, Ying; Motoi, Masuro; Ohno, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    The Royal Sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis, is used as a natural health product. In Japan, however, the quality control of some of these mushroom products has been viewed as a safety problem. Focusing on the quality control of A. brasiliensis KA21, we have performed several safety studies. To date, we have established evidence that this mushroom can be used safely as an immunostimulant and to mediate biochemical parameters associated with obesity or diabetes. Furthermore, to improve the manufacturing process of this mushroom, we have studied the relationship between its pharmaceutical actions and the conditions of its cultivation and thermal management. The purpose of this review is to report the findings of basic and clinical studies of the fruit body of A. brasiliensis KA21.

  13. Mushroom β-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Jhen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-β production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides.

  14. Evaluation of Water hyacinth and Paddy Straw Waste for Culture of Oyster Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Nageswaran, M.; Gopalakrishnan, A.; M. Ganesan; Vedhamurthy, A.

    2003-01-01

    Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) was evaluated at ratios of 25, 50 and 75% with paddy straw ( Oryza sativa L.) for oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivation. There was an increase in yield with decreasing ratio waterhyacinth.

  15. Evaluation of Waterhyacinth and Paddy Straw Waste for Culture of Oyster Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Nageswaran, M.; Gopalakrishnan, A.; M. Ganesan; Vedhamurthy, A.

    2003-01-01

    Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) was evaluated at ratios of 25, 50 and 75% with paddy straw ( Oryza sativa L.) for oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivation. There was an increase in yield with decreasing ratio waterhyacinth.

  16. Spent mushroom substrate, SMS; ‘livestock manure’ according to the Nitrate Directive or compost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, G.

    2014-01-01

    SMS (Spent Mushroom Substrate) is zeer stabiel. De hoeveelheid stikstofmineralen in SMS is even laag als in andere compostmengsels en stukken lager dan in vaste bemesting. Het risico van lekken van N-mineraal van SMS is beperkt.

  17. 75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES: Effective Date: February 17...

  18. Studies concerning heavy metals bioaccumulation of wild edible mushrooms from industrial area by using spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Cristiana; Stihi, Claudia; Busuioc, Gabriela; Gheboianu, Anca Irina; Popescu, Ion V

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the heavy metal content of the fruiting bodies of four species of wild edible mushrooms and their respective substrates. The samples were collected from Dambovita County, Romania, at various distances from of a metal smelter, to asses the concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd in the wild edible mushrooms and their substrate using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry together with Flame Atomic Absorption (FAAS) spectrometry. A quantitative evaluation of the relationship of element uptake by mushrooms from substrate was made by calculating the coefficient accumulation (K(a)). A high accumulation of Zn (K(a) range 1.01 to 2.01) was observed in mushrooms growing in the vicinity of the metal smelter.

  19. Effect of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Physical and Chemical Properties and Enzymic Activity of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hairu YU; Xue LI; Xin ZHANG; Changming GE; Renzhe PIAO; Meishan LI; Zongjun CUI; Hongyan ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the substitution substrate for rice seedling on upland fields,this paper uses spent mushroom substrate to study the physical and chemical properties of substrate,enzymic activity and number of tillers during the cultivation of rice seedling on upland fields.The results show that at the three stages of rice seedling cultivation( two-leaf stage,three-leaf stage,four-leaf stage),the content of organic matter and EC in spent mushroom substrate is higher than in the control soil,p H is within the range suitable for the growth of rice,and other nutrients( total nitrogen,total phosphorus,total potassium,available nitrogen,available phosphorus) are slightly different in different periods;except phosphatase,there are significant differences in urease,catalase and sucrase between spent mushroom substrate and the control soil; the number of tillers under spent mushroom substrate is larger than under the control.

  20. Feasibility of flotation concentration of fungal spores as a method to identify toxigenic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzle LJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lisa J Bazzle,1 Marc A Cubeta,2 Steven L Marks,1 David C Dorman3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Center for Integrated Fungal Research, 3Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Purpose: Mushroom poisoning is a recurring and challenging problem in veterinary medicine. Diagnosis of mushroom exposure in animals is hampered by the lack of rapid diagnostic tests. Our study evaluated the feasibility of using flotation concentration and microscopic evaluation of spores for mushroom identification. Evaluation of this method in living animals exposed to toxigenic mushrooms is limited by ethical constraints; therefore, we relied upon the use of an in vitro model that mimics the oral and gastric phases of digestion. Methods: In our study, mycologist-identified toxigenic (poisonous and nontoxigenic fresh mushrooms were collected in North Carolina, USA. In phase 1, quantitative spore recovery rates were determined following magnesium sulfate, modified Sheather's sugar solution, and zinc sulfate flotation (n=16 fungal species. In phase 2, mushrooms (n=40 fungal species were macerated and digested for up to 2 hours in a salivary and gastric juice simulant. The partially digested material was acid neutralized, filtered, and spores concentrated using zinc sulfate flotation followed by microscopic evaluation of spore morphology. Results: Mean spore recovery rates for the three flotation fluids ranged from 32.5% to 41.0% (P=0.82. Mean (± standard error of the mean Amanita spp. spore recovery rates were 38.1%±3.4%, 36.9%±8.6%, and 74.5%±1.6% (P=0.0012 for the magnesium sulfate, Sheather's sugar, and zinc sulfate solutions, respectively. Zinc sulfate flotation following in vitro acid digestion (phase 2 yielded spore numbers adequate for microscopic visualization in

  1. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    OpenAIRE

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules....

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden, the Tiger Milk mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sook Shien; Tan, Nget Hong; Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Tan, Chon Seng; Ng, Szu Ting

    2014-01-01

    Background The sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) is used as a traditional medicine to relieve cough, asthma and chronic hepatitis. The traditional uses of the sclerotium are presumably related to its anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the sclerotial powder of L. rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) cultivar TM02. Methods The anti-acute inflammatory activity of the scl...

  3. Analysis of Price and Product Competition from Imports in the Preserved Mushrooms Market in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Trudi; Fleming, Euan M.; Villano, Renato A.

    2006-01-01

    The Australian preserved mushrooms industry is one of a number of industries in the horticultural sector that is under threat from cheaper imported products. The Australian Customs Service is currently investigating the alleged dumping of Chinese imported cans of preserved mushrooms that feature prominently on supermarket shelves. Evidence exists that cheaper imported Chinese products have incurred injury in the Australian market. These Chinese imports have penetrated the Australian preserved...

  4. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Aguilar, Luis Enrique; Montoya, Adriana; Kong, Alejandro; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto

    2014-03-05

    We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus

  5. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms.

  6. Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R; Brophy, Sara K

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, over one million women will be newly diagnosed with breast cancer in the next year. Moreover, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the USA. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that consumption of dietary mushrooms can protect against breast cancer. In this study, we tested and compared the ability of five commonly consumed or specialty mushrooms to modulate cell number balance in the cancer process using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hot water extracts (80°C for 2 h) of maitake (MT, Grifola frondosa), crimini (CRIM, Agaricus bisporus), portabella (PORT, Agaricus bisporus), oyster (OYS, Pleurotus ostreatus) and white button (WB, Agaricus bisporus) mushrooms or water alone (5% v/v) were incubated for 24 h with MCF-7 cells. Cellular proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly (P mushrooms, with MT and OYS being the most effective. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, an often used mitochondrion-dependent marker of proliferation, was unchanged although decreased (P > 0.05) by 15% with OYS extract. Lactate dehydrogenase release, as a marker of necrosis, was significantly increased after incubation with MT but not with other test mushrooms. Furthermore, MT extract significantly increased apoptosis, or programmed cell death, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl end labeling method, whereas other test mushrooms displayed trends of ∼15%. The total numbers of cells per flask, determined by hemacytometry, were not different from control cultures. Overall, all test mushrooms significantly suppressed cellular proliferation, with MT further significantly inducing apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. This suggests that both common and specialty mushrooms may be chemoprotective against breast cancer.

  7. Growth and Yield Response of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Grown on Different Locally Available Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus production is low despite its high demand in Swaziland. Most communal farmers dispose of their agricultural waste while it can be used usefully as substrates for the production of mushrooms. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different agricultural wastes used as mushroom substrates on growth, development and yield of mushroom. The substrates investigated were banana leaves, sugarcane tops, maize stover and maize stover and cobs (1:1 dry mass/dry mass. The study was conducted at the University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture-Luyengo Campus, at the Crop Production’s mushroom laboratory. Sterilization of substrates was done at the Malkerns Research station. Pleurotus ostreatus was evaluated for growth and yield using four replicate bags of sugarcane tops, maize stover, maize stover and cobs and banana leaves as substrates. The moist substrates were sterilised, packed in heat-resistant plastic bags, seeded with 2-4% spawn and incubated for 3-3.5 months. Yield of each mushroom flush, marketable yield, pileus diameter and stipe length were measured and recorded. For the first flash the significantly (p<0.05 highest yield was obtained from maize stover and cobs followed in decreasing order by banana leaves, sugarcane tops and lastly maize stover gave the least yield. The trend was similar for the second and third flash except that in the third flash sugar cane tops produced mushroom of higher yield than banana leaves, similar trends were measured for the other mushroom attributes. The maize stover and cobs substrate gave the highest yield which was 221.7, 189.2 and 107.9 g in the first, second and third flashes, respectively.

  8. Determination of nutritive changes of canned mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during storage period

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Caglarlrmak; Kemal Unal; Semih Otles

    2001-01-01

    Mushrooms (A. bisporus) have a high nutritive value. Consuming fresh mushrooms is not productive because of enzyme activity and other limiting factors. The canning process is one food treatment that provides long product shelf-life. The changes of nutrients were determined by proximate composition: fat, protein, moisture, ash, and total carbohydrates. Minerals: Zn, Cu, K, Na, Ca, Cr, and P. Water soluble vitamins: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), folic acid, pantothenic acid, ni...

  9. Impact of fungicides used for wheat treatment on button mushroom cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Jelena Vukojević; Mirjana Stajić; Dejana Kosanović; Emil Rekanović; Miloš Stepanović; Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić

    2012-01-01

    Little information is currently available on the potential environmental risks that fungicides applied during wheat cultivation and remaining in straw may have for mushroom production. The substrate for many cultivated mushrooms is mostly based on cereal straw. This review aimed to answer the question whether residues of the fungicides commonly used in wheat production and remaining in straw could be directly or indirectly responsible for changes in yields ...

  10. Study About Origin of Radioactive Cesium in Wild Mushroom in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    鎌田, 素之; 角田, 光淳

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive cesium, released from the Fukushima I nuclear power plant that destroyed by Great East Japan Earthquake, has been detected from various agricultural products. Especially, wild mushrooms are known to assimilate radioactive cesium and other heavy metals. In this study, we focused on the concentration of radioactive cesium in wild mushrooms in Japan, calculated the ratio of 134Cs/137Cs and discussed on their origin whether they were released from the Fukushima I nuclear power plant o...

  11. The heavy metals content in wild growing mushrooms from burdened Spiš area

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Slávik; Tomáš Tóth; Július Árvay; Ľuboš Harangozo; Miriama Kopernická

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the rate of entry of heavy metals into the edible parts of wild mushrooms, from central Spiš area. The area is characterized by extremely high content of heavy metals particularly mercury in abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The toxicity of heavy metals is well known and described. Known is also the ability of fungi to accumulate contaminants from substrates in which mushrooms grow. We have collected commonly consumed species of mushr...

  12. Buried treasure: Unlocking the secrets of medicinal mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Walton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we investigate the potential of plants and fungi as a source of beneficial molecules for human health. We explore the weird and wonderful world of the mushroom and examine how Western medicine still has a lot to learn from Eastern practices dating back thousands of years. We also discuss a study further supporting claims that flaxseed, the plant kingdom's richest source of omega-3 fatty acids, can have lipid-lowering and fat-busting properties in the right physiological context. Finally, this issue also includes several validation studies of medical procedures or devices that define optimal conditions for their use in Asian populations.

  13. Irreversible competitive inhibitory kinetics of cardol triene on mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Hu, Yong-Hua; Yang, Mei-Hua; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Qiu, Ling; Zhou, Xing-Wang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-12-22

    Cardol triene was first purified from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of this compound on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were studied. The results of the kinetic study showed that cardol triene was a potent irreversible competitive inhibitor and the inactivation was of the complexing type. Two molecules of cardol triene could bind to one molecule of tyrosinase and lead to the complete loss of its catalytic activity. The microscopic rate constants were determined for the reaction of cardol triene with the enzyme. The anti-tyrosinase kinetic research of this study provides a comprehensive understanding of inhibitory mechanisms of resorcinolic lipids and is beneficial for the future design of novel tyrosinase inhibitors.

  14. [DNA quantification in nuclei of cultivated mushroom with DAPI staining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheva, E V; Volkova, V N; Kamzolkina, O V

    2004-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach is actively cultivated amphithallic basidiomycete, in which various strains are primary homothallic, heterothallic or secondary homothallic. Countings of relative nuclear DNA content by means of DAPI stain and its comparison in different strains can help to understand the mushroom's life cycle features. The authors for the first time observed change of nuclear phases in basidia of A. bisporus strains with different types of life cycle and revealed that DNA content in diploid nuclei is about 1.3 times higher than in haploid ones. The method is highly sensitive and can be used for quantitative measurings of nuclear DNA even in objects with nuclei of about 1 mkm in diameter.

  15. Context generalization in Drosophila visual learning requires the mushroom bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wolf, Reinhard; Ernst, Roman; Heisenberg, Martin

    1999-08-01

    The world is permanently changing. Laboratory experiments on learning and memory normally minimize this feature of reality, keeping all conditions except the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as constant as possible. In the real world, however, animals need to extract from the universe of sensory signals the actual predictors of salient events by separating them from non-predictive stimuli (context). In principle, this can be achieved ifonly those sensory inputs that resemble the reinforcer in theirtemporal structure are taken as predictors. Here we study visual learning in the fly Drosophila melanogaster, using a flight simulator,, and show that memory retrieval is, indeed, partially context-independent. Moreover, we show that the mushroom bodies, which are required for olfactory but not visual or tactile learning, effectively support context generalization. In visual learning in Drosophila, it appears that a facilitating effect of context cues for memory retrieval is the default state, whereas making recall context-independent requires additional processing.

  16. Variations in IC(50) values with purity of mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Elizabeth; Fritch, George; Fuller, Autumn; Wolfe, Jordan; Wright, Jessica; Flurkey, William

    2009-09-02

    The effects of various inhibitors on crude, commercial and partially purified commercial mushroom tyrosinase were examined by comparing IC(50) values. Kojic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, tropolone, methimazole, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate had relatively similar IC(50) values for the crude, commercial and partially purified enzyme. 4-Hexylresorcinol seemed to have a somewhat higher IC(50) value using crude extracts, compared to commercial or purified tyrosinase. Some inhibitors (NaCl, esculetin, biphenol, phloridzin) showed variations in IC(50) values between the enzyme samples. In contrast, hydroquinone, lysozyme, Zn(2+), and anisaldehyde showed little or no inhibition in concentration ranges reported to be effective inhibitors. Organic solvents (DMSO and ethanol) had IC(50) values that were similar for some of the tyrosinase samples. Depending of the source of tyrosinase and choice of inhibitor, variations in IC(50) values were observed.

  17. Detection of irradiated mushrooms and kiwi fruits by thermoluminescence measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangl, Th.; Leitner-Wild, E.; Hille, P.; Nowotny, R.

    1993-03-01

    Control methods for the detection of irradiated food are needed since exposure to ionizing radiation is a new technique of commercial food processing applied in many countries. A simple and rapid method for the identification of irradiated fresh kiwi fruits and mushrooms is presented. Thermoluminescence (TL) signals of irradiated dried herbs and spices are known to be due to inorganic dust particles adherent to the surface and may be used for the detection of radiation exposure. In the technique described here the discrimination between radiation exposed food samples and unirradiated samples was improved by the preparation of TL samples enriched in extraneous inorganic material and further by the determination of the optimal integration interval giving the highest signal to background ratios. This method yields a more reliable discrimination than whole sample TL techniques.

  18. Thermoelectric Effects in Simulations of Phase Change Memory Mushroom Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraclas, Azer; Bakan, Gokhan; Gokirmak, Ali; Silva, Helena

    2012-02-01

    Phase change memory is a potential candidate for the future of high-speed non-volatile memory, however significant improvements in cell design is crucial for its success in the mainstream market. Due to the asymmetric geometry of phase change mushroom cells and the high temperature gradients generated, thermoelectric effects play a key role in determining energy consumption, cell performance, and reliability. In this study, rotationally symmetric 2D finite element simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics are implemented for GeSbTe (GST). Temperature dependent material parameters (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and Seebeck coefficient) are included in the model for accuracy. Switching the direction of current shows a large change in peak molten volume within the cell, as well as current and power consumption.

  19. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Solak, Mehmet Halil; Cetinkaya, Serap

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Al, Ca, Mg, and K in Agaricus campestris, Agrocybe cylindracea, Collybia dryophila, Helvella leucopus, Russula delica, Tricholoma auratum, Amanita ovoidea, Melanoleuca excissa, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula chloroides, Volvoriella gloiocephala, Lyophyllum decastes, Morcella angusticeps, Morchella esculenta and Morcella eximia collected from Isparta, Mugla, and Osmaniye provinces (Turkey) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion. The intake of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. cylindracea and H. leucopus (for Cd) for the consumer.

  20. Interactions between Xylotrophic Mushrooms and Mycoparasitic Fungi in Dual-Culture Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Badalyan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen wood-decaying mushroom species (Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma sp., Hypholoma fasciculare, H. sublateritium, Kühneromyces mutabilis, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus tigrinus, Pholiota alnicola, Ph. aurivella, Ph. destruens, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Pl. ostreatus, Polyporus subarcularius, Po. squamosus, Po. varius and Schizophyllum commune were paired with three Trichoderma species (T. harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, and T. viride and Clonostachys rosea in dual-culture experiments on an agar-based medium. Xylotrophic mushrooms and mycoparasitic fungi in general showed similar competitive ability; deadlock, or mutual inhibition after mycelial contact, was observed in 45.6% of pairings, while stable inhibition at a distance occurred in 4.4% of pairings. Replacement, or overgrowth of xylotrophic mushroom by a mycoparasitic fungus was observed in 29.4% of pairings; the opposite, overgrowth of the xylotrophic mushroom on the mycoparasitic fungus in 20.6%. of pairings. Of the xylotrophic mushrooms, Pl. ostreatus, Ganoderma sp., F. velutipes and H. fasciculare, showed the highest competitive ability against mycoparasitic fungi. Of the mycoparasitic fungi, T. harzianum showed the strongest competitive activity against xylotrophic mushrooms.

  1. Mushroom Poisoning in the Southwest Region of the Caspian Sea, Iran: A Retrospective Study

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    Alireza Badsar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mushroom poisoning as a medical emergency can be a challengingproblem for physicians. Despite the vast resources of poisonous mushrooms inIran, few studies have been done in this regard, especially in the southwest regionof the Caspian Sea that is very suitable for mushroom growth. Therefore, the aimof this study was to evaluate our experience with mushroom poisoning in thisregion.Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the records of 102 patients who wereadmitted to the Emergency Department of Razi Hospital of Rasht, the only referraldepartment in this region, from May 2006 to May 2011. Data were analyzed byChi-square test, ANOVA, and student’s t-test.Results: The patients’ age ranged from 13 to 75 years and 47 of them were maleand the rest 55 were female. Overall, 57.8% of mushroom poisoning casesoccurred in patients from urban areas. Most incidences were reported betweenSeptember and October, the rainy season in Guilan. Except for four patients withtachycardia, others had stable vital signs. The most frequent symptoms (86.4%were nausea and vomiting. Complete blood cell count revealed that 28.4% of thepatients had leukocytosis but all of them had platelet counts of less than 100000.Conclusions: This study showed that all cases had mild to moderate symptomsthat were treated by simple supportive therapies. This suggested that mushroomspecies in our region are less dangerous but further studies need to establish whattoxins and species are responsible for mushroom toxicity.

  2. Quality and shelf life of packaged fresh sliced mushrooms stored at two different temperatures

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    E. GONZÁLEZ-FANDOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensory and microbiological quality of sliced mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L. packaged in films of perforated and non-perforated PVC and stored at 3 and 9ºC, was studied. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, colour, weight loss, sensory attributes, mesophiles, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, aerobic and anaerobic spore formers were determined. The atmosphere generated with the perforated PVC film was similar to that of air atmosphere at 3 or 9ºC. T.he non-perforated PVC film generated inside the packages CO2 : O2 concentrations of 3.4% : 8.1% at 3ºC and CO2 : O2 concentrations of 4.5% : 0.15% at 9ºC. Browning of mushrooms was lower at 3 than at 9ºC. The quality of sliced mushrooms packaged in perforated PVC and stored at 3ºC was adequate after 9 days. However, at 9ºC, the slice deformation and brown blotches incidence were severe after 9 days. The atmosphere generated with non-perforated PVC inhibited aerobic microorganism growth compared to mushrooms packaged in perforated PVC. At 3ºC, the shelf life of mushrooms packaged in non perforated PVC was around 13 days. However, the extremely low O2 atmospheres generated at 9ºC was accompanied by off-odours and growth of anaerobic spore formers, although the appearance of sliced mushrooms was acceptable.;

  3. Consumption of vitamin D2 enhanced mushrooms is associated with improved bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shin-Yu; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Kao, Ju-Po; Yang, Chung-Chun; Chiang, Shen-Shih; Mishchuk, Darya O; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2015-07-01

    Mushrooms are the best nonanimal food source of vitamin D2. Pulsed irradiation can enhance vitamin D2 in mushrooms quickly. We investigated the effect of supplementing high vitamin D2Pleurotus ferulae mushrooms in a mouse model of osteoporosis. Thirty-two female C57BL/6JNarl mice were divided into four groups including sham, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+nonpulsed mushroom (NPM) and OVX+pulsed mushroom (PM). After 23 weeks of treatment, serum samples were analyzed for osteoblast and osteoclast indicators, as well as metabolites using NMR spectroscopy. To examine bone density, femurs were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. The NPM and PM treatment mice showed increased bone density in comparison with OVX mice. In addition, the PM mice showed higher osteoblast and lower osteoclast indicators in comparison with OVX mice. Serum metabolomics analysis indicated several metabolites that were different in PM mice, some of which could be correlated with bone health. Taken together, these results suggest that pulsed irradiated mushrooms are able to increase bone density in osteoporotic mice possibly through enhanced bone metabolism. Further studies in humans are needed to show their efficacy in preventing osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Mushroom body miniature, a zinc-finger protein implicated in brain development of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Thomas; Clemens-Richter, Susanne; Twardzik, Thomas; Ebert, Anselm; Gramlich, Gertrud; Heisenberg, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The mushroom bodies are bilaterally arranged structures in the protocerebrum of Drosophila and most other insect species. Mutants with altered mushroom body structure have been instrumental not only in establishing their role in distinct behavioral functions but also in identifying the molecular pathways that control mushroom body development. The mushroom body miniature1 (mbm1) mutation results in grossly reduced mushroom bodies and odor learning deficits in females. With a survey of genomic rescue constructs, we have pinpointed mbm1 to a single transcription unit and identified a single nucleotide exchange in the 5′ untranslated region of the corresponding transcript resulting in a reduced expression of the protein. The most obvious feature of the Mbm protein is a pair of C2HC zinc fingers, implicating a function of the protein in binding nucleic acids. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that expression of the Mbm protein is not restricted to the mushroom bodies. BrdUrd labeling experiments indicate a function of Mbm in neuronal precursor cell proliferation. PMID:15375215

  5. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed.

  6. Dose- and time-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, P; Ozdín, L; Galbavý, S

    1998-03-01

    The effect of the dose of oyster mushroom in the diet (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0%) and of the period of application (8, 16, 28, and 52 wk) on cholesterol accumulation in blood and body organs was studied in weanling male Wistar rats fed a diet containing 0.3% cholesterol. Reduction of cholesterol in serum and body organs was found to be dependent on the amount of dietary oyster mushroom administered. A negative correlation between the mushroom dose and cholesterol level was found after 8 and 28 wk of feeding (r=-0.9821 and -0.9803, respectively; P < 0.02 for both cases). The dose of 1% oyster mushroom did not affect cholesterol levels in serum or body organs. A significant reduction of cholesterol levels was observed in serum (31-46%) and liver (25-30%) at a dose of 5% of oyster mushroom for all periods. Reduced cholesterol content in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) was also observed at this level. The highest dose of oyster mushroom induced a decrease in conjugated diene levels in erythrocytes and an increase in the levels of reduced glutathione in the liver and stimulated the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the liver in the final period of the experiment.

  7. Medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types

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    Leskošek-Čukalović Ida I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms like Ganoderma lucidum have been used for thousands of years as a traditional medicine in the Far East. Ganoderma received wide popularity as an eating mushroom with high nutritive value, but even more as medical fungi. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases: hepatitis, hypertension, insomnia, and even cancer. Due to its extraordinary action, it is often called 'Elixir of life', 'Food of gods' and 'Mushroom of universe'. The intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides (b-glucane inhibit the growth of several types of cancer. Mushroom produces triterpenes of which especially ganoderic acid showed cytotoxicity on primary tumor liver cells, inhibition of histamine release, hepatoprotective effect, stimulation of the immune system functions, inhibition of the aggregation of blood plates, etc. On the other hand, beer as a purely natural beverage obtained in the process of fermentation, contains a number of ingredients which are important for human organism, and in moderate usage has favorable reaction on the general health condition of the body. As such, beer is a very good basis for the development of a number of new products with defined pharmacodynamics influence. In this work, we have investigated the possibilities of using extracts of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types. The composition of mushroom, properties of the most important active ingredients, extraction procedures, and sensory characteristics of the beers on the basis of such extracts were determined. The most important parameters of quality and possibility of adjustments using extracts of different medicinal herbs were investigated.

  8. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province.

  9. Research Mushroom Medium%平菇培养基的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程梦婷

    2014-01-01

    平菇是日常生活中最常食用的食用菌之一,其营养丰富,特别是蛋白质、氨基酸、矿物质含量丰富,且口感好,因而广受人们欢迎。随着食用菌培养研究的深入,人们对平菇培养基的优化研究取得了可喜的成绩,在提高培养基的利用率、降低生产成本、提高平菇的生长速率等方面有了较大的改进。简要综述平菇培养基研究的现状。%This mushroom is one of the most commonly eaten mushroom in daily life, which is rich in nutrition, especially protein, amino acids, rich in mineral content, and good taste, which is widely welcomed by the people. With the in-depth study of mushroom cultivation, mushroom people on optimization of the medium has made gratifying achievements have been greatly improved in the medium to improve utilization, reduce production costs and improve other aspects of mushroom growth rate. A brief overview of the status of mushroom culture studies.

  10. Medicinal Mushroom Growth as Affected by Non-Axenic Casing Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. C. ZIED; M. T. A. MINHONI; J. KOPYTOWSKI-FILHO; L. BARBOSA; M. C. N. ANDRADE

    2011-01-01

    Ten different casing soils were collected from two soils at two depths (0.2 and 2.0 m below soil surface) to examine the relationships between the physical properties of non-axenic casing soil and yield, number and weight of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann. The results showed that soil clay content and bulk density were negatively correlated with the mushroom yield,respectively, but soil silt content and water-holding capacity were found to be positively correlated with the yield. The number of mushrooms was negatively correlated with soil water-holding capacity but positively correlated with soil clay, bulk density and porosity.The weight of mushroom was positively correlated with the content of soil fine sand and negatively correlated with the contents of soil coarse sand, total sand and clay. Neither soil depth nor different soil combinations affected the yield and number of mushrooms, but the mushroom weight was affected by the soil combinations and soil depth, so interplay in the fructification process with the physical characteristics of casing is complicated.

  11. Effects of mushroom waste on improvement of reclaimed soil quality in coal mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Li GUO; Qian LI; Xin-Ju LI; Yao-Lun ZHAO; Xin-Gang WANG

    2013-01-01

    Restoring soil quality is the main evaluation norm of the reclamation.In order to reveal the effects of mushroom waste on the quality improvement of reclaimed soil in coal mining areas,the physical,chemical and microbial characteristics of soil are studied.The results show clear improvement in the soil after using mushroom waste.Because of human cultivation and fertilization,cultivated soil after reclamation exhibits high comprehensive quality and the index of quality of surface soil reaches 0.64 and 0.73.The average index of surface soil quality is as high as 0.52 and 0.54.In comparison,the quality of reclaimed soil of forest land is low,with average index of 0.40.The effects of mushroom waste are mainly on the surface soil in the first 2 years after the application.After that period,with the decomposition of mushroom waste,soil quality index tends to be the same as the original soil.The quality of surface soil is higher than that of subsoil,especially after the application of mushroom waste,at which point the soil quality reaches a peak at about 15 cm.Cultivated soil after reclamation has great variance in quality,after the coefficient of 24.74%.Mushroom waste can reduce such variation,particularly with long-term use.The variance efficient falls to 3.59% after 3-year application.

  12. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  13. Pleurotus ostreatus: an oyster mushroom with nutritional and medicinal properties

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    Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Mushrooms constitute an integral part of the normal human diet and in recent times, the amounts of consumption have been raised greatly, which includes variety of species. The genus Pleurotus comprise about 40 different species that are commonly referred to as “Oyster mushroom”. Among several species of this genus, Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus is popularly consumed by all over the world due to their taste, flavor, high nutritional values and medicinal properties. Because of the presence of numerous nutritional compositions and various active ingredients in P. ostreatus, have been reported to have antidiabetic, antibacterial, anticholestrolic, antiarthritic, antioxidant, anticancer, eye health and antiviral activities. In this review, we particularly expose the high nutritional values of P. ostreatus, in relation to their potential medicinal usage which suggest that the P. ostreatus mushrooms are the most important nutraceutical functional foods. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.

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    Daniel Sliva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colon carcinogenesis was induced by the food-borne carcinogen (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine [PhIP] and inflammation (dextran sodium sulfate [DSS] in mice. Mice were treated with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg GLT/kg of body weight 3 times per week for 4 months. Cell proliferation, expression of cyclin D1 and COX-2 and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of GLT on XRE/AhR, PXR and rPXR was evaluated by the reporter gene assays. Expression of metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. GLT treatment significantly suppressed focal hyperplasia, aberrant crypt foci (ACF formation and tumor formation in mice exposed to PhIP/DSS. The anti-proliferative effects of GLT were further confirmed by the decreased staining with Ki-67 in colon tissues. PhIP/DSS-induced colon inflammation was demonstrated by the significant shortening of the large intestine and macrophage infiltrations, whereas GLT treatment prevented the shortening of colon lengths, and reduced infiltration of macrophages in colon tissue. GLT treatment also significantly down-regulated PhIP/DSS-dependent expression of cyclin D1, COX-2, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that GLT could be considered as an alternative dietary approach for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer.

  15. Radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms. Current measured values (State: 2014); Radioaktive Kontamination von Speisepilzen. Aktuelle Messwerte (Stand: 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabai, Eva; Hiersche, Lydia

    2015-09-15

    The report on the radioactive contamination of different wild edible mushrooms in southern Germany summarizes the actual situation in 2014 in comparison with the data since 2005. The mushrooms were fund in the regions contaminated as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl 1986. The data for Cs-137 and K-40 contamination of a large amount of wild edible mushrooms are tabulated for different sampling sites. Measured data of the years 2004 to 2013 are included.

  16. Mycophilic or mycophobic? Legislation and guidelines on wild mushroom commerce reveal different consumption behaviour in European countries.

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    Ursula Peintner

    Full Text Available Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour.

  17. Bioconcentration of artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms: in situ and in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dementyev, Dmitry V.; Manukovsky, Nikolai S.; Bolsunovsky, Alexander Ya.; Alexandrova, Yuliyana V. [Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Some areas of the Yenisei River basin are affected by the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC), producing weapons-grade plutonium. Flood plain soils of the Yenisei contain a wide range of artificial radionuclides, including transuranium elements, which can be accumulated by living organisms. Concentrations of artificial radionuclides and heavy metals accumulated by mushrooms may be several orders of magnitude higher than those accumulated by plants, and, thus, mushrooms may be used as bio-concentrators of radionuclides and heavy metals for bioremediation of contaminated areas. The purposes of this study were to investigate 1) species specificity of accumulation of artificial radionuclides by edible mushrooms in radioactively contaminated areas of the Yenisei River flood plain and 2) accumulation rates of artificial radionuclides, including transuranium elements, in mushrooms under laboratory conditions. Species specificity of accumulation of artificial radionuclides and uranium by mushrooms was analyzed for 12 species of edible mushrooms. The study was performed at the sites affected by MCC operation, which were divided into two groups: 1) the sites only affected by aerosol-bound radionuclides and 2) the sites that also received waterborne radionuclides. Field studies showed great interspecific variations in Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms. Activity concentrations of Cs-137 in bioindicator species Suillus granulatus and S. Luteus reached 10 kBq/kg dry weight. S. granulatus and S. luteus are concentrators of Cs-137, as suggested by the analysis of concentration factors (CFs), which reached 0.7-16 for these mushroom species. The CF of U-238 in fruiting bodies of the mushrooms was no greater than 0.11. Yenisei flood plain soils contain a wide range of transuranium elements, which can accumulate in environmental objects. Laboratory experiments on accumulation of Am-241 from solution by mycelium and Am-241 accumulation by fruiting bodies of mushrooms

  18. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) during postharvest storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Cheng T.; Wang, Chang T.; Cao, Y.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sun, B.G.; Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and physiological changes associated with postharvest

  19. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  20. The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

    2013-05-01

    Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The Effect of zeolite addition on viability of paddy straw mushroom spawn

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    DJUMHAWAN RATMAN PERMANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to increase the viability of the paddy straw mushroom spawn by adding natural stone on the media’s composition for the paddy straw mushroom spawn. Mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom was take from the pure development of the paddy straw mushroom which was planted on the various treatment for media e.i. 100% cotton media and rice bran + 0% zeolite (A, 75% cotton media and rice bran + 25% zeolite (B, 50% cotton media and rice bran + 50% zeolite (C, 25% cotton and rice bran + 75% zeolite (D, 0% cotton media and rice bran + 100% rice bran (E. Each treatment was observed for the length of mycelium, the concentration of reduced sugar, total carbon and water content, spawn media weight, pH and temperature. Results demonstrated that there is a positive effect of zeolite added to the paddy straw mushroom media. The zeolite able to adsorbed nutrient through its pores, so the mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom able to use the nutrient gradually and equally appropriate with its growth. Therefore the viability of the paddy straw mushroom is increase. Result showed that the B is the best viability in the Potetos Dectrose Agar (PDA media, that has viability power up to 50 days after inoculation and the temperature are 29,6 0C, then followed by treatment C, D, A and E, each has viability power up to 42; 38; 34; 22 days after inoculation and the maximum length of each mycelium are 17.5; 9.2; 0.9; 0.5 cm, but in the treatment D being contaminated by Aspergillus sp.

  2. Antibacterial, Antiradical Potential and Phenolic Compounds of Thirty-One Polish Mushrooms.

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    Natalia Nowacka

    Full Text Available Among many sources of natural bioactive substances, mushrooms constitute a huge and almost unexplored group. Fungal compounds have been repeatedly reported to exert biological effects which have prompted their use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of chemical composition and biological activity of 31 wild growing mushroom species (including saprophytic and parasitic from Poland.Qualitative and quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fourteen phenolic acids in the mushrooms analysed was performed. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts towards DPPH• free radical was examined. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus and Gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis microbial strains was analyzed.As a result, the first such broad report on polyphenolic composition, antiradical and antimicrobial potential of wild growing Polish mushrooms was developed. Mushroom extracts were found to contain both benzoic (protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, syringic and cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic. Total phenolic content in mushrooms ranged between 2.79 and 53.13 mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dried extract in Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum and Fomes fomentarius, respectively. Fungi showed much differentiated antiradical activity, from highly active F. fomentarius to poorly effective Russula fragilis (IC50 1.39 to 120.54 mg per mg DPPH•, respectively. A quite considerable relationship between phenolic content and antiradical activity has been demonstrated. Mushrooms varied widely in antimicrobial potential (MIC from 0.156 to 5 mg/ml. Generally, a slightly higher activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains was observed. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and biological activity

  3. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  4. Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells is not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

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    Ruud Wilbers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs affect T cells. Therefore we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation. The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells, however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydrate containing adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.

  5. Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; O'Mahony, Louise; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Collier, John; Fraser, William D; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is emerging worldwide and many studies now suggest its role in the development of several chronic diseases. Due to the low level of vitamin D naturally occurring in food there is a need for supplementation and use of vitamin D-enhanced products. The aim of the present study was to determine if daily consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased vitamin D status in free-living healthy adults or affected markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of ninety volunteers (aged 40-65 years) were randomly assigned to one of two 4-week studies: mushroom study (15 µg vitamin D2 or placebo mushroom powder) and capsule study (15 µg vitamin D3 or placebo capsules). Consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) by 128 % from baseline (3·9 (sd 1·9) nmol/l; P D3 increased significantly in the vitamin D3 capsule group (a 55 % increase from a baseline of 44.0 (sd 17·1) nmol/l; P Vitamin D status (25(OH)D) was affected only in the vitamin D3 group. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was lowered by vitamin D2 intake. Vitamin D2 from enhanced mushrooms was bioavailable and increased serum 25(OH)D2 concentration with no significant effect on 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D.

  6. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life.

  7. Optimization of Drying Process of Mushroom Powder Production from Pleurotus ostreatus using Response Surface Methodology

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    Nurcan Doğan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus that known as poplar, beech and oyster mushrooms is second generation after Agaricus bisporus with the fungal species. Fresh and processed mushrooms products are in great demand worldwide in terms of taste and flavor. Edible mushrooms produced in the world is consumed fresh 40-50%. However, due to the high moisture content and enzyme, harvested mushrooms that can be stored for about one week and shows rapid loss of quality in the storage process. This situation limits the consumption of fresh edible fungus, so the marketing of canned mushrooms, drying and freezing and storage technology has come to the fore. In this study, besides the drying, unlike other studies it is intended to optimize the pulverization of the fungus accordingto the food processing operation. As a result of optimization, drying conditions of 50 °C and 269.02 minutes was concluded as the most suitable drying standard. EC50 value, Total Phenolic Content and desirability rate are determinated respectively; 275.464, 0.762 and 0.976 in this norm.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; Lacroix, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Laberge, I.; Gagnon, M. (Canadian Irradiation Centre, Laval, PQ (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage.

  9. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF VINEYARD AND WINERY WASTES RECYCLING THROUGH IN VITRO CULTURES OF SOME EDIBLE MUSHROOM SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Every year, in Romania huge amounts of winery and vineyard wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vineyard wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes group, namely Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120–168 h. During the incubation time period, all the spawn cultures were maintained in special growing rooms, designed for optimal incubation at 23oC. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. All the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  10. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND IMAGE GALLERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, M; Mary Ramsey, M

    2006-11-05

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or 'sentinel-type' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. The review will consider the time of sampling, sample location characteristics, the radiocesium source term and other aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms. This review will focus on published data for mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide photographs and descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms to facilitate their collection for biomonitoring.

  11. Practical aspects of genetic identification of hallucinogenic and other poisonous mushrooms for clinical and forensic purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marek; Sekuła, Andrzej; Mleczko, Piotr; Olszowy, Zofia; Kujawa, Anna; Zubek, Szymon; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the usefulness of a DNA-based method for identifying mushroom species for application in forensic laboratory practice. Methods Two hundred twenty-one samples of clinical forensic material (dried mushrooms, food remains, stomach contents, feces, etc) were analyzed. ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was sequenced and the sequences were compared with reference sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information gene bank (GenBank). Sporological identification of mushrooms was also performed for 57 samples of clinical material. Results Of 221 samples, positive sequencing results were obtained for 152 (69%). The highest percentage of positive results was obtained for samples of dried mushrooms (96%) and food remains (91%). Comparison with GenBank sequences enabled identification of all samples at least at the genus level. Most samples (90%) were identified at the level of species or a group of closely related species. Sporological and molecular identification were consistent at the level of species or genus for 30% of analyzed samples. Conclusion Molecular analysis identified a larger number of species than sporological method. It proved to be suitable for analysis of evidential material (dried hallucinogenic mushrooms) in forensic genetic laboratories as well as to complement classical methods in the analysis of clinical material. PMID:25727040

  12. A New Unusual Ice-induced Sedimentary Structure: the Silt Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua, Zhong; Liangtian, Ni; Ningliang, Sun; Chuang, Liu; Bing, Hao; Mengchun, Cao; Xin, Chen; Ke, Luo; Shengxin, Liu; Leitong, Huang; Guanqun, Yang; Shaojie, Wang; Feifei, Su; Xuejing, He; Yanqiu, Xue

    2016-11-11

    Upon channel bars or point bars within the lows of the Yellow River, a new sedimentary structure, named 'silt mushroom', has been observed. The process of their formation is interpreted to be via the ice process. The name, the silt mushroom comes from their figurative form. This is because they look somewhat similar to mushroom's in size and shape; being in the range of 1 to 10 cm in diameter, with the medium 3-5 cm, and on average 10 cm in height, occuring generally in groups, and occasionally in isolation in relatively soft silt. They develop in the transition from winter to spring, and are convincingly related to ice processes. Ice-induced silt mushrooms are best examined in association with the many other newly discovered ice-induced sedimentary structures (over 20 kinds). Clearly, up to now, ice processes have been significantly underestimated. With the substantial discovery of the ice-induced silt mushroom, it opens up new questions. This is because its structure mirrors the same sedimentary structures found in rocks, questioning their genesis, and sedimentary environment analysis. This achievement is significant not only in sedimentology, but also in palaeogeography, palaeoclimate, geological engineering, hydraulics and fluviology.

  13. Macro-fungal diversity and nutrient content of some edible mushrooms of Nagaland, India

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    RAJESH KUMAR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kumar R, Tapwal A, Pandey S, Borah RK, Borah DP, Borgohain J. 2013. Macro-fungal diversity and nutrient content of some edible mushrooms of Nagaland, India. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 1-7. The northeast region of India abounds in forest wealth, including variety of flora and fauna. The high humidity during monsoon period provides ideal atmospheric conditions for the growth of diverse group of macrofungal fruit bodies. Nagaland, the northeastern state of India is rich in biodiversity and encompasses large numbers edible and non-edible mushroom species. Young and matured carpophores of 15 wild edible mushroom species were collected from 12 locations in different districts of Nagaland. Out of these four species belongs to family Agaricaceae, two belongs to Tricholomataceae and rest belongs to Boletaceae, Cantherallaceae, Russulaceae, Sarcoscyphaceae, Auriculariaceae, Polyporaceae, Schizophyllaceae, Pleurotaceae and Lyophyllaceae. The selected species were analyzed for proximate analysis of nutritional values. The protein content varies from 22.50-44.93% and carbohydrates were recorded 32.43-52.07% in selected species. The documentation of wild edible mushrooms is very scanty in Northeast India. The key objective of the present study was to generate a database on macrofungal diversity, ecology, ethnomycology, utilization and nutrient status of important wild edible mushroom species of Nagaland, which forms a part of the food culture of the native peoples.

  14. (90)Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe.

  15. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum.

  16. Biomimetic mushroom-shaped microfibers for dry adhesives by electrically induced polymer deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Tian, Hongmiao; Li, Xiangming; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Liu, Hongzhong; An, Ningli

    2014-08-27

    The studies on bioinspired dry adhesion have demonstrated the biomimetic importance of a surface arrayed with mushroom-shaped microfibers among other artificially textured surfaces. The generation of a mushroom-shaped microfiber array with a high aspect ratio and a large tip diameter remains to be investigated. In this paper we report a three-step process for producing mushroom-shaped microfibers with a well-controlled aspect ratio and tip diameter. First, a polymer film coated on an electrically conductive substrate is prestructured into a low-aspect-ratio micropillar array by hot embossing. In the second step, an electrical voltage is applied to an electrode pair composed of the substrate and another conductive planar plate, sandwiching an air clearance. The Maxwell force induced on the air-polymer interface by the electric field electrohydrodynamically pulls the preformed micropillars upward to contact the upper electrode. Finally, the micropillars spread transversely on this electrode due to the electrowetting effect, forming the mushroom tip. In this paper we have demonstrated a polymer surface arrayed with mushroom-shaped microfibers with a large tip diameter (3 times the shaft diameter) and a large aspect ratio (above 10) and provided the testing results for dry adhesion.

  17. Effect of Different Packaging Films on Storability of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus

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    R. Aminzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The button mushroom is rich food full of nutrient but compared with other fruits and vegetables, mushroom has a higher respiration rate and due to the lack of protective layer to prevent water loss, decay occurs quickly. It seems that suitable coating film is the one way for increase the storage life of mushroom. Therefore present research was carried out as split plot design in farme of CRD to find the best coating film in order to increase the storage life. In this research, the treatments were: control (package with Selefon, Poly Ethylene (PE with 40 and 65 micron thickness, Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP with 25, 35 and 40 micron thickness, Cast PolyPropylen (CPP with 25 and 40 micron thickness, Poly Ester (PET with 12 and 24 micron thickness and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC with 30 micron thickness. The samples were estimated after 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days storage at 1°C and 90 % RH in 3 replications. The results showed that the types of plastic coating had significant effects on all measured characteristics as campared to that of control. Highest firmness value, Soluble Solid Content (SSC, titratable acidity, acidity (pH, and lowest weight less and decay were observed in packet mushroom with the coating film: BOPP and CPP and the lowest amounts were observed in the mushroom packed with control, PVC, PET and PE films. The effects of time on all of the measured during the storage period, were significant too.

  18. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenejad, F; Yakhchali, B; Rasooli, I

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms such as Agaricus bisporus, are cultivated for food worldwide. Fruit body initiation in Agaricus bisporus is a phase change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage which depends on the presence of a casing layer with particular physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The phase change is achieved practically by environmental manipulation and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria such as Pseuodomonas putida. In this study, 274 individual bacterial isolates were collected by screening the casing layer of 14 edible mushroom farms. The isolates were analysed with respect to biochemical properties, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore and growth in the presence of volatile compound of 1-octen-3-ol. It was found that approximately 97% of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 36% were able to solubilize phosphorus. Among the isolates, 23 strains were selected as potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) for inoculation of the casing layer. Field experiments using these strains showed various promoting effects on production of mushroom. Finally, 2 strains (strains Bt4 and Ps7) showing the highest increase in A. bisporus production, were characterized as Pseuodomonas putida by molecular methods and identified as the best suited growth promoting inoculants for application in production farms for increasing the mushroom yield.

  19. Shelf-life extension of fresh Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus by application of Tomato paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishverya srivastava,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A mushroom is a fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The edible mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus are the fleshy edible bodies devoid of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushroom browning occurs mainly as a result of tyrosinase activity, an enzyme belonging to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO family and known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Tomato is an attractive candidate for food processing applications as fresh cut. However along with its desirable delicate taste, tomato shows a marked susceptibility to browning. This condition is mainly attributed to polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO. This PPO activity was observed especially in flesh tissues which was probably due to the presence of monophenolic substrates inducing a lag period, enzyme inhibitors and / or diphenolic substrates causing suicide inactivation, and proenzyme or latent isoforms of PPO. A paste of fresh tomatoes (wild and hybrid when applied to the freshly grown mushrooms were less subject to brown blotch as compared to the untreated mushroom. Other vegetable paste or paste made of the unwanted weeds that show tyrosinase activity can also be effected for the same purpose.

  20. Golden Needle Mushroom: A Culinary Medicine with Evidenced-Based Biological Activities and Health Promoting Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Calyn; Hoo, Pearl Ching-Xin; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Pusparajah, Priyia; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from F. velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development. PMID:28003804

  1. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K estimate in edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de; Maihara, Vera A.; Moura, Patricia L.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lilian.pavanelli@terra.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; patricialandim@ig.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, high levels of the radionuclide accumulation in different foodstuffs and the environment have being reported. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate fallout radionuclides in their fruit bodies have been well recognized. Mushrooms can also accumulate toxic elements in general, including natural radionuclides. In Southern Hemisphere countries, especially in Latin America, there are a few studies on this subject. In Brazilian literature, there are no studies that determine the composition of natural and artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms. The objective of this study was to measure of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40}K activity in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activity measurements were carried out by spectrometry gamma. The system detection efficiency was measured using the certified reference materials IAEA- 300 Marine Sediment and IAEA-375 Soil. The activities of {sup 13}'7Cs in the mushroom samples varied from 2.2 to 6.5 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus osteatus and Agaricus bisporus respectively. The {sup 40}K activities varied from 150 to 907 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, respectively. (author)

  2. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw.

  3. Mushroom Polysaccharides: Chemistry and Antiobesity, Antidiabetes, Anticancer, and Antibiotic Properties in Cells, Rodents, and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Friedman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases.

  4. Structural Characterization of Melanin Pigments from Commercial Preparations of the Edible Mushroom Auricularia auricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Toriola, Stacy; Nakouzi, Antonio; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth; Gerfen, Gary; Tumpowsky, Paul; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-08-26

    Many of the most widely consumed edible mushrooms are pigmented, and these have been associated with some beneficial health effects. Nevertheless, the majority of the reported compounds associated with these desirable properties are non-pigmented. We have previously reported that melanin pigment from the edible mushroom Auricularia auricula can protect mice against ionizing radiation, although no physicochemical characterization was reported. Consequently, in this study we have characterized commercial A. auricula mushroom preparations for melanin content and carried out structural characterization of isolated insoluble melanin materials using a panel of sophisticated spectroscopic and physical/imaging techniques. Our results show that approximately 10% of the dry mass of A. auricula is melanin and that the pigment has physicochemical properties consistent with those of eumelanins, including hosting a stable free radical population. Electron microscopy studies show that melanin is associated with the mushroom cell wall in a manner similar to that of melanin from the model fungus C. neoformans. Elemental analysis of melanin indicated C, H, and N ratios consistent with 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid/5,6-dihydroxyindole and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene eumelanin. Validation of the identity of the isolated product as melanin was achieved by EPR analysis. A. auricula melanin manifested structural differences, relative to the C. neoformans melanin, with regard to the variable proportions of alkyl chains or oxygenated carbons. Given the necessity for new oral and inexpensive radioprotective materials coupled with the commercial availability of A. auricula mushrooms, this product may represent an excellent source of edible melanin.

  5. Golden needle mushroom: A culinary medicine with evidenced-based biological activities and health promoting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calyn Tang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom, one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognised for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from Flammulina velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development.

  6. Enhancing Growth and Yield of Grey Oyster Mushroom (Plearotussajorcaju Using Different Acoustic Sound Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Roshita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom, as believed by many people, grows on specific time and condition as in the wild it grows after a heavy rain falls. The effects of lightning and thunderstorm may suppress the mychorrizal structure to grow and eventually forming fruiting body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different acoustic sound treatments on the growth and yield of grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotussajor-caju. Five different acoustic sound treatments had been applied during spawning period which were thunder storm, hardcore music, soothing instrumental, Quranic recital and without any sound treatment applied which served as control. The parameters studied were mycelium growth rate, days of mycelium filled up the bags, days of pinhead emergence, days of fruiting body formation, total weight, percentage biological efficiency, pileus color and texture. There were significant differences (P0.05 observed in other parameters, such as pinhead emergence, fruiting bodies formation, pileus color and texture. In summary, treatments using different acoustic sound at 75 dB could be considered as better treatment to enhance the mycelium growth thus accelerate the mushroom cultivation process as well as increasing the mushroom productivity. This research could help farmers to grow and harvest their mushroom at specific time frame and fulfill customer’s demand.

  7. Mushroom Polysaccharides: Chemistry and Antiobesity, Antidiabetes, Anticancer, and Antibiotic Properties in Cells, Rodents, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2016-11-29

    More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases.

  8. UTILIZATION OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE BY HIGHER MUSHROOMS: MODERN VIEW AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Barshteyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management and providing a world population with rich in protein food are two important problems of which the utilization of agro-industrial (agriculture and food industry waste by higher mushrooms causes the growing interest of researchers around the world. More than 150 individual types of wastes have been investigated last decade as alternative substrates alone or in various compositions (more than 450 substrates for cultivation of 52 higher mushroom species (about 100 strains as evidenced by the results of more than 130 considered in the review scientific publications. All waste is used as a basis for substrates and supplements thereto, are characteristic of the respective continent and region of the world. Publications containing biochemical studies of substrates and fungi confirm that fungi are grown in rich in biologically active substances unconventional substrates, provide a rich biochemical composition of fungi compared with conventional substrates (sawdust, straw, etc.. The disadvantage of many publications is the lack of mention of examined fungi strains, whereas studies of various strains of the same fungus in the same substrate show different results. The prospect of the study of agricultural residues utilization by higher mushrooms consists in the investigations of: productivity, biological efficiency of the process, morphological and biochemical indices of cultivated mushrooms, depending on the biochemical parameters of substrates and the process conditions; safety of cultivated mushrooms.

  9. Characteristics of a hydrated, alginate-based delivery system for cultivation of the button mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, C P; Schlagnhaufer, B

    1992-09-01

    The production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus with mycelium-colonized alginate pellets as an inoculant of the growing medium was investigated. Pellets having an irregular surface and porous internal structure were prepared by complexing a mixture of 1% sodium alginate, 2 to 6% vermiculite, 2% hygramer, and various concentrations of Nutrisoy (soy protein) with calcium chloride. The porous structure allowed the pellets to be formed septically and then inoculated and colonized with the fungus following sterilization. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate fungal biomass, the matrix components of the pellet were found to be of no nutritive value to A. bisporus. Pellets amended with Nutrisoy at a concentration of 0.5 to 8% supported extensive mycelial growth, as determined by significantly increased ELISA values, with a concentration of 4% being optimal and higher concentrations proving inhibitory. The addition of hydrated, mycelium-invaded pellets to the compost or casing layer supported the thorough colonization of the growing substrate and culminated in the formation of mushrooms that showed normal development and typical morphology. Yields and sizes of mushrooms were comparable from composts seeded with either colonized pellets or cereal grain spawn. Similarly, amending the casing layer with pelletized-mycelium-colonized compost resulted in a 2- to 3-day-earlier and more-synchronous emergence of mushrooms than with untreated casing. This technology shows the greatest potential as a pathogen-free inoculant of the casing layer in the commercial cultivation of mushrooms.

  10. Development of White Jade Mushroom Enema%白玉菇灌肠的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩倩; 贾艳林

    2011-01-01

    With white jade mushroom and pork as raw material,soy protein and starch as accessories,by single factor experiments and orthogonal test to research the best formula for white jade mushrooms enema,the effect of fat thin ratio,white jade mushrooms,soybean protein,the adding amount of starch on the quality of white jade mushroom enema were mainly researched.The results showed that fat thin ratio of 2:8 was the best ratio of products,the optimum adding amount of white jade mushroom was 20%,the optimum adding amount of Soybean protein was 8%,and the optimum adding amount of starch was 8%.%以白玉菇和猪肉为原料,以大豆蛋白和淀粉为辅料,通过单因素试验和正交试验对白玉菇灌肠最佳配方进行研究,主要研究了肥瘦比、白玉菇、大豆蛋白、淀粉添加量对白玉菇灌肠品质的影响。其产品的最佳配比,肥瘦比为2:8,白玉菇的用量为20%,大豆蛋白的用量为8%,淀粉的用量为12%。

  11. Turmeric bioprocessed with mycelia from the shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom lentinus edodes (agaricomycetes) protects mice against salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes and the spice tumeric (Curcuma longa) have both been reported to have health-promoting properties. The present study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of a bioprocessed Lentinus edodes liquid mushroom mycelia culture supplemented with turmeric ...

  12. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...

  13. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  14. Unraveling the mystery of commercial cultivation of Agaricus bisporus : plant biomass utilization and its effect on mushroom production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus, the white button mushroom, is economically the most important mushroom cultivated worldwide. Growth of A. bisporus needs a substrate produced by the composting of animal manure, wheat straw, gypsum, water and different additives. Therefore lignocellulose which is a complex mixture

  15. Mushroom Bodies of the Honeybee Brain Show Cell Population-Specific Plasticity in Expression of Amine-Receptor Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine and octopamine released in the mushroom bodies of the insect brain play a critical role in the formation of aversive and appetitive memories, respectively. As recent evidence suggests a complex relationship between the effects of these two amines on the output of mushroom body circuits, we compared the expression of dopamine- and…

  16. 75 FR 63440 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's ] Republic of China, covering the period of February 1,...

  17. Therapeutic potential of culinary-medicinal mushrooms for the management of neurodegenerative diseases: diversity, metabolite, and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have long been used not only as food but also for the treatment of various ailments. Although at its infancy, accumulated evidence suggested that culinary-medicinal mushrooms may play an important role in the prevention of many age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to a search for more mushroom species that may improve memory and cognition functions. Such mushrooms include Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Sarcodon spp., Antrodia camphorata, Pleurotus giganteus, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Grifola frondosa, and many more. Here, we review over 20 different brain-improving culinary-medicinal mushrooms and at least 80 different bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from them. The mushrooms (either extracts from basidiocarps/mycelia or isolated compounds) reduced beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity and had anti-acetylcholinesterase, neurite outgrowth stimulation, nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-(neuro)inflammatory effects. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the bioactive effects of mushrooms are also discussed. Mushrooms can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the management and/or treatment of neurodegeneration diseases. However, this review focuses on in vitro evidence and clinical trials with humans are needed.

  18. Activities of the {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs nuclides in mushrooms from Southern and Western Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennroth, T.; Bjoerkholm, A.; Haavisto, T.; Slotte, J.M.K. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Lill, J.O. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Turku PET Centre and Accelerator Lab.

    2011-07-01

    We report the results from activity measurements of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs nuclides in mushrooms in Southern and Western Finland. Fifty-three samples were studied, and they showed large variations especially in the {sup 137}Cs activity both regionally and between mushroom species. (orig.)

  19. 76 FR 66686 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1,...

  20. Effect of olive mill waste (OMW) supplementation to Oyster mushrooms substrates on the cultivation parameters and fruiting bodies quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, A.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Polonia, I.; Wichers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven Oyster mushroom strains were cultivated in wheat straw (WS) bags supplemented with 0 up to 90% olive mill waste (OMW), a solid residue obtained from a two-phases olive oil production system. All mushroom strains could grow but high OMW concentrations resulted in a significant yield, biological

  1. Compton scattering by internal shields based on melanin-containing mushrooms provides protection of gastrointestinal tract from ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Bryan, Ruth A; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors.

  2. Mushroom Bodies of the Honeybee Brain Show Cell Population-Specific Plasticity in Expression of Amine-Receptor Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine and octopamine released in the mushroom bodies of the insect brain play a critical role in the formation of aversive and appetitive memories, respectively. As recent evidence suggests a complex relationship between the effects of these two amines on the output of mushroom body circuits, we compared the expression of dopamine- and…

  3. Mushroom bodies enhance initial motor activity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, Christine N; Kaufman, Rebecca R; Strauss, Roland; de Belle, J Steven

    2009-01-01

    The central body (or central complex, CCX) and the mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain structures in most insect phyla that have been shown to influence aspects of locomotion. The CCX regulates motor coordination and enhances activity while MBs have, thus far, been shown to suppress motor activity levels measured over time intervals ranging from hours to weeks. In this report, we investigate MB involvement in motor behavior during the initial stages (15 minutes) of walking in Buridan's paradigm. We measured aspects of walking in flies that had MB lesions induced by mutations in six different genes and by chemical ablation. All tested flies were later examined histologically to assess MB neuroanatomy. Mutant strains with MB structural defects were generally less active in walking than wild-type flies. Most mutants in which MBs were also ablated with hydroxyurea (HU) showed additional activity decrements. Variation in measures of velocity and orientation to landmarks among wild-type and mutant flies was attributed to pleiotropy, rather than to MB lesions. We conclude that MBs upregulate activity during the initial stages of walking, but suppress activity thereafter. An MB influence on decision making has been shown in a wide range of complex behaviors. We suggest that MBs provide appropriate contextual information to motor output systems in the brain, indirectly fine tuning walking by modifying the quantity (i.e., activity) of behavior.

  4. Medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus as an alternative cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Alternative cancer treatment with nutritional/dietary supplements containing a wide variety of herbal products is on the rise in Western countries. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that mushrooms may prevent against different types of cancers. Phellinus linteus is a well-known Oriental medicinal fungus with a variety of biological activities, including immunomodulatory or direct antitumor activities. The activity of P. linteus and its extracts is associated with the presence of polysaccharides, their peptide/protein complexes and other low molecular weight complexes. Polysaccharide fractions isolated from P. linteus were found to be related to the increased activity of immune cells such as the production of cytokines by macrophages and B-cells or the increased cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells. Moreover, P. linteus was found to modulate the expression or activity of various genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasive behavior and chemoprevention. Finally, P. linteus extracts demonstrated tumor regression in three independent case reports, suggesting that an extract from P. linteus or a dietary supplement based on the extract from P. linteus may have potential use for the alternative treatment of cancer.

  5. Nutritional values of different strains of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional values and chemical composition of different strains of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus were studied. The study covered four strains cultivated in Poland: OCNOS-1, Somycel-11 , Somycel-92, and Somycel-653. The samples were analyzed for dry matter, vitamin C, nitrates, nitrites, total nitrogen and crude protein (N × 4.38, amino acid composition, soluble carbohydrates composition, and minerals content. Besides, whiteness values were determined by Hunter's method. All determinations were made on two of fruit-bodies of two sizes: 25-40 mm in pileus diameter (small and 40-50 mm in pileus diameter (large. A significantly higher dry matter content was found in strain 1 in comparison with strain 92. The lowest value of total nitrogen was detected for strain 92 and the highest for strain 653. From among the four analyzed strains, strain 92 contained the highest amount of essential amino acids. Trehalose content was significantly lower in strain 11 in comparison with other strains both in small and large fruit-body.

  6. Some properties of active and latent catechol oxidase of mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latent form of mushroom catechol oxidase was activated by O,1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. Catalytic power of the latent form, calculated from the kinetic parameters was 1,8 times higher than that of active one. Salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM appeared as a powerful inhibitor for both active and latent forms of catechol oxidase. However, in the range of 150-250 μM SHAM the inhibitory effect for active catechol oxidase was significantly higher than that for the latent one. Non-competitive and irreversible characteristics of inhibition of latent and active catechol oxidase was calculated from kinetic data. Electrophoretic analysis followed by scanning of the gels was used. The spots' absorbance was determined from a computer image of the isoenzyme band patterns. It allowed us to estimate gels quantitatively. Presence of one additional clearly defined slow moving isoform of SDS-activated catechol oxidase, differed in the respect of 3 bands for the active and 4 bands for the total.

  7. Purification and Characterization of Melanogenic Enzyme Tyrosinase from Button Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it’s taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19 U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95 kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933 mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications.

  8. [Protein quality of three strains of Mexican mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista Justo, M; Alanís Guzmán, M G; González de Mejía, E; García Díaz, C L; Martínez, G; Barboza Corona, E

    1999-03-01

    The protein quality of fruits bodies of three Pleurotus ostreatus Mexican strains (INIREB-8, CDBB-H-896 and CDBB-H-897) was evaluated. The protein concentration (Nx4.38) ranged from 17.26 to 19.97 g/100 g dry weight; chemical scores were between 74 and 93% with available lysine as a first limiting amino acid in either INIREB-8 and CDBB-H-896 strains or leucine in CDBB-H-897 strain. The nutritional evaluation revealed 67.75 to 68.38% in vitro digestibility. Relative protein values were from 100.06-107.85%, which were lower than soybean meal and whole egg but larger than those of rice, maize, beans, fava beans and pasta, no differences were found between these values and those of skim milk powder, casein plus methionine and albumin. In accordance with the last results we concluded that due to their essential amino acids content, mushroom proteins are a good complement of cereals; furthermore, it is highly recommended to include Pleurotus in the daily diet.

  9. Anticancer, antioxidant and antibiotic activities of mushroom Ramaria flava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Junli; Zhao, Le; Wang, Qian

    2013-08-01

    Ramaria flava is a species of edible mushroom with some bioactivity. The anticancer, antioxidant and antibiotic activities and chemical composition of R. flava ethanol extract (EE) were evaluated. The present study exhibited that the EE displayed the strongest inhibitory activity against tumor cell MDA-MB-231 with an IC50 value of 66.54 μg/mL in three tested tumor cell lines, and the inhibition percent was 71.66% at the concentration of 200 μg/mL (MTT assay). The total phenolic compounds varied among four fractions of the EE from 6.66 to 61.01 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g dry weight. Water fraction exhibited high DPPH and OH radical-scavenging activities with low IC50 values of 5.86 and 18.08 μg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, three phenolic compounds from water fraction were also identified by HPLC. The antibiotic activities of the EE were evaluated against three microorganisms and three fungi strains by means of the agar well diffusion method and the poisoned medium technique, respectively. The EE also showed moderate antibiotic activities. These results suggest that R. flava could hold a good potential source for human health.

  10. Neural representations of airflow in Drosophila mushroom body.

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    Akira Mamiya

    Full Text Available The Drosophila mushroom body (MB is a higher olfactory center where olfactory and other sensory information are thought to be associated. However, how MB neurons of Drosophila respond to sensory stimuli other than odor is not known. Here, we characterized the responses of MB neurons to a change in airflow, a stimulus associated with odor perception. In vivo calcium imaging from MB neurons revealed surprisingly strong and dynamic responses to an airflow stimulus. This response was dependent on the movement of the 3(rd antennal segment, suggesting that Johnston's organ may be detecting the airflow. The calyx, the input region of the MB, responded homogeneously to airflow on. However, in the output lobes of the MB, different types of MB neurons responded with different patterns of activity to airflow on and off. Furthermore, detailed spatial analysis of the responses revealed that even within a lobe that is composed of a single type of MB neuron, there are subdivisions that respond differently to airflow on and off. These subdivisions within a single lobe were organized in a stereotypic manner across flies. For the first time, we show that changes in airflow affect MB neurons significantly and these effects are spatially organized into divisions smaller than previously defined MB neuron types.

  11. Biology, cultivation, and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum

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    Sławomir Sokół

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers. is an edible fungus of great significance in medicine. It is rarely found in Europe, in contrast, it is common in Japan and North America. Its fruitbodies have been well-known for hundreds of years in traditional Chinese medicine and cuisine. A cradle of H. erinaceum cultivation is Asia. In Eastern Europe is rare in natural habitats, but can be successfully cultivated. Both fruitbodies and mycelia are rich in active, health promoting substances. Tests of substances extracted from this mushroom carried out on animals and in vitro have given good results. They can be used in the treatment of cancer, hepatic disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, wound healing. They improve cognitive abilities, support the nervous and immune systems. Promising results have been reported in clinical trials and case reports about the human treatment (e.g., recovery from schizophrenia, an improvement of the quality of sleep, alleviation of the menopause symptoms. The subject of this paper is to summarize information about the development of mycelium, the best conditions for cultivation of fruitbodies, bioactive substances and their use in medicine.

  12. Edible Mushroom Cultivation for Food Security and Rural Development in China: Bio-Innovation, Technological Dissemination and Marketing

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    Yaoqi Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms traditionally collected from forests and now more cultivated have recently become the products of the fifth-largest agricultural sector in China. It was estimated that more than 25 million farmers in China are currently engaged in the collection, cultivation processing and marketing of mushrooms. The total value of mushroom products amounted to 149 billion RMB Yuan (24 billion USD in 2011. The raw materials have expanded from a few hardwoods to a variety of woods and increasing more into agricultural residues and wastes. The average annual growth rate has been over 10% over the past 30 years in China. This paper describes the rapid growth of mushroom cultivation and its contribution to food security and rural sustainable development. The roles of bio-innovation, technological dissemination, and marketing are also examined. Mushrooms could potentially be very important in future food supplies and in new dimensions of sustainable agriculture and forestry.

  13. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world.

  14. The fungistatic activity of organic selenium and its application to the production of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp.

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    Savic Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of organic selenium against pathogenic molds and its use as a potential selenium source in the production of enriched mushrooms were examined. The effect of commercial selenized yeast on mycelia growth was examined using a method with mycelia disks and a well diffusion method. For mushroom enrichment, different concentrations of selenium were added to a growth substrate. The results presented in this paper suggest that the most suitable concentration of selenized yeast that inhibits the growth of the mycopathogenic molds is 70-100 mg/kg of selenium. With the addition of this concentration to the substrate, mushroom fruit bodies will uptake a high level of selenium, about 100 μg/g for Pleurotus spp., and 200 μg/g for Agaricus bisporus in dry weight of the mushroom. Thereby a double effect in the cultivation of mushrooms is achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 and br. III46001

  15. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (pmushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety.

  16. Studies on Dietary Fiber in Mushrooms%菌物膳食纤维研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易骏; 陈体强; 吴锦忠

    2006-01-01

    Mushrooms have been treated as a potential new source in the development and use of dietary fiber. To further develop and use dietary fiber in mushrooms, we summarized the achievements in the present studies related, concerning the definition, physiological activity and analysis methods of dietary fiber, chemical composition, and development and use of dietary fiber in mushrooms.%菌物已成为膳食纤维开发和利用的新的潜在资源.为了进一步开发和利用菌物中的膳食纤维资源,作者对目前的研究成果进行了综述,包括膳食纤维的概念、生理活性和分析方法、及菌物中膳食纤维的化学组成、开发利用等方面内容.

  17. Marketing of non-wood forest products: Case study of the enterprise for forest mushroom processing

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    Keča Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of climate changes it is increasingly obvious that forestry should rely more strongly on the multi­functional character of the managed resources. In addition to wood, there is a series of non­wood products and services offered by forests. Non­wood forest products and services consist of various fruits of forest trees and shrubs, mushrooms, various objects made of non­wood material, and especially forest social services, such as recreation, tourism, hunting, photo­safari, etc. This paper presents a marketing analysis on the example of the enterprise dealing with the purchase, processing and sale of wild mushrooms and products made of mushrooms. The study applies a modern methodological approach implemented in similar researches.

  18. Intracellular Biosynthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Edible Mushrooms

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    Sankaran MIRUNALINI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly approach. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using some commonly available edible mushroom extracts and their antimicrobial activity was demonstrated in the current study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV, FTIR and SEM and antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion method. From the results it is confirmed the successful formation of silver nanoparticles using mushroom extracts; they performed their role as a reducing and capping agent and also exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus (gram positive bacteria. Thus the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract will deserve to be a good candidate as an antibacterial agent.

  19. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

    2009-07-22

    Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet.

  20. Method Development for the Determination of Free and Esterified Sterols in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-05-04

    Ergosterol is the major sterol in button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and can occur as free alcohol or esterified with fatty acids (ergosteryl esters). In this study, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM) was used to determine ergosterol and ergosteryl esters as well as other sterols and steryl esters in button mushrooms. Different quality control measures were established and sample preparation procedures were compared to prevent the formation of artifacts and the degradation of ergosteryl esters. The final method was then used for the determination of ergosterol (443 ± 44 mg/100 g dry matter (d.m.)) and esterified ergosterol (12 ± 6 mg/100 g d.m.) in button mushroom samples (n = 4). While the free sterol fraction was vastly dominated by ergosterol (∼90% of five sterols in total), the steryl ester fraction was more diversified (nine sterols in total, ergosterol ∼55%) and consisted primarily of linoleic acid esters.

  1. Impact of Fungicides Used for Wheat Treatment on Button Mushroom Cultivation

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    Ivana Potočnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is currently available on the potential environmental risks that fungicides applied during wheat cultivation and remaining in straw may have for mushroom production. The substrate for many cultivated mushrooms is mostly based on cereal straw. This review aimed to answer the question whether residues of the fungicides commonly used in wheat production and remaining in straw could be directly or indirectly responsible for changes in yields of Agaricus bisporus. Potential chemical risks of eight fungicides (for wheat treatments for A. bisporus: mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl,carbendazim+cyproconazole, carbedazim+flusilasole, captan, chlorothalonil and trifloxystrobinare disscused. Only the value of maximum residue level of flusilasole and its formulation was evaluated as higher than medium effective concentration of the fungicide for A.bisporus. As a conclusion, flusilazole treatment could be a limiting factor for using straw for composting and mushroom cultivation.

  2. Traditional knowledge about mushrooms in a Nahua community in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, A; Hernández-Totomoch, O; Estrada-Torres, A; Kong, A; Caballero, J

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional mycological knowledge of the Nahua of San Isidro Buensuceso, on the slopes of La Malinche Volcano National Park, in the state of Tlaxcala, México. The results described in this paper were obtained through interviews with villagers selected at random; a free-listing technique was used to determine the cultural significance of the mushrooms of the region. A total of 48 species, which had 65 Náhuatl names and 40 in Spanish, were identified. Although San Isidro villagers consider mushrooms to be a natural resource mainly used for food, they also use them for medicine, insecticides and trade. This paper presents traditional information on the morphology, ecology, fenology and consistency of the mushrooms found around San Isidro. It proposes that, from a cultural perspective, Gomphus flocossus, Ramaria spp. and Boletus spp. are the most important species of the region.

  3. Triacylglycerols profiling as a chemical tool to identify mushrooms submitted to gamma or electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-09-15

    In order to define irradiation treatment as a routine conservation methodology, it is imperative to develop chemometric indicators with the ability to distinguish irradiated from unirradiated foodstuffs. Electron spin resonance, photostimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence methods were employed to monitor radiation-induced markers, as well as different chemical compounds produced from the lipidic fraction of different foodstuffs. Apart from these methods, the specificity of triacylglycerol profiles has previously been detected in mushroom species, as has the effect of irradiation treatment in the triacylglycerol profiles of chestnut. Accordingly, the feasibility of using this as a chemometric indicator of irradiated mushrooms was evaluated. In line with the obtained results in literature, the effects of each type of irradiation were significantly different, as can be concluded from the correlations among discriminant functions and variables within each statistical test. Triacylglycerol profiling proved to be a useful tool to detect irradiated mushrooms, independently of the species or irradiation source, especially for doses above 1 kGy.

  4. Nutritional composition of boletus mushrooms from Southwest China and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Di; You, Yuxian; Zeng, Siqi; Li, Yiwen; Tang, Qianqian; Han, Guoquan; Liu, Aiping; Feng, Chaohui; Li, Cheng; Su, Yujie; Su, Zhao; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-11-15

    Thirteen samples representing five species were collected from different provinces of Southwest China, and their chemical composition, antihyperglycemic activity, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. These mushrooms had high crude protein (21.72-30.59g/100g dw) and total carbohydrate (49.18-62.58g/100g dw) contents, but low crude fat contents (1.96-7.87g/100g dw). They also accumulated notable quantities of potassium, zinc, sodium, magnesium and copper from the soil. The potassium content, in particular, was 18.75-39.21 times that found in the soil at the collection site. The natural habitat of these mushrooms, especially the mineral content of the soil, seems to have more influence on the mineral content of these mushrooms than their species. Most of the samples possessed antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Suillellus luridus showed the highest antioxidant activity and antihyperglycemic activities, suggesting that S. luridus shows potential for development as a dietary nutritional supplement.

  5. Intracellular Biosynthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran MIRUNALINI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly approach. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using some commonly available edible mushroom extracts and their antimicrobial activity was demonstrated in the current study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV, FTIR and SEM and antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion method. From the results it is confirmed the successful formation of silver nanoparticles using mushroom extracts; they performed their role as a reducing and capping agent and also exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus (gram positive bacteria. Thus the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract will deserve to be a good candidate as an antibacterial agent.

  6. Effects of contact cap dimension on dry adhesion of bioinspired mushroom-shaped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Hu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Dry adhesion observed in small creatures, such as spiders, insects, and geckos, has many great advantages such as repeatability and strong adhesiveness. In order to mimic these unique performances, fibrillar surface with a mushroom shaped end has drawn lots of attentions because of its advantage in efficiently enhancing adhesion compared with other sphere or simple flat ends. Here, in order to study the effects of contact cap dimension on adhesion strength, patterned surfaces of mushroom-shaped micropillars with differing cap diameters are fabricated based on the conventional photolithography and molding. The normal adhesion strength of these dry adhesives with varying cap diameters is measured with home-built equipment. The strength increases with the rise of cap diameter, and interestingly it becomes strongest when the mushroom caps join together.

  7. Reduction of energy use in mushroom cultivation; Reductie energiegebruik in de champignonteelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baar, J.; Amsing, J.G.M.; Rutjens, A.J.

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this project was to examine options for reducing energy use in mushroom cultivation. The project focused particularly on the reduction of energy use in making the mushrooms disease-free through use of steam prior to the next cultivation round. To this end, various methods were examined that could lead to a 50% energy use reduction for mushroom cultivation, or higher [Dutch] Het doel van dit project was om te onderzoeken welke mogelijkheden er zijn om het energiegebruik in de teelt van champignons te verminderen. Met name richtte het project zich op de reductie van het energiegebruik bij het ziektevrij maken van de teeltcellen door stomen voorafgaande aan de volgende teelt. Hiertoe werden diverse methoden onderzocht die kunnen leiden tot een reductie van het energieverbruik van 50% of meer voor de champignonteelt.

  8. Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Compost Against Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Sheng, Jiping; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Yanyan; Lee, David Yue Wei; Yang, Yang; Xu, Mingshuang; Shen, Lin

    2015-07-08

    Bacillus subtilis strain B154, isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushroom compost infected by red bread mold, exhibited antagonistic activities against Neurospora sitophila. Antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was also observed. The maximum antifungal activity was reached during the stationary phase. This antifungal activity was stable over a wide pH and temperature range and was not affected by proteases. Assay of antifungal activity in vitro indicated that a purified antifungal substance could strongly inhibit mycelia growth and spore germination of N. sitophila. In addition, treatment with strain B154 in A. bisporus mushroom compost infected with N. sitophila significantly increased the yield of bisporus mushrooms. Ultraviolet scan spectroscopy, tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed a molecular weight consistent with 1498.7633 Da. The antifungal compound might belong to a new type of lipopeptide fengycin.

  9. Identification and Control of Cladobotryum spp., Causal Agents of Cobeweb Disease of Cultivated Mushroom

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    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladobotryum spp. are causal agents of cobweb disease, one of the most serious diseases of cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach in Serbia and worldwide, which affects product quality and yield. The disease symptoms are: cottony fluffy white oryellowish to pink colonies on mushroom casing, rapid colonization of casing surface, covering of host basidiomata by mycelia, and their decay. Prochloraz-Mn has been officially recommended for mushroom cultivation in EU countries. However, inefficiency of prochloraz-Mn has been noted at a level of spotting symptoms of cobweb disease. With regard to cases of resistance evolution and a general threat to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on good programmes of hygiene, and inventing and developing alternative methods of disease control.

  10. Cholesterol-lowering effect of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in hereditary hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, P; Ginter, E; Jurcovicová, M; Kuniak, L

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effect of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (4% in diet containing 1% of cholesterol) on serum and liver lipids in female rats with hereditary enhanced sensitivity to alimentary cholesterol. We found that the consumption of the mushroom-containing diet prevented serum cholesterol increase which was manifested at the end of the 4th week of the experiment. At the end of the 7th week of the experiment the cholesterolemia was lowered by almost 40% as compared with control animals kept on the same diet but without the mushroom. The decrease in serum cholesterol levels is a consequence of the decreased cholesterol concentrations of very-low-density lipoproteins and of low-density lipoproteins.

  11. [Longicorn beetles (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae) differ considerably in the degree of their mushroom body development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2011-01-01

    A duality in the general structure of the mushroom body in longicorn beetles is confirmed. This duality is associated with the fact that they are formed by two solitary neuroblasts or two neuroblast clusters on each side of the brain and are manifested as a bipartite structure of both the calyx, which is the main sensory input, and the peduncular apparatus. Within the studied longicorn beetles, modifications in the general structure of mushroom bodies have been found; these modifications are caused by two oppositely directed morphogenetic processes, namely, the concentration of structures and their compartmentalization. The concentration leads to disappearance of the bipartite structure of the peduncular apparatus, whereas compartmentalization leads to a secondary subdivision of these structures into anatomically distinct subsections. This process is most pronounced in the peduncle and lobes. The mushroom bodies are best developed and differentiated in the members of the subfamily Lamiinae.

  12. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; D' Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I{sup -}) and 32 kGy/h (I{sup +}). Both I{sup +} and I{sup -} showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L{sup *} value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L{sup *} value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I{sup -}. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I{sup -} contained more phenols than I{sup +} and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered (p{<=}0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I{sup +}. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I{sup +}, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly (p{<=}0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I{sup -} than in I{sup +}. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I{sup +} was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I{sup +} than in I{sup -}.

  13. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  14. Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function.

  15. Mercury in edible mushrooms and underlying soil: bioconcentration factors and toxicological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2009-10-01

    Wild growing mushrooms are a popular delicacy in many countries, but some species accumulate high levels of toxic heavy metals, e.g., mercury, both in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of mercury in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Total concentrations of mercury were determined by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique using a gold disc as the working electrode in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The mushrooms were collected from different sites in the province of Lugo (NW Spain). The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean mercury concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) were found in Boletus pinophilus (6.9 in H and 4.5 in RFB), Agaricus macrosporus (5.1 in H and 3.7 in RFB), Lepista nuda (5.1 in H and 3.1 in RFB) and Boletus aereus (4.6 in H and 3.3 in RFB), while the lowest was found in Agrocybe cylindrica (0.34 in H and 0.26 in RFB) and Fistulina hepatica (0.30 in H and 0.22 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated mercury (BCF>1) in relation to the underlying soils. There were no statistically significant differences between the mercury levels in the hymenophore and in the rest of the fruiting body. The total mercury concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of the majority of the studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as mercury content is concerned, although the species B.pinophilus, A.macrosporus, L.nuda and B.aereus should be consumed in low amounts.

  16. Fresh fruit, vegetables, and mushrooms as transmission vehicles for Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Lucy J.; Troell, Karin; Woolsey, Ian David

    2016-01-01

    Fresh fruit, vegetables, mushrooms, and other fresh produce are recognised as important vehicles of infection for several foodborne parasites, particularly those with a faecal-oral transmission route and robust environmental transmission stages. Nevertheless, analysis of such foods for parasite....... multilocularis eggs. In this article, we question a recent study from Poland reporting over 23 % of fresh berries, vegetables, and mushroom being highly contaminated with E. multilocularis eggs. In particular, it appears unlikely that 20 % of raspberries, which are elevated from ground level, should be exposed...

  17. Characterisation of a New Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein from Tiger Milk mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis

    OpenAIRE

    V. Pushparajah; Fatima, A.; C. H. Chong; Gambule, T. Z.; Chan, C. J.; S. T. Ng; Tan, C.S.; Fung, S.Y.; S. S. Lee; N. H. Tan; R. L. H. Lim

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus rhinocerotis (Tiger milk mushroom) is an important folk medicine for indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia. We previously reported its de novo assembled 34.3 Mb genome encoding a repertoire of proteins including a putative bioactive fungal immunomodulatory protein. Here we report the cDNA of this new member (FIP-Lrh) with a homology range of 54–64% to FIPs from other mushroom species, the closest is with FIP-glu (LZ-8) (64%) from Ganoderma lucidum. The FIP-Lrh of 112 amino acids (12.5...

  18. Biocrude production via supercritical hydrothermal co-liquefaction of spent mushroom compost and aspen wood sawdust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasiunas, Lukas; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    2017-01-01

    The work investigates a new potential feedstock source for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) driven biocrude production. Specifically, the focus is set on utilizing spent mushroom compost (SMC), the primary waste by-product from mushroom farming. It is considered as a feedstock for HTL conversion due...... to its organic nature (e.g. straw, horse manure and sphagnum) and ample availability with an annual production of over 3.4 million metric tonnes, globally. Locally acquired samples were analyzed and converted hydrothermally. A biocrude yield of 48% on dry ash-free (DAF) basis was obtained...

  19. Fresh fruit, vegetables, and mushrooms as transmission vehicles for Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Lucy J.; Troell, Karin; Woolsey, Ian David;

    2016-01-01

    Fresh fruit, vegetables, mushrooms, and other fresh produce are recognised as important vehicles of infection for several foodborne parasites, particularly those with a faecal-oral transmission route and robust environmental transmission stages. Nevertheless, analysis of such foods for parasite....... multilocularis eggs. In this article, we question a recent study from Poland reporting over 23 % of fresh berries, vegetables, and mushroom being highly contaminated with E. multilocularis eggs. In particular, it appears unlikely that 20 % of raspberries, which are elevated from ground level, should be exposed...

  20. Mushroom-Shaped Structures as Tracers of Buoyant Flow in the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    D'Avillez, M A; Avillez, Miguel A. de; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac

    2001-01-01

    Recent HI emission observations of the Southern Galactic hemisphere have revealed a mushroom-like structure extending from z=-70 to -450 pc, composed of a stem and a cap. Similar structures occur in three-dimensional simulations of a dynamic galactic disk driven by isolated and clustered supernovae. Using these simulations, we show that hot gas in the Galactic disk that is not evacuated through chimneys expands into the cooler gas of the thick disk, forming mushroom-shaped structures. This new class of objects traces buoyant flow of hot gas into the thick disk.

  1. Oyster mushroom waste as manure in fish culture: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Dube, K; Dwivedi, A

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to recycle the waste substrates of the oyster-mushroom crop, tanks were stocked with seed of Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala at the rate of 600,000/ha and waste substrate was applied at weekly interval at 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 g/tank. Oyster mushroom waste not only provided highly nutritive colonised detritus to the fish as direct feed, but also produced rich plankton in the tank. In waste treated tanks, production was better than in the control in 150, 200 and 250 g/...

  2. The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon) and some environmental and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as button mushroom, requires the use of substrates for its cultivation, such as chicken and/or horse manure and the application of manufacturing steps, such as storage and composting that produce odours. The odours may cause disturbance to people living near the plant and may be a problem for workers. This article examines some measures that can be taken to reduce the odorous emissions during the production of Agaricus bisporus. The possibility of recovery of some organic matter left from the cultivation is examined. Finally, some occupational hazards for workers are highlighted.

  3. Study of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Pardhi, Priya; Jain, Alok Pal; Rai, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida. Mushroom basidiocarps were extracted in water:ethanol (1:1, v/v), and the resulting extract was subjected to antimicrobial studies against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. Cytotoxic potential on viable human leukocytes was studied. In vitro results showed excellent antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the mushroom extract. Thus, functional properties of P. ostreatus cv. Florida could be used in the search for novel therapeutics.

  4. Stability of necatorin, a highly mutagenic compound from Lactarius necator mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suortti, T

    1984-07-01

    The mutagenic compound necatorin [7-hydroxycoumaro(5,6-c)cinnoline] was present in fresh Lactarius necator mushrooms at concentrations ranging from 3 to 20 mg/kg. Blanching decreased the concentration of necatorin in the mushrooms to about 25% of the original value. Pure necatorin was shown to be susceptible to decomposition by light, especially at high pH. The destruction of pure necatorin by boiling was most effective at pH 5.0, whereas at the other pH values studied (0.5 and 13.5) necatorin was relatively stable during boiling.

  5. Functional nutraceutical profiling of wild edible and medicinal mushrooms consumed by ethnic tribes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible mushrooms occupy an important place in the traditional food habits of the ethnic tribes of India. Specimens collected from the forests and local markets of Meghalaya, India were affiliated to ten different species. The mushroom extracts were analyzed for nutrient and mineral compositions along with phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene. These extracts were also investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Fungal extracts were found to be rich in nutrients and minerals, and exhibited potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities under assay conditions. The nutrient profiles generated for each of these ten species revealed them to be rich sources of functional nutraceuticals.

  6. Elemental profile of edible mushrooms from a forest near a major Romanian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsigmond Andreea R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We determined the elemental profile of 16 edible mushroom species from the Făget Forest, near Cluj-Napoca, and of 12 species from the Apuseni Mountains. One-way ANOVA showed no difference in the elemental content of mushrooms when the two regions were compared. Some species accumulated high amounts of trace elements, i.e. Boletus edulis (Ag, S, Zn, Macrolepiota procera (Cu, Lactarius volemus (Co, Russula emetica (Mn, Armillariella mellea, and Chantarellus cibarius (Cr. The cadmium content was the highest in the case of Leccinum scabrum and Boletus edulis. These two species presented elevated risk levels for all age-groups when they are consumed regularly.

  7. A GC-MS study of the volatile organic composition of straw and oyster mushrooms during maturity and its relation to antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo-Min; Wu, Wen-Wei; Li, Gong-Ke

    2008-09-01

    Mushrooms are very popular in the market for their nutritional and medicinal use. Mushroom volatiles are not only an important factor in the flavor, but also contain many antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity is a very important property for disease prevention. The volatile compositional characteristics of straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea [Bull. ex Fr.] Sing.) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus [Jacq. ex Fr.] Kummer) during maturity and the mushroom antioxidant activity related to the non-volatiles and volatiles are studied by a chromatographic method in combination with a spectrophotometric method. The volatile compounds of straw and oyster mushrooms are sampled and identified by a combination sampling method, including headspace solid phase microextraction and steam distillation, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Among all the volatile compounds identified, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone are the two main compounds with the highest amounts in the volatile compositions of straw and oyster mushrooms. During maturity time of the straw mushrooms, the unsaturated 1-octen-3-ol peak area is reduced, whereas the saturated 3-octanone peak area is increased. However, during normal maturity time of oyster mushrooms, the peak areas of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone remain at the same level. 1-Octen-3-ol has a different antioxidant activity from 3-octanone. Combining the results of antioxidant experiments of water extract and main volatile components by the use of a phosphomolybdenum spectrophotometric method, the conclusion is drawn that oyster mushrooms might possess stronger antioxidant activities than straw mushrooms.

  8. Accumulation of radiocesium in wild mushrooms collected from a Japanese forest and cesium uptake by microorganisms isolated from the mushroom-growing soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Chikako [Chemistry Division, Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Chigasaki-shi, Kanagawa 253-0087 (Japan)]. E-mail: chika_kuwahara.u79v@pref.kanagawa.jp; Fukumoto, Atsushi [Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Ohsone, Ayako [Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Furuya, Nobutaka [Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Shibata, Hisashi [Yamanashi Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Masuho-cho, Yamanashi 400-0515 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hideo [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8638 (Japan); Kato, Fumio [Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    Mushrooms and soils samples collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji in Japan were measured for {sup 137}Cs and stable Cs. The ranges of {sup 137}Cs specific activities and stable Cs concentrations in the mushrooms were 291-7950 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight and 4.69-58.1 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively. Both {sup 137}Cs specific activities and stable Cs concentrations in the mushrooms were higher than those in common agricultural plants. The {sup 137}Cs specific activities and stable Cs concentrations in the soils were 3.18-149 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight and 0.618-2.18 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively. The appearance frequencies of filamentous actinomycetes and planktonic bacteria from the soils decreased according to increasing Cs contents in the medium. No relationship was observed between the appearance frequencies of those and the stable Cs concentrations in the soils. The filamentous actinomycetes from any soil sample could not grow in the presence of 25 mM Cs, although the planktonic bacteria from the soil samples could grow with up to 50 mM Cs in YM agar. In addition, the planktonic bacteria from approximately 70% of the soil samples could grow even in the presence of 100 mM Cs. Filamentous actinomycetes were more sensitive to Cs than planktonic bacteria. In in vitro experiments, Cs uptake by these strains of filamentous actinomycetes and planktonic bacteria was high in the presence of 5 mM CsCl and the strains accumulated Cs, the same as in mushrooms. Our results indicate that filamentous actinomycetes in the soils have higher sensitivity to Cs than planktonic bacteria, and several strains of filamentous actinomycetes have a high Cs accumulation in the presence of 5 mM Cs.

  9. Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mushrooms are the only non-animal food source of vitamin D. Wild mushrooms have naturally high vitamin D2 content, and cultivated mushrooms produce vitamin D2 from ergosterol when exposed to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase. Objectives: This study investigated...... the effects of providing supplementary UV-B during the growth phase on vitamin D2 formation and the interactions with growth of mushrooms, as compared to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase or exposure to sunlight for both cultivated and wild mushrooms. Methods: Experiments were carried out...... with exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest in the range of 0-2,400 mJ cm-2. Mushrooms grew for 2 days with or without repeated UV-B exposure each day. Vitamin D2 and growth rate were determined. Some mushrooms were post-harvest treated by exposure at 200 mJ cm-2 supplementary UV-B or natural...

  10. Effect of Ascorbic Acid, CaCl2, and Hydrogen Peroxide on Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus Shelf Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sarlak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are characterized by a very short shelf life and browning, weight-loss and microbial infections are known as the most deteriorating postharvest modifications in the mushrooms, leading to notable economic losses. In this study, the effects of some postharvest treatments including calcium chloride (0.30 and 0.45%, ascorbic acid (1, 2 and 3 mM and hydrogen peroxide (1% on increasing mushroom shelf life were evaluated. Mushrooms were dipped in the solution treatments for 2 min, then dried at room temperature and packed in polyethylene container by cellophane cover and were stored at 4°C. Some qualitative and quantitative parameters were measured on 8th and 16th days of storage. Results showed that, 0.45% CaCl2, as well as 2 and 3 mM ascorbic acid and 1% peroxide hydrogen effectively maintained mushrooms marketability and kept the cap closed. CaCl2 treatment was effective in extending the postharvest life of mushrooms due to reducing weight loss, maintaining firmness, reducing electrolyte leakage and lowering bacterial populations. Ascorbic acid was an effective treatment in reducing the weight loss, electrolyte leakage, bacterial populations and, thereby, maintaining the firmness. Hydrogen peroxide treatment improved the postharvest quality of mushrooms only through reducing bacterial populations.

  11. Submerged Culture of Mushrooms in Bioreactors – Challenges, Current State-of-the-Art, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal mushrooms have profound health-promoting benefits. Recently, a number of substances of mushroom origin have been isolated, identified and shown to have physiological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulating, cardiovascular, antihypercholesterolemia, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Currently, commercial products from medicinal mushrooms are mostly obtained through the field-cultivation of the fruiting body. However, in this case it is difficult to control the quality of the final product. Submerged fermentation of the mycelial form of mushroom-producing fungi has received much attention as a promising alternative for efficient production of the biomass of medicinal mushrooms and their active metabolites. However, in order for the production to be successful at industrial scale, various technical problems need to be solved, including characterization of the variations that occur during the submerged cultivation of mushrooms in bioreactors and their effects on growth and product formation. This review outlines the major factors that affect the submerged cultivation of mushrooms in bioreactors, including oxygen supply, shear and mixing, morphology and rheology, as well as two-stage cultivation strategies and high-cell-density cultivation strategies such as fed-batch fermentation.

  12. Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-02-01

    Herein, it was reported and compared the chemical composition and nutritional value of the most consumed species as fresh cultivated mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown mushrooms), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom), Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom), Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Flammulina velutipes (Golden needle mushroom). Shiitake revealed the highest levels of macronutrients, unless proteins, as also the highest sugars, tocopherols and PUFA levels, and the lowest SFA content. White and brown mushrooms showed similar macronutrients composition, as also similar values of total sugars, MUFA, PUFA and total tocopherols. Oyster and king oyster mushrooms gave the highest MUFA contents with similar contents in PUFA, MUFA and SFA in both samples. They also revealed similar moisture, ash, carbohydrates and energy values. This study contributes to the elaboration of nutritional databases of the most consumed fungi species worldwide, allowing comparison between them. Moreover it was reported that cultivated and the wild samples of the same species have different chemical composition, including sugars, fatty acids and tocopherols profiles.

  13. Lignocellulolytic enzyme activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield by Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on substrate containing anaerobic digester solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvilli, Nona A

    2009-11-01

    Solid waste from anaerobic digestion of litter from the commercial production of broiler chickens has limited use as fertilizer. Its disposal is a major problem for digester operators who are seeking alternative use for anaerobic digester solids, also referred to as solid waste (SW). The use of SW as substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus strain MBFBL400 was investigated. Lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield were evaluated in ten different substrate combinations (SCs) containing varying amounts of solid waste, wheat straw, and millet. Nutritional content of mushrooms produced on the different substrates was also determined. Substrates containing 70-80% wheat straw, 10-20% SW, and 10-20% millet were found to produce the highest mushroom yield (874.8-958.3 g/kg). Loss of organic matter in all SCs tested varied from 45.8% to 56.2%, which had positive correlation with the biological efficiency. Laccase, peroxidase, and carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activities were higher before fruiting, whereas xylanase showed higher activities after mushroom fruiting. SW increased the nutritional content in mushrooms harvested, and the combination of wheat straw and SW with millet significantly improved mushroom yield. Our findings demonstrated the possibility of utilizing anaerobic digester solids in mushroom cultivation. The application of SW as such could improve the financial gains in the overall economy of anaerobic digester plants.

  14. Molecular identification of poisonous mushrooms using nuclear ITS region and peptide toxins: a retrospective study on fatal cases in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Sikaphan, Sujitra; Leudang, Siriwan; Boonpratuang, Thitiya; Rangsiruji, Achariya; Naksuwankul, Khwanruan

    2016-02-01

    Cases of mushroom poisoning in Thailand have increased annually. During 2008 to 2014, the cases reported to the National Institute of Health included 57 deaths; at least 15 died after ingestion of amanitas, the most common lethal wild mushrooms inhabited. Hence, the aims of this study were to identify mushroom samples from nine clinically reported cases during the 7-year study period based on nuclear ITS sequence data and diagnose lethal peptide toxins using a reversed phase LC-MS method. Nucleotide similarity was identified using BLAST search of the NCBI database and the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). Clade characterization was performed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches. Based on BLAST and BOLD reference databases our results yielded high nucleotide similarities of poisonous mushroom samples to A. exitialis and A. fuliginea. Detailed phylogenetic analyses showed that all mushroom samples fall into their current classification. Detection of the peptide toxins revealed the presence of amatoxins and phallotoxins in A. exitialis and A. fuliginea. In addition, toxic α-amanitin was identified in a new provisional species, Amanita sp.1, with the highest toxin quantity. Molecular identification confirmed that the mushrooms ingested by the patients were members of the lethal amanitas in the sections Amanita and Phalloideae. In Thailand, the presence of A. exitialis was reported here for the first time and all three poisonous mushroom species provided new and informative data for clinical studies.

  15. Efficacy of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system (Prometheus) for treatment of liver failure due to mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Rukiye; Gunsar, Fulya; Ersoz, Galip; Akarca, Ulus Salih; Karasu, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    Consuming wild mushrooms is an ordinary habit in late summer and autumn in our region. Every year, several cases of hepatic toxicity secondary to mushroom poisoning are observed because of poor identification of the mushrooms. Unfortunately some of them are fatal. Prometheus system is a newly developed extracorporeal liver support device for fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) that enables removal of albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins. Therefore, it may be a promising treatment option for patients with liver failure due to mushroom poisoning. We studied 8 patients with mushroom poisoning. All patients underwent 1 to 4 consecutive FPSA (Prometheus)-system in addition to medical and supportive treatment such as fluid replacement, Penicillin G, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and silymarin. A variety of clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed. We had improvement of the biochemical parameters after first treatment with FPSA-system. Seven of 8 patients survived and were discharged to resume an independent life. One patient who had grade III encephalopathy when admitted to hospital died. No major adverse events were observed during the application of this therapy modality. FPSA-system may be a safe and effective treatment option for patient with mushroom poisoning. Early hospitalization is essential in order to be successful. Controlled studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this new treatment choice on survival of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) due to mushroom poisoning.

  16. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Trace metal contents in wild edible mushrooms growing on serpentine and volcanic soils on the island of Lesvos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloupi, M; Koutrotsios, G; Koulousaris, M; Kalogeropoulos, N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this survey were (1) to assess for the first time the Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in wild edible mushrooms (Russula delica, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Lactarius deliciosus, Suillus bellinii) from the island of Lesvos, (2) to investigate the metals' variability among the species, as well as in relation to the chemical composition of the underlying soil, comparing mushrooms collected from volcanic and serpentine substrates and (3) to estimate metal intake by the consumption of the mushrooms under consideration. The trace metals in 139 samples were determined by flame or flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. The median metal concentrations were as follows: Cd: 0.14; Cr: 0.10; Cu: 8.51; Fe: 30.3; Mn: 5.26; Ni: 0.34; Pb: 0.093 and Zn: 64.50, all in mgkg(-1) dry weight. The observed concentrations are among the lowest reported for mushrooms from Europe or Turkey, while Pb and Cd values did not exceed the limits set by the European Union. Significant species- and substrate-related differences in the metal contents were found, but the variability did not follow a uniform pattern for all the metals in all mushroom species. As a general trend, the mushrooms growing in serpentine sites contained higher Cd, Cr and Ni than those from volcanic sites. The calculated bioconcentration factors (BCFs) showed that none of the mushrooms can be regarded as a metal bioaccumulator, although BCF values slightly above unity were found for Zn in the three Lactarius species, and for Cu in R. delica. The studied mushrooms could supply considerable amounts of essential metals such as Zn and Cr. On the other hand, the consumption of R. delica collected from volcanic soils could provide 12% of the Cd daily tolerable intake and as high as 53% when collected from serpentine soils. Nonetheless, our results indicate that the regular consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Lesvos is quite safe for human health.

  18. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes: A poorly known allergen in Western countries responsible for severe work-related asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Pravettoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the IgE-mediated pathogenesis of severe asthma presented by a patient only after handling shiitake (Lentinus edodes mushrooms (SM. Material and Methods: Skin tests were performed using in-house extracts from mushrooms that the patient usually handled, i.e., shiitake, porcini, oyster and black fungus mushroom varieties. Specific IgE to champignons and various molds were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE immunoblotting was performed to detect IgE-binding components. Four negative controls were included in the study. Results: Skin prick tests performed with in-house mushroom extracts from varieties other than shiitake were completely negative, in contrast to the positive test obtained for shiitake mushrooms. Serum specific IgE levels for common molds and champignons were all negative. SDS-PAGE revealed many protein bands in the four mushroom extracts. Immunoblotting using the patient’s serum showed allergenic bands at about 15 and 24 kDa exclusively for SM that were not shared with negative controls. Another faint band was detectable at approximately 37 kDa for SM and porcini varieties. Conclusions: Here, we present the first European case of SM-induced occupational asthma, a disease more frequently occurring in Asia. Asthma attacks stopped when the patient avoided contact with shiitake mushrooms. No skin reactions and no IgE-binding proteins by immunoblotting were detectable with the other mushrooms tested. The positive skin test with shiitake mushrooms and IgE-binding components in the shiitake extract confirmed the IgE-mediated etiology of the reaction.

  19. Developmental expression of cell recognition molecules in the mushroom body and antennal lobe of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, René; Bicker, Gerd

    2012-06-15

    We examined the development of olfactory neuropils in the hemimetabolous insect Locusta migratoria with an emphasis on the mushroom bodies, protocerebral integration centers implicated in memory formation. Using a marker of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade and lipophilic dye labeling, we obtained new insights into mushroom body organization by resolving previously unrecognized accessory lobelets arising from Class III Kenyon cells. We utilized antibodies against axonal guidance cues, such as the cell surface glycoproteins Semaphorin 1a (Sema 1a) and Fasciclin I (Fas I), as embryonic markers to compile a comprehensive atlas of mushroom body development. During embryogenesis, all neuropils of the olfactory pathway transiently expressed Sema 1a. The immunoreactivity was particularly strong in developing mushroom bodies. During late embryonic stages, Sema 1a expression in the mushroom bodies became restricted to a subset of Kenyon cells in the core region of the peduncle. Sema 1a was differentially sorted to the Kenyon cell axons and absent in the dendrites. In contrast to Drosophila, locust mushroom bodies and antennal lobes expressed Fas I, but not Fas II. While Fas I immunoreactivity was widely distributed in the midbrain during embryogenesis, labeling persisted into adulthood only in the mushroom bodies and antennal lobes. Kenyon cells proliferated throughout the larval stages. Their neurites retained the embryonic expression pattern of Sema 1a and Fas I, suggesting a role for these molecules in developmental mushroom body plasticity. Our study serves as an initial step toward functional analyses of Sema 1a and Fas I expression during locust mushroom body formation.

  20. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjosheva Melania

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species.