Sample records for museum learning theories

  1. Museum Learning. (United States)

    Black, Susan


    Virtual museums focus on a specific curriculum theme and showcase electronic museum-type collections such as artifacts, paintings, photographs, numerous databases, and Web links to resources around the world. Museums of all types include vital teaching tools that help students make discoveries and form connections with the past, present, and…

  2. Pedagogy and Practice in Museum Online Learning (United States)

    Din, Herminia


    How best might museums harness the interactive capabilities of online environments to provide active teaching and learning experiences for diverse learners and communities? How can museums engage learners in ways that encourage them to visit the museum in person and/or further explore online resources? What should be the role of the museum in…

  3. Playful Learning Culture in the Museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela


    not undergone much investigation. This study was conducted in cooperation with two historical museums, these being the Transport Museum in Coventry, England and The Viking Museum in Ribe, Denmark. A new learning platform called MicroCulture has been created, aimed at eliciting a sociocultural understanding......Museum learning culture is going through a paradigmatic change. Two main positions are dominant: the modernist, emphasizing the need for assessment and uniform learning outcomes, and the postmodern, encouraging dialogue and multiple learning outcomes. A critical factor is the potential contribution...... of history in young visitors. This study indicates that museum learning culture could be enriched by the introduction of mediated play as a resource for conceptual thinking and social interaction....

  4. Constructing museum learning at the university level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth


    in a museum environment. How can museums be implemented at the university level and become part of a curriculum that demands high academic standards while at the same time exploiting and benefitting from the complexity and aesthetically determined learning potentials offered by museums? Following George A....... Hein’s notion of a ‘constructivist museum’ the purpose of the article is to suggest and demonstrate a learning strategy that focuses on the learner’s consideration of his or her own learning but elaborates on Hein’s general view of the physical surroundings and deals with the question of how exhibition...

  5. The Effect of Active Learning Techniques on Class Teacher Candidates' Success Rates and Attitudes toward Their Museum Theory and Application Unit in Their Visual Arts Course (United States)

    Dilmac, Oguz


    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect that using active learning techniques during museum and gallery visits has on teacher candidates' academic success rates in and attitudes toward their Visual Arts Course. In this study, the importance and requirement of education to take place in museums and art galleries is emphasized. The…

  6. Adult Learning for Social Change in Museums: An Exploration of Sociocultural Learning Approaches to Community Engagement (United States)

    Kim, Junghwan; You, Jieun; Yeon Park, Soo


    This integrative literature review critically examined how scholars were articulating the work of museums to make a space for "adult learning for social change through community engagement". We applied sociocultural adult learning theories (situated learning and cultural-historical activity theory), to 25 theoretical and empirical…

  7. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle


    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people...... is identified. It is argued that, paradoxically, museums’ decisions to innovate by introducing new technologies, such as portable tablets, and new pedagogies to support them conflict with many young people’s traditional ideas of museums and learning. The assessment of the implications of museums’ integration...... of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners’ systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced...

  8. Queensland Museum Online Learning Resources (United States)

    Bauer, Adriana


    This article evaluates three online educational resources on the Queensland Museum website in terms of their use of ICTs in science education; how they relate to the Queensland Middle School Science Curriculum and the Senior Biology, Marine Studies, Science 21 syllabuses; their visual appeal and level of student engagement; the appropriateness of…

  9. Can Virtual Museums Motivate Students? Toward a Constructivist Learning Approach (United States)

    Katz, James E.; Halpern, Daniel


    This study aims to assess the effectiveness of immersive environments that have been implemented by museums to attract new visitors. Based on the frameworks introduced by telepresence and media richness theories, and following a constructivist-based learning approach, we argue that the greater the similarity of an online museum experience is to its physical counterpart, the more positive will be the observer's perception of the collection. We reason that the similarity would lead online visitors to develop greater cognitive involvement which in turn will produce more positive attitudes toward the collection. In support of this argument, we present the results of a comparative study in which 565 participants were exposed randomly to four different exhibitions: two-dimensional collections of art and aircraft museums and three-dimensional tours of similar museums. Results indicate that whereas 3D tours have a strong effect on users' intentions to visit the real museum, cognitive involvement and sense of presence mediate the association between these variables. In terms of managerial implications, our study shows that if educational professionals want to stimulate their students to visit museums, 3D tours appear to be more effective for engaging learners through a realistic-looking environment. By offering richer perceptual cues and multimodal feedback (e.g., users can view 3D objects from multiple viewpoints or zoom in/out the objects), the study suggests that participants may increase their reasoning process and become more interested in cultural content.

  10. Museums and Adults Learning: Perspectives from Europe. (United States)

    Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

    This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…

  11. Designerly Learning: Workshops for Schools at the Design Museum (United States)

    Charman, Helen


    This paper presents qualitative research recently undertaken by the Head of Learning at the Design Museum. The research explores how learning in the museum's workshop programme for schools is conceptualised by the museum educators who devise and teach on the programme. The study is framed by an epistemological stance of social constructionism, in…

  12. Students' Understanding of the Special Theory of Relativity and Design for a Guided Visit to a Science Museum (United States)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Solbes, Jordi; Barragues, Jose-Ignacio; Morentin, Maite; Moreno, Antonio


    The present paper describes the design of teaching materials that are used as learning tools in school visits to a science museum. An exhibition on "A century of the Special Theory of Relativity", in the Kutxaespacio Science Museum, in San Sebastian, Spain, was used to design a visit for first-year engineering students at the university…

  13. Museum Signage as Distributed Mediation to Encourage Family Learning (United States)

    Kim, Kyungyoun


    Many prior studies conducted in museums have focused primarily on exhibits as the main objects for learning. Less progress has been made in studying signage as another meaning-making tool in museums. The present study was designed to understand the role of signage in family learning by answering the following research questions, "How does signage…

  14. Learning Museum genbesøgt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zipsane, Henrik; Fristrup, Tine; Lundborg, Maria Domeij

    Hvordan kan LM-modellens fokus på det tværinstitutionelle samarbejde mellem skole, læreruddannelse og museum anskues som en kapacitetsopbyggende strategi i forbindelse med implementeringen af folkeskolereformen? Dette undersøgelsesspørgsmål udgør det centrale omdrejningspunkt i nærværende...... forskere tilknyttet NCK: Henrik Zipsane (projektleder), Tine Fristrup (gæsteforsker fra DPU, Aarhus Universitet), Maria Domeij Lundborg og Sara Grut. Undersøgelsens baggrund skal først og fremmest findes i projektet ’Learning Museum’ som i perioden 2011-2013 etablerede et samarbejde mellem læreruddannelser...... og museer i hele Danmark. Det var resultaterne fra dette projekt, som igangsatte nærværende undersøgelse eftersom ændringer af læreruddannelsen (fra LU07 til LU13) i forbindelse med folkeskolereformen i 2013 faldt sammen med afslutningen på Learning Museum projektet. Folkeskolereformen og dermed...

  15. Gallery Educators as Adult Learners: The Active Application of Adult Learning Theory (United States)

    McCray, Kimberly H.


    In order to better understand the importance of adult learning theory to museum educators' work, and that of their profession at large, museum professionals must address the need for more adult learning research and practice in museums--particularly work informed by existing theory and work seeking to generate new theory. Adult learning theory…

  16. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning: Options and Obstacles (United States)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle


    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people's learning with portable tablets matches the intentions of the museums. By applying media and information literacy (MIL) components as analytical dimensions, a pattern of discrepancies between young people's expectations, their actual learning and the museums' approaches to framing such learning is identified. It is argued that, paradoxically, museums' decisions to innovate by introducing new technologies, such as portable tablets, and new pedagogies to support them conflict with many young people's traditional ideas of museums and learning. The assessment of the implications of museums' integration of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners' systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced by their leisure use.

  17. A Study of Early Learning Services in Museums and Libraries (United States)

    Sirinides, P.; Fink, R.; DuBois, T.


    Museums and libraries can play a role in providing opportunities for early learning, and there is clear momentum and infrastructure already in place to help make this happen. Researchers conducted a mixed-methods descriptive study to generate new evidence about the availability of services for young children in museums and libraries, and the…

  18. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education (United States)

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.


    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

  19. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning: Options and Obstacles (United States)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle


    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people's learning with portable tablets matches the…

  20. The Impact of Social Media on Informal Learning in Museums (United States)

    Russo, Angelina; Watkins, Jerry; Groundwater-Smith, Susan


    This paper posits that social networking can take a central role in learning in informal environments such as museums, libraries and galleries. It argues that social media offers young people agency previously unavailable in informal learning environments in order to explore complex responses to and participation with cultural content. The paper…

  1. Designing a Personalized Guide Recommendation System to Mitigate Information Overload in Museum Learning (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Chun-Yi; Huang, Yueh-Min


    Museum learning has received a lot of attention in recent years. Museum learning refers to people's use of museums to acquire knowledge. However, a problem with information overload has caused in engaging in such learning. Information overload signifies that users encounter a mass of information and need to determine whether certain information…

  2. Museums as spaces and times for learning and social participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M.


    Full Text Available A museum is valued according to its collections, communication and knowledge exchange with visitors (Primo, 1999. Museums should be in dialogue with the public, contributing to their development (Skramstad, 2004 and collective memory (Wertsch, 2004. Social interactions and working in participants’ zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1934/1962 play an important role in non-formal learning opportunities that take place at museums. The National Museum of Natural History and Science (Lisbon University offers weekly holiday programmes for children and teenagers, aiming at developing scientific literacy in intercultural and inclusive spaces and times, facilitating knowledge appropriation and social participation. We studied these programmes, assuming an interpretive approach (Denzin, 2002 and developing an intrinsic case study (Stake, 1995. The main participants were these children and teenagers, their parents, and museum educational agents. Data collecting instruments included observation, interviews, questionnaires, children and teenagers’ protocols and tasks inspired in projective techniques. Data treatment and analysis was based on a narrative content analysis (Clandinin & Connelly, 1998 from which inductive categories emerged (Hamido & César, 2009. Some examples illuminate participants’ expectancies, their engagement in activities, and the contributions of social interactions and non-formal education to the development of scientific literacy.

  3. Show Me What You See: An Exploration of Learning in Museums and Learning in Theatre (United States)

    Chou, Amy; Shih, Janet


    The main goal of this research study is to explore the interconnection between museum learning and theatre learning. We will begin this exploratory process by analyzing the functions of role-playing and improvisation as teaching and learning strategies, and we will then expand this analysis to the idea of storytelling as a link between learning in…

  4. Learning Robotics in a Science Museum Theatre Play: Investigation of Learning Outcomes, Contexts and Experiences (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet


    Theatre is often introduced into science museums to enhance visitor experience. While learning in museums exhibitions received considerable research attention, learning from museum theatre has not. The goal of this exploratory study was to investigate the potential educational role of a science museum theatre play. The study aimed to investigate (1) cognitive learning outcomes of the play, (2) how these outcomes interact with different viewing contexts and (3) experiential learning outcomes through the theatrical experience. The play `Robot and I', addressing principles in robotics, was commissioned by a science museum. Data consisted of 391 questionnaires and interviews with 47 children and 20 parents. Findings indicate that explicit but not implicit learning goals were decoded successfully. There was little synergy between learning outcomes of the play and an exhibition on robotics, demonstrating the effect of two different physical contexts. Interview data revealed that prior knowledge, experience and interest played a major role in children's understanding of the play. Analysis of the theatrical experience showed that despite strong identification with the child protagonist, children often doubted the protagonist's knowledge jeopardizing integration of scientific content. The study extends the empirical knowledge and theoretical thinking on museum theatre to better support claims of its virtues and respond to their criticism.

  5. The learning experience with electronic museum guides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.; Masuoka, A.; Takahashi, T.; Fukaya, T.


    Within the contextual model of learning framework, the authors conducted a study with electronic handheld guides at the Van Abbemuseum (Eindhoven, the Netherlands). This study investigated the influence that limiting users' freedom of choice and control by facilitated mediation of others has on

  6. Self-Regulated Learning in the Museum: Understanding the Relationship of Visitor's Goals, Learning Strategies, and Appraisals (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef


    Self-regulated learning (SRL) in the museum was explored by 2 investigations. The first one investigated 233 visitors on their goals and intended learning strategies by questionnaire before they visited the science museum. Results indicated visitors' learning goals can predict their intended deep-learning strategy. Moreover, visitors can be…

  7. Grounded Theory sebagai Metode Riset “Realitas Tertambah” di Museum Fatahillah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Widya


    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is part of the science of visual communication design/graphic design through theaddition of images on the real world with virtual information to enhance one’s senses with the help of “smart glasses”with three general characteristics: 1. The combination of real environment with virtual objects, 2. Interactivedisplay, 3. Display in 3D. Qualitative research methods and grounded theory approach in the real environmentin the area of Jakarta Fatahillah museum, discovered a new theory as a basis the idea that Visual PrototypingAugmented Reality technique with image manipulation-image nuanced Kota Tua as Jakarta Icon. The idea ofexploiting foreign tourists enriching way to learn more about Indonesia through social networking in a virtual worldstrategies to increase tourism.

  8. Design, implementation and evaluation of innovative science teaching strategies for non-formal learning in a natural history museum (United States)

    Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmuş


    Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning.

  9. Museum signage as distributed mediation to encourage family learning (United States)

    Kim, Kyungyoun

    Many prior studies conducted in museums have focused primarily on exhibits as the main objects for learning. Less progress has been made in studying signage as another meaning-making tool in museums. The present study was designed to understand the role of signage in family learning by answering the following research questions, "How does signage about exhibit content or interaction strategies affect parents' and children's learning and their engagement?" and "What is the role of parent prior knowledge on parents' and children's learning and their engagement?" To address these questions, 45 parent-child dyads with children aged six to seven years were recruited to engage with two exhibits about cars. Fifteen parent-child dyads were assigned to each of three conditions, created by two different types of signage: (1) Content and interaction signage condition, (2) Content signage condition, and (3) No signage condition. In each condition, eight parents with low knowledge in the car domain and seven parents with high knowledge were recruited. Findings showed that parents and children learned and engaged differently across the three signage conditions. Both children and parents in the conditions with signage learned more than children and parents in the no signage condition. By using information from signage, parents in the two signage conditions were able to identify the content of the exhibit more quickly and to shape appropriate educational messages in their conversations with children. Findings also showed that parents with high knowledge were more likely to have the exhibit-focused engagement, which was often oriented to their own interpretation and not always beneficial for children's learning. However, by showing that parent-child dyads in the content and interaction signage condition were most likely to operate and observe the exhibit appropriately and most likely to describe evidence and make appropriate inferences, this study suggested that the interaction

  10. Finding a New Voice: Lifelong Learning Experiences in Museum Volunteering (United States)

    Dahl, Mette Irene


    'Working with you all and finding my voice as an educator has changed my life', one of the retirees said as we were discussing their experiences as museum volunteers. When I was given a two-year contract as a museum educator to contribute to the renewal of a maritime museum in Norway by designing and developing a broad ranging outreach programme,…

  11. What Do Caregivers Notice and Value about How Children Learn through Play in a Children's Museum? (United States)

    Letourneau, Susan M.; Meisner, Robin; Neuwirth, Jessica L.; Sobel, David M.


    In two studies, Providence Children's Museum investigated caregivers' observations and perceptions of their children's play and learning at the museum. In the first, caregivers (N = 40) were interviewed about what they observed children doing, what they believed children were thinking about, and their own thoughts and actions while watching…

  12. Visualizing Biological Data in Museums: Visitor Learning with an Interactive Tree of Life Exhibit (United States)

    Horn, Michael S.; Phillips, Brenda C.; Evans, Evelyn Margaret; Block, Florian; Diamond, Judy; Shen, Chia


    In this study, we investigate museum visitor learning and engagement at an interactive visualization of an evolutionary tree of life consisting of over 70,000 species. The study was conducted at two natural history museums where visitors collaboratively explored the tree of life using direct touch gestures on a multi-touch tabletop display. In the…

  13. Designing Websites for Learning and Enjoyment: A study of museum experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleck C. H. Lin


    Full Text Available This study reports on an exploratory research study that examined the design of websites that encourage both learning and enjoyment. This study examines museum websites that offer educational materials. As part of their mission, most museums provide the general public with educational materials for study and enjoyment. Many museums use the Internet in support of their mission. Museum websites offer excellent opportunity to study learning environments designed for enjoyment. Computer-supported learning of various types has been studied over the years, including computer-aided learning, computer-aided instruction, computer-managed learning, and more recently, learning via the Internet. Some relevant work appears in the literature on pleasure; however, the concept of online learning for enjoyment – specifically when learning is not part of a formal instructional undertaking – has not been well studied and thus is not well understood. This study seeks to redress this gap in the literature, specifically ‘learning for enjoyment,’ by reporting on a number of semi-structured in-depth interviews with museum and educational experts in Taiwan. Our study identified a number of characteristics required of online learning websites, and we conclude some suggested guidelines for developing an online learning website for enjoyment.

  14. The sign learning theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The sign learning theory also holds secrets that could be exploited in accomplishing motor tasks. ... Introduction ... In his classic work: Cognitive Map in Rats and Men (1948),Tolman talked about five groups of experiments viz: latent learning ...

  15. Musealization without museology: national museums and fashion exhibitions between history, theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Žarić


    Full Text Available Studies of the theory and history of fashion, which were up until recently grouped with culture studies, gender studies, communicology, art history and anthropology are, on the academic map of the 21st century being established as separate disciplines. Consolidating these contexts, the affirmation of fashion studies has been most prevalent within the museology of fashion, as it - or rather – fashion museology is becoming one of the leading tendencies within contemporary museum practices. This paper views fashion as a specific kind of system, coded through sociocultural codes, and finds the reason for the ever-increasing number of exhibitions of fashion on the international as well as the national museum scene in the codes of fashion which oscillate between the aesthetic and the commercial. By affirming fashion as an art form on the one hand and increasing the profitability of the institution on the other, fashion exhibitions enable museums to become „fashionable“ – to keep up with contemporary, more liberal exhibition concepts. Despite the fact that in this year there have been a large number of fashion exhibitions in national museums, fashion is still without its own museology, a scientific theory which would explain it as a museum phenomenon. The exhibits are interpreted historically, while explaining their utilitarian and aesthetic value, while the question of why fashion is exhibited as an art form or a kind of cultural production to the consumer of the exhibition - the visitor – remains unanswered. By analyzing historical events which conditioned the museum exhibiting of fashion as well as the different conceptions of its exhibition, the author strives to – through the juxtaposition of international and national exhibitions catch sight of the causes of the lack of a museology of fashion, and open up the issue of its affirmation within the professional academic and museum community of Serbia.

  16. From changeling to citizen: learning disability and its representation in museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Allday


    Full Text Available This paper examines why museums, both currently and historically, have excluded material relating to people with intellectual impairments. The national picture is examined briefly before the focus shifts to three UK museums in York, Leeds and Colchester where curatorial attitudes to including and presenting material on learning disability are compared and contrasted. Curatorial anxieties about the subject, a lack of national guidance on how to address learning disability in museum collections and displays and the elusive nature of available sources of material appears to discourage museums addressing the issue. Nevertheless, a few examples show that with organizational and professional commitment and the adoption of facilitative and consultative approaches, museums can present the history of learning disability in exciting and thought provoking ways that challenge pre-conceptions about intellectually impaired people. Given museums’ responsibilities under the Disability Discrimination Act (2005, the significance of the social inclusion agenda and calls for new museological practices, there has never been a better time for museums to reevaluate their approaches to learning impairment.

  17. Teaching and Learning Scientific Literacy and Citizenship in Partnership with Schools and Science Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry; Quistgaard, Nana


    The purpose of this paper is to bring together research on learning and teaching in science – especially for scientific literacy and citizenship – with new insights into museum didactics in order to inform innovative ways of creating museum exhibits and visits and develop new ways of linking formal...... and informal learning environments. Knowledge from different domains that have evolved substantially over the past few decades is brought together with the intention of setting up some relatively concrete guidelines for arranging visits to science museums. First we examine new understandings of science...... learning in relation to the questions of why young people should learn science and what kind of science they should learn. We touch upon issues of scientific literacy and citizenship, dialogical processes, the nature of science, and inquiry-based teaching among others. Secondly, we relate our reflections...

  18. Exhibitions as learning environments: a review of empirical research on students’ science learning at Natural History Museums, Science Museums and Science Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Hauan


    Full Text Available One aim for many natural history museums, science museums and science centres is to contribute to school-related learning in science. In this article we review published empirical studies of this challenging area. The review indicates that the effectiveness of educational activities at different types of science-communication venues (SCV in supporting students’ science learning varies. There is also evidence of interesting differences between activities, depending on how these activities are designed. Firstly, these activities can stimulate interest and conceptual focus through a well-designed combination of structure and openness. Secondly, they can stimulate talks and explorations related to the presented topics. We have identified two possible areas which might prove fruitful in guiding further research: an exploration of the effects of different designs for guided exploratory learning, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of educational activities by studying the presence and quality of the learning processes visitors are engaged in. 

  19. Lifelong learning for active ageing in nordic museums; archives and street art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara


    to lifelong learning as a way to conceptualise activities for older adults’ in museums, as we emphasise an approach to adult education for active ageing articulated as ‘lifelong learning for active ageing’. To illustrate this framing, we outline a number of activities taken from publications, cultural sites...... and conferences in which we have been involved over the last decade in the context of the Nordic Centre of Heritage Learning and Creativity in Östersund, Sweden. We argue that lifelong learning for active ageing in cultural heritage institutions can contribute to the development of older adults’ civic......In this article, we develop a framework that demonstrates how older adults need to develop diverse capabilities in relation to their educational life course through engagements in Nordic museums, archives and street art activities. We discuss how European museums have taken up UNESCO’s approach...

  20. Mobile Guide System Using Problem-Solving Strategy for Museum Learning: A Sequential Learning Behavioural Pattern Analysis (United States)

    Sung, Y.-T.; Hou, H.-T.; Liu, C.-K.; Chang, K.-E.


    Mobile devices have been increasingly utilized in informal learning because of their high degree of portability; mobile guide systems (or electronic guidebooks) have also been adopted in museum learning, including those that combine learning strategies and the general audio-visual guide systems. To gain a deeper understanding of the features and…

  1. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Innovative Science Teaching Strategies for Non-Formal Learning in a Natural History Museum (United States)

    Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmus


    Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning. Purpose: This study aimed to design and implement innovative teaching…

  2. Enhancing in-Museum Informal Learning by Augmenting Artworks with Gesture Interactions and AIED Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.; Zanciu, Alin-Nicolae; Mahmoud, Haydar


    This paper presents a computer-supported approach for providing ‘enhanced’ discovery learning in informal settings like museums. It is grounded on a combination of gesture-based interactions and artwork-embedded AIED paradigms, and is implemented through a distributed architecture.......This paper presents a computer-supported approach for providing ‘enhanced’ discovery learning in informal settings like museums. It is grounded on a combination of gesture-based interactions and artwork-embedded AIED paradigms, and is implemented through a distributed architecture....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Angulo Delgado


    Full Text Available Understanding the mediating role of science museum in learning scientific content in school, it involves reflecting on the contributions of research to the question of what and how people learn in non-conventional educational settings. It has been shown that most people spend less than 3% of their lives learning in school, which emphasizes the importance of conceptualizing what they are and how much of their learning take place. While that question is resolved, it speaks at this bioassay on the complementary relationship between the museum and the school, as both institutions share the same educational purpose, but differ in the ways of achieving it. The science museum joins the class as a mediator that facilitates student learning as part of an education that promotes understanding of the phenomena of the world through models, which means that school learning goes in stages, one of which is that students have opportunity to structure new knowledge and synthesize on its own model. For this it is necessary that students speak, read, listen and write in science class, while the thought is expressed in language to attest to the facts. These communication skills arise in science class as indicators of mediation exercised by the museum and allow us to understand that it takes place in at least two dimensions: museographic and didactics.

  4. The relationship between visitor characteristics and learning-associated behaviors in a science museum discovery space (United States)

    Lozowski Boisvert, Dorothy; Jochums Slez, Brenda

    As informal educational institutions, science museums must do more than entertain and amaze visitors. Museum educators must design exhibits that attract and hold the attention of visitors long enough so that the visitors become engaged with the exhibits and learn from them. In order for museum educators to develop such exhibits, more information is needed about the variables associated with learning in museums. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge on informal education by examining the relationship between visitor characteristics and attraction, holding power, and visitor engagement.One hundred fifty-four visitors to a science museum discovery space were observed as they interacted freely with the exhibits. Trained volunteers recorded the subjects' movements including the exhibits at which they stopped (attraction), the amount of time spent at each exhibit (holding power), and behaviors indicative of subjects' engagement levels with the exhibits. Data indicated significant differences between age group and the holding power of exhibits. Though not significant statistically, a similar trend was noted between age group and attraction and visitor engagement level. No significant differences were found between gender or social grouping and attraction, holding power, or engagement levels.

  5. Virtual in Real. Interactive Solutions for Learning and Communication in the National Archaeological Museum of Marche (United States)

    Clini, P.; Nespeca, R.; Ruggeri, L.


    Today the ICTs are favourable additions to museum exhibitions. This work aims to realize an innovative system of digital exploitation of artefacts in the National Archaeological Museum of Marche (MANaM), in order to create a shared museum that will improve the knowledge of cultural contents through the paradigm "learning by interacting" and "edutainment". The main novelty is the implementation of stand-alone multimedia installations for digital artefacts that combine real and virtual scenarios in order to enrich the experience, the knowledge and the multi-sensory perception. A Digital Library (DL) is created using Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) techniques applied to 21 archaeological artefacts belonging to different categories. Enriched with other data (texts, images, multimedia), all 3D models flow into the cloud data server from which are recalled in the individual exhibitions. In particular, we have chosen three types of technological solutions: VISUAL, TACTILE, SPATIAL. All the solutions take into account the possibility of group interaction, allowing the participation of the interaction to an appropriate number of users. Sharing the experience enables greater involvement, generating communicative effectiveness much higher than it would get from a lonely visit. From the "Museum Visitors Behaviour Analysis" we obtain a survey about users' needs and efficiency of the interactive solutions. The main result of this work is the educational impact in terms of increase in visitors, specially students, learning increase of historical and cultural content, greater user involvement during the visit to the museum.

  6. Enhancing Building, Conversation, and Learning through Caregiver-Child Interactions in a Children's Museum (United States)

    Benjamin, Nora; Haden, Catherine A.; Wilkerson, Erin


    The authors adapted an experimental design to examine effects of instruction prior to entry into a children's museum exhibit on caregiver-child interactions and children's learning. One hundred twenty-one children (mean age = 6.6 years) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions that varied according to what, if any,…

  7. Taking Action toward Inclusion: Organizational Change and the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Museum Learning (United States)

    Reich, Christine A.


    This study examined organizational change in science museums toward practices that are inclusive of people with disabilities. Guided by two overarching frameworks, organizational learning and the social model of disability, this study sought to answer the following: What are the contexts and processes that facilitate, sustain, or impede a science…

  8. Mobile Learning and Art Museums: A Case Study of a New Art Interpretation Approach for Visitor Engagement through Mobile Media (United States)

    Benito, Victoria López


    Nowadays Mobile technologies in Museums and especially in Art Museums are a popular way of communication with their audiences. These kinds of technologies have a high communicative potential and also could be a tool for marketing, information, engagement and learning as well. However with regards how these resources explain the meaning of works of…

  9. Climate Museum and Garden (United States)

    Gregg, Jay; Bille, Dorthe


    The Climate Museum and Garden is conceived as a cross-disciplinary experience, where the arts and sciences link together to increase understanding of the Earth's climate and its relevance to our fate as a species. This would be a place of inspiration. The Climate Museum and Garden would merge concepts of modern art museums and modern science museums, with exhibitions, live music and theater performances, visitor interaction, unique discoveries and reflection. It would be a place where visitors are immersed in experiences, lingering indoors and out in quiet consideration and gratitude for our planet's atmosphere. The story of climate change is compelling in its own right; theories of the greenhouse effect go back over century and climate policy has stretched back a few decades. Whereas scientific researchers have been contributing to understanding the mechanisms and impacts of climate change for many decades; whereas researchers have participated in climate summits and informed policy makers; whereas researchers have taught classes of gifted students; in all of this, the public has mostly missed out. This public relations gap has been unfortunately filled by those that would seek to politicize and mislead the public, leading to an engagement gap among the general public. Now we stand on a precipice. Therefore we see a ripe opportunity to reach out and inspire the population. We build off of current pedagogic research that shows that experienced-based learning is more impactful when it engages the senses and elicits an emotional response. People understand what they experience, what they feel, and this serves as the basis for personal reflection. In this sense the visitor experience is generative, in that it promotes further personal investigation and interaction. The Climate Museum and Garden would be a start. In the future, we envisage a future network of climate museums in all major cities. It would be a flagship attraction for any city, along with their art

  10. Parents’ and Experts’ Awareness of Learning Opportunities in Children’s Museum Exhibits (United States)

    Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Stuehling, Amara; Resnick, Ilyse; Mahajan, Neha; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Moynihan, Nora


    Informal learning outside of school are crucial for a child’s development. Children’s museums, in particular, are environments conducive to this sort of learning, especially when parents guide children’s exploration. However, research suggests a gap between parents’ and experts’ perceptions of the value of informal learning. In Study 1, we asked groups of parents and experts (i.e., individuals in the community connected with the field of education or those with training in child growth and development) to rate the presence of learning opportunities available in two museum exhibits, finding that parents consistently provided lower ratings. In Study 2, we explored whether signage aimed at orienting parents toward the learning potential in these exhibits would have an impact on their ratings. Results suggested that signage made parents’ ratings look more like those of experts. Taken together, these studies show that a simple intervention can help parents perceive the learning opportunities in children’s museum exhibits as experts do. PMID:28970647

  11. Learning theory and gestalt therapy. (United States)

    Harper, R; Bauer, R; Kannarkat, J


    This article discusses the theory and operations of Gestalt Therapy from the viewpoint of learning theory. General comparative issues are elaborated as well as the concepts of introjection, retroflextion, confluence, and projection. Principles and techniques of Gestalt Therapy are discussed in terms of learning theory paradigm. Practical implications of the various Gestalt techniques are presented.

  12. Designing Ubiquitous Computing to Enhance Children's Learning in Museums (United States)

    Hall, T.; Bannon, L.


    In recent years, novel paradigms of computing have emerged, which enable computational power to be embedded in artefacts and in environments in novel ways. These developments may create new possibilities for using computing to enhance learning. This paper presents the results of a design process that set out to explore interactive techniques,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Cristiane Lappann Botti


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Museum of Madness in the landscape of the Minas Gerais State is a place where art, history and memory disclose the differences about the Psychiatry approach since the beginning of the last century till nowadays. A qualitative study with 39 nursing undergraduate students was developed, aiming to identify the meaning of the visit to the Museum of Madness. The methodological referential was the Collective Subject Discourse and the theoretical the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. The data shows the meaning of the visit as potential experience of learning of the dimensions of the Psychiatric Reform when leads the student to question the practice and to know of Psychiatry in the asylum perspective. KEY WORDS: Nursing Education; Mental Health; Health Care Reform.

  14. NASA’s Universe of Learning: Engaging Subject Matter Experts to Support Museum Alliance Science Briefings (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Squires, Gordon K.; Biferno, Anya A.; Lestition, Kathleen; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Lee, Janice C.; Rivera, Thalia; Walker, Allyson; Spisak, Marilyn


    NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University and is part of the NASA SMD Science Activation Collective. The NASA’s Universe of Learning projects pull on the expertise of subject matter experts (scientist and engineers) from across the broad range of NASA Astrophysics themes and missions. One such project, which draws strongly on the expertise of the community, is the NASA’s Universe of Learning Science Briefings, which is done in collaboration with the NASA Museum Alliance. This collaboration presents a monthly hour-long discussion on relevant NASA astrophysics topics or events to an audience composed largely of informal educators from informal learning environments. These professional learning opportunities use experts and resources within the astronomical community to support increased interest and engagement of the informal learning community in NASA Astrophysics-related concepts and events. Briefings are designed to create a foundation for this audience using (1) broad science themes, (2) special events, or (3) breaking science news. The NASA’s Universe of Learning team engages subject matter experts to be speakers and present their science at these briefings to provide a direct connection to NASA Astrophysics science and provide the audience an opportunity to interact directly with scientists and engineers involved in NASA missions. To maximize the usefulness of the Museum Alliance Science Briefings, each briefing highlights resources related to the science theme to support informal educators in incorporating science content into their venues and/or interactions with the public. During this

  15. Informal Learning in Science Museum: Development and Evaluation of a Mobile Exhibit Label System with iBeacon Technology (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Xin, Youlong; Chen, Nian-Shing


    Informal science learning has drawn the attention of researchers, educators and museum administrators for a long time. However, the problem of how to better support visitors to be more engaged while visiting exhibits and improve informal science learning performance is still missing. Context-aware technologies have the advantages of fostering…

  16. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  17. Communicating Climate Change: Lessons Learned from a Researcher-Museum Collaboration † (United States)

    Parker, Christopher T.; Cockerham, Debbie; Foss, Ann W.


    The need for science education and outreach is great. However, despite the ever-growing body of available scientific information, facts are often misrepresented to or misunderstood by the general public. This can result in uninformed decisions that negatively impact society at both individual and community levels. One solution to this problem is to make scientific information more available to the public through outreach programs. Most outreach programs, however, focus on health initiatives, STEM programs, or young audiences exclusively. This article describes a collaboration between the Research and Learning Center at the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History and an interdisciplinary team of researchers from the Dallas–Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex area. The collaboration was a pilot effort of a science communication fellowship and was designed to train researchers to effectively convey current science information to the public with a focus on lifelong learning. We focus on the broader idea of a university-museum collaboration that bridges the science communication gap as we outline the process of forming this collaboration, lessons we learned from the process, and directions that can support future collaborations. PMID:29904536

  18. Geometrical methods in learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, G.; Combe, Ph.; Nencka, H.


    The methods of information theory provide natural approaches to learning algorithms in the case of stochastic formal neural networks. Most of the classical techniques are based on some extremization principle. A geometrical interpretation of the associated algorithms provides a powerful tool for understanding the learning process and its stability and offers a framework for discussing possible new learning rules. An illustration is given using sequential and parallel learning in the Boltzmann machine

  19. Constructivist learning theories and complex learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R-J. Simons; Dr. S. Bolhuis


    Learning theories broadly characterised as constructivist, agree on the importance to learning of the environment, but differ on what exactly it is that constitutes this importance. Accordingly, they also differ on the educational consequences to be drawn from the theoretical perspective. Cognitive

  20. Learning Theory and Prosocial Behavior (United States)

    Rosenhan, D. L.


    Although theories of learning which stress the role of reinforcement can help us understand altruistic behaviors, it seems clear that a more complete comprehension calls for an expansion of our notions of learning, such that they incorporate affect and cognition. (Author/JM)

  1. Learning Experiences in Museums: Harnessing Dewey's Ideas on Continuity and Interaction (United States)

    Winstanley, Carrie


    Museum and gallery educators have become increasingly adept at creating environments that foster constructivist thinking, invite interaction and encourage activity. Leading museum educator, Hein, for example, directly attributes Dewey's influence, describing his ideas about experiences, as a 'crucial lesson for museum educators: engagement with…

  2. Young Children's Learning in Art Museums: A Review of New Zealand and International Literature (United States)

    Terreni, Lisa


    In order to examine the existing literature in relation to the benefits of art museum education for the young, as well as to emphasise the literature gap in early childhood education research pertaining to access to and use of art museums by young children, a review of literature that discussed museum education for young children was undertaken. A…

  3. The learning in a science museum and the role of the monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassiana Fernanda Genzini de Carvalho


    Full Text Available The importance attributed to Science Museums regarding to their educational role increased in the past few decades. However there is a considerable distance between the intentions of an exhibition and the perception and possible interpretation of visitors to what is shown to them. This work investigates the part played by monitors at the Estação Ciência da USP in Brazil (Science Station when they follow visiting students groups. The process developed in the interaction with visitors aims to communicate the scientific knowledge involved in the exhibition object when the situation is permeated by social interactions that in a Vigotskian view about learning should favor the building up of scientific concepts. The focus, however, is to realize characteristics of the discourses of monitors with a view to scientific communication; Results have led us to conclude that monitors speeches are far from their intentions showing inconsistencies, and being simplistic, poor in analogies, without scientific rigor.

  4. Theory in learning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Czerniewicz


    Full Text Available This special issue is being published at a significant point in time in relation tosimultaneous changes in higher education, in technology and in the field of learningtechnology itself. As the 2011 ALT C conference themes clearly state, learningtechnology needs to learn to thrive in a colder and more challenging climate. In thisdifficult political and economic environment technological trends continue todevelop in terms of mobility, cloud computing, ubiquity and the emergence of whathas been called big data. E-learning has become mainstream and the field of learningtechnology itself is beginning to stabilise as a profession. Profession here isunderstood as a knowledge-based occupation and a form of cultural work where thetasks addressed are human problems amenable to expert advice and distinguishablefrom other kinds of work by the fact that it is underpinned by abstract knowledge(Macdonald, 1995.

  5. [Linking learning theory with practice]. (United States)

    Ávalos-Carranza, María Teresa; Amador-Olvera, Eric; Zerón-Gutiérrez, Lydia


    It is often said that it is easier to learn what is observed and practiced on a daily basis; to the need to effectively link theory with practice considered in the process of teaching and learning, many strategies have been developed to allow this process to be carried out in a more efficiently maner. It is, therefore, very important to recognize that an appropriate teacher/student relationship is essential for students to acquire the skills and abilities required.

  6. Foregrounding Knowledge in E-Learning Design: An Illustration in a Museum Setting (United States)

    Carvalho, Lucila; Dong, Andy; Maton, Karl


    The nature of knowledge, and the various forms knowledge may take, is a neglected aspect of the development of e-learning environments. This paper uses Legitimation Code Theory (LCT) to conceptualise the organising principles of knowledge practices. As we will illustrate, when it comes to the design of e-learning, the organising principles of the…

  7. The Theory and Implementation for Metadata in Digital Library/Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-hua Chen


    Full Text Available Digital Libraries and Museums (DL/M have become one of the important research issues of Library and Information Science as well as other related fields. This paper describes the basic concepts of DL/M and briefly introduces the development of Taiwan Digital Museum Project. Based on the features of various collections, wediscuss how to maintain, to manage and to exchange metadata, especially from the viewpoint of users. We propose the draft of metadata, MICI (Metadata Interchange for Chinese Information , developed by ROSS (Resources Organization and SearchingSpecification team. Finally, current problems and future development of metadata will be touched.[Article content in Chinese

  8. Corporate Training in Museums (United States)

    Causey, Adera


    Museums often court corporate audiences through special event rentals and development and promotional partnerships. But we rarely approach them as potential adult learners. In overlooking them, we miss the potential of reaching a large number of often novice museum participants who can gain from gallery learning and develop a relationship with our…

  9. Learning Theories In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning


    Farani, Rizki


    Learning theory is the concept of human learning. This concept is one of the important components in instructional for learning, especially English learning. English subject becomes one of important subjects for students but learning English needs specific strategy since it is not our vernacular. Considering human learning process in English learning is expected to increase students' motivation to understand English better. Nowadays, the application of learning theories in English learning ha...

  10. Early Learning Theories Made Visible (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa


    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  11. Deconstructing Systems of Bias in the Museum Field Using Critical Race Theory (United States)

    Adams, Melanie A.


    With today's fast-paced, ever-changing cultural, political, and social landscape, museums are in a unique position to provide visitors with the opportunity to connect and reflect on the world around them. From issues of social justice to immigration to reproductive rights, communities across the country are seeking spaces that allow and encourage…

  12. Appreciation of Authenticity Promotes Curiosity: Implications for Object-Based Learning in Museums (United States)

    Bunce, Louise


    Museum professionals suppose that interacting with authentic objects promotes curiosity and engagement, but this has not been tested. In this research, children and adults visiting the Oxford University Museum of Natural History were shown a taxidermied rabbit or rabbit skeleton. They were asked "Is it real?," "Why?" and were…

  13. Learning-talks in science museums: how a visually impaired person interprets the educational material at the museum of microbiology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fernandes Bizerra


    Full Text Available The processes of science communication and science education became especially important in the last quarter of the last century. Science museums, as non-formal spaces have an important role in amplifying and refining these processes. Being spaces open to the general public will be expected to develop programs that include all of its citizens. The Museum of Microbiology of the Butantan Institute has developed a series of activities and educational materials focusing on microorganisms that were designed to facilitate a closer integration of the visually impaired public with the scientific culture. In the present study, we sought to understand how visually deficient visitors interpreted the materials presented, determine the level of understanding that the use of these materials provided and study the significance attributed to them. Visually impaired visitors were interviewed during their interactions with the materials with the aid of an audio guide, and the talks generated were analyzed within interpretative categories. The most frequent category was “Strategic talk (Use” (11.8%, in which the visually deficient visitors gave their opinions concerning the uses of the Micro-Touch Program. Two other categories, “Affective talk (Pleasure” (10.2% and “Perceptual talk (Identification” (8.6% were also established. A combination of tactile and auditory tools was fundamental to solve problems and to the creation of visual representations that are important to constructing and understanding scientific concepts and to facilitate the organization of theoretical thought. We suggest here the necessity of elaborating activities contents that favors the establishment of conceptual talks and considering the previously acquired knowledge of visually impaired visitors during the design of displays, providing higher frequency of other learning talks

  14. Restoran Museum = Museum Restaurant

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tallinnas Vana-Viru 14 asuva restorani Museum sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt Toomas Korb, tema tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Varem paiknes nendes ruumides tuletõrjemuuseum, endiseid asukaid meenutavad raamitud mustvalged fotod. Ruumi ilmestavad Tom Dixoni loodud kuulvalgustid

  15. Chinese Learning Through Internet Inspired by Contructivist Learning Theory


    Yan, Huang


    With the changing concept of education, there is growing emphasis on “student-centered”principle. This is one of the characteristics of Constructivist learning theory. On network teachingChinese, Constructivist learning theory is indispensable. This article is the design of online Chineseteaching which is basic on the Constructivist learning theory.

  16. Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities. (United States)

    Canino, Frank J.


    The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)

  17. A Survey of Quantum Learning Theory


    Arunachalam, Srinivasan; de Wolf, Ronald


    This paper surveys quantum learning theory: the theoretical aspects of machine learning using quantum computers. We describe the main results known for three models of learning: exact learning from membership queries, and Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) and agnostic learning from classical or quantum examples.

  18. Learning a commonsense moral theory. (United States)

    Kleiman-Weiner, Max; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B


    We introduce a computational framework for understanding the structure and dynamics of moral learning, with a focus on how people learn to trade off the interests and welfare of different individuals in their social groups and the larger society. We posit a minimal set of cognitive capacities that together can solve this learning problem: (1) an abstract and recursive utility calculus to quantitatively represent welfare trade-offs; (2) hierarchical Bayesian inference to understand the actions and judgments of others; and (3) meta-values for learning by value alignment both externally to the values of others and internally to make moral theories consistent with one's own attachments and feelings. Our model explains how children can build from sparse noisy observations of how a small set of individuals make moral decisions to a broad moral competence, able to support an infinite range of judgments and decisions that generalizes even to people they have never met and situations they have not been in or observed. It also provides insight into the causes and dynamics of moral change across time, including cases when moral change can be rapidly progressive, changing values significantly in just a few generations, and cases when it is likely to move more slowly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Sanjeev


    A thought-provoking look at statistical learning theory and its role in understanding human learning and inductive reasoning A joint endeavor from leading researchers in the fields of philosophy and electrical engineering, An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory is a comprehensive and accessible primer on the rapidly evolving fields of statistical pattern recognition and statistical learning theory. Explaining these areas at a level and in a way that is not often found in other books on the topic, the authors present the basic theory behind contemporary machine learning and

  20. The Scientific Status of Learning Styles Theories (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.


    Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…

  1. Meaningful Learning in the Permanent Exhibition Hall of the Natural Science Museum of Universidade de Caxias do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Setti Zulian


    Full Text Available The Museum of Natural Sciences, University of Caxias do Sul, the space of non-formal education, has great potential for the development of activities related to environmental education. In the permanent exhibition room are provided information on the concept of ecosystems, flora and fauna of regional ecosystems, the interaction between them and the environmental impacts that suffer be performed. In tutoring questions occur and students are to report give opportunity knowledge they have acquired in school and in everyday experiences, adding new insights to these, thus making meaningful learning. Aiming to conserve natural resources and enhance ecosystems of Rio Grande do Sul, with the familiar design to preserve: the ecosystems of the Rio Grande do Sul - The Natural Science Museum goes to School, in partnership with the Municipal Primary School Jardelino Ramos, we elaborated a different methodology in addition to visitation. After explanations of ecosystems, various activities, including game of questions and answers on ecosystems, bingo and interactive storytelling history were under taken in accordance with the age range of students. Participated in these activities about 450 students of the partner school. The result was significant, it was noted that in later activities in school the occurrence of transferring the knowledge acquired in visits to the Natural Science Museum, through the reports and actions of students.

  2. Learning Theory Foundations of Simulation-Based Mastery Learning. (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Harris, Ilene B


    Simulation-based mastery learning (SBML), like all education interventions, has learning theory foundations. Recognition and comprehension of SBML learning theory foundations are essential for thoughtful education program development, research, and scholarship. We begin with a description of SBML followed by a section on the importance of learning theory foundations to shape and direct SBML education and research. We then discuss three principal learning theory conceptual frameworks that are associated with SBML-behavioral, constructivist, social cognitive-and their contributions to SBML thought and practice. We then discuss how the three learning theory frameworks converge in the course of planning, conducting, and evaluating SBML education programs in the health professions. Convergence of these learning theory frameworks is illustrated by a description of an SBML education and research program in advanced cardiac life support. We conclude with a brief coda.

  3. Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development (United States)


    Center for Army Leadership Technical Report 2006-2 Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development Christina Curnow...2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W91QF4-05-F-0026 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development 5c...ABSTRACT This report describes the development and implementation of an application of advanced learning theories to leadership development. A

  4. Some ideas for learning CP-theories


    Fierens, Daan


    Causal Probabilistic logic (CP-logic) is a language for describing complex probabilistic processes. In this talk we consider the problem of learning CP-theories from data. We briefly discuss three possible approaches. First, we review the existing algorithm by Meert et al. Second, we show how simple CP-theories can be learned by using the learning algorithm for Logical Bayesian Networks and converting the result into a CP-theory. Third, we argue that for learning more complex CP-theories, an ...

  5. A Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Gierasimczuk, Nina; Özgün, Aybüke


    Building on previous work that bridged Formal Learning Theory and Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a topological setting, we introduce a Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory (DLLT), extending Subset Space Logics with dynamic observation modalities, as well as with a learning operator, which encodes the le...... the learner’s conjecture after observing a finite sequence of data. We completely axiomatise DLLT, study its expressivity and use it to characterise various notions of knowledge, belief, and learning. ...

  6. Statistical Learning Theory: Models, Concepts, and Results


    von Luxburg, Ulrike; Schoelkopf, Bernhard


    Statistical learning theory provides the theoretical basis for many of today's machine learning algorithms. In this article we attempt to give a gentle, non-technical overview over the key ideas and insights of statistical learning theory. We target at a broad audience, not necessarily machine learning researchers. This paper can serve as a starting point for people who want to get an overview on the field before diving into technical details.

  7. Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Aoyagi


    Full Text Available We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coefficient corresponds to a real log canonical threshold of singularities for the Kullback functions (relative entropy in learning theory.

  8. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions. (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.


    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  9. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories


    Guney, Ali; Al, Selda


    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just a few studies about how physical environment is related to learning process. Many researchers generally consider teaching and learning issues as if independent from physical environment, whereas p...

  10. Mobile Affordances and Learning Theories in Supporting and Enhancing Learning (United States)

    MacCallum, Kathryn; Day, Stephanie; Skelton, David; Verhaart, Michael


    Mobile technology promises to enhance and better support students' learning. The exploration and adoption of appropriate pedagogies that enhance learning is crucial for the wider adoption of mobile learning. An increasing number of studies have started to address how existing learning theory can be used to underpin and better frame mobile learning…

  11. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.; Al, S.


    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just

  12. Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning (United States)

    Whitton, Nicola


    One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Kade Subhiksu


    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a shift in the attributes of several museums in Ubud in order to attract more tourists to visit museums as cultural tourism attractions. Some museums have expanded their collections and add other attributes to complement their main collections, which as the potential to alter the idealism, functions, and roles of museums. Another challenge faced by museum operators is the development of other tourist attractions, such as the addition of tourism destination attributes in Ubud, which was initially known as tourism destinations that offered art and culture such as dance performances and museums, and now have expanded into yoga destination, adventure destination, and so on. Based on these factors, the problem statements in this research are formulated as follows: (1 How are museums as tourist attractions in Ubud area, from the perspective of operators? (2 How are museums as tourist attractions in Ubud area, from the perspective of visitors? (3 How is the relationship between museums and other tourism components when examined from the role of museums as cultural tourism attractions in Ubud area?. This research on museums was conducted in the Ubud area because Ubud has made museums as the cultural tourism attractions in the area, which include the Blanco Museum, Museum Puri Lukisan, Agung Rai Museum of Art (ARMA, the Rudana Museum, and Neka Art Museum. This research is based on the theories of museum management, marketing, and theories on cultural tourism attraction. The research involved the participation of 82 foreign visitors and 79 domestic visitors as respondents, in addition to five museum owners and two museum professionals as informants. The conclusion of this research are as follows: (1 From the perspective of museum operators, museums function as cultural tourism attractions, as sources of historical information, as the media for cultural preservation, and the actualization of the noble objective of the museum

  14. Learning Theory Applied to the Biology Classroom. (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.


    The material presented in this article is intended to help students learn how to learn. The seven key concepts of David Ausubel's assimilation theory for cognitive learning are discussed with reference to the classroom. Concept mapping is suggested as a tool for demonstrating how the seven key concepts function. (SA)

  15. Beyond mere information provisioning: a handheld museum guide based on social activities and playful learning


    SCHROYEN, Jolien; GABRIELS, Kris; TEUNKENS, Daniel; ROBERT, Karel; LUYTEN, Kris; CONINX, Karin


    During a museum visit, social interaction can improve intellectual, social, personal and cultural development. With the advances in technology, the use of personal mobile handheld devices – such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) – that replace the traditional paper guidebooks is becoming a common sight at various heritage sites all over the world. This technology often leads to problems such as isolating visitors from their companions and distracting visitors away from their surroundings....

  16. Experiential learning: transforming theory into practice. (United States)

    Yardley, Sarah; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim


    Whilst much is debated about the importance of experiential learning in curriculum development, the concept only becomes effective if it is applied in an appropriate way. We believe that this effectiveness is directly related to a sound understanding of the theory, supporting the learning. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the theories underpinning experiential learning, which are then expanded further in an AMEE Guide, which considers the theoretical basis of experiential learning from a social learning, constructionist perspective and applies it to three stages of medical education: early workplace experience, clerkships and residency. This article argues for the importance and relevance of experiential learning and addresses questions that are commonly asked about it. First, we answer the questions 'what is experiential learning?' and 'how does it relate to social learning theory?' to orientate readers to the principles on which our arguments are based. Then, we consider why those ideas (theories) are relevant to educators--ranging from those with responsibilities for curriculum design to 'hands-on' teachers and workplace supervisors. The remainder of this article discusses how experiential learning theories and a socio-cultural perspective can be applied in practice. We hope that this will give readers a taste for our more detailed AMEE Guide and the further reading recommended at the end of it.

  17. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories. (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María


    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  18. Moral learning as intuitive theory revision. (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Wellman, Henry


    We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action. Thus, moral learning involves development and change in each of these theories of the world across childhood, as well as developmental change in how children integrate information from these two intuitive theories. This perspective is supported by a series of research studies on young children's moral reasoning and learning, and compared to other developmental approaches, including more traditional forms of constructivism and more recent nativist perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Art Appreciation as a Learned Competence: A Museum-Based Qualitative Study of Adult Art Specialist and Art Non-Specialist Visitors (United States)

    Bracun Sova, Rajka


    Since Bourdieu, it has been argued that art appreciation requires "knowledge". The focus of this qualitative study was to examine art appreciation as a learned competence by exploring two different groups of museum visitors: art specialists and art non-specialists. The research was conducted at Moderna galerija in Ljubljana. Twenty-three…

  20. The Activity Theory Approach to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Engeström


    Full Text Available In this paper the author offers a practical view of the theory-grounded research on education action. She draws on studies carried out at the Center for Research on Activity, Development and Learning (CRADLE at the University of Helsinki in Finland. In its work, the Center draws on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT and is well-known for the theory of Expansive Learning and its more practical application called Developmental Work Research (DWR. These approaches are widely used to understand professional learning and have served as a theoreticaland methodological foundation for studies examining change and professional development in various human activities.

  1. Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence (United States)

    Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.


    Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…

  2. Art Appreciation as a Learned Competence: A Museum-based Qualitative Study of Adult Art Specialist and Art Non-Specialist Visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Bračun Sova


    Full Text Available Since Bourdieu, it has been argued that art appreciation requires “knowledge”. The focus of this qualitative study was to examine art appreciation as a learned competence by exploring two different groups of museum visitors: art specialists and art non-specialists. The research was conducted at Moderna galerija in Ljubljana. Twenty-three adults were recruited and accompanied during their visit to the museum. Participants were requested to “think out loud”, which meant to talk about what they saw, thought, and felt about the artworks. There was a short interview conducted with each participant before entering the museum to gain insight into their art-related and museum-visiting experience. The analysis of the data revealed that some processes of art appreciation were similar within the two groups. Both art specialists and art non-specialists interact with museum objects physically and intellectually; they see contents and formal qualities as a whole; they respond emotionally to artworks; appreciation includes their personal experience; they search museum interpretation/information for their understanding. Some noticeable differences were found. Art specialists respond to artworks with more understanding and are willing to put more effort into art appreciation, whereas art non-specialists respond with less understanding and put less effort into art appreciation. This paper focuses on the differences between the two groups; reflective and spontaneous appreciation of art, objective and subjective appreciation of art and the effort put into art appreciation. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of the study for the teaching of art and museum education.

  3. Teaching science in museums (United States)

    Tran, Lynn Uyen

    Museums are free-choice, non-threatening, non-evaluative learning and teaching environments. They enable learners to revisit contents, authentic objects, and experiences at their own leisure as they continually build an understanding and appreciation of the concepts. Schools in America have used museums as resources to supplement their curriculum since the 19 th century. Field trip research is predominantly from the teachers' and students' perspectives, and draws attention to the importance for classroom teachers and students to prepare prior to field trips, have tasks, goals, and objectives during their time at the museum, and follow up afterwards. Meanwhile, museum educators' contributions to field trip experiences have been scantily addressed. These educators develop and implement programs intended to help students' explore science concepts and make sense of their experiences, and despite their limited time with students, studies show they can be memorable. First, field trips are a break in the usual routine, and thus have curiosity and attention attracting power. Second, classroom science teaching literature suggests teachers' teaching knowledge and goals can affect their behaviors, and in turn influence student learning. Third, classroom teachers are novices at planning and implementing field trip planners, and museum educators can share this responsibility. But little is reported on how the educators teach, what guides their instruction, how classroom teachers use these lessons, and what is gained from these lessons. This study investigates two of these inquiries. The following research questions guided this investigation. (1) How do educators teaching one-hour, one-time lessons in museums adapt their instruction to the students that they teach? (2) How do time limitations affect instruction? (3) How does perceived variability in entering student knowledge affect instruction? Four educators from two museums took part in this participant observation study to

  4. Development and application of social learning theory. (United States)

    Price, V; Archbold, J

    This article traces the development of social learning theory over the last 30 years, relating the developments to clinical nursing practice. Particular attention is focused on the contribution of Albert Bandura, the American psychologist, and his work on modelling.

  5. Learning theories application in nursing education


    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba


    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including socia...

  6. An Interpretation of Dewey's Experiential Learning Theory. (United States)

    Roberts, T. Grady

    "Experience and Education" (John Dewey, 1938) serves as a foundation piece of literature when discussing experiential learning. To facilitate a better understanding, a conceptual model was developed. In John Dewey's experiential learning theory, everything occurs within a social environment. Knowledge is socially constructed and based on…

  7. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories (United States)

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar


    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  8. Learning to Generate Dialogue: Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin; Gammon, Ben


    Over the past decade in the UK, communities of scientists, governmental bodies, and informal learning organizations have increasingly promoted public engagement with science. One of the most visible features of these efforts within museums is the staging of adult-focused, face-to-face forums...

  9. Visitor Learning on Guided Tours: An Activity Theory Approach (United States)

    Robinson, Lily Beatrice


    Guided tours, field trips, and other non-formal learning experiences occur in a variety of settings such as museums, parks, civic buildings, and architectural landmarks for the purpose of educating the public. This study yielded four main findings. (1) Program educational goals were visitor awareness, positive affective experience, and advocacy.…

  10. "I love Skagen Museum"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Ditte; Hviid Mortensen, Christian; Olesen, Anne Rørbæk


    this gap by investigating empirically how one type of institution, namely museums, and their Facebook followers, actually communicate. Our approach is innovative in combining analytical tools from speech act theory and Conversation Analysis (CA) to a corpus of activities from the Facebook pages of nine...... Danish museums of different types and sizes collected during eight consecutive weeks in 2013. This approach enables us to both investigate communicative actions as isolated speech acts and the micromechanics of the interaction that potentially arise from these actions. Our findings indicate that certain...

  11. Animals, Emperors, Senses: Exploring a Story-Based Learning Design in a Museum Setting (United States)

    Murmann, Mai; Avraamidou, Lucy


    The aim of this qualitative case study was to explore the use of stories as tools for learning within formal and informal learning environments. The design was based on three areas of interest: (a) the story as a tool for learning; (b) the student as subjects engaging with the story; and (c) the context in which the story learning activity takes…

  12. Learning to Generate Dialogue: Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin; Gammon, Ben


    -commonly called dialogue events-that bring scientific and technical experts, social scientists, and policymakers into discussion with members of the public about contemporary science-based issues. This article clarifies the difference between non-policy-informing dialogue events and other interactions in museums......Over the past decade in the UK, communities of scientists, governmental bodies, and informal learning organizations have increasingly promoted public engagement with science. One of the most visible features of these efforts within museums is the staging of adult-focused, face-to-face forums...... of engagement through dialogue related to science and society...

  13. Effects of novelty-reducing preparation on exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in a science museum setting (United States)

    Kubota, Carole A.; Olstad, Roger G.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between (a) novelty and exploratory behavior, (b) novelty and cognitive learning, and (c) exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in science museums. Sixty-four sixth-grade public school students participated in a posttest-only control group design. The control group received a treatment designed to decrease the novelty of a field trip setting through a vicarious exposure while the placebo group received an informative but not novelty-reducing treatment. Both groups then visited the field site where they were videotaped. Statistical analyses were conducted on both dependent variables with socioeconomic status and academic achievement as covariates, novelty-reducing preparation as the independent variable, and gender as moderator variable. Exploratory behavior was shown to be positively correlated with cognitive learning. Significant differences were detected for exploratory behavior. For both dependent variables, gender by treatment group interaction was significant with novelty-reducing preparation shown to be highly effective on boys but having no effect on girls.

  14. Learning automata theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Najim, K


    Learning systems have made a significant impact on all areas of engineering problems. They are attractive methods for solving many problems which are too complex, highly non-linear, uncertain, incomplete or non-stationary, and have subtle and interactive exchanges with the environment where they operate. The main aim of the book is to give a systematic treatment of learning automata and to produce a guide to a wide variety of ideas and methods that can be used in learning systems, including enough theoretical material to enable the user of the relevant techniques and concepts to understand why

  15. The Promotion of Peace Education through Guides in Peace Museums. A Case Study of the Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University (United States)

    Tanigawa, Yoshiko


    This paper focuses on how peace education at a peace museum is promoted by a volunteer guide service for visitors. Peace museums are places where many materials related to war and peace history are on display. To support the learning experience of museum visitors, many peace museums in Japan provide a volunteer guide service. The Kyoto Museum for…

  16. Learning theories application in nursing education (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba


    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is

  17. Learning theories application in nursing education. (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba


    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is

  18. A learning theory account of depression. (United States)

    Ramnerö, Jonas; Folke, Fredrik; Kanter, Jonathan W


    Learning theory provides a foundation for understanding and deriving treatment principles for impacting a spectrum of functional processes relevant to the construct of depression. While behavioral interventions have been commonplace in the cognitive behavioral tradition, most often conceptualized within a cognitive theoretical framework, recent years have seen renewed interest in more purely behavioral models. These modern learning theory accounts of depression focus on the interchange between behavior and the environment, mainly in terms of lack of reinforcement, extinction of instrumental behavior, and excesses of aversive control, and include a conceptualization of relevant cognitive and emotional variables. These positions, drawn from extensive basic and applied research, cohere with biological theories on reduced reward learning and reward responsiveness and views of depression as a heterogeneous, complex set of disorders. Treatment techniques based on learning theory, often labeled Behavioral Activation (BA) focus on activating the individual in directions that increase contact with potential reinforcers, as defined ideographically with the client. BA is considered an empirically well-established treatment that generalizes well across diverse contexts and populations. The learning theory account is discussed in terms of being a parsimonious model and ground for treatments highly suitable for large scale dissemination. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A rationale for a museum of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi


    Full Text Available The museum of health is a place that presents health science and human body and any other subjects that can affect human health. In this museum visitors can learn the mechanisms and functions of human body and learn how to protect and take care of their bodies. They can also learn several diseases and their consequences on human body and how to fight against them. This museum is a big step for improvement of general society health level by increasing society’s health knowledge. In this article structure, departments and also benefits of the health museum are evaluated.

  20. An instance theory of associative learning. (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Crump, Matthew J C; Hannah, Samuel D


    We present and test an instance model of associative learning. The model, Minerva-AL, treats associative learning as cued recall. Memory preserves the events of individual trials in separate traces. A probe presented to memory contacts all traces in parallel and retrieves a weighted sum of the traces, a structure called the echo. Learning of a cue-outcome relationship is measured by the cue's ability to retrieve a target outcome. The theory predicts a number of associative learning phenomena, including acquisition, extinction, reacquisition, conditioned inhibition, external inhibition, latent inhibition, discrimination, generalization, blocking, overshadowing, overexpectation, superconditioning, recovery from blocking, recovery from overshadowing, recovery from overexpectation, backward blocking, backward conditioned inhibition, and second-order retrospective revaluation. We argue that associative learning is consistent with an instance-based approach to learning and memory.

  1. Learning theory of distributed spectral algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zheng-Chu; Lin, Shao-Bo; Zhou, Ding-Xuan


    Spectral algorithms have been widely used and studied in learning theory and inverse problems. This paper is concerned with distributed spectral algorithms, for handling big data, based on a divide-and-conquer approach. We present a learning theory for these distributed kernel-based learning algorithms in a regression framework including nice error bounds and optimal minimax learning rates achieved by means of a novel integral operator approach and a second order decomposition of inverse operators. Our quantitative estimates are given in terms of regularity of the regression function, effective dimension of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and qualification of the filter function of the spectral algorithm. They do not need any eigenfunction or noise conditions and are better than the existing results even for the classical family of spectral algorithms. (paper)

  2. Leveraging Smart Open Innovation for Achieving Cultural Sustainability: Learning from a New City Museum Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Errichiello


    Full Text Available In recent years, cultural sustainability has attracted increasing attention within the discourse of sustainable development and sustainable cities. Notwithstanding some effort put on conceptualizing the relationship between culture and sustainability, research on the issue is still in a pre-paradigmatic stage and related empirical studies are scant. In particular, further knowledge is required to understand not only how cultural sustainability has been addressed strategically but also implemented in practice. In this direction, research has pointed out the role of social structures (e.g., partnerships, collaborations, etc. for achieving cultural sustainability goals. However, focusing on smart cities, attention is limited to how collaborative arrangements can be leveraged within the development of new city services (e.g., smart open innovation to sustain goals of environmental, economic and social sustainability, with cultural sustainability still playing a marginal role. This paper develops a new framework linking together the strategic level and the practice level in addressing cultural sustainability and conceptualizing the role of collaborative structures in the development of smart innovation. The framework is then used as a frame of reference for analyzing the case of MuseoTorino, a new city museum realized within the smart city strategy of Turin (Italy. The analysis provides evidence of some practices adopted to leverage collaboration and stakeholders’ engagement to strategically address cultural sustainability and to realize it in practice throughout the new service development process.

  3. Investigating the Learning-Theory Foundations of Game-Based Learning: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Wu, W-H.; Hsiao, H-C.; Wu, P-L.; Lin, C-H.; Huang, S-H.


    Past studies on the issue of learning-theory foundations in game-based learning stressed the importance of establishing learning-theory foundation and provided an exploratory examination of established learning theories. However, we found research seldom addressed the development of the use or failure to use learning-theory foundations and…

  4. Game-Based Learning Theory (United States)

    Laughlin, Daniel


    Persistent Immersive Synthetic Environments (PISE) are not just connection points, they are meeting places. They are the new public squares, village centers, malt shops, malls and pubs all rolled into one. They come with a sense of 'thereness" that engages the mind like a real place does. Learning starts as a real code. The code defines "objects." The objects exist in computer space, known as the "grid." The objects and space combine to create a "place." A "world" is created, Before long, the grid and code becomes obscure, and the "world maintains focus.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning (United States)

    Leavitt, Carol C.


    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  6. Self Modeling: Expanding the Theories of Learning (United States)

    Dowrick, Peter W.


    Self modeling (SM) offers a unique expansion of learning theory. For several decades, a steady trickle of empirical studies has reported consistent evidence for the efficacy of SM as a procedure for positive behavior change across physical, social, educational, and diagnostic variations. SM became accepted as an extreme case of model similarity;…

  7. Networks and learning in game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.


    This work concentrates on two topics, networks and game theory, and learning in games. The first part of this thesis looks at network games and the role of incomplete information in such games. It is assumed that players are located on a network and interact with their neighbors in the network.

  8. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef


    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  9. Employee Learning Theories and Their Organizational Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalaam Iyanda Ismail


    Full Text Available Empirical evidence identifies that organizational success hinges on employees with the required knowledge, skills, and abilities and that employees’ effectiveness at learning new skills and knowledge is connected with the kind of learning technique the organization adopts. Given this, this work explored employee learning theories and their organizational applications. Using far reaching literature survey and extensive theoretical and logical argument and exposition. This paper revealed that cognitive-based approaches, non-cognitive approach and need-based approaches play vital roles in shrinking the occurrence of unwanted behaviors and upturning the occurrence of desired behaviors in the organization. Proper application of the theories can induce positive employee behaviors such as task performance and organizational citizenship behavior and consequently enhance both individual and organizational performance. This work has hopefully contributed to the enrichment of the existing relevant literature and served as a useful guide for stakeholders on how they can stimulate positive employee behaviors and the consequent enhanced organizational performance.

  10. Engaged Learning and Youth Interest in STEM Careers: A Science Museum Exhibit on Air Pollution and Urban Sustainability (United States)

    Stuart, A. L.


    Enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curricula currently lag workforce needs. Participation of women and minorities in STEM careers also remains low despite efforts to improve their representation in these fields. We discuss the development and evaluation of a science museum exhibit aimed at stimulating interest of middle school children (particularly girls) in STEM careers. The exhibit was designed to teach science, while addressing two factors identified as limiting the interest of girls in STEM fields — perceived lack of social relevance and lack of female role models. Further, it was designed to apply best practices in science education, including inquiry-based learning and interdisciplinary content. The exhibit was developed through collaboration between students and faculty researchers at the University of South Florida and science education and evaluation specialists at the Museum of Science and Industry of Tampa. A few stages of formative and summative assessment, including focus group discussions, visitor observation, and surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exhibit to educational project goals. The installed exhibit is focused on teaching content related to interactions between air pollution, urban design, and human health. The approximately 25 square foot exhibit space involves four different types of components. A three-dimensional model of a city, with underlying dynamic computer simulations, allows visitors to interactively explore relationships between city design, air pollution and exposures. A computer game, with quiz questions requiring user decisions on personal to community behavior, provides visual feedback regarding impacts on air pollution. Traditional panels with graphics and text, including results of current research, display integrative scientific content with open-ended questions to stimulate discussion. Finally, personal profiles highlight the diverse family, work, and social lives

  11. Using Augmented Reality and Knowledge-Building Scaffolds to Improve Learning in a Science Museum (United States)

    Yoon, Susan A.; Elinich, Karen; Wang, Joyce; Steinmeier, Christopher; Tucker, Sean


    Although learning science in informal non-school environments has shown great promise in terms of increasing interest and engagement, few studies have systematically investigated and produced evidence of improved conceptual knowledge and cognitive skills. Furthermore, little is known about how digital technologies that are increasingly being used…

  12. Myartspace: Design and Evaluation of Support for Learning with Multimedia Phones between Classrooms and Museums (United States)

    Vavoula, Giasemi; Sharples, Mike; Rudman, Paul; Meek, Julia; Lonsdale, Peter


    This paper presents a description and evaluation of Myartspace, a service on mobile phones for inquiry-led learning that allows students to gather information during a school field trip which is automatically sent to a website where they can view, share and present it, back in the classroom or at home. The evaluation focused on three levels: a…

  13. The good field trip: How elementary students from diverse socio-economic backgrounds learn science, art, and technology at a museum (United States)

    Martell, Sandra Toro

    The Good Field Trip is a study that uses an ethnographic approach to answer the question of what learning looks like during a field trip to a museum. The study uses the Contextual Model of Learning (Falk & Dierking, 2000) to investigate elementary students' personal, physical, and sociocultural contexts of learning as well as how time affects students' thoughts and feelings about the experience. The author accompanied a group of eight students on a three and a half day camp-like experience to a museum that promotes environmental stewardship and the integration of art, science, and technology use and learning. The author videotaped the students' conversations and experiences and interviewed students before, during, and after the trip. Analyses of the videotapes were supplemented with student documents, including comic books, journal notes, and reflective essays about the trip. Findings include that not all experiences are marked as science, art, and technology; technology use does not occur; art is presented in a more formalized manner than science, which is composed of observation and the acquisition of knowledge about plants and animals; and conversations and activities resemble traditional modes of learning in school settings.

  14. The Development of a Comprehensive and Coherent Theory of Learning (United States)

    Illeris, Knud


    This article is an account of how the author developed a comprehensive understanding of human learning over a period of almost 50 years. The learning theory includes the structure of learning, different types of learning, barriers of learning as well as how individual dispositions, age, the learning environment and general social and societal…

  15. Providing Hands on Experiences to Museum Visitors to Explore and Learn about Earthquakes and their Impacts in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Olds, S. E.; Schiffman, C. R.; Butler, R. F.; Farley, M.; Frankel, S.; Hunter, N.; Lillie, R. J.


    Over the past ten years, UNAVCO has developed a suite of learning materials for formal undergraduate and grades 6-12 classroom environments, integrating GPS data from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to explore Earth science processes. To make complex Earth processes accessible to general audiences, UNAVCO has designed a multi-component visiting museum exhibit that explores the tectonic setting of the United States Pacific Northwest, hazards of living on a plate boundary, and the technologies being used to study the plate motion and in the future, help communities become more resilient to the impacts of earthquakes. This exhibit was installed in Fall 2013 at the Oregon State University (OSU) Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) in Newport, Oregon. Through multiple hands-on elements, visitors to the HMSC exhibit explore and experience the build up and release of strain in the region, along with some of the technologies used to measure these changes. In one component, visitors compress a model of the Pacific Northwest to feel the build up of strain in the landscape and observe the movement of land over time. Supporting panels connect this movement to the measurements currently being observed by the network of PBO and other GPS stations in the Pacific Northwest. In another component, visitors learn about the recurrence interval for earthquakes at the Juan De Fuca - North America plate boundary by turning a handle to slowly move and compress plates until a simulated earthquake occurs. A related component explores how an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) of the future might combine seismic data collected by both seismometers and real time GPS to allow people and communities time to prepare for oncoming ground shaking and tsunami after an earthquake. Several technologies are also highlighted throughout the exhibit, including information panels that compare the accuracy of high precision GPS with smartphone technologies. Additionally, models of a full

  16. Technology Museums in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe


    This article presents an exhibit review of some of the major technology museums in Denmark. First comes an introduction to the Danish museum ”landscape”. Second a total of six museums and their technology focused exhibits are presented. Among the museums are the Fisheries and Maritime Museum...... in Esbjerg, housing one of the most impressive and representative exhibitions on the technology behind the strong Danish maritime sector. Another museum being mentioned is the Energy Museum, which covers the background for some of the major breakthroughs performed in Denmark within this area; particularly...... within wind power technology. Finally special attention is devoted to the Danish Technological Museum. A museum which is the oldest and most elaborate of all the technology museums. The museum covers virtually every technological breakthrough with any relevance in a Danish section, with a special focus...

  17. Science Engagement at the Museum School: Teacher Perspectives on the Contribution of Museum Pedagogy to Science Teaching (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard


    This paper explores the accounts of science teachers working within the UK's only "museum school" and what they perceive as the benefits and shortcomings of "museum pedagogy" as a process of object-based teaching (and learning). Museum pedagogy is in this context considered for its potential in harmonising informal and formal…

  18. Learning relationships from theory to design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J.H. Fowler


    Full Text Available Over the last five years we have seen a very significant increase in the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT in schools, colleges and university. For example in 1998, there were over 195 accredited US universities offering a thousand or more distance learning courses (Philips and Yager, 1998. By no means were all of these new courses associated with educational innovation. The speed and ease of implementation of Webbased approaches, in particular, is resulting in design by imitation of current courses and methods, with a real lack of innovation or utilization of the power inherent in technologybased learning. Although matters are improving (see for example Brown, 1999, part of the reason for this failure to innovate is, we argue, because of the large gap between theory and practice.

  19. Learning about Bones at a Science Museum: Examining the Alternate Hypotheses of Ceiling Effect and Prior Knowledge (United States)

    Judson, Eugene


    Groups of children at a science museum were pre- and post-assessed with a type of concept map, known as personal meaning maps, to determine what new understandings, if any, they were gaining from participation in a series of structured hands-on activities about bones and the process of bones healing. Close examination was made regarding whether…

  20. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning. (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen


    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  1. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory. (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  2. Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory (United States)

    Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya


    Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

  3. Litteraturen og forfatteren på museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels Dichov


    to the digital society and virtual representation. The role and strength of the author/writer and the importance of place and space in the mediation of literature are enhanced as distinctive for these kinds of museums. It is concluded that the ongoing growth of literary museums is both a result of and an answer......The article discusses the connection between literature and museum and the role of museums for the preservation and engagement with literary heritage. Based on an overview of research in the field and a discussion of definitions, distinctions, typology, and current forms of institutions, new...... developments in literary theory, i.e. new book history and the literary studies’ theories of geographic place, but also concepts of materiality, presence, performance and literary scenes, are brought in to explain different connections between literature and the museum and the supposedly dialectic relation...

  4. Links between Libraries and Museums: a Case Study of Library-Museum Collaboration at the Hong Kong Maritime Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Lo


    Full Text Available Established in 2005, the Hong Kong Maritime Museum (HKMM is a relatively new private museum that aims to collect all forms of materials related to the development of boats, ships, maritime exploration and trade, and naval warfare on the South China coast, as well as its adjacent seas.  The Museum not only serves as a unique platform for teaching and learning of the local heritage in Hong Kong, it also contributes greatly to the promotion of community engagement and social connections.  The HKMM is also equipped with its own museum library, and it is called the CSSC (China State Shipbuilding Corporation Maritime Heritage Resource Centre.  In addition to supporting various research activities carried out by the Museum, this Resource Centre also serves as a central, and yet comprehensive repository for publications, and other archival documents on maritime heritage and history related to Southeastern China.  This paper aims to compare the distinctive operational practices, and user needs between museums and libraries.  It also examines the benefits and challenges of museum-library collaborations in the new knowledge-driven society.  This paper features an interview with Kitty But (Librarian, CSSC Maritime Heritage Resource Centre, The Hong Kong Maritime Museum and Robert Trio (Project Officer for Technology, The Hong Kong Maritime Museum, and in which they discussed their professional experiences in the fields of audience education; the implementation of different new technologies associated with the museum and library services; and various collaborative initiatives carried out between the Museum and the Resource Centre.  Upcoming challenges and opportunities faced by both the Museum and Resource Centre are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Developing a Domain Theory Defining and Exemplifying a Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor


    This article defines the concept of Domain Theory, or, when educational measurement is the goal, one might call it a "Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments in X Domain". The concept of Domain Theory is first shown to be rooted in validity theory, then the concept of domain theory is expanded to amplify its necessary but long neglected…

  6. Learning "in" or "with" Games? Quality Criteria for Digital Learning Games from the Perspectives of Learning, Emotion, and Motivation Theory (United States)

    Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz


    This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…

  7. Physics in the Art Museum (United States)

    Dale, Daniel A.; Bailey, Brenae L.


    Parisian artist Paul Signac met the impressionists Claude Monet and Georges Seurat in 1884. Their influence spurred his work in pointillism (or, where the juxtaposition of small dots of color in conjunction with the limited resolving power of the human eye lead to the impression of color coalescence).1-4 To stimulate a cross-disciplinary appreciation of science and art, we used the University of Wyoming Art Museum's Signac painting "Barques de Pêche à Marseilles" (see Fig. 1) to explore diffraction theory and the anatomical limitations to our vision during an optics exercise done in the museum.

  8. Rhetorical ways of thinking Vygotskian theory and mathematical learning

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Lillie R; Macadino, Vittoria


    Combining Vygotskian theory with current teaching and learning practices, this volume focuses on how the co-construction of learning models the interpretation of a mathematical situation, providing educationalists with a valuable practical methodology.

  9. Using David Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Portfolio Development Courses. (United States)

    Mark, Michael; Menson, Betty


    As personal portfolio assessment matures, practitioners continue to look for techniques that enhance both personal development and the process of seeking academic credit through assessment. Kolb's experiential learning theory and learning style inventory may have applications in this search. (Author)

  10. Toward an Instructionally Oriented Theory of Example-Based Learning (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander


    Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…

  11. Motivational Factors in Career Decisions Made by Chinese Science Museum Educators (United States)

    Ji, Jiao; Anderson, David; Wu, Xinchun


    Conceptualized by the self-determination theory, this interpretive study examined 23 museum educators' perspectives from five Chinese science museums to understand their work motivation in relation to their professional practice of working in museums. Research outcomes showed that, Chinese science museum educators' work motivation followed a…

  12. Critical evidence for the prediction error theory in associative learning. (United States)

    Terao, Kanta; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto


    In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. Complete evidence for the prediction error theory, however, has not been obtained in any learning systems: Prediction error theory stems from the finding of a blocking phenomenon, but blocking can also be accounted for by other theories, such as the attentional theory. We demonstrated blocking in classical conditioning in crickets and obtained evidence to reject the attentional theory. To obtain further evidence supporting the prediction error theory and rejecting alternative theories, we constructed a neural model to match the prediction error theory, by modifying our previous model of learning in crickets, and we tested a prediction from the model: the model predicts that pharmacological intervention of octopaminergic transmission during appetitive conditioning impairs learning but not formation of reward prediction itself, and it thus predicts no learning in subsequent training. We observed such an "auto-blocking", which could be accounted for by the prediction error theory but not by other competitive theories to account for blocking. This study unambiguously demonstrates validity of the prediction error theory in associative learning.

  13. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate


    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van


    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of learning groups in organisations. Four theoretical types of learning projects are distinguished. Four different approaches to the learning climate of work groups are compared to the approach offered by t...

  14. Giving Students Control over Their Learning; from Self-guided Museum Visits and Field Trips to Using Scanning Technology to Link Content to Earth Samples (United States)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Phipps, M.


    While it may seem counterintuitive, sometimes stepping back is one of the more effective pedagogical approaches instructors can make. On museum visits, an instructor's presence fundamentally alters students' experiences and can curtail student learning by limiting questions or discouraging students from exploring their own interests. Students often rely on the instructor and become passive observers, rather than engaged learners. As an alternative to instructor-led visits, self-guided student explorations of museum exhibits proved to be both popular and pedagogically effective. On pre-instruction and post-instruction surveys, these ungraded, self-guided explorations match or exceed the efficacy of traditional graded lab instruction and completely eclipse gains normally achieved by traditional lecture instruction. In addition, these explorations achieve the remarkable goal of integrating undergraduate earth science instruction into students' social lives. Based on the success of the self-guided museum explorations, this fall saw the debut of an attempt to expand this concept to field experiences. A self-guided student field exploration of Saint Anthony Falls focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the waterfalls' evolution, its early interpretation by 18th and 19th century Dakota and Euro-America societies, and its subsequent social and economic impacts on Upper Midwest societies. Self-guided explorations allow students to explore field settings on their own or with friends and family in a more relaxed manner. At the same time, these explorations give students control over, and responsibility for, their own learning - a powerful pedagogical approach. Student control over their learning is also the goal of an initiative to use scanning technologies, such as linear bar codes, 2D barcodes and radio-frequency identification (RFID), to revolutionize sample identification and study. Scanning technology allows students to

  15. Reflection of Learning Theories in Iranian ELT Textbooks (United States)

    Neghad, Hossein Hashem


    This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT…

  16. Task-Based Language Teaching and Expansive Learning Theory (United States)

    Robertson, Margaret


    Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has become increasingly recognized as an effective pedagogy, but its location in generalized sociocultural theories of learning has led to misunderstandings and criticism. The purpose of this article is to explain the congruence between TBLT and Expansive Learning Theory and the benefits of doing so. The merit…

  17. Strategies for application of learning theories in art studio practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlights the link between learning theories and art studio practices. The paper is of the opinion that if these theories are critically understood and applied to the practical aspect of fine and applied arts then learning will be more functional. Nigerian Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 8(1) 2003: ...

  18. Three Theories of Learning and Their Implications for Teachers. (United States)

    Ramirez, Aura I.

    Currently, three theories of learning dominate classroom practice. First, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Operant Conditioning states that if behavior, including learning behavior, is reinforced, the probability of its being repeated increases strongly. Different types and schedules of reinforcement have been studied, by Skinner and others, and the…

  19. Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline


    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

  20. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío


    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  1. Applying Distributed Learning Theory in Online Business Communication Courses. (United States)

    Walker, Kristin


    Focuses on the critical use of technology in online formats that entail relatively new teaching media. Argues that distributed learning theory is valuable for teachers of online business communication courses for several reasons. Discusses the application of distributed learning theory to the teaching of business communication online. (SG)

  2. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van


    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of

  3. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Gunn


    Full Text Available We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and reporting. The use of learning design as a strategy to develop and test theories in practice is integral to our argument. We conclude by supporting other researchers who recommend educational design research as a theory focused methodology to move the field forward in productive and consistent ways. The challenge of changing common practice will be involved. However, the potential to raise the profile of learning technology research and improve educational outcomes justifies the effort required.

  4. Learning Theory and the Typewriter Teacher (United States)

    Wakin, B. Bertha


    Eight basic principles of learning are described and discussed in terms of practical learning strategies for typewriting. Described are goal setting, preassessment, active participation, individual differences, reinforcement, practice, transfer of learning, and evaluation. (SC)

  5. Adding life to your years: Transformative learning for older people at the Irish Museum of Modern Art.


    Fleming, Dr Ted


    Life expectancy has increased by 30 years during the past century. By 2150 the percentage of the world’s population over 65 will be 30%, up from 7% at present. A high percentage of older people are actively involved in adult education (Lamdin and Fugate, 1997, p. 85). During the United Nations International Year of Older Persons (1999) the Irish Museum of Modern Art (IMMA), with EU SOCRATES funding, undertook a study of its education work with members of St. Michael's Parish Active ...

  6. Museums and Their Functions. (United States)

    Osborne, Harold


    Historical background concerning the nature and function of museums is provided, and the aesthetic functions of museums are discussed. The first major aesthetic function of museums is to preserve the artistic heritage of mankind and to make it widely available. The second major function is patronage. (RM)

  7. Museums and Their Enemies. (United States)

    Haskell, Francis


    Since the eighteenth century, both artists and art historians have received educational benefits from public art museums. The main function of public museums, however, has usually been the improvement or refinement of public taste. But in addition to education and pleasure, another museum objective is that of moral improvement. (RM)

  8. An Overview of the History of Learning Theory (United States)

    Illeris, Knud


    This article is an account of the history of learning theory as the author has come to know and interpret it by dealing with this subject for almost half a century during which he has also himself gradually developed the broad understanding of human learning which is presented in his well known books on "How We Learn" and a lot of other…

  9. Motivational Classroom Climate for Learning Mathematics: A Reversal Theory Perspective (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth


    In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…

  10. Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication (United States)

    Somerville, R. C.


    Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate

  11. Learning Theories Applied to Teaching Technology: Constructivism versus Behavioral Theory for Instructing Multimedia Software Programs (United States)

    Reed, Cajah S.


    This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…

  12. Reconstructing Constructivism: Causal Models, Bayesian Learning Mechanisms, and the Theory Theory (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.


    We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework…

  13. Adaptive vs. eductive learning : Theory and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Duffy, J.


    Adaptive learning and eductive learning are two widely used ways of modeling learning behavior in macroeconomics. Both approaches yield restrictions on model parameters under which agents are able to learn a rational expectation equilibrium (REE) but these restrictions do not always overlap with one

  14. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research


    Cathy Gunn; Caroline Steel


    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and repor...

  15. Social Learning, Social Control, and Strain Theories: A Formalization of Micro-level Criminological Theories


    Proctor, Kristopher Ryan


    This dissertation proposes theoretical formalization as a way of enhancing theory development within criminology. Differential association, social learning, social control, and general strain theories are formalized in order to identify assumptions of human nature, key theoretical concepts, theoretical knowledge claims, and scope conditions. The resulting formalization allows greater comparability between theories in terms of explanatory power, and additionally provides insights into integrat...

  16. A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning. (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen D.


    Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)

  17. Look Past the Stuffed Animals and Learn about the Earth: Dioramas at the American Museum of Natural History (United States)

    Passow, M. J.


    The dioramas at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York City provide great examples of artwork depicting locations of interest and value for teaching the Earth Sciences. When the Museum was established in 1869, it—like most institutions of that time—merely provided a taxidermy collection in cases. But as it expanded into the dozens of Halls in its multiple public buildings, curators made a deliberate effort to display the specimens with backdrops depicting the habitats where the animals were collected. Such `curatorial giants' as Frank Chapman and Carl Ackley spearheaded pioneering efforts to present displays in the curved, framed settings. The impact of these large- and small-scale artworks on the Public cannot be underestimated. Instead of just viewing the remains of a dead animal, visitors are transported around the world into a wide variety of ecosystems. With no more effort than walking from one display to the next, viewers "magically travel" to the multitude of environments across Planet Earth. The dioramas may take one from mountaintop vistas to the microsystem just a few centimeters above and below the forest floor. This presentation will provide selected examples of the artwork in AMNH dioramas. The AMNH website provides numerous videos and posts about its dioramas. I will also provide insights into the creation of more recent artwork using an online interview with Sean Murtha, the artist who created many of the Hall of Ocean Life dioramas. Predating modern technologies, including color photography, television, and computers, these dioramas are rightly described as powerful tools for nurturing scientific education and environmental awareness. These dioramas frequently are utilized to teach important Earth System Science concepts to school groups and other visitors, and examples of such lessons will be included.

  18. Learning theories 101: application to everyday teaching and scholarship. (United States)

    Kay, Denise; Kibble, Jonathan


    Shifts in educational research, in how scholarship in higher education is defined, and in how funding is appropriated suggest that educators within basic science fields can benefit from increased understanding of learning theory and how it applies to classroom practice. This article uses a mock curriculum design scenario as a framework for the introduction of five major learning theories. Foundational constructs and principles from each theory and how they apply to the proposed curriculum designs are described. A summative table that includes basic principles, constructs, and classroom applications as well as the role of the teacher and learner is also provided for each theory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  19. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science. (United States)

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick


    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Learning Theories Applied to the Teaching of Business Communication. (United States)

    Hart, Maxine Barton


    Reviews major learning theories that can be followed by business communication instructors, including those by David Ausubel, Albert Bandura, Kurt Lewin, Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, and Robert Gagne. (LRA)

  1. The Art of Playful Mobility in Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin


    Many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful and mobile activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In this chapter we explore play as a structure to support visitor learning, drawing from internation...

  2. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Miller

    Full Text Available Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  3. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning. (United States)

    Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M


    Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  4. Reflections of the academician of AUAS Fedor Schmitt on the museum audience of 1910-1920s and the relevance of their study in the context of museum sociology in Ukraine (1990-2000s years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Kutsaeva


    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the origins of the actual direction of the museum activities  development in Ukraine — museum sociology, which has been described in the significant array of publications starting from the early 1990’s. Those publications are focused on different aspects of learning of needs, motivations, expectations, behaviors, a social-demographic portrait and categories of the museum audience. It has been shown that the attention of the Ukrainian museum staff to the discussed aspects is not only limited by year 1991. The scientific heritage of the academician of All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences Fedor Schmitt (1877-1937 has been analyzed by the author of the study in order to separate aspects of his activity that can become the certain foundations of the study of the museums audience (museum sociology both in the days of the scientist and in modern Ukraine. The Soviet system not only denied his progressive views, but condemned them to death. It has been summarized by the author that most Schmitt’s papers on the issues of the museum audience were published during the scientist’s work in Kharkiv in 1912-1921. It is quite predictable that the issue of the museum audience was studied by the heritage saver and art scientist. Beginning of Ukrainian school of museology, where the leader was Mykola Bilyashivsky, the director of Kiev Museum of Antiquities and Arts (National History Museum of Ukraine, happened within the Archaeological Commission under the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. It was led by F. Schmitt. The draft charter of commission, designed by him, pushed to the study of the theory and practice of museology in all its spheres. Schmitt’s ideas on museums that had to be built on the territory of  the Russian Empire, which suffered from the First World War, were formed under the influence of his travels to cultural centers of Europe. Although none of F. Schmitt works before the beginning of 1920s included

  5. Introduction to Views of Connectivism Theory of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa’adi Sa’adi


    Full Text Available ‘Traditional’ theories of learning as pratical dimensions of psychology majorly tend to focus their interest on humans’ inner factors that influence the process of learning such as intelligences, motivation, interest, attitude, concentration and aptitude. They never connect it with instruments and technological inventions such as multimedia, cyber celluler, internet, even social organization, cultural values, traditions etc., while these are very influential nowdays towards the progress and behaviors of human life. As such the application of connectivism theory of learning which connect those dimensions of life with learning activities, is now and then insparable from any effort to promote the quality of humans’ learning itself, including in teaching and learning languages.

  6. Experiential Learning Theory as a Guide for Effective Teaching. (United States)

    Murrell, Patricia H.; Claxton, Charles S.


    David Kolb's experiential learning theory involves a framework useful in designing courses that meet needs of diverse learners. Course designs providing systematic activities in concrete experience, reflective observations, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation will be sensitive to students' learning styles while challenging…

  7. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory (United States)

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.


    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  8. Assessing Student Learning in Academic Advising Using Social Cognitive Theory (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.


    We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…

  9. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives. (United States)

    Scandura, Joseph M.


    Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

  10. An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowling, Michael


    .... In this paper we contribute a comprehensive presentation of the relevant techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning communities. We examine the assumptions and limitations of these algorithms, and identify similarities between these algorithms, single agent reinforcement learners, and basic game theory techniques.

  11. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.


    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  12. Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning (United States)

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura


    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…

  13. High School Students' Implicit Theories of What Facilitates Science Learning (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael


    Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…

  14. Some Consequences of Learning Theory Applied to Division of Fractions (United States)

    Bidwell, James K.


    Reviews the learning theories of Robert Gagne and David Ausubel, and applies these theories to the three most common approaches to teaching division of fractions: common denominator, complex fraction, and inverse operation methods. Such analysis indicates the inverse approach should be most effective for meaningful teaching, as is verified by…

  15. Learning theories in computer-assisted foreign language acquisition


    Baeva, D.


    This paper reviews the learning theories, focusing to the strong interest in technology use for language learning. It is important to look at how technology has been used in the field thus far. The goals of this review are to understand how computers have been used in the past years to support foreign language learning, and to explore any research evidence with regards to how computer technology can enhance language skills acquisition

  16. Juggling with Language Learning Theories. [Videotape (United States)

    Murphey, Tim


    Learning to juggle has become popular among corporate training programs because it shows participants how to appreciate mistakes and use "Intelligent Fast Failure" (learning quickly by daring to make a lot of simple mistakes at the beginning of a process). Big business also likes the way juggling can get executives "out of the…

  17. Playing styles based on experiential learning theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontchev, Boyan; Vassileva, Dessislava; Aleksieva-Petrova, Adelina; Petrov, Milen


    In recent years, many researchers have reported positive outcomes and effects from applying computer games to the educational process. The main preconditions for an effective game-based learning process include the presence of high learning interest and the desire to study hard. Therefore,

  18. The Self-Perception Theory vs. a Dynamic Learning Model


    Swank, Otto H.


    Several economists have directed our attention to a finding in the social psychological literature that extrinsic motivation may undermine intrinsic motivation. The self-perception (SP) theory developed by Bem (1972) explains this finding. The crux of this theory is that people remember their past decisions and the extrinsic rewards they received, but they do not recall their intrinsic motives. In this paper I show that the SP theory can be modeled as a variant of a conventional dynamic learn...

  19. Traveling Exhibitions as Sites for Informal Learning: Assessing Different Strategies with Field Trips to Traveling Exhibitions at Non-Museum Sites (United States)

    Harker, Richard J. W.; Badger, James


    This study investigated the use of different pedagogical techniques to create an intellectually engaging experience for middle school students who visited a traveling exhibition from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum at a non-museum host site: the University of North Georgia Dahlonega's Library and Technology Center. The findings of this…

  20. Conformal prediction for reliable machine learning theory, adaptations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Vovk, Vladimir


    The conformal predictions framework is a recent development in machine learning that can associate a reliable measure of confidence with a prediction in any real-world pattern recognition application, including risk-sensitive applications such as medical diagnosis, face recognition, and financial risk prediction. Conformal Predictions for Reliable Machine Learning: Theory, Adaptations and Applications captures the basic theory of the framework, demonstrates how to apply it to real-world problems, and presents several adaptations, including active learning, change detection, and anomaly detecti

  1. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther


    The millennia-old practices of horse training markedly predate and thus were isolated from the mid-twentieth century revelation of animal learning processes. From this standpoint, the progress made in the application and understanding of learning theory in horse training is reviewed including...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  2. Theory-based Bayesian models of inductive learning and reasoning. (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Griffiths, Thomas L; Kemp, Charles


    Inductive inference allows humans to make powerful generalizations from sparse data when learning about word meanings, unobserved properties, causal relationships, and many other aspects of the world. Traditional accounts of induction emphasize either the power of statistical learning, or the importance of strong constraints from structured domain knowledge, intuitive theories or schemas. We argue that both components are necessary to explain the nature, use and acquisition of human knowledge, and we introduce a theory-based Bayesian framework for modeling inductive learning and reasoning as statistical inferences over structured knowledge representations.

  3. Furtive Museums and Digital Reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Fernández Moreno


    Full Text Available The history of museums has gone through many stages where, depending on the time, priority is given to education, collection, curation, conservation or leisure. Museums have played an essential role for several centuries, but it was in the middle decades of the 20th Century when they were developed as a new type of institution that belongs to their community. With the arrival of Information and Communication Technology (hereafter ICT, they will continue to evolve and adapt to their social and cultural context. The idea of common heritage of humankind begins to mature at a time when privatization is imposed in all areas. In this context, the commons civic potential makes it an ideal tool for revitalizing the only institution capable of providing theories for understanding human beings as social beings through their material and immaterial content.

  4. Reconstructing constructivism: Causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms and the theory theory


    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.


    We propose a new version of the “theory theory” grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and non-technical way, and review an extensive but ...

  5. From Theory Use to Theory Building in Learning Analytics: A Commentary on "Learning Analytics to Support Teachers during Synchronous CSCL" (United States)

    Chen, Bodong


    In this commentary on Van Leeuwen (2015, this issue), I explore the relation between theory and practice in learning analytics. Specifically, I caution against adhering to one specific theoretical doctrine while ignoring others, suggest deeper applications of cognitive load theory to understanding teaching with analytics tools, and comment on…

  6. The Attribution Theory of Learning and Advising Students on Academic Probation (United States)

    Demetriou, Cynthia


    Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…

  7. A Context-Aware Knowledge Map to Support Ubiquitous Learning Activities for a u-Botanical Museum (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Lin; Chen, Chia-Chen; Zhang, Zhe George


    Recent developments in mobile and wireless communication technologies have played a vital role in building the u-learning environment that now combines both real-world and digital learning resources. However, learners still require assistance to control real objects and manage the abundance of available materials; otherwise, their mental workload…

  8. Developing Scale for Assimilate the Integration between Learning Theories and E-learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maher Iskander


    Full Text Available As e-learning tend to get more and more significant for all kind of universities, researchers and consultants are becoming aware of the fact that a high technology approach and Blackboard do not guarantee successful teaching and learning. Thus, a move to pedagogy-based theories can be observed within the field of e-learning. This study describes the procedure of the development of an empirically-based psychometrically-sound instrument to measure instructional model for e-learning system at Middle East universities. In order to accelerate the acceptance of e-learning and implementation of institution-wide adoption of e-learning, it is important to understand students' perceptions with instructional model for e- learning. The 19-item scale developed shows a high probability of differentiating between positive and negative perceptions and the methods which can be used for embedding the traditional learning theories into e-learning.

  9. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory (United States)

    Youse, Keith Edward


    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  10. Adventure Learning: Theory and Implementation of Hybrid Learning (United States)

    Doering, A.


    Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they

  11. Practice of Connectivism As Learning Theory: Enhancing Learning Process Through Social Networking Site (Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriye Altınay Aksal


    Full Text Available The impact of the digital age within learning and social interaction has been growing rapidly. The realm of digital age and computer mediated communication requires reconsidering instruction based on collaborative interactive learning process and socio-contextual experience for learning. Social networking sites such as facebook can help create group space for digital dialogue to inform, question and challenge within a frame of connectivism as learning theory within the digital age. The aim of this study is to elaborate the practice of connectivism as learning theory in terms of internship course. Facebook group space provided social learning platform for dialogue and negotiation beside the classroom learning and teaching process in this study. The 35 internship students provided self-reports within a frame of this qualitative research. This showed how principles of theory practiced and how this theory and facebook group space contribute learning, selfleadership, decision making and reflection skills. As the research reflects a practice of new theory based on action research, learning is not individualistic attempt in the digital age as regards the debate on learning in digital age within a frame of connectivism

  12. Machine learning in radiation oncology theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Naqa, Issam; Murphy, Martin J


    ​This book provides a complete overview of the role of machine learning in radiation oncology and medical physics, covering basic theory, methods, and a variety of applications in medical physics and radiotherapy. An introductory section explains machine learning, reviews supervised and unsupervised learning methods, discusses performance evaluation, and summarizes potential applications in radiation oncology. Detailed individual sections are then devoted to the use of machine learning in quality assurance; computer-aided detection, including treatment planning and contouring; image-guided rad

  13. Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories. (United States)

    Cook, David A; Artino, Anthony R


    To succinctly summarise five contemporary theories about motivation to learn, articulate key intersections and distinctions among these theories, and identify important considerations for future research. Motivation has been defined as the process whereby goal-directed activities are initiated and sustained. In expectancy-value theory, motivation is a function of the expectation of success and perceived value. Attribution theory focuses on the causal attributions learners create to explain the results of an activity, and classifies these in terms of their locus, stability and controllability. Social- cognitive theory emphasises self-efficacy as the primary driver of motivated action, and also identifies cues that influence future self-efficacy and support self-regulated learning. Goal orientation theory suggests that learners tend to engage in tasks with concerns about mastering the content (mastery goal, arising from a 'growth' mindset regarding intelligence and learning) or about doing better than others or avoiding failure (performance goals, arising from a 'fixed' mindset). Finally, self-determination theory proposes that optimal performance results from actions motivated by intrinsic interests or by extrinsic values that have become integrated and internalised. Satisfying basic psychosocial needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness promotes such motivation. Looking across all five theories, we note recurrent themes of competence, value, attributions, and interactions between individuals and the learning context. To avoid conceptual confusion, and perhaps more importantly to maximise the theory-building potential of their work, researchers must be careful (and precise) in how they define, operationalise and measure different motivational constructs. We suggest that motivation research continue to build theory and extend it to health professions domains, identify key outcomes and outcome measures, and test practical educational applications of the principles

  14. Prior Knowledge and the Learning of Science. A Review of Ausubel's Theory of This Process (United States)

    West, L. H. T.; Fensham, P. J.


    Examines Ausubel's theory of learning as a model of the role concerning the influence of prior knowledge on how learning occurs. Research evidence for Ausubel's theory is presented and discussed. Implications of Ausubel's theory for teaching are summarized. (PEB)

  15. The democratic horizons of the museum: Citizenship and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlgren, P.; Hermes, J.; Witcomb, A.; Message, K.


    Change is sweeping through the world of museums, technologically, financially, and ideologically, impacting on the sociocultural evolution of their roles and status. We seek to contribute to ongoing reflections by offering a conceptual framework that links museums with democratic theory, to

  16. High school students' implicit theories of what facilitates science learning (United States)

    Carlton Parsons, Eileen; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael


    Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students' implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to students' self-classifications as African American or European American and female or male, do differences exist in the students' implicit theories? Sample, design and methods: Students in an urban high school located in south-eastern United States were surveyed in 2006 about their thoughts on what helps them learn science. To confirm or disconfirm any differences, data from two different samples were analyzed. Responses of 112 African American and 118 European American students and responses from 297 European American students comprised the data for sample one and two, respectively. Results: Seven categories emerged from the deductive and inductive analyses of data: personal responsibility, learning arrangements, interest and knowledge, communication, student mastery, environmental responsiveness, and instructional strategies. Instructional strategies captured 82% and 80% of the data from sample one and two, respectively; consequently, this category was further subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis at p ethnic differences. Significant differences did not exist for ethnicity but differences between females and males in sample one and sample two emerged. Conclusions: African American and European American students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that facilitated their science learning did not significantly differ but female and male students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that helped them learn science significantly differed. Because students attend and respond to what they think

  17. Evaluating theories of bird song learning: implications for future directions. (United States)

    Margoliash, D


    Studies of birdsong learning have stimulated extensive hypotheses at all levels of behavioral and physiological organization. This hypothesis building is valuable for the field and is consistent with the remarkable range of issues that can be rigorously addressed in this system. The traditional instructional (template) theory of song learning has been challenged on multiple fronts, especially at a behavioral level by evidence consistent with selectional hypotheses. In this review I highlight the caveats associated with these theories to better define the limits of our knowledge and identify important experiments for the future. The sites and representational forms of the various conceptual entities posited by the template theory are unknown. The distinction between instruction and selection in vocal learning is not well established at a mechanistic level. There is as yet insufficient neurophysiological data to choose between competing mechanisms of error-driven learning and reinforcement learning. Both may obtain for vocal learning. The possible role of sleep in acoustic or procedural memory consolidation, while supported by some physiological observations, does not yet have support in the behavioral literature. The remarkable expansion of knowledge in the past 20 years and the recent development of new technologies for physiological and behavioral experiments should permit direct tests of these theories in the coming decade.

  18. Implications of learning theory for developing programs to decrease overeating. (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Bouton, Mark E


    Childhood obesity is associated with medical and psychological comorbidities, and interventions targeting overeating could be pragmatic and have a significant impact on weight. Calorically dense foods are easily available, variable, and tasty which allows for effective opportunities to learn to associate behaviors and cues in the environment with food through fundamental conditioning processes, resulting in measurable psychological and physiological food cue reactivity in vulnerable children. Basic research suggests that initial learning is difficult to erase, and that it is vulnerable to a number of phenomena that will allow the original learning to re-emerge after it is suppressed or replaced. These processes may help explain why it may be difficult to change food cue reactivity and overeating over the long term. Extinction theory may be used to develop effective cue-exposure treatments to decrease food cue reactivity through inhibitory learning, although these processes are complex and require an integral understanding of the theory and individual differences. Additionally, learning theory can be used to develop other interventions that may prove to be useful. Through an integration of learning theory, basic and translational research, it may be possible to develop interventions that can decrease the urges to overeat, and improve the weight status of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Herbert Virtual Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Petridis


    Full Text Available In recent years, virtual reality and augmented reality have emerged as areas of extreme interest as unique methods for visualising and interacting with digital museum artefacts in a different context, for example, as a virtual museum or exhibition, particularly over the Internet. Modern cultural heritage exhibitions have evolved from static to dynamic exhibitions and challenging explorations. This paper presents two different applications developed for the Herbert Museum and Art Gallery that make the user’s experience more immersive, engaging, and interactive. The first application utilizes mobile phone devices in order to enrich the visitors experience in the museum, and the second application is a serious game for cultural heritage and in particular for museum environments focusing on the younger visitors.

  20. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer. (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L


    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015

  1. Teaching Density Functional Theory Through Experiential Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, Shobhana


    Today, quantum mechanical density functional theory is often the method of choice for performing accurate calculations on atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems. Here, I share some of my experiences in teaching the necessary basics of solid state physics, as well as the theory and practice of density functional theory, in a number of workshops held in developing countries over the past two decades. I discuss the advantages of supplementing the usual mathematically formal teaching methods, characteristic of graduate courses, with the use of visual imagery and analogies. I also describe a successful experiment we carried out, which resulted in a joint publication co-authored by 67 lecturers and students participating in a summer school. (paper)

  2. The Social Life of Learning Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad


    There is a growing understanding that public institutions need to be proactive in not only developing their welfare services but doing so continually through various concepts of learning. This article presents an ethnographic study of a public school that aims at working strategically...... with organizational learning through Donald Schön's concept of “the reflective practitioner.” Schön's concepts provide the school manager with a vocabulary to criticize the destructive effects of New Public Management's linear steering technologies. The study also illustrates that expectations of reflective...

  3. What Learning Systems do Intelligent Agents Need? Complementary Learning Systems Theory Updated. (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; McClelland, James L


    We update complementary learning systems (CLS) theory, which holds that intelligent agents must possess two learning systems, instantiated in mammalians in neocortex and hippocampus. The first gradually acquires structured knowledge representations while the second quickly learns the specifics of individual experiences. We broaden the role of replay of hippocampal memories in the theory, noting that replay allows goal-dependent weighting of experience statistics. We also address recent challenges to the theory and extend it by showing that recurrent activation of hippocampal traces can support some forms of generalization and that neocortical learning can be rapid for information that is consistent with known structure. Finally, we note the relevance of the theory to the design of artificial intelligent agents, highlighting connections between neuroscience and machine learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interpreters' Perceptions about the Goals of the Science Museum in Taiwan. (United States)

    Chin, Chi-Chin

    The competence of interpreters, so called "docents," influences visitors' learning in museums. The study reported in this paper investigated 16 interpreters' perceptions about: the educational goals of the science museum in Taiwan, the function of the interpreter in the science museum, the requirements for a competent interpreter, and…

  5. Social cognitive theory, metacognition, and simulation learning in nursing education. (United States)

    Burke, Helen; Mancuso, Lorraine


    Simulation learning encompasses simple, introductory scenarios requiring response to patients' needs during basic hygienic care and during situations demanding complex decision making. Simulation integrates principles of social cognitive theory (SCT) into an interactive approach to learning that encompasses the core principles of intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Effective simulation requires an environment conducive to learning and introduces activities that foster symbolic coding operations and mastery of new skills; debriefing builds self-efficacy and supports self-regulation of behavior. Tailoring the level of difficulty to students' mastery level supports successful outcomes and motivation to set higher standards. Mindful selection of simulation complexity and structure matches course learning objectives and supports progressive development of metacognition. Theory-based facilitation of simulated learning optimizes efficacy of this learning method to foster maturation of cognitive processes of SCT, metacognition, and self-directedness. Examples of metacognition that are supported through mindful, theory-based implementation of simulation learning are provided. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Transformative Learning Theory in Gerontology: Nontraditional Students (United States)

    Brown, Pamela Pitman; Brown, Candace S.


    Mezirow (1978) applied and used Transformative Learning Theoretical (TLT) processes while studying women who reentered academics during the 1970s. Similar to Mezirow's original 1975 work, we identify "factors that impeded or facilitated" participants' progress to obtain their undergraduate degree during the traditional student…

  7. The Social Life of Learning Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad


    with organizational learning through Donald Schön's concept of “the reflective practitioner.” Schön's concepts provide the school manager with a vocabulary to criticize the destructive effects of New Public Management's linear steering technologies. The study also illustrates that expectations of reflective...

  8. Contemporary Privacy Theory Contributions to Learning Analytics (United States)

    Heath, Jennifer


    With the continued adoption of learning analytics in higher education institutions, vast volumes of data are generated and "big data" related issues, including privacy, emerge. Privacy is an ill-defined concept and subject to various interpretations and perspectives, including those of philosophers, lawyers, and information systems…

  9. The Organization of Museums: Practical Advice. Museums and Monuments, IX. (United States)

    Adams, Philip R.; And Others

    This manual deals with the organization of museums. The manual includes 10 chapters written by different people involved in museum work in various parts of the world. Chapter I, The Museum and Its Functions, deals with such topics as definition, collecting, identifying, and recording. Chapter II considers the administration of museums. Chapter…

  10. Mean-field theory of meta-learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plewczynski, Dariusz


    We discuss here the mean-field theory for a cellular automata model of meta-learning. Meta-learning is the process of combining outcomes of individual learning procedures in order to determine the final decision with higher accuracy than any single learning method. Our method is constructed from an ensemble of interacting, learning agents that acquire and process incoming information using various types, or different versions, of machine learning algorithms. The abstract learning space, where all agents are located, is constructed here using a fully connected model that couples all agents with random strength values. The cellular automata network simulates the higher level integration of information acquired from the independent learning trials. The final classification of incoming input data is therefore defined as the stationary state of the meta-learning system using simple majority rule, yet the minority clusters that share the opposite classification outcome can be observed in the system. Therefore, the probability of selecting a proper class for a given input data, can be estimated even without the prior knowledge of its affiliation. The fuzzy logic can be easily introduced into the system, even if learning agents are built from simple binary classification machine learning algorithms by calculating the percentage of agreeing agents

  11. Complexity Theory and CALL Curriculum in Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani


    Full Text Available Complexity theory literally indicates the complexity of a system, behavior, or a process. Its connotative meaning, while, implies dynamism, openness, sensitivity to initial conditions and feedback, and adaptation properties of a system. Regarding English as a Foreign/ Second Language (EFL/ESL this theory emphasizes on the complexity of the process of teaching and learning, including all the properties of a complex system. The purpose of the current study is to discuss the role of CALL as a modern technology in simplifying the process of teaching and learning a new language while integrating into the complexity theory. Nonetheless, the findings obtained from reviewing previously conducted studies in this field confirmed the usefulness of CALL curriculum in EFL/ESL contexts. These findings can also provide pedagogical implications for employing computer as an effective teaching and learning tool.

  12. Vaccination learning experiences of nursing students: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani


    This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.

  13. Science Curiosity in Learning Environments: Developing an Attitudinal Scale for Research in Schools, Homes, Museums, and the Community (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey


    Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science…

  14. Reconstructing constructivism: causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms, and the theory theory. (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M


    We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and nontechnical way, and review an extensive but relatively recent body of empirical results that supports these ideas. These include new studies of the mechanisms of learning. Children infer causal structure from statistical information, through their own actions on the world and through observations of the actions of others. Studies demonstrate these learning mechanisms in children from 16 months to 4 years old and include research on causal statistical learning, informal experimentation through play, and imitation and informal pedagogy. They also include studies of the variability and progressive character of intuitive theory change, particularly theory of mind. These studies investigate both the physical and the psychological and social domains. We conclude with suggestions for further collaborative projects between developmental and computational cognitive scientists.

  15. A comparative sociological study of peace museums and military museums


    Murakami, Toshifumi


    This paper compares peace museums and military museums in Japan and foreign countries. It analyses the features, social functions of both peace and military museums, and considers the social influence on both museums. A public relations facility of the Self Defense Forces is regarded as a military museum in Japan, so the development and contents of the exhibition of such public relations facilities are analyzed. A half of them were established in a period between 1964 and 1969. Three new larg...

  16. Virtual Museums as Educational Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Virtual Museums as Educational Tool On this web site you will find a collection of resources on virtual museums. The web site is meant to be a knowledge base for people with interest in museums, virtuality and education, and how virtual museums may contribute to adult education and lifelong...

  17. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton


    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and

  18. Another New Museum?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michels, Christoph; Beyes, Timon; Steyaert, Chris


    city is at work in the planning of a new art museum in a medium-sized Swiss city. The analysis shows how the entrepreneurial rationale is contested and re-appropriated through the use of classic and situational modes to organize this cultural institution. The ways of imagining the museum are described...... as the effects of these three modes of ordering – entrepreneurial, classic, and situational – as well as their hybridization. The authors conclude that by attending to the multiple layers of urban life, which unfold in and around museums, we can imagine other ‘new museums’ than those of the entrepreneurial city....

  19. The Nördlingen-Ries Geopark and nearby museums as a natural teaching laboratory for Geoscience students (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael; Kaka, SanLinn; Kaminski, Matthew


    The hypervelocity impact of an asteroid in southern Germany around 15 million years ago not only caused an environmental catastrophe, but it also created a scenario that provides us with a world-class natural laboratory for teaching the basic Principles of Geology. The combination of museum visits and observation of rock outcrops enables the student to reinforce or rediscover the basic principles of physical and historical Geology that are presented in first- or second-year Geoscience courses. At KFUPM, our visit to the Ries Geopark begins at the Ries Crater Museum in Nördlingen, where students review knowledge learned in their Physical Geology course: the Nebular Theory, origin of the solar system, and the classification of meteorites based on real examples. Students then learn the stages of impact crater formation, shock metamorphism, and the products of impact crater formation such as tectites, impact breccia and suevite. Students also become familiar with the Mesozoic stratigraphy of Southern Germany, reviewing basic principals of stratigraphy. Visits to local outcrops reinforce the knowledge gained at the Museum. A visit to the nearby Solnhofen Museum and quarries provides insight into the nature of the late Jurassic animals that lived at the edge of the Tethys Sea, reinforcing many topics learned during their second-year Paleontology course, such as taphonomy, and the idea of a death assemblage. At the Museum of the Geosciences Department of the University of Tübingen, the students become familiar with Mesozoic ammonoids as part of their second-year Paleontology course. A visit to the Urwelt Museum and quarry in Holzmaden explores animal life during the Early Jurassic, stratigraphic principles as presented on the museum's "geological staircase", and the origin of petroleum source rocks. The museum houses spectacular examples of Early Jurassic marine reptiles. All knowledge gained in the Jurassic of southern Germany enriches the students' understanding of

  20. The Development of a Virtual Dinosaur Museum (United States)

    Tarng, Wernhuar; Liou, Hsin-Hun


    The objective of this article is to study the network and virtual reality technologies for developing a virtual dinosaur museum, which provides a Web-learning environment for students of all ages and the general public to know more about dinosaurs. We first investigate the method for building the 3D dynamic models of dinosaurs, and then describe…

  1. Teaching and Learning of Knot Theory in School Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kawauchi, Akio


    This book is the result of a joint venture between Professor Akio Kawauchi, Osaka City University, well-known for his research in knot theory, and the Osaka study group of mathematics education, founded by Professor Hirokazu Okamori and now chaired by his successor Professor Tomoko Yanagimoto, Osaka Kyoiku University. The seven chapters address the teaching and learning of knot theory from several perspectives. Readers will find an extremely clear and concise introduction to the fundamentals of knot theory, an overview of curricular developments in Japan, and in particular a series of teaching

  2. Competences, Learning Theories and MOOCs: Recent Developments in Lifelong Learning (United States)

    Steffens, Karl


    Our societies have come to be known as knowledge societies in which lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important. In this context, competences have become a much discussed topic. Many documents were published by international organisations (UNESCO, World Bank, European Commission) which enumerated 21st century key competences. The field of…

  3. From dioramas to the dinner table: An ethnographic case study of the role of science museums in family life (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Kirsten M.

    What we know about learning in museums tends to come from studies of single museum visits evaluating success according to the museum's agenda, neglecting the impressive cooperative learning strategies and resources that families bring to their museum experiences. This is a report of an ethnographic case study of four families that visit science museums frequently. The study used ethnographic research and discourse analysis as combined methodological approaches, and was grounded in a sociocultural perspective that frames science as a socially and culturally constituted activity. Over eighteen months, data were collected during observations of the families in science museums, at home, and at other leisure sites. The study generated two types of findings. First, macroanalysis based on established frameworks for understanding learning in museums revealed differences in the orientation and extent of the museum visits. Additionally, a hierarchical framework for measuring science learning in museums proved insensitive. These findings underscore limitations of some of the traditional frameworks for understanding family learning in science museums. Second, microanalysis of interactions around science objects at home and in museums revealed that parents provided children with opportunities to understand the "middle ground" of science. Analysis also revealed that families adapted the science content of the museum to renegotiate family identities. Interestingly, the types of discourse most valued in science education were least important for establishing family identity. These frequent museumgoers eliminated the distance between them and science objects by transforming their meanings to establish family identity. This study demonstrates that the families' mediating strategies shape not just an understanding of science, but also a family identity that is constructed in and through interactions with science. The results of this study provide a foundation for examining how

  4. Perceptual learning: toward a comprehensive theory. (United States)

    Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka


    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is long-term performance increase resulting from visual perceptual experience. Task-relevant VPL of a feature results from training of a task on the feature relevant to the task. Task-irrelevant VPL arises as a result of exposure to the feature irrelevant to the trained task. At least two serious problems exist. First, there is the controversy over which stage of information processing is changed in association with task-relevant VPL. Second, no model has ever explained both task-relevant and task-irrelevant VPL. Here we propose a dual plasticity model in which feature-based plasticity is a change in a representation of the learned feature, and task-based plasticity is a change in processing of the trained task. Although the two types of plasticity underlie task-relevant VPL, only feature-based plasticity underlies task-irrelevant VPL. This model provides a new comprehensive framework in which apparently contradictory results could be explained.

  5. Differential theory of learning for efficient neural network pattern recognition (United States)

    Hampshire, John B., II; Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula


    We describe a new theory of differential learning by which a broad family of pattern classifiers (including many well-known neural network paradigms) can learn stochastic concepts efficiently. We describe the relationship between a classifier's ability to generate well to unseen test examples and the efficiency of the strategy by which it learns. We list a series of proofs that differential learning is efficient in its information and computational resource requirements, whereas traditional probabilistic learning strategies are not. The proofs are illustrated by a simple example that lends itself to closed-form analysis. We conclude with an optical character recognition task for which three different types of differentially generated classifiers generalize significantly better than their probabilistically generated counterparts.

  6. The effects of the Dutch museum pass on museum visits and museum revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, S.; Koopmans, C.; Boyer, C.


    The Dutch museum pass gives unlimited access for a year to most major Dutch museums and around the half of all Dutch museums for a fixed fee. The fee revenues are distributed among participating museums in proportion to the amount of visits by pass holders and their ticket prices. In this paper, it

  7. Developing the master learner: applying learning theory to the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment. (United States)

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Englander, Robert; Carraccio, Carol


    As a result of the paradigm shift to a competency-based framework, both self-directed lifelong learning and learner-centeredness have become essential tenets of medical education. In the competency-based framework, learners drive their own educational process, and both learners and teachers share the responsibility for the path and content of learning. This learner-centered emphasis requires each physician to develop and maintain lifelong learning skills, which the authors propose culminate in becoming a "master leaner." To better understand the development of these skills and the attainment of that goal, the authors explore how learning theories inform the development of master learners and how to translate these theories into practical strategies for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment so as to optimize this development.The authors begin by exploring self-determination theory, which lays the groundwork for understanding the motivation to learn. They next consider the theories of cognitive load and situated cognition, which inform the optimal context and environment for learning. Building from this foundation, the authors consider key educational theories that affect learners' abilities to serve as primary drivers of their learning, including self-directed learning (SDL); the self-assessment skills necessary for SDL; factors affecting self-assessment (self-concept, self-efficacy, illusory superiority, gap filling); and ways to mitigate the inaccuracies of self-assessment (reflection, self-monitoring, external information seeking, and self-directed assessment seeking).For each theory, they suggest practical action steps for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment in an effort to provide a road map for developing master learners.

  8. Constructivist Teaching/Learning Theory and Participatory Teaching Methods (United States)

    Fernando, Sithara Y. J. N.; Marikar, Faiz M. M. T.


    Evidence for the teaching involves transmission of knowledge, superiority of guided transmission is explained in the context of our knowledge, but it is also much more that. In this study we have examined General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University's cadet and civilian students' response to constructivist learning theory and participatory…

  9. Learning Organisation Review--A "Good" Theory Perspective (United States)

    Santa, Mijalce


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to perform integrative literature review of the learning organisation (LO) concept, on the basis of the results of the literature review to assess the concept on the principles of "good" theory, and provide future avenues for LO concept clarification and development. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  10. Writing for publication: faculty development initiative using social learning theory. (United States)

    Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B


    Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes.

  11. Social Learning Theory: A Vanishing or Expanding Presence? (United States)

    Stuart, Richard B.


    Reviews history and current status of social learning theory (SLT) including present conflict between "cognitive behaviorists" within the movement. Makes suggestions on how to resolve conflict in a way that will further secure the future role of SLT. Offers prescription for adoption of a multifaceted "indirect" approach to…

  12. Adult Basic Skills Instructor Training and Experiential Learning Theory. (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others


    Competency-based training workshops based on Kolb's experiential learning theory were held for North Carolina adult basic education teachers; 251 attended 1-day sessions and 91 a week-long summer institute. Topics included interpersonal communication, reading, numeracy, language arts, math, assessment, and program evaluation. (SK)

  13. Gestalt-A Learning Theory for Graphic Design Education (United States)

    Jackson, Ian


    This article will begin by seeking to define the notion of learning "by, through" and "from" experience. A linkage will then be established between these notions of experiences and gestalt theory. This will be explored within a subject specific context of graphic design. Links will be highlighted between the inherent nature of graphic design and…

  14. The Interdependence of Pedagogy, Learning Theory, Morality and Metaphysics. (United States)

    Blunden, Ralph


    Explores the incompatibility between constructivist theories of learning and realist metaphysics (belief that knowledge and skills exist in mind-independent workplace practices). Shows how this results in conflict between constructivist teaching approaches and the transmission or banking mode favored by realist metaphysics. (SK)

  15. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory (United States)

    Linn, Patricia


    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  16. Children balance theories and evidence in exploration, explanation, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonawitz, E.B.; van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Friel, D.; Schulz, L.


    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children,

  17. Designing Opportunities to Learn Mathematics Theory-Building Practices (United States)

    Bass, Hyman


    Mathematicians commonly distinguish two modes of work in the discipline: "Problem solving," and "theory building." Mathematics education offers many opportunities to learn problem solving. This paper explores the possibility, and value, of designing instructional activities that provide supported opportunities for students to…

  18. Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Expansive Learning and Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on how contradictions were used as sources of learning and development leading to 'real life expansions'. This demonstrates and reflects on the value of an interventionist research theory and methodology employed in the study to enhance participants' agency in sustainable agriculture workplaces.

  19. Amidst Multiple Theories of Learning in Mathematics Education (United States)

    Simon, Martin A.


    Currently, there are more theories of learning in use in mathematics education research than ever before (Lerman & Tsatsaroni, 2004). Although this is a positive sign for the field, it also has brought with it a set of challenges. In this article, I identify some of these challenges and consider how mathematics education researchers might think…

  20. Conversations, Individuals and Knowables: Toward a Theory of Learning (United States)

    Daniel, John S.


    Presents a learning theory in the language of cybernetics based on the tenet that the minimal experimental situation for making psychological observations is a conversation. The account is directed at generating interest in the original work by G. Pask, et al. (GS)

  1. Learning and Emotion: Perspectives for Theory and Research (United States)

    Hascher, Tina


    There is growing interest in and knowledge about the interplay of learning and emotion. However, the different approaches and empirical studies correspond to each other only to a low extent. To prevent this research field from increasing fragmentation, a shared basis of theory and research is needed. The presentation aims at giving an overview of…

  2. Det medialiserede museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudloff, Maja


    Over the past two decades, digital technologies have gained a greater and more important role in communication and dissemination of knowledge by museums. This article argues that the digitization of museum communication can be viewed as a result of a mediatization process that is connected...... to a cultural-political and museological focus on digital dissemination, in which user experience, interactivity, and participation are central concepts. The article argues that the different forms of communication, representation, and reception offered by digital media, together with the interactive and social...... of museum visiting has been transformed and somewhat adapted to new media-created forms of communication and action. From a more general perspective, the article may be regarded as a contribution to a continuous discussion of the role museums must play in a mediatized society....

  3. 76 FR 71080 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens (United States)


    ... heritage, culture, and knowledge; enhance learning and innovation; and support professional development... grants, examples of best practices, links to resources) to support their efforts. Incorporate museums and...

  4. The Impact of Cognitive Load Theory on Learning Astronomy (United States)

    Foster, Thomas M.


    Every student is different, which is the challenge of astronomy education research (AER) and teaching astronomy. This difference also provides the greatest goal for education researchers - our GUT - we need to be able to quantify these differences and provide explanatory and predictive theories to curriculum developers and teachers. One educational theory that holds promise is Cognitive Load Theory. Cognitive Load Theory begins with the well-established fact that everyone's working memory can hold 7 ± 2 unique items. This quirk of the human brain is why phone numbers are 7 digits long. This quirk is also why we forget peoples’ names after just meeting them, leave the iron on when we leave the house, and become overwhelmed as students of new material. Once the intricacies of Cognitive Load are understood, it becomes possible to design learning environments to marshal the resources students have and guide them to success. Lessons learned from Cognitive Load Theory can and should be applied to learning astronomy. Classroom-ready ideas will be presented.

  5. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Athletic Training Education: A Literature Review (United States)

    Schellhase, Kristen C.


    Objective: Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory offers insight into the development of learning styles, classification of learning styles, and how students learn through experience. Discussion is presented on the value of Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory for Athletic Training Education. Data Sources: This article reviews research related to…

  6. Learning Theory Expertise in the Design of Learning Spaces: Who Needs a Seat at the Table? (United States)

    Rook, Michael M.; Choi, Koun; McDonald, Scott P.


    This study highlights the impact of including stakeholders with expertise in learning theory in a learning space design process. We present the decision-making process during the design of the Krause Innovation Studio on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University to draw a distinction between the architect and faculty member's decision-making…

  7. Application of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning to Curriculum, Teaching and Learning of Deaf Students. (United States)

    Biser, Eileen

    Implications of D. Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and its derivative, the Advance Organizer Model of Teaching, for deaf students are examined. Ausubel believes that complex intellectual processes (thinking, language, problem-solving, concept formation) are the major aspects of learning, and that primary emphasis should be placed on…

  8. Science curiosity in learning environments: developing an attitudinal scale for research in schools, homes, museums, and the community (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.; Toomey Zimmerman, Heather


    Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) scale was created and validated as a 12-item scale to measure scientific curiosity in youth. The scale was developed through (a) adapting the language of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II [Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 987-998] for youth and (b) crafting new items based on scientific practices drawn from U.S. science standards documents. We administered a preliminary set of 30 items to 663 youth ages 8-18 in the U.S.A. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model: stretching, embracing, and science practices. The findings indicate that the SCILE scale is a valid measure of youth's scientific curiosity for boys and girls as well as elementary, middle school, and high school learners.

  9. Sociocultural Theory Applied to Second Language Learning: Collaborative Learning with Reference to the Chinese Context (United States)

    Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du


    This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…

  10. What propels sexual murderers: a proposed integrated theory of social learning and routine activities theories. (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric


    Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available.

  11. Aligning Coordination Class Theory with a New Context: Applying a Theory of Individual Learning to Group Learning (United States)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.


    This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…

  12. Gaming mindsets: implicit theories in serious game learning. (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hao; Heeter, Carrie; Magerko, Brian; Medler, Ben


    Individuals' beliefs about the malleability of their abilities may predict their response and outcome in learning from serious games. Individuals with growth mindsets believe their abilities can develop with practice and effort, whereas individuals with fixed mindsets believe their abilities are static and cannot improve. This study uses survey and gameplay server data to examine the implicit theory of intelligence in the context of serious game learning. The findings show that growth mindset players performed better than fixed mindset players, their mistakes did not affect their attention to the game, and they read more learning feedback than fixed mindset players. In addition, growth mindset players were more likely to actively seek difficult challenges, which is often essential to self-directed learning. General mindset measurements and domain-specific measurements were also compared. These findings suggest that players' psychological attributes should be considered when designing and applying serious games.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Prieto


    Full Text Available This article highlights the contributions of the dialogic learning approach toeducational theory, with the aim of providing some orientations in order to promoteegalitarian and scientific educational practice. The seven principles of dialogic learningare discussed, along with other reproductionist theories and practices from the educationalfield, demonstrating how the former both surpass the latter. The article also reflectsopen dialogue with the critical theories of education which the dialogic learningtheory is based on. These basic theories are, on the one hand, by authors who are distantin time but very close in their educational approach, such as Ferrer i Guàrdia, Vygotsky,or Paulo Freire, and, on the other hand, by other contemporary authors in critical pedagogy.Each of the seven principles presented are provided along with a critical examinationof a specific educational practice. The consequences of the implementation of dialogiclearning are underlined here through an analysis of innovative and critical educationalprojects which are academically successful.

  14. Midwifery students learning experiences in labor wards: a grounded theory. (United States)

    Brunstad, Anne; Hjälmhult, Esther


    The labor ward is an important and challenging learning area for midwifery students. It is there the students learn in authentic complex situations, in intimate situations, with potential risk for the life and health of mothers and their babies. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern expressed by midwifery students in labor wards and how they handled this concern. A longitudinal study based on grounded theory methodology was used. The participants were 10 postgraduate midwifery students, from a University College in Norway. Data were gathered and analyzed throughout the 2-year postgraduate program, in the students first, third and fourth semesters. Every student was interviewed three times in a total of 15 single and three focus-group sessions. The grounded theory of "building relationships" explains how students dealt with their main concern: "how to gain access to learning experiences". This theory consisted of three strategies; a) controlling vulnerability, b) cultivating trust and c) obtaining acceptance. Clarifying discussions involving midwives and students may facilitate the process of building relationships and contribute to confident learning. Students appreciate it when the midwives initiate discussions about acute situations and state that a novice may perceive labor and childbirth as more frightening than an experienced midwife would. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concept-Based Learning in Clinical Experiences: Bringing Theory to Clinical Education for Deep Learning. (United States)

    Nielsen, Ann


    Concept-based learning is used increasingly in nursing education to support the organization, transfer, and retention of knowledge. Concept-based learning activities (CBLAs) have been used in clinical education to explore key aspects of the patient situation and principles of nursing care, without responsibility for total patient care. The nature of best practices in teaching and the resultant learning are not well understood. The purpose of this multiple-case study research was to explore and describe concept-based learning in the context of clinical education in inpatient settings. Four clinical groups (each a case) were observed while they used CBLAs in the clinical setting. Major findings include that concept-based learning fosters deep learning, connection of theory with practice, and clinical judgment. Strategies used to support learning, major teaching-learning foci, and preconditions for concept-based teaching and learning will be described. Concept-based learning is promising to support integration of theory with practice and clinical judgment through application experiences with patients. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):365-371.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. PAL driven organizational learning theory and practices a light on learning journey of organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Chuah, Kong


    Presenting an innovative concept and approach for organization management, this book serves to document an organization’s journey towards the ultimate goal of learning organization. This book also shares the experience on how a OL framework built on established learning theories, could be used effectively, overcoming many of the barriers in a real industrial setting. Utilizing a ready-to-use tool called Project Action Learning (PAL) to analyze real life case studies, the authors introduce a framework that allows teams of people to work and learn over the course of business projects. Equal emphasis is placed on the achievement of pre-set project outcomes and the learning objectives of the participants. In addition, a long term organizational learning strategy is put forward and the necessary supporting infrastructure, in the form of four ‘PAL Pillars’, is described. The concepts and development of the PAL driven Organizational Learning model are inspired by, and grounded in, Western and Eastern business ...

  17. The virtual museum of education. Identity, perspectives, attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Baldassarri


    Full Text Available The museums conceived as spaces for communication are places where a prospective of lifelong learning is supported and facilitated. Hence, it is necessary to adopt didactic ways of communication that develop projects concerning innovations in the field of education through the application of new technologies in the museums themselves, in order to make those museums "virtual" by creating a complementary reality. The Scienze dell’Educazione department's research regarding the institution of a Museo dell’Educazione is working in this direction, trying to build a network that exploits the relationship among schools, institutions and museums. In dept, the aim of the analysis was individuate some guidelines for the creation of the Museo dell’Educazione website, beginning from a study of the main European virtual educational museums.

  18. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally


    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  19. What learning theories can teach us in designing neurofeedback treatments. (United States)

    Strehl, Ute


    Popular definitions of neurofeedback point out that neurofeedback is a process of operant conditioning which leads to self-regulation of brain activity. Self-regulation of brain activity is considered to be a skill. The aim of this paper is to clarify that not only operant conditioning plays a role in the acquisition of this skill. In order to design the learning process additional references have to be derived from classical conditioning, two-process-theory and in particular from skill learning and research into motivational aspects. The impact of learning by trial and error, cueing of behavior, feedback, reinforcement, and knowledge of results as well as transfer of self-regulation skills into everyday life will be analyzed in this paper. In addition to these learning theory basics this paper tries to summarize the knowledge about acquisition of self-regulation from neurofeedback studies with a main emphasis on clinical populations. As a conclusion it is hypothesized that learning to self-regulate has to be offered in a psychotherapeutic, i.e., behavior therapy framework.

  20. What learning theories can teach us in designing neurofeedback treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute eStrehl


    Full Text Available Popular definitions of neurofeedback point out that neurofeedback is a process of operant conditioning which leads to self-regulation of brain activity. Self-regulation of brain activity is considered to be a skill. The aim of this paper is to clarify that not only operant conditioning plays a role in the acquisition of this skill. In order to design the learning process additional references have to be derived from classical conditioning, two-process-theory and in particular from skill learning and research into motivational aspects. The impact of learning by trial and error, cueing of behavior, feedback, reinforcement, and knowledge of results as well as transfer of self-regulation skills into everyday life will be analyzed in this paper. In addition to these learning theory basics this paper tries to summarize the knowledge about acquisition of self-regulation from neurofeedback studies with a main emphasis on clinical populations. As a conclusion it is hypothesized that learning to self-regulate has to be offered in a psychotherapeutic, i.e. behavior therapy framework.

  1. Connectivism: A knowledge learning theory for the digital age? (United States)

    Goldie, John Gerard Scott


    The emergence of the internet, particularly Web 2.0 has provided access to the views and opinions of a wide range of individuals opening up opportunities for new forms of communication and knowledge formation. Previous ways of navigating and filtering available information are likely to prove ineffective in these new contexts. Connectivism is one of the most prominent of the network learning theories which have been developed for e-learning environments. It is beginning to be recognized by medical educators. This article aims to examine connectivism and its potential application. The conceptual framework and application of connectivism are presented along with an outline of the main criticisms. Its potential application in medical education is then considered. While connectivism provides a useful lens through which teaching and learning using digital technologies can be better understood and managed, further development and testing is required. There is unlikely to be a single theory that will explain learning in technological enabled networks. Educators have an important role to play in online network learning.

  2. Learning Theory Bases of Communicative Methodology and the Notional/Functional Syllabus


    Jacqueline D., Beebe


    This paper examines the learning theories that underlie the philosophy and practices known as communicative language teaching methodology. These theories are identified first as a reaction against the behavioristic learning theory of audiolingualism. Approaches to syllabus design based on both the "weak" version of communicative language teaching-learning to use the second language-and the "strong" version-using the second language to learn it-are examined. The application of cognitive theory...

  3. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther


    additional techniques (approach conditioning and stimulus blending). The salience of different types of cues, the interaction of operant and classical conditioning and the impact of stress are also discussed. This paper also exposes the inflexibility and occasional inadequacy of the terminology of learning...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  4. Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie


    This contribution proposes a principle for learning design – Theory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...

  5. Use of the Learning together technique associated to the theory of significative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester López Donoso


    Full Text Available This article deals with an experimental research, regarding a qualitative and quantitative design, applied to a group of students of General Physics course during the first semester of the university career of Engineering. Historically, students of this course present learning difficulties that directly affect their performance, conceptualization and permanence in the university. The present methodology integrates the collaborative learning, denominated Learning Together", with the theory of significant learning to avoid the above-written difficulties. Results of this research show that the proposed methodology works properly, especially to improve the conceptualization.

  6. The Educational Museum: Innovations and Technologies Transforming Museum Education. The Benaki Museum, Athens, 17 October 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Christidou


    Full Text Available The main topic of 'The Educational Museum: Innovations and Technologies Transforming Museum Education 'conference, third in a series of conferences organised by the Benaki Museum in partnership with the American Embassy and the British Council in Greece, was the use of technology and social media as means of transforming museum education and, sometimes, funding museum exhibitions and educational programmes. Among others, the conference aimed to discuss the use of digital applications such as Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Kickstarter by museums in order to attract a wider audience, interpret their collections and even fund their programmes.

  7. Museums USA: Art, History, Science, and Other Museums. (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC.

    The results and analysis of an earlier museum survey, presented in "Museum U.S.A.: Highlights" (ED 093 777), are given in this document. The purpose is to present a comprehensive picture of museums in the United States--their numbers and locations, types and functions, facilities and finances, personnel and trustees, and activities and attendance.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Jacques Parraguez


    Full Text Available This work analyses some reasons that might explain the insufficient academic level which is perceived in universities of developing countries. The discussion element is the teacher-student relationship which is studied under the perspective of the agency theory. It is concluded that in absence of efficient monitoring mechanisms of the teacher and student’s behavior might proliferate gaps of due diligence which attempts against the quality of the teaching-learning process.

  9. Personalised Learning Object System Based on Self-Regulated Learning Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alharbi


    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning has become an important construct in education research in the last few years. Selfregulated learning in its simple form is the learner’s ability to monitor and control the learning process. There is increasing research in the literature on how to support students become more self-regulated learners. However, the advancement in the information technology has led to paradigm changes in the design and development of educational content. The concept of learning object instructional technology has emerged as a result of this shift in educational technology paradigms. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the potential educational effectiveness of a pedagogical framework based on the self-regulated learning theories to support the design of learning object systems to help computer science students. A prototype learning object system was developed based on the contemporary research on self-regulated learning. The system was educationally evaluated in a quasi-experimental study over two semesters in a core programming languages concepts course. The evaluation revealed that a learning object system that takes into consideration contemporary research on self-regulated learning can be an effective learning environment to support computer science education.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plokhotnyuk Vladimir


    Full Text Available This article proposes a way of formalizing the description of various types of relations between the elements of museum communication based on the semiotic approach and the concepts introduced by F. de Saussure, C.S. Pierce and C.W. Morris. Semiotic models can be used to explain the specifics of museum communication for museum studies and as a methodological basis for developing various versions of databases or other software for museum affairs.

  11. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl


    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  12. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl


    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  13. Is Museum Education "Rocket Science"? (United States)

    Dragotto, Erin; Minerva, Christine; Nichols, Michelle


    The field of museum education has advanced and adapted over the years to meet the changing needs of audiences as determined by new research, national policy, and international events. Educators from Chicago's Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum provide insight into a (somewhat) typical museum education department, especially geared for readers…

  14. How to Visit a Museum. (United States)

    Rebetez, Pierre

    The primary aim of this study is to encourage schools and museums to unite their efforts to further the use of the museum for teaching purposes and to promote the full development of creative faculties. The educational function of the museum is explored in consideration of the thirteen to eighteen year old age group. A recurring theme throughout…

  15. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.


    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  16. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian


    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  17. Why (we think) facilitation works: insights from organizational learning theory. (United States)

    Berta, Whitney; Cranley, Lisa; Dearing, James W; Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A


    Facilitation is a guided interactional process that has been popularized in health care. Its popularity arises from its potential to support uptake and application of scientific knowledge that stands to improve clinical and managerial decision-making, practice, and ultimately patient outcomes and organizational performance. While this popular concept has garnered attention in health services research, we know that both the content of facilitation and its impact on knowledge implementation vary. The basis of this variation is poorly understood, and understanding is hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity. In this paper, we argue that our understanding of facilitation and its effects is limited in part by a lack of clear theoretical grounding. We propose a theoretical home for facilitation in organizational learning theory. Referring to extant literature on facilitation and drawing on theoretical literature, we discuss the features of facilitation that suggest its role in contributing to learning capacity. We describe how facilitation may contribute to generating knowledge about the application of new scientific knowledge in health-care organizations. Facilitation's promise, we suggest, lies in its potential to stimulate higher-order learning in organizations through experimenting with, generating learning about, and sustaining small-scale adaptations to organizational processes and work routines. The varied effectiveness of facilitation observed in the literature is associated with the presence or absence of factors known to influence organizational learning, since facilitation itself appears to act as a learning mechanism. We offer propositions regarding the relationships between facilitation processes and key organizational learning concepts that have the potential to guide future work to further our understanding of the role that facilitation plays in learning and knowledge generation.

  18. From the social learning theory to a social learning algorithm for global optimization


    Gong, Yue-Jiao; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yun


    Traditionally, the Evolutionary Computation (EC) paradigm is inspired by Darwinian evolution or the swarm intelligence of animals. Bandura's Social Learning Theory pointed out that the social learning behavior of humans indicates a high level of intelligence in nature. We found that such intelligence of human society can be implemented by numerical computing and be utilized in computational algorithms for solving optimization problems. In this paper, we design a novel and generic optimization...

  19. Expanding Our Vision of Museum Education and Perception: An Analysis of Three Case Studies of Independent Blind Arts Learners (United States)

    Hayhoe, Simon


    In this study, Simon Hayhoe investigates the experiences of blind museum visitors in the context of the relationships between the artworks they learned about in museums, those they experienced when younger, and the social, cultural, and emotional influences of their museum experiences. The three case studies he presents support his hypothesis…

  20. Museums for Science Education: can we make the difference? The case of the EST project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Xanthoudaki


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of museums in education in science and technology through the discussion of a specific project entitled EST “Educate in Science and Technology”. The Project puts together methodologies and activities through which museums can be used as resources for long-term project work. In-service training for teachers, work in class with learning kits or with materials brought in by a Science Van, and visits to the museum are planned and developed jointly by museum experts and teachers. The Project proposes a teaching and learning model which sees the museum experience as central and integral part of a teaching and learning process with more effective outcomes. The analysis of the Project activities and methodologies is based on the work carried out at the National Museum of Science and Technology Leonardo da Vinci, which perceives the learner (the visitor at the heart of its educational methodologies and provision.

  1. Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology. (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram


    Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making.

  2. Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reviewed by TOJDE


    Full Text Available Economics of Distance and Online LearningTheory, Practice and ResearchBy William Bramble & Santosh PandaPrice: $125.00ISBN: 978-0-415-96388-6, Binding: Hardback, Publishedby: Routledge, New York, Publication Date: March 2008, Pages: 312TOJDEABOUT THE BOOKThis book provides a comprehensive overview of theorganizational models of distance and online learning froman international perspective and from the point of view ofeconomic planning, costing and management decisionmaking.The book points to directions for the further research anddevelopment in this area, and will promote furtherunderstanding and critical reflection on the part ofadministrators, practitioners and researchers of distanceeducation.The experiences and perspectives in distance education inthe US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.Table of ContentsPrefaceSECTION ONE: INTRODUCTIONChapter 1: Organizational and Cost Structures for Distanceand Online Learning, William J. Bramble and Santosh PandaSECTION TWO: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTChapter 2: Changing Distance Education andChanging Organizational Issues, D. Randy Garrison and Heather KanukaChapter 3: Online Learning and the University, Chris Curran217Chapter 4: Virtual Schooling and Basic Education, Thomas ClarkChapter 5: Historical Perspectives on Distance Education in the United States, Paul J.Edelson and Von PittmanSECTION THREE: FUNDINGChapter 6: Funding of Distance and Online Learning in the United States, Mark J. Smithand William J. BrambleChapter 7: Funding Distance Education: A Regional Perspective, Santosh Panda andAshok GabaSECTION FOUR: COST STRUCTURES AND MODELSChapter 8: Costs and Quality of Online Learning, Alistair InglisChapter 9: Costing Virtual University Education, Insung JungChapter 10: Cost-Benefit of Student Retention Policies and Practices, Ormond SimpsonSECTION FIVE: DISTANCE TRAININGChapter 11: Cost Benefit of Online Learning, Zane Berge and Charlotte DonaldsonChapter 12: Transforming Workplace

  3. Academic learning for specialist nurses: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim


    The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Myths, Mummies and Museums. (United States)

    Norby, Shirley


    Greek mythology, Egyptian mummies, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City are the focus of a one-semester course given at the Sea Girt (New Jersey) Elementary School. It is an interdisciplinary program wherein students (grade 8) study ancient civilizations and do projects related to their studies. (KC)

  5. Museums, Environments, Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.


    Modern digital media already permeate the physical world. The portability of information devices and the ubiquity of networks allow us to access information practically anyplace, creating digital overlays on reality. This also allows us to bring information we routinely archive in museums and

  6. Psychological theory and pedagogical effectiveness: the learning promotion potential framework. (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter


    After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. To propose an analytical or meta-theoretical framework based on the concept of learning promotion potential (LPP) as a basis for understanding the basic relationship between psychological insights and teaching strategies, and to draw out implications for psychology-based pedagogical design, development and research. This is a theoretical and meta-theoretical paper relying mainly on conceptual analysis, though also calling on psychological theory and research. Since teaching consists essentially in activity designed to promote learning, it follows that a teaching strategy has the potential in principle to achieve particular kinds of learning gains (LPP) to the extent that it embodies or stimulates the relevant learning processes on the part of learners and enables the teacher's functions of on-line monitoring and assistance for such learning processes. Whether a teaching strategy actually does realize its LPP by way of achieving its intended learning goals depends also on the quality of its implementation, in conjunction with other factors in the situated interaction that teaching always involves. The core role of psychology is to provide well-grounded indication of the nature of such learning processes and the teaching functions that support them, rather than to directly generate particular ways of teaching. A critically eclectic stance towards potential sources of psychological insight is argued for. Applying this framework, the paper proposes five kinds of issue to be attended to in the design and evaluation of psychology-based pedagogy. Other work proposing comparable ideas is briefly reviewed, with particular attention to similarities and a key difference with the ideas of Oser

  7. On-the-Job Training and Social Learning Theory. A Literature Review (United States)


    and discussed by Albert Bandura (47). The principles of social learning theory and learning from models are first described. Then a series of rules...developed by Bandura and his students (47, 48, 49) to be the most useful theory to account for observational learning and to provide a basis for...Learning Theory and Its Application 47. Bandura , A. Principles of Behavior Modification, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969. 48. Bandura , A

  8. IBA in the museum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menu, M.


    The Research Laboratory of the Museums of France (LRMF) has been a part of the Louvre Museum since 1931. At the beginning, paintings were only examined by means of optical microscopy, under UV or IR light, or by X-ray radiography. With the development of archaeometry in the early 1960s, different spectrometric techniques have been applied to the analysis of works of art and archaeological objects: UV spectrometry, XRF, and even SEM coupled to an X-ray Si(Li) detector. Crystalline objects were investigated with XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR); organic matter with gas chromatography, FTIR, UV and visible spectrophotometry. Thus the principal aim of the LRMF is to characterize the materials and the techniques involved in the creation of art and archaeological objects, for example, methods of production, provenance studies, authentication, and conservation. (The problem of dating is for the time being only a minor subject of research at the LRMF). Because of the valuable nature of such objects, nondestructive methods of analysis have been developed, and consequently the results have to be more and more accurate to answer the questions put to us by the art historian. Moreover, the works of art must stay inside the security area of the museum. Therefore, it was decided in 1982 to install within the Louvre an accelerator dedicated solely to museum problems. The installation of AGLAE, begun in 1984, has now been completed. The accelerator system, a Pelletron 6SDH2 from NEC, was rendered operational in June 1988. A general consensus with regard to the applications of the ion beam techniques in art and archaeology was arrived at during the International Workshop held in Pont-a-Mousson, France in 1985, which brought together museum scientists as well as IBA physicists who had applied these techniques to archaeology, geology and metallurgy. (orig./WL)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Sani


    Full Text Available The role of museums in society has expanded significantly in the last decades: from temples of knowledge to forums for debate and discussion, from repositories of objects to people-centred institutions with social responsibilities and functions. This shift reflects an ongoing trend to democratise museums and make them more accessible to wider audiences and responsive to the public’s changing needs, in particular the interests of local communities, whose composition has changed in recent years to include migrants and people of different ethnic backgrounds. With annual migration flows to the EU as a whole projected to increase from about 1 043 000 people in 2010 to 1 332 500 by 2020, the question of how cultural institutions can contribute to effective integration and dialogue has become more relevant than ever. Funders and society at large expect museums to play their part in facilitating the integration and peaceful coexistence of newcomers, with financial resources being made available, also at the EU level, to support them in this effort. Many questions can be raised as to whether it is right and appropriate to charge museums with these responsibilities and whether this would push the boundaries of their work too far and give the social function an exceedingly prominent role over the traditional conservation and educational tasks museums already fulfil. But this discussion seems to be already obsolete in the light of the growing body of evidence on good practices available at the European level. This essay aims to illustrate some of them, as well as to discuss some underpinning theoretical issues and methodological approaches.

  10. Teaching Theory Construction With Initial Grounded Theory Tools: A Reflection on Lessons and Learning. (United States)

    Charmaz, Kathy


    This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Transitional clerkship: an experiential course based on workplace learning theory. (United States)

    Chittenden, Eva H; Henry, Duncan; Saxena, Varun; Loeser, Helen; O'Sullivan, Patricia S


    Starting clerkships is anxiety provoking for medical students. To ease the transition from preclerkship to clerkship curricula, schools offer classroom-based courses which may not be the best model for preparing learners. Drawing from workplace learning theory, the authors developed a seven-day transitional clerkship (TC) in 2007 at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine in which students spent half of the course in the hospital, learning routines and logistics of the wards along with their roles and responsibilities as members of ward teams. Twice, they admitted and followed a patient into the next day as part of a shadow team that had no patient-care responsibilities. Dedicated preceptors gave feedback on oral presentations and patient write-ups. Satisfaction with the TC was higher than with the previous year's classroom-based course. TC students felt clearer about their roles and more confident in their abilities as third-year students compared with previous students. TC students continued to rate the transitional course highly after their first clinical rotation. Preceptors were enthusiastic about the course and expressed willingness to commit to future TC preceptorships. The transitional course models an approach to translating workplace learning theory into practice and demonstrates improved satisfaction, better understanding of roles, and increased confidence among new third-year students.

  12. National Identity, International Visitors: Narration and Translation of the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Li Chen


    Full Text Available Although many museums nowadays provide multilingual services, translations in museums have not received enough attention from researchers. The issue of how ideology is embedded in museum texts is translated is particularly underresearched. Since museums are often important sites for tourists to learn about a nation, translation plays a pivotal role in mediating how international visitors construct the host nation’s identity. The translation of national identity is even more important when sensitive topics are dealt with, such as exhibitions of the past in memorial museums. This paper takes the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum as a case study to examine how Taiwanese identity is formatted in the Chinese text and reframed in the English translation. The current study found inconsistent historical perspectives embedded in both texts, particularly in the English translation. We argue that, without awareness of ideological assumptions embedded in translations, museums run the risk of sending unintended messages to international visitors.

  13. The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom, and the Relationship between Them (United States)

    Alzahrani, Ibraheem; Woollard, John


    This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified by giving an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, Wiki technology is one of the most famous learning environments that can show the…

  14. The museum as information space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete, T.; Mackenzie Owen, J.


    space to being outside the museum in the online information space of the Internet. This has fundamental implications for the institutional role of museums, our understanding of metadata and the methods of documentation. The onsite museum institution will, eventually, not be able to function...... as an institutional entity on the Internet, for in this new information space, objects, collections and museums, all function as independent components in a vast universe of data, side by side at everyone’s disposal at anytime. Potentially, users can access cultural heritage anytime, anywhere and anyhow. © The Author......Although museums vary in nature and may have been founded for all sorts of reasons, central to all museum institutions are the collected objects. These objects are information carriers organized in a catalogue system. In this chapter, the museum will be conceived as an information space, consisting...

  15. Sustainability in Modern Art Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campolmi, Irene


    The paper analyzes the concept of sustainability in European governmental museum policies. It takes into consideration great modern art museums, particularly Tate Modern. On the one hand, the issue of sustainability is linked to art museums inasmuch these institutions operate for the sustainable...... to their eligibility for funding and it is indeed an economic rather than a cultural issue. Though, modern art museums’ sustainability relies not only in developing economic and environmental strategies but mostly in creating cultural policies that favor art museums in accomplishing same tasks but from different...... curatorial and managerial perspectives. A long-term sustainable museum model steps beyond Foucault’s notion that art museums are “heterotopy”, i.e. spaces that present art as an alternative phenomenon outside reality. On the contrary, a sustainable model for museums acts as “archètopy”, i.e. a space (tòpos...

  16. Analysis of ensemble learning using simple perceptrons based on online learning theory (United States)

    Miyoshi, Seiji; Hara, Kazuyuki; Okada, Masato


    Ensemble learning of K nonlinear perceptrons, which determine their outputs by sign functions, is discussed within the framework of online learning and statistical mechanics. One purpose of statistical learning theory is to theoretically obtain the generalization error. This paper shows that ensemble generalization error can be calculated by using two order parameters, that is, the similarity between a teacher and a student, and the similarity among students. The differential equations that describe the dynamical behaviors of these order parameters are derived in the case of general learning rules. The concrete forms of these differential equations are derived analytically in the cases of three well-known rules: Hebbian learning, perceptron learning, and AdaTron (adaptive perceptron) learning. Ensemble generalization errors of these three rules are calculated by using the results determined by solving their differential equations. As a result, these three rules show different characteristics in their affinity for ensemble learning, that is “maintaining variety among students.” Results show that AdaTron learning is superior to the other two rules with respect to that affinity.

  17. Learning in Context: Technology Integration in a Teacher Preparation Program Informed by Situated Learning Theory (United States)

    Bell, Randy L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Binns, Ian C.


    This investigation explores the effectiveness of a teacher preparation program aligned with situated learning theory on preservice science teachers' use of technology during their student teaching experiences. Participants included 26 preservice science teachers enrolled in a 2-year Master of Teaching program. A specific program goal was to…

  18. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory to Implement a Golf Scramble


    Glenna G. Bower


    This study introduced how Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory was used across the four-mode learning cycle of abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, concrete experience and reflective observation as a pedagogical tool for implementing a golf scramble. The primary research question was to see whether Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory four-mode learning cycle was an effective means for implementing a the golf scramble. The participants of the experiential learning experience wer...

  19. [Role of the implicit theories of intelligence in learning situations]. (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Cury, F; Bailly, D; Rufo, M


    Most studies have tried to explain the school difficulties by analysing the intellectual factors that lead to school failure. However in addition to the instrumental capacities, authors also recognize the role played by other factors such as motivation. More specifically, the theory of achievement motivation aims to determine motivational factors involved in achievement situations when the students have to demonstrate their competencies. This paradigm attributes a central place to beliefs in order to explain children's behavior in academic situations. According to Dweck, it seems that beliefs about the nature of intelligence have a very powerful impact on behavior. These implicit theories of intelligence create a meaning system or conceptual framework that influences the individual interpretation of school situations. Thus, an entity theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, a personal quality that cannot be changed. Students who subscribe to this theory believe that although people can learn new things, their underlying intelligence remains the same. In contrast, an incremental theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a malleable quality that can increase through efforts. The identification of these two theories allows us to understand the cognition and behavior of individuals in achievement situations. Many studies carried out in the academic area show that students who hold an entity theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence like a stable quality) have a strong tendency to attribute their failures to a fixed trait. They are more likely to blame their intelligence for ne-gative outcomes and to attribute failures to their bad intellectual ability. In contrast, students who hold an incremental theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence as a malleable quality) are more likely to understand the same ne-gative outcomes in terms of specific factors: they attribute them to a lack of effort. This

  20. Action learning in virtual higher education: applying leadership theory. (United States)

    Curtin, Joseph


    This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University's course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author, questionnaire and survey results of students who evaluated the effectiveness of their application of leadership theories using VAL and insights believed to have been gained by the author administering VAL. Findings indicate most students thought applying leadership perspectives using AL was better than considering leadership perspectives not using AL. In addition as implemented in LDR 6100, more students evaluated VAL positively than did those who assessed VAL negatively.

  1. Learning Theory and Equity Valuation: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zoratto Sanvicente


    Full Text Available This paper tested the Pástor and Veronesi (2003 hypothesis that the market-to-book ratio (M/B is negatively related to the number of years (age during which a firm has had its stock traded on an Exchange. The predicted decline takes place as a result of a learning process by investors. The authors tested this implication in the U.S. market using the Fama-MacBeth (1973 methodology. In the present article a more general econometric approach is adopted, with the use of panel data and fixed-factor regressors, with data for stocks traded at the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA. The evidence does not reject the Pástor and Veronesi hypothesis. Additional conjectures were tested regarding the learning process. These tests indicate that the greater availability of data on a company amplifies the effect of the age variable on the M/B ratio, implying a more accelerated learning process. This paper concludes that the evidence for the Brazilian market supports the theory that investors learn.

  2. Application of Learning Theories on Medical Imaging Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Mabrouk Kheiralla


    Full Text Available The main objective of the education process is that student must learn well rather than the educators to teach well. If radiologists get involved in the process of medical education, it is important for them to do it through sound knowledge of how students learn. Researches have proved that most of the teachers in the field of medical education including diagnostic imaging are actually doctors or technicians, who didn’t have an opportunity to study the basics of learning. Mostly they have gained their knowledge through watching other educators, and they mostly rely on their personal skills and experience in doing their job. This will hinder them from conveying knowledge in an effective and scientific way, and they will find themselves lagging away behind the latest advances in the field of medical education and educational research, which will lead to negative cognitive outcomes among learners. This article presents an overview of three of the most influential basic theories of learning, upon which many teachers rely in their practical applications, which must be considered by radiologist who act as medical educators.

  3. The Learning Organization and Some Other Modern Theories of Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, Barry


    In the first part, Dr Sugarman reviewed several recent theories of management and their relevance to NPP management. These theories encompass basic aspects like bureaucracy, un-bureaucracy, quality and excellence, re-engineering, knowledge management, emotional intelligence and learning organisation. Dr Sugarman discussed evolution from the Old Paradigm (Bureaucracy) to the New One (Learning Organization), defining the main aspects of both models, that can be summarises primarily in regards to strategy and structure. In terms of strategy, the new paradigm moves away from being largely inflexible to a much more dynamic environment whereby innovation is encouraged as opposed to performing in the prescribed manner whether suitable or not. The structural changes in the new model are also evident. There has been a marked move away from a hierarchical 'top down' approach to a much flatter structure that encourages less empire building and more openness between teams of various. This ensures a much greater understanding by the whole organisation of what is happening. Dr Sugarman centred his talk on the new model and how this has affected the development of the current situation. The Learning Organisation, according to the definition of Peter Senge in The Fifth Discipline (1990), is an organisation where people continually expand their capacity to create results they truly desire, and where the people are continually learning how to learn together. The movements behind increasing quality introduced a new model into industry based on Production, where workers became responsible for quality assurance instead of quality controls being reviewed by inspectors. All the employees share responsibility for learning how to improve continuously. That means, complete involvement of all staff. Following on from this, the Quality Revolution made appearance and was driven by extra attention to the customer. Out-sourcing became common and the 'Internal customer' became more common. All

  4. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview (United States)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.


    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  5. Processes of Self-Regulated Learning in Music Theory in Elementary Music Schools in Slovenia (United States)

    Fritz, Barbara Smolej; Peklaj, Cirila


    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship…

  6. Using Active-Learning Pedagogy to Develop Essay-Writing Skills in Introductory Political Theory Tutorials (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P. A.


    Building on prior research into active learning pedagogy in political science, I discuss the development of a new active learning strategy called the "thesis-building carousel," designed for use in political theory tutorials. This use of active learning pedagogy in a graduate student-led political theory tutorial represents the overlap…

  7. The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction. (United States)

    Miller, Christopher T.

    This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

  8. Cooperative Learning: Improving University Instruction by Basing Practice on Validated Theory (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.


    Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…

  9. Learning Study: Helping Teachers to Use Theory, Develop Professionally, and Produce New Knowledge to Be Shared (United States)

    Pang, Ming Fai; Ling, Lo Mun


    The lesson study approach is a systematic process for producing professional knowledge about teaching by teachers, and has spread rapidly and extensively in the United States. The learning study approach is essentially a kind of lesson study with an explicit learning theory--the variation theory of learning. In this paper, we argue that having an…

  10. Learning Styles of Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Attitudes toward Theory-Based Nursing. (United States)

    Laschinger, Heather K.; Boss, Marvin K.


    The personal and environmental factors related to undergraduate and post-RN nursing students' attitudes toward theory-based nursing from Kolb's experiential learning theory perspective were investigated. Learning style and environmental press perceptions were found to be related to attitudes toward theory-based nursing. (Author/MLW)

  11. A Critical Comparison of Transformation and Deep Approach Theories of Learning (United States)

    Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard


    This paper reports a critical comparative analysis of two popular and significant theories of adult learning: the transformation and the deep approach theories of learning. These theories are operative in different educational sectors, are significant, respectively, in each, and they may be seen as both touching on similar concerns with learning…

  12. Communicative Functions of the Museum Lobby

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian Hviid; Rudloff, Maja; Vestergaard, Vitus


    In a time with a heightened focus on how museum architecture and exhibition design shapes the museum visit, the entrance space of museums, the museum lobby, is remarkably absent from the museum literature and research. Still, the museum lobby is the first encounter visitors have with the museum...... and the last impression that they take home and share with others. This article analyzes museum lobbies as communication spaces in order to identify the different functions afforded by such spaces. In an explorative study of five Danish museum lobbies, we offer a preliminary categorization of these functions...

  13. British Museum paintings


    Edmonds, Frances


    Frances Edmonds is one of a group of artists selected for the show ‘Territories’ taking place at Galerie Windkracht 13 in Den Helder, Holland this July 2012. This exhibition is curated by Sharon Beavan and Gethin Evans. The artists represented work across the boundaries of two and three-dimensional and time based form. The brief – to interrogate and explore the notion of territories. Frances will be showing several paintings from the British Museum series, based on imagery collected ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciunl ictlt.P cnnipc;. Material from other museums. Worksheets, activity books, guides, pamp~lets and other educational material from museums 1n Southern. Africa and overseas are kept in the museum education section of the Resource Centre. General infonnation on museums and museum technology are also collected.

  15. Orientalist Imaginations and Touristification of Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng


    This paper draws inspiration from Edward Said's orientalism, and examines how the three National Museums of Singapore - the Singapore History Museum, the Singapore Art Museum and the Asian Civilizations Museums - are orientalized. The process is mediated through the museums' close links to touris...

  16. Informal and Non-formal Education: An Outline of History of Science in Museums (United States)

    Filippoupoliti, Anastasia; Koliopoulos, Dimitris


    Although a growing number of research articles in recent years have treated the role of informal settings in science learning, the subject of the history of science in museums and its relationship to informal and non-formal education remains less well explored. The aim of this review is to assemble the studies of history of science in science museums and explore the opportunities for the further use of the history of science in science museum education practice.

  17. Museum security and the Thomas Crown Affair.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud, E. C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)


    unauthorized piece he created and placed in the British Museum known as 'Early Man Goes to Market' received different treatment when placed inside the walls. It was adopted into the permanent collection! I like his story because it's so counter-intuitive. Who would have thought that modern museum security might involve preventing people not just from stealing art, but from sneaking 'unauthorized' art into museums? What is next, tampering with the archive records in order to make it look like the piece in question has always been there? To learn more about museum security, I interviewed multiple experts in the field. It turns out that the glamorous lifestyle of Thomas Crown is not particularly relevant. In fact, usually nobody can point to a Mr. Big of the underworld coordinating thefts, though some organized crime families have been known to use stolen art as black market chips to trade. The common consensus among experts in the field of art theft is that, instead of most high-value pieces being stolen by outsiders with a blue print in hand and rappelling from a ceiling skylight, in reality, 80 percent of art thefts involve insiders or accomplices that execute the crime over a period of time while working or volunteering in the museum. Indeed, according to FBI statistics, between 70 and 80 percent of all solved art theft cases involve insider participation of some kind, yet according to Tom Cremers of the Musuem Security Network, 'Having been involved in risk assessments in over hundreds of museums over the past ten years, it is quite astonishing how rarely the risk of insider participation is discussed.' In regards to the insider threat, a museum is not much different from any corporation or other organization. There are directors, employees, interns, and cleaning staff (very often outsourced), security guards (again outsourced, typically with very high turnover rates). Unlike corporations, most museums also have volunteer staff, docents

  18. Going Public: Conservation of Contemporary Artworks. Between Backstage and Frontstage in Contemporary Art Museums


    Saaze, Vivian van


    In museum studies and history of art, what happens behind the scenes of museums stays relatively unseen and unspoken about. In the arts, generally speaking, what is dismissed as irrelevant (e.g. the realm of practices) is deliberately detached from what is thought to really matter; theory, discourse, content and meaning. Up till recently, backstage activities such as conservation practices are merely discussed among specialists and museum professionals. Only the outcomes of these discussions ...

  19. Implicit and explicit theories in the teaching and learning processes of music theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Roa Ordoñez


    Full Text Available This study explores the characteristics of similarity and divergence between the pedagogical discourse of teachers and their performance in the classroom, from the different educational paradigms that guide, today, the educational events. The teaching and learning of music theory constitute the backbone of the proposed curriculum of the Department of Music, which has implications in the other musical areas and, therefore, the training program that orients the area of music theory, requires an assessment of the impacts and effects caused by the performance of the teacher in charge of running this course as an essential condition to establish elements of building and transfer of knowledge in each of the disciplines that make up the curricular structure of the Department of Music.

  20. Applications of operant learning theory to the management of challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Wood, Rodger Ll; Alderman, Nick


    For more than 3 decades, interventions derived from learning theory have been delivered within a neurobehavioral framework to manage challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury with the aim of promoting engagement in the rehabilitation process and ameliorating social handicap. Learning theory provides a conceptual structure that facilitates our ability to understand the relationship between challenging behavior and environmental contingencies, while accommodating the constraints upon learning imposed by impaired cognition. Interventions derived from operant learning theory have most frequently been described in the literature because this method of associational learning provides good evidence for the effectiveness of differential reinforcement methods. This article therefore examines the efficacy of applying operant learning theory to manage challenging behavior after TBI as well as some of the limitations of this approach. Future developments in the application of learning theory are also considered.

  1. The Implementation of Cumulative Learning Theory in Calculating Triangular Prism and Tube Volumes (United States)

    Muklis, M.; Abidin, C.; Pamungkas, M. D.; Masriyah


    This study aims at describing the application of cumulative learning theory in calculating the volume of a triangular prism and a tube as well as revealing the students’ responses toward the learning. The research method used was descriptive qualitative with elementary school students as the subjects of the research. Data obtained through observation, field notes, questionnaire, tests, and interviews. The results from the application of cumulative learning theory obtained positive students’ responses in following the learning and students’ learning outcomes was dominantly above the average. This showed that cumulative learning could be used as a reference to be implemented in learning, so as to improve the students’ achievement.

  2. Toward a theory of childhood learning disorders, hyperactivity, and aggression. (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R


    Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance.

  3. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions


    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović


    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  4. Can museums survive the postmodern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Keene


    Full Text Available Although archaeologists regard museums as vital repositories of important research materials, museum professionals take a broader view of their role in not only preserving natural and cultural heritage but also of how they could or should be presented, or interpreted, to the public. In this personal view, issues of what museums should be, or seek to be, in a postmodern world are explored.

  5. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles. (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.


    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  6. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures. (United States)

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen


    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoregie Charles Osifo


    Full Text Available The complex nature of trust and its evolving relative concepts require a more idealistic and simpler review. Ethical leadership is related to trust, honesty, transparency, compassion, empathy, results-orientedness, and many other behavioral attributes. Ethical leadership and good leadership are the same, because they represent practicing what one preaches or showing a way to the accomplishment of set goals. The outcomes and findings of many research papers on trust and ethical leadership report positive correlations between ethical leadership and trust. Improving trust from different rational standpoints requires moving and looking beyond the popular theoretical framework through which most results are derived in order to create a new thinking perspective. Social learning theory strongly emphasizes modelling while the new historical learning approach, proposed by the author, is defined as an approach that creates unique historical awareness among individuals, groups, institutions, societies, and nations to use previous experience(s or occurrence(s as a guide in developing positive opinion(s and framework(s in order to tackle the problems and issues of today and tomorrow. Social learning theory is seen as limited from the perspectives of balancing the equation between leadership and trust, the non-compatibility of the values of different generations at work, and other approaches and methods that support the historical approach. This paper is argumentative, adopts a writer´s perspective, and employs a logical analysis of the literature. The main contention is that a historical learning approach can inform an independent-learning to improve trust and its relatives (e.g. motivation and performance, because independent learning can positively shape the value of integrity, which is an integral part of ethical leadership. Historical learning can positively shape leadership in every perspective, because good leadership can develop based on history and

  8. Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Academic Advising to Assess Student Learning Outcomes (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene


    Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…

  9. Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance (United States)

    Burguillo, Juan C.


    This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…

  10. Museum metamorphosis à la mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller


    museum practices correspond to the logic of fashion. Where Foucault once described museums as heterochronias; places representing an ’other-time’, museums now strive to be both of their time and in time with the Zeitgeist. As a consequence, they must keep up with the speedy cycles of technological...... advancements and cultural change, and not only deliver, but also stoke the desire for, novel experiences. The paper explores the current vogue for fashion exhibitions as a case in point, arguing that this trend serves to promote the museum as fashionably current, but can also support novel formats for cultural...

  11. The Place of Learning Quantum Theory in Physics Teacher Education: Motivational Elements Arising from the Context (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis


    Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…

  12. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Its Application in Geography in Higher Education. (United States)

    Healey, Mick; Jenkins, Alan


    Describes David Kolb's experiential learning theory focusing on the main features of his theory. Applies Kolb's theory to the teaching of geography addressing ideas such as teaching how theories of gender explain aspects of suburbia, teaching a field course, and encouraging staff to rethink their teaching style. Include references. (CMK)

  13. Deep Learning in Intermediate Microeconomics: Using Scaffolding Assignments to Teach Theory and Promote Transfer (United States)

    Green, Gareth P.; Bean, John C.; Peterson, Dean J.


    Intermediate microeconomics is typically viewed as a theory and tools course that relies on algorithmic problems to help students learn and apply economic theory. However, the authors' assessment research suggests that algorithmic problems by themselves do not encourage students to think about where the theory comes from, why the theory is…

  14. Learning about Learning: The Contributions of Ausubel's Assimilation Theory to a Teacher Education Program at the University of Vermont. (United States)

    Smith, Markley; Stowell, Mary Ellen

    An experiment employed cognitive based teaching and learning procedures in an undergraduate educational psychology course. The procedures were strongly influenced by David Ausubel's theory on learning and related skills. Ausubel defines effective learning as a process by which humans understand the structure of knowledge and consciously make…

  15. Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories. (United States)

    Lau, K H Vincent


    The computer-based teaching module (CBTM), which has recently gained prominence in medical education, is a teaching format in which a multimedia program serves as a single source for knowledge acquisition rather than playing an adjunctive role as it does in computer-assisted learning (CAL). Despite empirical validation in the past decade, there is limited research into the optimisation of CBTM design. This review aims to summarise research in classic and modern multimedia-specific learning theories applied to computer learning, and to collapse the findings into a set of design principles to guide the development of CBTMs. Scopus was searched for: (i) studies of classic cognitivism, constructivism and behaviourism theories (search terms: 'cognitive theory' OR 'constructivism theory' OR 'behaviourism theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') and their sub-theories applied to computer learning, and (ii) recent studies of modern learning theories applied to computer learning (search terms: 'learning theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') for articles published between 1990 and 2012. The first search identified 29 studies, dominated in topic by the cognitive load, elaboration and scaffolding theories. The second search identified 139 studies, with diverse topics in connectivism, discovery and technical scaffolding. Based on their relative representation in the literature, the applications of these theories were collapsed into a list of CBTM design principles. Ten principles were identified and categorised into three levels of design: the global level (managing objectives, framing, minimising technical load); the rhetoric level (optimising modality, making modality explicit, scaffolding, elaboration, spaced repeating), and the detail level (managing text, managing devices). This review examined the literature in the application of learning theories to CAL to develop a set of principles that guide CBTM design. Further research will enable educators to

  16. Unsupervised Learning and Pattern Recognition of Biological Data Structures with Density Functional Theory and Machine Learning. (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Juan, Hung-Hui; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing


    By introducing the methods of machine learning into the density functional theory, we made a detour for the construction of the most probable density function, which can be estimated by learning relevant features from the system of interest. Using the properties of universal functional, the vital core of density functional theory, the most probable cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries in a studying system can be simultaneously and automatically determined and the plausibility is erected on the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems. For the method validation and pragmatic applications, interdisciplinary problems from physical to biological systems were enumerated. The amalgamation of uncharged atomic clusters validated the unsupervised searching process of the cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries were exhibited likewise. High accurate clustering results of the Fisher's iris dataset showed the feasibility and the flexibility of the proposed scheme. Brain tumor detections from low-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging datasets and segmentations of high-dimensional neural network imageries in the Brainbow system were also used to inspect the method practicality. The experimental results exhibit the successful connection between the physical theory and the machine learning methods and will benefit the clinical diagnoses.

  17. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca


    Effective motor performance is important for surviving and thriving, and skilled movement is critical in many activities. Much theorizing over the past few decades has focused on how certain practice conditions affect the processing of task-related information to affect learning. Yet, existing theoretical perspectives do not accommodate significant recent lines of evidence demonstrating motivational and attentional effects on performance and learning. These include research on (a) conditions that enhance expectancies for future performance, (b) variables that influence learners' autonomy, and (c) an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect. We propose the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning. We suggest that motivational and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. We provide explanations for the performance and learning advantages of these variables on psychological and neuroscientific grounds. We describe a plausible mechanism for expectancy effects rooted in responses of dopamine to the anticipation of positive experience and temporally associated with skill practice. Learner autonomy acts perhaps largely through an enhanced expectancy pathway. Furthermore, we consider the influence of an external focus for the establishment of efficient functional connections across brain networks that subserve skilled movement. We speculate that enhanced expectancies and an external focus propel performers' cognitive and motor systems in productive "forward" directions and prevent "backsliding" into self- and non-task focused states. Expected success presumably breeds further success and helps consolidate memories. We discuss practical implications and future research directions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Arfan


    Full Text Available Abstrak—Pentingnya museum tari di Makassar adalah untuk memperkenalkan budaya yang dimiliki di Sulawesi Selatan yang dapat dikenal oleh seluruh manca negara, serta parawisatawan dan semua orang untuk berkunjung. Tujuan penelitian non arsitektural ini adalah menampilkan unsur kebudayaan, sejarah serta memperkenalkan Tari Tradisional yang ada di Sulawesi Selatan, sedangkan tujuan arsitekturalnya adalah menentukan lokasi yang sesuai dengan keberadaan museum tari, merancang ruang-ruang yang dibutuhkan sesuai dengan standar Museum serta kebutuhan ruang untuk Museum seni tari, merancang museum tari yang dikaitkan dengan ekspos struktur pada fasad dan penggabungannya dengan teori fraktal, merancang penggunaan fasad bangunan,struktur, utilitas, penampilan bangunan, serta tranformasi bentuk pada museum tari dan merancang tata massa pada museum tari. Hasil laporan ini adalah mendesain bangunan museum tari di Makassar dengan pendekatan ekspos pada struktur fasade bangunan dan penerapan teori fraktal yang disesuaikan dengan standar dan kebutuhan ruang. Kata Kunci :Museum tari, struktur, fasad, fractal Abstract-The importance of dance in Makassar museum is to introduce a culture held in South Sulawesi, which can be known by all foreign countries, as well as parawisatawan and everyone to visit. The research objective non architecturally it is featuring elements of culture, history and introduce Traditional Dance in South Sulawesi, while the purpose of the architectural is to determine the location that corresponds to the existence of the museum of dance, designing spaces required in accordance with the standards Museum as well as the need for space for art museum dance, design a museum of dance that is associated with exposure to the facade structure and merger with fractal theory, designing the use of facades of buildings, structures, utilities, appearance of the building, as well as the transformation of the museum forms of dance and design the masses on

  19. Drugs and the Brain: Learning the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain through a virtual brain exhibit in the museum (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Annetta, Leonard; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn Y.


    Drugs and the Brain: A Serious Game, a prototype museum exhibit, was designed to employ virtual models of the brain into a video game format. It was done to create a fun and engaging way of conveying knowledge and concepts about neuroscience, as well as the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this prototype exhibit that promises to educate participants from various age, ethnicity, and gender backgrounds, and to establish a stronger concept of drug abuse prevention among children. A quantitative methodology using the pre- and post-experimental designs was conducted on 175 museum visitors. A series of two-sample paired t-tests and subsequent ANOVAs were performed to examine the difference between pre- and post-tests and to determine if there was a difference in the results in age, gender, ethnicity, and race. Results showed that both the understanding and attitudes of the participants toward the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain improved significantly (p < 0.01).

  20. NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale | Art Museum in Fort Lauderdale (United States)

    NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale Visit Admissions Hours & Admission Policies & Accessibility Airports Shop & Dine About the Café & Store Store Café Menu Art Exhibitions Currently on View Thursday 2-for-1 specials on wine and craft beer in the Museum Café, and hands-on art projects for all

  1. Sustainability of healthcare improvement: what can we learn from learning theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovlid Einar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes that improve the quality of health care should be sustained. Falling back to old, unsatisfactory ways of working is a waste of resources and can in the worst case increase resistance to later initiatives to improve care. Quality improvement relies on changing the clinical system yet factors that influence the sustainability of quality improvements are poorly understood. Theoretical frameworks can guide further research on the sustainability of quality improvements. Theories of organizational learning have contributed to a better understanding of organizational change in other contexts. To identify factors contributing to sustainability of improvements, we use learning theory to explore a case that had displayed sustained improvement. Methods Førde Hospital redesigned the pathway for elective surgery and achieved sustained reduction of cancellation rates. We used a qualitative case study design informed by theory to explore factors that contributed to sustain the improvements at Førde Hospital. The model Evidence in the Learning Organization describes how organizational learning contributes to change in healthcare institutions. This model constituted the framework for data collection and analysis. We interviewed a strategic sample of 20 employees. The in-depth interviews covered themes identified through our theoretical framework. Through a process of coding and condensing, we identified common themes that were interpreted in relation to our theoretical framework. Results Clinicians and leaders shared information about their everyday work and related this knowledge to how the entire clinical pathway could be improved. In this way they developed a revised and deeper understanding of their clinical system and its interdependencies. They became increasingly aware of how different elements needed to interact to enhance the performance and how their own efforts could contribute. Conclusions The improved understanding of

  2. Sustainability of healthcare improvement: what can we learn from learning theory? (United States)

    Hovlid, Einar; Bukve, Oddbjørn; Haug, Kjell; Aslaksen, Aslak Bjarne; von Plessen, Christian


    Changes that improve the quality of health care should be sustained. Falling back to old, unsatisfactory ways of working is a waste of resources and can in the worst case increase resistance to later initiatives to improve care. Quality improvement relies on changing the clinical system yet factors that influence the sustainability of quality improvements are poorly understood. Theoretical frameworks can guide further research on the sustainability of quality improvements. Theories of organizational learning have contributed to a better understanding of organizational change in other contexts. To identify factors contributing to sustainability of improvements, we use learning theory to explore a case that had displayed sustained improvement. Førde Hospital redesigned the pathway for elective surgery and achieved sustained reduction of cancellation rates. We used a qualitative case study design informed by theory to explore factors that contributed to sustain the improvements at Førde Hospital. The model Evidence in the Learning Organization describes how organizational learning contributes to change in healthcare institutions. This model constituted the framework for data collection and analysis. We interviewed a strategic sample of 20 employees. The in-depth interviews covered themes identified through our theoretical framework. Through a process of coding and condensing, we identified common themes that were interpreted in relation to our theoretical framework. Clinicians and leaders shared information about their everyday work and related this knowledge to how the entire clinical pathway could be improved. In this way they developed a revised and deeper understanding of their clinical system and its interdependencies. They became increasingly aware of how different elements needed to interact to enhance the performance and how their own efforts could contribute. The improved understanding of the clinical system represented a change in mental models of

  3. Museums as Spaces for Cultural Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattrup, Lise; Lejsgaard Christensen, Julie


    Ten museums and cultural institutions in Denmark examine their role as spaces for cultural citizenship. Based on one exhibition case at Thorvaldsen Museum, the paper will discuss how the theoretical framework of the project challenges the museums.......Ten museums and cultural institutions in Denmark examine their role as spaces for cultural citizenship. Based on one exhibition case at Thorvaldsen Museum, the paper will discuss how the theoretical framework of the project challenges the museums....

  4. Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Kop


    Full Text Available Siemens and Downes initially received increasing attention in the blogosphere in 2005 when they discussed their ideas concerning distributed knowledge. An extended discourse has ensued in and around the status of ‘connectivism’ as a learning theory for the digital age. This has led to a number of questions in relation to existing learning theories. Do they still meet the needs of today’s learners, and anticipate the needs of learners of the future? Would a new theory that encompasses new developments in digital technology be more appropriate, and would it be suitable for other aspects of learning, including in the traditional class room, in distance education and e-learning? This paper will highlight current theories of learning and critically analyse connectivism within the context of its predecessors, to establish if it has anything new to offer as a learning theory or as an approach to teaching for the 21st Century.

  5. Not that Different in Theory: Discussing the Control-Value Theory of Emotions in Online Learning Environments (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.


    This commentary investigates the extent to which the control-value theory of emotions (Pekrun, 2006) is applicable in online learning environments. Four empirical studies in this special issue of "The Internet and Higher Education" explicitly used the control-value theory as their theoretical framework and several others have components of the…

  6. Ideologija prostora i vremena i prostor-vreme muzeja / Ideology of Space and Time and Space-Time of Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sladojević


    Full Text Available In this paper I postulate that museum, as the image of the world, functions according to principles formed around ideological constructs of time and space. I problematize terms of heterotopias and multiple chronotope, used in museum context, interpreting them as ideological, derived from the Western epistemological frame. Although conclusions in this paper can be applied to museum as such, focus is primarily upon museums that represent the so called non-European objects or topics. The approach is interdisciplinary, interrelating cultural studies, postcolonial theory, museum studies and African studies.

  7. The (kinetic) theory of active particles applied to learning dynamics. Comment on "Collective learning modeling based on the kinetic theory of active particles" by D. Burini et al. (United States)

    Nieto, J.


    The learning phenomena, their complexity, concepts, structure, suitable theories and models, have been extensively treated in the mathematical literature in the last century, and [4] contains a very good introduction to the literature describing the many approaches and lines of research developed about them. Two main schools have to be pointed out [5] in order to understand the two -not exclusive- kinds of existing models: the stimulus sampling models and the stochastic learning models. Also [6] should be mentioned as a survey where two methods of learning are pointed out, the cognitive and the social, and where the knowledge looks like a mathematical unknown. Finally, as the authors do, we refer to the works [9,10], where the concept of population thinking was introduced and which motivate the game theory rules as a tool (both included in [4] to develop their theory) and [7], where the ideas of developing a mathematical kinetic theory of perception and learning were proposed.

  8. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken


    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  9. Bringing New Families to the Museum One Baby at a Time (United States)

    Herman, Alicia


    "Bring Your Baby to the Danforth Museum of Art" is a program for mothers. Unlike other museum programs that focus on the needs of children, Bring Your Baby caters to the intellectual interests of the adult parent. Parents learn about artworks, play with babies in a beautiful environment, and socialize with other families. The program is…

  10. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  11. Using Item Response Theory to Evaluate LSCI Learning Gains (United States)

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS


    Analyzing the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), this project uses Item Response Theory (IRT) to investigate the learning gains of students as measured by the LSCI. IRT provides a theoretical model to generate parameters accounting for students’ abilities. We use IRT to measure changes in students’ abilities to reason about light from pre- to post-instruction. Changes in students’ abilities are compared by classroom to better understand the learning that is taking place in classrooms across the country. We compare the average change in ability for each classroom to the Interactivity Assessment Score (IAS) to provide further insight into the prior results presented from this data set. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  12. Transformative learning theory: facilitating mammography screening in rural women. (United States)

    Purtzer, Mary Anne; Overstreet, Lindsey


    To use transformative learning to investigate what experiences serve as catalysts for mammography screening, the cognitive and affective responses that result from the catalyst, and how screening behavior is impacted. A descriptive qualitative study. Southeastern Wyoming. 25 low-income, rural women aged 40 years and older. Four focus group interviews. Cancer experiences triggered universal responses of fear by screeners and nonscreeners. The manner in which that fear response was interpreted was a critical factor in the facilitation of, or impedance to, screening. Dichotomous interpretations of fear responses provided the context for screening behavior. Immobilizing and isolating experiences were associated with nonscreening behavior, whereas motivation and self-efficacy were associated with screening behavior. Transformative learning theory is a useful framework from which to explain differences in mammography screening behavior. Creating opportunities that facilitate dialogue and critical reflection hold the potential to change immobilizing and isolating frames of reference in nonscreening women. To help women transcend their fear and become self-efficacious, nurses can assess how cancer and the screening experience is viewed and, if indicated, move beyond standard education and offer opportunities for dialogue and critical reflection.

  13. Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods. (United States)

    Olden, Peter C


    Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management.

  14. Inference algorithms and learning theory for Bayesian sparse factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattray, Magnus; Sharp, Kevin; Stegle, Oliver; Winn, John


    Bayesian sparse factor analysis has many applications; for example, it has been applied to the problem of inferring a sparse regulatory network from gene expression data. We describe a number of inference algorithms for Bayesian sparse factor analysis using a slab and spike mixture prior. These include well-established Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and variational Bayes (VB) algorithms as well as a novel hybrid of VB and Expectation Propagation (EP). For the case of a single latent factor we derive a theory for learning performance using the replica method. We compare the MCMC and VB/EP algorithm results with simulated data to the theoretical prediction. The results for MCMC agree closely with the theory as expected. Results for VB/EP are slightly sub-optimal but show that the new algorithm is effective for sparse inference. In large-scale problems MCMC is infeasible due to computational limitations and the VB/EP algorithm then provides a very useful computationally efficient alternative.

  15. Inference algorithms and learning theory for Bayesian sparse factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattray, Magnus; Sharp, Kevin [School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stegle, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany); Winn, John, E-mail: [Microsoft Research Cambridge, Roger Needham Building, Cambridge, CB3 0FB (United Kingdom)


    Bayesian sparse factor analysis has many applications; for example, it has been applied to the problem of inferring a sparse regulatory network from gene expression data. We describe a number of inference algorithms for Bayesian sparse factor analysis using a slab and spike mixture prior. These include well-established Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and variational Bayes (VB) algorithms as well as a novel hybrid of VB and Expectation Propagation (EP). For the case of a single latent factor we derive a theory for learning performance using the replica method. We compare the MCMC and VB/EP algorithm results with simulated data to the theoretical prediction. The results for MCMC agree closely with the theory as expected. Results for VB/EP are slightly sub-optimal but show that the new algorithm is effective for sparse inference. In large-scale problems MCMC is infeasible due to computational limitations and the VB/EP algorithm then provides a very useful computationally efficient alternative.

  16. Motivation in the museum - Mediating between everyday engagement and cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    We explore the concepts of motivation and motives in relation to creating engaging museum exhibitions. Drawing on Cultural Historical Activity Theory, we present a theoretical conception of motivation and motives and their relation to museum engagement. We propose an approach for creating...

  17. Objects and Objectivity: The Evolution Controversy at the American Museum of Natural History, 1915-1928 (United States)

    Homchick, Julie


    For the purpose of this essay, I examine how evolutionary theory was treated and responded to in the American Museum of Natural History's Hall of the Age of Man during the early 1900s. Specifically, I examine how the curatorial work of the museum's president, Henry Fairfield Osborn, relied on the purported use of objectivity as a means by which to…

  18. The communication of heritage: Assessment of the communicative process in museums of Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel SUÁREZ SUÁREZ


    Full Text Available Communicating of heritage, especially in museums, is a complex process due to certain particularities. Each museum is unique because of the diversity of objects, the discourses generated and the interactions between different audiences. It makes it difficult to build theories which help to understand and improve the communicative process with in the museum context. In this way, from prior studies and through both a direct observation and monitoring of the guided visits, this work shows the analysis of 7 museums from Asturias, focusing on the spatial distribution, the museography and the interventions of the teachers and students. The results show that museums are making an ef-fort to set up multidirectional communication models, doing a coherent design between exhibition spaces, the ob-jects’ museography and the teachers’ explanation. Nevertheless, there are some problems which impede a full con-nection between the school and the museum, which limit the effective communication of the message about herit-age.

  19. National Museum of Military History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nicolaides


    Full Text Available Attractions such as military history museums which exhibit a wide range of important historical artefacts are fundamental sub-elements in any tourism systems, and yet their study suffers from lack of theoretical depth. Military history is an integral element of the history of any nation and countless varieties of tourists both local and international, visit military museums whenever the opportunity presents itself because museums are generally stimulating places of interest. This article focuses predominantly on international tourists visiting the Ditsong National Museum of Military History. In addition to the interest that such museums generate, they play a key role as the organizational foundation stones of modernity. It is via their many interesting exhibits that museums enlighten us about the past that intrinsically highlights its distance from the present era. Museums also selectively reconstitute aspects of history and in so doing alienate many artefacts from their original context and yet manage to impart deep understanding of events that shaped the modern world. Museums of all types thus impart knowledge and have a wide range of tales to tell concerning the many and diverse assortments of objects they hold. National pride is an obvious reason for having a military museum where the comprehensive display of military equipment is exceptionally unique while exhibition halls also offer an educational narrative of a nation’s history. What is also of interest to many visitors is the type of research that is carried out in a multiplicity of ways. The huge global growth in tourism in recent years has contributed to many museums radically altering their exhibits in both content and manner of exhibition. This is significant given the reciprocal impact that museums and tourism have on one another. The attractions in museums are regarded by many to be central to the tourism process and these are very often the main reason for many tourists visiting

  20. En retorisk forståelsesramme for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (A Rhetorical Theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlung, Asger


    The dissertation explores the potential of rhetorical theories for understanding, analyzing, or planning communication and learning processes, and for integrating the digitized contexts and human interaction and communication proccesses in a single theoretical framework. Based on Cicero's rhetori...... applied to two empirical case studies of Master programs, the dissertation develops and presents a new theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL).......The dissertation explores the potential of rhetorical theories for understanding, analyzing, or planning communication and learning processes, and for integrating the digitized contexts and human interaction and communication proccesses in a single theoretical framework. Based on Cicero's rhetoric...

  1. Cultural mediation in museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherghina Boda


    Full Text Available If we perceive the museum not only as a place of storing and conserving the patrimony, but also of transmitting it, then we can also see it as a mediator through which cultures can become collective patrimony. Tightly connected to patrimonial appropriation, mediation appears from this perspective as a process and not an end, as it manifests itself in animation, communication and making knowledge popular in relation to a precise patrimony. That is why we can see cultural mediation as a transmission, as a transformation, as an action or social project which aims at creating social bonds, the museum thus being not only a place of meeting for the public with the objects exposed, but also as a place of meeting between different cultures. Thus, cultural mediation presents itself as the most efficient means for access to culture of all categories of the public, situated as the crossroads of culture, continuous education and entertainment and is inscribed in the field of informal education.

  2. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory. (United States)

    McClelland, James L


    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Reexamining Theories of Adult Learning and Adult Development through the Lenses of Public Pedagogy (United States)

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Clark, Carolyn


    The authors examine the modernist underpinnings of traditional adult learning and development theories and evaluate elements of those theories through more contemporary lenses. Drawing on recent literature focused on "public pedagogy," the authors argue that much learning takes place outside of formal educational institutions. They look beyond…

  4. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen


    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  5. Social Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology: The Legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura. (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.


    Social learning theory is evaluated from a historical perspective that goes up to the present. Sears and others melded psychoanalytic and stimulus-response learning theory into a comprehensive explanation of human behavior. Bandura emphasized cognitive and information-processing capacities that mediate social behavior. (LB)

  6. Implications of Bandura's Observational Learning Theory for a Competency Based Teacher Education Model. (United States)

    Hartjen, Raymond H.

    Albert Bandura of Stanford University has proposed four component processes to his theory of observational learning: a) attention, b) retention, c) motor reproduction, and d) reinforcement and motivation. This study represents one phase of an effort to relate modeling and observational learning theory to teacher training. The problem of this study…

  7. Collaborative Learning in an Undergraduate Theory Course: An Assessment of Goals and Outcomes (United States)

    McDuff, Elaine


    This project was designed to assess whether a collaborative learning approach to teaching sociological theory would be a successful means of improving student engagement in learning theory and of increasing both the depth of students' understanding of theoretical arguments and concepts and the ability of students to theorize for themselves. A…

  8. Instructional Theory for Using a Class Wiki to Support Collaborative Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yi


    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional theory for using a class wiki to support collaborative learning in higher education. Although wikis have been identified in theory as one of the most powerful emerging technologies to support collaborative learning, challenges have been revealed in a number of studies regarding student…

  9. A Visual Encapsulation of Adlerian Theory: A Tool for Teaching and Learning. (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.


    A visual diagram is presented in this article to illustrate 6 key concepts of Adlerian theory discussed in corresponding narrative format. It is proposed that in an age of multimedia learning, a pictorial reference can enhance the teaching and learning of Adlerian theory, representing a commitment to humanistic education. (Contains 18 references.)…

  10. Towards a Semantic E-Learning Theory by Using a Modelling Approach (United States)

    Yli-Luoma, Pertti V. J.; Naeve, Ambjorn


    In the present study, a semantic perspective on e-learning theory is advanced and a modelling approach is used. This modelling approach towards the new learning theory is based on the four SECI phases of knowledge conversion: Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination and Internalisation, introduced by Nonaka in 1994, and involving two levels of…

  11. Finding the Right Fit: Helping Students Apply Theory to Service-Learning Contexts (United States)

    Ricke, Audrey


    Background: Although past studies of service-learning focus on assessing student growth, few studies address how to support students in applying theory to their service-learning experiences. Yet, the task of applying theory is a central component of critical reflections within the social sciences in higher education and often causes anxiety among…

  12. Contributions of Open Air Museums in preserving heritage buildings: study of open-air museums in South East England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraini Md Ali


    Full Text Available Most open air museums were established to preserve and present a threatened aspect of regional or national culture and to help forge a sense of identity and achievement. Britain's open air museums have aroused controversy among both museum professionals and building conservationists. They have been praised for spearheading innovative and vivacious approaches towards heritage interpretation and saving neglected buildings, while some have criticised them for inconsistent standards of conservation especially for taking buildings out of their original settings. Such architectural issues were strongly debated in the 1970s, while recent debates focus on popular approaches towards attracting the public to the past. This paper describes the evolution of open air museums in Britain, their contribution in conserving unloved buildings and how they have become an increasingly competitive tourist attraction. Observations and lessons learned from interviews and visit to two open air museums in South East England provides some insight about the importance of such museums. Operated as registered charity organisations, they have played significant roles not only in saving various buildings and structures from demolition but also in helping visitors to appreciate the rich heritage of these regions.

  13. Factors Influencing Museum Sustainability and Indicators for Museum Sustainability Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Luiza Pop


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the factors upon which museum sustainability depends and the way in which this can be measured. Methodologically, we applied a qualitative research approach, using semi-structured interviews with experts from the Romanian museum sector, complemented by an in-depth study of the literature in this field. Results indicated that any objective measuring of sustainability must take into account the size of a museum’s collections and its organizational structure. It was also found that museum type can affect sustainability via its competitive advantage. However, the sustainability of a museum is not strictly determined by these factors, but also by the management and marketing strategies applied. Based on analysis of literature- and respondent-based factors influencing sustainability, this article proposes a set of 33 indicators that can be used by museums to measure their sustainability, as well as a model that enables evaluation of the sustainability levels of various museums comparatively, regardless of their type, size or importance (e.g., national, regional and local. The results obtained are useful both from a theoretical point of view, given that there are few writings on this topic, and from a practical point of view, as they provide a basis for a clear, objective model of museum sustainability measurement.

  14. eLearning--Theories, Design, Software and Applications (United States)

    Ghislandi, Patrizia, Ed.


    Chapters in this book include: (1) New e-Learning Environments: e-Merging Networks in the Relational Society (Blanca C. Garcia); (2) Knowledge Building in E-Learning (Xinyu Zhang and Lu Yuhao); (3) E-Learning and Desired Learning Outcomes (Ralph Palliam); (4) Innovative E-Learning Solutions and Environments for Small and Medium Sized Companies…

  15. Developing a Model of Theory-to-Practice-to-Theory in Student Affairs: An Extended Case Analysis of Theories of Student Learning and Development (United States)

    Kimball, Ezekiel W.


    Recent literature suggests a problematic connection between theory and practice in higher education scholarship generally and the study of student learning and development specifically (e.g. Bensimon, 2007; Kezar, 2000; Love, 2012). Much of this disconnect stems from a lack of differentiation between various types of theory used in student affairs…

  16. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-Based and Online Learning Environments (United States)

    Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.


    Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…

  17. Projections on museum exhibits - engaging visitors in the museum setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basballe, Ditte Amund; Halskov, Kim


    Using animation, text, and visual effects as elements of projections on the Danish rune stone, Mejlbystenen (the Mejlby stone), we have explored approaches to engaging museum visitors. The installation positions itself in the field of previous installations and experiments exploring projection...... on physical objects, but is unique in focusing on fusing the projection and the object in an engaging approach to communicating information at a cultural heritage museum. The Mejlby stone installation is now a permanent installation at a cultural and historical museum, and, based on observation as well...

  18. Shaping a valued learning journey: Student satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs, a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Smith, Morgan R; Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Saras


    Student satisfaction is a quality measure of increasing importance in undergraduate programs, including nursing programs. To date theories of student satisfaction have focused primarily on students' perceptions of the educational environment rather than their perceptions of learning. Understanding how students determine satisfaction with learning is necessary to facilitate student learning across a range of educational contexts and meet the expectations of diverse stakeholders. To understand undergraduate nursing students' satisfaction with learning. Constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to identify how nursing students determined satisfaction with learning. Two large, multi-campus, nursing schools in Australia. Seventeen demographically diverse undergraduate nursing students studying different stages of a three year program participated in the study. Twenty nine semi-structured interviews were conducted. Students were invited to describe situations where they had been satisfied or dissatisfied with their learning. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. Students are satisfied with learning when they shape a valued learning journey that accommodates social contexts of self, university and nursing workplace. The theory has three phases. Phase 1 - orienting self to valued learning in the pedagogical landscape; phase 2 - engaging with valued learning experiences across diverse pedagogical terrain; and phase 3 - recognising valued achievement along the way. When students experience a valued learning journey they are satisfied with their learning. Student satisfaction with learning is unique to the individual, changes over time and maybe transient or sustained, mild or intense. Finding from the research indicate areas where nurse academics may facilitate satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs while mindful of the expectations of other stakeholders such as the university, nurse registering authorities

  19. Processes of self-regulated learning in music theory in elementary music schools in Slovenia


    Peklaj, Cirila; Smolej-Fritz, Barbara


    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship between these processes. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the...

  20. Collective learning modeling based on the kinetic theory of active particles (United States)

    Burini, D.; De Lillo, S.; Gibelli, L.


    This paper proposes a systems approach to the theory of perception and learning in populations composed of many living entities. Starting from a phenomenological description of these processes, a mathematical structure is derived which is deemed to incorporate their complexity features. The modeling is based on a generalization of kinetic theory methods where interactions are described by theoretical tools of game theory. As an application, the proposed approach is used to model the learning processes that take place in a classroom.

  1. A Reflective Journey through Theory and Research in Mathematical Learning and Development (United States)

    Belbase, Shashidhar


    This paper is an attempt to reflect on class sessions during the fall 2010 in a course "Theory and Research in Mathematical Learning and Development". This reflection as a learning journey portrays discussions based on foundational perspectives (FP), historical highlights (HH), and guiding questions (GQ) related to mathematics learning and…

  2. Combining theories to reach multi-faceted insights into learning opportunities in doctoral supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate how theories can be combined to explore opportunities for learning in doctoral supervision. While our earlier research into learning dynamics in doctoral supervision in life science research (Kobayashi, 2014) has focused on illustrating learning opportunitie...

  3. Constructivism and Reflectivism as the Logical Counterparts in TESOL: Learning Theory versus Teaching Methodology (United States)

    al Mahmud, Abdullah


    The gist of the entire constructivist learning theory is that learners are self-builders of their learning that occurs through a mental process in a social context or communication setting, and teachers as facilitators generate learning by creating the expected environment and/or utilizing the process. This article theoretically proves…

  4. Connected and Ubiquitous: A Discussion of Two Theories That Impact Future Learning Applications (United States)

    Bair, Richard A.; Stafford, Timothy


    Mobile media break down traditional barriers that have defined learning in schools because they enable constant, personalized access to media. This information-rich environment could dramatically expand learning opportunities. This article identifies and discusses two instructional design theories for mobile learning including the major…

  5. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory (United States)

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret


    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  6. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice (United States)

    Rand, Jane


    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  7. Transformative Learning: A Case for Using Grounded Theory as an Assessment Analytic (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara A. B.; Munoz, Leslie; Abrams, Leah; Bass, Caroline


    Transformative Learning Theory and pedagogies leverage disruptive experiences as catalysts for learning and teaching. By facilitating processes of critical analysis and reflection that challenge assumptions, transformative learning reframes what counts as knowledge and the sources and processes for gaining and producing it. Students develop a…

  8. Situated learning theory: adding rate and complexity effects via Kauffman's NK model. (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; McKelvey, Bill


    For many firms, producing information, knowledge, and enhancing learning capability have become the primary basis of competitive advantage. A review of organizational learning theory identifies two approaches: (1) those that treat symbolic information processing as fundamental to learning, and (2) those that view the situated nature of cognition as fundamental. After noting that the former is inadequate because it focuses primarily on behavioral and cognitive aspects of individual learning, this paper argues the importance of studying learning as interactions among people in the context of their environment. It contributes to organizational learning in three ways. First, it argues that situated learning theory is to be preferred over traditional behavioral and cognitive learning theories, because it treats organizations as complex adaptive systems rather than mere information processors. Second, it adds rate and nonlinear learning effects. Third, following model-centered epistemology, it uses an agent-based computational model, in particular a "humanized" version of Kauffman's NK model, to study the situated nature of learning. Using simulation results, we test eight hypotheses extending situated learning theory in new directions. The paper ends with a discussion of possible extensions of the current study to better address key issues in situated learning.

  9. Group processes in medical education: learning from social identity theory. (United States)

    Burford, Bryan


    The clinical workplace in which doctors learn involves many social groups, including representatives of different professions, clinical specialties and workplace teams. This paper suggests that medical education research does not currently take full account of the effects of group membership, and describes a theoretical approach from social psychology, the social identity approach, which allows those effects to be explored. The social identity approach has a long history in social psychology and provides an integrated account of group processes, from the adoption of group identity through a process of self-categorisation, to the biases and conflicts between groups. This paper outlines key elements of this theoretical approach and illustrates their relevance to medical education. The relevance of the social identity approach is illustrated with reference to a number of areas of medical education. The paper shows how research questions in medical education may be usefully reframed in terms of social identity in ways that allow a deeper exploration of the psychological processes involved. Professional identity and professionalism may be viewed in terms of self-categorisation rather than simply attainment; the salience of different identities may be considered as influences on teamwork and interprofessional learning, and issues in communication and assessment may be considered in terms of intergroup biases. Social identity theory provides a powerful framework with which to consider many areas of medical education. It allows disparate influences on, and consequences of, group membership to be considered as part of an integrated system, and allows assumptions, such as about the nature of professional identity and interprofessional tensions, to be made explicit in the design of research studies. This power to question assumptions and develop deeper and more meaningful research questions may be increasingly relevant as the nature and role of the medical profession change

  10. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić


    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  11. An Integrated Theory of Prospective Time Interval Estimation: The Role of Cognition, Attention, and Learning (United States)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John


    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval estimation and bisection and impact of secondary…

  12. An integrated theory of prospective time interval estimation : The role of cognition, attention, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval

  13. Help-Seeking Decisions of Battered Women: A Test of Learned Helplessness and Two Stress Theories. (United States)

    Wauchope, Barbara A.

    This study tested the learned helplessness theory, stress theory, and a modified stress theory to determine the best model for predicting the probability that a woman would seek help when she experienced severe violence from a male partner. The probability was hypothesized to increase as the stress of the violence experienced increased. Data were…

  14. Learning theories and tools for the assessment of core nursing competencies in simulation: A theoretical review. (United States)

    Lavoie, Patrick; Michaud, Cécile; Bélisle, Marilou; Boyer, Louise; Gosselin, Émilie; Grondin, Myrian; Larue, Caroline; Lavoie, Stéphan; Pepin, Jacinthe


    To identify the theories used to explain learning in simulation and to examine how these theories guided the assessment of learning outcomes related to core competencies in undergraduate nursing students. Nurse educators face the challenge of making explicit the outcomes of competency-based education, especially when competencies are conceptualized as holistic and context dependent. Theoretical review. Research papers (N = 182) published between 1999-2015 describing simulation in nursing education. Two members of the research team extracted data from the papers, including theories used to explain how simulation could engender learning and tools used to assess simulation outcomes. Contingency tables were created to examine the associations between theories, outcomes and tools. Some papers (N = 79) did not provide an explicit theory. The 103 remaining papers identified one or more learning or teaching theories; the most frequent were the National League for Nursing/Jeffries Simulation Framework, Kolb's theory of experiential learning and Bandura's social cognitive theory and concept of self-efficacy. Students' perceptions of simulation, knowledge and self-confidence were the most frequently assessed, mainly via scales designed for the study where they were used. Core competencies were mostly assessed with an observational approach. This review highlighted the fact that few studies examined the use of simulation in nursing education through learning theories and via assessment of core competencies. It also identified observational tools used to assess competencies in action, as holistic and context-dependent constructs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Free-choice worksheets increase students' exposure to curriculum during museum visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss; Smart, Kimberly


    The museum visit is an important part of elementary school science teaching. However, a divide exists between teachers, who require curricular accountability, and museums, who emphasize free-choice exploration. Can a carefully constructed worksheet bridge this divide by providing free......-choice exploration of curricular topics during the museum visit? In the present study, a theoretical framework was constructed to inform the design of worksheets as free-choice learning devices. This framework was used to analyze the design of an existing museum worksheet. Subsequently, curriculum......-related conversations among school groups visiting a museum were monitored in groups supplied with the worksheet and in control groups without. Overall, the worksheet complied well with design criteria synthesized from the free-choice learning literature. Furthermore, the use of the worksheet increased the number...

  16. From Continuous Improvement to Organisational Learning: Developmental Theory. (United States)

    Murray, Peter; Chapman, Ross


    Explores continuous improvement methods, which underlie total quality management, finding barriers to implementation in practice that are related to a one-dimensional approach. Suggests a multiple, unbounded learning cycle, a holistic approach that includes adaptive learning, learning styles, generative learning, and capability development.…

  17. The Current Perspectives, Theories and Practices of Mobile Learning (United States)

    Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Metcalf, David


    Mobile learning (m-learning) is a highly popular multidisciplinary study field around the world. It has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers in different disciplines who have realized the potential to apply mobile technologies to enhance learning. Thus, mobile learning has been defined differently by different people. This study is…

  18. Examination of a Museum Program for Children with Autism (United States)

    Mulligan, Shelley; Rais, Paula; Steele-Driscoll, Jacqueline; Townsend, Samantha


    This study examined the effectiveness of a children's museum program designed to support young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families. The program offers specialized materials, financial incentives, an exclusive time, and trained volunteers to increase the comfort level, enjoyment, and learning opportunities of attendees.…

  19. Using Mobile Devices to Connect Teachers and Museum Educators (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim; Krajcik, Joseph


    The use of mobile devices is increasing rapidly as a potential tool for science teaching. In this study, five educators (three middle school teachers and two museum educators) used a mobile application that supported the development of a driving question. Previous studies have noted that teachers make little effort to connect learning experiences…

  20. A Survey of Teen Museum Education Participants and Their Parents (United States)

    Hornby, Jenny; Bobick, Bryna


    In this article, we discuss a museum program for teens located in an urban environment. The participants were high school students from public, private, religious and home schools. The program allowed learning to occur in an informal setting and united teens from one city through a common interest in visual art. Also, it was an opportunity for the…

  1. Learning through the Variation Theory: A Case Study (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W. L.


    The variation theory stems from the concept of phenomenography. Although some applications of the theory can be found, the theory is not well known in the field of education, especially with respect to the teaching of business and management subjects. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of the variation theory for teaching management…

  2. Presentation-Practice-Production and Task-Based Learning in the Light of Second Language Learning Theories. (United States)

    Ritchie, Graeme


    Features of presentation-practice-production (PPP) and task-based learning (TBL) models for language teaching are discussed with reference to language learning theories. Pre-selection of target structures, use of controlled repetition, and explicit grammar instruction in a PPP lesson are given. Suggests TBL approaches afford greater learning…

  3. The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective (United States)

    Jeno, Lucas M.; Raaheim, Arild; Kristensen, Sara Madeleine; Kristensen, Kjell Daniel; Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Haugland, Mildrid J.; Mæland, Silje


    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The results show that…

  4. Effect of Environmental Education Based on Transformational Learning Theory on Perceptions towards Environmental Problems and Permanency of Learning (United States)

    Uyanik, Gökhan


    The aim of the study is to determine effect of environmental education based on transformational learning theory on primary school teacher candidates' perceptions towards environmental problems and permanency of learning. Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design have been used in this study. The study group consists of 66 teacher candidates who…

  5. The Meaningful Learning of Intellectual Skills: An Application of Ausubel's Subsumption Theory to the Domain of Intellectual Skills Learning. (United States)

    West, Leo H. T.; Kellett, Natalie C.


    Tests the applicability of Ausubel's theory to the meaningful learning of intellectual skills. Results of three studies of high school students indicate that advance organizers enhance learning of skills related to solubility product problems. This effect was removed if prior teaching in relevant background knowledge was included. (Author/WB)

  6. The Democratic Horizons of the Museum : Citizenship and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter Dahlgren; Dr. Joke Hermes


    This multi-volume reference work provides a state-of-the-art survey of the burgeoning field of museum studies. Showcasing the best of theory, practice, history, controversies, and the ways technology impacts the way we view, think about, and institultionalize objects, The International Handbooks of

  7. Speaking absence. Art museums, representation and knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tali, M.


    In my dissertation I investigate multiple absences that are at work in art museums. My understanding of absence is informed by postcolonial theory, gender studies and memory studies. Museal absence involves material and immaterial sides that are based on excluded objects and certain unwanted social

  8. Emerging opportunities: the internet, marketing and museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richani Evdoxia


    Full Text Available The tremendous impact of applying new technologies is obvious when it comes to museums. Internet forms an integral part of museums everyday life and decision making. Websites, online communities, social media, and mobile applications comprise elements of the modern museum’s digital self, which complements the real museum of permanent and temporary exhibitions, storage rooms, visitors’ facilities, laboratories and, most important, museum objects. This environment inevitably affects museum marketing strategies and creates relevant opportunities.

  9. Learning, Action and Solutions in Action Learning: Investigation of Facilitation Practice Using the Concept of Living Theories (United States)

    Sanyal, Chandana


    This paper explores the practice of action learning (AL) facilitation in supporting AL set members to address their 'messy' problems through a self-reflexive approach using the concept of 'living theory' [Whitehead, J., and J. McNiff. 2006. "Action Research Living Theory." London: Sage]. The facilitation practice is investigated through…

  10. Enhancing Student Learning in Knowledge-Based Courses: Integrating Team-Based Learning in Mass Communication Theory Classes (United States)

    Han, Gang; Newell, Jay


    This study explores the adoption of the team-based learning (TBL) method in knowledge-based and theory-oriented journalism and mass communication (J&MC) courses. It first reviews the origin and concept of TBL, the relevant theories, and then introduces the TBL method and implementation, including procedures and assessments, employed in an…

  11. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1). (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L


    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.

  12. 75 FR 73132 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Public Demand for Museum and Library Services... (United States)


    .... Our achievement as individuals and our success as a democratic society depend on learning continually... knowledge. IMLS provides leadership and funding for the nation's museums and libraries, to help them fulfill...

  13. Role of Adult Learning Theories in the Development of Corporate Training in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lytovchenko


    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the role of adult learning theories in the development of corporate training in the USA. Considering that corporate education is part of the adult education system in this country, the author examines theories of organizational learning in the context of adult learning. The results of the study have revealed that adult education in the US is based on dif erent learning theories which should be viewed from the perspective of several main orientations: behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, developmental theories, social learning, constructivism, which have dif erent philosophical background and, accordingly, different understanding of the nature and methodology of adult learning. Based on the results of the study it has been concluded that theories of organizational learning which explain motivation of students, their needs and goals, cognitive processes and other aspects of the learning in organizations and have had the main influence on the development of corporate education in the United States should be viewed in the context of the above-mentioned basic orientations to learning, too. From the methodological perspective, the research was based on interdisciplinary and systemic approaches. Thus, we used a set of interrelated research methods: comparative, structural, systemic-functional analyses, comparison and synthesis.

  14. Cultural minorities in Danish museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjørup, Søren


    Artikel om den forbløffende mangel på bevidsthed om minoriteter i danske museer, samt en diskussion af Dansk Jødisk Museum, specielt spillet mellem arkitekten Daniel Libeskinds koncept og museets egen meddelelse...

  15. Bringing the Museum into the Classroom, and the Class into the Museum: An Approach for Content-Based Instruction (United States)

    Sederberg, Kathryn


    Through the example of a fourth-semester course on modern German history, this article explores the application of interactive and experiential learning models inspired by museum pedagogy. In response to the ACTFL "Standards" and the 2007 MLA report, the teaching of culture has become a priority and educators continue to seek innovative…

  16. Theories and control models and motor learning: clinical applications in neuro-rehabilitation. (United States)

    Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R; Molero-Sánchez, A; Carratalá-Tejada, M; Alguacil-Diego, I M; Molina-Rueda, F; Miangolarra-Page, J C; Torricelli, D


    In recent decades there has been a special interest in theories that could explain the regulation of motor control, and their applications. These theories are often based on models of brain function, philosophically reflecting different criteria on how movement is controlled by the brain, each being emphasised in different neural components of the movement. The concept of motor learning, regarded as the set of internal processes associated with practice and experience that produce relatively permanent changes in the ability to produce motor activities through a specific skill, is also relevant in the context of neuroscience. Thus, both motor control and learning are seen as key fields of study for health professionals in the field of neuro-rehabilitation. The major theories of motor control are described, which include, motor programming theory, systems theory, the theory of dynamic action, and the theory of parallel distributed processing, as well as the factors that influence motor learning and its applications in neuro-rehabilitation. At present there is no consensus on which theory or model defines the regulations to explain motor control. Theories of motor learning should be the basis for motor rehabilitation. The new research should apply the knowledge generated in the fields of control and motor learning in neuro-rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The National Cryptologic Museum Library (United States)


    telegrams. Modern communications and encryption methods have made them obsolete and mainly of historical interest. The library is also home to a...interpretations. Cross References The National Cryptologic Museum Library Eugene Becker Last year, a widely published German technical author, Klaus...Schmeh, e-mailed the library of the National Cryptologic Museum from his home in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. He needed information for an article on the

  18. The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory (United States)

    Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

    The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

  19. Not what we expected: the Jewish Museum Berlin in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chametzky


    Full Text Available An extensive existing literature studies Daniel Libeskind’s deconstructivist design for the Jewish Museum Berlin (JMB. This article focuses instead on the museum’s exhibits from 2001 to today, their evolution in response to visitor criticisms, and their discursive setting, all of which exhibit museum and marketing professionals’ attempts to deal with, and to an extent to overcome, the theory driven and Holocaust-laden architectural programme. The JMB, in practice, while including the Holocaust as one component of visitors’ experiences, instead emphasizes Jews and things Jewish as a positive component of a ‘postnational’ version of the German national narrative.

  20. The job that no one wants to do? Museum educators’ articulations about guided tours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rodehn


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate museum educators’ articulations of their performance during guided tours. The paper investigates preparations for a guided tour, considerations related to doing guided tours and the events after the guided tour. The text focus especially on preparation and the aftermath as this is not normally discussed in research on museum education. The paper is based on participant observation of guided tours, filming of guided tours and qualitative semi-structured interviews. The material is analysed using performance theories and theories on materiality. The paper seeks to unearth knowledge imbued in the museum educators’ performance and reveal what can be known from guiding bodies.

  1. New Designs in the Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Özer Erbay


    Full Text Available Architectural structure of the museum shall be designed in an accessible way regarding safety. In these designs special needs of visitors shall be taken into consideration according to types thereof.  Architectural structure, topography and natural presence of the museum increase visitor accessibility.  Exhibition venue, showcases and platforms, staircases providing access to upstairs, stairs, slippery rugged surfaces and entrance and exit to the exhibition venue from the same door form inaccessible areas.   It mustn't be forgotten that special disabled visitors can create an unsafe environment for others. Existing designs in museums shall be redesigned to be made accessible by disabled persons.  Museum venues must be redesigned ad made accessible by disabled persons. All characteristics of visitors in museums should be taken into consideration and universal living spaces addressing integral attitude should be designed.  Museum environment designs with regard to visitor safety must be steady.  Ramps shouldn't be unnecessarily steep and slippery.  Floor tiles, carpets or other ground coatings must be attached each other in a safe way. Gaps in ground coating shouldn't exceed the radius of13 mm. Grounds with different colors should be used for highlighting the ground odds and drawing visitors' attention. A distinctive environment requirement should be provided for visitors especially who use walking sticks, crutches and wheelchairs and warning signs shouldn't be forgotten.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laine-Zamojska


    Full Text Available W artykule omówiono generalny obraz digitalizacji w fińskim sektorze muzealnym. Przedstawiono szacunkowe liczby dotyczące digitalizacji dziedzictwa kulturowego na podstawie przeprowadzonych statystycznych badań, oraz zaprezentowano wiele projektów związanych z ucyfrowieniem fińskich muzeów.\tFiński sektor muzealny jest niezwykle zróżnicowany, podobnie jak stopień skatalogowania i zdigitalizowania kolekcji. W projektach rozwojowych aktywnie uczestniczy cały sektor muzealny. W ostatnich latach, dzięki wielu inicjatywom i badaniom udało się uzyskać szczegółowy obraz fińskiego sektora muzealnego. Największą inicjatywą jest projekt utworzenia Narodowej Biblioteki Cyfrowej, podlegający Ministerstwu Edukacji i Kultury. Celem projektu jest połączenie i udostępnienie zasobów z instytucji pamięci (bibliotek, archiwów i muzeów. Towarzyszą mu rozległe projekty digitalizacji.\tW związku z ogromną różnorodnością systemów do zarządzania kolekcją i praktykami katalogowymi w muzeach, w 2011 r. Państwowy Urząd Muzealny (Museovirasto / National Board of Antiquities, Fiński Związek Muzeów (Suomen museoliitto / Finnish Museums Association i Państwowa Galeria Sztuki (Valtion taidemuseo / Finnish National Gallery zainicjowały projekt Muzeum2015 (Museo2015 / Museum2015. Jego głównymi celami są: unifikacja procesów związanych z zarządzaniem kolekcją, stworzenie architektury korporacyjnej dla zarządzania muzealną kolekcją, stworzenie modelu zarządzania dla architektury korporacyjnej, oraz określenie i stworzenie warunków do zakupu i implementacji ogólnofińskiego systemu zarządzania kolekcją.\tRozwój cyfrowych narzędzi dla najmniejszych, prowadzonych przez wolontariuszy, muzeów lokalnych jest jednym z celów projektu badawczego ViMuseo, prowadzonego na Uniwersytecie w Jyväskylä (Jyväskylän yliopisto / University of Jyväskylä.

  3. Wittgenstein's language games as a theory of learning disabilities. (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen


    Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.

  4. Theories and models of and for online learning


    Haythornthwaite, Caroline; Andrews, Richard; Kazmer, Michelle M.; Bruce, Bertram C.; Montague, Rae-Anne; Preston, Christina


    For many years, discussion of online learning, or e-learning, has been pre-occupied with the practice of teaching online and the debate about whether being online is 'as good as' being offline. The authors contributing to this paper see this past as an incubation period for the emergence of new teaching and learning practices. We see changes in teaching and learning emerging from the nexus of a changing landscape of information and communication technologies, an active and motivated teaching ...

  5. Emergent theory and technology in e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browaeys, M.-J.; Wahyudi, S.


    E-learning should be approached via a new paradigm, one where instruction and information are involved in a recursive process, an approach which counters the concept of linearity. New ways of thinking about how people learn and new technologies favour the emergence of principles of e-learning that

  6. An Interactive Learning Environment for Information and Communication Theory (United States)

    Hamada, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohammed


    Interactive learning tools are emerging as effective educational materials in the area of computer science and engineering. It is a research domain that is rapidly expanding because of its positive impacts on motivating and improving students' performance during the learning process. This paper introduces an interactive learning environment for…

  7. Telling Active Learning Pedagogies Apart: From Theory to Practice (United States)

    Cattaneo, Kelsey Hood


    Designing learning environments to incorporate active learning pedagogies is difficult as definitions are often contested and intertwined. This article seeks to determine whether classification of active learning pedagogies (i.e., project-based, problem-based, inquiry-based, case-based, and discovery-based), through theoretical and practical…

  8. Museumchronotopics: on the representation of the past in museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Gielen


    Full Text Available Many visitor studies make social background variables the central point of departure to explain participation patterns. How the past is ‘staged’, however, also has an influence on those to whom it appeals. This relational perspective calls for new conceptual tools to grasp empirical reality. Inspired by the historical philosophy of Georg Simmel and the literary theory of Mikhail Bakhtin a number of concepts which enable us to grasp the subtle relationship between museum presentations and visitors are presented. Bakhtin’s notion of chronotopy serves as a key concept. By linking museum presentations and visitor perceptions with each other, it is also possible to identify certain tendencies within the contemporary museum landscape.

  9. Evaluating clinical simulations for learning procedural skills: a theory-based approach. (United States)

    Kneebone, Roger


    Simulation-based learning is becoming widely established within medical education. It offers obvious benefits to novices learning invasive procedural skills, especially in a climate of decreasing clinical exposure. However, simulations are often accepted uncritically, with undue emphasis being placed on technological sophistication at the expense of theory-based design. The author proposes four key areas that underpin simulation-based learning, and summarizes the theoretical grounding for each. These are (1) gaining technical proficiency (psychomotor skills and learning theory, the importance of repeated practice and regular reinforcement), (2) the place of expert assistance (a Vygotskian interpretation of tutor support, where assistance is tailored to each learner's needs), (3) learning within a professional context (situated learning and contemporary apprenticeship theory), and (4) the affective component of learning (the effect of emotion on learning). The author then offers four criteria for critically evaluating new or existing simulations, based on the theoretical framework outlined above. These are: (1) Simulations should allow for sustained, deliberate practice within a safe environment, ensuring that recently-acquired skills are consolidated within a defined curriculum which assures regular reinforcement; (2) simulations should provide access to expert tutors when appropriate, ensuring that such support fades when no longer needed; (3) simulations should map onto real-life clinical experience, ensuring that learning supports the experience gained within communities of actual practice; and (4) simulation-based learning environments should provide a supportive, motivational, and learner-centered milieu which is conducive to learning.

  10. The Last Planner System Style of Planning: Its Basis in Learning Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Terje Kalsaas


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to contribute to creating a better understanding of the Last Planner System (LPS – which is associated with Lean Construction – in the light of the learning processes at the basis of knowledge development, and of change and innovation. Founded on a theoretical discussion, three research questions are asked, namely: In what ways can the LPS be expected to alter the learning arenas compared to conventional project management in construction; according to learning theory, what are the main challenges associated with implementing the LPS; and, finally, what kind of learning can be linked to an implemented LPS that functions as intended? The implementation of the LPS is shown to require substantial changes to the technical-organisational learning arena. In order for the implementation to be successful, the work identity has to alter on the individual level so that an overlap occurs with the new work practices prescribed by the LPS. The LPS has an inbuilt experiential learning cycle, and provides a good starting point for single-loop learning, as well as for simple forms of double-loop learning (“routinized learning capability”. However, it is argued that the LPS understood as experiential learning has clear limitations with regard to “evolutionary learning capability”. This is amplified by the context project organisation provides. In terms of theoretical implications, this article promotes an understanding of the planning process informed by the theory describing it as an experiential learning cycle. The conceptualisation which separates the LPS from conventional production control theory is critiqued. Finally, it is argued that an understanding of the LPS grounded in learning theory will improve the possibilities for successful implementation and maximise the learning effects.

  11. Using Machine Learning to Advance Personality Assessment and Theory. (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hopwood, Christopher James


    Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework. We review recent applications of machine learning to personality assessment, place machine learning research in the broader context of fundamental principles of construct validation, and provide recommendations for how to use machine learning to advance our understanding of personality.

  12. Doping Among Professional Athletes in Iran: A Test of Akers's Social Learning Theory. (United States)

    Kabiri, Saeed; Cochran, John K; Stewart, Bernadette J; Sharepour, Mahmoud; Rahmati, Mohammad Mahdi; Shadmanfaat, Syede Massomeh


    The use of performance-enhancing drugs (PED) is common among Iranian professional athletes. As this phenomenon is a social problem, the main purpose of this research is to explain why athletes engage in "doping" activity, using social learning theory. For this purpose, a sample of 589 professional athletes from Rasht, Iran, was used to test assumptions related to social learning theory. The results showed that there are positive and significant relationships between the components of social learning theory (differential association, differential reinforcement, imitation, and definitions) and doping behavior (past, present, and future use of PED). The structural modeling analysis indicated that the components of social learning theory accounts for 36% of the variance in past doping behavior, 35% of the variance in current doping behavior, and 32% of the variance in future use of PED.

  13. Can Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning Become an Alternative to Piagetian Psychology? (United States)

    Albert, Edna


    Discusses Novak's views that Ausubel's meaningful learning can become an alternative to Piagetian psychology and argues that Ausubel does not provide a theory that can be an alternative to Piaget's developmental psychology. (HM)

  14. Application of Advances in Learning Theory and Philosophy of Science to the Improvement of Chemistry Teaching. (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.


    Discusses seven key concepts in Ausubel's learning theory which function to guide research and teaching. Also discusses concept mapping and Gowins Vee, providing examples of how they are used in chemistry instruction. (JN)

  15. Museums Connect: Teaching Public History through Transnational Museum Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. W. Harker


    Full Text Available Museums Connect is a program funded by the US Department of State and administered by the American Alliance of Museums that sponsors transnational museum partnerships. This program provides one model for teaching public history in a transnational context, and this article analyzes the experiences of two university-museums—the Museum of History and Holocaust Education (MHHE in the United States and the Ben M’sik Community Museum (BMCM in Morocco—during two grants between 2009 and 2012. In exploring the impact of the program on the staff, faculty, and students involved and by analyzing the experiences and reflections of participants, I argue that this program can generate positive pedagogical experiences. However, in addition to the successes of the MHHE and BMCM during their two grants, the participants encountered significant power differentials that manifested themselves in both the processes and products of the grants. It is the conclusion of this article that both partners in a public history project need to address and confront potential power issues at the outset in order to achieve a more balanced, collaborative partnership.

  16. Constructivism: the view of knowledge that ended philosophy or a theory of learning and instruction? (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A


    Constructivism is referred to in two very different ways in education including medical education: to refer to a view of knowledge and to refer to a theory of learning and hence instruction. This proposal (a) distinguishes between these two usages of constructivism and (b) concludes that constructivism is not a theory of learning and thus as such has little to offer that might be of value to medical education.

  17. Theory of Belief Functions for Data Analysis and Machine Learning Applications: Review and Prospects (United States)

    Denoeux, Thierry

    The Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions provides a unified framework for handling both aleatory uncertainty, arising from statistical variability in populations, and epistemic uncertainty, arising from incompleteness of knowledge. An overview of both the fundamentals and some recent developments in this theory will first be presented. Several applications in data analysis and machine learning will then be reviewed, including learning under partial supervision, multi-label classification, ensemble clustering and the treatment of pairwise comparisons in sensory or preference analysis.

  18. Andragogy And Pedagogy Theories Of Learning In Joint Professional Military Education (United States)


    needs of joint military leaders. This research examines each theory and its fundamental design in an attempt to determine if pedagogy alone can meet... Abraham H. Maslow , known largely for his studies in motivation and personality, saw the goal of learning to be self-actualization, or a person’s...AU/ACSC/MCMAHON, S/AY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ANDRAGOGY AND PEDAGOGY THEORIES OF LEARNING IN JOINT PROFESSIONAL

  19. Young people’s own museum views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drotner, Kirsten; Knudsen, Line Vestergaard; Mortenesen, Christian Hviid


    Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning-making practi......Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning...

  20. Informal learning. (United States)

    Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly


    We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory. (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D


    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  2. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  3. Virtual Learning Environments: A View from the Theory of Conceptual Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iralí Araque


    Full Text Available The inclusion of communication and information technologies for formative purposes has given way to virtual learning environments, which, backed by constructivist theories, provide a theoretical and methodological framework, thus contributing to the cognitive development of students at university level, evidenced in the development of their learning schemes. The theory of conceptual fields offers an analysis of the elements of schemas and the process of knowledge construction. In this sense, the present work had as objective to raise some elements, such as teaching methodology, didactic strategies, materials and resources for learning, teacher and student roles, which should be considered in the design of virtual learning environments, in the light of the theory of conceptual fields, so as to enhance the construction of knowledge and where the emphasis of the educational process lies on learning rather than teaching. The methodology used is a documentary study, type descriptive, based on the review and bibliographical analysis of constructivist theories, as well as researchers related to the design and construction of virtual learning environments. The results show that conceptual fields theory is an excellent option to consider, as a constructivist theory, in order to consolidate the process of knowledge construction, from the individual to the collective.

  4. Synaesthesia and learning: A critical review and novel theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Robert Watson


    Full Text Available Learning and synaesthesia are profoundly interconnected. On the one hand, the development of synaesthesia is clearly influenced by learning. Synaesthetic inducers—the stimuli that evoke these unusual experiences—often involve the perception of complex properties learned in early childhood, e.g. letters, musical notes, numbers, months of the year and even swimming strokes. Further, recent research has shown that the associations individual synaesthetes make with these learned inducers are not arbitrary, but are strongly influenced by the structure of the learnt do- main. For instance, the synaesthetic colours of letters are partially determined by letter frequency and the relative positions of letters in the alphabet. On the other hand, there is also a small, but growing, body of literature which shows that synaesthesia can influence or be helpful in learning. For instance, synaesthetes appear to be able to use their unusual experiences as mnemonic de- vices and can even exploit them while learning novel abstract categories. Here we review these two directions of influence and argue that they are interconnected. We propose that synaesthesia arises, at least in part, because of the cognitive demands of learning in childhood, and that it is used to aid perception and understanding of a variety of learned categories. Our thesis is that the structural similarities between synaesthetic triggering stimuli and synaesthetic experiences are the remnants, the fossilized traces, of past learning challenges for which synasethesia was helpful.

  5. Complementing theory with practice to enhance Students' learning. (United States)

    Suliman, Muhammad Imran; Imran, Faiqa; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin; Rahim, Ikram Ur; Shafiq, Anser; Qayum, Iftikhar


    Combining cognitive skills teaching related to the techniques leads to better understanding in a skill training course; but still there a substantial disagreement in curriculum on such combinations. This study aims to help guide the designers in making the outline of instructional plan for a Clinical Skills Module (CSM) for the undergraduates. Objectives were to assess performance of students on a clinical skill after training by two different models of (hands-on only or with cognitive skills) instructions and explore their perception on the employment of educational strategies through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) through a Sequential mixed method study design: (1) Quantitative (Pre- and post-assessments and comparing their results (2) Qualitative (Exploration of perspectives through constructivist approach using qualitative phenomenological design) The study was conducted during the month of September, 2015 at Rabigh Medical College, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. Students entering fourth year were randomized to two groups to participate in pre-post OSCE using global rating scale and their scores were compared. The examiners were kept blinded to the randomization of students undergoing two separate training methods. The test group (group A) was trained for both procedural as well as cognitive skills whereas the control group (Group-B) was trained only with hands-on practice. Later their perception about the addition of cognitive skills to improve of procedural skills was explored through focus group discussions. The recorded audio tapes of FGDs were transcribed and analysed thematically. Triangulation of themes and trends was achieved by relating the content analysis to the relevant frequency of quotes. Auditing of the data verification was done by all the authors separately.. A total of 42 students completed both pre- and post-tests. As a result, student performance in OSCE significantly increased from pre- to post-test (pdisadvantages of combining theory

  6. The Role of Spirituality in Transition to Parenthood: Qualitative Research Using Transformative Learning Theory. (United States)

    Klobučar, Nataša Rijavec


    This article presents results of a qualitative study of 12 adult couples making transition to parenthood. The aim of the study was to research the meaning of transition to parenthood through the lens of transformative learning theory. Transformative learning theory explains learning through meaning-making of that life experience. In this paper, the spiritual dimension of learning is emphasized. An important part of research methodology included biographical method, using semi-structured interviews before and after the birth of the first child. The research showed that transformative learning occurs in different spheres of life during transition to parenthood. This paper discusses the spiritual dimension of learning, meaning-making and presents results of the research.

  7. Teaching Theory in Occupational Therapy Using a Cooperative Learning: A Mixed-Methods Study. (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim


    Cooperative learning provides an important vehicle for active learning, as knowledge is socially constructed through interaction with others. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on occupational therapy (OT) theory knowledge attainment in professional-level OT students in a classroom environment. Using a pre- and post-test group design, 24 first-year, entry-level OT students participated while taking a theory course in their second semester of the program. Cooperative learning methods were implemented via in-class group assignments. The students were asked to complete two questionnaires regarding their attitudes toward group environments and their perception toward group learning before and after the semester. MANCOVA was used to examine changes in attitudes and perceived learning among groups. Students' summary sheets for each in-class assignment and course evaluations were collected for content analysis. Results indicated significant changes in students' attitude toward working in small groups regardless of their prior group experience.

  8. Climate change communication: what can we learn from communication theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, Anne Gammelgaard


    the field of communication theory are highlighted and discussed in the context of communicating climate change. Rooted in the interaction paradigm, the article proposes a meta‐theoretical framework that conceptualizes communication as a constitutive process of producing and reproducing shared meanings...... as a theoretical construct. In some instances, communication theory appears reduced to an ‘ad hoc’ toolbox, from which theories are randomly picked to provide studies with a fitting framework. Inspired by the paradigm shift from transmission to interaction within communication theory, potential lessons from...

  9. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei


    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  10. e-Research and Learning Theory: What Do Sequence and Process Mining Methods Contribute? (United States)

    Reimann, Peter; Markauskaite, Lina; Bannert, Maria


    This paper discusses the fundamental question of how data-intensive e-research methods could contribute to the development of learning theories. Using methodological developments in research on self-regulated learning as an example, it argues that current applications of data-driven analytical techniques, such as educational data mining and its…

  11. Social Learning Theories--An Important Design Consideration for Geoscience Fieldwork (United States)

    Streule, M. J.; Craig, L. E.


    The nature of field trips in geoscience lends them to the application of social learning theories for three key reasons. First, they provide opportunity for meaningful practical experience and promote effective learning afforded by no other educational vehicle in the subject. Second, they are integral for students creating a strong but changing…

  12. Aligning Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory with a Comprehensive Agricultural Education Model (United States)

    Baker, Marshall A.; Robinson, J. Shane; Kolb, David A.


    Experiential learning has been a foundational tenant of agricultural education since its inception. However, the theory of experiential education has received limited attention in the permanent agricultural education literature base. As such, this philosophical manuscript examined Kolb's experiential learning process further, and considered the…

  13. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory: A Meta-Model for Career Exploration. (United States)

    Atkinson, George, Jr.; Murrell, Patricia H.


    Kolb's experiential learning theory offers the career counselor a meta-model with which to structure career exploration exercises and ensure a thorough investigation of self and the world of work in a manner that provides the client with an optimal amount of learning and personal development. (Author)

  14. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning (United States)



    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  15. Towards a Robuster Interpretive Parsing: learning from overt forms in Optimality Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, T.


    The input data to grammar learning algorithms often consist of overt forms that do not contain full structural descriptions. This lack of information may contribute to the failure of learning. Past work on Optimality Theory introduced Robust Interpretive Parsing (RIP) as a partial solution to this

  16. Gamified Pedagogy: From Gaming Theory to Creating a Self-Motivated Learning Environment in Studio Art (United States)

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng


    This research is an empirical study using gamified pedagogy in a 3-D animation course in a Visual Communication Design Department. By conducting this research, I hope to increase student interest in learning 3-D animation and to decrease student fears of learning professional 3-D software. Through this research, I have developed a theory of…

  17. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui


    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  18. A Comparative Study of the Application of Learning Theories as Perceived by Faculty and Students. (United States)

    Bennett, Lula M.

    To test the similarity of student and instructor perceptions of the learning approaches used by particular instructors in the classroom, teachers and students (n=138) of ten social science classes at Valencia Community College (Florida) responded to a questionnaire. Items tested the instructors' application of the learning theories of Pavlov,…

  19. Dynamic Training Elements in a Circuit Theory Course to Implement a Self-Directed Learning Process (United States)

    Krouk, B. I.; Zhuravleva, O. B.


    This paper reports on the implementation of a self-directed learning process in a circuit theory course, incorporating dynamic training elements which were designed on the basis of a cybernetic model of cognitive process management. These elements are centrally linked in a dynamic learning frame, created on the monitor screen, which displays the…

  20. Social Learning Theory in the Age of Social Media: Implications for Educational Practitioners (United States)

    Deaton, Shannon


    Following the research of Albert Bandura, the advent of social media has changed the platform for social interaction and human experience. Educators have a unique opportunity to apply the concepts of Bandura's Social Learning Theory toward enhanced student engagement and learning in a social media context. This article synthesizes current research…

  1. What Motivates Students to Provide Feedback to Teachers about Teaching and Learning? An Expectancy Theory Perspective (United States)

    Caulfield, Jay


    The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…

  2. The Spiral and the Lattice: Changes in Cognitive Learning Theory with Implications for Art Education. (United States)

    Efland, Arthur D.


    Contrasts recent views of learning and cognition with cognitive learning theories of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Maintains that Jerome Bruner's spiral curriculum approach, still valuable, is not sufficient to explain cognitive development. Proposes a lattice-like cognitive development structure, inviting differing paths of exploration. (CFR)

  3. Shorthand Instruction in Light of Recent Theories of Learning and Instruction (United States)

    Laurie, Charles T.


    The paper reports the highlights of three learning models (behaviorist, cognitive, and humanist), and examines them for the guidance they offer for instruction and learning in shorthand. Included are the theories of Skinner, Gagne, Carroll, Bloom, Wittrock, Ausubel, Bruner, Dember, Nebes, Scriven, Anderson, and Rogers. (Author/AJ)

  4. 可觸式擴增實境輔助博物館導覽效益之研究 A Study of Using Tangible Augmented Reality System to Enhance the Learning Effects on Museum Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Lin


    Full Text Available 本研究嘗試以擴增實境科技融入博物館文物展示,以改善所展文物互動性不足與無法任意細察之現象,探究其所提供之效益。據此目的,本研究分兩階段進行,第一階段在探索其應用於文物展的互動機制與因素,主要透過WiiRemote設計的擴增實境操作介面以了解參觀者的使用經驗與感受。第二階段則據此結果,設計可觸式擴增實境操作介面以提升導覽的效益。經兩年研究發現:(1)導覽設計須特別注意使用者年齡、性別及經驗。(2)導覽系統宜特別注意易用性與互動性。(3)導覽系統中的易使用性會影響學習功能性及學習者的專注度。(4)使用者對此類介面持正向態度。因此本研究建議未來進行博物館文物導覽系統設計時,可考量將此類介面融入其中以提升整體效益。The purpose of this study was based on our WiiRemote system study results to improve the human-machine interface and to develop the tangible augmented reality system for the learning effects on museum artifacts. The system prototype of tangible augmented reality system for butterfly’s specimens was examined in National Museum of Natural Science. Through the research method of questionnaire, interview and observation, we gathered the different aspects of the data and the information from visitors of National Museum of Natural Science. Based on the analysis of research data, the important conclusions are as follows: 1. All visitors highly satisfied with the tangible augmented reality system and met their needs of use: high interaction, easy to use and enjoyment. 2. The system usability impacted the system utility. Furthermore both of system usability and system utility affected the users’ attention in tangible augmented reality system.

  5. A Social Practice Theory of Learning and Becoming across Contexts and Time (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; DiGiacomo, Daniela K.; Van Horne, Katie; Kirshner, Ben


    This paper presents a social practice theory of learning and becoming across contexts and time. Our perspective is rooted in the Danish tradition of critical psychology (Dreier, 1997; Mørck & Huniche, 2006; Nissen, 2005), and we use social practice theory to interpret the pathway of one adolescent whom we followed as part of a longitudinal…

  6. Social Theories of Learning: A Need for a New Paradigm in Mathematics Education (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn


    This paper is theoretical in orientation and explores the limitations of the current field of mathematics education which has been dominated by social theories of learning. It is proposed that the field is approaching its limits for these theories and there is a need for shift that moves from the idiosyncratic possibilities of subjective meaning…

  7. Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning: A Critical Perspective. Critical Perspectives on Education (United States)

    Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Porter, Jill, Ed.


    "Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning" focuses on how education is understood in different cultures, the theories and related assumptions we make about learners and students and how we think about them, and how we can understand the principle actors in education--learners and teachers. Within this volume, internationally renowned…

  8. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference? (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen


    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  9. From "Organisms" to "Boundaries": The Uneven Development of Theory Narratives in Education, Learning and Work Connections (United States)

    Saunders, Murray


    This paper uses the metaphor of a "theory narrative" to discuss the way in which the connections between education, learning and work have been understood. It identifies six theory narratives, and analyses each in turn, leading to an overview that suggests the way in which these explanatory frameworks might evolve in the future. The six narratives…

  10. The Factors and Features of Museum Fatigue in Science Centres Felt by Korean Students (United States)

    Kim, Minchul; Dillon, Justin; Song, Jinwoong


    One of the objectives of science education in science centres has been the enhancement of interest in science. However, museum fatigue has a negative impact on interest. Museum fatigue has been described as physical tiredness or a decrease in visitors' interest in a museum. The learning experience of students in science centres is also influenced by museum fatigue. The purpose of this study is to identify the phenomena of museum fatigue in science centres and to identity how it is manifested. First, we identified the factors causing museum fatigue in science centres using the data from an open-ended questionnaire which was given to 597 primary, middle and high school students in South Korea. From the responses to the questionnaire, 50 factors causing museum fatigue in science centres were identified. A second Likert-type questionnaire with the 50 factors of museum fatigue in science centres was administered to 610 primary, middle and high school students in South Korea. Using reliability and factor analyses, we developed a framework of the factors causing museum fatigue in science centres, which consists of three contexts, 12 categories and 50 factors. Secondly, through statistical analyses including T test and ANOVA analysis, the features of students' museum fatigue in science centres were analysed and compared regarding student gender, school level, interest in science, grade of school science, the number of visits, and type of visit. The results, which were found to be statistically significant, are reported and discussed. The findings of this study are intended to serve for a deeper understanding and practical improvement of science learning in science centres.

  11. Change Of Learning Environment Using Game Production ­Theory, Methods And Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Kofoed, Lise; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik


    will focus on cases in which development of games did change the learning environments into production units where students or employees were producing games as part of the learning process. The cases indicate that the motivation as well as the learning curve became very high. The pedagogical theories......Game Based Learning has proven to have many possibilities for supporting better learning outcomes, when using educational or commercial games in the classroom. However, there is also a great potential in using game development as a motivator in other kinds of learning scenarios. This study...... and methods are based on Problem Based Learning (PBL), but are developed further by combining PBL with a production-oriented/design based approach. We illustrate the potential of using game production as a learning environment with investigation of three game productions. We can conclude that using game...

  12. Lifelong learning in obstetrics and gynaecology: how theory can influence clinical practice. (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Smith, S; Cresswell, J


    Lifelong learning refers to the systematic acquisition, renewal, updating and completion of knowledge. It is synonymous with the term 'self-directed learning'. This is a new educational strategy meant to consolidate knowledge in a fashion that is reproducible for a lifetime with successful application to both known and unknown clinical exercises. The development of lifelong learning is based on the principles of andragogy (autonomy and independence in one's learning activities), reflection and learning from experience. This paper deals with the development of these theories culminating in the advent of self-directed learning. Evidence to support experiential, reflective and self-directed learning is provided, including the use of rating scales. An example from obstetrics is used to highlight the application of these principles. There are barriers to adopting a new educational paradigm, however, lifelong learning remains an excellent tool for continuous professional development.



    Pereira, Fernando Antonio de Melo; Ramos, Anatália Saraiva Martins; Andrade, Adrianne Paula Vieira de; Oliveira, Bruna Miyuki Kasuya de


    ABSTRACT The present study aims to investigate the determinants of satisfaction and the resulting continuance intention in the e-learning context. The constructs of decomposed expectancy disconfirmation theory (DEDT) are evaluated from the perspective of users of a virtual learning environment (VLE) in relation to expectations and perceived performance. An online survey collected responses from 197 students of a public management distance learning course. Structural equation modeling was oper...

  14. E-Learning Content Design Standards Based on Interactive Digital Concepts Maps in the Light of Meaningful and Constructivist Learning Theory (United States)

    Afify, Mohammed Kamal


    The present study aims to identify standards of interactive digital concepts maps design and their measurement indicators as a tool to develop, organize and administer e-learning content in the light of Meaningful Learning Theory and Constructivist Learning Theory. To achieve the objective of the research, the author prepared a list of E-learning…

  15. Action Learning in Virtual Higher Education: Applying Leadership Theory (United States)

    Curtin, Joseph


    This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University's course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author,…

  16. Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control. (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher; And Others

    Experiences with uncontrollable events may lead to the expectation that future events will elude control, resulting in disruptions in motivation, emotion, and learning. This text explores this phenomenon, termed learned helplessness, tracking it from its discovery to its entrenchment in the psychological canon. The volume summarizes and integrates…

  17. Learning to Spell Words: Findings, Theories, and Issues (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca


    There has been less research on how children learn to spell than on how they learn to read, but a good deal is now known about spelling development. This article reviews studies of normative development, beginning with children's early scribbles and proceeding to prephonological spelling involving letters, phonologically influenced invented…

  18. The mistake to mistake learning theory for didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Ane; Keiding, Tina Bering


    a simple replacement of one word with another without significance of the meaning. On the contrary, it deprives us a systematic framework for reflection on teaching, at the risk of becoming blind for the many didactic decisions that we make whenever we try to design “learning environments” and “learning...

  19. Contrasting dynamics of organizational learning : a process theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, J.J.; Lammers, I.S.


    In this paper we analyze the process characteristics of organizational learning. A wide variety of process models of organizational learning have been proposed in the literature, but these models have not been systematically investigated. In this paper we use Van de Ven and Poole's (1995) taxonomy

  20. The Adoption of e-Learning: An Institutional Theory Perspective (United States)

    Jan, Pi-Tzong; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Chou, Tzu-Chuan


    Several models have been proposed in the literature to understand e-learning acceptance in which social environmental factors are not primarily addressed. This paper aims to improve understanding of what social forces influence employee's attitude and intention of e-learning adoption within an organizational context. Drawing upon the institutional…