Full Text Available In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local. We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.
Camilo Guzmán T
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.
Hofmann, Jörg; Canpolat, Alper Tunga; Türk, Ali; Ettinger, Jakob; Atmaca, Deniz; Akyar, Işın; Yücel, Serap; Arıkan, Ender; Uyar, Yavuz; Çağlayık, Dilek Y.; Kocagöz, Ayşe Sesin; Kaya, Ayşin; Kruger, Detlev H.
We identified Dobrava-Belgrade virus infection in Turkey (from a strain related to hantavirus strains from nearby countries) in a patient who had severe symptoms leading to panhypopituitarism, but no known risk for hantavirus. Our findings emphasize the need for increased awareness of hantaviruses in the region and assessment of symptomatic persons without known risk factors for infection. PMID:22709722
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the members of the family Bunyaviridae that are naturally maintained in the populations of small mammals, mostly rodents. Most of these viruses can easily infect humans through contact with aerosols or dust generated by contaminated animal waste products. Depending on the particular hantavirus involved, human infection could result in either Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS or in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS. In the past few years, clinical cases of the hantavirus caused diseases have been on the rise. Understanding structure of the hantavirus genome and the functions of the key viral proteins is critical for the therapeutic agents’ research. This paper gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on the structure and properties of the hantavirus nucleoprotein and the glycoproteins.
N. D. B. Ehelepola
Full Text Available There are two categories of hantaviruses resulting in two distinct illnesses. The Old World (Asia and Europe viruses give rise to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, and the New World (Americas viruses cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. Hantavirus infections have very similar clinical pictures and epidemiology to leptospirosis. Here, we present two cases of hantavirus infections from Sri Lanka (in South Asia initially misdiagnosed as leptospirosis and later further investigated and diagnosed as hantavirus infections with serological confirmation of the diagnosis. They had clinical pictures of a combination of both HFRS and HPS as well as the involvement of the central nervous system. Hantavirus infections are rarely diagnosed in South Asia. Reports on such atypical clinical pictures of hantavirus infections are extremely rare. Having arrived at the correct diagnosis late/retrospectively, both these patients recovered notwithstanding being seriously ill, indicating adequate supportive therapy can save lives in such cases. The emergence of the hantavirus, an infection seriously affecting multiple organ systems with a high case fatality rate that is spread by aerosol and other routes, could become a serious public health issue in Sri Lanka.
Schountz, Tony; Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph
Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a
Kosasih, Herman; Ibrahim, Ima Nurisa; Wicaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hoo, Yumilia; Yo, Iing H; Antonjaya, Ungke; Widjaja, Susana; Winoto, Imelda; Williams, Maya; Blair, Patrick J
During febrile surveillance in the western Java City of Bandung, Indonesia, a patient with clinical symptoms consistent with hantavirus infection was found to have elevated titers of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. A subsequent epizoological investigation demonstrated a higher prevalence of hantavirus IgG antibodies in rodents trapped in the vicinity of the patient's home compared with rodents from a control area (13.2% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.036). The Old World Seoul hantavirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the organs of 71% of the seropositive rodents tested. This is the first report of a Seoul virus infection in Indonesia supported by clinical, serological, and epizoological evidences. These findings suggest that hantavirus infection should be on the clinical differential diagnosis when acutely ill febrile patients report for care in western Java.
Full Text Available In this study, a collocation method is introduced to find the approximate solutions of Hantavirus infection model which is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method is based on the Bessel functions of the first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. This method converts Hantavirus infection model into a matrix equation in terms of the Bessel functions of first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. The matrix equation corresponds to a system of nonlinear equations with the unknown Bessel coefficients. The reliability and efficiency of the suggested scheme are demonstrated by numerical applications and all numerical calculations have been done by using a program written in Maple.
João Bosco Lima Gimaque
Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.
Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, María; Fernandes, Katia; Metzger, Jean Paul
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be
Paula Ribeiro Prist
Full Text Available Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC. Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%. Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5, and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks
Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Županc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka
Abstract Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found. PMID:22217170
Mailles, A; Vaillant, V; Haeghebaert, S; Fradet, M R; Capek, I; Zeller, H
Hantaviral infections causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are endemic in North Eastern France. Humans are contaminated by the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by rodent faeces. In February 2003, the National reference centre (NRC) for hemorrhagic fevers detected an increased number of cases. An investigation was carried out to confirm the outbreak and take appropriate control measures. Cases were collected by the NRC. A case was defined as a person living in France with symptoms compatible with hantaviral infection and a positive blood test both for specific Puumala IgM, and IgG. Clinical information and at-risk exposures during the 2 weeks before onset were recorded. In 2003, 128 cases were diagnosed (61 in 2002). The median age of patients was 38, 77% were men and 82% were hospitalized. Patients were living in North-Eastern France. Clusters were detected in the Ardennes and Oise districts. Occupation (35%) (in agriculture, forestry, and construction work), manipulation of firewood (35%), gardening (29%), and outdoors leisure (14%) were identified as at-risk exposures in these cases. An increased number of positive diagnoses of hantaviral infections was confirmed. The location and at-risk exposures of the cases were identical in previous investigations. Exclusion and prevention of rodents' access to houses and avoiding the inhalation of contaminated dust are the only possible prevention measures of hantaviral infections. Information about the disease and its prevention needs to be made widely available to both healthcare professionals and the general population living in endemic areas.
Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jääskeläinen, Kirsi Maria; Djupsjöbacka, Janica; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander
The small RNA segment of some hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) encodes two proteins: the nucleocapsid protein and, in an overlapping reading frame, a non-structural (NSs) protein. The hantavirus NSs protein, like those of orthobunya- and phleboviruses, counteracts host innate immunity. Here, for the first time, the NSs protein of a hantavirus (Tula virus) has been observed in infected cells and shown to localize in the perinuclear area. Transiently expressed NSs protein showed similar localization, although the kinetics was slightly different, suggesting that to reach its proper location in the infected cell, the NSs protein does not have to cooperate with other viral proteins.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Puumala virus (PUUV is the most important hantavirus species in Central Europe. Nephropathia epidemica (NE, caused by PUUV, is characterized by acute renal injury (AKI with thrombocytopenia and frequently gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: 456 patients with serologically and clinically confirmed NE were investigated at time of follow-up in a single clinic. The course of the NE was investigated using medical reports. We identified patients who had endoscopy with intestinal biopsy during acute phase of NE. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of the biopsies were performed. RESULTS: Thirteen patients underwent colonoscopy or gastroscopy for abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting during acute phase of NE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC revealed PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in 11 biopsies from 8 patients; 14 biopsies from 5 patients were negative for PUUV nucleocapsid antigen. IHC localized PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in endothelial cells of capillaries or larger vessels in the lamina propria. Rate of AKI was not higher and severity of AKI was not different in the PUUV-positive compared to the PUUV-negative group. All IHC positive biopsies were positive for PUUV RNA using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed clustering of all PUUV strains from this study with viruses previously detected from the South-West of Germany. Long-term outcome was favorable in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NE, PUUV nucleocapsid antigen and PUUV RNA was detected frequently in the intestine. This finding could explain frequent GI-symptoms in NE patients, thus demonstration of a more generalized PUUV infection. The RT-PCR was an effective and sensitive method to detect PUUV RNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, it can be used as a diagnostic and phylogenetic approach also for archival materials. AKI was not more often present in patients with PUUV-positive IHC. This last finding should be investigated in larger numbers of
Michelly de Pádua
Full Text Available In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.
Full Text Available Wild sigmondontine rodents are known to be the reservoir of several serotypes of New World hantaviruses. The mechanism of viral transmission is by aerosol inhalation of the excreta from infected rodents. Considering that the captive breed colonies of various wild mammals may present a potencial risk for hantaviral transmission, we examined 85 speciemens of Thrichomys spp. (Echimyidae and 17 speciemens of Nectomys squamipes (Sigmodontinae from our colony for the presence of hantavirus infections. Blood samples were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Andes nucleocapsid antigen using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Additionally, serum samples from workers previously exposed to wild rodents, in the laboratories where the study was conducted, were also tested by ELISA to investigate prevalence of anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies. All blood samples were negative for hantavirus antibodies. Although these results suggest that those rodent's colonies are hantavirus free, the work emphasizes the need for hantavirus serological monitoring in wild colonized rodents and secure handling potentially infected rodents as important biosafety measures.
José Alfredo dos Santos-Júnior
Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is rare in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted over a two-year period in Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of anti-hantavirus N-antigen IgM and IgG in human serum samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. RESULTS: High avidity IgG was found in nine of 476 serum samples tested (from 102 patients with clinical manifestations compatible with HCPS, 124 patients with leptospirosis, and 250 healthy rural workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of past hantavirus infection in residents of Alagoas State indicates that hantaviruses are present in northeastern Brazil, even in areas silent for HCPS.
Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF and Leptospirosis are endemic in our region. Hantavirus infections may beconfused with similar clinical picture zoonotic infections. Two patients with fever, malaise, cough, phlegm, nausea, vomiting,thrombocytopenia, renal failure, elevated transaminases, and a history of mouse contact were hospitalized in ourclinic with a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis, pneumonia, CCHF and Hantavirus infections. Empirical antibiotictreatment was initiated and CCHF and leptospirosis was ruled out with laboratory tests. Hantavirus immunoglobulin(Ig-G and Ig-M antibodies were detected positive by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA method in both cases but,Dobrova virus was detected in only one patient with immunoblotting methods. Both patients were discharged aftertreatment. Hantavirus infections may be misdiagnosed as zoonotic infections since they have similar clinical picture. Itshould be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of contact with mouse. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(3: 117-120Key words: Hantavirus, hemorrhagic fever, renal syndrome, pulmonary syndrome
Full Text Available Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infection causes nephropathia epidemica (NE, a relatively mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Hypophyseal haemorrhage and hypopituitarism have been described in case reports on patients with acute NE. Chronic hypopituitarism diagnosed months or years after the acute illness has also been reported, without any signs of a haemorrhagic aetiology. The mechanisms leading to the late-onset hormonal defects remain unknown. Here, we present a case of NE-associated autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypopituitarism presumably due to autoimmune hypophysitis. Thyroid peroxidase antibody seroconversion occurred between 6 and 12 months, and ovarian as well as glutamate decarboxylase antibodies were found 18 months after acute NE. Brain MRI revealed an atrophic adenohypophysis with a heterogeneous, low signal intensity compatible with a sequela of hypophysitis. The patient developed central (or mixed central and peripheral hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus, all requiring hormonal replacement therapy. This case report suggests that late-onset hormonal defects after PUUV infection may develop by an autoimmune mechanism. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by prospective studies with sufficient numbers of patients.
Clement, J; McKenna, P; Groen, J; Osterhaus, A; Colson, P; Vervoort, T; van der Groen, G; Lee, H W
Hantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the milder European form of HTV-illness, otherwise known as Nephropathia epidemica (NE). This variant may be recognized by the sudden onset of fever, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia and sometimes by ophthalmologic complications. The symptomatology is rather aspecific and diagnosis can only be confirmed by serologic tests, of which the best option nowadays seems to be: screening by IgG EIA, followed by IgM confirmation with a mu-capture EIA test. Some of the tests described allow an evaluation of the causative serotype or even the moment of infection. Next to the "classic" serologic assays for detection of specific viral antibodies, we describe briefly our own experience with newer tests such as "high density particle agglutination" and "line immuno assay". Polymerase chain reaction for viral RNA genome typing and immunohistochemical colouring of the viral antigen in tissues seem to offer promising alternatives for the immediate future.
J.P.G. Clement; P. McKenna; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. Colson; T. Vervoort; G. van der Groen (Guido); H.W. Lee
textabstractHantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the
Sauvage, F; Penalba, C; Vuillaume, P; Boue, F; Coudrier, D; Pontier, D; Artois, M
We compared the occurrence of nephropathia epidemica cases, over a multi-annual population cycle, in northeastern France with the hantavirus serology for bank voles captured in the same area. We discuss hypotheses to explain the pattern of infection in both humans and rodents and their synchrony.
Baumann, Anna; Dudek, Dorota; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata
The environmental changes caused by humans influence ecosystem and thus have significant impact on occurrence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. The hantavirus infection belong to the one of them. The aim of this paper was to present current knowledge about relationship between hantavirus, their natural host and the spread of the infection to people. Rodents constitute both the natural host of the hantaviruses and the reservoir of hantavirus for environment. Circulation of the virus in the rodent population is crucial to maintain the virus in the environment. The individual characteristics of rodents influence on risk of infection with hantavirus. However, this relationship is still unexplained. Risk of pathogen exposure often increases with age and behavioral differences associated with the sex of the susceptible individual. Mating behaviors seem to play an important role in the spread of the virus among rodents. Human incidence of hantavirus infection has in general been found to correlate to the population size of rodent host especially in the model of nephropathia epidemica (NE; a mild form of HFRS), Puumala virus (PUU) and bank voles. The occurrence of hantavirus infections in humans is assumed to rise as a secondary effect from altered population sizes of rodents in a changing environment due to e.g. mast years, forest fragmentation, global warming.
Shannon L Taylor
Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS are diseases caused by hantavirus infections and are characterized by vascular leakage due to alterations of the endothelial barrier. Hantavirus-infected endothelial cells (EC display no overt cytopathology; consequently, pathogenesis models have focused either on the influx of immune cells and release of cytokines or on increased degradation of the adherens junction protein, vascular endothelial (VE-cadherin, due to hantavirus-mediated hypersensitization of EC to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. To examine endothelial leakage in a relevant in vitro system, we co-cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC to generate capillary blood vessel-like structures. In contrast to results obtained in monolayers of cultured EC, we found that despite viral replication in both cell types as well as the presence of VEGF, infected in vitro vessels neither lost integrity nor displayed evidence of VE-cadherin degradation. Here, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular leakage involving activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS. We show that incubation of factor XII (FXII, prekallikrein (PK, and high molecular weight kininogen (HK plasma proteins with hantavirus-infected EC results in increased cleavage of HK, higher enzymatic activities of FXIIa/kallikrein (KAL and increased liberation of bradykinin (BK. Measuring cell permeability in real-time using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS, we identified dramatic increases in endothelial cell permeability after KKS activation and liberation of BK. Furthermore, the alterations in permeability could be prevented using inhibitors that directly block BK binding, the activity of FXIIa, or the activity of KAL. Lastly, FXII binding and autoactivation is increased on the surface of hantavirus-infected EC. These data are the first to demonstrate KKS activation
Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H
This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hantaviruses (Family Bunyaviridae) are the etiological agents responsible for a spectrum of illnesses referred to collectively as hemorrhagic fever with...seropositives without chronic disease, one was admitted for severe preeclampsia , one for a psychiatric disorder, and three for complications from their...there was a marked difference between seropositives and seronegatives in the presumed etiology of renal disease (Table 7, Appendix 2). Seropositives had
Roda Gracia, J; Schumann, B; Seidler, A
Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.
Barriga, Gonzalo P; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Galeno, Héctor; Ferrés, Marcela; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D
The focus assay is currently the most commonly used technique for hantavirus titer determination. This method requires an incubation time of between 5 and 11 days to allow the appearance of foci after several rounds of viral infection. The following work presents a rapid Andes virus (ANDV) titration assay, based on viral nucleocapsid protein (N) detection in infected cells by flow cytometry. To this end, an anti-N monoclonal antibody was used that was developed and characterized previously. ANDV N could be detected as early as 6 h post-infection, while viral release was not observed until 24-48 h post-infection. Given that ANDV detection was performed during its first round of infection, a time reduction for titer determination was possible and provided results in only two days. The viral titer was calculated from the percentage of N positive cells and agreed with focus assay titers. Furthermore, the assay was applied to quantify the inhibition of ANDV cell entry by patient sera and by preventing endosome acidification. This novel hantavirus titration assay is a highly quantitative and sensitive tool that facilitates infectivity titration of virus stocks, rapid screening for antiviral drugs, and may be further used to detect and quantify infectious virus in human samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wei, Lan; Qian, Quan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Glass, Gregory E.; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiu-Jun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Xian-Jun; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in Shandong Province, China. In this study, we combined ecologic niche modeling with geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques to identify the risk factors and affected areas of hantavirus infections in rodent hosts. Land cover and elevation were found to be closely associated with the presence of hantavirus-infected rodent hosts. The averaged area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.864, implying good performance. The predicted risk maps based on the model were validated both by the hantavirus-infected rodents' distribution and HFRS human case localities with a good fit. These findings have the applications for targeting control and prevention efforts. PMID:21363991
Full Text Available Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV, with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%. A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3% and slums (1.5% compared with farms (0.5%. Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011, low education level (p = 0.006 and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student (p = 0.016. No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed.
Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Padula, Paula
We captured 3 hantavirus rodent hosts in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Argentina, during 2007–2012. Hantavirus antibodies were found only in Akodon azarae grass mice, mainly in males and old animals. Higher abundance of this species was associated with warm and rainy weather and high water levels, which peaked after a strong El Niño event. PMID:29260665
Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa Vieira
Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, Mato Grosso (MT has the highest number of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases. Our study aimed to identify anti-hantavirus antibodies in the sera of patients from Sinop, MT, presenting with acute febrile illness. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data for 198 sera samples assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was conducted. RESULTS: Immunoglobulins G (IgGs against the hantavirus nucleoprotein were found in 13.6% of the tested sera. No sample had immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to hantavirus. Seropositivity occurred mainly in female residents in urban areas who worked around the household. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest circulation of hantavirus in Sinop.
Reil, Daniela; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Imholt, Christian; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Eccard, Jana A; Jacob, Jens
In Europe, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) are widely distributed and can transmit Puumala virus (PUUV) to humans, which causes a mild to moderate form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, called nephropathia epidemica. Uncovering the link between host and virus dynamics can help to prevent human PUUV infections in the future. Bank voles were live trapped three times a year in 2010-2013 in three woodland plots in each of four regions in Germany. Bank vole population density was estimated and blood samples collected to detect PUUV specific antibodies. We demonstrated that fluctuation of PUUV seroprevalence is dependent not only on multi-annual but also on seasonal dynamics of rodent host abundance. Moreover, PUUV infection might affect host fitness, because seropositive individuals survived better from spring to summer than uninfected bank voles. Individual space use was independent of PUUV infections. Our study provides robust estimations of relevant patterns and processes of the dynamics of PUUV and its rodent host in Central Europe, which are highly important for the future development of predictive models for human hantavirus infection risk.
Soraya Jabur Badra
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7% samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.
Full Text Available Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with endothelial cells, and their effects on the increased vascular permeability.
Hepojoki, Jussi; Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas
Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with hematopoietic and endothelial ...
Marcelo Simão Ferreira
continent, including Brazil. Both diseases are transmitted to man through the inhalation of viral particles, which are shed in feces and urine of wild and domestic rodents. They comprise a group of febrile diseases that can affect many organs, particularly the kidneys in the hemorrhagic fever associated with renal syndrome and the lungs and heart in the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The lethality of American hantaviroses reaches 50%. The diagnosis of these diseases is performed using serological tests such as immunoenzymatic assays which detect specific antibodies of the IgG and IgM classes. There is no specific treatment. Therefore, special attention should be directed to restore and maintain fluid balance, timely indication of dialysis for renal failure and administration of vasoactive drugs during periods of hypotension and shock. The administration of corticosteroids and/or ribavirin are under evaluation. The number of cases of hantavirus infection has been increasing in Brazil year after year, and it is important to alert health personnel to the occurrence of these entities throughout the country. Awareness of their presence should improve the quality of medical care.
Olga V Suárez
Full Text Available We studied hantavirus seroprevalence and virus variability in rodent populations in Diego Gaynor, northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Rodent samplings were conducted in railroads and cropfield borders in March and July 1999, September and December 2000, and March 2001. Antibody detection was performed by an enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA, using the recombinant nucleoprotein of Andes (AND virus as antigen. Tissue samples were taken from positive antibody individuals in order to confirm the presence of hantavirus genomic material and to identify virus genotypes. Akodon azarae was the most abundant species, followed by Oligoryzomys flavescens, while Calomys laucha and C. musculinus were rarely caught. We found a rate of seroprevalence of 9.3% for a total sample of 291 A. azarae and 13.5% for 37 O. flavescens. After molecular analyses of hantavirus, we confirmed the presence of hantavirus genomic material in 16 individuals with ELISA (+ results and two individuals with ELISA (-. Four amplimers for each species were sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of representative hantaviruses. We identified the AND Cent Lec from three O. flavescens, and the Pergamino virus from four A. azarae and from one O. flavescens. A. azarae males had higher seroprevalence than females, and heavier individuals showed higher seroprevalence than lighter ones. We did not find seroprevalence differences according to sex in O. flavescens, although this result may have been produced by the low sample size. The lowest seroprevalence was found in a period of high rodent density, when juveniles prevailed in the population. We found higher seroprevalences than those detected in previous studies for other localities of central Argentina where cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have been reported. The presence of AND Cent Lec virus in rodent populations of the study area, which is responsible of HPS cases in central Argentina, suggests
Full Text Available Among hantaviruses (HTNV, 22 are known as pathogenic for humans. HTNV can cause two clinical entities: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. In most countries of Eastern Europe as well as in Kosovo, HTNV infection is presented mainly as HFRS. Here, we report a 20-year-old man with HFRS and HCPS caused by Dobrava hantavirus strain, successfully treated in Intensive Care Unit of Infectious Diseases Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo. In HFRS endemic areas, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome need to be evaluated for Dobrava hantavirus strain as a possible causative agent.
Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.
Atkinson, Barry; Jameson, Lisa J.; Bovill, Bego?a A.; Aarons, Emma J.; Clewlow, Jodie; Lumley, Sarah; Latham, Jennie; Jenkins, Megan H.; MacGowan, Alasdair P.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Ahmed, Javeed; Brooks, Timothy J.; Hewson, Roger
Highlights ? Detection of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into Europe. ? Additional evidence that Choclo hantavirus is currently circulating and causing human disease in Panama. ? Novel diagnostic and sequencing assays for identifying cases of Choclo hantavirus infection.
Dandolo, A; Prajs, N; Lizop, M
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is due to an infection by the virus of the Hantavirus genus. Rodent hosts of Hantavirus are present in restricted areas in France; consequently, there are ecological niches and microepidemics of human Hantavirus infections. A HFRS case was diagnosed in the Paris region. The 11-year-old child had an acute debut fever-persistent despite antipyretic medication-asthenia, headache, abdominal pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, as well as renal failure with proteinuria. The diagnosis was made with a relevant clinical history and the specific serology of Puumala hantavirus. Therefore, a kidney biopsy was not necessary. What was interesting was the diagnostic approach because of the difference between the place and time of contamination and where the child became ill and developed the symptoms. The child was infected by Puumala hantavirus in Les Ardennes, a high-risk area, but became ill in the Paris region, an area with no prevalence. We review Hantavirus infections in France and its differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Young Min Hong
Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.
Salvador, Alexis Ribas; Guivier, Emmanuel; Xuéreb, Anne; Chaval, Yannick; Cadet, Patrice; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Henttonen, Heikki; Cosson, Jean-François; Charbonnel, Nathalie
Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV) in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes). The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus--helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV repartition are not previously identified. Moreover, our
Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV
Full Text Available In man, infection with South American Andes virus (ANDV causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. HCPS due to ANDV is endemic in Southern Chile and much of Argentina and increasing numbers of cases are reported all over South America. A case-fatality rate of about 36% together with the absence of successful antiviral therapies urge the development of a vaccine. Although T-cell responses were shown to be critically involved in immunity to hantaviruses in mouse models, no data are available on the magnitude, specificity and longevity of ANDV-specific memory T-cell responses in patients. Using sets of overlapping peptides in IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays, we herein show in 78 Chilean convalescent patients that Gn-derived epitopes were immunodominant as compared to those from the N- and Gc-proteins. Furthermore, while the relative contribution of the N-specific response significantly declined over time, Gn-specific responses remained readily detectable ex vivo up to 13 years after the acute infection. Tetramer analysis further showed that up to 16.8% of all circulating CD3(+CD8(+ T cells were specific for the single HLA-B*3501-restricted epitope Gn(465-473 years after the acute infection. Remarkably, Gn(465-473-specific cells readily secreted IFN-gamma, granzyme B and TNF-alpha but not IL-2 upon stimulation and showed a 'revertant' CD45RA(+CD27(-CD28(-CCR7(-CD127(- effector memory phenotype, thereby resembling a phenotype seen in other latent virus infections. Most intriguingly, titers of neutralizing antibodies increased over time in 10/17 individuals months to years after the acute infection and independently of whether they were residents of endemic areas or not. Thus, our data suggest intrinsic, latent antigenic stimulation of Gn-specific T-cells. However, it remains a major task for future studies to proof this hypothesis by determination of viral antigen in convalescent patients. Furthermore, it remains to be seen whether Gn-specific T
ROMANO-LIEBER Nicolina Silvana
Full Text Available A serosurvey was conducted in wild animals captured close to two areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples from a total of 43 mammals were tested for antibodies reactive with Sin Nombre (SN hantavirus using a strip immunoblot assay. RNAs from the blood clots of the positive samples were submitted to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Two rodents of the genus Oligoryzomys were positive for hantavirus antibodies. These animals were captured in the Iguape region and represented 16.7% (2/12 of the sera from rodents and 100.0% (2/2 of the Oligoryzomys captured in that area. RT-PCR failed to amplify any viral cDNA. These results are in agreement with other data that suggest that members of this genus are important reservoirs of hantaviruses in Brazil.
Andrey V. An
Full Text Available Background: For nearly a decade, a disease likely to have been misdiagnosed was observed in pregnant women in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. It caused the rapid decline and death of patients, with about 45% mortality rate. The disease was suspected to be caused by a virus of the HVP (Hantavirus family, and clinical studies were conducted to ascertain. Methods: As no system for registration of such cases had been maintained, researchers developed a questionnaire with indicators chiefly based on relevant literature. All the women admitted exhibiting the symptoms listed were covered by the study. Results: Among the 16 cases identified from September to December 2008, ten survived; 80% belonged to the indigenous ethnic group; 80% were housewives. Most (90% were between 16 and 34 weeks’ pregnancy, 24.5 weeks on average. Almost all of them experienced labored breathing and abnormally high body temperature. About 75% of the women lived in the vicinity of rodents’ habitats, and about half of them could have been in direct contact with the aerosolized rodent excreta. Conclusions: Researchers believe that those women exposed to the excreta were cases of HPS. In practice, the surgical removal of the fetus proved to be the most efficient treatment. However, the medical community has a growing concern about patients with HPV being misdiagnosed and the related difficulties in diagnosing and treating them.
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A retrospective serologic survey of hantavirus infections in the county of Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil Inquérito sorológico retrospectivo das infecções por hantavirus no município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil
Soraya Jabur Badra
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7% samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.INTRODUÇÃO: Infecções graves por hantavírus têm obtido crescente atenção das autoridades da saúde pública da Eurásia e Américas. De 1993 a 2010, o Brasil reportou 1.300 casos de síndrome pulmonar cardiovascular por hantavírus (SPCVH com, aproximadamente, 80 deles no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo com taxa de fatalidade de 48%. O vírus Araraquara é o agente etiológico da SPCVH nessa região. Considerando que nas Am
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are known to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. They are globally emerging pathogens as newer serotypes are routinely being reported. This review discusses hantavirus biology, clinical features and pathogenesis of hantavirus disease, its diagnostics, distribution and mammalian hosts. Hantavirus research in India is also summarised.
Van Loock, F; Thomas, I; Clement, J; Ghoos, S; Colson, P
Puumala is the most common hantavirus serotype in Europe and is spread mainly by the red bank vole. Between 1 July 1992 and 31 January 1994, an outbreak of Puumala virus-induced nephropathia epidemica (NE) occurred in the Belgian Ardennes. Serologically confirmed cases (n = 41) were compared with two groups of asymptomatic seronegative controls. Risks identified included sighting of living rodents, exposure to rodent droppings, and trapping rodents during the 4 weeks preceding onset of symptoms. Activities during this 4-week period that presented the greatest risk were woodcutting, reopening of a nonaerated room, and strenuous physical effort. This is the first case-control study on risk factors for NE in Europe. In comparison with the American form of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which is spread by deer mice, professional activity appears to be a more important risk factor for acquisition of hantavirus in Europe.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Andes virus (ANDV, a rodent-borne Hantavirus, is the major etiological agent of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in South America, which is mainly characterized by a vascular leakage with high rate of fatal outcomes for infected patients. Currently, neither specific therapy nor vaccines are available against this pathogen. ANDV infects both dendritic and epithelial cells, but in despite that the severity of the disease directly correlates with the viral RNA load, considerable evidence suggests that immune mechanisms rather than direct viral cytopathology are responsible for plasma leakage in HCPS. Here, we assessed the possible effect of soluble factors, induced in viral-activated DCs, on endothelial permeability. Activated immune cells, including DC, secrete gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteases (gMMP-2 and -9 that modulate the vascular permeability for their trafficking. Methods A clinical ANDES isolate was used to infect DC derived from primary PBMC. Maturation and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of ANDES-infected DC were assessed by studying the expression of receptors, cytokines and active gMMP-9, as well as some of their functional status. The ANDES-infected DC supernatants were assessed for their capacity to enhance a monolayer endothelial permeability using primary human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC. Results Here, we show that in vitro primary DCs infected by a clinical isolate of ANDV shed virus RNA and proteins, suggesting a competent viral replication in these cells. Moreover, this infection induces an enhanced expression of soluble pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and the active gMMP-9, as well as a decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. These viral activated cells are less sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, supernatants from ANDV-infected DCs were able to indirectly enhance the permeability of a monolayer of primary HUVEC. Conclusions Primary human DCs
Fabbri, Marilyn; Maslow, Melanie J.
Since the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1993, understanding of the vast distribution and potential impact of hantaviruses has grown. At least 277 cases of HPS have been documented in the United States. The full clinical spectrum has yet to be elucidated, and one outbreak suggested the possibility of person-to-person transmission. New research has identified the b-3 integrins as cellular receptors for hantaviruses and has determined the pivotal role of the immune system in pathogenesis. Rapid diagnosis has been facilitated by a new immunoblot assay to detect Sin Nombre virus infection. Treatment remains primarily supportive; however, a placebo- controlled trial of ribavirin is ongoing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be a potential therapy in severe cases; inhaled nitric oxide needs further study. Vaccines developed against hantaviruses associated with hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome might be effective against HPS-associated strains.
Tersago, Katrien; Verhagen, Ron; Leirs, Herwig
Puumala virus (PUUV), the causal agent of nephropathia epidemica in humans, is one of the many hantaviruses included in the list of emerging pathogens. Hantavirus infection is not distributed evenly among PUUV reservoir hosts (i.e., bank voles [Myodes glareolus]). Besides environmental factors and local population features, individual characteristics play an important role in vole PUUV infection risk. Identifying the relative importance of these individual characteristics can provide crucial information on PUUV transmission processes. In the present study, bank voles were monitored during the nephropathia epidemica outbreak of 2005 in Belgium. Vole sera were tested for presence of immunoglobulin G against PUUV, and a logistic mixed model was built to investigate the temporal variation in individual characteristics and their relative importance to PUUV infection risk in bank voles. Relative risk calculations for individual vole characteristics related to PUUV infection in the reservoir host show that reproductive activity dominates infection risk. The gender effect is only found in reproductively active voles, where reproductively active males have the highest infection risk. Results also revealed a clear seasonal variation in the importance of reproductive activity linked to PUUV infection. In contrast to the main effect found in other trapping sessions, no difference in infection risk ratio was found between reproductively active and nonactive voles in the spring period. Combined with increased infection risk for the reproductively nonactive group at that time, these results indicate a shift in the transmission process due to changes in bank vole behavior, physiology, or climate conditions. Hence, our results suggest that mathematical models should take into account seasonal shifts in transmission mechanisms. When these results are combined with the seasonal changes in population structure during the epizootic period, we identify vole reproductive activity and
William Marciel de Souza
Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity, with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.
Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to research by means of qualitative research methods the contact of individuals living in the region with mice and wild animals during the examination of Hantavirus epidemic to produce. Materials and Methods: In the interviews, the contact of participants with mice and wild animals, their opinions about the climate change and their symptom history pertaining to Hantavirus infections in themselves or relatives were discussed. Results: The participants stated that they didn’t see any mouse or mouse excretion, however that they encountered such cases in areas such as woodbin, roof, terrace, forest, etc. all interviews, the increase in the number of wild boars and jackals was especially stated. In all interviews, it was stated that this year was more rainy and warmer compared to previous years. Conclusion: The findings of the study give the impression that the participant group is under the risk of Hantavirus infection. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 81-86
Full Text Available Puumala virus (PUUV infection causes over 5000 cases of hemorrhagic fever in Europe annually and can influence the hemostatic balance extensively. Infection might lead to hemorrhage, while a recent study showed an increased risk of myocardial infarction during or shortly after PUUV infection. The mechanism by which this hantavirus influences the coagulation system remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to elucidate mechanisms explaining alterations seen in primary and secondary hemostasis during PUUV infection. By using low passage PUUV isolates to infect primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs we were able to show alterations in the regulation of primary- and secondary hemostasis and in the release of fibrinolysis regulators. Our main finding was an activation of secondary hemostasis due to increased tissue factor expression leading to increased thrombin generation in a functional assay. Furthermore, we showed that during infection platelets adhered to HUVECs and subsequently specifically to PUUV virus particles. Infection of HUVECs with PUUV did not result in increased von Willebrand factor while they produced more plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 compared to controls. The PAI-1 produced in this model formed complexes with vitronectin. This is the first report that reveals a potential mechanism behind the pro-coagulant changes in PUUV patients, which could be the result of increased thrombin generation due to an increased tissue factor expression on endothelial cells during infection. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contribution of endothelial cell responses regarding hemostasis in PUUV pathogenesis.
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.
Stefan Vilges de Oliveira
Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.
Marcos Lazaro Moreli; Vivaldo Gomes da Costa; Daiane Pereira da Silva Novaes; Enia Cristina Flor; Juliana Freitas Silva; Keila Rejane Guimarães Vilela; Cácia Régia de Paula
Infection with hantavirus, from the family Bunyaviridae, causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. This highly lethal anthropozoonosis afflicts preferentially individuals in rural areas and is transmitted by aerosol of excreta from infected wild rodents. The aim of this study is to report the almost simultaneous occurrence of two cases of HCPS in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, Brazil.
Marcos Lazaro Moreli
Full Text Available Infection with hantavirus, from the family Bunyaviridae, causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the Americas. This highly lethal anthropozoonosis afflicts preferentially individuals in rural areas and is transmitted by aerosol of excreta from infected wild rodents. The aim of this study is to report the almost simultaneous occurrence of two cases of HCPS in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, Brazil.
Dr. de St. Maurice, a CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officer, discusses hantavirus. Created: 6/29/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 6/29/2017.
Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are etiological agents of life-threatening hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The nucleoprotein (N of hantavirus is essential for viral transcription and replication, thus representing an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. We have determined the crystal structure of hantavirus N to 3.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals a two-lobed, mostly α-helical structure that is distantly related to that of orthobunyavirus Ns. A basic RNA binding pocket is located at the intersection between the two lobes. We provide evidence that oligomerization is mediated by amino- and C-terminal arms that bind to the adjacent monomers. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the oligomeric ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex. Our structure provides mechanistic insights into RNA encapsidation in the genus Hantavirus and constitutes a template for drug discovery efforts aimed at combating hantavirus infections.
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.
Full Text Available Hantaviruses, like other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are emerging viruses that are able to cause hemorrhagic fevers. Occasional transmission to humans is due to inhalation of contaminated aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. Hantaviruses are asymptomatic in their rodent or insectivore natural hosts with which they have co-evolved for millions of years. In contrast, hantaviruses cause different pathologies in humans with varying mortality rates, depending on the hantavirus species and its geographic origin. Cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS have been reported in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndromes (HCPS are observed in the Americas. In some cases, diseases caused by Old World hantaviruses exhibit HCPS-like symptoms. Although the etiologic agents of HFRS were identified in the early 1980s, the way hantaviruses interact with their different hosts still remains elusive. What are the entry receptors? How do hantaviruses propagate in the organism and how do they cope with the immune system? This review summarizes recent data documenting interactions established by pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses with their natural or human hosts that could highlight their different outcomes.
Dr. Adam MacNeil, epidemiologist with Viral Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 7/18/2011.
Marcos Lázaro Moreli
Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Emerging diseases are of great interest, especially those associated with high mortality rates such as hantaviruses. We aimed to conduct a seroepidemiological survey to determine the levels of hantavirus infection. METHODS: In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect specific antibodies. RESULTS: Of the 429 samples collected, seropositivity of 3.9% to anti-hantavirus immunoglobulin G (IgG was observed (CI 95%: 2.3-5.7. Moreover, in three cases, immunoglobulin M (IgM was detected, of which two were diagnosed as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate the considerable occurrence of previous hantavirus infections, highlighting occurrences from sub-clinical cases to HCPS.
Gregório Wrublevski Pereira
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.
Full Text Available Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4 containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.
Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S
This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.
Renata Carvalho de Oliveira
Full Text Available Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha. More than 80genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens.
Mamani, Enrique; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. biólogo.; García, María P.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. tecnólogo médico.; Miraval, María L.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Valencia, Pedro; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo.; Quino, Alberto H.; Hospital Regional de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico intensivista.; Álvarez, Carlos; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Donaires, Luis F.; Dirección Regional de Salud de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.
Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analy...
Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.
In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954
Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.
We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116
de Barros Lopes, Lívia; Guterres, Alexandro; Rozental, Tatiana; Carvalho de Oliveira, Renata; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Fernandes, Jorlan; Figueredo, José Ferreira; Anschau, Inês; de Jesus, Sebastião; V Almeida, Ana Beatriz M; Cristina da Silva, Valéria; Gomes de Melo Via, Alba Valéria; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D’Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Barreira, Jairo Dias
Background The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. Methods The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging v...
Acuña, Rodrigo; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Márquez, Chantal L; Bulling, Manuela; Klingström, Jonas; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D
How hantaviruses assemble and exit infected cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of Andes (ANDV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins lead to their self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) which were released to cell supernatants. The viral nucleoprotein was not required for particle formation. Further, a Gc endodomain deletion mutant did not abrogate VLP formation. The VLPs were pleomorphic, exposed protrusions and reacted with patient sera.
Full Text Available Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN, rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner.We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7 without inducing ISGs.Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility
Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic fever caused by hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease for which suita-ble treatments are not available. In order to improve this situation a better understanding of han-taviral pathogenesis is urgently required. Hantaviruses infect endothelial cell layers in vitro with-out causing any cytopathogenic effect and without increasing permeability. This implies that the mechanisms underlying vascular hyperpermeability in hantavirus-associated disease are more complex and that immune mechanisms play an important role. In this review we highlight the lat-est developments in hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. A possible contribution of neutro-phils has been neglected so far. For this reason, we place special emphasis on the pathogenic role of neutrophils in disrupting the endothelial barrier.
Schönrich, Günther; Krüger, Detlev H; Raftery, Martin J
Viral hemorrhagic fever caused by hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease for which suitable treatments are not available. In order to improve this situation a better understanding of hantaviral pathogenesis is urgently required. Hantaviruses infect endothelial cell layers in vitro without causing any cytopathogenic effect and without increasing permeability. This implies that the mechanisms underlying vascular hyperpermeability in hantavirus-associated disease are more complex and that immune mechanisms play an important role. In this review we highlight the latest developments in hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. A possible contribution of neutrophils has been neglected so far. For this reason, we place special emphasis on the pathogenic role of neutrophils in disrupting the endothelial barrier.
Full Text Available The continued emergence and re-emergence of pathogens represent an ongoing, sometimes major, threat to populations. Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae and their associated human diseases were considered to be confined to Eurasia, but the occurrence of an outbreak in 1993–94 in the southwestern United States led to a great increase in their study among virologists worldwide. Well over 40 hantaviral genotypes have been described, the large majority since 1993, and nearly half of them pathogenic for humans. Hantaviruses cause persistent infections in their reservoir hosts, and in the Americas, human disease is manifest as a cardiopulmonary compromise, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, with case-fatality ratios, for the most common viral serotypes, between 30% and 40%. Habitat disturbance and larger-scale ecological disturbances, perhaps including climate change, are among the factors that may have increased the human caseload of HCPS between 1993 and the present. We consider here the features that influence the structure of host population dynamics that may lead to viral outbreaks, as well as the macromolecular determinants of hantaviruses that have been regarded as having potential contribution to pathogenicity.
Soraya S Pereira
Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with
Těšíková, Jana; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle
Roč. 17, č. 4 (2017), s. 278-280 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * East Africa * hantavirus * phylogeny * rodents Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016
Palma, R Eduardo; Polop, Jaime J; Owen, Robert D; Mills, James N
Thirteen hantavirus genotypes, associated with at least 12 sigmodontine reservoir rodents, have been recognized in the four countries that represent the Southern Cone of South America. Host-virus relationships are not as well defined as in North America; several Southern Cone hantaviruses appear to share a common host and some viruses do not occur throughout the range of their host. Although hantavirus-host relationships in the Southern Cone are less strictly concordant with the single-host-single-virus pattern reported elsewhere, recent studies suggest that much of the ambiguity may result from an incomplete understanding of host and hantavirus systematics. Although some Southern Cone host species are habitat generalists, some sympatric species are habitat specialists, helping to explain how some strict host-virus pairings may be maintained. In some cases, host population densities were higher in peridomestic habitats and prevalence of hantavirus infection was higher in host populations in peridomestic habitats. Seasonal and multiyear patterns in climate and human disturbance affect host population densities, prevalence of infection, and disease risk to humans. Unusually high hantavirus antibody prevalence in indigenous human populations may be associated with frequent and close contact with host rodents. Ongoing studies are improving our understanding of hantavirus-host ecology and providing tools that may predict human risk.
femoral artery and vein. The bed is versity of New Mexico. . Antiviral therapy Ribavirin was tested for efficacy in HFRS patients in China nd shown to...Weis- senbacher, M.C., 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina. Possibility of person to person transmission. Medicina (B. Aires) 56, 709–711
Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Alvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F
Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later.
Barriga, Gonzalo P; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L; Bignon, Eduardo A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Vidal, Simon E; Tischler, Nicole D
Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses.
Full Text Available In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV, Puumala (PUUV, Seoul (SEOV, Saaremaa (SAAV, Dobrava (DOBV, Sin Nombre (SNV or Andes (ANDV. For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97; SEOV (China, n=5; DOBV (Romania, n=7; SNV (Canada, n=23; ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52. The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96% and/or IgM (n=131; 72%, while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99% of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71% IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%. Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%. Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2% showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV.
Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS has been recognized as an important public heath problem. Five hantaviruses associated with HCPS are currently known in Brazil: Juquitiba, Araraquara, Laguna Negra-like, Castelo dos Sonhos, and Anajatuba viruses. The laboratory diagnosis of HCPS is routinely carried out by the detection of anti-hantavirus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. The present study describes the expression of the N protein of a hantavirus detected in the blood sample of an HCPS patient. The entire S segment of the virus was amplified and found to be 1858 nucleotides long, with an open reading frame of 1287 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 429 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence described here showed a high identity with the N protein gene of Araraquara virus. The entire N protein was expressed using the vector pET200D and the Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The expression of the recombinant protein was confirmed by the detection of a 52-kDa protein by Western blot using a pool of human sera obtained from HCPS patients, and by specific IgG detection in five serum samples of HCPS patients tested by ELISA. These results suggest that the recombinant N protein could be used as an antigen for the serological screening of hantavirus infection.
Erika de Cassia Vieira da Costa
Full Text Available Introduction Professionals who handle rodents in the field and in the laboratory are at risk of infection by the microorganisms harbored by these animals. Methods Serum samples from professionals involved in rodent and Yersinia pestis handling in field or laboratory work were analyzed to determine hantavirus and plague seroprevalence and to establish a relationship between these activities and reports of illnesses. Results Two individuals had antibodies against hantavirus, and two harbored antibodies against the plague; none of the individuals had experienced an illness related to their duties. Conclusions These results confirm the risks of hantavirus- and plague-related field and laboratory activities and the importance of protective measures for such work.
... Infectious Diseases Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology How is HPS diagnosed? Diagnosing HPS in an individual who has only been infected for a few days is difficult, because early symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and fatigue are easily confused with influenza. ...
Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M
We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.
Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah
We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.
Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling
Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential ( n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) ( p Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.
Francis A. Ennis
Full Text Available We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell responses negatively correlated with disease severity, but in another report the number of regulatory T cells, which are thought to suppress T cell responses, negatively correlated with disease severity. In rat experiments, in which hantavirus causes persistent infection, depletion of regulatory T cells helped infected rats clear virus without inducing immunopathology. These seemingly contradictory findings may suggest delicate balance in T cell responses between protection and immunopathogenesis. Both too strong and too weak T cell responses may lead to severe disease. It is important to clarify the role of T cells in these diseases for better treatment (whether to suppress T cell functions and protection (vaccine design which may need to take into account viral factors and the influence of HLA on T cell responses.
Marcos Lázaro Moreli; Ricardo Luiz Moro de Sousa; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
We report a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for hantavirus using primers selected to match high homology regions of hantavirus genomes detected from the whole blood of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) patients from Brazil, also including the N gene nucleotide sequence of Araraquara virus. Hantavirus genomes were detected in eight out of nine blood samples from the HCPS patients by RT-PCR (88.9% positivity) and in all 9 blood samples (100% positi...
... heavy infestation of rodents, call a pest control company. They have special cleanup equipment and methods. Alternative ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hantavirus disease belongs to the emerging infections. The clinical picture and severity of infections differ between hantavirus species and may even vary between hantavirus genotypes. The mechanisms that lead to the broad variance of severity in infected patients are not completely understood. Host- and virus-specific factors are considered. Case presentation We analyzed severe cases of hantavirus disease in two young women. The first case was caused by Puumala virus (PUUV infection in Germany; the second case describes the infection with Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV in Russia. Symptoms, laboratory parameters and cytokine levels were analyzed and compared between the two patients. Serological and sequence analysis revealed that PUUV was the infecting agent for the German patient and the infection of the Russian patient was caused by Dobrava-Belgrade virus genotype Sochi (DOBV-Sochi. The symptoms in the initial phase of the diseases did not differ noticeably between both patients. However, deterioration of laboratory parameter values was prolonged and stronger in DOBV-Sochi than in PUUV infection. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs, known to be responsible for endothelial repair, were mobilized in both infections. Striking differences were observed in the temporal course and level of cytokine upregulation. Levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1α were increased in both infections; but, sustained and more pronounced elevation was observed in DOBV-Sochi infection. Conclusions Severe hantavirus disease caused by different hantavirus species did not differ in the general symptoms and clinical characteristics. However, we observed a prolonged clinical course and a late and enhanced mobilization of cytokines in DOBV-Sochi infection. The differences in cytokine deregulation may contribute to the observed variation in the clinical course.
Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G
Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans.
de Barros Lopes, Lívia; Guterres, Alexandro; Rozental, Tatiana; Carvalho de Oliveira, Renata; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Fernandes, Jorlan; Figueredo, José Ferreira; Anschau, Inês; de Jesus, Sebastião; V Almeida, Ana Beatriz M; Cristina da Silva, Valéria; Gomes de Melo Via, Alba Valéria; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba Regina
The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging vegetation in grassland or woodland along the peridomestic environment of the Indian reserve. Wild rodents were live-trapped in an area bordering the reserve limits, due the impossibility of capturing wild animals in the Indian reserve. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and karyotype. DNA was extracted from spleen or liver samples of rodents and from invertebrate (tick and louse) pools, and the molecular characterization of the rickettsia was through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA). In relation to hantavirus, rodent serum samples were serologically screened by IgG ELISA using the Araraquara-N antigen and total RNA was extracted from lung samples of IgG-positive rodents. The amplification of the complete S segment was performed. A total of 153 wild rodents, 121 louse, and 36 tick specimens were collected in 2010. Laguna Negra hantavirus was identified in Calomys callidus rodents and Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii were identified in Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Zoonotic diseases such as HCPS and spotted fever rickettsiosis are a public health threat and should be considered in outbreaks and acute febrile illnesses among Indian populations. The presence of the genome of rickettsias and hantavirus in animals in this Indian reserve reinforces the need to include these infectious agents in outbreak investigations of febrile cases in Indian populations.
Full Text Available Epidemiological study on hantavirus infection diseases in the area of Tanjung Priok and Sunda Kelapa Harbours has been conducted in the year of 1997; Considering a harbour may become a very potential port d'antre of diseases between islands, regions and countries. Hantavirus infection is well known as haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, cause by some species of genus Hantavirus and transmitted to human by air droplet contaminated by urine, saliva or faeces of infected rodents. This is toreport a part of the study which is stress on sociocultural aspects, especially character of demography and community perceptions to hantavirus infection diseases. The data were collected by interviewing using questionaires and field observations. Sample population were household (HH while family members above 13 year of age including head of HH (Kepala Rumah Tangga were chosen as individual respondents and become analitical units. In total the number of samples were 113 HH, consisting 58 HH in Kelurahan Koja and 55 HH in Kelurahan Ancol. The number of individual respondents were 410 people. The results showed that most of respondents work as a labor in the harbours. In general they have low level formal education, mostly only elementary school graduated. The relatively low of their formal education they have might influence their wrong perceptions to any disease. The wrong community perceptions in the two areas mistaken hantavirus infection diseases with typhoid diseases.
Jääskeläinen, Kirsi M; Kaukinen, Pasi; Minskaya, Ekaterina S; Plyusnina, Angelina; Vapalahti, Olli; Elliott, Richard M; Weber, Friedemann; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander
The S RNA genome segment of hantaviruses carried by Arvicolinae and Sigmodontinae rodents encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein and has an overlapping (+1) open reading frame (ORF) for a putative nonstructural protein (NSs). The aim of this study was to determine whether the ORF is functional. A protein corresponding to the predicted size of Tula virus (TULV) NSs was detected using coupled in vitro transcription and translation from a cloned S segment cDNA, and a protein corresponding to the predicted size of Puumala virus (PUUV) NSs was detected in infected cells by Western blotting with an anti-peptide serum. The activities of the interferon beta (IFN-beta) promoter, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB)- and interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) responsive promoters, were inhibited in COS-7 cells transiently expressing TULV or PUUV NSs. Also IFN-beta mRNA levels in IFN-competent MRC5 cells either infected with TULV or transiently expressing NSs were decreased. These data demonstrate that Tula and Puumala hantaviruses have a functional NSs ORF. The findings may explain why the NSs ORF has been preserved in the genome of most hantaviruses during their long evolution and why hantavirus-infected cells secrete relatively low levels of IFNs. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form. The structures confirm the prediction that Gc is a class II fusion protein, containing the characteristic β-sheet rich domains termed I, II and III as initially identified in the fusion proteins of arboviruses such as alpha- and flaviviruses. The structures also show a number of features of Gc that are distinct from arbovirus class II proteins. In particular, hantavirus Gc inserts residues from three different loops into the target membrane to drive fusion, as confirmed functionally by structure-guided mutagenesis on the HPS-inducing Andes virus, instead of having a single "fusion loop". We further show that the membrane interacting region of Gc becomes structured only at acidic pH via a set of polar and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the structure reveals that hantavirus Gc has an additional N-terminal "tail" that is crucial in stabilizing the post-fusion trimer, accompanying the swapping of domain III in the quaternary arrangement of the trimer as compared to the standard class II fusion proteins. The mechanistic understandings derived from these data are likely to provide a unique handle for devising treatments against these human pathogens.
ían necesarios más datos para entender su diversidad y evolución.The hantaviruses are a group of emerging rodent-borne pathogens (family Bunyaviridae; Genus Hantavirus that are etiologic agents for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Europe and Asia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the Americas. HFRS is associated with rodents of the family Muridae, subfamilies Murinae and Arvicolinae; HPS is associated with rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. Since the identification of HCPS in USA in 1993, a large number of cases of HPS and an increasing number of hantaviruses and rodent reservoir hosts have been identified in Central and South America. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated important differences in frequency of infection with hantaviruses in both human and rodent host populations. Antibody prevalences in rodent and human populations may vary from less than 1% to more than 40%. Currently, more than 1500 cases of HCPS have been reported and more than 15 genetically distinct variants of hantaviruses, all associated with sigmodontine rodents, have been identified throughout the Americas. Several characteristics distinguish Latin American HCPS cases from the classical HCPS described for the first time in the USA. These include a variation in severity of disease from moderate and self-limiting to severe, the demonstration of person-to-person transmission, and a somewhat higher incidence of extrapulmonary clinical manifestations in the South American form of HCPS. Nevertheless, our understanding of hantaviruses in the Americas is still far from complete. The factors involved in the dynamics of these viruses in nature, their establishment and transmission within host populations and from hosts to humans, and the variable pathology of these viruses in humans are complex. It is likely that more hantaviruses will be described in the future, and much more data will be required in order to describe the diversity and evolution of this group of pathogens
Marcos Lázaro Moreli
Full Text Available We report a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for hantavirus using primers selected to match high homology regions of hantavirus genomes detected from the whole blood of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS patients from Brazil, also including the N gene nucleotide sequence of Araraquara virus. Hantavirus genomes were detected in eight out of nine blood samples from the HCPS patients by RT-PCR (88.9% positivity and in all 9 blood samples (100% positivity by nested-PCR. The eight amplicons obtained by RT-PCR (P1, P3-P9, including one obtained by nested-PCR (P-2 and not obtained by RT-PCR, were sequenced and showed high homology (94.8% to 99.1% with the N gene of Araraquara hantavirus. Although the serologic method ELISA is the most appropriate test for HCPS diagnosis, the use of nested RT-PCR for hantavirus in Brazil would contribute to the diagnosis of acute hantavirus disease detecting viral genomes in patient specimens as well as initial genomic characterization of circulating hantaviruses.
Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N B; Richter, Martin H; Bradley, Robert D; Fulhorst, Charles F
The broad objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of Muleshoe virus and other hantaviruses associated with cricetid rodents in Texas. Anti-hantavirus antibody was found in 38 (3.2%) of 1171 neotomine rodents and 6 (1.8%) of 332 sigmodontine rodents from 10 Texas counties; hantaviral RNA was detected in 23 (71.9%) of 32 antibody-positive rodents. Analyses of nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated Muleshoe virus infection in four hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from northern Texas; Bayou virus, three Texas marsh oryzomys (Oryzomys texensis) from the Gulf Coast; Limestone Canyon virus, five brush mice (Peromyscus boylii) from western Texas; and Sin Nombre virus-five Texas mice (P. attwateri), one Lacey's white-ankled deer mouse (P. laceianus), four white-footed mice (P. leucopus), and one fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens) from northern, central, or southern Texas. The results of this study together with the results of a previous study revealed that Muleshoe virus, perhaps in association with S. hispidus, is distributed across northern Texas. Finally, the results of Bayesian analyses of glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene sequences and pairwise comparisons of complete GPC (amino acid) sequences strengthened support for the notion that Muleshoe virus is distinct from Black Creek Canal virus, Bayou virus, and all other species included in the Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus.
... Seoul Virus Infection Testing for Seoul Virus in Pet Rats: Information For Veterinarians Yosemite National Park Case Count Maps Epi ... or minimize contact with rodents in your home, workplace, or campsite. If rodents don’t find that ...
Joseph W. Golden
Full Text Available Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.
Cruz, Cristhopher D.; Vallejo, Efrain; Agudo, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge; Blazes, David L.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.
To better describe the genetic diversity of hantaviruses associated with human illness in South America, we screened blood samples from febrile patients in Chapare Province in central Bolivia during 2008–2009 for recent hantavirus infection. Hantavirus RNA was detected in 3 patients, including 1 who died. Partial RNA sequences of small and medium segments from the 3 patients were most closely related to Andes virus lineages but distinct (1 hantaviruses; the highest prevalence was among agricultural workers. Because of the high level of human exposure to hantavirus strains and the severity of resulting disease, additional studies are warranted to determine the reservoirs, ecologic range, and public health effect of this novel strain of hantavirus. PMID:22515983
Full Text Available La hantavirosis es una infección viral zoonótica transmitida por roedores cuya forma clínica más letal es el síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH. La variante río Mamoré es autóctona de Sudamérica y fue descrita en roedores sin asociarla a enfermedad en humanos. Se presenta dos casos de SPH causados por hantavirus río Mamoré en la Amazonía peruana en noviembre de 2011. En ambos casos, el diagnóstico confirmatorio fue molecular, efectuados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Perú. Se realizó análisis filogenético del fragmento de genoma viral y la evaluación histopatológica. Ambos pacientes evolucionaron a síndrome de distrés respiratorio del adulto y estado de choque refractario. Un paciente falleció y el otro se recuperó a los doce díasHantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation. The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later
Castel, Guillaume; Tordo, Noël; Plyusnin, Alexander
Because of the great variability of their reservoir hosts, hantaviruses are excellent models to evaluate the dynamics of virus-host co-evolution. Intriguing questions remain about the timescale of the diversification events that influenced this evolution. In this paper we attempted to estimate the first ever timing of hantavirus diversification based on thirty five available complete genomes representing five major groups of hantaviruses and the assumption of co-speciation of hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the main diversification points during hantavirus evolution in mammals while host diversification was mostly estimated from independent calibrators taken from fossil records. Our results support an earlier developed hypothesis of co-speciation of known hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts and hence a common ancestor for all hantaviruses carried by placental mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hantaviruses are transmitted to humans by infected rodents via faeces, urine or bites and cause severe illness. In Europe the most common disease is the nephropathia epidemica. Man can be infected by inhaling viruses in contaminated aerosols or soil particles. There has been a obvious increase of case numbers in Germany in 2007: more than 1660 cases where recorded by the Robert-Koch-Institut (vs. 72 in 2006 and 448 in 2005). Mostly working men where concerned. 60 % of all patients had to be t...
Maas, Miriam; de Vries, Ankje; van Roon, Annika; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke; Rockx, Barry
Tula virus (TULV) is a zoonotic hantavirus. Knowledge about TULV in the Netherlands is very scarce. Therefore in 2014, 49 common voles (Microtus arvalis) from a region in the south of the Netherlands, and in 2015, 241 common voles from regions in the north of the Netherlands were tested with the TULV quantitative RT-PCR. In the southern region, prevalence of TULV was 41% (20/49). In the northern regions, prevalence ranged from 12% (4/34) to 45% (17/38). Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences showed that the regions fall within different clusters. Voles from the south were also tested on-site for the presence of hantavirus antibodies, but serology results were poorly associated with qRT-PCR results. These findings suggest that TULV may be more widespread than previously thought. No human TULV cases have been reported thus far in the Netherlands, but differentiation between infection by TULV or the closely related Puumala virus is not made in humans in the Netherlands, thus cases may be misdiagnosed.
Obiegala, Anna; Albrecht, Christoph; Dafalla, Maysaa; Drewes, Stephan; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Turni, Hendrik; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin
Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans. In 2012 and 2013, 736 small mammals belonging to seven species (Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus, S. coronatus, and S. minutus) were collected at four high incidence sites (H1-H4) and four low (L1-L4) incidence sites for PUUV infection in humans. Kidney-derived DNA samples were tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR targeting the lipl 32 gene and further analyzed by duplex PCR targeting the flaB and the secY genes. For the detection of Seewis virus, lung-derived DNA was tested via RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid gene. Altogether, 42 of the 736 small mammals including 27 of 660 bank voles and 11 of 66 shrews, were positive for Leptospira spp., while Sorex spp. (14.7%) showed significantly higher prevalences compared to bank voles (4.1%). Detected Leptospira spp. were pathogenic species other than L. kirschneri. Significantly more Leptospira-positive bank voles were found at H sites than at L sites. Altogether 22.2% of positive bank voles were infected with PUUV. Double infection of PUUV and Leptospira spp. occurrence in bank voles is 1.86 times (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 0.72-4.73) more likely than infections with each pathogen separately. Leptospira- positive bank voles are focally positively associated with PUUV infection in bank voles and with human hantavirus cases. It should be considered that shrews may serve as Leptospira spp. reservoirs.
is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system. [Chandy S, Abraham P and ..... distribution of the hosts through international shipping routes. The majority of SEOV-related .... Dalrymple J M 1994 Serological relationships among viruses in the Hantavirus genus, ...
Straková, Petra; Dufková, L.; Širmarová, J.; Salát, J.; Bartonička, T.; Klempa, B.; Pfaff, F.; Höper, D.; Hoffmann, B.; Ulrich, R. G.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 48, March (2017), s. 127-130 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hantavirus * Bat * Phylogenetic analysis * Emerging virus * Bat-borne virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases; Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016
Francis A. Ennis; Masanori Terajima
We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell ...
Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo
The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism.
Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra
In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.
Svetlana F. Khaiboullina
Full Text Available Hantavirus infection is an acute zoonosis that clinically manifests in two primary forms, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HFRS is endemic in Europe and Russia, where the mild form of the disease is prevalent in the Tatarstan region. HPS is endemic in Argentina, as well as other countries of North and South American. HFRS and HPS are usually acquired via the upper respiratory tract by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosol. Although the pathogenesis of HFRS and HPS remains largely unknown, postmortem tissue studies have identified endothelial cells as the primary target of infection. Importantly, cell damage due to virus replication, or subsequent tissue repair, has not been documented. Since no single factor has been identified that explains the complexity of HFRS or HPS pathogenesis, it has been suggested that a cytokine storm may play a crucial role in the manifestation of both diseases. In order to identify potential serological markers that distinguish HFRS and HPS, serum samples collected during early and late phases of the disease were analyzed for 48 analytes using multiplex magnetic bead-based assays. Overall, serum cytokine profiles associated with HPS revealed a more pro-inflammatory milieu as compared to HFRS. Furthermore, HPS was strictly characterized by the upregulation of cytokine levels, in contrast to HFRS where cases were distinguished by a dichotomy in serum cytokine levels. The severe form of hantavirus zoonosis, HPS, was characterized by the upregulation of a higher number of cytokines than HFRS (40 vs 21. In general, our analysis indicates that, although HPS and HFRS share many characteristic features, there are distinct cytokine profiles for these diseases. These profiles suggest a strong activation of an innate immune and inflammatory responses are associated with HPS, relative to HFRS, as well as a robust activation of Th1-type immune responses. Finally, the results
Serologic survey of hantavirus in a rural population from the northern State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Pesquisa sorológica para hantavírus em uma população rural do norte do Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil
Ioni Oliveira Santos
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13% of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.INTRODUÇÃO: Hantavirus é um gênero de vírus RNA incluído na família Bunyaviridae. Hantaviroses são zoonoses transmitidas por roedores que nos últimos 18 anos tornou-se um problema emergente da saúde pública nas Américas causando uma síndrome cardiopulmonar. Esta doença não tem nenhum tratamento específico e apresenta alta letalidade. A transmissão do hantavirus ao homem ocorre pela inalação de aerossóis dos excrementos de roedores. O
Augot, D; Sauvage, F; Boue, F; Bouloy, M; Artois, M; Demerson, J M; Combes, B; Coudrier, D; Zeller, H; Cliquet, F; Pontier, D
Epidemiological data from bank voles, Myodes glareolus, naturally infected by the hantavirus Puumala (PUUV) were collected by a capture-mark-recapture protocol from 2000 to 2002 in the French department of Ardennes. Four monitored trapping sites were established in two forests located in two cantons (Flize and Monthermé). We captured 912 bank voles corresponding to 557 different individuals during 8820 trapping nights for an overall trapping success of 10.34%. The average PUUV seroprevalence was 22.4%. Characteristics of the system reported in North European countries are confirmed in France. PUUV seroprevalence and abundance of rodents appeared weakly linked. Adult voles were more frequently antibody-positive, but no difference between sexes was established. Anti-PUUV seropositive voles were captured and high seroprevalence was observed from both forests, without human infection reported in Flize canton during the study. One site among the four exhibited peculiar infection dynamics, where vole weight and infection risk were negatively correlated.
... Preventing Seoul Virus Infection in Pet Rats and People FAQs: Seoul Virus Cleaning Up After Pet Rodents to Reduce the Risk of Seoul Virus ... Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Can pets ... rodents into contact with people if they catch such animals and carry them ...
Felipe Alves Morais
Full Text Available Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%, of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8% and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%, tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.
valor de cada variable utilizando la misma de ponderación en cada una de ellas (e.g., uso del suelo, habitat del reservorio, seropositividad del reservorio, casos y asentamientos humanos. Presentamos un mapa de riesgo que señala como principales áreas de riesgo, precisamente donde se emplaza la infraestructura turística principal de este visitado parqueThe risk of infection with Hantavirus depends on factors that determine a probability of contagion with the reservoirs: (a the vegetation structure and the land use as a primary scene, where specific factors such as composition, structure and density of the vegetation describe elements related to the habitat of the reservoirs, (b The existence of populations of reservoir rodents, (c Human establishments, such as availability and density of roads, inhabited areas or human presence (e.g., houses, warehouses. These three factors, brought together, provide the necessary facts to establish the risk. It is important to consider that these factors have a dynamics of seasonal change during the year and natural and man-made environmental modifications. In this way, we seek to understand the risk to which humans beings are submitted in the rural space. The spatial models correspond to representations of the reality observed in a certain area and determined to diverse geographical, topographic, biological, climatic factors, etc. The aim of this study was to establish potential sectors of risk to Hantavirus in a national park of the Region IX of Chile using thematic maps of environmental variables in a Geographical Information System to analyze aereal photograhs by means of photo interpretation, transference, digitalization and graphical-alphanumerical database managing. The vector layer was rasterized using a pixel size of 50 m. The map of risk was constructed using an additive model of layers through the Model Builder 1.0 software, an extension of Arc View 3.2. The base of the procedure was the arithmetic overlay process what
JUAN CARLOS ORTIZ
Full Text Available La Octava Región de Chile corresponde a la segunda región con el mayor número de casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH. Por tal motivo se realizó un estudio para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus en roedores y su distribución local en la Octava Región. El estudio comprendió las cuatro provincias de la región y consideró once sitios de muestreo. Se capturaron siete especies de roedores, Abrothrix olivaceus fue la más abundante seguida de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. De los 300 roedores analizados, cinco ejemplares (1,66 % resultaron ser positivos a hantavirus y correspondieron a tres especies de sigmodontinos: a saber, Loxodontomys micropus, que corresponde al único registro de este tipo para la especie en Chile, Abrotrix longipilis y Oligoryzomys longicaudatusThe Eight Region has the second highest number of cases of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS in humans for Chile. A study was performed to identify the number of rodents serologically positive to hantavirus and their local distribution in this region. To achieve this goal, we sampled eleven sites in the four provinces of the region. Seven rodents species were collected, with Abrothrix olivaceus presenting the largest number of captures followed by Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Of the 300 rodents analyzed, five (1.66 % were sero-positives to hantavirus and belonged to three different sigmodontine species: Abrothrix longipilis, O. longicaudatus, and Loxodontomys micropus. No previous records of seropositive L. micropus existed.
Bahr, U.; Muranyi, W.; Mueller, S.; Kehm, R.; Handermann, M.; Darai, G.; Zeier, M.
Hantavirus serotype Hantaan (HTN) is one of the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, lethality up to 10%). The natural host of HTN is Apodemus agrarius. Recent studies have shown that domestic animals like cattle are sporadically seropositive for hantaviruses. In the present study, the susceptibility of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) expressing α V β 3 -integrin to a HTN infection was investigated. Viral nucleocapsid protein and genomic RNA segments were detected in infected BAEC by indirect immunofluorescence assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The results of this study strongly support our previous observation on Puumala virus (PUU) that has been propagated efficiently in BAEC. These findings open a new window to contemplate the ecology of hantavirus infection and transmission route from animal to man
MENDES Wellington S.
Full Text Available The authors report a confirmed case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the rural area of the municipality of Anajatuba, state of Maranhão. Two other suspected cases from the same region are also described. The confirmed case involved a previously healthy young woman who died with signs and symptoms of acute respiratory insufficiency 5 days after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. The patient was a student who was helping her parents with work in the fields; it was a habit of the family to store rice inside the house. The suspected cases involved two first-degree relatives working as field hands who died of acute respiratory insufficiency 24 and 48 hours, respectively, after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. Both stored rice and corn inside their home. People living in the region reported massive infestations with rats in the woods and fields.
Bellomo, Carla M.; Cacace, María Luisa; Suárez, Paola; Bogni, Liliana; Padula, Paula J.
We report a large case series of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina that was confirmed by laboratory restuls from 1995 through 2008. The geographic and temporal distribution of cases by age, sex, fatality rate, and risk factors for HPS was analyzed. A total of 710 cases were unequally distributed among 4 of the 5 Argentine regions. Different case-fatality rates were observed for each affected region, with a maximum rate of 40.5%. The male-to-female ratio for HPS case-patients was 3.7:1.0; the case-fatality rate was significantly higher for women. Agriculture-associated activities were most commonly reported as potential risk factors, especially among men of working age. Although HPS cases occurred predominantly in isolation, we identified 15 clusters in which strong relationships were observed between members, which suggests ongoing but limited person-to-person transmission. PMID:21122213
Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.
Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Longquan City, Zhejiang province, China, has been seriously affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS since the first cases were registered in 1974. To understand the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan, which may be indicative of large parts of rural China, we studied long-term incidence patterns and performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of the causative hantaviruses in human and rodent populations. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During 1974-2011, 1866 cases of HFRS were recorded in Longquan, including 20 deaths. In 2011, the incidence of HFRS remained high, with 19.61 cases/100,000 population, despite the onset of vaccination in 1997. During 1974-1998, HFRS cases in Longquan occurred mainly in winter, while in the past decade the peak of HFRS has shifted to the spring. Notably, the concurrent prevalence of rodent-borne hantaviruses in the region was also high. Phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences recovered from rodents in Longquan revealed the presence of novel genetic variants of Gou virus (GOUV in Rattus sp. rats and Hantaan virus (HTNV in the stripe field mice, respectively. Strikingly, viral sequences sampled from infected humans were very closely related to those from rodents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HFRS represents an important public health problem in Longquan even after years of preventive measures. Our data suggest that continual spillover of the novel genetic variant of GOUV and the new genetic lineage of HTNV are responsible for the high prevalence of HFRS in humans. In addition, this is the first report of GOUV associated with human HFRS cases, and our data suggest that GOUV is now the major cause of HFRS in this region.
Full Text Available En la Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, se presentaron casos humanos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la región de la cordillera andino patagónica. El virus Andes ha sido identificado en la región, tanto en el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus como en seres humanos, demostrándose la transmisión principalmente del roedor al hombre y la factibilidad de la transmisión de persona a persona. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar nueva información sobre especies de roedores portadores de hantavirus en Argentina, su prevalencia de anticuerpos para hantavirus (período 1999-2001 y la relación del tamaño de las poblaciones de roedores y su seroprevalencia con la ocurrencia de casos humanos (período 1996-2001. Para ello, se procedió a la colocación de 3973 trampas para captura viva de roedores, tipo sherman en seis operativos efectuados entre octubre de 1999 y mayo de 2001. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de los roedores las que fueron procesadas mediante enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos elaborados a partir de virus Andes. Una síntesis de los resultados indica 397 roedores capturados, con un éxito de trampeo del 10% y una prevalencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus del 1.0%. Se observaron importantes diferencias en las especies capturadas en cada una de las regiones. Se capturaron O. longicaudatus y A. Olivaceus seropositivos y O. flavescens y C. Laucha potencialmente portadores de hantavirus Se registraron 6 casos humanos en el período 1993-1995 (correspondientes a estudios retrospectivos, 21 casos se notificaron en el período 1996-1998 y 6 en el período 1999-2001 Se analiza la correlación entre ocurrencia de casos humanos, seroprevalencia en roedores y éxito de trampeo.In the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have occurred in the region of the Patagonian Andean range. The Andes virus has been identified in the region, both in the rodent Oligoryzomys
Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Resman Rus, Katarina; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapič, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Avšič Županc, Tatjana
Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus), M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. PMID:24335778
Buranda, Tione; Swanson, Scarlett; Bondu, Virginie; Schaefer, Leah; Maclean, James; Mo, Zhenzhen; Wycoff, Keith; Belle, Archana; Hjelle, Brian
Decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) is targeted by many pathogens for cell entry. It has been implicated as a co-receptor for hantaviruses. To examine the binding of hantaviruses to DAF, we describe the use of Protein G beads for binding human IgG Fc domain-functionalized DAF ((DAF)₂-Fc). When mixed with Protein G beads the resulting DAF beads can be used as a generalizable platform for measuring kinetic and equilibrium binding constants of DAF binding targets. The hantavirus interaction has high affinity (24-30 nM; k(on) ~ 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, k(off) ~ 0.0045 s⁻¹). The bivalent (DAF)₂-Fc/SNV data agree with hantavirus binding to DAF expressed on Tanoue B cells (K(d) = 14.0 nM). Monovalent affinity interaction between SNV and recombinant DAF of 58.0 nM is determined from competition binding. This study serves a dual purpose of presenting a convenient and quantitative approach of measuring binding affinities between DAF and the many cognate viral and bacterial ligands and providing new data on the binding constant of DAF and Sin Nombre hantavirus. Knowledge of the equilibrium binding constant allows for the determination of the relative fractions of bound and free virus particles in cell entry assays. This is important for drug discovery assays for cell entry inhibitors.
Full Text Available Desde 1995 se han informado más de 1000 casos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la Argentina, enfermedad grave y muchas veces fatal para los humanos. La mayoría de los casos fueron asociados al virus Andes (AND único hantavirus que ha sido informado como causante de transmisión persona a persona. Se han descrito varios linajes patogénicos del virus AND, de los cuales AND Sur, cuyo reservorio es el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, afecta a la región patagónica de Argentina y Chile. En el presente estudio se informan las manifestaciones clínicas y las características epidemiológicas de un caso de SPH. El objetivo fue describir la presentación clínica del caso, su entorno epidemiológico, el sitio probable de contagio, la variante viral implicada y su relación con los casos más cercanos notificados. Se realizó el seguimiento clínico, el diagnóstico serológico y molecular y la investigación epidemiológica, incluyendo un estudio de la población de roedores reservorios en las áreas involucradas. Se trató de una presentación clásica de SPH moderada, causada por el linaje viral AND sur y su secuencia nucleotídica se comparó con casos del sur argentino y chileno. El caso de hantavirus investigado resultó ser el más austral (48° 46´ 1.2´´ S; 70° 15´ 0´´ O notificado hasta el momento e involucró a una nueva provincia argentina.Since 1995 more than 1000 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS were reported in Argentina, a severe disease and often fatal to humans. Most cases were associated with Andes virus (AND that caused few events of person-to-person transmission. Several lineages of pathogenic AND viruses have been described, including AND South, hosted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus which affects the Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a HPS case. The objective was to describe the clinical presentation of the case, its
Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G
Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host-pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans.
Knust, Barbara; Macneil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E
Clinical cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) can be challenging to differentiate from other acute respiratory diseases, which can lead to delays in diagnosis, treatment, and disease reporting. Rapid onset of severe disease occurs, at times before diagnostic test results are available. This study's objective was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients that would indicate HPS to aid in detection and reporting. Test results of blood samples from U.S. patients suspected of having HPS submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1998-2010 were reviewed. Patient information collected by case report forms was compared between HPS-confirmed and test-negative patients. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated for individual clinical findings and combinations of variables. Of 567 patients included, 36% were HPS-confirmed. Thrombocytopenia, chest x-rays with suggestive signs, and receiving supplemental oxygenation were highly sensitive (>95%), while elevated hematocrit was highly specific (83%) in detecting HPS. Combinations that maximized sensitivity required the presence of thrombocytopenia. Using a national sample of suspect patients, we found that thrombocytopenia was a highly sensitive indicator of HPS and should be included in surveillance definitions for suspected HPS. Using a sensitive suspect case definition to identify potential HPS patients that are confirmed by highly specific diagnostic testing will ensure accurate reporting of this disease.
Jessica R Spengler
Full Text Available New World hantaviruses can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome with high mortality in humans. Distinct virus species are hosted by specific rodent reservoirs, which also serve as the vectors. Although regional spillover has been documented, it is unknown whether rodent reservoirs are competent for infection by hantaviruses that are geographically separated, and known to have related, but distinct rodent reservoir hosts. We show that Andes virus (ANDV of South America, carried by the long tailed pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, infects and replicates in vitro and in vivo in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, found in North America. In experimentally infected deer mice, viral RNA was detected in the blood, lung, heart and spleen, but virus was cleared by 56 days post inoculation (dpi. All of the inoculated deer mice mounted a humoral immune response by 14 dpi, and produced measurable amounts of neutralizing antibodies by 21 dpi. An up-regulation of Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Tgfb, a strong CD4⁺ T-cell response, and down-regulation of Il17, Il21 and Il23 occurred during infection. Infection was transient with an absence of clinical signs or histopathological changes. This is the first evidence that ANDV asymptomatically infects, and is immunogenic in deer mice, a non-natural host species of ANDV. Comparing the immune response in this model to that of the immune response in the natural hosts upon infection with their co-adapted hantaviruses may help clarify the mechanisms governing persistent infection in the natural hosts of hantaviruses.
Radosa, L.; Schlegel, M.; Gebauer, P.; Ansorge, H.; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, M.; Mošanský, L.; Fričová, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Groschup, M. H.; Krüger, D. H.; Ulrich, R. G.; Klempa, B.
Roč. 19, October (2013), s. 403-410 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * shrew Sorex minutus * Asikkala virus * Cental Europe Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013
Asikainen, Kari; Hänninen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki
Like other members of the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, Puumala virus (PUUV) is thought to be co-evolving with its natural host, the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. To gain insight into the evolutionary history of PUUV in northern Europe during the last post-glacial period, we h...
McDermid, Robert C; Gibney, RT Noel; Brisebois, Ronald J; Skjodt, Neil M
Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated) (DAA) for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive ...
Bellomo, Carla; Korva, Miša; Papa, Anna; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Vaheri, Antti; Martinez, Valeria P; Strandin, Tomas
Abstract We analyzed the levels of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)–1 in acute hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The levels of tPA commonly increased in both diseases, whereas PAI-1 correlated with disease severity in HCPS but not in HFRS.
Paula Ribeiro Prist
Full Text Available Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993-2012 and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane, and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index. We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest. In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk, and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks.
Full Text Available Pathogenic hantaviruses are a closely related group of rodent-borne viruses which are responsible for two distinct diseases in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, otherwise known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, HCPS. The antiviral effect of ribavirin against Old World hantaviruses, most notably Hantaan virus, is well documented; however, only a few studies have addressed its inhibitory effect on New World hantaviruses. In the present study, we demonstrate that ribavirin is highly active against Andes virus (ANDV, an important etiological agent of HPS, both in vitro and in vivo using a lethal hamster model of HPS. Treatment of ANDV infected Vero E6 cells with ribavirin resulted in dose-dependent reductions in viral RNA and protein as well as virus yields with a half maximal inhibitory concentration between 5 and 12.5 µg ml(-1. In hamsters, treatment with as little as 5 mg kg(-1 day(-1 was 100% effective at preventing lethal HPS disease when therapy was administered by intraperitoneal injection from day 1 through day 10 post-infection. Significant reductions were observed in ANDV RNA and antigen positive cells in lung and liver tissues. Ribavirin remained completely protective when administered by intraperitoneal injections up to three days post-infection. In addition, we show that daily oral ribavirin therapy initiated 1 day post-infection and continuing for ten days is also protective against lethal ANDV disease, even at doses of 5 mg kg(-1 day(-1. Our results suggest ribavirin treatment is beneficial for postexposure prophylaxis against HPS-causing hantaviruses and should be considered in scenarios where exposure to the virus is probable. The similarities between the results obtained in this study and those from previous clinical evaluations of ribavirin against HPS, further validate the hamster model of lethal HPS and demonstrate its usefulness in screening antiviral agents against
Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This
Full Text Available Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV was studied throughout a population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus. We monitored PUUV variants circulating in the host population in Central Finland over a five-year period that included two peak-phases and two population declines. Of 1369 bank voles examined, 360 (26.3% were found infected with PUUV. Partial sequences of each of the three genome segments were recovered (approx. 12% of PUUV genome from 356 bank voles. Analyses of these sequences disclosed the following features of PUUV evolution: 1 nucleotide substitutions are mostly silent and deduced amino acid changes are mainly conservative, suggesting stabilizing selection at the protein level; 2 the three genome segments accumulate mutations at a different rate; 3 some of the circulating PUUV variants are frequently observed while others are transient; 4 frequently occurring PUUV variants are composed of the most abundant segment genotypes (copious and new transient variants are continually generated; 5 reassortment of PUUV genome segments occurs regularly and follows a specific pattern of segments association; 6 prevalence of reassortant variants oscillates with season and is higher in the autumn than in the spring; and 7 reassortants are transient, i.e., they are not competitively superior to their parental variants. Collectively, these observations support a quasi-neutral mode of PUUV microevolution with a steady generation of transient variants, including reassortants, and preservation of a few preferred genotypes.
Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Álvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F
La hantavirosis es una infección viral zoonótica transmitida por roedores cuya forma clínica más letal es el síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH). La variante río Mamoré es autóctona de Sudamérica y fue descrita en roedores sin asociarla a enfermedad en humanos. Se presenta dos casos de SPH causados por hantavirus río Mamoré en la Amazonía peruana en noviembre de 2011. En ambos casos, el diagnóstico confirmatorio fue molecular, efectuados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Perú. Se realiz...
Full Text Available We describe the characterization of the viral genotype involved in the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome reported in Tucumán, a Northwestern province of Argentina. A 23-year-old woman, with no record of travel history and previously diagnosed with an antiphospholipid syndrome, died after 11 days of severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Among the four endemic regions of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina, the Northwest Region has the highest incidence, exceeding 50% of all reported cases in the country. Until now, only Salta and Jujuy (2 out of the 6 provinces composing the Northwest Region, reported cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, all of which occurred in the Yungas Forest area. Remarkably, the viral genotype characterized in this case showed higher nucleotide identity with the Andes-BsAs genotype most prevalent in Buenos Aires province, located 1400 km apart from Tucumán, than with any of the commonly found genotypes in the Northwest Region. The Andes-BsAs genotype has been associated with 30% lethality and interhuman transmission in Buenos Aires province. Interhuman transmission cannot be ruled out in the present case
Sewell, D L
An estimated 500,000 laboratory workers in the United States are at risk of exposure to infectious agents that cause disease ranging from inapparent to life-threatening infections, but the precise risk to a given worker unknown. The emergence of human immunodeficiency virus and hantavirus, the continuing problem of hepatitis B virus, and the reemergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have renewed interest in biosafety for the employees of laboratories and health care facilities. This review ex...
Khalil, Hussein; Olsson, Gert; Magnusson, Magnus; Evander, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger; Ecke, Frauke
To predict the risk of infectious diseases originating in wildlife, it is important to identify habitats that allow the co-occurrence of pathogens and their hosts. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is a directly-transmitted RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans, and is carried and transmitted by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, bank voles undergo 3-4 year population cycles, during which their spatial distribution varies greatly. We used boosted regression trees; a technique inspired by machine learning, on a 10 - year time-series (fall 2003-2013) to develop a spatial predictive model assessing seasonal PUUV hazard using micro-habitat variables in a landscape heavily modified by forestry. We validated the models in an independent study area approx. 200 km away by predicting seasonal presence of infected bank voles in a five-year-period (2007-2010 and 2015). The distribution of PUUV-infected voles varied seasonally and inter-annually. In spring, micro-habitat variables related to cover and food availability in forests predicted both bank vole and infected bank vole presence. In fall, the presence of PUUV-infected voles was generally restricted to spruce forests where cover was abundant, despite the broad landscape distribution of bank voles in general. We hypothesize that the discrepancy in distribution between infected and uninfected hosts in fall, was related to higher survival of PUUV and/or PUUV-infected voles in the environment, especially where cover is plentiful. Moist and mesic old spruce forests, with abundant cover such as large holes and bilberry shrubs, also providing food, were most likely to harbor infected bank voles. The models developed using long-term and spatially extensive data can be extrapolated to other areas in northern Fennoscandia. To predict the hazard of directly transmitted zoonoses in areas with unknown risk status, models based on micro-habitat variables and developed through machine learning techniques in
Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters Victoria Wahl-Jensen,1 Jennifer...Ye, C., J. Prescott , R. Nofchissey, D. Goade, and B. Hjelle. 2004. Neutralizing antibodies and Sin Nombre virus RNA after recovery from hantavirus
Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pada penelitian ini dilakukan sekuensing gen S yang berasal dari jaringan paru-paru rodensia. Fragmen DNA yang disekuensing menggunakan primer DNA SEOS-28F danSEOS -360R,VNS-1501F dan VNS-CSR. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis menggunakan program seqscapedan dianalisis menggunakan program Bioedit dan Mega5. Analisis filogenetik untuk homologi nukleotida dan asam amino dari ketiga strain Kepulauan Seribu tersebut dibandingkan dengan spesies hantavirus lainnya yang diambil dari genebank. Hasil:Analisis Homologi nukleotida dan asam amino antara strain Kepulauan Seribu dengan SEOV menunjukkan homologi nukleotida tertinggi pada strain KS74 (88,4% dan terendah pada KS90 (87,2%, sedangkan homologi asam amino tertinggi adalah strain KS74 (91.3% dan terendah pada strain KS90 (89,5%. Kesimpulan:Karakter gen S virus yang ditemukan di Kepulauan Seribu sebanding dengan virus SEOV yang ditemukan di Singapura dan Korea. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:1-6Kata kunci:Seoul virus, gen S, Kepulauan Seribu, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Hantavirus lives and reproduces in the body of rodents. Rattus norvegicuswas one found in the Kepulauan Seribu islands of Indonesia. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV is a negative single chain RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. It has a few specific genes, especially genes S that can be developed for a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to ascertain the character of gene S of hantavirus species Seoul virus. Methods: Gene
Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Haddock, Elaine; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki
To date, a laboratory animal model for the study of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infection or associated disease has not been described. Unlike infection with Andes virus, which causes lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)-like disease in hamsters, SNV infection is short-lived, with no viremia and little dissemination. Here we investigated the effect of passaging SNV in hamsters. We found that a host-adapted SNV achieves prolonged and disseminated infection in hamsters, including efficient rep...
Monchatre-Leroy, E; Crespin, L; Boué, F; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V
In Europe, the increasing number of nephropathia epidemica (NE) infections in humans, caused by Puumala virus carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), has triggered studies of environmental factors driving these infections. NE infections have been shown to occur in specific geographical areas characterized by environmental factors that influence the distribution and dynamics of host populations and virus persistence in the soil. Here, we review the influence of environmental conditions (including climate factors, food availability and habitat conditions) with respect to incidence in humans and seroprevalence in rodents, considering both direct and indirect transmission pathways. For each type of environmental factor, results and discrepancies between studies are presented and examined in the light of biological hypotheses. Overall, food availability and temperature appear to be the main drivers of host seroprevalence and NE incidence, but data quality and statistical approaches varied greatly among studies. We highlight the issues that now need to be addressed and suggest improvements for study design in regard to the current knowledge on hantavirus epidemiology. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime
We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina. PMID:24424500
Full Text Available We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS caused by Andes virus (ANDV in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average, but dry summers (less than 100 mm, very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C, as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa, where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.
Full Text Available Background Worldwide, the number of recorded human hantavirus infections as well as the number of affected countries is on the rise. In Europe, most human hantavirus infections are caused by the Puumala virus (PUUV, with bank voles (Myodes glareolus as reservoir hosts. Generally, infection outbreaks have been related to environmental conditions, particularly climatic conditions, food supply for the reservoir species and land use. However, although attempts have been made, the insufficient availability of environmental data is often hampering accurate temporal and spatially explicit models of human hantavirus infections. Methods In the present study, dynamics of human PUUV infections between 2001 and 2015 were explored using ArcGIS in order to identify spatio-temporal patterns. Results Percentage cover of forest area was identified as an important factor for the spatial pattern, whereas beech mast was found explaining temporal patterns of human PUUV infections in Germany. High numbers of infections were recorded in 2007, 2010 and 2012 and areas with highest records were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg (southwest Germany and North Rhine-Westphalia (western Germany. Conclusion More reliable data on reservoir host distribution, pathogen verification as well as an increased awareness of physicians are some of the factors that should improve future human infection risk assessments in Germany.
Full Text Available Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2. El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha aumentado significativamente; actualmente, el género Hantavirus está compuesto por más de 28 tipos diferentes, mientras que al menos 23 arenavirus conforman el género Arenavirus. Entre los hantavirus asociados con SPH se destacan el virus Sin Nombre en Norteamérica, y los virus Andes, Laguna Negra, Caño Delgadito, Araraquara y Juquitiba, en el cono sur de América, entre otros (2. Los arenavirus asociados a fiebres hemorrágicas reconocidos en Sud América al presente son: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Sabiá (Brasil, y Machupo y Chapare (Bolivia (3.
Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.
Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Těšíková, Jana; Meheretu, Y.; Čížková, Dagmar; Bryjová, Anna; Leirs, H.; Bryja, Josef
Roč. 45, November (2016), s. 242-245 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * Murinae * Ethiopia * High throughput sequencing * Genomics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a European hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in humans with fatality rates of up to 12%. DOBV-associated clinical cases typically occur also in the northern part of Germany where the virus is carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius. However, the causative agent responsible for human illness has not been previously isolated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on characterization of a novel cell culture isolate from Germany obtained from a lung tissue of "spillover" infected yellow necked mouse (A. flavicollis trapped near the city of Greifswald. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated close clustering of the new strain, designated Greifswald/Aa (GRW/Aa with the nucleotide sequence obtained from a northern German HFRS patient. The virus was effectively blocked by specific antibodies directed against β3 integrins and Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF indicating that the virus uses same receptors as the highly pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV. In addition, activation of selected innate immunity markers as interferon β and λ and antiviral protein MxA after viral infection of A549 cells was investigated and showed that the virus modulates the first-line antiviral response in a similar way as HTNV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, our study reveals novel data on DOBV receptor usage and innate immunity induction in relationship to virus pathogenicity and underlines the potency of German DOBV strains to act as human pathogen.
Guivier, E; Galan, M; Chaval, Y; Xuéreb, A; Ribas Salvador, A; Poulle, M-L; Voutilainen, L; Henttonen, H; Charbonnel, N; Cosson, J F
Rodent host dynamics and dispersal are thought to be critical for hantavirus epidemiology as they determine pathogen persistence and transmission within and between host populations. We used landscape genetics to investigate how the population dynamics of the bank vole Myodes glareolus, the host of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), vary with forest fragmentation and influence PUUV epidemiology. We sampled vole populations within the Ardennes, a French PUUV endemic area. We inferred demographic features such as population size, isolation and migration with regard to landscape configuration. We next analysed the influence of M. glareolus population dynamics on PUUV spatial distribution. Our results revealed that the global metapopulation dynamics of bank voles were strongly shaped by landscape features, including suitable patch size and connectivity. Large effective size in forest might therefore contribute to the higher observed levels of PUUV prevalence. By contrast, populations from hedge networks highly suffered from genetic drift and appeared strongly isolated from all other populations. This might result in high probabilities of local extinction for both M. glareolus and PUUV. Besides, we detected signatures of asymmetric bank vole migration from forests to hedges. These movements were likely to sustain PUUV in fragmented landscapes. In conclusion, our study provided arguments in favour of source-sink dynamics shaping PUUV persistence and spread in heterogeneous, Western European temperate landscapes. It illustrated the potential contribution of landscape genetics to the understanding of the epidemiological processes occurring at this local scale. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Diferencias regionales y Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (enfermedad emergente y tropical en Argentina Regional differences and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (an emerging and tropical disease in Argentina
Full Text Available Se describen algunos factores que habrían favorecido a caracterizar la expresión del Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus en Argentina. Estos factores muestran diversos orígenes que van desde los procesos de ocupación del espacio y de producción, la estructura laboral, el patrón de migración humana, la etnia, la dinámica de reservorios y su relación con los tipos de virus, y el comportamiento del hombre. Estos factores se expresan en tres marcos ecológicos asociados a diferentes regiones geográficas de Argentina: 1 Noroeste, 2 Central (Pampa húmeda y 3 Sur Andina. Este complejo escenario obliga a abordar con la misma complejidad las investigaciones, para identificar determinantes primarios, biológicos, sociales y ambientales, causales de salud o enfermedad en su estrecha interacción y no individualmente. Este abordaje permitirá diseñar estrategias apropiadas para mejorar las condiciones de salud. Las mismas deberían ser diseñadas y transferidas por equipos transdisciplinarios de investigación, donde la participación de la comunidad desde las primeras etapas de desarrollo es esencial para la sustentabilidad de la estrategia.Factors related to the characteristics of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina are described. Factors from different scientific fields converge to form the syndrome's analytical framework. Some of these factors are the history of spatial occupation, work and production structures, human migration patterns, ethnic composition, reservoir dynamics and its relationship to the different circulating viruses, and human behavior. Furthermore, the multiple factors are expressed in three ecological frameworks, associated with three different geographical regions of Argentina: 1 Northwest; 2 Central ("wet Pampa"; and 3 South Andean. In order to understand the actual causality of health or disease as an interaction of many factors, research on the primary biological, social, and environmental determinants of
temp with blocking buffer (5% non- fat dry milk in PBS, pH 7.4 and 0.5% Tween 20). Membranes were then washed three times in washing buffer (PBS pH...per chip. To maximize high-quality alignments for read alignment, gene identification, and quantification, the raw sequence reads were trimmed to...involve virus-induced hyperinflammatory immune responses. Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is a large homotrimeric protein that plays a putative role in
Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV. Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection.
characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection
Barbosa, Diego de Lacerda; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Glaucia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Ultra X, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Grupo Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from eight cases of HPS. All patients were men, aged 19-70 (mean, 41.7) years. Diagnoses were established by serological test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in all patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, found in all eight cases; however, the crazy-paving pattern was found in only three cases. Pleural effusion and peribronchovascular thickening were observed in five patients. The abnormalities were bilateral in all patients. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in patients with HPS were GGOs and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, which probably correlate with the histopathologic findings of pulmonary edema. (author)
Robert C McDermid
Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated (DAA for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive medications were required for a maximum of 52 h, whereas creatinine levels and platelet counts normalized within seven to nine days. Given the similar presentations of HCPS and bacterial septic shock, empirical DAA therapy will likely be initiated before a definitive diagnosis of HCPS is made. Further observations of DAA in HCPS seem warranted.
Barbosa, Diego de Lacerda; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Glaucia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Marchiori, Edson; Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS; Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto; Ultra X, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP; Universidade Federal do Parana; Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo; Grupo Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP; Universidade de Sao Paulo
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from eight cases of HPS. All patients were men, aged 19-70 (mean, 41.7) years. Diagnoses were established by serological test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in all patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, found in all eight cases; however, the crazy-paving pattern was found in only three cases. Pleural effusion and peribronchovascular thickening were observed in five patients. The abnormalities were bilateral in all patients. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in patients with HPS were GGOs and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, which probably correlate with the histopathologic findings of pulmonary edema. (author)
Mariangela Pimentel Pincelli
Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é uma doença de conhecimento relativamente recente e freqüentemente fatal, apresentando-se como síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. No Brasil, desde o primeiro surto, relatado em novembro/dezembro de 1993, em Juquitiba, 226 casos já foram registrados pela Fundação Nacional da Saúde. A doença afeta indivíduos previamente hígidos, apresentando-se com pródromo febril e sintomas semelhantes aos de um resfriado comum, podendo rapidamente evoluir para edema pulmonar, insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque. A hemoconcentração e a plaquetopenia são comuns da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus, e o quadro radiológico típico é de um infiltrado intersticial bilateral difuso, que progride rapidamente para consolidações alveolares, paralelamente à piora do quadro clínico. A mortalidade inicial era em torno de 75% e declinou para aproximadamente 35%, nos últimos anos. Os pacientes que sobrevivem geralmente recuperam-se completamente, cerca de uma semana após o estabelecimento do quadro respiratório. O agente causal, não reconhecido até há pouco, foi identificado como um hantavírus, cujo reservatório natural são animais roedores da família Muridae, subfamília Sigmodontinae. O tratamento específico antiviral ainda não é bem estabelecido, estando em estudo a eficácia de ribavirina. Cuidados de terapia intensiva como ventilação mecânica e monitoramento hemodinâmico invasivo são necessários nas formas mais graves da doença. Essas medidas, se instituídas precocemente, podem melhorar o prognóstico e a sobrevida dos pacientes com síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus.Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome is a recently identified and often fatal disease, which presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Since the first outbreak, in Nov/Dec 1993, in Juquitiba, Brazil, 226 cases have been registered by
Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, also referred to as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, is a rare but frequently fatal disease caused by New World hantaviruses. In humans HPS is associated with severe pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock; however, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear largely due to a lack of suitable animal models for the study of disease progression. In this study we monitored clinical, virological, pathophysiological parameters and host immunological responses to decipher pathological factors and events in the lethal Syrian hamster model of HPS following intranasal inoculation of Andes virus. Transcriptional profiling of the host gene responses demonstrated a suppression of innate immune responses in most organs analyzed during the early stage of infection, except for in the lung which had low level activation of several pro-inflammatory genes. During this phase Andes virus established a systemic infection in hamsters, with viral antigen readily detectable in the endothelium of the majority of tissues analyzed by 7-8 days post-inoculation. Despite wide-spread infection, histological analysis confirmed pathological abnormalities were almost exclusively found in the lungs. Immediately preceding clinical signs of disease, intense activation of pro-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 responses were observed in the lungs as well as the heart, but not in peripheral organs, suggesting that localized immune-modulations by infection is paramount to pathogenesis. Throughout the course of infection a strong suppression of regulatory T-cell responses was noted and is hypothesized to be the basis of the aberrant immune activations. The unique and comprehensive monitoring of host immune responses to hantavirus infection increases our understanding of the immuno-pathogenesis of HPS and will facilitate the development of treatment strategies targeting deleterious host immunological responses.
Szabó, Róbert; Radosa, Lukáš; Ličková, Martina; Sláviková, Monika; Heroldová, Marta; Stanko, Michal; Pejčoch, Milan; Osterberg, Anja; Laenen, Lies; Schex, Susanne; Ulrich, Rainer G; Essbauer, Sandra; Maes, Piet; Klempa, Boris
Puumala virus (PUUV), carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), is the medically most important hantavirus in Central and Western Europe. In this study, a total of 523 bank voles (408 from Germany, 72 from Slovakia, and 43 from Czech Republic) collected between the years 2007-2012 were analyzed for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Partial PUUV genome segment sequences were obtained from 51 voles. Phylogenetic analyses of all three genome segments showed that the newfound strains cluster with other Central and Western European PUUV strains. The new sequences from Šumava (Bohemian Forest), Czech Republic, are most closely related to the strains from the neighboring Bavarian Forest, a known hantavirus disease outbreak region. Interestingly, the Slovak strains clustered with the sequences from Bohemian and Bavarian Forests only in the M but not S segment analyses. This well-supported topological incongruence suggests a segment reassortment event or, as we analyzed only partial sequences, homologous recombination. Our data highlight the necessity of sequencing all three hantavirus genome segments and of a broader bank vole screening not only in recognized endemic foci but also in regions with no reported human hantavirus disease cases.
Jiang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Cheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Guan-Wen; Li, Yun; Li, Zi-Chao; Lu, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zi-Xin; Lu, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Lian-He; Zhang, Fang-Lin; Yang, Kun
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Previous studies revealed that a lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-targeting strategy involving a DNA vaccine based on the HTNV glycoprotein Gn successfully conferred long-term immunity, and indicated that further research on Gc, another HTNV antigen, was warranted. Plasmids encoding Gc and lysosome-targeted Gc, designated pVAX-Gc and pVAX-LAMP/Gc, respectively, were constructed. Proteins of interest were identified by fluorescence microscopy following cell line transfection. Five groups of 20 female BALB/c mice were subjected to the following inoculations: inactivated HTNV vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gc, pVAX-Gc, and, as the negative controls, pVAX-LAMP or the blank vector pVAX1. Humoral and cellular immunity were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and 15-mer peptide enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) epitope mapping assays. Repeated immunization with pVAX-LAMP/Gc enhanced adaptive immune responses, as demonstrated by the specific and neutralizing antibody titers and increased IFN-γ production. The inactivated vaccine induced a comparable humoral reaction, but the negative controls only elicited insignificant responses. Using a mouse model of HTNV challenge, the in vivo protection conferred by the inactivated vaccine and Gc-based constructs (with/without LAMP recombination) was confirmed. Evidence of pan-epitope reactions highlighted the long-term cellular response to the LAMP-targeting strategy, and histological observations indicated the safety of the LAMP-targeting vaccines. The long-term protective immune responses induced by pVAX-LAMP/Gc may be
SOZA C., GUILLERMO; LORCA O., PEDRO; PUEBLA M., SERGIO; WENZEL M., MARISOL; NAVARRETE C., MARITZA; VILLAGRA C., ELIECER; MORA R., JUDITH; LEVIS C., SILVANA; AVILES A., GABRIELA
El síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH) ha estado presente en Chile desde 1993 y ha sido detectado desde 1997 en la IX Región. Es una grave zoonosis con alta mortalidad, que afecta a gente joven incluyendo niños. Se ha estimado oportuno dar a conocer nuestra experiencia en la atención de 6 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos en las unidades de Cuidados Intensivos y Aislamiento en el Hospital Regional de Temuco, entre enero de 1998 y enero de 2000 mediante un estudio descriptivo de la experienc...
Augot, D; Muller, D; Demerson, J M; Boué, F; Caillot, C; Cliquet, F
The hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) include human pathogens and occur worldwide. In Western and Central Europe, the predominant serotype is Puumala (PUU) virus, which causes epidemic nephropathy. Voles are considered to be the main reservoir and the vector of PUU virus. A total of 719 rodents (mainly Clethrionomys glareolus, Apodemus sp.) trapped by capture-mark-recapture (CMR) in four sites in Ardennes department (France) between April 2004 and October 2005 were tested for the presence of PUU virus antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The predominant species, C. glareolus (86.5% [622 of 719]), also had the highest antibody prevalence (37.6% [291 of 773]). In C. glareolus, the antibody prevalence rate increased with age (weight) in site A, B and D, reaching more than 50% in the heaviest weight, and suggesting that horizontal infection may be important.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.
Caroline Brigitte Zeimes
Full Text Available Background: In Europe, the most prevalent hantavirus, Puumala virus, is transmitted by bank voles and causes nephropathia epidemica in human. The European spatial distribution of nephropathia epidemica is investigated here for the first time with a rich set of environmental variables. Methods: The influence of variables at the landscape and regional level is studied through multilevel logistic regression and further information on their effects across the different European ecoregions is obtained by comparing an overall niche model (boosted regression trees with regressions by ecoregion. Results: The presence of nephropathia epidemica is likely in populated regions with well-connected forests, more intense vegetation activity, low soil water content, mild summers and cold winters. In these regions, landscapes with a higher proportion of built-up areas in forest ecotones and lower minimum temperature in winter are expected to be more at risk. Climate and forest connectivity have a stronger effect at the regional level. If variables are staying at their current values, the models predict that nephropathia epidemica may know intensification but should not spread (although Southern Sweden, the Norwegian coast and the Netherlands should be kept under watch.Conclusions: Models indicate that large-scale modeling can lead to a very high predictive power. At large scale, the effect of one variable on disease may follow three response scenarios: the effect may be the same across the entire study area; the effect can change according to the variable value, and the effect can change depending on local specificities. Each of these scenarios impacts large-scale modeling differently.
Marcelo Spegiorin Moreno
Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A hantavirose é uma zoonose que apresenta distribuição mundial e sua transmissão está relacionada com o íntimo contato com roedores. Causa dois tipos de doença: a febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal (FHSR, endêmica na Ásia e Europa e a síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus (SPH, encontrada no continente americano, inclusive no Brasil, com elevadas taxas de mortalidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de SPH com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos, que recebeu tratamento intensivo precoce e reanimação guiada por parâmetros de fluxo e de perfusão tecidual. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 36 anos, iniciou quadro febril inespecífico, dispnéia progressiva, hipóxia grave e insuficiência respiratória aguda. Apresentava infiltrado interstício-alveolar difuso na radiografia de tórax. Evoluiu com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos (pulmonar, renal, hematológica, cardiovascular e metabólica. Recebeu tratamento e monitorização hemodinâmica invasiva precoces. As alterações laboratoriais mais importantes foram plaquetopenia, elevação dos níveis de hematócrito e hemoglobina, leucocitose, elevação de transaminases, de lactado desidrogenase e sorologia positiva para hantavírus (ELISA IgM positivo. O paciente apresentou reversão das disfunções orgânicas, recebendo alta hospitalar após 21 dias de hospitalização. CONCLUSÕES: A reanimação precoce e agressiva dirigida por metas levou à reversão da síndrome de falência de múltiplos órgãos e a um desfecho clínico favorável, apesar da gravidade da doença.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hantavirus infection is a zoonose with worldwide distribution. The transmission is related to the intimal contact with rodents. It causes two syndromes: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, endemic in Asia and Europe and the Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, found in the American continent, including Brazil, with high mortality
Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Palma, R. Eduardo; Hjelle, Brian; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.
Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging infectious disease first reported in Chile in 1995. Andes hantavirus (ANDV) is responsible for the more than 500 cases of HCPS reported in Chile. Previous work showed that ANDV is genetically differentiated in Chile across contrasting landscapes. To determine whether the reservoir rodent (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus) populations are also geographically segregated, we conducted range-wide spatial genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus in Chile using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene. Given that landscape structure influences the incidence of hantavirus infections, we also tested 772 O. longicaudatus specimens for antibodies to ANDV captured during the period 2000 − 2006. Population genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus are largely congruent with those reported for ANDV, with the host primarily differentiated according to three defined ecoregions, Mediterranean, Valdivian rain forest and North Patagonian rain forest. Significant differences in the relative prevalence of anti-ANDV antibodies in rodent samples also were found across the three ecoregions. We relate these results to the number of reported human HCPS cases in Chile, and discuss the importance of landscape differences in light of ANDV transmission to humans and among rodent populations. PMID:19632357
Full Text Available El Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH es una enfermedad de etiología viral que causa en el hombre un cuadro respiratorio grave. En Patagonia, la enfermedad es causada por el virus Andes Sur (AND, transmitido por el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las actividades del hombre que favorecen su exposición a roedores, denominados escenarios de contagio. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo a partir de información recolectada en investigaciones de casos ocurridos en Río Negro, mediante Fichas Clínico-Epidemiológicas e informes de evaluación ecológico/ambiental. Se definieron como variables a ser consideradas: edad, sexo, época del año, grado de urbanización, localización geográfica, integración del hombre al hábitat de roedores, fuente probable de exposición, actividad humana y nivel de saneamiento. Se estudiaron 32 casos. La exposición rural se verificó en 18 (56.2% de los casos y 10 (31.3% en paraje rural (grupo de viviendas en zona rural. En relación al ambiente antropogénico 24 (75% resultaron en ambientes modificados por el hombre y 8 (25% en áreas poco modificadas. El sitio de exposición de mayor importancia en El Bolsón fue el interior de edificaciones en 8 de los 18 casos allí registrados (44.5%, mientras que en Bariloche fueron ambientes de exterior con 8/14 (57.1% casos. La actividad de riesgo fue laboral en 23 (71.9% de los casos y recreacional en 7 (28.1%. Determinar los escenarios de contagio a nivel local ha aportado información para aplicar todos los recursos disponibles en materia de prevención y educación sanitaria.
Jääskeläinen, Kirsi M; Plyusnina, Angelina; Lundkvist, Ake; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander
The competitiveness of two Tula hantavirus (TULV) isolates, TULV/Lodz and TULV/Moravia, was evaluated in interferon (IFN) -competent and IFN-deficient cells. The two isolates differ in the length of the open reading frame (ORF) encoding the nonstructural protein NSs, which has previously been shown to inhibit IFN response in infected cells. In IFN-deficient Vero E6 cells both TULV isolates survived equally well. In contrast, in IFN-competent MRC5 cells TULV/Lodz isolate, that possesses the NSs ORF for the full-length protein of 90 aa, survived for more consequent passages than TULV/Moravia isolate, which contains the ORF for truncated NSs protein (66-67 aa). Our data show that expression of a full-length NSs protein is beneficial for the virus survival and competitiveness in IFN-competent cells and not essential in IFN-deficient cells. These results suggest that the N-terminal aa residues are important for the full activity of the NSs protein.
Lisa J. Jameson
Full Text Available We acknowledge Clement and colleagues for their comments  on our paper . We agree that many controversies are being discussed by the hantavirus community, particularly surrounding the interpretation of serological results and the designation of new species and strains. Within this setting, we are grateful for the opportunity to respond to the key factual and methodological points raised by Clements et al. [...
McConnell, Marjorie S
This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.
Mir, Mohammad A; Panganiban, Antonito T
Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) can replace the cellular cap-binding complex, eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), to mediate translation initiation. Although N can augment translation initiation of nonviral mRNA, initiation of viral mRNA by N is superior. All members of the Bunyaviridae family, including the species of the hantavirus genus, express either three or four primary mRNAs from their tripartite negative-sense genomes. The 5' ends of the mRNAs contain nonviral heterologous oligonucleotides that originate from endonucleolytic cleavage of cellular mRNA during the process of cap snatching. In the hantaviruses these caps terminate with a 3' G residue followed by nucleotides arising from the viral template. Further, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNA uniformly contains, near the 5' end, either two or three copies of the triplet repeat sequence, UAGUAG or UAGUAGUAG. Through analysis of a panel of mutants with mutations in the viral UTR, we found that the sequence GUAGUAG is sufficient for preferential N-mediated translation initiation and for high-affinity binding of N to the UTR. This heptanucleotide sequence is present in viral mRNA containing either two or three copies of the triplet repeat.
Full Text Available Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA in blood represents a promising DNA damage response triggered by virus infection or trauma, tumor, etc. Hantavirus primarily causes two diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, depending on different Hantavirus species. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma cf-DNA levels in acute phase of HFRS, and to correlate plasma cf-DNA with disease severity and plasma Hanttan virus (HTNV load. We observed the appearance of cf-DNA in 166 plasma samples from 76 HFRS patients: the plasma cf-DNA levels peaked at the hypotensive stage of HFRS, and then decreased gradually. Until the diuretic stage, there was no significant difference in plasma cf-DNA level between patients and the healthy control. Exclusively in the febrile/hypotensive stage, the plasma cf-DNA levels of severe/critical patients were higher than those of the mild/moderate group. Moreover, the plasma cf-DNA value in the early stage of HFRS was correlated with HTNV load and disease severity. In most of the patients, plasma cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA. In conclusion, the plasma cf-DNA levels were dynamically elevated during HFRS, and correlated with disease severity, which suggests that plasma cf-DNA may be a potential biomarker for the pathogenesis and prognosis of HFRS.
Full Text Available Introducción: La vigilancia de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores es importante para establecer medidas de control en salud pública. Las poblaciones indígenas de Córdoba viven en condiciones geoclimáticas que favorecen la presencia de vectores que podrían permitir la diseminación y aparición de hantavirosis, rickettsiosis y fiebre por el virus Chikungunya. Objetivo: Establecer la seroprevalencia de Hantavirus, Rickettsia sp. y Chikungunya en la población indígena de Tuchín, Córdoba. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 190 individuos del resguardo indígena del municipio de Tuchín; el muestreo fue realizado entre agosto y diciembre del 2012. La detección de anticuerpos IgG contra Hantavirus se llevó a cabo con la prueba IgG DxSelectTM (Focus Technologies, EL1600G, California, EE. UU., anticuerpos IgG contra Rickettsia sp. se determinaron por inmunofluorescencia indirecta y se realizó detección de anticuerpos IgG contra el virus Chikungunya mediante ELISA de captura (Nova-Tec, inmunodiagnostica GmbH, CHIG0590, Alemania. Resultados: De 190 sueros analizados, el 5,2% (10/190 fueron positivos para Rickettsia sp. del grupo de la fiebre manchada, para Hantavirus 7 de 87 (8% fueron positivos y no se encontraron positivos para Chikungunya. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p = 0,05 entre los seropositivos de Hantavirus y Rickettsia sp. para las variables género, edad y ocupación. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos demuestran exposición previa a Rickettsia sp. y a Hantavirus en la población indígena de Tuchín. Los resultados pueden ser útiles para establecer una alerta sobre estas fiebres hemorrágicas. Aunque no se hallaron seropositivos para Chikungunya, este fue el primer trabajo de vigilancia epidemiológica realizado en Colombia sobre este virus.
Armién, Blas; Ortiz, Paulo Lazaro; Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory
Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km(2) and the total study area was 6.43 km(2) (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the study. Spatial autocorrelation analyses indicated local populations encompassed approximately 300-600 m. The borders between suitable and unsuitable habitats were sharply demarcated over short distances. Oligoryzomys fulvescens showed a well-defined spatial pattern that evolved over time, and led to a pattern of changing aggregation. Thus, hot spots of abundance showed a general shifting pattern that helps explain the intermittent risk from pathogens transmitted by this species. This variation was associated with seasonality, as well as anthropogenic pressures that occurred with agricultural activities. These factors help define the characteristics of the occurrence, timing, intensity and duration of synanthropic populations affected by human populations and, consequently, possible exposure that local human populations experience.
Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G.; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory
Background Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Methods Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km2 and the total study area was 6.43 km2 (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). Results There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the study. Spatial autocorrelation analyses indicated local populations encompassed approximately 300–600 m. The borders between suitable and unsuitable habitats were sharply demarcated over short distances. Conclusion Oligoryzomys fulvescens showed a well-defined spatial pattern that evolved over time, and led to a pattern of changing aggregation. Thus, hot spots of abundance showed a general shifting pattern that helps explain the intermittent risk from pathogens transmitted by this species. This variation was associated with seasonality, as well as anthropogenic pressures that occurred with agricultural activities. These factors help define the characteristics of the occurrence, timing, intensity and duration of synanthropic populations affected by human populations and, consequently, possible exposure that local human populations experience. PMID:26894436
Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E
The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.
Full Text Available Background. Transport of critically ill patients is a complex issue. We present a case using prone positioning as a bridge to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, performed by a critical retrieval team from a university hospital. Case Report. A 28-year-old male developed fever, progressive respiratory failure, and shock. He was admitted to ICU from a public hospital, and mechanical ventilation was begun, but clinical response was not adequate. ECMO was deemed necessary due to severe respiratory failure and severe shock. A critical retrieval team of our center was assembled to attempt transfer. Prone positioning was employed to stabilize and transfer the patient, after risk-benefit assessment. Once in our hospital, ECMO was useful to resolve shock and pulmonary edema secondary to Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Finally, he was discharged with normal functioning. Conclusion. This case exemplifies the relevance of a retrieval team and bridge therapy. Prone positioning improves oxygenation and is safe to perform as transport if performed by a trained team as in this case. Preparation and organization is necessary to improve outcomes, using teams and organized networks. Catastrophic respiratory failure and shock should not be contraindications to transferring patients, but it must be done with an experienced team.
Knowledge and practices about hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a cluster of Japanese communities in Argentina Conocimientos y prácticas relacionados con el síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en un conglomerado de comunidades japonesas en Argentina
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To provide information on hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS knowledge and practices among a cluster of the rural Japanese communities near La Plata in central Ar gentina, an area with confirmed HPS cases. Particular emphasis was placed on testing the hy pothesis that there would be differences between household use of HPS prevention measures based on the head-of-household's knowledge of HPS. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed in three sections: (1 household demographic char acteristics, (2 HPS knowledge, and (3 HPS preventive measures. Questionnaires were given to the household head or other adult representing the household at an HPS prevention semi nar sponsored by the Japanese Association of La Plata in February 2007. Total HPS knowl edge scores were dichotomized into high (equal to or more than the median knowledge score and low (less than the median. Differences between the two household groups were catego rized, according to the degree of HPS knowledge, and analyzed. RESULTS: The 86 households that responded accounted for about 72% of the total study households in the area. The median knowledge score of 5 (range: 0-9, of 10 divided the study households into two groups: high knowledge score group (n = 40 and low knowledge score group (n = 46. The findings suggest an association between a household's accurate HPS knowledge and its respective use of HPS preventive measures. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study have important implications for taking further steps toward improved HPS management and prevention strategies.OBJETIVOS: Documentar los conocimientos y las prácticas relacionadas con el síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en un conglomerado de comunidades rurales japonesas cerca de La Plata, en la parte central de Argentina, una zona con casos confirmados de SPH. Se hizo hincapié especial en probar la hipótesis de que habría diferencias en el empleo de medidas preventivas contra el SPH en los hogares según el
Geldmacher, Astrid; Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Borisova, Galina; Berriman, John A.; Roseman, Alan M.; Crowther, R. Anthony; Fischer, Jan; Musema, Shamil; Gelderblom, Hans R.; Lundkvist, Aake; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Krueger, Detlev H.; Pumpens, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer
Previously, we have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core particles tolerate the insertion of the amino-terminal 120 amino acids (aa) of the Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein. Here, we demonstrate that the insertion of 120 amino-terminal aa of N proteins from highly virulent Dobrava and Hantaan hantaviruses allows the formation of chimeric core particles. These particles expose the inserted foreign protein segments, at least in part, on their surface. Analysis by electron cryomicroscopy of chimeric particles harbouring the Puumala virus (PUUV) N segment revealed 90% T = 3 and 10% T = 4 shells. A map computed from T = 3 shells shows additional density splaying out from the tips of the spikes producing the effect of an extra shell of density at an outer radius compared with wild-type shells. The inserted Puumala virus N protein segment is flexibly linked to the core spikes and only partially icosahedrally ordered. Immunisation of mice of two different haplotypes (BALB/c and C57BL/6) with chimeric core particles induces a high-titered and highly cross-reactive N-specific antibody response in both mice strains
Full Text Available There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.
Gamage, Chandika Damesh; Sarathkumara, Yomani Dilukshi
Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) has been a severe burden and a public health crisis in Sri Lanka over the past two decades. Many studies have established hypotheses to identify potential risk factors although causative agents, risk factors and etiology of this disease are still uncertain. Several studies have postulated that fungal and bacterial nephrotoxins are a possible etiological factor; however, the precise link between hypothesized risk factors and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease has yet to be proven in prior studies. Leptospirosis and Hantavirus infections are important zoonotic diseases that are naturally maintained and transmitted via infected rodent populations and which present similar clinical and epidemiological features. Both infections are known to be a cause of acute kidney damage that can proceed into chronic renal failure. Several studies have reported presence of both infections in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic Leptospira or Hantavirus are possible causative agents of acute kidney damage which eventually progresses to chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. The proposed hypothesis will be evaluated by means of an observational study design. Past infection will be assessed by a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of IgG antibodies with further confirmatory testing among chronic kidney disease patients and individuals from the community in selected endemic areas compared to low prevalence areas. Identification of possible risk factors for these infections will be followed by a case-control study and causality will be further determined with a cohort study. If the current hypothesis is true, affected communities will be subjected for medical interventions related to the disease for patient management while considering supportive therapies. Furthermore and possibly enhance their preventive and control measures to improve vector control to decrease the risk of infection. Copyright © 2016
Tersago, K; Verhagen, R; Servais, A; Heyman, P; Ducoffre, G; Leirs, H
Recently, human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE) due to Puumala virus infection in Europe have increased. Following the hypothesis that high reservoir host abundance induces higher transmission rates to humans, explanations for this altered epidemiology must be sought in factors that cause bank vole (Myodes glareolus) abundance peaks. In Western Europe, these abundance peaks are often related to high tree seed production, which is supposedly triggered by specific weather conditions. We evaluated the relationship between tree seed production, climate and NE incidence in Belgium and show that NE epidemics are indeed preceded by abundant tree seed production. Moreover, a direct link between climate and NE incidence is found. High summer and autumn temperatures, 2 years and 1 year respectively before NE occurrence, relate to high NE incidence. This enables early forecasting of NE outbreaks. Since future climate change scenarios predict higher temperatures in Europe, we should regard Puumala virus as an increasing health threat.
Liu, Yun-Xi; Zhao, Zhong-Tang; Cao, Wu-Chun; Xu, Xiao-Qun; Suo, Ji-Jiang; Xing, Yu-Bin; Jia, Ning; Du, Ming-Mei; Liu, Bo-Wei; Yao, Yuan
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of applying RT-nested PCR along with RFLP as a method for diagnosis and genotypic differentiation of Hantavirus in the acute-stage sera of HFRS patients as compared to the ELISA technique. A prospective study of patients with suspected HFRS patients was carried out. Sera were collected for serological evaluation by ELISA and RT-nested PCR testing. Primers were selected from the published sequence of the S segment of HTNV strain 76-118 and SEOV strain SR-11, which made it possible to obtain an amplicon of 403 bp by RT-nested PCR. The genotypic differentiations of the RT-nested PCR amplicons were carried out by RFLP. Sequence analyses of the amplicons were used to confirm the accuracy of the results obtained by RFLP. Of the 48 acute-stage sera from suspected HFRS patients, 35 were ELISA-positive while 41 were positive by RT-nested PCR. With Hind III and Hinf I, RFLP profiles of the RT-nested PCR amplicons of the 41 positive sera exhibited two patterns. 33 had RFLP profiles similar to the reference strain R22, and thus belonged to the SEOV type. The other 8 samples which were collected during October-December had RFLP profiles similar to the reference strain 76-118, and thus belonged to the HTNV type. Sequence phylogenetic analysis of RT-nested PCR amplicons revealed sdp1, sdp2 YXL-2008, and sdp3 as close relatives of HTNV strain 76-118, while sdp22 and sdp37 as close relatives of SEOV strain Z37 and strain R22 located in two separate clusters in the phylogenetic tree. These results were identical to those acquired by RFLP. RT-nested PCR integrated with RFLP was a rapid, simple, accurate method for detecting and differentiating the genotypes of Hantavirus in the acute-stage sera of suspected HFRS patients. In Shandong province, the main genotypes of Hantavirus belonged to the SEOV types, while the HTNV types were observed during the autumn-winter season.
Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000. Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50. Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8, or no-treatment (n=8, developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral
Tersago, K; Schreurs, A; Linard, C
In this study, the distribution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection in local bank vole Myodes glareolus populations in an area with low human PUUV infection (nephropathia epidemica [NE]) incidence in northern Belgium was monitored for 2 consecutive years. Bank voles were trapped in preferred h...... activity patterns, local environmental conditions and rodent community structure are also likely to play a role in determining PUUV infection risk for humans....... habitat and tested for anti-PUUV IgG. Infection data were related to individual bank vole features, population demography, and environmental variables. Rare occurrence of PUUV infection was found and PUUV prevalence was low compared with data from the high NE incidence area in southern Belgium. Small...
... gov/ Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, ... infections and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial ...
... Center > Infective Endocarditis Menu Topics Topics FAQs Infective Endocarditis En español Infective endocarditis is an infection of ... time, congestive heart failure (CHF). What causes infective endocarditis? The infection that leads to endocarditis can be ...
Yashina, L N; Zaykovskaya, A V; Protopopova E K; Babkin, I V; Malyshev, B S; Tovpinets, N N; Evstafiev, I L
Genetic evidence of the Tula virus (TULV) in Crimea region of Russia is presented. Based on the reverse transcription PCR and subsequent sequence analysis, a total of 4 RNA isolates of the TULV were identified from the tissue samples of the Altai voles Microtus obscurus captured in the Bakhchisaray district of the Republic Crimea. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-, M-, and L-segment sequences of the Crimean TULV strains showed that they formed distinct genetic lineage, Russia IV, in the TULV variant. New sequences were most closely related to the lineage Russia I sequences obtained from common vole (M. arvalis) captured in the Tula region in Central Russia
Síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavírus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais, 1998-2005: aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de 23 casos Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba regions, State of Minas Gerais, 1998-2005: clinical-epidemiological aspects of 23 cases
Jean Ezequiel Limongi
required. The present study confirmed the seasonal pattern of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Uberlândia region and the involvement of professional groups who are considered to be at low risk of infection, in the transmission cycle of the disease. The high lethality rate (39% and the severity of the disease observed in this study may be related to attending to these patients at a late stage.
Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu M.
Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por Hantavirus (SPCVH, é doença emergente com descrição crescente de casos no Brasil. Neste trabalho, estudou-se 8 casos confirmados da doença. Todos apresentaram febre e dispnéia. Taquicardia, astenia, hipotensão e estertoração pulmonar ocorreram em 75 a 87,5% dos casos. Plaquetopenia e hipoxemia ocorreram em 100% dos casos, hemoconcentração, leucocitose com desvio à esquerda e elevação de uréia e creatinina séricas em 75 a 87,5%. Assistência respiratória, hidratação endovenosa e utilização de aminas vasoativas foram as medidas utilizadas nos pacientes. Ressalta-se que o suporte ventilatório e cardiovascular deve ser precocemente instituído, preferencialmente em unidades de terapia intensiva, com precauções universais e respiratórias de isolamento. Deve-se ter cuidados com infusão excessiva de líquidos para não agravar o edema pulmonar. A mortalidade observada, de 50%, é elevada, deveu-se à gravidade da doença e ao comparecimento tardio para tratamento intensivo. Deve-se informar sobre a SPCVH aos profissionais de saúde, considerando que casos de SPCVH, provavelmente, vêm passando desapercebidos.
Full Text Available It is critical to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV infection. Here, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA to detect SFTSV infection is described. The ICA uses gold nanoparticles coated with recombinant SFTSV for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SFTSV. The ICA was developed and evaluated by using positive sera samples of SFTSV infection (n=245 collected from the CDC of China. The reference laboratory diagnosis of SFTSV infection was based on the “gold standard”. The results demonstrated that the positive coincidence rate and negative coincidence rate were determined to be 98.4% and 100% for IgM and 96.7% and 98.6% for IgG, respectively. The kit showed good selectivity for detection of SFTSV-specific IgG and IgM with no interference from positive sera samples of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, Dengue virus infection, Hantavirus infection, HIV infection, HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody, or RF. Based on these results, the ICS test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for SFTSV infections.
Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...
Corey L Campbell
Full Text Available Long-tailed pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus are principal reservoir hosts of Andes virus (ANDV (Bunyaviridae, which causes most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in the Americas. To develop tools for the study of the ANDV-host interactions, we used RNA-Seq to generate a de novo transcriptome assembly. Splenic RNA from five rice rats captured in Chile, three of which were ANDV-infected, was used to generate an assembly of 66,173 annotated transcripts, including noncoding RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of selected predicted proteins showed similarities to those of the North American deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the principal reservoir of Sin Nombre virus (SNV. One of the infected rice rats had about 50-fold more viral burden than the others, suggesting acute infection, whereas the remaining two had levels consistent with persistence. Differential expression analysis revealed distinct signatures among the infected rodents. The differences could be due to 1 variations in viral load, 2 dimorphic or reproductive differences in splenic homing of immune cells, or 3 factors of unknown etiology. In the two persistently infected rice rats, suppression of the JAK-STAT pathway at Stat5b and Ccnot1, elevation of Casp1, RIG-I pathway factors Ppp1cc and Mff, and increased FC receptor-like transcripts occurred. Caspase-1 and Stat5b activation pathways have been shown to stimulate T helper follicular cell (TFH development in other species. These data are also consistent with reports suggestive of TFH stimulation in deer mice experimentally infected with hantaviruses. In the remaining acutely infected rice rat, the apoptotic pathway marker Cox6a1 was elevated, and putative anti-viral factors Abcb1a, Fam46c, Spp1, Rxra, Rxrb, Trmp2 and Trim58 were modulated. Transcripts for preproenkephalin (Prenk were reduced, which may be predictive of an increased T cell activation threshold. Taken together, this transcriptome dataset will permit rigorous
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Infective Endocarditis Updated:Mar 29,2018 View an illustration of endocarditis Infective ... procedure. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications describe many defects and the procedures used ...
... to spread and sometimes become life-threatening. MRSA infections may affect your: Bloodstream Lungs Heart Bones Joints Prevention Preventing HA-MRSA In the hospital, people who are infected or colonized with MRSA ...
Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... infection. People with skin problems like burns or eczema may be more likely to get staph skin ...
Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shigella Infections KidsHealth / For Parents / Shigella Infections What's in ... Doctor Print en español Infecciones por Shigella About Shigella Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive ...
Keywords: Hantavirus, Arbidol, Toll-like receptors, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Antiviral activity, ... hantavirus infection. Arbidol is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that has been shown to have inhibitory effect on influenza virus [4,5], respiratory syncytial virus , ..... species in hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.
Range expansion of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae in Patagonian Chile, and first record of Hantavirus in the region Ampliación del rango de distribución de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la Patagonia de Chile y primer registro de Hantavirus en la región
Full Text Available At present, 20 species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae are recognized in the Neotropical region, most of them distinguished by their karyotypes, which fluctuates between 46-70 chromosomes. Two species are currently recognized in Chile, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Bennet, 1832; "colilargo" or the long-tailed pygmy rice rat; 2n = 56, which ranges from 27° to approximately 51° S, and O. magellanicus (Bennet, 1836; Magellanic pygmy rice rat; 2n = 54, south of 51° S in the Patagonian region of Chile and Argentina. As part of an ongoing research on the southern Patagonia of Chile, we report the results of small mammal samplings in six localities. We karyotyped 28 specimens and we also sequenced the hypervariable mtDNA region I in 22 individuals, aligning these sequences with an under development phylogeny of O. longicaudatus. We also evaluated the serology and viral charge in all captured specimens to detect the presence of antibodies to Andes virus (ANDV through Strip Immunoblot Assay (SIA, and of viral genome by RT-PCR. The results consistently showed that the karyotype of southern Patagonia specimens was 2n = 56, equal to that of O. longicaudatus, and that individuals from this area do not differentiate phylogenetically from those of the northern range of distribution. In addition, the serology showed the presence of antibodies IgG anti-ANDV and of viral genome in heart, kidney, spleen, and lungs of a single specimen of Oligoryzomys from the locality of Fuerte Bulnes in the Magallanes region. We conclude that all specimens trapped south of 51° S correspond to Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, thus expanding the distribution of this specie! from 51° to at least 55° S. The results also extended the disiribution of the Andes strain of Hantavirus to southernmost Patagonia.Actualmente se reconocen 20 especies de Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la región Neotropical, la mayoría de ellas distinguidas por sus cariotipos, los que fluct
Dzagurova, Tamara K.; Klempa, Boris; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Slyusareva, Galina P.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Auste, Brita; Kruger, Detlev H.
A large outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurred in the winter of 2006-2007 in a region southeast of Moscow in Central European Russia. Of the 422 patients with HFRS investigated in this study, 58 patients were found to be infected by Puumala virus, whereas as many as 364 were infected by Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV). Early serum samples from 10 DOBV-infected patients were used for nucleic acid amplification, which was successful for 5 patients. Molecular analyses demonstrated that the causative hantavirus belongs to the DOBV-Aa genetic lineage, which is carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) as the natural reservoir host. Neutralization assays with convalescent-phase sera from these patients confirmed infection by DOBV-Aa; related viruses, such as the Dobrava-Slovenia virus (DOBV-Af) and the Dobrava-Sochi virus (DOBV-Ap), were neutralized at lower efficiencies. The clinical courses of the 205 patients enrolled in the study were found to be mostly mild to moderate; however, an unexpectedly high fraction (27%) of patients exhibited severe illness. One patient died from kidney failure and showed symptoms of generalized subcutaneous hemorrhage. The results provide molecular, serodiagnostic, and clinical evidence that DOBV-Aa is a common pathogen in East Europe that causes large outbreaks of HFRS. PMID:19828747
Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Svensson, Lennart; Hagbom, Marie; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; O’Ryan, Miguel; Kang, Gagandeep; Desselberger, Ulrich; Estes, Mary K.
Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system. In addition, rotavirus infections can lead to antigenaemia (which is associated with more severe manifestations of acute gastroenteritis) and viraemia, and rotavirus can replicate in systemic sites, although this is limited. Reinfections with rotavirus are common throughout life, although the disease severity is reduced with repeat infections. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery from infection are poorly understood, although rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A has a role in both aspects. The management of rotavirus infection focuses on the prevention and treatment of dehydration, although the use of antiviral and anti-emetic drugs can be indicated in some cases. PMID:29119972
... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...
Mastitis; Infection - breast tissue; Breast abscess ... must continue to breastfeed or pump to relieve breast swelling from milk production. In case if the abscess does not go away, needle aspiration under ultrasound ...
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst
A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...
... the wound and re-closing to more extensive debridements and removal of infected tissues. In some cases ... will want to obtain cultures to determine the type of bacteria or fungus that is causing the ...
... can cause serious problems such as heart disease, brain damage, deafness, visual impairment, or even miscarriage. Infection later in the pregnancy may lead to less severe effects on the fetus but can still cause problems ...
... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...
... within your body, to produce infections affecting: Internal organs, such as your brain, heart or lungs Bones and muscles Surgically implanted devices, such as artificial joints or cardiac pacemakers Toxic shock syndrome This ...
... Stool sample testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always ... some salty foods, such as pretzels, soup, and sports drinks. Eat some high-potassium foods, such as ...
Eschenbach, D A; Wager, G P
This comprehensive review on puerperal infections covers risk factors, causative bacteria, pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy of specific entities, and prevention. Puerperal infection is problematic to define especially with antibiotics that change the course of fever. I may present as endometritis (most common), myometritis, parametritis, pelvic abscess, salpingitis, septic pelvic thrombophlebitis or septicemia, and also includes infections of the urinary tract, episiotomy, surgical wounds, lacerations or breast. Each of these is discussed in terms of contributing factors, microbiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications. Risk factors in general are cesarean section, premature rupture of the membranes, internal fetal monitoring, general anesthesia, pelvic examinations. The most common bacterial involved are group B and other streptococci, E. coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Mycoplasma and pre-existing Chlamydial infections. Diagnosis of the causative organism is difficult because of polyinfection and difficulty of getting a sterile endometrial swab. Diagnosis of the infection is equally difficult because of the wide variety of symptoms: fever, abnormal lochia, tachycardia, tenderness, mass and abnormal bowel sounds are common. Therapy depends of the responsible microorganism, although 3 empirical tactics are suggested while awaiting results of culture: 1) choose an antibiotic for the most common aerobic bacteria; 2) an antibiotic effective against B. fragilis and one for aerobic bacteria, e.g. clindamycin and an aminoglycoside; 3) a nontoxic antibiotic active against most aerobic and anaerobic organisms, e.g. doxycycline or cefoxitin. An example of an infection recently described is pudendal-paracervical block infection, often signaled by severe hip pain. It is associated with vaginal bacteria, is usually complicated by abscess even with antibiotic coverage, and may end in paraplegia or fatal sepsis
Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap
Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)
... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...
Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)
Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)
Karampekios, Spyros; Hesselink, John
Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)
... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...
This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages. Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Date Released: 8/28/2012.
... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), an acute upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, and is also associated with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens and egg production losses in layers. Since the first TRT reported in the late 1970s in South Africa, the virus...
Forma grave da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus tratada com pressurização positiva através de máscara facial Severe form of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome managed with continuous positive airway plessure through facial mask
Mariangela Pimentel Pincelli
Full Text Available O primeiro surto no Brasil da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus foi descrito em Juquitiba (SP, em 1993. Desde então têm sido descritos novos casos, especialmente nos estados do sul e sudeste do país. Em 2002 ocorreu a observação dos primeiros três casos em São Carlos (SP. Um dos pacientes recebeu suporte respiratório sem intubação traqueal, utilizando-se pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas (CPAP através de máscara facial. Este é o primeiro caso grave descrito de insuficiência respiratória por hantavírus em que houve sucesso com essa terapêutica ventilatória.In 1993 the first Brazilian cluster of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS was described in Juquitiba, SP. Since then, there have been descriptions of new cases specially on the southeast and south states of Brazil. Only in 2002 there were observed the first three cases of HCPS in our city: São Carlos. One of our patients was successfully supported with CPAP through facial mask. This is the first severe case of acute respiratory failure induced by Hantavirus that was successfully managed with this kind of respiratory strategy.
Cairo), nutritional surveys in Honduras (through NMRCD in Lima), malaria research on the Burmese border (through AFRIMS in Bangkok), and brucel - losis...collected specimens of from cases of cutaneous anthrax, bubonic plague, brucel - losis, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and Hantavirus. These
Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...
Sénior, Juan Manuel
Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a disease caused by colonization and proliferation of infectious agents on the endothelial surface of the heart. Its clinical presentation is variable, depending upon conditions of the patient, such as immunosuppression, presence of prosthetic material, intravenous drug use, and the etiologic agent. Diagnosis is usually established through the addition of elements such as medical history, physical examination, results of blood cultures, echocardiography and other aids. We present the case of an adult male who came to the hospital with fever and symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. The presence of a systolic murmur was documented in the aortic area, and the echocardiogram revealed severe valve regurgitation and a vegetating lesion on the bicuspid aortic valve. He required valve replacement and completed antibiotic treatment based on the sensitivity of the Streptococcus mitis strain that was demonstrated in the blood cultures.
Salim Mattar V
Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...
During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...
... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... ) haemolyticum is an organism that most often causes infections and illnesses in teenagers and young adults. The infection is spread from person to person, ...
ANSWERS by heart Cardiovascular Conditions What Is Infective Endocarditis? Infective (bacterial) endocarditis (IE) is an infection of either the heart’s inner lining (endocardium) or the heart valves. Infective endocarditis is a serious — and sometimes fatal — illness. Two ...
Gassiep, Ian; Gilpin, Bradley; Douglas, Joel; Siebert, David
Neisseria gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Disseminated gonococcal infection is an infrequent presentation and rarely can be associated with septic arthritis. Incidence of this infection is rising, both internationally and in older age groups. We present the first documented case of N. gonorrhoea prosthetic joint infection which was successfully treated with laparoscopic debridement and antimicrobial therapy.
Rastall, S; Catchpole, C; Bright-Thomas, R; Thrush, S
Breast infection and breast sepsis secondary to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is uncommon. We report two cases of pseudomonal breast infection leading to septic shock and abscess formation in women with non-responding breast infection. The management of breast infection is broad-spectrum antibiotics and ultrasound with aspiration of any collection. To treat breast infection effectively, the causative organism must be isolated to enable appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:20412664
Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)
Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.
Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.
Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented
Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide.
Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.
Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032
... Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Panama and Uruguay and Venezuela. Large outbreaks have been rare and have usually ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...
Tersago, K.; Verhagen, R.; Servais, A.
vole (Myodes glareolus) abundance peaks. In Western Europe, these abundance peaks are often related to high tree seed production, which is supposedly triggered by specific weather conditions. We evaluated the relationship between tree seed production, climate and NE incidence in Belgium and show...... that NE epidemics are indeed preceded by abundant tree seed production. Moreover, a direct link between climate and NE incidence is found. High summer and autumn temperatures, 2 years and 1 year respectively before NE occurrence, relate to high NE incidence. This enables early forecasting of NE outbreaks...
Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...
... increases in places with inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Risk factors Blastocystis is common, and anyone can ... you have blastocystis or another gastrointestinal infection, good personal hygiene can help keep you from spreading the infection ...
... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...
... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...
David L. Hemsell
Full Text Available Antibiotic prophylaxis and advances in technology have reduced operative site infections after hysterectomy to a minimum. Pelvic infections are the most common infection type and respond promptly to a variety of parenteral single-agent and combination antibiotic regimens. Oral antibiotic regimens following parenteral therapy are unnecessary. Abdominal incision infections are less common than pelvic infections, less common than seromas or hematomas, and usually do not require antimicrobial therapy. Abscesses or infected hematomas require parenteral antimicrobial therapy, and drainage of those located above the cuff will predictably shorten therapy time. With early discharge from the hospital, many infections will not become evident until after the patient is home. For that reason, it is important that the patient's discharge instructions outline symptoms and signs associated with these infections so she can present for care at the earliest possible time.
... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...
... Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / C. Difficile Infection C. Difficile Infection Basics Overview Diarrhea is a frequent ... that change the normal colon bacteria allowing the C. difficile bacteria to grow and produce its toxins. ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...
Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... control. Menopause also increases the risk of a UTI. The following also increase your chances of developing ...
Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske
Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity...
Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove
of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...
Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning
Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.
Leibler, Jessica H; Zakhour, Christine M; Gadhoke, Preety; Gaeta, Jessie M
In high-income countries, homeless individuals in urban areas often live in crowded conditions with limited sanitation and personal hygiene. The environment of homelessness in high-income countries may result in intensified exposure to ectoparasites and urban wildlife, which can transmit infections. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the published literature to assess vector-borne and zoonotic disease risk to these populations. The primary objectives of this study were to identify diversity, prevalence, and risk factors for vector-borne and zoonotic infections among people experiencing homelessness and extreme poverty in urban areas of high-income countries. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of published epidemiologic studies of zoonotic and vector-borne infections among urban homeless and very poor people in the United States and Europe from 1990 to 2014. Thirty-one observational studies and 14 case studies were identified (n = 45). Seroprevalence to the human louse-borne pathogen Bartonella quintana (seroprevalence range: 0-37.5%) was identified most frequently, with clinical disease specifically observed among HIV-positive individuals. Seropositivity to Bartonella henselae (range: 0-10.3%) and Rickettsia akari (range: 0-16.2%) was noted in multiple studies. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella elizabethae, West Nile virus, Borellia recurrentis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Wohlfartiimonas chitiniclastica, Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), and Leptospira species was also identified in published studies, with SEOV associated with chronic renal disease later in life. HIV infection, injection drug use, and heavy drinking were noted across multiple studies as risk factors for infection with vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens. B. quintana was the most frequently reported vector-borne infection identified in our article. Delousing efforts and active surveillance among HIV
Kagan, Karl Oliver; Hamprecht, Klaus
Due to the severe risk of long-term sequelae, prenatal cytomegalovirus infection is of particular importance amongst intrauterine viral infections. This review summarizes the current knowledge about CMV infection in pregnancy. A search of the Medline and Embase database was done for articles about CMV infection in pregnany. We performed a detailed review of the literature in view of diagnosis, epidemiology and management of CMV infection in pregnancy. The maternal course of the infection is predominantly asymptomatic; the infection often remains unrecognized until the actual fetal manifestation. Typical ultrasound signs that should arouse suspicion of intrauterine CMV infection can be distinguished into CNS signs such as ventriculomegaly or microcephaly and extracerebral infection signs such as hepatosplenomegaly or hyperechogenic bowel. Current treatment strategies focus on hygienic measures to prevent a maternal CMV infection during pregnancy, on maternal application of hyperimmunoglobulines to avoid materno-fetal transmission in case of a maternal seroconversion, and on an antiviral therapy in case the materno-fetal transmission have occurred. CMV infection in pregnancy may result in a severe developmental disorder of the newborn. This should be taken into account in the treatment of affected and non-affected pregnant women.
Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.
Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented
Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)
Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.
Mete Sucu; Cihan Cetin; Mehmet Ozsurmeli; Ghanim Khatib; Ceren Cetin; Cuneyt Evruke
The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinician...
By the year 2000 there will be six million pregnant women and five to ten million children infected with HIV-1. Intervention strategies have been planned and in some instances already started. A timely and cost-effective strategy needs to take into account that most HIV-1 infected individuals reside in developing countries. Further studies are needed on immunological and virological factors affecting HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, on differential disease progression in affected children, and on transient infection.
Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.
Dennis J. Baumgardner
Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.
Full Text Available Background: CMV is the most common agent that causes congenital virus infection. Only 10 % of infected children have symptomatic infection immediately after birth. Signs of central nervous system damage, neurosensory deafness and delayed psychomotor development may manifest as a result of asimptomatic congenital infection later in childhood. In the article we present basic properties of CMV; we describe clinical picture of the congenital infection and possibilities of diagnose and its treatment. We present five children with symptomatic congenital CMV infection that were hospitalized for the period 1992–2002 at the Neonatal department in the University Children’s Hospital in Ljubljana.Conclusions: Identification of infected neonates, especially those with asimptomatic congenital CMV infection, is difficult. Latest incidence of infection in Slovenia is unknown. With new investigations the efficiency of antiviral therapy was discovered but exact indications for therapy are not yet known. CMV vaccine, once available, may ultimately be the best control strategy for this important public health problem. Proper educating women in childbearing age about the risks of CMV and how to avoid disease transmission during pregnancy (hand washing, avoiding mouth-to-mouth contact with preschool children, usage of gloves especially when handling dipers or respiratory secretions are the only control strategies available.
... present in some children, including an infection of the joints ( arthritis ), bones (osteomyelitis), and tendons (tenosynovitis). Less frequently, youngsters may have pneumonia , urinary tract ...
This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.
... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...
The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic
Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.
Full Text Available Infection of a self-sealing tunnel incision is a rare but vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. We describe two cases of side port infection following an uneventful phacoemulsification. Nocardia was isolated in one case. Both the cases were worsening on medical treatment and were successfully treated by therapeutic keratoplasty.
Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.
Yu. V. Lobzin
Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.
... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...
Ioni Oliveira Santos
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13% of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.
Joel M. Palefsky
Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoa named Toxoplasma gondii. It is a very important disease because it is related to fetal anomalies and poor perinatal outcomes like abortus and stillbirth. It spreads via uncooked meat and contaminated food. Timely and appropriate treatment and management of this infection prenatally reduces the risk of serious neurological sequelae. Therefore it is crucial that clinician who takes care of pregnant women know this infection deeply. In this review we aimed to summarize the prenatal diagnosis, complications and treatment of toxoplasma infection. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 457-466
Tande, Aaron J.
SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437
Full text. The use of nuclear medicine techniques to image infection has been with us for over 20 years, indeed this year sees the 20th anniversary of the publication of Matthew Thakur's paper of the use of In-111 oxime labelled leukocytes in imaging infection. Without doubt this technique has stood the test of time and has been used to save many lives in infected patients worldwide. As we approach the 21st century we are faced with new problems which will need new solutions. Infections themselves have changed their very nature, HIV a benign virus which only infected monkeys in central Africa in 1977 has now spread throughout the globe and unfortunately few societies have remained free of its ravages. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. The use of immuno suppressive therapy in many patients with transplants or cancer has lead to new infections in a wider group of patients. The wide spread use of antibiotics has lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The old approach of widespread antibiotic treatment in patients with suspected infection is not acceptable. If possible organisms must be isolated. Normally imaging is required to localize infection and it is important to realize that a combination or anatomical imaging with CT, ultrasound or MRI and nuclear medicine is often the only way to determine the site of infection. Allied to this a new educated public has demanded that diagnostic tests be accurate and non-invasive, particularly in non-fatal inflammatory disease. All these challenges has lead us to a new frontier in nuclear medicine. In some ways we have had to rediscover the old. For example the use of Ga-67 citrate in imaging tuberculosis or infection in patients with Aids. The use of Tc-99 m HMPAO labelled leukocytes in
Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...
... hospital, including: viral meningitis , an infection of the meninges (membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) ... and meningoencephalitis (an inflammation of the brain and meninges). In newborns, symptoms can develop within 2 weeks ...
Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael
Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...
AJRH Managing Editor
Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard ... In Nigeria, the deteriorating economic situation has led to ..... female sex workers from Mexico City.
... discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood in urine Urethra (urethritis) Burning with urination Discharge When to see a ... opening to the bladder. Infection of the urethra (urethritis). This type of UTI can occur when GI ...
SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...
Lamb, Tracey J
... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...
Decrease the inflammatory response Vasodilatation leads to better perfusion and ... Must NOT be allowed to come in contact with brain, meninges, eyes or .... project (SCIP): Evolution of National Quality Measure. Surgical. Infection 2008 ...
... to treat ordinary staph germs. What are Risk Factors for Staph Infection? Many healthy people normally have ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
... of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. How long this phase lasts depends on how ...
T. L. Vinogradova
Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristic features of the modern course of infective endocarditis. Unresolved questions of classification of diseaseand drug therapy are discussed. Clearly defined indications for surgical treatment of endocarditis.
P. H. M. Bonai
Full Text Available Nosocomial infection or nosocomial infection (NI is one of the factors that increase the cost of maintaining patients in the health system, even in processes that should safely occur, such as hospital patients and performing simple and routine surgical procedures surgical centers and clinics leading to complications resulting from these infections that prolong hospital stay and promote pain and suffering to the patient, resulting in the defense of the quality of services and influencing negatively the hospitals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the factors that result in surgical site infection, with the purpose of better understanding of the subject and the possibility of preventive actions to better treatment outcome of the patient.
... ear infections may get better without antibiotics. Using antibiotics cautiously and with good reason helps prevent the development of bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, it’s important ...
Marschang, Rachel E
A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has ... deep tissue is found on clinical examination, re-opening, histopathological or radiological investigation ..... Esposito S, Immune system and SSI, Journal of Chemotherapy, 2001.
... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...
Rachel E. Marschang
Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.
Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P
Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.
This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
... parasite, Cryptosporidium , is a common culprit behind diarrhea epidemics in childcare centers and other public places. Cryptosporidium ... take prescription antibiotics to prevent the infection from spreading throughout the body. What Can I Do to ...
Transplantation-associated infections are caused by an infected transplanted organ or the endogenic or exogenic environment of the recipient in a state of induced immunodeficiency. The best therapy would be to reconstitute the immunodeficiency, but this is usually impossible as it endangers the transplanted organ. Thus, a specific, standardised anti-infectious therapy is needed even in the absence of clearly identified micro-organisms [bacteria (in two thirds gram-positive rods), parasites (in central Europe predominantly Toxoplasma), fungi (especially Candida spp. or Aspergillus spp.) or viruses (such as Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus)]. Origins of infection (e.g., hygiene), types of infection (e.g., reactivation), typical localisations, diagnostic tools (e.g., blood cultures, antigenic tests, PCR, CT, advantages and disadvantages of antibody assays) and possible therapies are briefly discussed. The take home messages are to avoid economy measures in microbial diagnostics and to use CMV-seronegative donors whenever possible.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
N. I. Khokhlova
Full Text Available The share of norovirus infection is 17–20% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis in the world. The dominant II genogroup of noroviruses is characterized by rapid variability. The new recombinant norovirus GII.P16-GII.2 caused a sharp increase in the incidence of gastroenteritis in Asian and European countries during the winter season 2016–2017. The epidemiological features of norovirus infection are long-term excretion of the pathogen from the body of patients and carriers of viruses, especially in persons with immunosuppression; the implementation of various transmission routes (food, water, contact, aerosol, high contagiosity, winter seasonality in the countries of the northern hemisphere. In recent years, two human systems for the cultivation of noroviruses in vitro have been created, a double tropism of noroviruses has been established for immune cells and epithelial cells of the intestine, and the life cycle of noroviruses has been studied. The microbiota and its members can be either protective or stimulating for norovirus infection. Lactobacillus may play a protective role against norovirus infection. The existence of chronic norovirus infection lasting from several months to several years is proved, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. Severe form of norovirus infection and deaths are more often recorded in young children, the elderly, patients with comorbidity and immunocompromised individuals. The clinical picture of norovirus gastroenteritis is similar in many respects to other viral gastroenteritis, which determines the need for laboratory verification of the diagnosis. The polymerase chain reaction method with reverse transcription is the most widely used in the world for diagnosing infection in patients and for detecting the virus in food and environmental objects. There are still no approved vaccines and antiviral drugs against this infection. Recommended therapeutic interventions include, along with rehydration with
Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J
In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.
Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Antachopoulos, C; Walsh, T J
Despite appropriate antifungal treatment, the management of cryptococcal disease remains challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients. During the past two decades, our knowledge of host immune responses against Cryptococcus spp. has been greatly advanced, and the role of immunomodulation in augmenting the response to infection has been investigated. In particular, the role of 'protective' Th1 (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18) and Th17 (IL-23 and IL-17) and 'non-protective' Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokines has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models of cryptococcal infection. Immunomodulation with monoclonal antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, glucosylceramides, melanin and β-glucan and, lately, with radioimmunotherapy has also yielded promising results in animal models. As a balance between sufficiently protective Th1 responses and excessive inflammation is important for optimal outcome, the effect of immunotherapy may range from beneficial to deleterious, depending on factors related to the host, the infecting organism, and the immunomodulatory regimen. Clinical evidence supporting immunomodulation in patients with cryptococcal infection remains too limited to allow firm recommendations. Limited human data suggest a role for IFN-γ. Identification of surrogate markers characterizing patients' immunological status could possibly suggest candidate patients for immunotherapy and the type of immunomodulation to be administered. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Eggers, H J
Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.
Paolo Domenico Parchi
Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.
Madsen, M.B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.; Arnell, P.; Rosén, A.; Nekludov, M.; Karlsson, Y.; Bergey, F.; Saccenti, E.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Perner, A.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Hyldegaard, O.
Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating
Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)
Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.
The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...
Barrios, M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Amipour, S.; Wambacq, J.; Aerts, J.-M.; Maes, P.; Berckmans, D.; Lagrou, K.; van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.
Lyme disease and Hanta virus infection are the result of the conjunction of several climatic and ecological conditions. Although both affections have different causal agents, they share an important characteristic which is the fact that rodents play an important role in the contagion. One of the most important agents in the dispersion of these diseases is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareoulus). The bank vole is a common host for both, the Borrelia bacteria which via the ticks (Ixodes ricinus) reaches the human body and causes the Lyme disease, and the Nephropatia epidemica which is caused by Puumala Hantavirus and affects kidneys in humans. The prefered habitat of bank voles is broad-leaf forests with an important presence of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) and a relatively dense low vegetation layer. These vegetation systems are common in West-Europe and their dynamics have a great influence in the bank voles population and, therefore, in the spreading of the infections this study is concerned about. The fact that the annual seed production is not stable in time has an important effect in bank voles population and, as it has been described in other studies, in the number of reported cases of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease. The years in which an abundant production of seeds is observed are referred to as mast years which are believed to obey to cyclic patterns and to certain climatologically characteristics of the preceding years. Statistical analysis have confirmed the correlation in the behaviour of the number of infected cases and the presence of mast years. This project aims at the design of a remote sensing based system (INFOPRESS - INFectious disease Outbreak Prediction REmote Sensing based System) that should enable local and national health care instances to predict and locate the occurrence of infection outbreaks and design policies to counteract undesired effects. The predictive capabilities of the system are based on the
Milind Madhav Chaudhary
Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced
Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.
Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.
Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.
Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.
Bonello, M; Michael, B D; Solomon, T
A wide range of infections of the central nervous system are responsible for both acute seizures and epilepsy. The pathogenesis and clinical semiology of the seizure disorders vary widely between the infective pathogens. The exact mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood, but appear, at least in part, to relate to the pathogen; the degree of cortical involvement; delays in treatment; and the host inflammatory response. The treatment of infective causes of seizures involves both symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs and direct treatment of the underlying condition. In many cases, early treatment of the infection may affect the prognosis of the epilepsy syndrome. The greatest burden of acute and long-term infection-related seizures occurs in resource-poor settings, where both clinical and research facilities are often lacking to manage such patients adequately. Nevertheless, education programs may go a long way toward addressing the stigma, leading to improved diagnosis, management, and ultimately to better quality of life. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...
Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535
Reinout A. Bem
Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.
Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.
Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang
Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537
Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay
Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis. Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 1/9/2012.
Tatyana Valerevna Kushnareva
The obtained threshold indicators of active circulation of Amur hantavirus in population dynamics of natural host allows to predicting the periods of the increased risk of infection for people in HFRS forest foci.
Tatyana Valerevna Kushnareva
The obtained threshold values of Amur hantavirus active circulation in population dynamics of the natural host allows to predict the periods of the increased risk of infection in HFRS forest foci for humans.
...) in North and South America, respectively. Although ANDV causes a lethal HPS-like disease in hamsters, SNV, and all other HPS-associated hantaviruses that have been tested, cause asymptomatic infections of laboratory animals, including hamsters...
... one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States. The parasites are found in backcountry streams and lakes but also in municipal water supplies, swimming pools, whirlpool spas and wells. Giardia infection can be transmitted through food and person-to-person contact. Giardia ...
Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections. Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/21/2011.
In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.
Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.
Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.
Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections. Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/8/2018.
This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster. Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/25/2017.
Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente
Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716
... IV) to kill the germs. If you take antibiotics while you’re in labor, the chances are very good that your baby won’t get this infection. What if my baby has group B strep? If your baby gets group B strep, he or she will be treated with IV antibiotics to kill the bacteria. Your baby will stay ...
Roderick Micallef has a long family history within the construction industry. He coupled this passion with a fascination with science when reading for an undergraduate degree in Biology and Chemistry (University of Malta). http://www.um.edu.mt/think/healing-stone-by-infection/
Stewart, Philip S
This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
... need.) When you visit a patient in the hospital, keep your hands away from your face. Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crease of your elbow, not into the air. References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...
... disrupt the pH balance of the vagina. Common yeast infection symptoms include vaginal itching and a white, thick discharge that looks ... and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm. Accessed Aug. 27, ... Vagina, Cervix, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Endometritis, and Salpingitis. In: ...
Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Wortel, C. H.
The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential
Nsouli, K A; Lazarus, M; Schoenbaum, S C; Gottlieb, M N; Lowrie, E G; Shocair, M
This is a retrospective study of 133 episodes of bacteremic infection in 112 hemodialysis patients. The frequency of bacteremic infection was 9.5% in patients with chronic renal failure and 10.9% in patients with acute renal failure. In patients with acute renal failure, pneumonia and intra-abdominal abscess were the most frequent sources of septicemia. Sepsis was usually due to Gram-negative organisms and mortality was high. In patients with chronic renal failure, infection of the shunt or fistula was the most common cause, was frequently due to Staphylococcus organism, and had a more favorable survival rate. Gram-negative septicemia from a nonaccess source in patients with chronic renal failure was associated with a higher mortality. Bacterial endocarditis and septic pulmonary emboli occurred in 3.6% of septic episodes and 0.35% of patients at risk and had very low mortality. A low threshold for obtaining blood cultures and early antibiotic treatment are believed to be important in the treatment of bacteremic infections in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis.
Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.
This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…
Keller, Tymen T.; Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; Klein, Saskia K.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; ten Cate, Hugo; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Levi, Marcel; van Gorp, Eric C. M.
Systemic infection by various pathogens interacts with the endothelium and may result in altered coagulation, vasculitis and atherosclerosis. Endothelium plays a role in the initiation and regulation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis. Exposure of endothelial cells may lead to rapid activation of
... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...
Cahill, Thomas J; Baddour, Larry M; Habib, Gilbert; Hoen, Bruno; Salaun, Erwan; Pettersson, Gosta B; Schäfers, Hans Joachim; Prendergast, Bernard D
Infective endocarditis is defined by a focus of infection within the heart and is a feared disease across the field of cardiology. It is frequently acquired in the health care setting, and more than one-half of cases now occur in patients without known heart disease. Despite optimal care, mortality approaches 30% at 1 year. The challenges posed by infective endocarditis are significant. It is heterogeneous in etiology, clinical manifestations, and course. Staphylococcus aureus, which has become the predominant causative organism in the developed world, leads to an aggressive form of the disease, often in vulnerable or elderly patient populations. There is a lack of research infrastructure and funding, with few randomized controlled trials to guide practice. Longstanding controversies such as the timing of surgery or the role of antibiotic prophylaxis have not been resolved. The present article reviews the challenges posed by infective endocarditis and outlines current and future strategies to limit its impact. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma. Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 1/28/2016.
ble exposure to HIV infection and associated risk fac- tors, information regarding demographic data, blood transfusion history, travelling from/to HIV endemic countries, history of imprisonment in the past 5 years, symptoms and signs of AIDS, lifestyle (number of sexu- al partners, heterosexual, homosexual, etc.) was collect-.
This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.
Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas
Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.
Nelson, H D; Helfand, M
To examine data on the effectiveness of screening for chlamydial infection by a physician or other health care professional. Specifically, we examine the evidence that early treatment of chlamydial infection improves health outcomes, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of screening strategies in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, and men, and the accuracy of tests used for screening. This review updates the literature since the last recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published in 1996. We searched the topic of chlamydia in the MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, and Cochrane Library databases from January 1994 to July 2000, supplemented by reference lists of relevant articles and from experts in the field. Articles published prior to 1994 and research abstracts were cited if particularly important to the key questions or to the interpretation of included articles. A single reader reviewed all English abstracts. Articles were selected for full review if they were about Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infections in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, or men and were relevant to key questions in the analytic framework. Investigators read the full-text version of the retrieved articles and applied additional eligibility criteria. For all topics, we excluded articles if they did not provide sufficient information to determine the methods for selecting subjects and for analyzing data. We systematically reviewed three types of studies about screening in nonpregnant women that relate to three key questions: (1) studies about the effectiveness of screening programs in reducing prevalence rates of infection, (2) studies about risk factors for chlamydial infection in women, and (3) studies about chlamydial screening tests in women. Our search found too few studies on pregnant women to systematically review, although pertinent studies are described. We systematically reviewed two types of studies about screening in men: (1) studies about prevalence rates and
Sulkowski, Mark S
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spherical enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, classified within the Hepacivirus genus. Since its discovery in 1989, HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis that progresses in some patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, approximately 4 million people have been infected with HCV, and 10,000 HCVrelated deaths occur each year. Due to shared routes of transmission, HCV and HIV co-infection are common, affecting approximately one third of all HIV-infected persons in the United States. In addition, HIV co-infection is associated with higher HCV RNA viral load and a more rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease, leading to an increased risk of cirrhosis. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV disease, particularly by increasing the risk of antiretroviral drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, chronic HCV infection acts as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected persons because the incidence of infection is increased and the natural history of HCV infection is accelerated in co-infected persons. Strategies to prevent primary HCV infection and to modify the progression of HCV-related liver disease are urgently needed among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.
Takahashi, Saeko; Xu, Chieko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Fujii, Kotaro; Nakamura, Morio
We report the first case of infective endocarditis following urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Globicatella sanguinis in an 87-year-old Japanese woman with recurrent episodes of UTI. We identified the pathogen using the Rapid ID32 Strep system. Accurate identification of this infection is important and essential for the effective antimicrobial coverage to this pathogen.
Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse
Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... you have a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill ...
Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...
Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...
Full Text Available ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...
Full Text Available ... Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety ... Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports ...
Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...
Full Text Available ... padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that ...
Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder ...
... Protect: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Infection Neutropenia and Risk for Infection Health Care Providers Educational Materials Cancer and Flu How to Prevent Flu from Spreading Flu Symptoms Information for Families and Caregivers Flu Treatment for Cancer Patients and ...
The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.
5.00%) of 140 examined at the secondary school category were infected. There were more infections among the secondary school students than their primary school counterparts, though the difference was not significant (p>0.05). Full Length R.
Full Text Available ... infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's important to talk ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your ...
Benn, Marianne; Hagelskjaer, L H; Tvede, M
To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population.......To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population....
Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...
Full Text Available ... padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ...
Full Text Available ... Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...
Sahil Aggarwal, BS
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent
Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J
laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....
Hartmann, K.M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.
This article gives a review of the most frequent infective agents reasonable for CNS infections in immunocompetent patients as well as their localisation and imaging specifications. MRI scanning is the gold standard to detect inflammatory conditions in the CNS. Imaging can be normal or nonspecifically altered although the infection is culturally or bioptically proven. There are no pathognomonic, pathogen-specific imaging criteria. The localization and dimension of the inflammation depends on the infection pathway. (orig.) [de
Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED......-up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses....
Madsen, M. B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.
these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. Methods: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian......Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with ... Acute cystitis refers to symptomatic infection of the bladder in the lower ... lungs in a patient with pneumonia.4. Risk factors ... use of antimicrobial agents for community-acquired UTIs has resulted in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.
Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.
Elbur, Abubaker Ibrahim; M.A., Yousif; El-Sayed, Ahmed S.A.; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E.
Introduction: Surgical site infections account for 14%-25% of all nosocomial infections. The main aims of this study were to audit the use of prophylactic antibiotic, to quantify the rate of post-operative wound infection, and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in general surgery.
Griffith, D P; Osborne, C A
Infection-induced stones in man probably form solely as a consequence of urealysis which is catalyzed by the bacterial protein urease. Urease stones composed of struvite and carbonate-apatite may form primarily, or as secondary stones or pre-existent metabolic stones. Struvite stones form and grow rapidly owing to (a) supersaturation of urine with stone forming salts, (b) 'salting out' of poorly soluble organic substances normally dissolved in urine and (c) ammonia-induced destruction of the normally protective urothelial glycosaminoglycan layer. Immature (predominantly organic) matrix stones mature into densely mineralized stones. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone and by eradicating all urinary and parenchymal infection. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches are available. Patient treatment must be individualized inasmuch as some patients are better candidates for one type of treatment than another.
Schwartz, Robert A
Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.
Acute pulmonary infection may be caused by a variety of organisms. In some instances they produce a reasonably characteristic, gross pathologic pattern and, therefore, a recognizable roentgenographic pattern. In the subsequent discussions the most common gross anatomic findings in the pneumonias of various causes as reflected in chest roentgenograms will be described. The roentgenographic manifestations of pulmonary infections are so varied that the pattern observed often gives us little information regarding the causative organism. Therefore, in each instance it should be remembered that roentgenographic findings must be correlated with clinical, bacteriological, and laboratory data to ascertain the correct etiologic diagnosis upon which treatment is based. The role of the radiologist is to locate and define the extent of the disease and any complicating findings such as lung abscess and pleural effusion or empyema
Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen
Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.
This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers. Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC). Date Released: 10/24/2011.
Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S
Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...
Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle
A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.
Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...
This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections. Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 3/6/2012.
Thomas, Konstantinos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios
To review recent evidence for infection rates in patients with systemic vasculitides, the role of specific infectious agents in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and recent breakthroughs in the treatment of virus-associated vasculitides. In well designed recent studies, infections were found to be common during the first 6-12 months in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to contribute significantly to increased mortality during this period. New therapeutic schemes with lower cyclophosphamide doses and shorter corticosteroid courses were associated with decreased infectious rates in elderly patients with AAV whereas a prednisone dose greater than 10 mg/day at the end of the first year were associated with increased infectious-related mortality in patients with GCA. Recently, a potential role for varicella zoster virus in GCA pathogenesis has been proposed but more data are needed in order to establish a causal relationship. Finally, preliminary data show excellent short-term efficacy and safety of the new, interferon-free, oral antiviral agents in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Infections continue to be one of the main causes of mortality in patients with systemic vasculitides, emphasizing the need for safer immunosuppressive therapies and appropriate prophylaxis.
Day, Michael J
Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member. Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated. Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women. Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections. People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets. Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular. Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections. Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination. The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals. Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.
Sahng G. Kim
Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.
Rieder, Martina; Finke, Stefan; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus
Rabies is a zoonosis still claiming more than 50 000 human deaths per year. Typically, human cases are due to infection with rabies virus, the prototype of the Lyssavirus genus, but sporadic cases of rabies-like encephalitis caused by other lyssaviruses have been reported. In contrast to rabies virus, which has an extremely broad host range including many terrestrial warm-blooded animals, rabies-related viruses are associated predominantly with bats and rarely infect terrestrial species. In spite of a very close genetic relationship of rabies and rabies-related viruses, the factors determining the limited host range of rabies-related viruses are not clear. In the past years the importance of viral countermeasures against the host type I interferon system for establishment of an infection became evident. The rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) has emerged as a critical factor required for paralysing the signalling cascades leading to transcriptional activation of interferon genes as well as interferon signalling pathways, thereby limiting expression of antiviral and immune stimulatory genes. Comparative studies would be of interest in order to determine whether differential abilities of the lyssavirus P proteins contribute to the restricted host range of lyssaviruses.
Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.
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The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.
Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis
Sandra F Moreira-Silva
Full Text Available Nematode infection may be a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess in children and we hypothesized that the immunomodulation induced by those parasites would be a risk factor for any staphylococcal infection in children. The present study was designed to compare, within the same hospital, the frequency of intestinal nematodes and Toxocara infection in children with and without staphylococcal infections. From October 1997 to February 1998, 80 children with staphylococcal infection and 110 children with other diseases were submitted to fecal examination, serology for Toxocara sp., evaluation of plasma immunoglobulin levels, and eosinophil counts. Mean age, gender distribution, birthplace, and socioeconomic conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Frequency of intestinal nematodes and positive serology for Toxocara, were remarkably higher in children with staphylococcal infections than in the non-staphylococcal group. There was a significant correlation between intestinal nematodes or Toxocara infection and staphylococcal infection in children, reinforced by higher eosinophil counts and higher IgE levels in these children than in the control group. One possible explanation for this association would be the enhancement of bacterial infection by the immunomodulation induced by helminth infections, due to strong activation of the Th2 subset of lymphocytes by antigens from larvae and adult worms.
Full Text Available Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a causative agent of infection in immunocompromised patients, and healthcare-associated infections. Although the infections associated with S.paucimobilis occurs rarely, it has been encountered with increasing frequency in clinical settings. In the current study we noted the risk factors and clinical features of the children with S.paucimobilis infections, and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolated strains among the patients. This study was conducted in Dr. Behçet Uz Children’s Hospital, Turkey, during the period of January 2005 and December 2012. The medical records of pediatric patients with positive cultures for S.paucimobilis were reviewed. Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolates were recovered from 24 pediatric patients. The median age was 4 years (ranging from 3 days infant to 15 years and 58,3% were male. Eight (33,3% of the patients were under 1 months of age. Among the patients; 13 (54,2% infections were community related however 11(45.8% infections were nosocomial infection. The median duration of hospital stay was 7 days (ranging from 4 to 22 days. The most effective antibiotics were fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This is the first largest study in children to evaluate the clinical features of S. paucimobilis infections. Sphingomonas paucimobilis may cause infections in both previously healthy and immunocompromised children. Although variable antimicrobial regimens were achieved to the patients, there was no attributable fatality due to S.paucimobilis infections due to the low virulence of the bacteria.
Deter, J.; Bryja, Josef; Chaval, Y.; Galan, M.; Henttonen, H.; Laakkonen, J.; Voutilainen, L.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A.; Salvador, A. R.; Morand, S.; Cosson, J.-F.; Charbonnel, N.
Roč. 8, č. 4 (2008), s. 450-458 ISSN 1567-1348 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Myodes (Clethrionomys) glareolus * Hantavirus * SSCP * Coinertia * Helminths * Mites * Cowpox virus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2008
Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.
Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith
Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...
Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.
Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650
Kim, Seog Joon; Im, Jung Gi; Seong, Chang Kyu; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Song, Jae Woo
To analyze the clinical and radiological manifestations of pulmonary infection in patients with AIDS. We reviewed the medical records and analyzed retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=3D24) and CT scans(n=3D11) of 26 patients with AIDS who had been followed up at our institute from 1987 to June 1998. Pulmonary infections were confirmed by sputum smear and culture(n=3D18), pleural examination(n=3D3), bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D3), autopsy(n=3D4), transbronchial lung biopsy(n=3D1) or clinical history(n=3D9). The study group included 23 men and three women aged 25-54(average 35.2) years. We correlated the radiologic findings with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Pulmonary infections included tuberculosis(n=3D22), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(n=3D9), cytomegalovirus(n=3D3), and unidentified bacterial pneumonia(n=3D2). Radiologically pulmonary tuberculosis was classified as primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:41.3 cells/mm 3 ) and post-primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:251.3cells/mm 3 ). CT findings of tuberculosis included lymphadenitis(n=3D6), bronchogenic spread(n=3D5), large consolidation(n=3D4), esophago-mediastinal fistula(n=3D2), and cavity(n=3D1). Tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-TB medication with complete or marked resolution of lesions within three months. Radiologic findings of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included diffuse ground glass opacities, cysts, and reticular opacities. Tuberculosis was the most common infection in patients with AIDS in Korea, and this is attributed to the high prevalence of tuberculosis. Radiological findings varied with CD4+cell count, showing those of primary tuberculosis as a patient's CD4+ cell count decreased. Pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-Tb medication. =20
Full Text Available Lissencephaly is a malformation of the brain in which the brain surface is smooth, rather than convoluted. Among the various causes of lissencephaly, infection by a virus during pregnancy plays an important role. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is an important pathogen causing this anomaly. We present this case of a young female with 24-week-gestation diagnosed on ultrasound as carrying an anomalous fetus with lissencephalic features. At autopsy, there were multiple intra-nuclear CMV inclusions in the brain and the kidneys. This case is presented for its rarity and for the documentation of the tissue localization of CMV inclusions at autopsy.
Chun Soo Kim
Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.
Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan
Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
G. R. Fatkullina
Full Text Available The variants of the course of chronic herpesvirus infection in children with the involvement of several mesenteric lymph nodes in the process and the formation of inflammatory conglomerates – mesenterite (mesadenite are considered. Possible etiological factors of mesenteritis, morphological changes in affected lymph nodes: nonspecific hyperplasia, in some cases – necrosis and suppuration, are given. Clinical cases of mesenteritis against chronic herpesvirus infections in preschool children are described with a detailed description of clinical manifestations in the form of prolonged fever, chronic intoxication, attacks of abdominal pain accompanied by an unstable stool. Dynamics of the main laboratory markers of herpesvirus activity is given, changes in the indices of instrumental methods of investigation are tracked. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms of the formation of such manifestations of the disease, the role of the systemic inflammatory response and therapeutic approaches with the use of antiviral drugs and glucocorticosteroids are discussed.
Monge, Susana; Pérez-Molina, José A
Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Leukaemia in children has often been suspected of having an infective basis (as specifically identified in certain animal species) but, until recently, formal studies had gone no further than to show that it does not markedly cluster in time and space. Many infective illnesses, however, are uncommon responses to infections that are mainly spread by the majority of infected individuals who are not ill. These include, for example, glandular fever and certain types of meningitis. Such illnesses are not contagious and do not normally cluster. The possibilities that childhood leukamia might belong to this class of infective illnesses and be subject to increases in incidence as a result of epidemics of an underlying infection were suggested by the well-known excesses near Sellafield and Dounreay. (author)
Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is commonly known as a central nervous system infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans. It is one of the most frequent infections in AIDS patients. Disseminated cryptococcosis appears in almost one third of these patients. In this review, we will discuss the clinical presentation of cryptococcal infections among HIV patients and various methods of diagnosis, such as India ink, latex agglutination test and culture.
Duerink, Daphne Offra
The studies in this thesis were performed as part of the AMRIN (Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia) study that addressed antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic usage and infection control in Indonesia. They are the first studies that give insight into the incidence of healthcare-associated infections, determinants for carriage of resistant bacteria in Indonesian individuals and the implementation of measures for the prevention of the spread of bacteria and nosocomial infections in Indonesian...
Heyworth Martin F.
Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-spe...
Michno, Mikolaj; Sydor, Antoni
Review of urinary tract infections in adults including etiology, pathogenesis, classification and the most important therapeutic recommendations. Urinary tract infections are still a common clinical problem occurring more often in sexually active women, pregnancy, elderly , after catherization of a urinary bladder and urological surgery as well as in the co-existence of diabetes or nephrolithiasis. Due to the anatomical differences, women suffer more often than men. The main etiological factor is Escherichia coli, even though it plays a lesser role in the complicated infections, than in non-complicated ones. Apart from that, the infections may also be caused by atypical microbes, viruses and fungi. Relapses as well as reinfections are typical features of urinary tract infections and in some cases prolonged infections can spread from lower to upper urinary tract contributing to pyelonephritis, urosepsis or even death. These long-term infections can progress in a hidden, insidious, oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic manner leading to irreversible, progressive deterioration of renal function. They can also mask other diseases such as tuberculosis or neoplasms of the urinary tract, which leads to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a complex problem, often requiring specialized procedures as well as hospitalization. The choice of a therapy is determined by the type of infection, general condition, age and coexisting diseases. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of proper pharmacotherapy may shorten the time of treatment and hospitalization, preventing serious complications and reinfections.
Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T ...
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Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.
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Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.
Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S
A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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Grobusch, M. P.; Calleri, G.; Bogner, J. R.
Infections are of unifying global concern, despite regional differences in disease epidemiology, clinical appearance and the instruments to tackle them. The primary aim of Infection is "to be a forum for the presentation and discussion of clinically relevant information on infectious diseasesaEuro
Rory D. de Vries
Full Text Available Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field.
Full Text Available A total of 76 anaerobes and 122 aerobes were isolated from 100 patients with pleuropulmonary infections, e.g. empyema (64, pleural effusion (19 and lung abscess (13. In 14% of the patients, only anaerobes were recovered, while a mixture of aerobes and anaerobes was encountered in 58%. From all cases of lung abscess, anaerobic bacteria were isolated, alone (04 or along with aerobic bacteria (13. From empyema and pleural effusion cases, 65.6% and 68.4% anaerobes were recovered respectively. Amongst anaerobes, gram negative anaerobic bacilli predominated (Prevotella melaninogenicus 16, Fusobacterium spp. 10, Bacteroides spp. 9, followed by gram positive anaerobic cocci (Peptostreptococcus spp. 31. Coliform bacteria (45 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42 were the predominant aerobic isolates.
Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M
Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.
Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807
Herrmann, P; Thoele, P; Heppert, V
Treatment of late and chronic infections, which require the replacement of all the infected implant material. All infections lasting more than 4 weeks that have been proven to be bacterial and/or obvious signs of infection. Unsuitable for anesthesia, high acute infection with sepsis and risk for bacteremia with danger to life, large soft tissue damage where plastic surgery coverage is not possible. Arthrotomy, synovectomy, removal of all foreign bodies including all residue of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), jet lavage, spacer, drainage, wound closure or temporary closure using vacuum sealing. Bed rest with a leg brace and drainage until daily drainage volume is exchange of the spacer. In the literature, the success rate for both the one-stage or the two-stage procedure is about 80-95%. In our very nonhomogeneous collective the overall rate of success is about 81%.
Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F
In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence . By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States . One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection . The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines . Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies . There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly
Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D.
Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due ...
Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas
A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection. A...
Samson Sai-Yin Wong
Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.
This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces. Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/28/2012.
Barak, A; Hirsh, A; Rosner, M; Rosen, N
An orbital cyst is a rare complication of orbital trauma and exenteration. Infections of such cysts have not been described, and are potentially dangerous unless treated immediately. The authors describe a case of delayed treatment of such an infected cyst, which resolved following surgical drainage. The potentially hazardous outcome makes knowledge of such cases important.
... will lose his job if he is found to be HIV-infected. ... already infected, has an interest in know- ing about ... and takes every action to do so. AM's ... forceful persuasion. .... patients don't do well, so we have ... set will affect the fairness and legit- ... emotional impact of the situation, will ... than ad hoc, when faced with individ-.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...
Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...
The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes.......The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes....
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. It is accepted as the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, carcinoma of the distal part of the stomach and gastric lymphoma. However, how and when the infection is acquired remain largely unknown. Identification of mode of transmission is vital for developing preventive measures to interrupt its spread, but studies focused on this issue are difficult to implement. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there are great differences in the prevalence of infection in different populations and in ethnic groups originating from high prevalence regions. This is likely related to inferior hygienic conditions and sanitation. In developing countries, infection occurs at a much earlier age. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is related to poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly density of living. Humans seem to be the only reservoir of H pylori, which spread from person to person by oral-oral, fecal-oral or gastro-oral routes. Most infections are acquired in childhood, possibly from parents or other children living as close contacts. Infection from the environment or from animals cannot be entirely excluded.
Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...
Bereket, W; Hemalatha, K; Getenet, B; Wondwossen, T; Solomon, A; Zeynudin, A; Kannan, S
With increasing use of antimicrobial agents and advance in lifesaving medical practices which expose the patients for invasive procedures, are associated with the ever increasing of nosocomial infections. Despite an effort in hospital infection control measures, health care associated infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality adding additional health care expenditure which may leads to an economic crisis. The problem is further complicated with the emergence of difficult to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganism in the hospital environment. Virtually every pathogen has the potential to cause infection in hospitalized patients but only limited number of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infection. Among them Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococci takes the leading. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors predispose hospitalized patients for these pathogens. Following simple hospital hygienic practices and strictly following standard medical procedures greatly reduces infection to a significant level although not all nosocomial infections are avoidable. The clinical spectrum caused by nosocomial pathogens depend on body site of infection, the involving pathogen and the patient's underlying condition. Structural and non structural virulence factors associated with the bacteria are responsible for the observed clinical manifestation. Bacteria isolation and characterization from appropriate clinical materials with antimicrobial susceptibility testing is the standard of laboratory diagnosis.
Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) ... How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract ...
Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the
Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina
In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.
Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887
Bacterial Infections; Bone Diseases, Infectious; Osteomyelitis; Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections; Meningitis, Bacterial; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Urinary Tract Infections; Respiratory Tract Infections; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Skin Diseases, Bacterial; Soft Tissue Infections; Intraabdominal Infections; Sepsis; Bacteremia; Endocarditis, Bacterial
Liberatore, M.; Fiore, V.; D'Agostini, A.; Prosperi, D.; Iurilli, A.P.; Santini, C.; Baiocchi, P.; Galie, M.; Di Nucci, G.D.; Sinatra, R.
Sternal wound infections (SWIs) can be subdivided into two types, superficial or deep, that require different treatments. The clinical diagnosis of superficial SWI is normally easy to perform, whereas the involvement of deep tissues is frequently difficult to detect. Therefore, there is a need for an imaging study that permits the assessment of SWIs and is able to distinguish between superficial and deep SWI. The present work was a prospective study aiming to evaluate the role of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) labelled leucocyte scan in SWI management. Twenty-eight patients with suspected SWIs were included in the study. On the basis of clinical examination they were subdivided into three groups: patients with signs of superficial SWI (group 1), patients with signs of superficial SWI and suspected deep infection (group 2) and patients with suspected deep SWI without superficial involvement (group 3). Ten patients previously submitted to median sternotomy, but without suspected SWI, were also included in the study as a control group (group 4). All patients with suspected SWI had bacteriological examinations of wound secretion, if present. In addition 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scan was performed in all patients. The patients of groups 1, 2 and 3 were treated on the basis of the clinical signs and microbiological findings, independently of the scintigraphic results. The patients of group 4 did not receive treatment. The final assessment of infection was based on histological and microbiological findings or on long-term clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive and negative predictive values for scintigraphic and non-scintigraphic results were calculated. In the diagnosis of superficial and deep SWI, clinical and microbiological examination (combined) yielded, respectively, a sensitivity of 68.7% and 100%, a specificity of 77.3% and 80.8%, an accuracy of 73.7% and 86.8%, a positive predictive value of 68
Full Text Available American hantaviruses cause a highly lethal acute pulmonary edema termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. Hantaviruses nonlytically infect endothelial cells and cause dramatic changes in barrier functions of the endothelium without disrupting the endothelium. Instead hantaviruses cause changes in the function of infected endothelial cells that normally regulate fluid barrier functions of capillaries. The endothelium of arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels is unique and central to the function of vast pulmonary capillary beds, which regulate pulmonary fluid accumulation. The endothelium maintains vascular barrier functions through a complex series of redundant receptors and signaling pathways that serve to both permit fluid and immune cell efflux into tissues and restrict tissue edema. Infection of the endothelium provides several mechanisms for hantaviruses to alter capillary permeability but also defines potential therapeutic targets for regulating acute pulmonary edema and HPS disease. Here we discuss interactions of HPS causing hantaviruses with the endothelium, potential endothelial cell-directed permeability mechanisms, and therapeutic targeting of the endothelium as a means of reducing the severity of HPS disease.
Full Text Available Dengue Virus Infections are distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions and transmitted by the mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Dengue virus can cause dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome or dengue and severe dengue classified by World Health Organization. Beside it concurrent infection virus salmonella had been found some cases who showed fever more than 7 days. Concurrent infection with two agents can result in an illness having overlapping symptoms creating a diagnostic dilemma for treating physician, such as dengue fever with typhoid fever. The aim of this research is detection of dengue virus and secondary infection with Salmonella typhi in patients suspected dengue virus infection. Detection of dengue virus and Salmonella typhi using immunochromatography test such as NS1, IgG/IgM for dengue virus infection, and IgM/IgG Salmonella and blood culture. The fifty children with dengue virus infection came to Soerya hospital and 17 cases suspected dengue virus infection, five cases showed a positive NS1 on the second day of fever and one case concurrent with clinical manifestation of convulsi on the third days of fever there were five cases only showed positive. It was showed in this study that on the fourth to six day of fever in dengue virus infection accompanied by antibody IgM & IgG dengue. There were 12 cases showed the clinical manifestation of concurrent dengue viral infection and Salmonella, all of them showed a mild clinical manifestation and did not show plasma leakage and shock. In this study we found the length of stay of concurrent Dengue Virus Infection and Salmonella infection is more than 10 days. These patients were also more likely to have co-existing haemodynamic disturbances and bacterial septicaemia which would have required treatment with inotropes and antibiotics. This idea is very important to make update dengue viral management to decrease mortality in outbreak try to
Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.
Objective: Infective Endocarditis (IE) during pregnancy is a rare but grave condition. The diagnosis and management can be challenging, especially when the pregnant patient warrants a cardiac operation under cardiopulmonary bypass. The present article describes IE during pregnancy based on a series of published case reports in the literature. IE during pregnancy often causes embolic events and mycotic aneurysms. Two-thirds of IE in the pregnant patients requires timely or urgent cardiac surgery to alleviate patients deterioration. At least a 3-week antibiotic therapy is mandatory before cardiac surgery aiming at improving the patients. Conditions. During cardiac surgery, fetal heart rates may temporarily be slowed down but may gradually recover to normal after the operation. The fetal and maternal mortalities were 16.7% and 3.3%, respectively. The fetal deaths were apparently associated with a cardiac surgery during early pregnancy. Cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia and rewarming can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus by triggering placental deficits, fetal hypoxia and uterine contraction. Avoidance of cardiac operations before 24th gestation week and preferably deferred until after 28th gestation week have been a plausible argument as per the possible fetal deaths related to immaturity. (author)
Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs
... cause some minor infections, like a bladder or urinary tract infection (UTI). While GBS may not be harmful to you, ... baby with a GBS infection. You had a UTI during your pregnancy that was caused by GBS. ...
Complement Deficiency; Antibody Deficiency; Chronic Sinus Infection; Meningitis, Bacterial; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Otitis Media; Streptococcal Infection; Neisseria Infections; Haemophilus Influenza; Pneumococcal Infections
Streptococcus Pyogenes Pharyngitis; Streptococcus Pharyngitis; Strep Throat; Streptococcus Pyogenes Infection; Group A Streptococcus: B Hemolytic Pharyngitis; Group A Streptococcal Infection; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections; Bacterial Infections
Ovalle, A; Levancini, M
Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.
Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years. Modern quantitative analyses applied to natural FIV oral infection could significantly further our understanding of lentiviral oral disease and transmission. We therefore characterized FIV salivary viral kinetics and antibody secretions to more fully document oral viral pathogenesis. Our results demonstrate that: (i saliva of FIV-infected cats contains infectious virus particles, FIV viral RNA at levels equivalent to circulation, and lower but significant amounts of FIV proviral DNA; (ii the ratio of FIV RNA to DNA is significantly higher in saliva than in circulation; (iii FIV viral load in oral lymphoid tissues (tonsil, lymph nodes is significantly higher than mucosal tissues (buccal mucosa, salivary gland, tongue; (iv salivary IgG antibodies increase significantly over time in FIV-infected cats, while salivary IgA levels remain static; and, (v saliva from naïve Specific Pathogen Free cats inhibits FIV growth in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that oral lymphoid tissues serve as a site for enhanced FIV replication, resulting in accumulation of FIV particles and FIV-infected cells in saliva. Failure to induce a virus-specific oral mucosal antibody response, and/or viral capability to overcome inhibitory components in saliva may perpetuate chronic oral cavity infection. Based upon these findings, we propose a model of oral FIV pathogenesis
Di Franco, Manuela; Lucchino, Bruno; Spaziante, Martina; Iannuccelli, Cristina; Valesini, Guido; Iaiani, Giancarlo
Systemic rheumatic diseases have significant morbidity and mortality, due in large part to concurrent infections. The lung has been reported among the most frequent sites of infection in patients with rheumatic disease, who are susceptible to developing pneumonia sustained both by common pathogens and by opportunistic microorganisms. Patients with rheumatic disease show a peculiar vulnerability to infectious complications. This is due in part to intrinsic disease-related immune dysregulation and in part to the immunosuppressive treatments. Several therapeutic agents have been associated to a wide spectrum of infections, complicating the management of rheumatic diseases. This review discusses the most frequent pulmonary infections encountered in rheumatic diseases, focusing on opportunistic agents, consequent diagnostic challenges and appropriate therapeutic strategies.
Taylor, Steven L; McGuckin, Michael A; Wesselingh, Steve; Rogers, Geraint B
Glycans form a highly variable constituent of our mucosal surfaces and profoundly affect our susceptibility to infection and disease. The diversity and importance of these surface glycans can be seen in individuals who lack a functional copy of the fucosyltransferase gene, FUT2. Representing around one-fifth of the population, these individuals have an altered susceptibility to many bacterial and viral infections and diseases. The mediation of host-pathogen interactions by mucosal glycans, such as those added by FUT2, is poorly understood. We highlight, with specific examples, important mechanisms by which host glycans influence infection dynamics, including by: acting as pathogen receptors (or receptor-decoys), promoting microbial stability, altering the physical characteristics of mucus, and acting as immunological markers. We argue that the effect glycans have on infection dynamics has profound implications for many aspects of healthcare and policy, including clinical management, outbreak control, and vaccination policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tome, Tania; De Oliveira, Mario J
Two stochastic epidemic lattice models, the susceptible-infected-recovered and the susceptible-exposed-infected models, are studied on a Cayley tree of coordination number k. The spreading of the disease in the former is found to occur when the infection probability b is larger than b c = k/2(k - 1). In the latter, which is equivalent to a dynamic site percolation model, the spreading occurs when the infection probability p is greater than p c = 1/(k - 1). We set up and solve the time evolution equations for both models and determine the final and time-dependent properties, including the epidemic curve. We show that the two models are closely related by revealing that their relevant properties are exactly mapped into each other when p = b/[k - (k - 1)b]. These include the cluster size distribution and the density of individuals of each type, quantities that have been determined in closed forms.
James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lange, Jeppe; Troelsen, Anders; Thomsen, Reimar W
Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two-stage revisi......Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two......-stage revisions for chronic infection in hip arthroplasties....
Choneva, I.; Abadjieva, D.; Kirilov, R.
Full text: Introduction: The lung is one of the most commonly affected organs in immunocompromised patients. Primary complication is pulmonary infection which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although radiography and CT, as main diagnostic tools are reliable and credible methods, often there is difficulty with the correct diagnose. The reasons for this are that immunocompromised patients are potentially susceptible to infection by various microorganisms and that the radiographic findings are rarely specific for detecting a particular pathogen. What you will learn : Our objective is to present general nosological classification of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients, and to evaluate and analyze new imaging methods and discuss their correlation with the clinical setting, which aims to facilitate the diagnosis and to take a decision for the treatment. The experience indicates that a clinical environment conducive the immunocompromised patients to infection with certain pathogens, thereby changing the frequency of their occurrence. The most commonly cited fungal infections, cytomegalovirus infections, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) of which convincing is the Imaging diagnosis primarily in fungal infections, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and less accurate - in bacterial and viral infections. Discussion: The term 'immunocompromised' describes a subject with an increased risk for life-threatening infection as a result of congenital or acquired abnormalities of the immune system. Over the past few decades, the number of immunocompromised patients has grown considerably, reflecting the increased use of immunosuppressive drugs, and the syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency. Given the high incidence of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients (lung is one of the most commonly affected organs, such as lung infection is about 75% of pulmonary complications), rapid and accurate diagnosis is important
Clausen, M R; Meyer, C N; Krantz, T
Trichinellosis is caused by ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat contaminated with infective larvae of Trichinella species. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from no apparent infection to severe and even fatal disease. We report two illustrative cases of trichinellosis. Returning....... Life-threatening cardiopulmonary, renal and central nervous system complications developed. The patient recovered after several months. Her husband, who also ate the pork, did not have clinical symptoms, but an increased eosinophil count and a single larva in a muscle biopsy confirmed infection....... The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of trichinellosis are reviewed....
Rasmussen, Angela L
Ebola virus (EBOV) emerged in West Africa in 2014 to devastating effect, and demonstrated that infection can cause a broad range of severe disease manifestations. As the virus itself was genetically similar to other Zaire ebolaviruses, the spectrum of pathology likely resulted from variable responses to infection in a large and genetically diverse population. This review comprehensively summarizes current knowledge of the host response to EBOV infection, including pathways hijacked by the virus to facilitate replication, host processes that contribute directly to pathogenesis, and host-pathogen interactions involved in subverting or antagonizing host antiviral immunity.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to design a prediction model for eyespot (Tapesia yallundae infection based on climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, air humidity. Data from experiment years 1994-2002 were used to study correlations between the eyespot infection index and individual weather characteristics. The model of prediction was constructed using multiple regression when a separate parameter is assigned to each factor, i.e. the frequency of days with optimum temperatures, humidity, and precipitation. The correlation between relative air humidity and precipitation and the infection index is significant.
Goede, Matthew R; Coopersmith, Craig M
Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) are a common, frequently preventable complication of central venous catheterization. CR-BSIs can be prevented by strict attention to insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters and removing unneeded catheters as soon as possible. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated catheters are also an effective tool to prevent infections. The diagnosis of CR-BSI is made largely based on culture results. CR-BSIs should always be treated with antibiotics, and except in rare circumstances the infected catheter needs to be removed.
Mar 1, 2018 ... Healthcare Workers in Governmental Healthcare Facilities in Addis. Ababa .... personal protective equipments and materials, ... disinfection practice, tuberculosis infection control ..... E. Knowledge and practice of infection.
Grobusch, M P; Calleri, G; Bogner, J R
Infections are of unifying global concern, despite regional differences in disease epidemiology, clinical appearance and the instruments to tackle them. The primary aim of Infection is "to be a forum for the presentation and discussion of clinically relevant information on infectious diseases… from all over the world". To that end, and as a reflection of the global burden of infectious diseases, we intend to increase the number of high-quality contributions from authors addressing the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases from outside Europe and the affluent North (Chang et al. Infection 40:359-365, 2012; Misra et al. Infection 40:125-130, 2012). The Editorial Board of Infection envisages the journal as an interface between where infectious diseases meet and mix between "North and South"--i.e., the field of travel medicine--frequently functioning as a sentinel for altered/novel disease activities that are encountered as imported conditions. With the change in generation on the Editorial Board, Infection aims to expand the areas of tropical medicine, travel medicine and global health with its own section editors (GC and MPG). Contributions from outside Europe are actively encouraged.
Full Text Available Hantaviruses, a geographically diverse group of zoonotic pathogens, initiate cell infection through the concerted action of Gn and Gc viral surface glycoproteins. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structure of the antigenic ectodomain of Gn from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV, a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Fitting of PUUV Gn into an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of intact Gn-Gc spike complexes from the closely related but non-pathogenic Tula hantavirus localized Gn tetramers to the membrane-distal surface of the virion. The accuracy of the fitting was corroborated by epitope mapping and genetic analysis of available PUUV sequences. Interestingly, Gn exhibits greater non-synonymous sequence diversity than the less accessible Gc, supporting a role of the host humoral immune response in exerting selective pressure on the virus surface. The fold of PUUV Gn is likely to be widely conserved across hantaviruses.
However, later studies have shown that 7.1% of DOBV positive acute phase samples and 12.5% .... Urine analysis shows proteinuria, hematuria and pyuria. Significant elevations of ..... and proper storage of food should be practiced. There are.
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Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 31-year-old white man presented to the emergency department complaining of fever, headache, mild confusion, and muscle aches. Approximately three days earlier he had developed non-quantified fever and diffuse muscle aches and pains. He was employed as a feedlot worker. He had visited an urgent care center one day earlier and had been advised to increase his oral fluid intake and to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents as needed. Upon arrival to the emergency department he was found to have a temperature of 103.6º Fahrenheit, blood pressure of 125/72 mm Hg, respiratory rate of 40 breaths per minute, and room-air oxygen saturation of 84% by pulse oximetry. Auscultation of the chest disclosed diffuse rales. Heart sounds were rapid and regular. Abdominal exam was benign. There was no skin rash. Central nervous exam demonstrated agitation and confusion, but was otherwise non-focal. Laboratory examination revealed a white blood count of 11.7 K/uL, hemoglobin ...
Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway
Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted...
Infection of the urinary tract (UTI) is frequently encountered in clinical practice — in the USA these ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers .... Pregnancy ... men, so pre-treatment urine culture is.
... Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections More about neglected tropical diseases News WHO recommends large-scale deworming to improve children’s health and nutrition 29 September 2017 About us ...