WorldWideScience

Sample records for municipality lara state

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PUBLIC AND MASSIVE CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL INTEREST HOUSES DEVELOPED SINCE 2005 IN LARA STATE. VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Lucena

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is the public and massive construction of social interest housing, executed between 2005 and 2015 in the Iribarren and Palavecino municipalities of Lara State, Venezuela, in order to continue the investigation carried out in the years between 1994 and 2005, through the determination of evaluation parameters related to the design and construction characteristics of town planning and housing. It is a field research, not experimental descriptive, the representation shows 355 houses in 5 urbanisms. The relevant results showed a better architectural distribution of the houses than the ones developed in previous years, it showed an 80 % of urban equipment, 20,56% of the houses enclosures problems, 26,42% problems related to the soil, 16.9% reveals the entry of rain water and through windows 12.68% presents rain water entry through the door. Although the percentages of housing failures have been reduced, the percentages of faults in infrastructure services have increased, that is, better homes that lack basic services have been built. Recommending taking advantage of the identified opportunities for improvement.

  2. Necesidades de aprendizaje sobre drogadicción en médicos generales integrales venezolanos de Lara (2007 Needs of learning on drug addiction in Venezuelan integral general physicians from Lara state (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morayma Zulueta Yate

    2012-03-01

    of Iribarren municipality in Lara State, Venezuela. Methods: a retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted from December, 2006 to June, 2007. Study universe included 46 physicians working in consulting rooms of this municipality. To data collection a survey was applied previous informed consent. Absolute numbers and percentages were used as a measure by each variable used. Results: there was predominance of 28 physicians with a 6 and 10 years working experience for a 60.9 %. Total of physicians recognized as drugs the marihuana, heroin and cocaine. All declared that only the ill patient must to receive priority; also, the was predominance of the criterion that the treatment must to be applied when the patient is hospitalized for a 56.6 %. The was an scanty experience on the management of these patients for a 91.3 % and the 100 % of polled persons declared its total knowledge of the existence of the Drug Addiction National Program. Conclusions: there is a scanty knowledge regarding the management of drug addiction in the primary health care; the needs of learning by Venezuelan integral general physicians were identified.

  3. Leishmania species identification using FTA card sampling directly from patients' cutaneous lesions in the state of Lara, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Watanabe, Junko; Mendoza Nieto, Iraida; Korenaga, Masataka; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2011-10-01

    A molecular epidemiological study was performed using FTA card materials directly sampled from lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Lara, Venezuela, where causative agents have been identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (Leishmania) venezuelensis in previous studies. Of the 17 patients diagnosed with CL, Leishmania spp. were successfully identified in 16 patients based on analysis of the cytochrome b gene and rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Consistent with previous findings, seven of the patients were infected with L. (V.) braziliensis. However, parasites from the other nine patients were genetically identified as L. (L.) mexicana, which differed from results of previous enzymatic and antigenic analyses. These results strongly suggest that L. (L.) venezuelensis is a variant of L. (L.) mexicana and that the classification of L. (L.) venezuelensis should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validación de "infarto de miocardio" como causa de muerte en certificados de defunción, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela Validation of "myocardial infarction" as cause of death on death certificates in Barquisimeto, Lara state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Granero

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Las tasas de mortalidad por cardiopatía isquémica (CI han sido utilizadas ampliamente en el diagnóstico de la salud cardiovascular de regiones y países. Sin embargo, su validez ha sido cuestionada fundamentalmente por lo que le da origen: el certificado de defunción (CDD. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo de establecer la validez del diagnóstico "infarto de miocardio (IM" como causa de muerte en los CDD de muertes intra-hospitalarias en la ciudad de Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela. Entre julio de 1991 y junio de 1992, se identificaron todos los CDD con las características mencionadas, se trató de ubicar la historia clínica correspondiente a cada caso y cualquier otra información clínica pertinente. Se registraron 247 CDD elegibles y se ubicó información clínica adecuada en 136 casos (55%. Aplicando los criterios del Proyecto MONICA, se encontraron M-definitivo en 62 casos (45,6%, IM-probable en 31 casos (22,8% y No-IM en 43 casos (31,6%. Los resultados indican que existe un sobre registro de casos de muerte por IM del 32% (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 23,8-39,4. A la luz de estos resultados es necesario estudiar los factores que inciden en la exactitud de los diagnósticos IM en los CDD. Con esto tendríamos elementos para revisar las normas y los procedimientos empleados en la producción y manejo de los CDD, así como preparar un programa de educación para mejorar la precisión de los mismos.Death rates due to Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD are widely used to assess regional and national cardiovascular health status. However, their validity is questionable, essentially because they are based on death certificates (DCs. The present study was conducted in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Barquisimeto (Lara State, Venezuela, from June 1991 to July 1992. The purpose was to establish the validity of the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in DCs of intrahospital deaths. Efforts were made to locate all clinical charts and any

  5. Suicidal ideation among students of the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades in the State of Lara, Venezuela: the Global School Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Ricardo; Poni, Esteban; Poni, Carolin

    2008-12-01

    Suicidal behavior among adolescents is not a well-explored public health problem. Health policy decision-making on suicidal behavior needs reliable information on the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) and its associated risk factors to produce health promotion and prevention programs. The Global School Health Survey is a self-administered survey done on a random probabilistic sample among students of the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades in the Lara State, Venezuela, school period 2003 to 2004. Point prevalence of SI and associated factors were included and the odds (OR) of having SI was calculated given selected factors. Two-thousand seventy (2070) respondents, of which 13.5 % reported having SI in the last 12 months, and in females more than males (14.6% vs. 11.7%). The OR for SI, according to an associated risk factor, were among (a) females: age > or = 14 years (2.2), worries (3.42), loneliness (8.8), ever had sexual intercourse (5.58), alcohol (8.43) and (b) males: having only one or non close friends (3.69), alcohol (12.36), ever had sexual intercourse (2.73). Behavioral risk factors are relatively new in the field of surveillance systems; therefore, results on SI should be cautiously taken into consideration and a wide discussion should be encouraged as we learn how to best use the results for health promotion and disease prevention.

  6. Cambios en el uso de tabaco y factores relacionados en estudiantes del sexto al noveno grado, Estado Lara, Venezuela, años 2000 y 2003 Changes in tobacco use and related factors in Junior High School students, Lara State, Venezuela, 2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Granero

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La Encuesta Mundial sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (EMTAJOVEN, sistema de vigilancia basado en la escuela elemental, fue realizada en el Estado Lara, Venezuela, por una coalición de organizaciones. El instrumento incluye: actitudes, conocimientos, conductas; acceso a productos, propaganda y exposición al humo de tabaco en el ambiente. Participación 85,7% (2000 y 79,3% (2003. Prevalencias (% 2000 vs. 2003 de: "primer contacto con tabaco": sin cambios (22,8% y 22,8%; "Fumar su primer cigarrillo antes los 10 años": disminuyó en varones (21,5% y 16,7%; "Fumadores actuales": sin cambio (8,4% y 8,3%; "Fumadores que desean dejarlo": aumentó en varones (62,6% y 84,7%; "Expuestos al humo de tabaco en el ambiente en lugares públicos": aumentó (43,9% y 50,7%; "Apoya prohibir fumar en lugares públicos": sin cambios(> 80% ambos,; "Recibieron cigarrillos promocionales gratis": aumentó (9,5% a 13,4%. "No tuvieron problema al comprar": disminuyó en varones (97% y 74,3% y mujeres (95,9% y 90,3%. El tabaquismo se mantiene sin cambios lo que puede imputarse al mercadeo y a la falta de efectividad de las leyes. Los datos presentados permiten examinar políticas y programas actuales a fin de ajustarlos a la realidad.The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS is a school-based surveillance system. In Lara State, Venezuela, it was conducted by a coalition of organizations. The instrument includes: attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, mass media, and marketing. Participation was 85.7% in 2000 and 79.3% in 2003. Comparing prevalence (% from 2000 to 2003: "first contact": unchanged (22.8%; "males having first cigarette before the age of 10": decreased (21.5% to 16.7%; "current cigarette smoker": unchanged (8.4% to 8.3%; "male smokers wanted to quit": increased (62.6% to 84.7%; "exposure to environmental tobacco smoke": increased (43.9% a 50.7%, "support ban on smoking in public places": unchanged (> 80%, "received free promotional

  7. NHDOT : process for municipally managed state aid highway program projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-23

    The design and construction of Municipally Managed State Aid Highway Program projects must comply with the requirements in this guideline in order to receive State Aid under the applicable provisions of RSA 235. Under this process, State Aid Construc...

  8. APORTE PATRIMONIAL A PARTIR DEL PROCESO INMIGRATORIO CANARIO EN VENEZUELA Y EL ESTADO LARA ENTRE 1961 Y 1981

    OpenAIRE

    Pastrán Calles, Félix Reinaldo

    2017-01-01

    FULL TITLE PATRIMONIAL CONTRIBUTION FROM THE CANARY IMMIGRATION PROCESS IN VENEZUELA AND THE LARA STATE FROM 1961 TO 1981 RESUMEN El presente articulo tiene como objetivo reconocer el aporte patrimonial a partir del proceso inmigratorio canario en Venezuela y el Estado Lara, durante el periodo 1961 hasta 1981, periodo que abarca una amplitud de beneficios y desarrollo como resultado de acciones de canarios dentro del espacio geográfico venezolano. Metodológicamente se aplican los funda...

  9. Phlebotominae de Venezuela: Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. del estado Lara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Arredondo Cardona

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el macho de Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. capturado en el Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Distrito Andrés Eloy Blanco, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La especie puede ser identificada por la forma característica del parámetro. Pertenece al grupo Verrucarum, serie Verrucarum de Theodor (1965.A description is given of the male of Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. who was collected in the National Park of Yacambú, State of Lara, Venezuela. This species is identified by the characteristic form of the paramere. It belongs to the Verrucarum Group, Verrucarum Series of Theodor (1965.

  10. Fooling the Market? Municipal Yields and Unfunded State Pension Liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekniute, Z.; Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Ponds, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Existing empirical evidence at the country level exhibits a positive relationship between public indebtedness and the yield on the public debt. Using panel data over the period 2001 – 2014, we show that this relationship holds also for municipal bond yields and the indebtedness of U.S. states.

  11. 27 CFR 31.4 - Relation to State and municipal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business contrary to the laws of such State or in places prohibited by municipal law; nor shall such... municipal law. 31.4 Section 31.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... State and municipal law. Compliance with the requirements of this part shall not be held to exempt any...

  12. Economic risks of the system of state and municipal procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the audit of economic risks at all stages of procurement for state and municipal needs from both customers and bidders is carried out on the basis of the implementation of the integrated approach . Stages in the procurement under a single contract system, which is characterized by the high economic risks are planning, supplier selection, conclusion and execution of the contract. A number of the measures according to the localization of economic risks are offered, in particular the implementation of compliance programs, which institutionalize the compliance by the organization, anti-corruption legislation; increasing qualification of specialists in public procurement and increased control through centralization of procurement.

  13. Quem pode resistir a Lara Croft? Você? Who can resist Lara Croft? You?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Mendes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute como o jogo eletrônico Tomb Raiderconstrói processos de subjetivação em relação a gênero e sexualidade. Para desenvolver essa discussão, duas questões foram centrais: quem esse jogo imagina que 'você' seja? Quem esse jogo propõe que 'você' seja? Ambas foram construídas com base em teorizações foucaultianas sobre os processos de subjetivação, conjuntamente com a noção de "modo de endereçamento" desenvolvido por Elizabeth Ellsworth e algumas discussões sobre gênero e sexualidade. Pautando-se nisso, buscou-se mostrar como marcas de gênero e sexualidade, culturalmente construídas, são empregadas nas elaborações da personagem central do jogo: Lara Croft. Contudo, conclui-se que tais marcas não configuram escolhas entre possíveis, mas são criações e invenções, tanto por parte dos elaboradores quanto pelos jogadores.This article discusses how the electronic game Tomb Raider constructs processes of subjectivation in relation to gender and sexuality. To develop this argument, two main questions were taken: Who does this game imagine 'you' are? Who does this game suggest 'you' to be? Both were built based on the Foucaultian Theory about processes of subjectivation, together with the concept of 'mode of address', developed by Elizabeth Ellsworth and some discussions about gender and sexuality. Based on this, this investigation wants to show how culturally built marks of gender and sexuality are used on elaborations of the main character of the game: Lara Croft. However, in conclusion, those marks cannot set the possible choices up, but are creations and inventions made by the game designers and the players.

  14. Flebotomofauna al sureste del estado Lara, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Traviezo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El reporte de 522 casos de leishmaniasis cutánea americana entre los años1988 al 2002 en el estado Lara (específicamente al sureste donde hubo un repunte, motivó elestudio de los vectores implicados en la transmisión. Objetivos. Determinar la abundancia, diversidad y distribución de flebótomos durante un añoen 11 poblaciones situadas entre los 600 y 1600 metros sobre el nivel del mar, relacionandosu abundancia con elementos climáticos. Materiales y métodos. Para las capturas se utilizaron trampas CDC (18:00 a 06:00 horascolocadas en zonas domésticas, peridomésticas y selváticas de casas donde hubo casos deleishmaniasis cutánea y se utilizó trampa Shannon en los alrededores de éstas, entre las19:30 y las 22:50 horas. Resultados. Se identificaron 10.326 ejemplares (8.867 hembras y 1.459 machos con unadiversidad de 11 especies, siendo Lutzomyia youngi (Feliciangeli & Murillo 1987, la másabundante con un 96,54%, seguida de Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz, 1952 con 2,9%,caracterizándose L. youngi por tener predilección por los ambientes peridomésticos y seapreció mayor actividad desde las 19:30 a las 20:30 horas (Shannon. La población de LasMaticas (1360 msnm presentó la mayor abundancia, con un pico anual que coincidió con elfinal del verano, las primeras lluvias del invierno (régimen unimodal, la mayor temperaturamedia mensual del año (24°C y la menor humedad mensual del año (70%. Conclusión. Esta información permite conocer la población, ambiente y época del año dondese incremente la probabilidad de transmisión de la enfermedad, por la abundancia de lasespecies vectoras.

  15. 49 CFR 22.15 - Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality... PROGRAM (STLP) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.15 Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt... appropriate Federal and State databases. (b) If any delinquencies are determined during the application...

  16. Gabriele D'Annunzio, Pleasure, translated and annotated by Lara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Page 1 ... translation, Lara Gochin Raffaelli was driven to produce a new and much improved translation of this ... Harding translation. By minimizing the novel's overwhelming eroticism and excluding allusions that might offend Victorian sensibilities, as well as passages deemed to be too intellectual for the genre, the text ...

  17. STATE RESOURCES AS AN AXIS OF MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT IN MISIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José, Garzón Maceda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present a proposal from which one seeks to promote economic and human development in the municipalities of Misiones by means of the creation of a municipal internet by implementing more efficient application criteria for the resources.The paper provides a short outline of the theoretical framework where the proposal is set out, which has three pillars: the theory of decentralization, the municipal and the association theory.Having established this, one examines the legal framework of the municipalities in the National Constitution, the Misiones Constitution and specific laws which regulate the municipal performance, and then move towards the study of the current situation of the municipalities, focusing on financial resources of 17 municipalities in the province of Misiones.After this brief diagnosis we enter fully into the proposal to be developed in depth: detailing the players involved, their funding sources, their objectives, the executive body through which they will implement the program and the assignation criteria of allocation of resources recommended so that the implementation of the proposal be efficient.

  18. The state of municipal solid waste management in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskal, Shira; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

    2018-06-01

    Regulation is a key tool for implementing municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategies and plans. While local authorities in Israel are responsible for the storage, collection, and disposal of MSW, Israel's Ministry of Environmental Protection (MoEP) is responsible for the formulation and implementation of waste management policies and legislation. For the past 12 years, about 80% of the MSW in Israel has been landfilled and recycling rates have not increased, despite regulations. This paper presents the state of MSW management in Israel in light of the MoEP's strategic goal of landfilling reduction, the regulations and legislation designed and implemented for achieving this goal, and the ensuing results. Among other things, the results indicate the importance of monitoring and assessing policy and regulations to examine whether regulation is in fact effective and whether it keeps track of its own targets and goals or not. It is also concluded that even when there is an extensive regulation that includes a wide range of laws, economic penalties and financial incentives (such as landfill levy and financing of MSW separation at source arrangements), this does not guarantee proper treatment or even an improvement in waste management. The key to success is first and foremost a suitable infrastructure that will enable achievement of the desired results.

  19. Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dane, Alexander [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Sivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Municipal governments in the United States are well positioned to influence clean energy (energy efficiency and alternative energy) and transportation technology and strategy implementation within their jurisdictions through planning, programs, and codification. Municipal governments are leveraging planning processes and programs to shape their energy futures. There is limited understanding in the literature related to codification, the primary way that municipal governments enact enforceable policies. The authors fill the gap in the literature by documenting the status of municipal codification of clean energy and transportation across the United States. More directly, we leverage online databases of municipal codes to develop national and state-specific representative samples of municipal governments by population size. Our analysis finds that municipal governments with the authority to set residential building energy codes within their jurisdictions frequently do so. In some cases, communities set codes higher than their respective state governments. Examination of codes across the nation indicates that municipal governments are employing their code as a policy mechanism to address clean energy and transportation.

  20. Regional and municipal energetic statistics - Sao Paulo State - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The main Brazilian energetic information for subsidizing planning studies in regional and municipal level are presented, including data for the year 1987 that represent the sale of the main petroleum by-product and hydrated alcohol and the electricity consumption. (C.G.C.)

  1. [Municipal public health spending in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espírito Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do; Fernando, Virgínia Conceição Nascimento; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    In order to assess the impact of macro-political measures implemented in the latter half of the 1990s on the increase in public spending on health and the possible reduction in allocation inequity, a descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study was carried out involving 184 municipalities in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data from the Public Health Budget Information System was used, with the selected indicator being spending on health per inhabitant under the responsibility of the municipality. The correlations of this variable with the municipal Human Development Index, population size and value of the municipal budget per capita were analyzed. It was seen that, although the mean increase in municipal spending on health is 190.76%, the value per capita has remained relatively low - at around R$183.79 - which is below the national and macro-regional averages. Both spending on health per capita and growth percentages are distributed irregularly among health regions as well as among municipalities within a single region. In conclusion, there is marked allocation inequity among municipalities with regard to the distribution of public resources for health, despite the macro-political measures adopted to reduce this inequity.

  2. LARA: Expert system for acoustic localization of robot in a LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, C.; Malvache, P.

    1986-12-01

    The expert system LARA (Acoustic Localization of Autonomic Robot) has been developed to show the interest of introducing artificial intelligency for fine automatic positioning of refuelling machine in a LMFBR reactor. LARA which is equipped with an acoustic detector gives rapidly a good positioning on the fuel [fr

  3. 27 CFR 46.94 - Relation to State and municipal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... penalty or punishment provided by the laws of any State for carrying on any trade or business within that... a person engaged in business in violation of State law. The stamp is not a Federal permit or license... municipal law. 46.94 Section 46.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  4. Institutional paradoxes of informatization of state and municipal governance in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Vasilyevich Lukashov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to show that the informatization of state and municipal governance in modern Russia should be aimed directly at reducing costs and improving productivity of the state and municipal authorities and not at the achievement of indirect performance indicators like ldquothe proportion of documents in digital formquot. Methods the method of analysis of the research object condition at various stages of its development the synthesis of cognition elements followed by synthesis and transition from the singular to the general. General scientific specific and private scientific research methods were used. Results basing on the analysis of informatization of state and municipal management it is shown that the main reason for its low efficiency is the current evaluation system based on indirect indicators. Scientific novelty the efficiency and effectiveness of informatization of state and municipal management are considered from the point of view of consistency and optimal allocation of resources. The scientific justification of performance indicators of informatization in the sphere of state and municipal management is proposed which is characterized by the blurring of the quality criteria difficult to express in monetary terms. Examples of such criteria are cost of rendering of state municipal services physical geographical by mode of operation by convenience accessibility of services time of waiting in queue and length of obtaining the service by a citizen regardless of in which form traditional or digital it is rendered. Practical value the article considers the problems of selecting the efficiency criteria of social control informatization. Specific measures are proposed aimed at improving the efficiency of informatization including in the framework of realization of the Federal program of the Russian Federation quotInformational societyquot for 20122020. nbsp

  5. The State in the accumulation process through disposession in the municipality of Chalco, state of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Salinas Arreortua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlightened by the debate on the restructuration of the world economy and accepting the existence of a post-fordist transition, this paper analyzes the socio-territorial impacts produced by the implementation of neoliberal policies, particularly the constitutional article 27 in 1992, which has made possible the incorporation of land of social property into the real-state market in Mexico. Given these circumstances, the concept of accumulation through dispossession is used to evidence the current situation, in which economic neoliberalism characterizes urban expansion. Such is the case of the municipality of Chalco, where the social and economic problems of the local people are worsening everyday. This work proposes an approach wich binds recent transformations with the process of capitalist accumulation through dispossession, a process that is evidenced by the growing development of housing complexes.

  6. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2010-05-01

    High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.

  7. Juegos de Palo en Lara. Elementos para la historia social de un arte marcial venezolano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhrig Assunção, Matthias

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This article situates Venezuelan stick fighting among the wider field of European and Afro-American martial arts. The author analyses the different forms used since the early 19th century by men in the rural areas of the state of Lara, where it is still practised today. Whereas the Juego de Garrote serves recreational and sportive purposes, the Juego de Batalla is part of a broader devotion to Saint Anthony. The criminal records show how the use of the fighting stick in the period 1880-1930 allowed the construction of a male identity (the «guapo» through the frequent fights between men.

    Este trabajo intenta situar a los juegos de palo venezolanos dentro de una perspectiva más amplia de las artes marciales europeas y afro-americanas. Analiza las diferentes modalidades practicadas desde el siglo XIX por los hombres del campo en Lara, Estado donde se conservó su práctica hasta hoy en día. Mientras el Juego de Garrote servía y sirve para fines recreativos y deportivos, el Juego de Batalla era y es parte de la devoción a San Antonio. Los procesos criminales muestran cómo el uso del garrote permitió la construcción de una identidad masculina («el guapo» a través de las frecuentes riñas entre hombres en el período 1880-1930.

  8. Marketing Strategies and Students' Enrolment in Private Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Chika C.; Nwafor, Innocent A.; Nwaneri, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated marketing strategies and students' enrolment in private secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. One research question was raised and two null hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Thirty two (32) school administrators in 32 private secondary schools in the study area constitute the study population…

  9. Statistical annual by energy in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document has as objective the compilation and dissemination of the consumption data corresponding of the main energetics used in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil in the year of 2006. The considered energetics are: electric energy, natural gas, petroleum derivatives; hydrated alcohol and biodiesel

  10. 18 CFR 11.6 - Exemption of State and municipal licensees and exemptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER PART I OF THE FEDERAL POWER ACT Charges for Costs of Administration, Use of Tribal Lands and Other... the total amount of operating expenses, maintenance, depreciation, amortization, taxes, and interest... project. (e) Sales for resale. Notwithstanding compliance by a State or municipal licensee with the...

  11. The First Record Of The Salticid Spiders Sibianor larae And S. tantulus (Aranei, Salticidae In Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtushenko K. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of salticid spiders Sibianor larae Logunov, 2000 and S. tantulus (Simon, 1868 were revealed as a result of verification of collected samples from the forest zone of Ukraine. Th e redefined specimens were previously identify ed as S. aurocinctus (Ohlert, 1865. Specimens of S. aurocinctus were not found in the material. Geographic coordinates of localities and description of S. larae and S. tantulus habitats are provided.

  12. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... qualifies for the exemption. (d) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Units are exempt... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel oil.../rubber recycling units. Units are exempt from your State plan if four requirements are met: (1) The...

  13. CNR LARA project, Italy: Airborne laboratory for environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, R.; Cavalli, R. M.; Fiumi, L.; Marino, C. M.; Pignatti, S.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing interest for the environmental problems and the study of the impact on the environment due to antropic activity produced an enhancement of remote sensing applications. The Italian National Research Council (CNR) established a new laboratory for airborne hyperspectral imaging, the LARA Project (Laboratorio Aero per Ricerche Ambientali - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Research), equipping its airborne laboratory, a CASA-212, mainly with the Daedalus AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) instrument. MIVIS's channels, spectral bandwidths, and locations are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. MIVIS can make significant contributions to solving problems in many diverse areas such as geologic exploration, land use studies, mineralogy, agricultural crop studies, energy loss analysis, pollution assessment, volcanology, forest fire management and others. The broad spectral range and the many discrete narrow channels of MIVIS provide a fine quantization of spectral information that permits accurate definition of absorption features from a variety of materials, allowing the extraction of chemical and physical information of our environment. The availability of such a hyperspectral imager, that will operate mainly in the Mediterranean area, at the present represents a unique opportunity for those who are involved in environmental studies and land-management to collect systematically large-scale and high spectral-spatial resolution data of this part of the world. Nevertheless, MIVIS deployments will touch other parts of the world, where a major interest from the international scientific community is present.

  14. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  15. Gender relations and sexual orientation in Religious Education curriculum in state and municipal schools in Recife

    OpenAIRE

    Aurenéa Maria de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This research conducted in state and municipal public schools of Recife in Pernambuco through research project that had the support of UFPE and CNPq aimed to analyze the Religious Education curriculum (ER), the place that women, especially with marginalized sexual orientation as lesbian, bisexual and transgender occupy. To this end, we work with the methodology of Discourse Analysis and the Theory of Speech, looking first identify the main ideologies surrounding and involving the theme, then ...

  16. The evaluation of the state of the Sopot Municipality environment as a condition for sustainable development of the municipality area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sopot Municipality can be conditionally characterized as 'an ecological municipality' considering it is known for its preserved and quality environment, which is the result of the absence of greater sources of degradation and environmental pollution. The structure and usage of the Sopot municipality space was influenced by its specific position and historic development, the resources, the fact it is in the vicinity of Belgrade, as well as the processes taking places in the last few decades. Besides natural, anthropogenic factors substantially influenced the way of spatial development, often violating natural conditions and possibilities. In that sense, the current environmental condition analysis represents the important integral planning base for further spatial development of the Municipality. In this paper the environmental condition is shown according to single elements (air, water, soil, the attention is drawn to the problem of waste on the Sopot Municipality area, and in the end the valorization of the environment was performed from the aspect of pollution level.

  17. The State of Water and Wastewater Management in the Municipalities of the Polesie National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jóżwiakowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present the current state of water and wastewater management in the municipalities where the Polesie National Park (PNP is located. The PNP is situated in Lublin Voivodeship, in the area of six municipalities: Sosnowica, Hańsk, Urszulin, Stary Brus, Wierzbica and Ludwin. The data used in this paper, were obtained on the basis of the surveys conducted in these municipalities in 2016 by the Department of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. In the analyzed communes, there was a very large disproportion between the usage of sewerage and the water supply network. It has been shown that 79.1% of the inhabitants living in the afore-mentioned communes used the water supply network and only 22.5% of them used sewerage. In the discussed communities there are 9 collective, mechanical and biological wastewater treatment plants with a capacity of over 5 m3d-1. On the farms located in the scattered areas, which are not connected to the sewerage, wastewater is discharged mainly to the septic tanks. In four out of the six analyzed municipalities, there were 2345 septic tanks registered. Domestic sewage from some farms is purified in household wastewater treatment plants (395 pieces. The plants with the drainage systems are prevalent (84.9%, which may contribute to the groundwater quality degradation. In order to protect the natural environment within the communes that form the PNP, it is necessary to undertake the actions that will contribute to the improvement of the current state of water and wastewater management. While solving the existing problems related to water supply and wastewater treatment, it is strongly required to adhere to the principle of sustainable development and use highly effective systems in order to ensure that the ecological effects are appropriate.

  18. The increasing efficiency of financial resources management at implementation of goods’ purchase, works, services for the state and municipal needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proskurnja Dar'ja Vladimirovna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the review of the existing problems in the field of financial resources management at implementation of goods’ purchase, works, services for the state and municipal needs. Determination of the limit prices of purchases is revealed as the most important problem of the increasing efficiency of financial resources management at implementation of goods’ purchase, works, services for the state and municipal needs. The range of problems of determination of the limit prices of purchases is systematized.

  19. Laras concept and its triggers: A case study on garap of jineman Uler Kambang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Widodo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Laras is one unresolved aesthetic concept and gendhing garap models as the triggers have not been identified yet either. This paper is a case study which discusses a case of jineman garap Uler Kambang pélog lima, the first winner of Sindhèn Idol contest 2012, which is considered to have the most qualified performance to meet laras criteria. The purpose of this research is to figure out the laras concept construction and identify the gendhing garap models as its triggers. Laras concept reconstruction within the aesthetic framework of Javanese karawitan and identification of gendhing garap model are discussed based on concept of garap in Javanese karawitan. This research uses a qualitative-descriptive method. The results show that laras is a beautiful, delicate, and deep karawitan sense containing elements of mat, lega, betah, adhem, ayem, tentrem, jinem, sengsem, and marem. The triggering gendhing garap models include: garap of leres, rempeg, greget-urip, and sarèh-sumèlèh.

  20. Crise do estado e estilos de gestão municipal State crisis and styles of municipal gestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Frey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se o papel da dimensão emotiva (em contraste com a racional no processo de participação política, com base no exame de dois estilos de administração municipal (Santos e Curitiba e tendo como pano de fundo a crise do Estado. Argumenta-se que a dimensão cultural é tão importante quanto a institucional em processos democráticos de reforma.The role of the emotive (as against rational dimension in the political participation process is discussed with regard to two styles of municipal management (Santos and Curitiba. It is argued that the cultural dimension is as important as the institutional one in democratic reform processes.

  1. State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talyan, Vikash; Dahiya, R.P.; Sreekrishnan, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system

  2. [Knowledge and use of the Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) by municipal health administrators, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Keila Silene de Brito E; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Sousa, Islândia Maria Carvalho de; Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano

    2010-02-01

    Considering the importance of Brazil's Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) as a tool for planning, management, and social control of public expenditures in health, this article aimed to evaluate the relationship between the regularity of data entry into the SIOPS and knowledge and use of the system by municipal health administrators in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Ten municipalities were selected from the State's five meso-regions, five of which entered information into the system and five only on an irregular basis. Semi-structured interviews were performed with the municipal health secretaries. Analysis of the data showed that command of information technology and knowledge of the System do not affect the regularity of data entry, as a function of the distance between the Municipal Health Secretariat administrators and the SIOPS, such that the data are normally entered by outsourced services. Thus, the resulting information has not been fully explored by systems administrators as a management tool.

  3. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  5. State and municipal innovations in obesity policy: why localities remain a necessary laboratory for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Belinda; Ashe, Marice; Farias, Ruben; Gostin, Lawrence

    2015-03-01

    Municipal and state governments are surging ahead in obesity prevention, providing a testing ground for innovative policies and shifting social norms in the process. Though high-profile measures such as New York City's soda portion rule attract significant media attention, we catalog the broader array of initiatives in less-known localities. Local innovation advances prevention policy, but faces legal and political constraints-constitutional challenges, preemption, charges of paternalism, lack of evidence, and widening health inequalities. These arguments can be met with astute framing, empirical evidence, and policy design, enabling local governments to remain at the forefront in transforming obesogenic environments.

  6. A historical context of municipal solid waste management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Garrick E

    2004-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in the United States is a system comprised of regulatory, administrative, market, technology, and social subcomponents, and can only be understood in the context of its historical evolution. American cities lacked organized public works for street cleaning, refuse collection, water treatment, and human waste removal until the early 1800s. Recurrent epidemics forced efforts to improve public health and the environment. The belief in anticontagionism led to the construction of water treatment and sewerage works during the nineteenth century, by sanitary engineers working for regional public health authorities. This infrastructure was capital intensive and required regional institutions to finance and administer it. By the time attention turned to solid waste management in the 1880s, funding was not available for a regional infrastructure. Thus, solid waste management was established as a local responsibility, centred on nearby municipal dumps. George Waring of New York City organized solid waste management around engineering unit operations; including street sweeping, refuse collection, transportation, resource recovery and disposal. This approach was adopted nationwide, and was managed by City Departments of Sanitation. Innovations such as the introduction of trucks, motorized street sweepers, incineration, and sanitary landfill were developed in the following decades. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), is the defining legislation for MSWM practice in America today. It forced the closure of open dumps nationwide, and required regional planning for MSWM. The closure of municipal dumps caused a 'garbage crisis' in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Private companies assumed an expanded role in MSWM through regional facilities that required the transportation of MSW across state lines. These transboundary movements of MSW created the issue of flow control, in which the US Supreme Court affirmed the protection

  7. Anuran species composition of Cancão Municipal Natural Park, Municipality of Serra do Navio, Amapá state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Breno Silva e Silva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the first survey of anuran species in the Cancão Municipal Natural Park is presented, a protected area of approximately 370 hectares of Amazonian forest located in the northwest center region of the state of Amapá, Brazil. The work was performed during the dry and rainy season, through active visual and auditory survey, totaling 216 man hours of sampling effort. Forty-nine species of anuran amphibians were recorded in the Cancão Municipal Natural Park, including three new records: Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense, Pristimantis cf. ockendeni, and Scinax garbei. Three species, Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense, Ameerega pulchripecta, and Anomaloglossus baeobatrachus, are listed as Data Deficient and one is listed as Vulnerable (Atelopus hoogmoedi according red lists of IUCN. The rarefaction curve cumulative species did not reach an asymptote, indicating that site has potential for species that have not yet been recorded. Nine species were represented by only one individual and were considered rare in the studied environments, eight species were defined as common, and the 32 remaining species were classified as having intermediary abundance. Our data indicated that Cancão Municipal Natural Park contains a considerable portion of the anurans species richness of Amapá state, turn the area into a place of great importance for the conservation of the anurans of the Eastern Amazon.

  8. Evaluation in Physical Education: an analysis in state and municipal schools in Maringá-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Giovana dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to evaluation deal with many issues that Physical Education, as a pedagogical subject, has been facing. In order to investigate these aspects, this study has as its aim to analyse how and with purpose, the professionals from the area of Physical Education are evaluating studentes from the 5th to the 8th forms in state and municipal schools in Maringá. A questionnaire was used. The sample was formed by 30 teachers from 12 schools: 15 teachers from state schools and 15 from municipal schools. Descriptive statistics at simple frequency level and non-parametric test (χ2 were used. Results show that evaluation in the subject Physical Education is performed only to follow the norms, without planning and consequently without pre-defined educational objectives showing, thus, the contradictions and confusions inherent to evaluation modalities by the professionals of this area. These professionals demonstrated the precaroiusness of the understanding of evaluation role in teaching-learning process.

  9. Providing experiential information on early medical abortion: a qualitative evaluation of an animated personal account, Lara's Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sarah; Harden, Jeni; Cattanach, Dawn; Cameron, Sharon T

    2017-10-01

    An animated film has been created to provide information to women requesting early medical abortion (EMA). The 9 min film, Lara's Story , was created using one woman's personal account of her experience. This study evaluated the views of women who had recently undergone EMA on the film and its potential usefulness in providing experiential information to women requesting EMA. Women who had undergone EMA within the past month were recruited. They were shown the film and interviewed in a semi-structured style. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. They were analysed using cross-sectional indexing and thematic analysis with an inductive approach. 13 women were interviewed. All reported that the film gave a realistic account of EMA and most agreed that they would have wanted to watch it before EMA had it been available. Some said that it might help women who were struggling with decision-making with regard to EMA and all said that there should be unrestricted access to the film from the website of the abortion service. The women commented that the animated style of the film allowed all groups of women to relate to the story. Some commented that Lara's experience of pain, bleeding and side effects such as nausea differed from their own and therefore felt that it would be useful to make more than one woman's account available. The availability of animated audiovisual films recounting women's experiences of EMA might be a valuable adjunct to clinical information for women seeking EMA. © Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Herpetofauna, municipality of Porto Murtinho, Chaco region, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the physiographic regions included in the central South American diagonal of open formations,the Chaco, with some endemic species, represents the southernmost dry area. In Brazil, the Chaco is foundin southwestern corner of Mato Grosso do Sul state, mostly in the municipality of Porto Murtinho along theParaguay and Apa rivers. From February 2008 to December 2009, we carried out an inventory of amphibiansand reptiles in Porto Murtinho, using pitfall traps, time-limited searches, and occasional encounters. A total of34 amphibian and 39 reptile species were registered. Although some typical Chacoan species were found, mostof the species are open area dwellers that also occur in other open biomes, such as the Cerrado and Caatinga.

  11. Differentiation of Municipalities in São Paulo State based on Constitutional Transferences and Income Tributary Taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a large study that combines several groups of municipalities in São Paulo State that are analyzed through multivariate statistical techniques. This study is intended to indicate whether the variables per capita transfer amounts from the Municipalities Participation Fund [MPF], Product and Service Circulation Tax Quota [ICMS] and collected tributary income have different average values among the municipalities of São Paulo State that present different economic and social situations according to the social responsibility index. The evaluation was carried out by multivariate analysis of variance. The results show that the tributary income has the greater difference of average among the groups. It was also found that MPF distribution criteria are applied differently and contribute to the available income fairness, giving support to local governments in the development of public policy.

  12. Municipalities of higher vulnerability to Sylvatic Yellow Fever occurrence in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Until 1999 the endemic cases of Sylvatic Yellow Fever were located in the states of northern, midwestern and pre-Amazon regions. Since then, the disease progressively expanded its territory of occurrence, cases being registered beyond the traditional boundaries of endemism. The São Paulo State is considered to be part of this context, since after decades without registration of autochthonous cases of the disease, it reported, in 2000 and 2008-2009, epizootic occurrence in non-human primates and 30 cases in humans. Facts like these, added to the increase in incidences of serious adverse effects resulting from the Yellow Fever vaccination, have highlighted the importance of defining priority municipalities for vaccination against the disease in the state. Two groups of municipalities, some affected and some non-affected by YF, were compared for environmental variables related to the eco-epidemiology of the disease according to literature. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA was used to pinpoint the factor able to differentiate the two groups of municipalities and define the levels of risk. The southeast region of the São Paulo State was considered to be the area with a higher number of municipalities classified as high risk and should be considered a priority for the application of prevention measures against Yellow Fever.

  13. Promoting Peace Education for Behaviourial Changes in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality Council Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uko, E. S.; Igbineweka, P. O.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the promotion of peace education for behavioural changes in public secondary schools in Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A set of questionnaire items were validated and used for the collection of data involving 310 respondents, selected…

  14. The State of Water and Wastewater Management in the Municipalities of the Roztocze National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jóżwiakowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the current state of water and sewage management in the communes where the Roztocze National Park (RNP is located. The park is located in Lubelskie voivodship, in the territory of four communes: Zamość, Zwierzyniec, Adamów and Józefów, while its buffer zone is located in the communes of Krasnobród, Tereszpol and Szczebrzeszyn. The paper uses data from surveys conducted in these municipalities in 2016. On average, 68.9% of the population used the water supply system in the municipalities surveyed, while 33.4% of the inhabitants had the possibility of discharging sewage to the sewerage system. In the area of the communes, there are 10 collective, mechanical and biological wastewater treatment plants with a capacity exceeding 5 m 3 ·d -1 . The households which are not connected to the sewage network discharge wastewater mainly to non-return tanks. Four out of the seven surveyed communities had 64 domestic sewage treatment plants, including 60 systems with infiltration drainage, which do not ensure high efficiency of removing pollution and may even contribute to the degradation of groundwater quality. In order to solve the existing problems in the area of sewage and water management occurring in the communes where the Roztocze National Park is located, it is necessary to further develop collective sewage systems and equip the areas with dispersed buildings with highly efficient, residential sewage treatment plants, e.g. constructed wetlands.

  15. State aid, open access and market size : two cases of FTTH network implementation in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Rooij, de M.A.J.; Smits, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The discussion on the EU regulatory framework of 2003 in particular on emerging markets provides for a new dynamic approach towards investment in next generation broadband infrastructure in municipalities. By using the criterion of non-replicable assets, FTTH networks in local municipalities can be

  16. State aid, open access and market size: two cases of FTTH network implementation in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Rooij, de M.A.J.; Smits, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The discussion on the EU regulatory framework of 2003 in particular on emerging markets provides for a new dynamic approach towards investment in next generation broadband infrastructure in municipalities. By using the criterion of non-replicable assets, FTTH networks in local municipalities can be

  17. Shared use agreements between municipalities and public schools in the United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, John D; Carlson, Susan A; Paul, Prabasaj; Sliwa, Sarah; Onufrak, Stephen J; Fulton, Janet E

    2017-02-01

    Shared use agreements allow public use of school facilities during non-school hours. Such agreements can cover outdoor facilities alone or may be more comprehensive by also including indoor facilities. Our aim was to: 1) estimate the prevalence of shared use agreements and facility types covered among U.S. municipalities and 2) identify differences in prevalence by municipality characteristics. The 2014 National Survey of Community-based Policy and Environmental Supports for Healthy Eating and Active Living is a representative survey of US municipalities (n=2029). Data were analyzed using survey weights to create national estimates. Logistic and multinomial regression models determined odds ratios adjusting for municipality characteristics. Among 1930 municipalities with a school, 41.6% had a shared use agreement as reported by a local official, 45.6% did not, and 12.8% did not know. Significant differences in prevalence existed by population size, rural/urban status, poverty prevalence, median education level, and census region; however, after adjustment for other municipality characteristics significant differences remained only by population size, median education level, and census region. Among municipalities with a shared use agreement, 59.6% covered both outdoor and indoor facilities, 5.5% covered indoor facilities only, and 34.9% covered outdoor facilities only. Opportunities exist to expand the use of shared use agreements particularly in municipalities with small populations, lower education levels, and in the South, and to promote more comprehensive shared use agreements that include both indoor and outdoor facilities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The impact of municipal solid waste management on greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Keith A; Thorneloe, Susan A; Nishtala, Subba R; Yarkosky, Sherry; Zannes, Maria

    2002-09-01

    Technological advancements, environmental regulations, and emphasis on resource conservation and recovery have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste (MSW) management, including emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study was conducted using a life-cycle methodology to track changes in GHG emissions during the past 25 years from the management of MSW in the United States. For the baseline year of 1974, MSW management consisted of limited recycling, combustion without energy recovery, and landfilling without gas collection or control. This was compared with data for 1980, 1990, and 1997, accounting for changes in MSW quantity, composition, management practices, and technology. Over time, the United States has moved toward increased recycling, composting, combustion (with energy recovery) and landfilling with gas recovery, control, and utilization. These changes were accounted for with historical data on MSW composition, quantities, management practices, and technological changes. Included in the analysis were the benefits of materials recycling and energy recovery to the extent that these displace virgin raw materials and fossil fuel electricity production, respectively. Carbon sinks associated with MSW management also were addressed. The results indicate that the MSW management actions taken by U.S. communities have significantly reduced potential GHG emissions despite an almost 2-fold increase in waste generation. GHG emissions from MSW management were estimated to be 36 million metric tons carbon equivalents (MMTCE) in 1974 and 8 MMTCE in 1997. If MSW were being managed today as it was in 1974, GHG emissions would be approximately 60 MMTCE.

  19. Ptosis Palpebral in a Urban Area named: December 5. Paez Municipality, Portuguesa State. Venezuela 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenis López León

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive longitudinal prospective study was made in the Urban Area named December 5 of Páez Municipality, Portuguesa State, in The Venezuela’s Republic, including only the period since September 4 to December 11, 2007 with the objective to define the clinical epidemiological state of Ptosis Palpebral in the Region mentioned. The universe was conformed by 7000 patients of all ages, being a sample of 60 ill persons, for obtaining the information a structural interview was used made by the authors, having productiveness the use of Ophthalmology clinical backgrounds of each person; the obtaining data were introduced in a Pentium IV computer by means of EPINFO Program to calculate them. The female sex was the one that predominate, and it happens the same wit the skin colour (not white finding the ages between 21 and 41 years as high frequency. The moderate ptosis was the most usual, predominating the unilaterals and from etiological point of view: The acquires; obtaining the traumatics the highest incidence within them; resulting ametropias as the ocular pathologies more notables in studied patients and a considerable number of them were tributary of the surgical treatment even though the latest diagnostic, that´s why a previous detection is imposed of the referred entity, helping to improve your Qualitiy Life and reincorporating to your society .

  20. HORTICOLA DIVERSITY FOR FOOD SECURITY MARGINALIZED MUNICIPALITIES IN STATE OF PUEBLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Alicia Salcido-Ramos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Backyards for rural households represent a strategy that ensures the production of plant foods and animal come to enrich and supplement their diet. Unfortunately there is no evidence of the contribution made by the horticultural component of biodiversity of species in relation to food, income generation and exchange of vegetables, based on the above plan the need for research aimed was to analyze the subsystem comprising the backyards vegetable operated by the State Program for Food Security (SPFS State establishing productive inputs, economic and social component that obtains horticultural peasant household (UDC, communities of Canoas- Atempan, Tezotepec-Mazatonal-Yaonáhuac Chignautla and the Northeastern Sierra Puebla state. In this northeastern region of 16 municipalities are located high deprivation and 8 highly marginalized state, population is of Náhuatl origin and it is common that women are responsible for the management and operation of the backyard based on their traditional knowledge and survival strategies. Fieldwork was conducted in the months of March to June 2011, with the participation of 37 rural women. Some of the findings are: Canoes and communities Mazatonal, 77% of horticultural production was assigned to food, 15% and 8% marketing to strengthen social relations within the community. In contrast, community of Tezotepec which earmarked 53% to the marketing, 46% to food and only 1% strengthening of social relations. There are also differences between communities in relation to the number of children, the diversity of vegetable grown, and the frequency of seeding and transplanting of vegetables contributing to the food security of the UDC.

  1. List of documented bird species from the municipality of Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although preliminary surveys have been conducted at the Atlantic Forest of Ubatuba, there is no list of documented bird records from this coastline municipality. To organize such a compilation, we searched the literature and a number of different sources for all documented records of birds from Ubatuba, state of São Paulo. We further carried out a 7-year non-systematic bird inventory in different regions and elevations to document the species within the municipality. The total number of documented bird species is 417, 11% of which are endemic to Brazil. Another 26% are Atlantic Forest endemics and as many as 60 species are under threat categories, including near-threatened birds, in the state. Some 49 species of 27 families are reported from the municipality but still lack documentation. Considering historical records, no species have extinguished from the municipality. Ubatuba is one of the most studied regions along Serra do Mar in São Paulo regarding its ornithology, but there are still high-elevational gaps that will yield significant additions of species to the area with increasing surveying efforts.

  2. Improving determination of the Martian rotation parameters through the synergy between LaRa and RISE radioscience experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maistre, S.; Péters, M. J.; Yseboodt, M.; Dehant, V. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The LaRa experiment consists of a transponder onboard the ExoMars mission that has been designed to obtain two-way Doppler shift measurements from a X-band radiolink between the lander on Mars and the ground stations on Earth. LaRa is planned to last at least one Earth year and should begin to operate from January 2021. RISE is another transponder onboard the InSight mission. This NASA experiment should last at least one Martian year starting from November 2018. The Doppler measurements are used to obtain the Mars' orientation and rotation parameters (MOP) i.e. the length-of-day (LOD) variations, the precession rate and the nutations of the rotation axis, and the polar motion. One of the major objectives of LaRa is to improve our knowledge of the deep interior of Mars by precisely measuring the signature of the liquid core in the nutations. In this study, we performed numerical simulations of these Doppler measurements in order to evaluate the impact on the determination of the MOP and the gain in precision provided by the synergy between both LaRa and RISE experiments. We used the GINS (Géodésie par Intégrations Numériques Simultanées) software implemented by the CNES and further developed at ROB for planetary geodesy applications. We assess the advantage of having the LaRa experiment in a row or at the same time as RISE experiment by considering the following scenarios for comparison: RISE and LaRa alone, RISE followed by LaRa, LaRa together with RISE. In this way, we study the impact of an improved Doppler geometry induced by the involvement of two landers instead of one. The Doppler geometry is a fundamental aspect of radioscience experiments. It affects the measurement sensitivity to the MOP and is thereby an important factor in their determination. The variety of the geometry (especially the azimuth) provided by its omnidirectional patch antenna is a strength of LaRa compared to RISE (two directional horn antennas) that allows to improve the MOP

  3. [Financial and economic sustainability of public spending on health care by local governments: an analysis of data from municipalities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2009-11-01

    Brazil's Unified National Health System is financed according to a model known as fiscal federalism, the fund-sharing rules of the Social Security Budget, Ministry of Health norms, and Constitutional Amendment 29 (EC-29), which links Federal, State, and municipal resources to health. This article discusses the sustainability of public spending on health at the municipal level. Twenty-one municipalities were studied, using municipal budget data. From 1996 to 2006, total current per capita revenues increased by 280% above the accumulated inflation and Gross Domestic Product, varying by size of municipality, which also defined the composition of the municipal budgets. Meanwhile, the budget comprising the basis for EC-29 increased less (178%), thus placing limits on the municipal share of health spending. The results observed in these municipalities are believed to reflect the reality in thousands of other Brazilian municipalities, thus jeopardizing the capacity for municipal investment in health, especially beginning in 2008. The situation may become even worse, considering the repeal of the so-called Bank Transaction Tax (CPMF), Bills of Law 306/08 and 233/08 (currently under review in the National Congress), and the world recession stemming from the U.S. financial crisis.

  4. Features of the Maintenance Agreement (Contract for the Delivery of Goods, Works and Services for State and Municipal Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. Loginova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article analyzes main features of the agreement (contract for the delivery of goods, works and services for state and municipal needs. It is shown that civil-legal nature of this agreement, which aims to meet the public interest. It is emphasized that this agreement is the special subject composition. Features of this type of contract, which is manifested in the use of special methods of placing state and municipal orders are shown. It is proved that for the public contract subject of the contract will depend on the considered whether the supply agreement or service contract. Existing in the modern civil law doctrine approaches to understanding the essential terms of the contract are analyzed. Features of pricing in this agreement is shown. It was concluded that, in contrast to other types of civil contracts, state contract has a wide range of essential conditions.

  5. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  6. Gender relations and sexual orientation in Religious Education curriculum in state and municipal schools in Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurenéa Maria de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted in state and municipal public schools of Recife in Pernambuco through research project that had the support of UFPE and CNPq aimed to analyze the Religious Education curriculum (ER, the place that women, especially with marginalized sexual orientation as lesbian, bisexual and transgender occupy. To this end, we work with the methodology of Discourse Analysis and the Theory of Speech, looking first identify the main ideologies surrounding and involving the theme, then locate the hegemonic discourse or hegemonic discourses that claimed around him . Thus, it reached the conclusion that approaches religion, gender and sexual diversity, which are expressed in the daily life of the classrooms are not, however, raised the disciplinary component examined in the absence of a curriculum that can assist teachers by through proposals and pragmatic content activities that encourage the emergence of points to be considered, negotiated and correlated to the themes in question. Thus, the difficulties in dialogue about sexual orientation and homosexuality in general, and specifically in the female case, are great in ER discipline in the schools surveyed. 

  7. URBAN MUNICIPAL PARKS IN DOURADOS – MS – BRAZIL: THE STATE OF THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristiane Fernandes da Silva Lunas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban environmental conditions are an increasing concern in several segments of civil society and the urban parks are part of this context. However, discussions about urban parks are less emphatic when compared to the prominence given to other environmental problems. This study sought to report the real situation of the three main urban environmental parks in the municipality of Dourados/MS, presenting their current state of conservation and maintenance and the main management actions that have been taken since the creation of each park. The main goal of this study was to identify the situation of these parks to propose measures that will help their conservation. The methodology consisted of the bibliographical survey, which reinforced the importance of green areas in urban spaces, a detailed field survey in the parks, as well as the study of documents that broached these parks. It was possible to verify that the parks have grave environmental problems and they are at risk due to poor conservation. Furthermore, the population starts to feel the social impact of abandoned urban green areas, besides the environmental effects. It was noted that the punctual projects elaborated for the parks have not had the desired effects, given the difficulty of allocating resources and the existence of political barriers. To that end, the elaboration of management plans for the parks was recommended, besides a detailed study about the management model that has been developed in these areas.

  8. Solid waste integrated management proposal in Churuguara and Maparari population axis, Federacion municipality Falcon State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Torres, Magly; Melendez, Angelica; Sanchez, Angel

    2009-01-01

    This research shows a solid waste integrated management proposal in Churuguara and Maparari axis population, Federation municipality Falcon State. The inadequate arrangement of solid waste in these populations lacks of any type of control. It has caused environmental pollution problems that affect public health. For this reason, a diagnosis of the situation was made to classify the solid waste, an optimal way of processing and storing them was shown; the fleet that will offer the service, the routes of collection, the frequency and timetable of them, the waste to recycle and the design of a semi-mechanized landfill site were measured as a technical and economical alternative for the government. In this proposal, there are established strategies to increase the quality of life of the inhabitants of this region that allow to reform, improve and transform the solid waste management within a valid legal frame. Since, this is one of the most important services and it has direct consequences in people's health. It is necessary the community and governmental entities participation in the managerial process of these kinds of waste. (author)

  9. NHDOT : process for municipally-managed state bridge aid program projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-12

    The document sets for the requirements for a municipality which to manage the design and construction of a bridge rehabilitation or replacement project and receive Bridge Aid under the applicable provisions of RSA 234. Bridge Aid provided to a Munici...

  10. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14, sex (males - 19 and females - 181, and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120 were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, and microtiter agglutination test (MAT. Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%, 10 (5.0% and 18 (9.0% were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05. Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds.

  11. [Teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Roza, Daiane Leite da; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Dal-Fabbro, Amaury Lelis

    2011-05-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a common public health problem worldwide. The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the spatial association between teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil. We used a Bayesian model with a spatial distribution following a conditional autoregressive (CAR) form based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We used data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Early pregnancy was more frequent in municipalities with lower per capital gross domestic product (GDP), higher poverty rate, smaller population, lower human development index (HDI), and a higher percentage of individuals with State social vulnerability index of 5 or 6 (more vulnerable). The study demonstrates a significant association between teenage pregnancy and socioeconomic indicators.

  12. ANALYSIS OF PRO-POOR GROWTH AMONG THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ - BRAZIL: SPATIAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Ribeiro Justo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the for-poor growth among the municipal districts of the State of Ceará in 2003. Initially it explores the recent literature of the theme as well as of the spatial econometric. Soon after it makes the spatial analysis of the variables through maps and in more robust way through the Exploratory Analysis of Given Spatial (AEDE being used the LISA methodology (Local Indicators of Spatial Association and the statistics I of Moran. Estimates the elasticity income-poverty and elasticity inequality-poverty. The tests indicated the need to incorporate variables in the estimates that learn the spatial externalities. The results suggest for-poor growth in the municipal districts from Ceará in agreement with results aggregate for the Ceará state appointed in recent literature.

  13. To the Question of Information Security and Providing State and Municipal Services by Means of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Galushkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author investigates interconnected questions of information security and providing state and municipal services by means of the global information Internet. Author analyzes opinions of the number of leading Russian and foreign experts and scientists. In the summary author draws a conclusion that implementation of rules of law answering to modern realities and also fruitful work of law enforcement and supervisory authorities regarding law application practice improvement is necessary for information security and human rights protection.

  14. Contaminación enteroparasitaria de lechugas expendidas en mercados del estado Lara. Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    TRAVIEZO-VALLES, LUIS; DÁVILA, JUAN; RODRÍGUEZ, RICARDO; PERDOMO, OMAIRA; PÉREZ, JOSÉ

    2004-01-01

    Para determinar la contaminación de lechugas con enteroparásitos, se analizaron 100 muestras (50 lechuga americana y 50 lechuga romana) cultivadas en tres lugares distintos, Timotes y Bailadores (estado Mérida) y Chejendé (estado Trujillo) y expendidas en cuatro mercados diferentes del estado Lara: Terepaima, Cabudare, Las Trinitarias y Central. Las lechugas fueron procesadas según la técnica de Álvarez et al, modificada, detectando contaminación en el 29% de las muestras (16 LA y 13 LR) iden...

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and molecular epidemiological analysis in Sucre municipality, Miranda state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Margareth A; Abadía, Edgar; Solalba Gómez; Maes, Mailis; Muñoz, Mariana; Gómez, Daniela; Guzmán, Patricia; Méndez, María Victoria; Ramirez, Carmen; Mercedes, España; de Waard, Jacobus; Takiff, Howard

    2014-12-01

    Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country. To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela, we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in 2005-6. We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping 131 strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. With spoligotyping, the most common patterns were Shared International Type SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), a distribution similar to other parts of Venezuela, except that SIT42 and SIT20 were more common. MIRU-VNTR 15 showed that six of seven SIT17 strains examined belonged to a large cluster previously found circulating in Venezuela, but all of the SIT42 strains were related to a cluster centered in the neighborhoods of Unión and Maca, with a MIRU-VNTR pattern not previously seen in Venezuela. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors.

  16. Interdepartmental interaction model on the extracurricular activities of students in the city of Surgut in the quality management system of the municipal state institution "Information and Methodological Center"

    OpenAIRE

    Loseva E. A.

    2018-01-01

    in this article the author considers interdepartmental interaction model in the field of extracurricular activities of students in the quality management system. The topic is examined on the example of the municipal state institution "Information and Methodological Center".

  17. Historical milk production performance in São Paulo State municipalities between 2005 and 2015 using Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Freitas Pelozo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the use of Artificial Intelligence on milk production chain, aiming at identifying patterns of their characteristics in 645 municipalities of the State of São Paulo taking into account produced milk categories. Using information from secondary sources, it was used the Optimum-Path Forest method (OPF to identify milk production characteristics clusters. The analyzed data were the amount of milk produced in the rural properties according to their categories regarding quality making possible to suggest training adequacies and public bodies actions regarding rural producers, more focused on the reality of each municipality and secondarily, it was possible to test the OPF use as a decision-making tool at the agroindustrial sector.

  18. Quantitative assessments of municipal waste management systems: using different indicators to compare and rank programs in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Krista L; Tonjes, David J

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of waste management technologies and policies in the United States is to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of waste, particularly those relating to energy consumption and climate change. Performance indicators are frequently used to evaluate the environmental quality of municipal waste systems, as well as to compare and rank programs relative to each other in terms of environmental performance. However, there currently is no consensus on the best indicator for performing these environmental evaluations. The purpose of this study is to examine the common performance indicators used to assess the environmental benefits of municipal waste systems to determine if there is agreement between them regarding which system performs best environmentally. Focus is placed on how indicator selection influences comparisons between municipal waste management programs and subsequent system rankings. The waste systems of ten municipalities in the state of New York, USA, were evaluated using each common performance indicator and Spearman correlations were calculated to see if there was a significant association between system rank orderings. Analyses showed that rank orders of waste systems differ substantially when different indicators are used. Therefore, comparative system assessments based on indicators should be considered carefully, especially those intended to gauge environmental quality. Insight was also gained into specific factors which may lead to one system achieving higher rankings than another. However, despite the insufficiencies of indicators for comparative quality assessments, they do provide important information for waste managers and they can assist in evaluating internal programmatic performance and progress. To enhance these types of assessments, a framework for scoring indicators based on criteria that evaluate their utility and value for system evaluations was developed. This framework was used to construct an improved model for

  19. Faunistic analysis of the species of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in three municipalities of the state of Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the population patterns of Anastrepha in three municipalities of the state of Roraima, Brazil, via faunistic analysis. Weekly collections were performed from January through December 2008, using McPhail traps containing 5% hydrolysed protein, in domestic orchards in the municipalities of Boa Vista, Bonfim and Pacaraima. We captured 301 females of Anastrepha in Boa Vista, 212 in Bonfim, and 167 in Pacaraima. Boa Vista presented the highest species richness (S = 10 and Pacaraima the lowest (S = 4. Anastrepha striata was the predominant species in Boa Vista (47.18% and Pacaraima (65.87%, whereas A. obliqua predominated in Bonfim (46.23%. Boa Vista presented the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H' = 1.19 and Margalef index (α = 1.58, and Bonfim presented the highest Pielou's evenness index (J' = 0.69. In Pacaraima the cumulative curves reached stability, confirming that the observed and expected species richness were the same. In the other two municipalities, the curves showed a moderate growth, suggesting that the sampling effort was not sufficient to produce an accurate depiction of species richness. In this study, Anastrepha zernyi is reported for the first time in Roraima.

  20. The effectiveness of budget financing the system of procurement of goods, works and services for state and municipal needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova Anna Aleksandrovna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic components of the effectiveness of contractual procurement of goods, works and services for state and municipal needs - fiscal, social, economic, organizational. Analyzed the performance of budgetary efficiency of the procurement system according to the results of its monitoring in the years 2014-2015. It is shown that to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of budget financing of procurement data is necessary to use, fully characterize the performance of the budget impact and cost indicators, designed to receive it. It also requires the formation of an appropriate statistical database, which includes the use of the recommended indicators.

  1. Anurans of the Reserva Ecológica da Michelin, Municipality of Igrapiúna, State of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camurugi, Felipe; Lima, Tasso Meneses; Mercês, Ednei de Almeida; Juncá, Flora Acuña

    2010-01-01

    We studied the richness and distribution of anuran species on different breeding sites at the Reserva Ecológica da Michelin (13° 50' S and 39° 10' W, approximately 90-400 m above sea level), Municipality of Igrapiúna, Bahia State, Brazil. The reserve includes fragments of Atlantic Rain Forest varying from 140 to 650 ha. Five types of environments were sampled: leaf litter inside forest fragments, streams inside forest fragments, dam on the edge of forest fragment, temporary pond inside forest...

  2. Water supply diagnosis in the municipality of Cajazeiras, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adalberto da Silva Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The water supply is a key factor for the development of the population in a region. The mapping areas that are not supplied with drinking water is an important mechanism, once the vulnerable locations are identified, which leads to establish policies and programs to mitigate the problem. Thus, this paper aims at examining areas that present vulnerability in access to water in the municipality of Cajazeiras, Paraíba State, Brazil. In order to carry this research out, data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were analyzed. The results indicate a disproportion in access to water between rural and urban areas, with the first being very vulnerable to contamination factors. It is necessary environmental education programs for sustainable water use, the development of technologies to ensure good quality water and the well being of the people, by the high risk of water-related diseases caused by the contamination that may occur in capture, transport and storage of water. Diagnóstico do abastecimento de água no município de Cajazeiras – PB, BrasilResumo: O abastecimento de água é um fator determinante para o desenvolvimento da população em uma região. O mapeamento de zonas que não são abastecidos com água potável é um mecanismo importante, uma vez que são identificadas as localidades que apresentam vulnerabilidade, sendo assim possível estabelecer políticas e programas que amenizem a problemática. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar as zonas que apresentam vulnerabilidade no acesso à água no município de Cajazeiras - PB, por meio de dados obtidos junto ao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Os resultados indicam uma desproporcionalidade no acesso à água entre as zonas rurais e urbanas, sendo a primeira muito vulnerável a fatores de contaminação. Dessa forma, faz-se necessário programas de educação ambiental para o uso sustentável da água, como também o

  3. Flood Disaster Risk Reduction in municipality-scale in Rio de Janeiro State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japiassú Viana, Viviane; Formiga Johnsson, Rosa Maria; De Gouvello, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil, flood disasters causing human damage, pecuniary loss and environmental damage, are mainly due to greater exposure of the population; urban densification on the riverbanks and margins, incurring vulnerability due to changes in river level and climate changes. This article presents the data and studies required in the Brazilian legal basis and analyzes the scales adopted by planners in contrast to the scales demands by the executing agencies in the context of prevention and adaptation to climate change, particularly to flood disaster reduction in municipality-scale.

  4. Different systems and approaches to treat municipal solid waste. A state-of the art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, A; Euler, H; Klopotek, F; Kellner, C [TBW GmbH, Sustainable Techno-logies Building and Business Consultants, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion is still a fairly new technology in the area of utilisation of organic residues, in particular as far as treatment of household wastes and integration of agricultural production is concerned. In the last few years, a number of different processes and concepts, with a variety of different intentions, have been developed and established on the European market, in particular in Germany. Actual categories and parameters, used to analyse, structure and compare available treatment systems, are not yet fully satisfying. The presentation will consist of the following elements: 1. Factors influencing the market of the technology in the recent past. 2. Brief comparison of features of anaerobic solid waste digestion with land filling, composting and incineration. 3. Brief comparison between some European and Non-European countries, concerning municipal solid waste digestion. 4. Main topics in the actual German Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Treatment (AMSWT) debate. 5. Comparison of some existing AMSWT systems and concepts. 6. Presentation of a comprehensive structure, covering the main technical elements of any of the different technologies available. 7. Outlook. (au)

  5. FARMERS MIGRATION AS THE ANSWER TO FACE THE COFFEE CRISIS: A RESEARCH IN THREE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE STATE OF PUEBLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Ramírez Valverde y Adrián González Romo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, the great majority of the coffee producers ―mainly indigenous― live in poverty conditions. During the last years because of the coffee crisis, the conditions of poverty and marginalization are accentuated. Due this situation, the peasants look for alternatives for family survival, considering migration as an alternative. The purpose of this research is to analyze the existing relation between poverty, coffee production and migration, and the impact in the peasants family in three indigenous municipalities. For this research, 49 peasants of the municipalities of “San Felipe Tepatlán”, “Amixtlán and Hueytamalco” in “Sierra Norte” of “Puebla” were interviewed. The results show that the studied municipalities are under high conditions of marginalization. The level of schooling of the inhabitants is low and illiteracy is alarming. The producers of the region are small farm owners and the majority was organized (56.8 % and a great part (66.7% sell their coffee in the community. Results indicate that those who leave the community looking for jobs are mainly the sons and daughters; their main reason for migrating is their poor economic situation. In relation to the international migration, it was found that the number of people crossing the United States border looking for better is still low (4.7% thus, the future is predictable, if the crisis in the agricultural sector continues a greater number of inhabitants of rural area will emigrate towards the neighboring country, as an alternative to the rural crisis.

  6. Analysis of the state of vegetation in the municipality of Jagodina (Serbia through remote sensing and suggestions for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Miško M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both environmental control and appropriate measurement results present basis for the quality protection of geospatial elements. Providing environmental monitoring activities and creating control network is the obligation of each state, whereas local communities provide observation and control of air quality, water quality, waste quality, soil quality, vegetation and land cover control, etc. This has been the reason for the analysis of vegetation of the municipality of Jagodina in Serbia. By processing satellite images, data on the sources of pollution and polluting materials of the vegetation have been discovered. These include spot (stationary, linear (mobile and stationary and surface (stationary and mobile sources. While processing satellite images by the Idrisi software, we have acquired results that indicate certain vegetation modifications (images obtained through infrared spectral imaging. Results obtained through remote sensing indicate the necessity to define adequate vegetation monitoring, to complete a register of pollutants, to set up information system and define ways of data presentation in order to manage a single, complete register of environmental pollutants in the municipality of Jagodina.

  7. Diversidad de helechos y licófitas de la Reserva Natural Punta Lara, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela E Giudice

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el año 1987 el número de helechos y licofitas citados para la Reserva Punta Lara era de 30, incluyendo taxa específicos e infraespecíficos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad de los helechos y licofitas que crecen en esta reserva, donde se halla el relicto más austral de las selvas en galería. Para llevar a cabo este estudio se realizaron viajes de campo durante los años 2006-2009 y se consultaron herbarios locales así como bibliografía especializada. Como resultado del estudio se determinaron 24 taxa de helechos y licofitas, de hábito predominantemente terrestre (70%; pocas acuáticas (17% y epífitas (13%; dos especies exóticas, mientras que otras dos especies nativas citadas previamente no fueron halladas. Cinco taxa fueron registrados con escasa frecuencia. Se infiere que las principales causas de amenaza para las poblaciones de licofitas y helechos en la Reserva Natural Punta Lara son la extracción para su comercialización, la introducción de plantas exóticas y las fluctuaciones climáticas (periodos de sequía. Se presenta una clave de identificación de los taxa registrados y se plantean futuras estrategias de conservación de las especies consideradas vulnerables.Diversity of ferns and lycophytes from Reserva Natural Punta Lara, Buenos Aires , Argentina. Punta Lara Natural Reserve shelters the relict of the Southernmost riparian forest in the world, where the flora is threatened by the anthropic expansion and by the introduction of exotic species. In this area the ferns and lycophytes grow in particular environments as marshland, grassland and marginal forest. The aim of this work was to evaluate the diversity of ferns and lycophytes that inhabit in Punta Lara Natural Reserve. Field trips were conducted from 2006 to 2009 and local herbaria and specific bibliography were also revised. As a result of our study twenty four taxa of ferns and lycophytes were recognized. Their habit was mainly

  8. Visions of development and environmental values in the municipal councils of Itajaí Middle Valley, Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleci Teresinha Noara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper began in November 2006, it deals with environmental values the councils of environment of Blumenau and Indaial on the middle Vale of Itajaí, Santa Catarina State. The objective was to identify and to analyze the environment values and interests that permeate the practice of these councils. The subject becomes relevant because the theorical sources are scarces, data-collecting interviews, comments bibliographical and documentary. The results demonstrate even though the council members possess and anthropocentric vision about environment, they believe that, with a environment management integrated and participative action, close to sustainable development, it will be possible the solution of these environment problems. The study aims to be a contribution to municipal councils of environment in Itajaí basin, since it allows us to understand some of the capacities and limitations of them in the formulation and implementation of public policies for sustainable development in the region.

  9. Evaluation of solid waste generation and management in municipalities of the Lake District in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Teixeira Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lake District (“Região dos Lagos” in the State of Rio de Janeiro does not have a waste inventory or any systemized reliable data related to waste generation. Its municipalities also do not present combined management procedures in order to mitigate the enormous environmental liabilities due to solid waste disposal in inappropriate landfills. This paper aims to estimate and classify solid waste originated in the cities of Armação dos Búzios, Arraial do Cabo, Cabo Frio, and São Pedro da Aldeia, by analyzing socio-economic data and considering local GDP.

  10. Prediction of stress-strain state of municipal solid waste with application of soft soil creep model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofrikhter Vadim Grigor'evich

    Full Text Available The deformation of municipal solid waste is a complex process caused by the nature of MSW, the properties of which differ from the properties of common soils. The mass of municipal solid waste shows the mixed behaviour partially similar to granular soils, and partially - to cohesive. So, one of mechanical characteristics of MSW is the cohesion typical to cohesive soils, but at the same time the filtration coefficient of MSW has an order of 1 m/day that is characteristic for granular soils. It has been established that MSW massif can be simulated like the soil reinforced by randomly oriented fibers. Today a significant amount of the verified and well proved software products are available for numerical modelling of soils. The majority of them use finite element method (FEM. The soft soil creep model (SSC-model seems to be the most suitable for modelling of municipal solid waste, as it allows estimating the development of settlements in time with separation of primary and secondary consolidation. Unlike the soft soil, one of the factors of secondary consolidation of MSW is biological degradation, the influence of which is possible to consider at the definition of the modified parameters essential for soft soil model. Application of soft soil creep model allows carrying out the calculation of stress-strain state of waste from the beginning of landfill filling up to any moment of time both during the period of operation and in postclosure period. The comparative calculation presented in the paper is executed in Plaxis software using the soft-soil creep model in contrast to the calculation using the composite model of MSW. All the characteristics for SSC-model were derived from the composite model. The comparative results demonstrate the advantage of SSC-model for prediction of the development of MSW stress-strain state. As far as after the completion of the biodegradation processes MSW behaviour is similar to cohesion-like soils, the demonstrated

  11. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domiciled cats from rio branco Municipality, Acre State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Figueiredo de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 89 cats to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and the possible risk factors associated with feline Toxoplasma gondii infection. An epidemiological questionnaire was developed and implemented for owners of domestic cats domiciled in Rio Branco, Acre. The results were statistically evaluated with the odds ratio and chi-square tests, considering the significance level of 5%. Of 89 animals’ samples, 22 had antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Among the 22 reactive animals, 15 (68.19% were female, 15 (68.19% were less than one year old and 20 (90% were cross breed. Concerning risk factors, there was no difference (p > 0.05 between the variables evaluated by the chi-square test. Moreover, 16 (72% cats were fed a mixed diet, 20 (90% of the cats had hunting habits, 18 (81% had contact with animals of another species, 11 (50% had access to the street, and 22 (95% lived in homes that had areas of grass or dirt. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats was 22.7%, and there were no significant risk factors for feline toxoplasmosis in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre.

  12. On the Improvement of the Legislation Regulating the Powers of Public Authorities in the Field of Procurement of Goods, Works and Services for State and Municipal Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Solomonov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a systematic analysis of the powers of public authorities, as well as legislation on contract system in the field of procurement of goods, works and services for state and municipal needs, the Authors come to a conclusion about the need to improve the existing legislation in this field of public relations.

  13. Dioxins in soil treated with 2,4-D in a municipality of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheble Bahia Braga, A.M.; Monteiro Rosa, J. [National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Krauss, T. [National Institute for Quality Control in Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    In Brazil, the herbicide 2,4,5-T was prohibited due to the presence of high dioxins concentrations as impurity in its formulations but the herbicide 2,4-D is widely used to control broad-leaf weeds in several plantations such as sugar cane, coffee, potato among others or prior to planting in order to prepare soil for plantation. The National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA), the authority in charge of the pesticides registry, also established the concentration of 0.1 ppm as maximum limit for dioxins in 2,4-D formulations. It is also a common practice to use this herbicide associated with Glyphosate to reduce or replace manual or mechanical weeding. In 2000, the Secretary of Health of Cantagalo, Municipality in the north part of Rio de Janeiro State was notified about a possible environmental contamination by the application of 2,4-D at a coffee farm named Santa Guilhermina. Spraying had occurred in an area close to a creek used as a source of drinking water of a school and as a water supply for a second district of this municipality. Special care was given to the possibility of PCDD/Fs contamination of the drinking water supply directly through 2,4-D aplication and indirectly through the transfer by run-off. Thus, it was requested scientific advice and analytical support to verify whether or not contamination had occurred. They had called for technical support only 8 days after the episode and considering the very low solubility of PCDD/Fs in water and their high tendency to adsorb on particles, it was decided to check if the soil had been contaminated by these activities and to use this database for further decision-making, as well. It was also looked up for original 2,4-D formulation in the area to verify the possible presence of PCDD/Fs but none was available.

  14. Treatmen bagi pengemis pada Balai Rehabilitasi Sosial Bina Karya dan Laras Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azmi mustaqim

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the treatments provided by Bina Karya and Laras Social Rehabilitation Center Yogyakarta to beggars. This study is using the descriptive qualitative method with the phenomenological approach. The research’s subject is Social and rehabilitation center’s employ and two beggars. Researcher is taking the data by interview and observation. For data analysis is using data reduce, data display and conclution.The result is, there are two causes of someone being a beggar, internal and external factors. Internal factor comes from individual self and external factor influenced by individual environment. Beggar’s characteristic based on the causes of poverty is low economic level, education level, without a job, homeless, without identity, free of lifestyle, without rules, aimless life, moral decadency and socio emotional low, shiftless, and less religious. The treatment provide based on characteristic will influence another treatment. Therefore treatments are given in an eclectic manner that combines several treatments as needed. Keyword: Treatment, a Beggar, Social Rehabilitation Center

  15. Environmental education in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, municipality of Porto Rico (Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AT. Obara

    Full Text Available Since 2003, researchers, faculty, graduate and undergraduate students from the State University of Maringá have been working alongside teachers from the state and local schools in the municipality of Porto Rico (Paraná State, located on the banks of the Paraná River. Their objective is to outline actions and strategies with the purpose of building methodological paths to insert environmental education into the school curriculum. Based on the action-research methodology, the group has developed the following programs: a the Continuing Education Program in Environmental Education; b the Development of Interdisciplinary Projects; c the Insertion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs; and d the Production of Teaching Materials. The evaluations of the programs indicate that teachers have been able to gradually build a theoretical and methodological basis for environmental education while simultaneously growing into the role of teacher-researchers as they create the conditions to investigate their pedagogical practices, reflect upon them, share experiences, innovate, and make the teaching-learning process more significant. Allied to the advances in educational practices and with the aid of ICTs, the activities developed in the classroom, in the field and in the lab - all of which involve natural and cultural aspects of the region - have contributed to teachers' and students' better understanding of the ecological, cultural, social and economic value of the floodplain, and consequently, of the importance of preservation and management in order to maintain local biodiversity.

  16. Malacological survey of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Castro, Milton Ferreira de; Lima, Adilson da Costa; Gonçalves, Murilo; Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Guimarães, Ricardo José Paula de Souza e; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-01-01

    The increasing practice of ecotourism and rural tourism in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, highlights the importance of studies concerning the occurrence of potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. This study aimed to identify species of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real, an important Brazilian tourism project. The specimens were collected in different water collections of 36 municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais. Biomphalaria species were characterized using both morphological and molecular approaches. The research was conducted between August 2005 and September 2009 and all the sites visited were georeferenced using GPS. Six Biomphalaria species were found in 30 of the 36 municipalities studied: glabrata, tenagophila, straminea, peregrina, occidentalis and schrammi. The first three species of Biomphalaria, recognized as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni, were present in 33.3%, 47.2% and 8.3% of the municipalities studied, respectively. The mollusks were found in different types of water collections and no infection by S. mansoni was detected. The highest occurrence of Biomphalaria concentration was verified in the area covered by the Caminho Novo route (Diamantina/MG to Rio de Janeiro/RJ). Considering the occurrence of schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais and the socioeconomic repercussions involved in the Estrada Real Project, this work focuses on the vulnerability of water collections due to the presence of Biomphalaria mollusks and emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance and sanitary and educational measures integrated with the local community and tourism sectors.

  17. The ways to improve state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and municipal property in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Serdyuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After comprehensive scientific exploration the ways of improvement of state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and state municipal property in Ukraine have been identified. Also it was proposed and justified the conceptual bases of strategy in development of state regulation. As a result of scientific exploration the directions of improvement of organizational mechanism have been formed also and wich a viev to improve legal mechanism of state regulation of land turnover it was suggested the modern approach of it. The main problem that constrains mechanical development of state regulation is non-compliance with legal principles, corruption and low motivation of officials. Approach to improvement is necessity of strategic development by the way of compliance law principles, realization of identified steps in development, using the practice of international regulation in land turnover. Strategic goals are in improvement of procedure of land turnover in public property by the way of advance mechanisms of state regulation; in a finding of effective approaches to improvement components of the legal mechanism; to produce and to offer propositions about development of components legal mechanism; to create clear and understandable procedure of land turnover for all participants in relationships in accordance with European legal traditions etc.Scenario of development that was elected is strategic and directed to solve the problems, perfection of economic, organizational and legal mechanisms of land turnover and also system development. But there are some risks that can interfere realization of strategic priorities. They are in outside threat, political instability, the economic downturn and corruption. We have chosen the next evaluation criteria: the level of investment attractiveness; the level of perception corruption in the society; the level of rating and satisfying quality of in land turnover process by the market participants with

  18. Municipal water quality in the context of the state of South Africa's infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the South African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE) released the first ever “report card” of the state of engineering infrastructure in South Africa. This report highlighted “the observations of the professionals responsible...

  19. Analysis of the Unified Health System funding and expenditure in the municipalities of the "Rota dos Bandeirantes" health region, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Alves Dos; Mendes, Áquilas Nogueira; Pereira, Antônio Carlos; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2017-04-01

    The national scenario of lack of resources in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) has led to major differences in the municipalities funding models. Thus, this study aims to analyze SUS funding and expenditure in seven cities of the Rota dos Bandeirantes health region, State of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. Settled expenditure indicators were collected from the Public Health Budgets Information System (SIOPS) for analysis, showing descriptive data with absolute and relative frequency calculations. We identified that the per capita income available for the city of Barueri is almost tenfold that of the city of Carapicuíba, and that Barueri's health expenditure per capita is more than double that of the regional average and almost fivefold that of Carapicuíba. The Federal Government is responsible for 95.4% of all funding to municipalities. Most of the available income of the municipalities in the region include their own taxes and state transfers. All the municipalities showed a significant positive trend, both for available income and health expenditure. The regional average of own revenue spent on health is 27.3%. Carapicuíba achieved a level of 37.5%, which is much higher than the minimum of 15% required by the Federal Constitution.

  20. Nutrition Standards for Food Service Guidelines for Foods Served or Sold in Municipal Government Buildings or Worksites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Zaganjor, Hatidza; Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan; Kimmons, Joel; Galuska, Deborah

    2016-12-22

    The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US municipalities. We used data from a 2014 national survey of 1,945 municipal governments serving populations of 1,000 or more to assess the presence of written nutrition standards, the food groups or nutrients addressed by standards, and the populations served by facilities where standards are applied. The prevalence of standards was estimated by municipality population size, rural-urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education level, and racial/ethnic composition. Overall, 3.2% of US municipalities reported nutrition standards with greater prevalence observed among large municipalities (12.8% of municipalities with ≥50,000 people vs 2.2% of municipalities with <2,500 people, P < .001). Prevalence differed by region, and standards were most common in the West (6.6%) and least common in the Midwest (2.0%, P = .003).The most common nutrition topics addressed in standards were offering low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, and free drinking water. Most standards applied to facilities serving government employees (67%) or the general public (66%), with fewer serving institutionalized populations (23%). Few municipal governments reported having written nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold in their facilities in 2014. Implementing nutrition standards for foods sold or served by local governments is a strategy for increasing access to healthier foods and beverages among municipal employees and local residents.

  1. Prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi among riverine communities in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and calculate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Prevalence was measured using the thick blood smear method collected from the fingers and was related to age, sex and occupation. Simuliidae were collected with a suction apparatus, then stained with hematoxylin and dissected to verify the PIR. RESULTS: The average prevalence rate of M. ozzardi among the 694 individuals examined was 20.7%. Infection was higher in men (27.6% than in women (14.3% (p 58 (60.5%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in the retired (64%, followed by farm workers (47.1%. Infection by M. ozzardi was only identified in Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae with a PIR of 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of M. ozzardi in the riverine communities of Lábrea due to the lack of policies regarding the treatment of microfilaremic individuals in the region and an abundance of competent vectors for M. ozzardi.

  2. Phytochemical analysis and botanical origin of Apis mellifera bee pollen from the municipality of Canavieiras, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Negri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An Apis mellifera bee pollen sample from Bahia state in Brazil was studied to evaluate its botanical origin and phytochemical composition. The bee pollen sample was collected in the municipality of Canavieiras, in an area with a very high predominance of Cocos nucifera L (Aracaceae, which was identified as the major taxon (99%, thus being the possible botanical origin of this pollen. The main constituents found in the non-polar extract analysed by GC-EI-MS were saturated fatty acids and long chain esters, together with phytosterols such as ergosta-5,24(28-dien-3-ol, campesterol and sitosterol, detected in smaller quantities. Flavonoid glycosides, as well as hydroxycinnamic acid amide derivatives were detected in the polar extract analysed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid amide derivatives, fatty acids and phytosterols have been reported in many bee pollen taxa. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study of the chemical composition of bee pollen from C. nucifera , which is cultivated for its coconut fruit.

  3. Clinico-epidemiological study on canine toxicosis in Effurun/Warri Municipality region of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu F. Shima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental information on both the common toxicants and poisoning episodes in dogs within Effurun/Warri municipality region of Delta State of Nigeria from 2011 to 2014. The collected data were grouped according to age, sex, breed, year of occurrence, and toxicant type. The study revealed that a total of 76 dogs comprising 12 breeds were poisoned by several toxicants such as pesticides (69%; n=52/76, household products (12%; n=9/76, food and ndash;poisons (9%; n=7/76, and snakebite envenomation (3%; n=2/76. Mixed breeds (29%; n=22/76, Alsatian (25%; n=19/76, Rottweiler (16%; n=12/76 and indigenous breed (7%; n=5/76 ranked the topmost breeds accounted for most poison emergencies with human and ndash;related factors incriminated. This study provides useful information on episodes of poisoning in dogs in the studied region. The knowledge of agents involved can help veterinarians for accurate diagnosis, and pet owners to cautiously protect their pets from potentially poisonous substances. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 357-361

  4. [Motorcycle accidents in the municipality of Rio Branco in the State of Acre: characterization and trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Greiciane da Silva; Schor, Néia

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess traffic accidents involving motorcycles, the victims involved and the increase in the fleet compared with other vehicles in Rio Branco, State of Acre. It is an epidemiological, descriptive and transversal study of accidents between 2005 and 2008 recorded by the Acre State Highway Department. There were 3,582 motorcycle accidents and 3,768 victims in the period. The motorcycle fleet increased by 72.8%, with involvement in accidents increasing by 42.2%, while accidents involving other vehicles only increased by 9.2%. As regards victims, there is a predominance of men, with rates of 561.1, with the age groups of between 20 and 29 and 30 and 39 being the highest, with 755.4 and 542.2, respectively. With reference to accident characteristics, the highest number of accidents - 32.4% - occurred in the afternoon, followed by the morning with 29.2% and the evening with 28.9%. 18.3% occurred on Saturdays and 15.7% on Sundays. Collisions were the commonest kind of accident, with 3,036 (84.8%) occurrences. The conclusion drawn is that it is essential to stage ongoing preventive programs and ensure greater integration among the institutions involved, with planning and campaigns to reverse the current situation.

  5. The Impact of the Ecological ICMS on Investments on Sanitation and Environmental Management: Analysis of Municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Assis Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a growing economic and industrial development scenario, public policy can be used to encourage environment-friendly behaviour. In this context, it is a part of the Ecological ICMS, which is the VAT percentage of transfer raised by the States in favour of their municipalities, according to criteria established by law. In this paper, we seek to assess the contribution of the Ecological VAT in the State of Rio de Janeiro for the environmental development in this State. Therefore, of the 92 municipalities, data of budget expenses were collected for 87 of them (5 were excluded from analysis due to lack of information for some periods in sanitation functions and environmental management from 2005 to 2012 and therefore the 4 years before and after the validity of the Ecological VAT (2009. From the collected data, the mean difference test was used (Wilcoxon. The hypothesis tested was that the institution of the Ecological VAT in the State of Rio de Janeiro generated an increase of municipal expenditures in sanitation functions and environmental management. The results indicated that the average spending on sanitation and environmental management of municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro before and after the ecological ICMS institution are, from a statistical point of view, different and that the this benefit has contributed to an increase of environmental investments there. Moreover, the average expense on environmental management showed the largest percentage increase in the periods before and after the start of the distribution of resources to the Ecological VAT, although spending on sanitation express a higher total sum.

  6. Heavy metals pollution at municipal solid waste dumpsites in Kano and Kaduna states in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.U. Anake

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil samples collected from two major dumpsites each in Kano and Kaduna states were investigated for heavy metals pollution. Each of the dumpsite was divided into north, south, east and west. Four soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-15 cm from each part and pooled to form a composite sample. Soil samples from reserve areas within the same geographical locations as the dumpsites were collected as control. Acid-extractable cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni and lead (Pb were determined using 2 M nitric acid solution and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ranges of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb levels for all the dumpsites were 0.30−49.8, 5.76−139, 0.39−19.1 and 42.6−9662 mg/kg, respectively. Kano dumpsite 2 was found to pollute most with Cd, Cr and Pb in 50-100 % soil samples collected having concentrations higher than the threshold limits set by regulatory body. Paper and food scraps showed higher percentages in both Kano and Kaduna dumpsites. The soil was high is sand for all the dumpsites implying high leaching potentials of the heavy metals pollutants.

  7. Lander Radioscience LaRa, a Space Geodesy Experiment to Mars within the ExoMars 2020 mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, V. M. A.; Le Maistre, S.; Yseboodt, M.; Peters, M. J.; Karatekin, O.; Van Hove, B.; Rivoldini, A.; Baland, R. M.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2017-12-01

    The LaRa (Lander Radioscience) experiment is designed to obtain coherent two-way Doppler measurements from the radio link between the 2020 ExoMars lander and Earth over at least one Martian year. The LaRa instrument consists of a coherent transponder with up- and downlinks at X-band radio frequencies. The signal received from Earth is a pure carrier at 7.178 GHz; it is transponded back to Earth at a frequency of 8.434 GHz. The transponder is designed to maintain its lock and coherency over its planed one-hour observation sessions. The transponder mass is at the one-kg level. There are one uplink antenna and two downlink antennas. They are small patch antennas covered by a radome of 130gr for the downlink ones and of 200gr for the uplink. The signals will be generated and received by Earth-based radio antennas belonging to the NASA deep space network (DSN), the ESA tracking station network, or the Russian ground stations network. The instrument lifetime is more than twice the nominal mission duration of one Earth year. The Doppler measurements will be used to observe the orientation and rotation of Mars in space (precession, nutations, and length-of-day variations), as well as polar motion. The ultimate objective is to obtain information/constraints on the Martian interior, and on the sublimation/condensation cycle of atmospheric CO2. Orientation and rotational variations will allow us to constrain the moment of inertia of the entire planet, the moment of inertia of the core, and seasonal mass transfer between the atmosphere and the ice caps. The LaRa experiment will be combined with other previous radio science experiments such as the InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) RISE experiment (Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment) with radio science data of the NASA Viking landers, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rovers. In addition, other ExoMars2020 and TGO (Trace Gas Orbiter) experiments providing

  8. Identificación de ectoparásitos en Oso melero (Tamandua tetradactyla), Estado Lara, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Forlano R, María; Mujica L, Franklin; Gallardo Y, Johanmary; Rodríguez L, José

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo. Identificar especies de ectoparásitos encontrados parasitando naturalmente un Oso melero, el cual fue encontrado muriendo en una vía cercana al pueblo de Bobare, estado Lara, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos. Al ingresar el animal a la sala de anatomía del DCV-UCLA para ser sometido a la técnica de taxidermia, se procedió a revisar a través de la palpación toda la superficie corporal del Oso, con la finalidad de tomar muestras de ectoparásitos presentes en el hospedador; los especíme...

  9. Energetic development program in States and municipality-PRODEEM:Energy of locality in development with microsystems for production and energetic local use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro Filho, I.

    1994-01-01

    This Initiative has as purpose to get the attention and to propose a form of work practices so that the area energy became to contribute indeed for the reduction of global underdevelopment, pursuing the reduction of the energy developing in particular. Such a work is denominated Program of energy development of the states and municipalities PRODEEM intends that the energy of local use are taken advantage of through micro systems, to satisfy the basic necessities of developing towns of the country

  10. Aristocracia y monarquía en los reinos de Castilla y León: el caso de la familia Lara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Doubleday

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the twelfth century and the fourteenth, there was a fundamental change in the basis of the Lara family s power. At the outset, their influence derived primarily from personal access to, and control over, the monarch; throughout the twelfth century, the family s wealth rested heavily on possession of the royal offices known as tenencias, which were the principal fruit of courtly influence. But from the middle of the thirteenth century, the aftershocks of the reconquests of Seville and Córdoba, and the expansion of royal administration, meant that symbiosis was increasingly supplanted by a confrontational political climate marked by an acceleration of patrimonial accumulation by aristocratic lineages such as the Laras. The new structure of aristocratic power would long outlast the Lara family itself, surviving well into the modem age and finding expression in a culture in which, more than in any other western European society, the authority and values of nobility were dominant.

  11. Mortality by suicide: a focus on municipalities with a high proportion of self-reported indigenous people in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesem Douglas Yamall Orellana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze mortality rates and to describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of suicides recorded in the state of Amazonas. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study has been carried out with emphasis on municipalities, which have shown, simultaneously, a high mortality rates and a high proportion of self-reported indigenous population, based on 2005 - 2009 data as provided by the Informatics Department of the Unified National Health System. Results: Among the general population of the state of Amazonas, the mortality rate, by suicide, of 4.2/100.000 inhabitants has been reported, similar to that of Manaus (4.6/100.000 inhabitants. In contrast, at Tabatinga (25.2/100.000 inhabitants, at São Gabriel da Cachoeira (27.6/100.000 inhabitants and at Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (36.4/100.000 inhabitants, municipalities, where the proportion of self-reported indigenous population is high, besides the taxes being notably higher, it was observed that most of the suicides has occurred among men; among young men aged between 15 - 24 years; at home; by hanging; during "weekend" and among the indigenous population. Discussion: Our findings have unveiled that suicide comes forth as a serious public health issue in some municipalities in the state of Amazonas, further indicating that the event occurs within very specific contexts, and that the dimension and the magnitude of the problem can be even more serious among populations or in territories exclusively inhabited by indigenous people.

  12. Evaluation of the Chagas disease control program in Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adriana dos; Letro, Rejane Balmant; Lemos do Bem, Vitor Antônio; Azeredo, Bernardino Vaz de Melo; Coelho, George Luiz Lins Machado; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; de Lana, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil temporarily (2001-2005) interrupted epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Chagas Disease Control Program (CDCP) in Açucena and to offer suggestions for improving local epidemiological surveillance. This study was conducted in three phases: I) a serological investigation of schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test performed on blood collected on filter paper followed by ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect hemaglutination (IHA) on venous blood for borderline cases and those in the gray zone of reactivity; II) vector evaluation using the data obtained by local health agents during 2006-2010; and III) examination by ELISA, IIF and IHA of serum samples from the inhabitants of houses where infected Triatoma vitticeps was found and evaluation of their knowledge about Chagas disease. Five individuals had inconclusive results in the ELISA screening but were seronegative for Chagas disease. The triatomine evaluation revealed the presence of three species: Triatoma vitticeps, Panstrongylus megistus and Panstrongylus diasi. Triatoma vitticeps was the most prevalent and widespread, with a higher (67%) index of Trypanosoma cruzi flagellates and evidence of colonization. Most of the inhabitants of the infested houses recognized triatomines and had basic knowledge about Chagas disease. Although T. vitticeps is not clearly associated with Chagas disease transmission, these results highlight the importance of maintaining CDCP in endemic areas and the need for greater emphasis on epidemiological surveillance, especially in areas with important vectorial changes or that have been modified by human intervention.

  13. Evaluation of the Chagas Disease Control Program in Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil temporarily (2001-2005 interrupted epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Chagas Disease Control Program (CDCP in Açucena and to offer suggestions for improving local epidemiological surveillance. Methods This study was conducted in three phases: I a serological investigation of schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test performed on blood collected on filter paper followed by ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and indirect hemaglutination (IHA on venous blood for borderline cases and those in the gray zone of reactivity; II vector evaluation using the data obtained by local health agents during 2006-2010; and III examination by ELISA, IIF and IHA of serum samples from the inhabitants of houses where infected Triatoma vitticeps was found and evaluation of their knowledge about Chagas disease. Results Five individuals had inconclusive results in the ELISA screening but were seronegative for Chagas disease. The triatomine evaluation revealed the presence of three species: Triatoma vitticeps, Panstrongylus megistus and Panstrongylus diasi. Triatoma vitticeps was the most prevalent and widespread, with a higher (67% index of Trypanosoma cruzi flagellates and evidence of colonization. Most of the inhabitants of the infested houses recognized triatomines and had basic knowledge about Chagas disease. Conclusions Although T. vitticeps is not clearly associated with Chagas disease transmission, these results highlight the importance of maintaining CDCP in endemic areas and the need for greater emphasis on epidemiological surveillance, especially in areas with important vectorial changes or that have been modified by human intervention.

  14. Malacological survey of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The increasing practice of ecotourism and rural tourism in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, highlights the importance of studies concerning the occurrence of potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. This study aimed to identify species of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real, an important Brazilian tourism project. METHODS: The specimens were collected in different water collections of 36 municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais. Biomphalaria species were characterized using both morphological and molecular approaches. The research was conducted between August 2005 and September 2009 and all the sites visited were georeferenced using GPS. RESULTS: Six Biomphalaria species were found in 30 of the 36 municipalities studied: glabrata, tenagophila, straminea, peregrina, occidentalis and schrammi. The first three species of Biomphalaria, recognized as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni, were present in 33.3%, 47.2% and 8.3% of the municipalities studied, respectively. The mollusks were found in different types of water collections and no infection by S. mansoni was detected. The highest occurrence of Biomphalaria concentration was verified in the area covered by the Caminho Novo route (Diamantina/MG to Rio de Janeiro/RJ. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the occurrence of schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais and the socioeconomic repercussions involved in the Estrada Real Project, this work focuses on the vulnerability of water collections due to the presence of Biomphalaria mollusks and emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance and sanitary and educational measures integrated with the local community and tourism sectors.

  15. Diversidad de helechos y licófitas de la Reserva Natural Punta Lara, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela E Giudice

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el año 1987 el número de helechos y licofitas citados para la Reserva Punta Lara era de 30, incluyendo taxa específicos e infraespecíficos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad de los helechos y licofitas que crecen en esta reserva, donde se halla el relicto más austral de las selvas en galería. Para llevar a cabo este estudio se realizaron viajes de campo durante los años 2006-2009 y se consultaron herbarios locales así como bibliografía especializada. Como resultado del estudio se determinaron 24 taxa de helechos y licofitas, de hábito predominantemente terrestre (70%; pocas acuáticas (17% y epífitas (13%; dos especies exóticas, mientras que otras dos especies nativas citadas previamente no fueron halladas. Cinco taxa fueron registrados con escasa frecuencia. Se infiere que las principales causas de amenaza para las poblaciones de licofitas y helechos en la Reserva Natural Punta Lara son la extracción para su comercialización, la introducción de plantas exóticas y las fluctuaciones climáticas (periodos de sequía. Se presenta una clave de identificación de los taxa registrados y se plantean futuras estrategias de conservación de las especies consideradas vulnerables.

  16. Do federal and state audits increase compliance with a grant program to improve municipal infrastructure (AUDIT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La O, Ana L; Martel García, Fernando

    2014-09-03

    Poor governance and accountability compromise young democracies' efforts to provide public services critical for human development, including water, sanitation, health, and education. Evidence shows that accountability agencies like superior audit institutions can reduce corruption and waste in federal grant programs financing service infrastructure. However, little is know about their effect on compliance with grant reporting and resource allocation requirements, or about the causal mechanisms. This study protocol for an exploratory randomized controlled trial tests the hypothesis that federal and state audits increase compliance with a federal grant program to improve municipal service infrastructure serving marginalized households. The AUDIT study is a block randomized, controlled, three-arm parallel group exploratory trial. A convenience sample of 5 municipalities in each of 17 states in Mexico (n=85) were block randomized to be audited by federal auditors (n=17), by state auditors (n=17), and a control condition outside the annual program of audits (n=51) in a 1:1:3 ratio. Replicable and verifiable randomization was performed using publicly available lottery numbers. Audited municipalities were included in the national program of audits and received standard audits on their use of federal public service infrastructure grants. Municipalities receiving moderate levels of grant transfers were recruited, as these were outside the auditing sampling frame--and hence audit program--or had negligible probabilities of ever being audited. The primary outcome measures capture compliance with the grant program and markers for the causal mechanisms, including deterrence and information effects. Secondary outcome measure include differences in audit reports across federal and state auditors, and measures like career concerns, political promotions, and political clientelism capturing synergistic effects with municipal accountability systems. The survey firm and research

  17. Some remarks on bankrupt municipalities | Stander | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insolvency of municipalities is no longer a rare incident; it is a reality. It is interesting to note that even in the United States of America the insolvency of municipalities is currently an equally serious concern. In South Africa there is much speculation regarding the causes of the insolvency of municipalities, and possible ...

  18. Urban forests' potential to supply marketable carbon emission offsets: a survey of municipal governments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Jacek P. Siry; J. M. Bowker

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the motivation, willingness, and technical as well as managerial capacities of U.S. cities to store carbon and sell carbon offsets. Based on a national survey of urban foresters, arborists, and other officials responsible for urban forest management within U.S. municipal governments, results indicate that local governments are interested in selling...

  19. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) versus laser-assisted ratio analyzer (LARA): a comparative study using two doses of.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, V; Landi, F; Dulbecco, P; Ricci, C; Tessieri, L; Biagini, R; Gatta, L; Miglioli, M; Celle, G; Vaira, D

    2000-11-01

    This study was carried out to compare the measurements and the diagnostic accuracy of the traditional expensive IRMS and the new economical LARA system using two doses of [13C]urea + two different test meals in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, both before and after anti-Helicobacter treatment. A total of 354 dyspeptic patients underwent endoscopy with gastric biopsies to diagnose H. pylori infection by CLO-test and histology. No patients had taken antibiotics, bismuth, or antisecretory drugs in the 4 weeks before testing. After overnight fasting, breath samples were collected simultaneously in both plastic and glass tubes at baseline and at 30 and 60 min after urea ingestion. In 237 patients 100 mg [13C]urea + Ensure and in 117 patients 75 mg [13C]urea + citric acid were given. The test was also performed with the two urea dosages and meals in 67 and 64 infected patients, respectively, four weeks after anti-Helicobacter therapy. H. pylori was considered eradicated when both biopsy-based tests were negative. A delta value >5 per thousand was considered positive. Breath samples with insufficient CO2 levels at both 30 and 60 min were excluded from final analysis (N = 37 in pre- and N = 8 in posttreatment). There was excellent agreement between overall delta values of the two machines with both [13C]urea 100 mg + Ensure and [13C]urea 75 mg + citric acid. The 95% CI of the difference against the mean was wider with the former (mean -1.3, +6.3, and -9.4) than with the latter urea dosage and test meal (mean -1.2, +5.2 and -8.1). LARA and IRMS were equally effective (P = NS) in distinguishing infected from uninfected patients before therapy using both doses of [13C]urea and test meals (sensitivity ranged from 95% to 99% and specificity from 95% to 97%). This good performance was maintained in the posttreatment phase (sensitivity ranged from 90% to 100% and specificity from 90% to 97%), without any statistical difference among the various combinations

  20. Municipal opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousens, D.; Chuddy, B.; Gleeson, A.; Leckie, D.; Wahl, K.; McGarry, D.

    1997-01-01

    The panel discussing market opportunities for municipal electric companies was moderated by Markham Mayor Don Cousens. He expressed himself in favour of deregulation and was optimistic about the benefits it will bring to municipal electric utilities and their customers. Barry Chuddy, General Manager of Business Development for TransAlta Energy discussed the advantages of recent cogeneration and district energy for municipal utilities in Ontario and Quebec, and expressed his support for incentive-based regulation based on a level playing field, competitive generation, and a reasonable charge for stranded assets. Toronto City Councillor Dan Leckie described cogeneration and district energy as a tremendous opportunity to reduce the cost of doing business in the city core through local job creation and by keeping money in the local economy. Karl Wahl, General Manager of Hydro Mississauga expressed optimism that the government will move expeditiously toward competition, choice and lower-cost supply. David McGarry, President of Elecsar Engineering of Sarnia spoke about the significant job creating potential that deregulation will bring to the electrical industry. He cited several examples from Ontario and British Columbia

  1. An observational study of road safety around selected primary schools in Ibadan municipality, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangowawa, Adesola O; Adebiyi, Akindele O; Faseru, Babalola; Popoola, Olusola J

    2012-01-01

    Child pedestrians have been identified as vulnerable road users. Although walking as a means of transport has health and other benefits, it exposes children to the risk of road traffic injuries. This study was conducted to assess the availability of road safety features around government-owned primary schools in Ibadan municipality. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 46 of the 74 schools in the study area. Some (11) of the selected schools were sited within the same premises and shared a common entrance; thus a total of 35 school premises were eventually observed. Trained research assistants observed the school environment around the selected schools for road safety features such as location of schools, presence of "school", "child crossing" and "speed limit" road signs, and presence of traffic calming devices (road bumps or zebra crossing). Five (14%) of the schools were located on major roads and eight (23%) had road signs indicating that a school was nearby. Seven (20%) had road bumps close to the school, 15 (43%) had a warden who assisted children to cross, and none had a zebra crossing. Five (14%) schools had pedestrian sidewalks. The study revealed that the environment around a number of the observed schools in the municipality compromised the pupils' road safety. The local government, school authorities, parents, and road safety professionals need to institute definite measures to enhance the road safety environment around schools in the municipality.

  2. Christian Lara: Reconciling Vision and Execution in Sucre Amer and 1802 l’Epopée Guadeloupéenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Robinson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invoking the past in film is a political gesture because it suggests new interpretations of historical events. French Caribbean director Christian Lara portrays the Guadeloupean rebellion of 1803 in two of his films. In his own words, he builds “a historical fresco” of the events, abounding with frequent changes of scenery, elaborate period costumes, and a wide range of minor and major characters through which he exposes France’s colonial wrongdoings. He further questions present French involvement in Guadeloupe. My aim in this paper is to demonstrate that his cinematic efforts, though criticized for their theatricality, underscore an urgency to correct and confirm the islands’ distinctive and inspiring local history.

  3. Dengue virus type 3 isolation from Aedes aegypti in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective field study conducted from July 2000 to June 2001, adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were caught from the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Virus isolation in Ae. albopictus clone C6/36 cell line and a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected only dengue virus type 3 in three pools of Ae. aegypti, despite the co-circulation of DEN-1, DEN-2 and DEN-3 serotypes in that area. No viruses were detected in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. This virological surveillance consists in a sentinel system alerting for dengue outbreaks.

  4. Zoneamento agroecológico do município de Lagoa Seca, PB Agroecological zoning of the municipal district of Lagoa Seca, Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris do S. Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Visa-se, cinzelar, neste estudo um zoneamento em que se considerem os aspectos agrícolas, ecológicos e sociais inerentes ao município de Lagoa Seca, PB, elaborado através da análise dos vários cenários apresentados na área. O uso de um conjunto de recursos, como fotointerpretação, processamento de imagens georreferenciadas, posicionamento por satélites, associados à teoria sistêmica de Bertrand, possibilitou a identificação, delimitação e análise das áreas de uso antrópico, agrícola e das áreas com remanescentes vegetais significativos, que caracterizam o município. Foram elaborados para a área em estudo, arquivos digitais georreferenciados, relativos aos temas: limite municipal, áreas urbanizadas, infra-estrutura viária, rede de drenagem, altimetria, cobertura vegetal natural, uso agrícola do solo e zoneamento. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o município apresenta quatro regiões com aspectos distintos, as quais foram identificadas como regiões agroecológicas, de acordo com o fator que mais se destacou em cada área.This work sought to perfect zoning which concerns the agricultural, ecological and social aspects in the municipality of Lagoa Seca in the State of Paraíba through the study of several scenarios in that area. It consisted of a set of approaches such as photo interpretation, geo-referenced image processing, and satellite positioning associated with Bertrand's Systemic Theory that allowed the identification, delimitation and analysis of areas of anthropic and agricultural usage as well as of those with remaining significant vegetation, which characterize the municipality. Digital geo-referenced files were elaborated for the studied area comprising basic data about the municipal limit, urbanized areas, road systems, drainage system, altimetry, cover of natural vegetation, soil farming usage and zoning of agroecological regions. The study showed that the municipality of Lagoa Seca has four regions

  5. Cambio y continuidad en las elecciones municipales del Estado de México, 1996-2015 /Change and Continuity in 1996-2015 State of Mexico Municipal Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cedillo Delgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del trabajo es comparar el proceso de cambio y continuidad ocurrido en las elecciones municipales del Estado de México; al mismo tiempo se analiza el avance en la representación política de las mujeres en los ayuntamientos. De manera comparativa y a través de un análisis interpretativo de los resultados electorales, se argumenta que en las elecciones municipales se pasa de un ambiente competitivo, plural y con elevada alternancia (1996-2006 a uno poco competitivo, de baja pluralidad y con un partido dominante (2006-2015. En materia del voto ciudadano, la teoría del condicionamiento sociodemográfico ha dejado de ser útil para explicar la distribución del voto, y en la integración de los ayuntamientos hay una evidente inequidad en la representación política de las mujeres. / The purpose of this article is to compare the changes and continuity in State of Mexico municipal elections. It also analyzes how much women’s political representation in municipalities has moved forward. The author compares and analyzes the electoral results, arguing that State of Mexico municipal elections have transitioned from a competitive, plural electoral environment with high levels of alternation in office from 1996 to 2006, to an atmosphere of less competition and pluralism with a single dominant party from 2006 to 2015. Socio-demographic conditioning theory no longer explains the distribution of balloting in mayoral elections, where women’s inequality of political representation is clear.

  6. The current state of municipal solid waste landfills in Suceava county and their impact on water and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ; Valeria DIȚOIU; Petruț-Ionel BISTRICEAN

    2013-01-01

      The location of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in inappropriate places is a serious risk to the quality of all environmental factors. These waste disposal sites can become major sources of chemical pollution and biological contamination of soil, groundwater and surface waters due to the high content of heavy metals and organic substances with low biodegradation rate.The paper discusses in detail the issues of the landfill sites territorial distribution in Suceava County (the Mirăuţi ...

  7. The current state of municipal solid waste landfills in Suceava county and their impact on water and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   The location of municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in inappropriate places is a serious risk to the quality of all environmental factors. These waste disposal sites can become major sources of chemical pollution and biological contamination of soil, groundwater and surface waters due to the high content of heavy metals and organic substances with low biodegradation rate.The paper discusses in detail the issues of the landfill sites territorial distribution in Suceava County (the Mirăuţi landfill, located in the adjacent area of Suceava city and the Gura Humorului, Radauti, Siret, Campulung Moldovenesc, Fălticeni and Vatra Dornei urban landfills, together with a review of the technical data of the landfills, as well as an evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative effects they produce on the landscape, soil and groundwater quality.

  8. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  9. [Transmission risk of Trypanosoma cruzi in Metztitlán municipality from Hidalgo state, México, by characterization of domiciliary units and their entomologic indexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Marco A; Angeles-Pérez, Vidal; Noguez-García, Julio Cr; Imbert-Palafox, José L

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by triatomines in Metztitlan municipality, Hidalgo State, Mexico, entomological indexes were calculated and the characteristics of dwellings were described. A transversal, retrospective, descriptive, and observational study was performed by means of an intentional not probabilistic and expertise sampling from January to December of 2005 in 10 localities in which presence of triatomines were investigated either intra or peridomestic environmental in 699 houses. Building material and presence of infected triatomines with T. cruzi were registered to determine entomologic indexes. The triatomine species collected were: Triatoma barberi (Usinger) and T. mexicana (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The results indicated that natural infection index varied from 7.7% to 50%; colonization index reached 80%; infestation index varied from 7.7% to 25%; dispersion index was 70%. Stone-walled houses were more infested. We can conclude that it is necessary to establish T. cruzi transmission control measures against triatomines in localities from Metztitlan, primarily in stone-walled houses where T. barberi occurs, as it was the most important vector species in the transmission of T. cruzi in this municipality.

  10. [Natural infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi in Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sandflies captured in the municipality of Janaúba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Lara e Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; França-Silva, João Carlos; Dias, Consuelo Latorre Fortes; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis has been notified in nearly all states of Brazil, and particularly in the north of Minas Gerais, where the disease is endemic. The aim of this study was to detect natural infection of Lutzomyia longipalpis and, through the PCR/RFLP technique, identify Leishmania species found in sandflies in the municipality of Janaúba. Using light traps, 1,550 females of L. longipalpis were caught and grouped into pools of 10 specimens to be subjected to DNA extraction and amplification, by means of generic PCR and cacophony. Out of the 155 pools, six were positive for Leishmania sp., and thus the infection rate in the municipality was 3.9%. Through PCR/RFLP, the digestion pattern among the positive samples was found to be similar to that of the reference strain of Leishmania chagasi (MHOM/BR/74/PP75). The detection of natural infection associated with studies on the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis suggests that L. longipalpis is involved in transmission of L. infantum chagasi in Janaúba, particularly in areas of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

  11. Factors associated with schistosomiasis mansoni in a population from the municipality of Jaboticatubas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lara Massara

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Jaboticatubas is a municipality in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte which has been a target of a wide media release as "the capital of schistosomiasis" since the 1960's. In order to give support to a work based on an integrated control, we sought to identify the disease determinants at the site. A transversal study was carried out aimed at identifying prevalence rates of the disease and factors associated with the infection in the district of São José de Almeida, and two close localities, Cipó Velho and São José da Serra, all of them located in the municipality of Jaboticatubas. A parasitological survey was performed, applying the Kato-Katz method with two slides per sample in 1186 schoolchildren which represents 77% of all registered pupils in four public schools in 2001. Among these schoolchildren a number of 101 (8.6% prooved positive for Schistosoma mansoni eggs in their stool samples. A total of 64 families, whose schoolchildren had shown to be positive for schistosomiasis, also undertook examinations. As negative control, a random sample was collected from the 206 families, whose children had proven negative for schistosomiasis. The prevalence among 270 families (1304 people was 12%. To assess those who continued to have contact with possibly contaminated water, 1061 (81.4% people of the 270 families were interviewed. A multivariate analysis identified the following factors associated with the infection: time of residence in the area (short period, garbage disposal (use of deserted areas, gender (male, age (from 10 to 29 years, and water contact (daily and weekly. Further analysis of these factors revealed a close correlation between water contact and the disease, with a positive significant frequency concerning almost all those items. Depending on gender and age significant variations of water contact patterns associated with leisure and professional activities were found. A malacological survey on water collections in the

  12. Renewable municipal waste barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In the European Union the production of primary energy from the incineration of municipal waste increased by only 0.7% in 2013 and reached 8.7 million tep (tonnes of oil equivalent). Germany ranks first with the production of 2729 ktep followed by France with 1246 ktep. A positive point is that the sale of heat to heat networks has strongly increased in some countries which means that primary energy is better used. 2 tables give the production of electricity and heat from the incineration of municipal waste in the E.U. member states in 2012 and 2013. Germany ranks first in the 2 tables. The total production of electricity and heat from the incineration of municipal waste in E.U. in 2013 reached 18741 GWh and 2361 tep respectively. A list reviews the most significant companies working in Europe in the sector of waste incineration, 8 companies are listed, 2 are German: EEW, Remondis, 3 are French: SITA (Suez Environment, Veolia and TIRU (EDF), Urbaser is spanish, Gruppo Hera is Italian and AEB-Amsterdan is dutch. (A.C.)

  13. Motor development profile in 9-11 year-old children from the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas State, presenting low school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Natália Santos da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children may present motor development delays that can influence their learning process, hence the need for specific assessment for the early detection of such delays in an attempt to resolve or mitigate possible future damage. Objective: Profile of motor development in children aged 9-11 years old presenting low academic achievement in the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas state. Methodology: An exploratory, descriptive, transversal study which uses the Motor Development Scale (MDS to analyze the main components of performance. Evaluations were carried out with 43 children of both genders. Results: The children assessed presented motor profiles ranging from “normal” to “far below average”, corroborating the findings in the literature. Conclusions: The results obtained are in agreement with the literature, showing a close relation between motor development and low school performance, emphasizing the importance of psychomotor intervention for the maturation of more complex motor patterns.

  14. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  15. PRof ILE of ORANGE CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMER ATTITUDES TO MINIMALLY PROCESSED ‘PERA’ ORANGE IN MUNICIPALITIES of THE STATE of SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda PALHARINI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the prof ile of orange consumption and consumer attitude to minimally processed orange. Seven hundred and seventeen questionnaires were applied in commercial establishments in three municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Main results of this research are: orange is a highly appreciated fruit, being consumed in natura and also as its natural juice, moreover orange is purchased weekly at hypermarkets, the purchase intent for minimally processed orange was low and the likely consumers’ willingness of paying for that product would be near 200% over the ‘in natura’ fruit. Considering the high consume of ‘in natura’ orange and the increasing need for convenience and practicality, it is possible to affirm that there is a potential for commercializing minimally processed orange.

  16. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  17. Mapping and analysis of the groundwater potability in the Lajeado municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Strohschoen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater sources spread in extensive areas and are relatively protected from pollution agents when compared to rivers and artificial reservoirs. These aspects, combined with low exploitation costs, provided a considerable growth in the groundwater use in the last decades. Groundwater became an important alternative source for public water supply in Brazil. This paper shows the georeferenced location of the groundwater exploitation points in the Lajeado, RS municipality and the potability analysis of this water. The groundwater exploitation in the study area is accomplished in the Serra Geral and Guarani aquifers and the exploitation points were identified in field campaigns using a GPS receiver and plotted over satellite imagery using remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. The groundwater potability assessment was based on 100 samples for microbiological and physico-chemical analyses that included 78 samples of tubular wells and 22 of dug wells. Contour maps were generated for the analyzed parameters in the tubular wells, using geostatistics procedures. In this study, 362 tubular wells and 253 dug wells were studied. The results show that the dug wells are located mainly in rural areas and 77.27% of them aren’t suitable for human consumption due to high levels of contamination. The tubular wells are concentrated in urban areas and results revealed that 76.92% of them have water with suitable quality for the human consumption.

  18. Epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas en el municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco, Lara, Venezuela: infestación triatomínica y seroprevalencia en humanos Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Andrés Eloy Blanco, Lara, Venezuela: triatomine infestation and human seroprevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudina Rodríguez-Bonfante

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un despistaje serológico y recolección de vectores en cuatro comunidades rurales del municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La muestra fue escogida en forma sistemática y aleatoria basada en conglomerados familiares. Se muestrearon 869 habitantes para determinar anticuerpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi y anti-Leishmania sp. por inmunofluorescencia indirecta, aceptando como positivo diluciones > a 1:32 para anticuerpos anti-T. cruzi no reactivos para antígenos de Leishmania sp., obteniendo una frecuencia de anticuerpos en la muestra de 6,9% (n = 60; de los cuales 46,66% son femeninos, 53,33% masculinos y 60% mayores de 40 años. Se observó que 5 (8,33% de los seropositivos eran menores de 10 años y 10 (16,66% menores de 20 años. Rhodnius prolixus y Panstrongylus geniculatus fueron los triatominos capturados, con índice de infestación de 1,9 y 10,54%, índice de colonización, del 0 y 18,18% en las viviendas infestadas e índice de infección a T. cruzi del 20 y 5,07%, respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que existe una transmisión activa de la enfermedad de Chagas en el Municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco en las últimas dos décadas y que P. geniculatus está substituyendo a R. prolixus como vector de la enfermedad de Chagas.A seroepidemiological survey and vector captures were performed in four rural communities in Andrés Eloy Blanco, Lara State, Venezuela. Systematic random sampling was based on family clusters, with samples drawn from 869 individuals to determine anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Positive individuals were defined as > 1:32 for anti-T. cruzi antibody and non-reactive to Leishmania sp. antigen, revealing an antibody frequency of 6.9% (n = 60, of whom 46.66% were females and 53.33% males and 60% were over 39 years of age. Some 5 (8.33% seropositive individuals were under 10 years of age and 10 (16.66% under 20 years. Rhodnius prolixus and

  19. Epidemiological profile of exogenous poisoning in children and adolescents from a municipality in the state of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ferreira S. Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiology of exogenous intoxications in children and adolescents of Barra Garças, Mato Grosso, from January 2008 to September 2013.METHOD: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective, and descriptive epidemiological study. Data were collected from the Disease Notification System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação [SINAN] of the municipality, processed using Microsoft Excel, and evaluated through BIOESTAT statistical software. The variables included were: sex; age; toxic agent; time and place of service; route of administration; circumstance; and classification of intoxication. The age range was established according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, comprising children aged from 0 to 9 years old and adolescents aged from 10 to 19 years old.RESULTS: A total of 125 cases of accidental exogenous poisoning was registered, including 77 children and 48 adolescents. Food and beverages (38.4% and drugs (24.0% were the most common groups of toxic agents responsible for the poisoning. The largest age group affected by intoxication was composed of children aged from 0 to 4 years old (43.2% and adolescents aged from 10 to 14 years old (19.7%. Regarding the circumstances, intoxication occurred due to suicide attempts (16.8% and accidental events (23.2% in adolescents and children, respectively. The study revealed a higher frequency of poisoning in girls.CONCLUSION: Exogenous intoxications occurred predominantly in children up to 4 years old, through the accidental consumption of food or drinks. Thus, the adoption of educational prevention programs for children's family members and caregivers is necessary.

  20. Hematological disorders detected in dogs infected by Hepatozoon canis in a municipality in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Paiz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A retrospective review of hematological reports of nine dogs detected with Hepatozoon canis infection by microscopic examination of blood smears in a laboratory in the municipality of Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil was conducted. This study aimed to evaluate the hematological profile of these infected dogs, in addition to the occurrence of coinfections with other agents that infect blood cells, since studies concerning canine hepatozoonosis in Brazil are scarce and there are some divergences regarding H. canis infection that still require a resolution. The nine cases of H. canis infection were identified among all dogs examined at the studied laboratory in 2009 and 2010, with an occurrence of 7/1,192 (0.59%; 95% CI 0.15 - 1.02% positive dogs in the first year and 2/1,313 (0.15%; 95% CI 0.02 - 0.55% cases in 2010. The analysis of the hematological reports showed an occurrence of coinfection between H. canis and other agents in two (2/9; 22.22%; 95% CI 2.81 - 60.00% dogs, one with E. canis and another with Babesia spp. (1/9; 11.11%; 95% CI 0.28 - 48.24%. Only the blood test of one dog had no alterations, based on reference values. Anemia was the most frequent hematological alteration (6/9; 66.67%; 95% CI 29.93 - 92.51%. Although the occurrence of H. canis infection was low, significative hematological alterations were observed in most infected dogs. Coinfection with Babesia spp. and E. canis was detected in two dogs and the hematological alterations cannot be attributed exclusively to H. canis in these animals. Longitudinal studies would be of fundamental importance to determine the causality of these alterations. These results highlight the importance of differential diagnosis in dogs when there is clinical suspicion of infection by hemoparasites, since the hematological changes in dogs infected by H. canis are quite variable.

  1. PREVALENCE OF AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASES IN DOMESTIC DOGS IN A RURAL AREA OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO JOÃO DO PIAUÍ, PIAUÍ STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEREZ, Taliha Dias; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; JUNIOR, Artur Augusto Mendes VELHO; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; BRAZIL, Reginaldo Peçanha; COURA, José Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease and the leishmaniases are endemic zoonoses of great importance to public health in the state of Piauí, Brazil. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a major reservoir, host of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. in both urban and rural areas, playing an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The present study evaluated the prevalence of both infectious diseases in dogs of a rural area in the municipality of São João do Piauí, Piauí State. One hundred twenty-nine blood samples were collected for serological assessment: for the leishmaniases, 49 (38%) animals tested positive by the Dual-Path Platform technology (DPP), nine (6%) by the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and 19 (14.7%) by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody test (IFA); while for American Trypanosomiasis, 36 (28%) dogs were reagent by ELISA and 21 by IFA. Of the 129 dogs sampled, 76 were submitted to xenodiagnosis, bone marrow aspiration and skin biopsy to perform parasitological tests whose results showed only one (2.3%) positive skin sample for Trypanosoma caninum and one positive xenodiagnosis for T. cruzi, both results confirmed by molecular assays. Three hundred triatomines of the species Triatoma brasiliensis and 552 phlebotomines - 509 (97%) of the species Lutzomyia longipalpis, were also captured. PMID:27828620

  2. From State-controlled to Polycentric Governance in Forest Landscape Restoration: The Case of the Ecological Forest Purchase Program in Yong'an Municipality of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hexing; Liu, Jinlong; Tu, Chengyue; Fu, Yimin

    2018-07-01

    Forest landscape restoration is emerging as an effective approach to restore degraded forests for the provision of ecosystem services and to minimize trade-offs between conservation and rural livelihoods. Policy and institutional innovations in China illustrate the governance transformation of forest landscape restoration from state-controlled to polycentric governance. Based on a case study of the Ecological Forest Purchase Program in Yong'an municipality, China's Fujian Province, this paper explores how such forest governance transformation has evolved and how it has shaped the outcomes of forest landscape restoration in terms of multi-dimensionality and actor configurations. Our analysis indicates that accommodating the participation of multiple actors and market-based instruments facilitate a smoother transition from state-centered to polycentric governance in forest landscape restoration. Governance transitions for forest landscape restoration must overcome a number of challenges including ensurance of a formal participation forum, fair participation, and a sustainable legislative and financial system to enhance long-term effectiveness.

  3. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  4. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  5. Implementation - more than monitoring and enforcement: evidence from the implementation of the 1989 municipal waste incineration directive (89/429/EEC) in four member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucht, S. [CERNA, Centre d' Economie Industrielle, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Bultmann, A. [UFZ-Center for Environmental Research (Germany); Eames, M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Science Policy Research Unit; Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ.-CSTM, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-12-01

    Researchers and policy-makers accept that implementation decisively influences the effectiveness of European (EU) environmental policy. Some Member States lead the development of EU policy and implement Directives with little problem. Others follow a variety of compliance (or non-compliance) paths. Implementation gaps and policy failures are prevalent. Policy outcomes often differ radically between even neighbouring Member States. What are the reasons for these differences? Why do Member States follow different compliance paths? Why do implementation gaps and policy failures occur? What factors can explain the different policy outcomes achieved? Is it only 'classical' implementation variables i.e. the monitoring and enforcement actions of public authorities that count? What lessons can we draw for the future? This paper addresses these questions through a comparative analysis of the implementation of the European Directive on the reduction of air pollution from existing municipal waste incineration plants (89/429/EEC) in Germany, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom: four neighbouring Member States that exhibit quite divergent compliance paths and policy outcomes. Monitoring and enforcement are found to have only limited explanatory power. In practice national contextual variables, such as: public and political environmental awareness; interactions both with environmental and non-environmental policies; regulatory anticipation and uncertainty; the degree of autonomy and scope of regulatory agencies; and, industrial and market structure of the regulated industry, must also be considered. The article is structured as follows. Section two presents the emission standards imposed by the Directive, briefly summarises the transposition of the Directive into national legislation and presents the compliance paths of the four countries. In sections three to six the specific implementation processes in the four countries are described, focusing on factors

  6. Epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in Settlement Nossa Senhora Aparecida at the Municipality of Mariluz in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Y. Kanashiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Kanashiro M.Y., Filho A. & Tirado R.M. [Epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in Settlement Nossa Senhora Aparecida at the Municipality of Mariluz in the State of Paraná, Brazil.] Situação epidemiológica da brucelose bovina no Assentamento Nossa Senhora Aparecida no município de Mariluz, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(4:396- 400, 2014. Departamento de Fiscalização e Defesa Agropecuária, Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado do Paraná, Rua dos Funcionários, 1559, Térreo, Cabral, Curitiba, PR 80035-050, Brasil. E-mail: marcoskanashiro@ adapar.pr.gov.br We conducted a study using data from fieldwork conducted by autonomous veterinarians to characterize the epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in Nossa Senhora Aparecida Settlement, Municipality of Mariluz, State of Parana. Autonomous Veterinarians enabled by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply for tests for brucellosis and tuberculosis were hired by milk producers of the Settlement in order to fulfill a requirement of dairy as a criterion to continue marketing the milk they produce. The requirement was to carry out the examination of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle all for the purpose of reproduction present on the property. Were sampled properties of milk and, thus, were examined all the cows over 24 months and bulls for the purpose of reproduction, from which was obtained a blood sample from each animal. In total, 1264 animals were sampled, from 141 properties. Among the properties sampled, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied to check the type of farming and the husbandry and sanitary practices that could be associated with the risk of infection and, moreover, was conducted georeferencing of properties sampled and sanitary orientation in relation to brucellosis. The flock was considered positive if at least one animal was positive on two serological tests (Tube agglutination

  7. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieternel; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  8. Antonio Zambrana Lara, docente y pintor. Técnica y procedimientos dentro del Realismo Sevillano del último tercio del siglo XX

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Moreno, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo que aquí se presenta, cuyo título es Antonio Zambrana Lara, docente y pintor. Técnica y procedimiento dentro del Realismo Sevillano del último tercio del siglo XX, procurará analizar en profundidad las cuestiones relacionadas con la personalidad artística de Antonio Zambrana, a través de diversos asuntos, como por ejemplo su contextualización, intentando profundizar en un momento apasio nante del arte sevillano y especialmente en aquellos apartados que de manera más concreta se ref...

  9. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  10. Folk medicine in Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State: an ethnobotanical approach - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.9306

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Antônio Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present results from an ethnobotanical study (from February to August 2009 aiming the improvement and rationalization of medical practices, based on popular use of plants. We applied semi-structured interviews to 220 families from the urban area of Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State. During the interviews we recorded the following information about the used plants: common name; plant part used; method of preparation; collection site; therapeutic indication, and known adverse effects. Additionally, we compared the data obtained in the interviews with the literature in order to identify contradiction in use and application. Among the interviewees, 90% use medicinal plants, obtained especially from the backyards. We recorded 44 ethnobotanical citations, comprising 47 species (22 families. The species most frequently mentioned in the interviews were, respectively, Cymbopogon citrates (DC Stapf. (Lemon grass, Mentha sp. (Mint, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (False Boldo and Plectranthus ornatus Codd (Dog bane. The applications most cited were: the treatment of diseases from the digestive tract (122 citations, respiratory (67 citations and nervous system (40 citations. In general, the population knows the correct method for preparing the medicinal plants. However, they report that do not know any adverse effect caused by these plants. This scenario is worrying because some species are recognized in the literature as potentially toxic or responsible for adverse effects.  

  11. Epidemiological study of hepatitis B and C in a municipality with rural characteristics: Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Laura Valdiane Luz; Silva, Marcondes Alves Barbosa da; Perdoná, Gleici da Silva Castro; Nascimento, Margarida Maria Passeri; Secaf, Marie; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Martinelli, Ana de Lourdes Candolo; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections remain an important cause of global morbidity and mortality. Studies have been conducted in population groups of large cities, leaving gaps in the knowledge regarding the situation in small municipalities. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hepatitis B and C markers and presence of infection-associated factors. All inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros aged ≥18 years who agreed to participate in the research were included. We collected blood as well as information via a questionnaire between March 2011 and December 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Among the 1,001 participants, 41 (4.1%) participants had a serological profile of hepatitis B viral exposure, and only one (0.1%) participant was considered a virus carrier. The frequency of isolated antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) markers was 17.8% for the overall population. In the multivariate analysis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was associated with age, birth outside the State of São Paulo, history of hepatitis, ≥2 sexual partners in the last 6 months, and tattoos. Four (0.4%) participants had a serological profile of hepatitis C viral exposure. However, after confirmation using viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) evaluation, only one (0.1%) individual remained positive. The positivity rates for hepatitis B and C were low, despite greater sexual freedom and the recent emergence of illicit drugs, as observed by the health personnel working in Cássia dos Coqueiros.

  12. Prokaryotic diversity and dynamics in a full-scale municipal solid waste anaerobic reactor from start-up to steady-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Colturato, Luís F D B; Colturato, Thiago D B; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A; Sanz, José L

    2012-09-01

    The prokaryotic diversity of an anaerobic reactor for the treatment of municipal solid waste was investigated over the course of 2 years with the use of 16S rDNA-targeted molecular approaches. The fermentative Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes predominated, and Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes and the candidate division WWE1 were also identified. Methane production was dominated by the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales (Methanoculleus sp.) and their syntrophic association with acetate-utilizing and propionate-oxidizing bacteria. qPCR demonstrated the predominance of the hydrogenotrophic over aceticlastic Methanosarcinaceae (Methanosarcina sp. and Methanimicrococcus sp.), and Methanosaetaceae (Methanosaeta sp.) were measured in low numbers in the reactor. According to the FISH and CARD-FISH analyses, Bacteria and Archaea accounted for 85% and 15% of the cells, respectively. Different cell counts for these domains were obtained by qPCR versus FISH analyses. The use of several molecular tools increases our knowledge of the prokaryotic community dynamics from start-up to steady-state conditions in a full-scale MSW reactor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DYNAMICS STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY VEGETATION INFLUENCED BY LOGGING IN A SOLID GROUND FOREST, IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MOJU, PARÁ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Silva Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989283The structure dynamics of an understorey vegetation influenced by gaps caused by reduced impact logging was analyzed during 12 years in a solid ground rain forest in the municipality of Moju, Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon forest. Angiosperm individuals from 10 cm height up to 5 cm DBH were surveyed in a 468 m² sample area in six occasions (1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007 and 2010, they were analyzed considering their life-forms (trees, shrub, lianas, herbs and palms, abundance, frequency, size classes (CT1 = 10 cm ≤ HT < 50 cm; CT2 = 50 cm ≤ HT < 130 cm; CT3 = 130 cm < HT and DAP < 2 cm; and CT4 = 2 cm ≤ DAP < 5 cm and relative natural regeneration Burseraceae, Marantaceae, Violaceae and Lecythidaceae were the most important families in the study area in every occasions, while the most representative species were Monotagma sp1., Monotagma sp2., Rinorea guianensis, Lecythis idatimon e Protium pilosum. The most frequent life forms were trees, herbs and lianas in all occasions. The dynamics of life forms depended on light intensity. The establishment of commercial and potentially commercial species was favored by gaps, suggesting that natural regeneration of those species do not need to be assisted for guaranteeing timber stocks for future harvests.

  14. Metal recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA): state of the art, potential and environmental benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Holtze, Maria S.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Incineration has a central role in the waste management system in Denmark (e.g. 52% of the household waste) resulting in approximately 726000t of solid residues each year. However, the targets imposed by the Danish Waste Strategy and the increasing discussions about resource in waste raise an issue...... on resource losses through waste incineration. In this framework, this study provides actual data on the state of the art of the recovery of resource in MSWIBA in Denmark (i.e. metals), on the potential for further recovery and on the environmental benefits or burdens assessed through the Life Cycle...

  15. Designing a Municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Ulrik; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2014-01-01

    Can a municipality be designed? The municipality Kolding in the southern part of Denmark asked this question. The idea emerged as a response to a recognized need for new ways of branding and developing the municipality. It is an ongoing process that was kicked off in 2012 and this paper is theref......Can a municipality be designed? The municipality Kolding in the southern part of Denmark asked this question. The idea emerged as a response to a recognized need for new ways of branding and developing the municipality. It is an ongoing process that was kicked off in 2012 and this paper...... is therefore focusing primarily on the process of changing the perception of how to organize development in a municipality. The most important elements in transforming the whole development setup are described. Finally, a short case describing one of the significant results is included....

  16. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Cerino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6% had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40 detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT while four (2.4% showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

  17. THE DEGRADED LANDSCAPES OF THE PALMELO MUNICIPALITY IN GOIAS STATE: THE STUDY OF THE GULLIES BY MEANS OF FIELDWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandervilson Alves Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some considerations about the dynamics of degraded landscapes processes, like gullies, located in Palmelo, Goiás State, within Pires do Rio Microregion. Throughout a complete fieldwork, the gullies, in rural areas, that threat to underlying water table were mapped and cataloged. Unfortunately, one notices that gullies continually increase in size and number, mainly because there are no projects in order to restraint or reduce them promoted by local government. Besides, the illegal disposing of great amounts of waste still into the gullies, affects the quality of people’s life as well as the water table associated to them. Nevertheless, a very detailed case study of gullies, their cataloguing and identification, may help in the proposition of procedures to prevent and avoid illegal dumping of rubbish and waste, reduce the risks of accidents and eliminates these important factors of landscape degradation.

  18. Municipal Bonds in Developing Countries. Case Study: Municipality of Stip, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija GOGOVA SAMONIKOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The developing countries, especially in the Balkans, barely use the municipal bonds as an alternative way of financing their activities. This paper is part of the project “The municipal bonds as an alternative source of financing municipals activities and the effective management of funds, with a special emphasis to the Municipality of Stip, R. Macedonia”. The paper has an important impact, according to both academic and practical perspective. It combines the experts’ academic analysis with the municipals potential in order to facilitate a successful municipal bond emission that would support the local economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ability and willingness of the Municipality of Stip to issue municipal bonds. The main hypothesis states that the Municipality of Stip is able to issue a municipal bond as an alternative way of financing its investment activities. The research includes the classical SWOT analysis regarding the Municipality of Stip and continues with a statistical analysis based on correlation and regression relationships within the accounts of the Municipality’s annual reports. The methodological framework is based on quantitative research methods (correlations and regression methods which result in acceptance of the main hypothesis in the paper - the municipal bonds as an alternative source for funding municipal’s activities are justified, especially if the funds are associated with a specific revenue-generating project. The findings would serve as a basis for the municipal bonds prospect, which would be the ultimate goal of combining the academic knowledge with the practical potential of the Municipality of Stip. The conclusions reveal that this would be the first municipal bond emission in the Republic of Macedonia. However, this fact can serve as an advantage in the market in terms of introducing financial instrument innovation. This paper suggests that the usage of municipal bonds is

  19. The causes of the municipal solid waste and the greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungtaek; Kim, Jonghoon; Chong, Wai K O

    2016-10-01

    The United States generated approximately 730kg of waste per capita in 2013, which is the highest amount of waste among OECD countries. The waste has adverse effects to human health and the environment. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas emissions, especially methane (CH4), which causes global warming. However, the United States' amount of waste generation is not decreasing, and the recycling rate is only 26%, which is lower than other OECD countries. In order to decrease waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying the causality of the waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions from waste sector should be made a priority. The research objective is to verify whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship is supported for waste generation and GDP across the U.S. Moreover, it also confirmed that total waste generation and recycling of waste influences carbon dioxide emissions from the waste sector. Based on the results, critical insight and suggestions were offered to policymakers, which is the potential way to lower the solid waste and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector. This research used annually based U.S. data from 1990 to 2012, and these data were collected from various data sources. To verify the causal relationship, the Granger causality test was applied. The results showed that there is no causality between GDP and waste generation, but total waste and recycling generate significantly increasing and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector, respectively. This implies that waste generation will not decrease even if GDP increases. And, if waste generation decreases or the recycling rate increases, greenhouse gas emission will decrease. Based on these results, increasing the recycling rate is first suggested. The second suggestion is to break the causal relationship between MSW and greenhouse gas emission from the waste sector. The third is that the U.S. government should benchmark a

  20. Megakorter metropolis / Lara Sargent

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sargent, Lara

    2008-01-01

    Miljonärist kunstikollektsionääri viiel korrusel paiknev kodu New Yorgis. Juurde ehitati kümnes korrus. Katusekorter on mõeldud kaasaegse kunsti kollektsiooni eksponeerimiseks. Korteri kavandas itaalia arhitekt Andrea Ballerini. Köögimööbel tehti eritellimusel. 12 värv. vaadet

  1. Hydric resources evaluation of the Guarani Aquifer System in the State of Minas Gerais Araguari municipality, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegasse Velasquez, L.; De Carvalho Filho; Brandao Froes, C.

    2004-01-01

    The general objective of this project is to investigate the aquifers comprised by the Guarany Aquifer System that could eventually be found at the county of Araguari, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The main purpose of this investigation is to assist in the implementation of a comprehensive program for the management of the water resources in this region.The proposal can be justified by the fact that, being Araguari located at the north-northeast limit of the river Parana basin, at the plateau which separates the basins of rivers Paranaiba and Araguari, the town concentrates about 90% of the whole population of the county, and is totally supplied by groundwater from the upper formations (Serra Geral and, predominantly, Bauru). Data on these aquifers are scarce, and their intensive explotation has already given rise to conflicts amongst the several water users, such as public and private water supply companies, and industrial and agricultural sectors. Aiming at the evaluation of the groundwater fluxes behavior in the aquifers, as well as the evaluation of their vulnerability to human impacts, besides some other more specific goals, and taking into account two recent studies carried out in the region, a methodology was proposed for simultaneous approaches to the problem, involving from the establishment of a hydrogeological conceptual model to the elaboration/application of a mathematical model for simulation of the groundwater flux and the preparation of natural and specific vulnerability maps of the aquifer system, including the local water budget. The studies will be conducted by the application of classical hydrological and hydrogeological techniques, as well as by the application of nuclear (tracer) and isotopic techniques [es

  2. Drivers of house invasion by sylvatic Chagas disease vectors in the Amazon-Cerrado transition: A multi-year, state-wide assessment of municipality-aggregated surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Raíssa N; Gorla, David E; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Gomes, Anália C F; Souza, Rita C M; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Insecticide spraying efficiently controls house infestation by triatomine bugs, the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. The strategy, however, is ineffective against sylvatic triatomines, which can transmit Chagas disease by invading (without colonizing) man-made structures. Despite growing awareness of the relevance of these transmission dynamics, the drivers of house invasion by sylvatic triatomines remain poorly understood. About 12,000 sylvatic triatomines were caught during routine surveillance in houses of Tocantins state, Brazil, in 2005-2013. Using negative binomial regression, information-theoretic model evaluation/averaging, and external model validation, we investigated the effects of regional (Amazon/Cerrado), landscape (preservation/disturbance), and climate covariates (temperature, rainfall) on the municipality-aggregated numbers of house-invading Rhodnius pictipes, R. robustus, R. neglectus, and Panstrongylus geniculatus. House invasion by R. pictipes and R. robustus was overall more frequent in the Amazon biome, tended to increase in municipalities with more well-preserved land, and decreased in rainier municipalities. Across species, invasion decreased with higher landscape-disturbance levels and in hotter-day municipalities. Invasion by R. neglectus and P. geniculatus increased somewhat with more land at intermediate disturbance and peaked in average-rainfall municipalities. Temperature effects were more pronounced on P. geniculatus than on Rhodnius spp. We report widespread, frequent house invasion by sylvatic triatomines in the Amazon-Cerrado transition. Our analyses indicate that readily available environmental metrics may help predict the risk of contact between sylvatic triatomines and humans at coarse geographic scales, and hint at specific hypotheses about climate and deforestation effects on those vectors-with some taxon-specific responses and some seemingly general trends. Thus, our focal species appear to be quite sensitive to higher

  3. Municipal Governments and Development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Victory

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes of democratization, State reforms and administrative de-concentration that have marked the last 15 years of Latin American societies have brought about a reevaluation of the role of municipalities. The decentralization of the State has been put forth as basic objective and the economic productive restructuring happening around the world calls for a response from local initiatives: that is to say, initiatives to effect a new strategy of development “from the bottom up” that values territory as a geographic space bounded by a community of interests. One of the important actors in these local initiatives are the municipal governments who, as a first government resort, must respond to the vast demands of the population. These institutions are not consolidated, however. Instead, they are generally weak, with little economic, political and ideological power, and are limited in their autonomy, authority, legitimacy and capacity for management. In the first part of the article, and in an effort to characterize the political autonomy of the region’s municipalities, their distinct elements are analyzed – the system of representative democracy, competencies and resources, etc.. The most notorious deficiencies of Latin American municipalities are also studied. The second section analyzes the roles that these municipalities should take on to overcome these deficiencies, and goes on to offer action proposals towards creating a new model for municipal management, new ways of making policy from the municipality, and an analysis of the different instruments for promoting the local economy.

  4. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  5. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus transmission in the municipality of Catanduva, State of São Paulo: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Santaella Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV is primarily transmitted via contact with the blood of infected patients, although the form of contact has not been identified for a significant percentage of carriers. The present study evaluated possible risk factors for HCV transmission in a medium-sized town located in the northwest region of the State of São Paulo. Methods This was a case-control study, with the case group consisting of 190 chronic HCV carriers older than 18 years residing in the municipality of Catanduva. The control group also consisted of 190 individuals with HCV-negative serology. The groups were paired (1:1 for gender, age range (± five years, and place of residence. The same structured questionnaire was applied to all subjects, who gave written informed consent to participate in the study. The data were statistically analyzed using crude and adjusted logistic regression, and the results were expressed as odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. Results The demographic profiles of the groups indicated a predominance of males (68.9% and mean ages of 47.1 years (case group and 47.3 years (control group. After adjusting for conditional regression, the following factors were found to represent risks for HCV: history of sexually transmitted disease (STD and blood transfusion; accidents with syringes and/or needles; tattoos; and the use of non-injectable drugs and injectable medications. Conclusions The transmission of HCV via the blood route has been well characterized. Other forms of contact with human blood and/or secretions are likely to transmit the virus, although with a lower frequency of occurrence.

  6. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  7. The articulated action plan (par in municipalities in Mato Grosso do Sul State and its implications for the democratic management of basic education - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i2.17546

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tereza Cestari de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the implications of the Articulated Action Plan (PAR, a component of the Education Development Plan (PDE, to the democratic management of basic education, within the context of the educational policy, during President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva’s second government term (2007-2010. It presents research findings through the examination of documentary sources, focusing on the actions defined by the municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, within PAR’s Educational Management Dimension. These actions, in alignment with the guidelines of the plan called All for Education, indicate the limits and possibilities of building a democratic management of basic education, depending on the implementation by the municipalities, as they exercise their autonomy.  

  8. Consórcios Intermunicipais de Saúde: o caso do Paraná, Brasil Inter-municipal health consortia: the case of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cristina Stefano Nicoletto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os Consórcios Intermunicipais de Saúde (CIS surgiram no âmbito do SUS no final da década de 80. Os gestores municipais aderiram a essa estratégia, visando potencializar as ações e serviços de saúde oferecidos à população. Esta pesquisa analisou o perfil dos CIS do Paraná, Brasil, focalizando a assistência médica especializada. Os dados são dos relatórios sobre os consórcios realizados pelo Conselho Estadual de Saúde e dos questionários enviados para os vinte CIS. Os parâmetros utilizados foram a Portaria nº 1.101 e dados publicados do perfil do sistema de saúde do Paraná em 2000. Dos 399 municípios paranaenses, 81,5% integram CIS. Os especialistas são cedidos pelos municípios (4,4%, Estado (13,6%, união (12,8%, ou contratados pelo próprio CIS (69,2%. A oferta de consultas especializadas não é suficiente ou sua distribuição é feita de forma inadequada. Há falha no mecanismo de referência e contra-referência. O CIS é um instrumento viável para ampliar e potencializar a capacidade dos municípios em ofertar consultas especializadas; porém, há necessidade de ser utilizado com critérios, planejamento e adequado sistema de referência e contra-referência.Inter-municipal health consortia emerged in Brazil's Unified National Health System (SUS policy in the late 1980s. Municipal health administrators adhered to this strategy with the aim of upgrading health services supplied to the population. This research analyzes the profile of such consortia in Paraná State, focusing on specialized medical care. Data were obtained from reports by the State Health Council and questionnaires sent to all 20 existing municipal health consortia. Governmental Decree no. 1,101 and data published in 2000 on the profile of the health system in Paraná were used as references. Of the 399 municipalities in Paraná State, 81.5% have joined municipal consortia. Specialists are allocated by municipalities (4.4%, the State government (13

  9. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  10. How to encourage road noise abatement in Nordic municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    Road noise nuisance is a huge problem in the Nordic countries, and it seems diffi cult for Nordic countries to meet national targets for its reduction. One reason for this is the lack of municipal activities in the fi eld. Th us the research question that this article seeks to answer in relation...... to already existing residential areas and roads is: which conditions in the municipal organisation and its institutional environment contribute to making municipalities provide and implement noise abatement measures? Th e assumption is that three factors infl uence how the municipalities prioritize among...... political issues: the municipal organisation itself, the local institutional environment (citizens, business and NGOs), and the state and trans-municipal networks. A study of the anatomy of municipal road noise abatement policy shows that conditions for implementing road noise abatement in existing...

  11. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible benefits of involving Energy Service Companies (ESCO) in realising energy savings in municipalities, and how ESCO projects can be formulated very differently in the various municipalities, according to building volume, use of technologies......, energy savings, type of collaboration etc. Background: Since 2008, several Danish municipalities have started energy retrofitting of municipal buildings, based on contracts with Energy Service Companies. In spite of the strong growth of ESCOs, there is also widespread scepticism about ESCO, as many...... approaches are being used in Danish municipalities, which we label the basic, the integrated and the strategic ESCO approaches. The three approaches include different ambitions, technologies, economies and innovation potentials. Whereas the basic approach implies a ‘traditional’ guarantee-based model...

  12. Antalya İli Batı Kıyıları (Lara – Kalkan'nın Ekonomik Amaçlı Deniz Algleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furkan DURUCAN

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: This study has been carried out with seasonal samples in five stations in order to determine commercial seaweed in west coast of Antalya Province (Lara, Phaselis, Beymelek, Kaş, Kalkan. At the end of study, Rhodophyta (Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander, Corallina officinalis (Linnaeus, Gelidium capillaceum (S.G. Gmelin Kützing, Gelidium latifolium (Greville Bornet & Thuret, Jania adhaerens Lamouroux, Jania rubens (Linnaeus Lamouroux, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Heterokontophyta (Cystoseira compressa (Esper Gerloff et Nizamuddin, Cystoseira crinita Duby, Cystoseira elegans Sauvageau, Cystoseira spinosa Sauvageau, Cystoseira stricta (Montagne Sauvageau, Padina pavonica (Linnaeus Thivy, Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh, Chlorophyta (Enteromorpha intestinalis (L. Nees, Gayralia oxysperma (Kützing K.L. Vinogradova ex Scagel et al. ve Ulva lactuca Linnaeus. Species belong to the families have been determined as an important economic potential in this region. Key Words: Mediterranean, Antalya, seaweeds for economic purposing

  13. Thinking Sound and Body-Motion Shapes in Music: Public Peer Review of “Gesture and the Sonic Event in Karnatak Music” by Lara Pearson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolfe Inge Godøy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It seems that the majority of research on music-related body motion has so far been focused on Western music, so this paper by Lara Pearson on music-related body motion in Indian vocal music is a most welcome contribution to this field. But research on music-related body motion does present us with a number of challenges, ranging from issues of method to fundamental issues of perception and multi-modal integration in music. In such research, thinking of perceptually salient features in different modalities (sound, motion, touch, etc. as shapes seems to go well with our cognitive apparatus, and also be quite practical in representing the features in question. The research reported in this paper gives us an insight into how tracing shapes by hand motion is an integral part of teaching Indian vocal music, and the approach of this paper also holds promise for fruitful future research.

  14. Danish Municipal Planning in Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    Danish municipal planning at the entrance to the 2000 years, where many things in the everyday of planning are changed after pressure from the market, the state, the municipal organisations, the investors, the citizens and the planners themselves. In this situation of change there may be good reasons...... to bear in mind what the basic task of physical planning at a local level has actually been and to discuss both what it is at the moment and what it can turn into in the future. The paper may actually raise more questions than it answers. The reason is that well-known political, administrative structures...... are breaking up, that the fight for the planning competence in the open country is raging and that the protection of the nature-freindly legislation, for which the previous government was responsible, is under quick phasing-out, at the same time as the traditional professional urban planner standards...

  15. Danish Municipal planning in Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Danish municipal planning at the entrance to the 2000 years, where many things in the everyday of planning are changed after pressure from the market, the state, the municipal organisation, the investors, the citizens and the planners themselves. In this situation of change there may be good reason...... to bear in mind what the basic task of physical planning at a local level has actually been and to discuss both what it is at the moment and what it can turn into in the future. The paper may actually raise more questions than it answers. The reason is that well-known political, administrative structures...... are breaking up, that the fight for planning competence in the open country is raging and that the protection og nature-friendly legislation, for which the previous gouvernment was responsible, is under quick phasing-out, at the same time as the traditional professional urban planner standards are challenged...

  16. [Evaluation of the inclusion of organic food from family-based agriculture in school food in municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda; Fernandes, Patrícia Fogaça; Rockett, Fernanda Camboim; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Organic food enables the promotion of Food and Nutritional Safety (FNS) and sustainable regional development. In this context, the National School Food Program (NSFD) seeks to comply with the requirements of FNS. This study evaluated the inclusion of organic food in school food in the municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul by means of interviews with local managers. Eight territories were visited, albeit of its 153 municipalities only 102 comprised the sample for this study. Of these, 20.58% said they buy organic produce from family farms. The Center South Territory revealed the highest percentage of purchase, in which 40% of the municipalities visited purchased organic produce, followed by the Center Mountain Territory with 33.3%, while the lowest percentage was 7.1% in the Countryside Territory. The study identified the need for intersectoral action to develop organic production, as well as stimulate the consumption of these foods in the school environment, in order to meet the requirements of FNS.

  17. Safety of Municipal Loan in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko Tetiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is justification of the necessity of legal regulation of actions of the bodies of local self-government when detecting signs of insolvency. Each stage of municipal loans management is analysed from the point of view of availability of legal rules, which do not allow making municipal loans by territorial communities of the cities with weak financial state or regulate sequence of actions of municipalities in default times. The following results were obtained: majority of legal restrictions in the sphere of local finance management are directed at prevention of ungrounded loans or have the form of sanctions, applied to local bodies, which perform their debt obligations with delay; the state formally controls the process of making municipal loans, avoiding financial responsibility; the national legislation does not contain the mechanism of regulation of actions of territorial communities, which experience difficulties when performing debt obligations. The article proves expediency of adoption of a uniform regulatory-legal act in Ukraine, which would regulate all economic relations connected with making municipal loans. This legal document shall contain a section about actions of the municipality-debtor when signs of default start to appear, announcement of default and declaration of the debtor insolvent (bankrupt. The article recommends the following structure of this section: regulation of the procedure of default announcement avoidance; announcement of default with the pre-trial restoration of the debtor’s solvency; and announcement of default with declaring the debtor bankrupt juridically.

  18. Soy Expansion and Socioeconomic Development in Municipalities of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soy occupies the largest area of agricultural land in Brazil, spreading from southern states to the Amazon region. Soy is also the most important agricultural commodity among Brazilian exports affecting food security and land use nationally and internationally. Here we pose the question of whether soy expansion affects only economic growth or whether it also boosts socioeconomic development, fostering education and health improvements in Brazilian municipalities where it is planted. To achieve this objective, we divided more than 5000 municipalities into two groups: those with >300 ha of soy (soy municipalities and those with <300 ha of soy (non-soy municipalities. We compared the Human Development Index (HDI and the Gini coefficient for income for these two groups of municipalities in 1991, 2000, and 2010. We made such comparison at the municipality level for the whole country, but we also grouped the municipalities by major geographical regions and states. We found that the HDI was higher in soy municipalities, especially in the agricultural frontier. That effect was not so clear in more consolidated agricultural regions of the country. Soy municipalities also had a higher Gini coefficient for income than non-soy municipalities. We concluded that soy could be considered a precursor of socioeconomic development under certain conditions; however, it also tends to be associated with an increase in income inequality, especially in the agricultural frontier.

  19. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible benefits of involving Energy Service Companies (ESCO) in realising energy savings in municipalities, and how ESCO projects can be formulated very differently in the various municipalities, according to building volume, use of technologies...... municipalities see an in-house approach as a better alternative. Approach (Theory/Methodology): Our research is based on literature studies and on qualitative interviews with Danish municipalities carrying out ESCO projects, as well as with ESCO providers. Results: Our studies suggest that different ESCO......, with relatively few buildings, energy retrofitting and low investments, the integrative and strategic approach include a higher degree of partnership, a more ambitious building renovation approach, and more innovative understandings of facilities management. We also compare ESCO with energy retrofitting as an in...

  20. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  1. Drivers of house invasion by sylvatic Chagas disease vectors in the Amazon-Cerrado transition: A multi-year, state-wide assessment of municipality-aggregated surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíssa N Brito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide spraying efficiently controls house infestation by triatomine bugs, the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. The strategy, however, is ineffective against sylvatic triatomines, which can transmit Chagas disease by invading (without colonizing man-made structures. Despite growing awareness of the relevance of these transmission dynamics, the drivers of house invasion by sylvatic triatomines remain poorly understood.About 12,000 sylvatic triatomines were caught during routine surveillance in houses of Tocantins state, Brazil, in 2005-2013. Using negative binomial regression, information-theoretic model evaluation/averaging, and external model validation, we investigated the effects of regional (Amazon/Cerrado, landscape (preservation/disturbance, and climate covariates (temperature, rainfall on the municipality-aggregated numbers of house-invading Rhodnius pictipes, R. robustus, R. neglectus, and Panstrongylus geniculatus. House invasion by R. pictipes and R. robustus was overall more frequent in the Amazon biome, tended to increase in municipalities with more well-preserved land, and decreased in rainier municipalities. Across species, invasion decreased with higher landscape-disturbance levels and in hotter-day municipalities. Invasion by R. neglectus and P. geniculatus increased somewhat with more land at intermediate disturbance and peaked in average-rainfall municipalities. Temperature effects were more pronounced on P. geniculatus than on Rhodnius spp.We report widespread, frequent house invasion by sylvatic triatomines in the Amazon-Cerrado transition. Our analyses indicate that readily available environmental metrics may help predict the risk of contact between sylvatic triatomines and humans at coarse geographic scales, and hint at specific hypotheses about climate and deforestation effects on those vectors-with some taxon-specific responses and some seemingly general trends. Thus, our focal species appear to be quite sensitive to

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  3. First occurrence of an autochthonous canine case of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi in the municipality of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa San Martin Mouriz Savani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris as an apparently natural infection in a non-endemic area. DNA obtained from spleen and liver samples produced the expected fragment in a Leishmania-specific rDNA-based nested-PCR assay. The PCR product, a 490 bp fragment, was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. These results are surprising since no autochthonous human or canine cases of visceral leishmaniasis have ever been reported in this municipality. This case suggests that natural transmission of this disease is occurring in this area.

  4. Representative of the municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellnou Barcelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The decommissioning of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant was a big challenge for the host community of Vandellos i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant and the close-by region. Closing down of the facility resulted in a rise of unemployment and a decrease of municipal income. The public was concerned with three issues: safety, transparency and information about the decommissioning, and economic future. Therefore, from the very beginning, municipal governments entered into negotiations with ENRESA on socio-economic benefits, including local employment in dismantling activities, and other types of financial and non-financial compensation. The ADE business association, i.e. a network of business organisations was created that guided the allotment of work to local firms. To satisfy public demand, local municipalities focused on the triad of safety, dialogue and local development, considered the three 'pillars of trust'. A Municipal Monitoring Commission was created, made up of representatives of affected municipalities, the regional government, the ADE business association, trade unions, the local university, the NPP management and ENRESA to monitor the dismantling process and regularly inform the local public. Items that were handled by this Commission included: - Work process monitoring. - Workers. - Materials Control. - Conventional and radioactive or contaminated waste management. - Emanation waste management (liquid and gas) - Safety (training and accidents). - Surveillance (radiological and environmental: dust, noise). - Effects. - Fulfillment of agreed conditions. A number of communication tools and channels were used, e.g., public information meetings, an information centre, the municipal magazine, the municipal radio station, and meetings with representatives of the local press. Particularly innovative was the idea to ask academics from the University of Tarragona to help with 'translating' technical information into language that could

  5. Encontro de Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, no Município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Finding of Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2006, foi realizada uma investigação entomológica numa mata nativa do município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O resultado foi a captura de várias espécies Culicidae, incluindo o primeiro registro da presença de Haemagogus leucocelaenus na localidade. Esta espécie é considerada vetora do vírus da febre amarela em alguns municípios do Estado, motivando esta comunicação para alertar sobre o potencial da área para circulação do agente etiológico desta doença.In November 2006, an entomological investigation was carried out in a native forest in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The result was the capture of several Culicidae species, including the first recording of the presence of Haemagogus leucocelaenus in this locality. This species is considered to be a vector for the yellow fever virus in some municipalities of this State, and this was the motivation for the present communication, in order to warn regarding the potential of this area for circulation of the etiological agent for this disease.

  6. The real right of the state and municipal taxation on activities performed on the Continental Shelf; O real direito de tributacao estadual e municipal sobre atividades executadas na Plataforma Continental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belo, Heraldo da Costa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Belo, Rodrigo Marcellino da Costa

    2008-07-01

    The activity of exploration and prospector of oil it is ringed to any luck of tax incidence, because of constituting in unmistakable demonstration of wealth than since certain debit to be an object of similar taxation of what the State derives financial resources so that it practices his essential constitutional and legally distinguished functions. In this sense one does not deny that the tribute constitutes a legal duty imposed on a citizen / taxpayer and, that the same thing results from the Social Contract itself represented by the initial document of the State, the Basic Law, since from the option for the formation of the State all the citizens open hands of measured certainty of his freedoms and autonomies deprived on behalf of a central entity what will be put in charge of promoting the well-being, the security and all too many conditions for attainment of a worthy life to the society. >From that it results that one of the state-owned powers is it of taxing, I tend towards the same thing evolved in the same reason than the State itself, passing of an unlimited and absolute power for a limited power first by the legal standard, of then not only for her but also for expensive values the humanity and what are recognized, as even as out of the made positive order, since it is the case of the legal security, stability of the social relations, democracy between others. Inside this framing of limitation of the power of taxing there is recognized the existence of a Principle of the Territoriality informing that no tribute will be able to be set up, operated and collected besides the territorial limits of the Federate Being that practiced his tax constitutional competence. Of this action, it is noticed that the States and coastal Local authorities, principally the State of the Rio of January and the Local authorities of the Rio of January and Macae have been extrapolate his tax competence to continuously to look to tax, through the ICMS and of the ISSQN, activities

  7. Utilizing Municipal Trees: Ideas From Across the Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M. Bratkovich

    2001-01-01

    To show how municipal tree removals can be utilized for traditional wood products, this publication highlights 16 successful projects from around the country. These case studies are organized by the different types of participants: State and regional partnerships, municipalities, tree service firms, entrepreneurs, and sawmills. Contact information is provided for each...

  8. Spatial analysis of visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rondonópolis, in the Brazilian State of Mato Grosso, from 2003 to 2012: human, canine and vector distribution in areas of disease transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gonçalves Ferreira Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a zoonosis of great importance to public health and is considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organization. The disease has expanded and become more prevalent in urban areas in Brazil. METHODS: Geospatial analyses were performed and thematic maps of the triad of the disease were produced for the study period (2003-2012 in the urban area of the municipality of Rondonópolis in the midwestern State of Mato Grosso (MT, Brazil, TerraView 4.2.2 software was used for the analyses. RESULTS: A total of 87.9% of the 186 confirmed human cases of VL were cured. Children between the ages of 1 and 4 were the most affected. Registered deaths were predominant among adults aged 60 years or older. The urban area of the municipality consists of eight strata and 12 census districts include 237 neighborhoods. All sectors had confirmed cases of VL. During the study period, human cases of the disease were recorded in 90 neighborhoods. The 23 deaths from the disease were distributed in 21 neighborhoods. Sandflies carrying the parasite were captured in 192 out of 200 neighborhoods evaluated for the presence of the VL vector. The presence of dogs carrying the parasite was confirmed in, 140 out of 154 surveyed neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrated the endemic nature of VL, with a high percentage of infected children, a high distribution of canine infection, and a wide adaptation and dispersal of the vectors in the urban environment. These results, illustrate the process of urbanization of VL in the municipality of Rondonópolis, MT, Brazil.

  9. ESCO in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2013-01-01

    development with international ESCO experience as well as refer to public innovation literature. Combined with empirical case studies on ESCO contracting, we discuss factors and conditions that influence decisions on ESCO, the flexibility of ESCO contracts and whether it implies an innovative process...... mainly been used in the industry so far, but in recent years more and more municipalities have taken up ESCO initiatives, in order to retrofit existing public buildings, and to make them more energy efficient. ESCO is in many ways a new way of collaboration for Danish municipalities, and therefore...... in municipalities ESCOs have received much attention in different Danish energy-.efficiency policies, where ESCOs are often described as a promising way to achieve energy savings in existing housing and to overcome barriers encountered by other attempts at energy savings. Instead of assessing ESCO only...

  10. Municipal energy managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    On 1 and 2 July, municipal energy managers from all over Europe met in Stuttgart, Germany. On these two days, more the 150 participants form 22 countries listened to presentations, took part in excursions to cutting-edge energy conservation projects in Stuttgart and, above all, participated in a broad array of workshops presented by experts firmly grounded in local practice. 27 experts drawn from 11 European countries showcased their projects and imparted their experience. The event has been accompanied by an exhibition of companies and service providers offering energy-conservation products and planning services. The first workshop dealt with energy management in Europe and examples from different active municipalities; the second one with energy management in Germany and best practice in the leading cities; the third one with non-municipal and European projects. (A.L.B.)

  11. Corruption, Political Connections, and Municipal Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander W. Butler; Larry Fauver; Sandra Mortal

    2009-01-01

    We show that state corruption and political connections have strong effects on municipal bond sales and underwriting. Higher state corruption is associated with greater credit risk and higher bond yields. Corrupt states can eliminate the corruption yield penalty by purchasing credit enhancements. Underwriting fees were significantly higher during an era when underwriters made political contributions to win underwriting business. This pay-to-play underwriting fee premium exists only for negoti...

  12. HUBUNGAN ASUPAN NATRIUM, FREKUENSI DAN DURASI AKTIVITAS FISIK TERHADAP TEKANAN DARAH LANSIA DI PANTI SOSIAL TRESNA WERDHA BUDI SEJAHTERA DAN BINA LARAS BUDI LUHUR KOTA BANJARBARU, KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijanti Abdurrachim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly tends to face health problems caused by a decrease in body functions due to aging. One of the most health problems experienced by elderly is in cardiovascular system like hypertension. Factors influenced blood pressures are overweight, less physical activity, and eating high sodium foods. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sodium intake, frequency and duration of physical activity to blood pressure of elderly at Tresna Werdha Budi Sejahtera and Bina Laras Budi Luhur nursing homes in Banjarbaru. This research used cross sectional design. Pearson test were applied (α = 0.05. This study involved 65 elderly aged 60-74 years, 28 males (43% and 37 females (57%. Data were collected using questionnaires. Nutrient contents were obtained using 1x24 hour food recall for 2 days included weekend. The result of Pearson test indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between sodium intake with systolic (p <0.05 and diastolic (p <0.05 levels. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the frequency of physical activity with systolic (p < 0.05 and diastolic (p <0.05 levels; there was a significant negative correlation between physical activity duration and sistolic blood pressure (p<0.05. However, there was no significant correlation between physical activity duration and diastolic blood pressure. It was suggested that health workers should improve health promotion program using posters and do counseling about healthy lifestyles, i.e. suggesting people to avoid high sodium foods and do physical activity regularly.

  13. Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with restaurant grease waste at steady state and overloading stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D

    2014-11-01

    Linkage between reactor performance and microbial community dynamics was investigated during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of restaurant grease waste (GTW) with municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) using 10L completely mixed reactors and a 20day SRT. Test reactors received a mixture of GTW and MWS while control reactors received only MWS. Addition of GTW to the test reactors enhanced the biogas production and methane yield by up to 65% and 120%, respectively. Pyrosequencing revealed that Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobium were the dominant acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogen genera, respectively, during stable reactor operation. The number of Methanosarcina and Methanomicrobium sequences increased and that of Methanosaeta declined when the proportion of GTW in the feed was increased to cause an overload condition. Under this overload condition, the pH, alkalinity and methane production decreased and VFA concentrations increased dramatically. Candidatus cloacamonas, affiliated within phylum Spirochaetes, were the dominant bacterial genus at all reactor loadings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research, Development...

  15. 75 FR 53220 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...] Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved modification allows the State to..., and demonstration (RD&D) permits to be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved...

  16. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved modification allows the State..., EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) criteria in...

  17. Measurements for municipalities 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with participation of M. Ras

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2007. Measurements for municipalities 2007 presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 2000-2005. This is the fifth time this quantitative and integrated picture

  18. Measurements for municipalities 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with cooperation of Bureau Zenc

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2006. Measurements for municipalities 2006 (Maten voor gemeenten 2006) presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 1999-2004. This is the fourth time

  19. Measurements for municipalities 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Ingrid Ooms; Ab van der Torre; Saskia Jansen

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2012 Local authorities in the Netherlands are playing an ever more important role in the delivery of services to citizens, as more and more tasks are transferred from central to local government. Dutch municipalities spent a combined total of 56 billion

  20. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  1. [Perceptions and attitudes of public health service dentists in the face of family violence in 24 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 2013-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Rovida, Tânia Adas Saliba; Costa, Adriana Alves; Garbin, Artênio José Isper

    2016-01-01

    to describe the perceptions and attitudes of dentists working in Primary Healthcare Units in the face of family violence in 24 municipalities in the interior of São Paulo state, Brazil. this is a descriptive study conducted between July 2013 and July 2014; the study population was comprised of 294 professionals; data were collected through a questionnaire containing objective and subjective questions. 111 dentists took part (37.8%), 67.5% of whom were unaware of existing legislation on cases of violence; 70.0% did not know how to report the occurrence of cases; 55.0% reported not having any responsibility for notification; 85.0% were unaware of the notification form; and 60.0% said they should intervene in cases of family violence. the perceptions and attitudes of dentists have shortcomings in relation to notification of family violence and this hinders early diagnosis of the victims of such violence.

  2. Consolidation of municipalities in the newest time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Blagov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of the causes, the process, the consequencesof the enlargement of municipalities in the Russian Federation.The purpose of this paper is to show that with the initial increase in the number of municipalities,many of them turned out to be incapable of effectively addressing local issues andproviding quality services to the population. In this regard, the reverse process began – theconsolidation of municipalities. As a result, the number of municipalities, especially the rurallevel, has dramatically decreased. The enlargement of municipal formations went arbitrarily,without taking into account the infrastructural and historical unity of the unified urbansettlements.The methodology. The author uses a dialectical method, a method of analysis and synthesis,a formal legal method, a comparative legal method.Results, scope of application. 03.04.2017 Federal Law No. 62-FZ is adopted, which providesfor the transformation of municipal raions and constituent urban and rural settlements intourban districts according to a "simplified procedure", that is, with the consent of the populationexpressed by the representative body of the municipality. In parallel, under considerationin the legal department of the State Duma of the Russian Federation there is a billintroduced by deputy A.P. Markov, offering to introduce a new type of municipal formation– the rural district. In rural districts it is proposed to unite settlements in rural municipalareas. The implementation of this bill will lead to the mass elimination of rural settlements.Actually there are no accurate and exhaustive legislative provisions regulating the territorialboundaries of urban districts, forms of the transformation and abolition of municipalities;moreover, local political and economic elites persistently seek to preserve the single tiermanagement system developed over the decades. As a result of these blemishes, within administrative areas

  3. Validación de "infarto de miocardio" como causa de muerte en certificados de defunción, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granero Ricardo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tasas de mortalidad por cardiopatía isquémica (CI han sido utilizadas ampliamente en el diagnóstico de la salud cardiovascular de regiones y países. Sin embargo, su validez ha sido cuestionada fundamentalmente por lo que le da origen: el certificado de defunción (CDD. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo de establecer la validez del diagnóstico "infarto de miocardio (IM" como causa de muerte en los CDD de muertes intra-hospitalarias en la ciudad de Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela. Entre julio de 1991 y junio de 1992, se identificaron todos los CDD con las características mencionadas, se trató de ubicar la historia clínica correspondiente a cada caso y cualquier otra información clínica pertinente. Se registraron 247 CDD elegibles y se ubicó información clínica adecuada en 136 casos (55%. Aplicando los criterios del Proyecto MONICA, se encontraron M-definitivo en 62 casos (45,6%, IM-probable en 31 casos (22,8% y No-IM en 43 casos (31,6%. Los resultados indican que existe un sobre registro de casos de muerte por IM del 32% (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 23,8-39,4. A la luz de estos resultados es necesario estudiar los factores que inciden en la exactitud de los diagnósticos IM en los CDD. Con esto tendríamos elementos para revisar las normas y los procedimientos empleados en la producción y manejo de los CDD, así como preparar un programa de educación para mejorar la precisión de los mismos.

  4. Validación de "infarto de miocardio" como causa de muerte en certificados de defunción, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Granero

    Full Text Available Las tasas de mortalidad por cardiopatía isquémica (CI han sido utilizadas ampliamente en el diagnóstico de la salud cardiovascular de regiones y países. Sin embargo, su validez ha sido cuestionada fundamentalmente por lo que le da origen: el certificado de defunción (CDD. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo de establecer la validez del diagnóstico "infarto de miocardio (IM" como causa de muerte en los CDD de muertes intra-hospitalarias en la ciudad de Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela. Entre julio de 1991 y junio de 1992, se identificaron todos los CDD con las características mencionadas, se trató de ubicar la historia clínica correspondiente a cada caso y cualquier otra información clínica pertinente. Se registraron 247 CDD elegibles y se ubicó información clínica adecuada en 136 casos (55%. Aplicando los criterios del Proyecto MONICA, se encontraron M-definitivo en 62 casos (45,6%, IM-probable en 31 casos (22,8% y No-IM en 43 casos (31,6%. Los resultados indican que existe un sobre registro de casos de muerte por IM del 32% (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 23,8-39,4. A la luz de estos resultados es necesario estudiar los factores que inciden en la exactitud de los diagnósticos IM en los CDD. Con esto tendríamos elementos para revisar las normas y los procedimientos empleados en la producción y manejo de los CDD, así como preparar un programa de educación para mejorar la precisión de los mismos.

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  6. Mercado municipal Can Vidalet

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Francisco, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    La intención del nuevo mercado municipal de Can Vidalet es crear un escenario en sombra, envuelto por una piel permeable; una "cesta" dentro de la cual se produce una actividad comercial. La topografía del lugar permite establecer un esquema comercial en sección, situando el mercado tradicional en cota superior y el nuevo uso comercial en planta baja, a nivel de plaza pública.

  7. A implementação do Programa Saúde da Família em municípios do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Family Health Program implementation in municipalities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Canesqui

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa alguns aspectos do processo de implementação do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF, nas seguintes dimensões: resultados; condições e funcionamento dos mecanismos institucionais; estruturas organizacionais; fluxo e regularidade do repasse dos recursos financeiros; disponibilidade e capacitação dos recursos humanos. Estudaram-se sete municípios do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil, usando-se fontes de dados secundários e primários, oriundos de entrevistas com diferentes agentes. É pesquisa avaliativa, com dados quantitativos e qualitativos. Conclui-se o seguinte: diferentes graus de implantação, de modelos de PSF e abrangência de cobertura populacional; adaptações das estruturas organizacionais; disponibilidade de pessoal, exceto dos auxiliares de enfermagem; disponibilidade de financiamento, com dificuldades no seu fluxo e outros fatores institucionais que dificultam ou favorecem o microprocesso de implementação do programa, nas instâncias municipais.This article analysis some key aspects in the implementation of the Family Health Program (FHP: results; conditions; and institutional mechanisms; flow and regularity of funding; organizational structures; and human resources availability and training. The study was conducted in seven municipalities (counties in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and used secondary data as well as primary data from interviews with different stakeholders. The research design was evaluative, using a quantitative/qualitative analysis. The results showed: varying stages in the implementation process, different FHP models, and adaptation of organizational structures; high level of human resources availability, except for nurse assistants; availability of financial resources, with some difficulties in their flow; and other institutional factors that hinder or facilitate the micro-implementation process in the municipalities.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in three municipalities of Southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil: risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; de Castro, Milton Ferreira; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Pires, Flávia Alves Condé; Abramo, Clarice; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-05-01

    Giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are parasitic diseases that are among the major health concerns observed in economically disadvantaged populations of developing countries, and have clear social and environmental bases. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiologic data concerning these infections in the study area, whose inhabitants have plenty of access to health care services, including good dwelling and adequate sanitary conditions. In this survey we investigated the risk factors for giardiasis and STH in three municipalities with good sanitation, situated in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the municipalities of Piau, Coronel Pacheco and Goianá, in both urban and rural areas. The fieldwork consisted of a questionnaire and the examination of 2,367 stool samples using the Hoffmann, Pons and Janer method. Of all individuals from the population sample, 6.1% were found infected with the parasitic diseases included in this work. Hookworm infection was the most prevalent disease, followed by giardiasis, trichuriasis and ascariasis. Infection was more prevalent in males (8.1%, p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.975) and in individuals living in rural areas (8.6%, p = 0.003; OR = 1.693). Multivariate analysis showed that variables such as inadequate sewage discharge (p < 0.001), drinking of unsafe water (p < 0.001), lack of sanitary infrastructure (p = 0.015), and host sex (p < 0.001) were the risk factors more strongly associated with infection status (95% confidence interval [CI]). In this study we demonstrate that giardiasis and STH still persist, infecting people who have good housing conditions and free access to public health care and education.

  9. Epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas en el municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco, Lara, Venezuela: infestación triatomínica y seroprevalencia en humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Bonfante,Claudina; Amaro,Aned; García,María; Mejías Wohlert,Ligia Elena; Guillen,Pamela; Antonio García,Rafael; Álvarez,Naysan; Díaz,Marialejandra; Cárdenas,Elsys; Castillo,Silvia; Bonfante-Garrido,Rafael; Bonfante-Cabarcas,Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Se realizó un despistaje serológico y recolección de vectores en cuatro comunidades rurales del municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La muestra fue escogida en forma sistemática y aleatoria basada en conglomerados familiares. Se muestrearon 869 habitantes para determinar anticuerpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi y anti-Leishmania sp. por inmunofluorescencia indirecta, aceptando como positivo diluciones > a 1:32 para anticuerpos anti-T. cruzi no reactivos para antígenos de Leishmania...

  10. Innovation Management in Swedish Municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Wihlman, Thomas; Hoppe, Magnus; Wihlman, Ulla; Sandmark, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Research on public sector innovation is still limited, and increased knowledge of innovation processes is needed. This article is a based on a study of the implementation of innovation policies in Swedish municipalities, and gives a first-hand, empirical view of some of the complexities of innovation in the public sector. The study took place in four municipalities in central Sweden. The municipalities varied in size and organisational forms. Interviews and policy documents were used for data...

  11. Strengthening Performance Management System Implementation in South African Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malefetsane Mofolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of a performance management system in municipalities presented a serious challenge for its implementation. This scenario is implicitly manifesting itself in the reports of the Auditor-General on the financial statements and performance of municipalities, as well as in the state of local government in South Africa overview report (2009. These reports called for the conceptualisation of a model that to strengthen the implementation in municipalities of a performance management system that is efficient and effective. And most importantly, this model could be beneficial for growth, development and effective service delivery.

  12. Policy recommendations for Canadian municipal greenhouse gas trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The municipal policies regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading from municipalities in developed countries outside of Canada were examined in an effort to help establish a position on municipal carbon trading in Canada. The main uncertainty regarding this new concept of GHG emissions trading is the fate of the Kyoto Protocol, when or if it will be ratified. It is premature for municipalities to have well-established polices about emissions trading because the country in which a municipality is located determines the position towards GHG emissions trading. For this study, an extensive literature search of municipal policies was conducted for both GHG trading and domestic national GHG trading. This was followed by a survey on emissions trading which was distributed to more than 350 member cities (including the United States, Europe and Australia) of the International Council for Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign. The literature search revealed that municipalities outside of Canada have not yet formulated policies to address the issue of emissions trading. Only 7 per cent of the cities felt that they were informed about emissions trading, even in Europe and Australia where domestic emissions trading is closer to becoming a reality. This paper demonstrated that it is evident that more training is needed for municipalities regarding this issue. For the very few cities that had developed a GHG trading policy, each municipal policy supported municipal participation in emissions trading under conditions that included an environmental retirement, a do-no-harm clause, or an obligation to meet voluntary commitments before excess emissions can be traded. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Centralisation and decentralisation in strategic municipal energy planning in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Denmark's future energy system is to be entirely based on renewable energy sources. Municipalities will play an important role as local energy planning authorities in terms of adopting and refining this vision in different local contexts. Based on a review of 11 municipal energy plans, this paper examines to what extent municipal energy planning matches national 100% renewable energy strategies. The results indicate a willingness among Danish municipalities to actively carry out energy planning, and the plans reveal a large diversity of (new) activities. At the same time, however, there is a strong need for better coordination of municipal energy planning activities at the central level. It is suggested that the role of municipalities as energy planning authorities needs to be outlined more clearly in, e.g., strategic energy planning which integrates savings, efficiency and renewable energy in all (energy) sectors. This requires the state to provide municipalities with the necessary planning instruments and establish a corresponding planning framework. Consequently, there is a need for a simultaneous centralisation and decentralisation during the implementation of the 100% renewable energy vision. The paper outlines a basic division of tasks between the central and the local level within such a strategic energy planning system. - Research highlights: → There is a large variety of energy-related activities in the 11 municipal energy and climate plans. → Only few plans contain all relevant sectors and activities in relation to a 100% RES. → Neglected areas are private transport, system regulation/integration and private buildings. → There is an acute need for coordination of municipal energy planning at the central level. → Strategic energy planning should integrate national policy with municipal energy planning.

  14. Intersectoriality in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heering Holt, Ditte; Frohlich, Katherine L; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    healthier practices into various settings, e.g. creating healthy school environments for increased physical activity and healthy eating. While other more overarching interventions on the health impacts of broader welfare policies (e.g. education policy) tend to be neglected. The interventions hereby neglect...... the intersectoral policy process legitimates certain practices in the setting of Danish municipal health promotion and the potential impact this can have for long-term, sustainable healthy public policy. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, we show how the intention of intersectoriality produces a strong concern...

  15. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.

  16. Implementation - More than Monitoring and Enforcement: Evidence from the Implementation of the 1989 Municipal Waste Incineration Directive (89/429/EEC) in Four Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schucht, Simone; Bültman, Alexandra; Eames, Malcolm; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers and policy-makers accept that implementation decisively influences the effectiveness of European (EU) environmental policy. Some Member States lead the development of EU policy and implement Directives with little problem. Others follow a variety of compliance (or non-compliance) paths.

  17. Local democracy in large municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Annette Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Municipal amalgamations in Denmark in 2007 led to concern for local rural democracy, as the number of politicians from rural areas dropped after the reform. To preserve rural democracy, local councils at the village level were established in some municipalities, and they have begun to prepare local...

  18. Adaptive Municipal e-forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, P.M.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Boerma, A.K.; Weibelzahl, S.; Cristea, A.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer eforms online that can be used to request a municipal product or service. To create adaptive e-forms that satisfy the need of end-users, involvement of

  19. Study on Municipal Energy Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This is a summarizing overview of the local, renewable energy initiatives that are grouped under the heading of 'municipal energy company'. A municipal energy company (or sustainable energy company) is a local energy company that initiates, coordinates and/or manages sustainable energy projects with the primary objective of realizing the climate objectives. [nl

  20. "Os quatro cavaleiros de um íntimo apocalipse" e suas biografias vicárias: Fernando Sabino, Otto Lara Resende, Hélio Pellegrino e Paulo Mendes Campos na escrita de perfis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kvacek Betella

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fernando Sabino, Otto Lara Resende, Hélio Pellegrino e Paulo Mendes Campos traçaram retratos de pessoas com as quais conviveram ao longo de suas vidas por meio de perfis concisos, seja na forma de elegias seja mesmo de necrológios. Embora esses textos sejam imprescindíveis para fundamentar o estilo de cada um dos escritores mineiros, eles também carregam a síntese de cada experiência pessoal, que é fundamental para a análise da crônica, gênero que o quarteto praticou e no qual podem ser enquadrados os perfis examinados neste ensaio.Fernando Sabino, Otto Lara Resende, Hélio Pellegrino and Paulo Mendes Campos wrote portraits of people with whom they were intimate along their lives by means of short profiles, either in the form of elegies or even of necrologies. Although these texts are necessary in order to set up the style of each one of these writers from Minas Gerais, they also carry the synthesis of each personal experience, which is fundamental for the analysis of the chronicle, a literary genre that the quartet of writers practiced and within which the profiles examined in this essay can be classified.

  1. A multi-disciplinary approach to the removal of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plans in New York State, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Patrick J.; Stinson, Beverley; Zaugg, Steven D.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Esposito, Kathleen; Bodniewicz, B.; Pape, R.; Anderson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Across the United States, there is a rapidly growing awareness of the occurrence and the toxicological impacts of natural and synthetic trace compounds in the environment. These trace compounds, referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs), are reported to cause a range of negative impacts in the environment, such as adverse effects on biota in receiving streams and interference with the normal functions of the endocrine system, which controls growth and development in living organisms.

  2. [Anthropometric indices and nutritional status of low income school children in a municipality of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos, L A

    1989-06-01

    The growth and nutritional status of 185 school-aged children (97 boys and 88 girls) of low socio-economic level in Nova Iguaçú, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied. Nutritional anthropometry identified 3.52 and 6.25% of the children as suffering from wasting and stunting, respectively. These prevalences of malnutrition were comparable to those described in pre-school children living in a "favela" (shanty town) of Rio de Janeiro. In general, the median height fell below the 25th centile of the international standard of growth. The value of 10 year-old boys fell below the 10th centile. The mean values of weight and height of these children were comparable to those of children from the Northeastern region of Brazil ("Nordeste"), higher than those found for children in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, and lower than those for middle-class children of the State of S. Paulo. Skinfold thickness, arm circumference, and arm fat area data were higher in girls than boys. However, arm muscle are values in boys were superior in comparison to those of girls.

  3. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ► Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ► We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ► The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ► The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management

  4. CALIDAD DEL SERVICIO DE COMIDA RÁPIDA A PARTIR DE LA PARTICIPACIÓN DEL EMPLEADO DE VANGUARDIA, MUNICIPIO LIBERTADOR, ESTADO MÉRIDA, VENEZUELA | QUALITY OF FAST FOOD SERVICE FROM VANGUARD EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION, LIBERTADOR MUNICIPALITY, MERIDA STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysela Coromoto Morillo Moreno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the service quality is the biggest distinguishing factor and the most powerful competitive advantage of service companies, where the performance of the human factor is fundamental. For the study of service quality two fundamental props exist: the internal and the external clients. The present investigation analyzes the service quality of fast food businesses from the participation of the avant-garde employee, in the specific case of businesses located in Libertador Municipality of Merida State, Venezuela. For this purpose, the integral model of quality breaches of the service and the scale of Dineserv were applied during the second semester of 2014. In this regards, a representative sample of the population of managers, employees and external customers of fast food businesses was selected, and a survey was applied to each of them. Compliance with the standards of the service employees was verified, as well as the positive correspondence between this performance and the levels of quality of service perceived by the user. To confront the low perception of the performance of the employee, rewards, recognition and multiple and varied stimulus should be implemented in order to motivate for a continuous improvement of the quality of service.

  5. An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Teresa Cristina M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34% and 88 (79% of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M. theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

  6. Domestic sludge and fish pond effluents in the municipality of Pentecoste, Ceará State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.12004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to compare the physical and chemical quality of domestic sludge in the city of Pentecoste, State of Ceará, Brazil, to fish pond effluents from the Aquaculture Research Center of the Departamento Nacional de Obras Contras as Secas – DNOCS, located in the same city. The work was carried out in Pentecoste (State of Ceará, Brazil in three sampling campaigns, with 30-day intervals between them. In each campaign, four samples were collected at different points of the following sites: (1 fish pond supply channel from the Aquaculture Research Center (CPAq of the DNOCS; (2 fish pond drainage channel of CPAq/DNOCS; (3 tap water from four homes in Pentecoste; and (4 domestic sludge channel of Pentecoste. In the lab, samples were analyzed for dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, free CO2, nitrite, reactive phosphorus, electric conductivity and chemical oxygen demand (COD, following standard methods. It was concluded that Pentecoste’s domestic sludge has a much stronger eutrophication impact on the receiving water than that caused by the CPAq/DNOCS’s fish pond effluents.

  7. The Cognitive and Functional Profile of the elderly that frequent the Community Center for the Elderly in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Barros de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growing population must be accompanied by the promotion of healthy aging and maintain maximum functional capacity. Objective: To understand the cognitive and functional profile of the elderly who take part in the Community Center for the Elderly in Santos, Sao Paulo state. Method: Ninety elderly people were evaluated in this study. The following instruments were used: Social-demographic profile Questionnaire, Socialeconomic Questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Subjective Memory Complaint Questionnaire (SMC-Q, Independence in Activities of Daily Living Scale (Katz Scale, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (Lawton & Brody. Results: The average age of the elderly was 72.5 years old and the predominant gender was female (95.5%. There was a preponderance of participants from 1 to 4 years of education, and Class C was the predominant economic class. In the MMSE scores, 63.33% of the participants were below of the cutoff established for education, and in the SMC-Q, 71.11% of the elderly presented subjective dysfunction of memory. In the performance of Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL, 84.44% of the participants are independent. As for the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, only 33.33% of the participants are independent. In the statistical analyses between cognitive profile and functional performance, associations were found between MMSE and SMC-Q, MMSE and Lawton & Brody Scale, and SMC-Q and Lawton & Brody Scale. Conclusions: A significant portion of the elderly patrons of the Community Center presents functional decline and cognitive decline.

  8. Transforming your Municipal Electric Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on what municipalities should and can do to prepare for a competitive energy market in Ontario. Particular attention was given to business strategies, restructuring and transformation of the Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU). Issues and questions regarding ownership were also discussed. Each municipality will have to decide what is the most appropriate governance and organizational structure for their MEU. It was noted that one of the most contentious areas is refinancing and rate structures. Issues regarding merger or partnering options were also discussed. 1 tab

  9. COMPETITIVE DYSFUNCTION: ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF THE GAPS, BY THE SERVQUAL MODEL IN COMPOUNDING PHARMACIES THE MUNICIPALITIES OF SÃO PAULO STATE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Cukier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the application of SERVQUAL model, the level of gaps in the services offered by compounding pharmacies in the cities of São Paulo state. We have worked with a sample of 306 respondents comprised of owners, pharmacists responsible and clients related to fifteen from compounding pharmacies located in Campo Limpo Paulista, Jundiaí, Valinhos and Vinhedo. This work sought to assess the extent of gaps relating to competitive dysfunction, strategic dysfunction and operational dysfunction, to determine which disorders are significant, and what are the results of service provided in relation to competitive factors valued by customers. This research has dealt with qualitative and quantitative data, the data collection instrument was a questionnaire validated model as SERVQUAL, published by Parasuraman et al. (1988, aimed at measuring the quality of service, consisting of five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The techniques of statistical analysis of nature were expressed in software BioEstatV.05. The results showed that there is a strong adherence of the samples and that the dimension of quality that stood out was the reliability and regarding dysfunctions surveyed indicate a perfect interaction between agents and that there is significant competitive dysfunction.

  10. The industrial applicability of purified cellulase complex indigenously produced by Trichoderma viride through solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial and municipal paper wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irshad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An indigenous strain of Trichoderma viride produced high titers of cellulase complex in solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial orange peel waste, which was used as the growth-supporting substrate. When the conditions of the SSF medium containing 15 g orange peel (50% w/w moisture inoculated with 5 mL of inoculum were optimal, the maximum productions of endoglucanase (655 ± 5.5 U/mL, exoglucanase (412 ± 4.3 U/mL, and β-glucosidase (515 ± 3.7 U/mL were recorded after 4 days of incubation at pH 5 and 35 °C. The enzyme with maximum activity (endoglucanase was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sephadex G-100 column gel filtration chromatographic technique. Endoglucanase was 5.5-fold purified with specific activity of 498 U/mg in comparison to the crude enzyme. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 58 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The shelf life profile revealed that the enzyme could be stored at room temperature (30 °C for up to 45 days without losing much of its activity.

  11. Innovation Forms and Mechanisms of Forming the Conception of Effective Municipal Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Aleksandrovna Mikhaylova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic, uncertain external environment increases the dependence of the objectives of the system of state and municipal government on the conditions and the actions of environmental factors that entail a change in the behavior of the subjects of management, improving the ability of government to carry out strategic management and interaction of bodies of state and municipal authorities with the city-forming enterprises. The article revealed the lack of alternative mechanisms, based on an integrated management system industries and areas of the municipality and to improve the efficiency of the municipal administration in general. The use of innovative methods and mechanisms is important in the municipal administration. The analysis of innovative technologies and concepts of effective management of a municipality, such as: the “smart city” or high-tech city; “open city” or “open municipality”; city corporation or a city as in excess of corporation; city management is based on the model “contract manager”; quality management technology built into the system of municipal management based on the quality management system model. The analysis showed that the state and municipal institutions in many developed countries and in Russia are converted in order to improve its efficiency, ensuring higher service levels and transparency of its operations, giving a positive example for the extrapolation of the municipalities that have not yet using innovative forms and mechanisms management. In general, the application of innovative developments in the formation of the concept of effective municipal administration should be maintained as the regional and municipal authorities, as well as at the federal level, as innovation is the key to the further development of state and municipal management system.

  12. Energetic development program in States and municipality-PRODEEM:Energy of locality in development with microsystems for production and energetic local use; Programa de deselvolvimento energetico dos Estados e Municipios-PRODEEM: Energizacao de localidades subdesenvolvidas Microsistemas para producao e uso local de Energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro Filho, I [Ministerio de Minas y Energia, Brasilia (Brazil)

    1994-07-01

    This Initiative has as purpose to get the attention and to propose a form of work practices so that the area energy became to contribute indeed for the reduction of global underdevelopment, pursuing the reduction of the energy developing in particular. Such a work is denominated Program of energy development of the states and municipalities PRODEEM intends that the energy of local use are taken advantage of through micro systems, to satisfy the basic necessities of developing towns of the country.

  13. Climate Ambassador Programmes in Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Stine Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    Some Danish municipalities have developed ambassador programmes which generate environmental and climate change mitigation efforts in local public administrations and institutions. This chapter analyses the characteristics and experiences of four ambassador programmes now operating...

  14. Energy management in municipal heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  15. Determinants of municipal solid waste management in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Mota Freitas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management has been a topic of interest of several authors over time, in particular the implementation and maintenance of waste collection programmes. Initially, pioneering studies focused on the economic aspects of the provided services. However, many authors later argued the costs of providing solid waste collection services should also be influenced by socio-economic and behavioural factors, exogenous to the municipalities. The present study will be developed in this context, looking, more broadly, to explain the factors influencing the decision-making of the Portuguese municipalities in implementing and maintaining programs of selective collection of solid waste, considering the economic, financial, technological and sociodemographic factors. The results show that, indeed as presented by several authors before, economic factors aren’t the only determinants that influence municipal costs concerning these services, as demographic, geographic and technological factors must be taken into account. Moreover, the enforced legislation also impacts the municipal costs due to municipalities being obliged to contribute to the success of these collection programs in order to fulfil the waste recovery targets. This implies that the costs of these services and the inherent infrastructures are usually financed by its citizens in the form of utilization taxes and also the state.

  16. Candida spp. AISLADAS EN PACIENTES CON VULVOVAGINITIS DE COMUNIDADES RURALES DEL MUNICIPIO CARIPE, ESTADO MONAGAS, VENEZUELA, 2014 | Candida spp. ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH VULVOVAGINITIS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES FROM CARIPE MUNICIPALITY, MONAGAS STATE, VENEZUELA, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druvic Lemus-Espinoza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated patients with symptomatic vaginal fungal infection in a rural area of Caripe Municipality, Monagas state, Venezuela, aiming to identify the species involved and their sensibility to antimicotics. Identification of species of Candida yeast was made with the use of CHROMagar Candida® and API AUX 20®. Additionally, in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole was evaluated by the agar diffusion method (CLSI, M44-A2. The prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 23/86 cases (26.7% among women 15 to 60 years. Candida albicans was the most common species among patients (39.1%. However, other isolated agents within the same genus Candida dominated (65.2% and were identified: Complex C. glabrata (4/23; 17.4%, C. tropicalis (4/23; 17.4%, Complex C. parapsilosis (3/23; 13.1%, C.guilliermondii (2/23; 8.7%, C. krusei (1/23; 4.3% and one episode of mixed infection with C. albicans and C. krusei (1/23. No statistical difference was observed between symptoms; vulvovaginal erythema occurred in all infected women. More than half of the yeasts (15/23 were sensitive to fluconazole. In this population sample, isolates of C. albicans and C. guilliermondii were 100% sensitive to fluconazole, while the C. krusei strain (1/23 isolated from a mixed infection was resistant to this antimicotic. Other species, like C. tropicalis (4/23, C. glabrata (2/23 and Complex C. parapsilosis (1/23 showed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole. In gynecological evaluations of patients from rural or urban communities, with clinical picture of micotic vulvovaginitis, a microbiological study of vaginal secretions should be implemented.

  17. Conhecimento histórico e crianças pequenas: parques infantis e escola municipal de educação infantil Historical knowledge and small children: children's playgrounds and the state's primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Aparecida Gobbi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata a experiência com o projeto "Os parques infantis de Mário de Andrade ontem e hoje", empreendido por todos os profissionais e crianças de uma escola municipal de Educação Infantil da cidade de São Paulo. A preocupação com o conhecimento histórico e as crianças da primeira infância e suas especificidades, numa perspectiva não-escolarizante e não-antecipatória do Ensino Fundamental, foi a tônica e um desafio. Procura aliar história e memória, estabelecendo relações entre História da Educação, história da escolarização de crianças pequenas e formação docente.This article discusses an experience with the project "The children's playgrounds of Mario de Andrade, yesterday and today", undertaken by all the professionals and children of a state primary school in the city of São Paulo. The concern with historical knowledge and the children in the first years of primary school, with their specific qualities, their un-schooled perspective and their inability to predict the school's teaching approach, was the keynote of this study and the challenge faced. A link between history and memory is sought, establishing a relationship between the History of Education, the history of small children being schooled and teacher training.

  18. Developments of the climate protection law and the climate change policy 2014-2015. Pt. 2. Federal government, federal states and municipalities; Entwicklungen des Klimaschutzrechts und der Klimaschutzpolitik 2014/2015. T. 2. Bund, Bundeslaender und Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staesche, Uta [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht (HWR), Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet (IKEM)

    2015-08-14

    According to the motto of the energy transition the Federal Government set herself targets in the areas of greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy and energy efficiency. Main emphasis of its climate change policy is the implementation of the 2014/15 Action Programme Climate Protection 2020. A key measure discussed here is the climate contribution of the German electricity sector, is now being implemented in a significantly modified form. With a view on the long-term climate objectives prepares the federal government the national climate change plan 2050; the federal government promote locally climate protection within the framework of the National Climate Protection Initiative (NKI) in a Variety of projects. On the level of the federal states intensifies clearly the trend of the legal protection of federal climate protection targets. In addition to the federal levels are also the municipalities still active in various climate protection projects. [German] Unter dem Leitwort der Energiewende hat sich die Bundesregierung Ziele in den Bereichen Treibhausgasemissionen, erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz gesetzt. Schwerpunkt ihrer Klimaschutzpolitik bildet 2014/15 die Umsetzung des Aktionsprogramms Klimaschutz 2020. Als eine zentrale Massnahme wurde hier der Klimabeitrag des deutschen Stromsektors diskutiert, der nun in deutlich abgewandelter Form umgesetzt wird. Mit Blick auf die langfristigen Klimaschutzziele bereitet die Bundesregierung den nationalen Klimaschutzplan 2050 vor; Klimaschutz vor Ort foerdert sie im Rahmen der Nationalen Klimaschutzinitiative (NKI) in einer Vielzahl von Projekten. Auf Ebene der Bundeslaender verstaerkt sich deutlich der Trend der gesetzlichen Absicherung von Landesklimaschutzzielen. Neben den ueberregionalen Ebenen sind auch die Kommunen weiterhin in vielfaeltigen Klimaschutzprojekten aktiv.

  19. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  20. Economic growth and inflation rate: implications for municipal revenue and health expenditure of the municipalities of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Marciana; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do Espírito

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyzes the implications of municipal budget revenue growth and the monetary policy's inflation rates goals in the availability of public health resources of municipalities. This is a descriptive, exploratory, quantitative, retrospective and longitudinal cross-sectional study covering the period 2002-2011. We analyzed health financing and expenditure variables in the municipalities of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, describing the trend and the relationship between them. Data showed the growth of the variables and trend towards homogeneity. The exception was for the participation of Intergovernmental Transfers in the Total Health Expenditure of the Municipality. We found a significant correlation between Budget Revenue per capita and Health Expenditure per capita and a strong significant negative correlation between Inflation Rate, Budget Revenue per capita and Health Expenditure per capita. We concluded that increased health expenditure is due more to higher municipal tax revenue than to increased transfers that, in relative terms, did not increase. The strong inverse relationship between inflation rate and the Financing and Expenditure variables show that the monetary policy's inflation goals have restricted health financing to municipalities.

  1. Leishmaniose visceral no município de Várzea Grande, Estado de Mato Grosso, no período de 1998 a 2007 Visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Várzea Grande, State of Mato Grosso, between 1998 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanci Akemi Missawa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou descrever a epidemiologia e a expansão da leishmaniose visceral no município de Várzea Grande/Mato Grosso/Brasil de 1998 a 2007. Foram notificados 48 casos humanos, com taxa de incidência de até 11,7 por 100.000 habitantes, preferencialmente em crianças e adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com acentuada expansão geográfica da doença no município.This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and spread of visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Várzea Grande, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, between 1998 and 2007. Forty-eight human cases were reported, with an incidence rate of up to 11.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, particularly among children and adolescents of both sexes, with marked geographical spread of the disease in the municipality.

  2. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...] Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA issued final... solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7, 2012 Massachusetts submitted an application to...

  3. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...] Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA issued final regulations... waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted an application to EPA Region 10...

  4. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of MSW...

  5. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...] Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA issued final... solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010 New Hampshire submitted an application to EPA...

  6. Municipalities in action. Comment to the article 'Slow with air quality plans' of the SNM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Dutch Municipalities (VNG) does not agree with the environmental organization SNM, which states in another article in this issue of the magazine that municipalities in the Netherlands are slow in setting up and implementing air quality plans. From a VNG study it appears that investments are made to improve the air quality [nl

  7. State of the art of municipal solid wastes and hazard wastes disposal in Argentina; Diagnostico de la situacion del manejo de los residuos solidos municipales y peligrosos en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savino, A.A.

    1997-12-31

    The author analyzes the up to date situation of Argentina related to Municipal solid Waste management after the political and economic challenges suffered by Argentina. The author concludes that this country needs more waste treatment plants and more investments for environmental management. (Author) 15 refs.

  8. The current status on the selection and management of vegetation for slow rate and overland flow application systems to treat municipal wastewater in the North Central region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.G. Brockway; T.M. Burton; J.H. Cooley; F.M. D' Itri; R.H. Dowdy; B.G. Ellis; L. Epstein; A.E. Erickson; J.E. Hook; L.W. Jacobs; S.N. Kerr; B.D. Knezek; E.A. Myers; A.J. Palazzo; S. Poloncsik; G.R. Safir; W.E. Sopper; J.C. Sutherland; M.B. Tesar; R.E. Thomas; D.H. Urie

    1981-01-01

    The 1977 Clean Water Amendments to Public Law 92-500 were enacted to strengthen the orignal policy of encouraging the utilization ofinnovative, alternative management techniques far the treatment and disposal of municipal wastewater. These alternative techniques include spray irigation and overland flow land treatment systems which can be used individual cr...

  9. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  10. Municipal Development Plan, Acerra (Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Benevolo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Municipal Development Plan (Piano Urbanistico Comunale - PUC of Acerra has been drafted by a group of young professionals and researchers, led by Leonardo Benevolo, in accordance with the guidelines laid out by Regional Law no. 16 of 2004. Its complex drafting process was compressed into a brief, nine-month period in 2008 and 2009, at the end of which its initial adoption (or “predisposizione” – “preparation” or “predisposition” – in Italian legal terms was ratified by the municipal council. This article reconstructs the key moments, illustrating the main elements of the plan and how the debate about it took shape both inside and outside the municipal administration.

  11. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

    for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful...... of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme...... forces and low quality performance. By assuming responsibility, setting and following up on high quality standards the tender instrument presents an additional instrument to legislation and market based means to institutionalize more sustainable practices in waste management...

  12. Teatro Municipal, en Gelsenkirchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhnau, Werner

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available Two very up to date principles have been tried at Gelsenkirchen, namely that of «transformable theatre», and the integration of the style of a building with that of the town and the landscape. Following these principles, two municipal theatres have been built, one seating 1,050 and the other 450 spectators. They are situated in the centre of the city, and constitute the nucleus of a new cultural centre in the midst of a highly industrial town; This is a project not aimed at any particular social group, but placed at the service of every man with an intellectual or artistic interest. These two buildings have reinforced concrete structures, metal roofs, and the trusses are protected against Are by means of a special asbestos treatment. Efficient air conditioning ducts are taken inside suspended concrete tubing, which run over the main theatre hall. This air conditioning produces no audible noise. The «transformability» of the theatre presented other difficult accoustical problems, which were overcome by means of plates which osciIate and open out. Aluminium laminas, with a large number of tiny holes to absorb noise, have also been fitted. These two buildings involve a close cooperation between the plastic artist and the architect. A number of works by Paul Dierkes and Yves Klein are placed inside these theatres. Externally. they are adorned with a concrete sculpture by Robert Adams, seeking to express the power of the spirit over matter.Dos principios muy de actualidad —de «teatro transformable» y de integración de la arquitectura en la ciudad y paisaje— han sido intentados en Gelsenkirchen, donde se construyeron dos teatros municipales: uno con 1.050 localidades y otro con 450. Emplazados en el centro de la ciudad, constituyen, como el núcleo de un nuevo foro, una obra al servicio del arte, del espíritu, en medio de una urbe industrial: una obra destinada no a una determinada clase social, sino para cada hombre interesado intelectual

  13. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  14. The municipality as a stakeholder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmqvist, Roland

    2006-01-01

    The author explains how local politicians look upon the dialogue regarding nuclear installations in their municipalities. As seen from the map of European reactors there is a lot of local districts affected by nuclear operations. What has a mayor from such a community to say about the shut-down phase of such operations and especially about the need for communication between stakeholders when closing and decommissioning a nuclear power reactor? To answer this question the author has structured his presentation into 4 parts as follows: 1. The European municipalities ? some characteristics; 2. The siting of NPPs (nuclear power plants) in Europe; 3. The shutdown, decommissioning and the dismantling phases; 4. Lessons learnt

  15. Consolidação das contas públicas: análise do cumprimento do art. 51 da LRF pelos municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte = Public account consolidation: an analysis of the enforcement of LRF art. 51 by the municipalities in the State of Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Corrêa da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A consolidação das contas tem por objetivo apresentar demonstrações financeiras de duas ou mais sociedades, como se fossem uma única entidade. As sociedades consolidadas continuam existindo juridicamente, sendo a consolidação efetuada apenas extracontabilmente. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa é analisar a situação dos municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte quanto a cumprir o encaminhamento de suas contas, conforme determinado pelo Art. 51 da LRF, no período de 2000 a 2008. Para tal, foram utilizadas as pesquisas descritiva, documental, bibliográfica e qualitativa. Os dados da pesquisa foram extraídos do sítio eletrônico da Secretaria do Tesouro Nacional (STN - www.stn.fazenda.gov.br. Na pesquisa foi utilizada uma amostra intencional dos 167 municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, agrupados em quatro Mesorregiões. Os resultados revelaram que dos 167 municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 20 municípios se encontram pendentes, em determinado ano, de encaminhar os dados de suas contas para a consolidação das contas públicas nacionais, e que a grande maioria dos municípios potiguares remeteu seus dados com atraso (após 30 de abril. Account consolidation has as its objective to present financial statements of two or more organizations, as if they were one. The consolidated organizations continue to exist from a legal perspective, with the consolidation being performed only outside an accounting viewpoint. The general objective of this research is to analyze the situation of the municipalities in the State of Rio Grande do Norte as to the enforcement on the forwarding of their accounts, determined by Art. 51 of LRF from 2000 to 2008. For such, a descriptive, documental, bibliographical and qualitative research has been used. The research data were extracted from the electronic website of the National Treasury Secretary (STN - www.stn.fazenda.gov.br. An intentional sample of the 167 municipalities of the State of

  16. Estado de salud bucal en 5 consultorios del municipio Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba, 2006 Oral health state in 5 family physicians' offices in Palma Soriano municipality, Santiago de Cuba, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanisette Mónica Calleja Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal sobre el estado de salud bucal en los consultorios del municipio Palma Soriano durante el período comprendido entre enero-abril del 2006, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por todos los habitantes de estos consultorios. Se seleccionó una muestra de 475 personas, estratificadas por grupos de edades, con 25 de ellas en cada estrato. Se utilizó la encuesta de salud bucodental de la Organización Mundial de la Salud modificada del 2003. En la población estudiada predominó el sexo femenino. Las alteraciones de la articulación témporo-mandibular no constituyeron un problema de salud. Entre las afecciones más frecuentes figuraron las caries dentales con un COP-D favorable hasta los 18 años, que no se comportó así en los grupos de 35-44 y 60-74, donde el valor fue de 11,9 y 25,8, y las periodontopatías, con un total de 72 pacientes con alguno de los signos o síntomas de la enfermedad. Las alteraciones de la estética están presentes en 34 de los pacientes examinados, por lo que se hace necesario el tratamiento obligatorio u optativo.A descriptive cross-sectional study on the oral health state in the family physicians' offices of Palma Soriano municipality was conducted from January to April, 2006. The universe was composed of all the inhabitants receiving attention at these offices. A sample of 475 persons stratified by age groups was selected. 25 individuals were included in each stratum. The bucco-dental health survey of the World Health Organization, modified in 2003, was used. A prevalence of females was observed. The alterations of the temporomandibular articulation were not a health problem. Among the most frequent affections were the dental caries with a favorable DMFT index up to 18 years old, which was not so in the 35-44 and 60-74 age groups, where the values were 11.9 and 25.8, respectively, and the periodontopathies with a total of 72 patients with some of the signs or symptoms of

  17. Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonne—1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007...

  18. Allegheny County Municipal Land Use Ordinances

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Many municipalities have their own land use ordinances and establish standards and requirements for land use and development in that municipality. This dataset is...

  19. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  20. FINANCIAL CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR COLLECTING BODY OF A MUNICIPAL TAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article's main purpose is to propose fiscal control strategies for tax collection in a Hall of Carabobo state, taking into account the responsibility of municipal governments within its governance process to provide optimal services to citizens the municipality, in order to improve their quality of life. This research focused on the modality of feasible project and descriptive. The population under study consisted of 10 staff of the institution, applying a survey as a tool for information gathering, allowing coding, tabulating and analyzing the results. The findings established that the institution is presenting negatives in tax revenue of the municipality, which generates large arrears and tax evasion by citizens, hence leading to the importance of design strategies that lead to minimize this situation.

  1. Classification of sources of municipal solid wastes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenrostro, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-105, 58400, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Bocco, G. [Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 27-3 Xangari, 58089, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Cram, S. [Departamento de Geografia Fisica, Instituto de Geografia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, C.P. 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2001-05-01

    The existence of different classifications of municipal solid waste (MSW) creates confusion and makes it difficult to interpret and compare the results of generation analyses. In this paper, MSW is conceptualized as the solid waste generated within the territorial limits of a municipality, independently of its source of generation. Grounded on this assumption, and based on the economic activity that generates a solid waste with determinate physical and chemical characteristics, a hierarchical source classification of MSW is suggested. Thus, a connection between the source and the type of waste is established. The classification categorizes the sources into three divisions and seven classes of sources: residential, commercial, institutional, construction/demolition, agricultural-animal husbandry, industrial, and special. When applied at different geographical scales, this classification enables the assessment of the volume of MSW generated, and provides an overview of the types of residues expected to be generated in a municipality, region or state.

  2. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  3. Urban ecology and the municipal utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools......Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools...

  4. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  5. Municipal waste - management and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudel, E.S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Though per capita waste generation in Nepalese urban cities is not so high, the lack of proper waste management is considered one of the severe problems to be faced by urban people in future. With rapid urbanization, life style of people is changing their habits and consuming more materials and producing a large volume of waste in urban areas in Nepal. The nature and amount of waste generated in municipality is dependent of demography and geography. But most common aspect of municipal waste in Nepal is more than 60% of the waste biodegradable. Whatever the nature and amount of waste generated, the most common practice of managing municipal waste is to dispose in the riverside nearby or dumped elsewhere. The involvement of private sector in waste management is a new concept adopted by many municipalities in Nepal. One of the most progress approaches, 4R (reduces, reuse, recycle and refuse) principle is being practiced. The need of awareness progressive like segregation of wastes at collection point also being practiced in Nepal. Finally, Proper formulation of program and legislation and its application is one of the major challenges for local authorities in Nepal. (author)

  6. 76 FR 823 - Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... financial products.\\12\\ For example, as derivatives have developed in the municipal securities market, some... public information regarding the size of the municipal securities derivative market. Estimates of the..., Municipal Derivative Securities--Uses and Valuation 21 (1995) (discussion of revenue bonds). See also...

  7. Plantas medicinais de um remascente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana, Urupema, Santa Catarina, Brasil Medicinal plants in a remnant of High Montane Araucaria Moist Forest, Urupema Municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar dados químicos, biológicos e etnobotânicos na literatura científica de espécies medicinais de um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana. A base para este estudo foi um levantamento florístico realizado na Fazenda das Nascentes, Urupema-SC entre agosto de 2007 e setembro de 2008. A partir da lista de espécies que resultou deste levantamento, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o potencial medicinal das espécies inventariadas. Para as espécies com dados de ação medicinal, foi elaborada chave de identificação vegetativa. Das 64 espécies listadas foram encontradas informações na bibliografia consultada sobre o potencial medicinal de 29. As principais familias foram Asteraceae (oito espécies e Myrtaceae (três espécies. O hábito que mais se destacou entre as plantas com potencial medicinal foi o arbóreo (13 espécies. O componente químico de maior ocorrência entre as espécies foi o óleo essencial (60% das espécies. As atividades terapêuticas mais citadas na literatura consultadas foram antimicrobiana, anti-oxidante, anti-inflamatória, antiviral, antifúngica e anestésica. Os resultados encontrados indicam o imenso potencial econômico da Floresta Ombrófila Mista e ambientes associados como fonte de recursos naturais que fazem parte da cultura e do patrimônio catarinense.The aim of this work was to search for chemical, biological and ethnobotanical data in the scientific literature on medicinal species from a remnant of High Montane Araucaria Moist Forest. This study was based on the floristics performed in "Fazenda das Nascentes", Urupema Municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between August 2007 and September 2008. From the list of species obtained in this survey, a review on the medicinal potential of these recorded species was done. A vegetative identification key was elaborated for species with medicinal action Information about medicinal

  8. SK policies the view of nuclear municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'abadal, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear policies of the most important countries in Western Europe, already influenced by the evolution of the public opinion, have experimented strong changes together with political evolution. The future of NNP in some important countries is doubtful, as for the case of Sweden, Germany, Spain, Holland, Belgium, The large democratic discussions that affect permanently our society, as well as the new society of information that is being implanted, have turned the decision making processes into what is referred to as public participation and transparency, especially when these affect the environment or the immediate future of the citizens. The installation policies of nuclear plants are very similar in all the countries. Most of them are located in low density population areas, with low activity rate, high rate of elder people. These territories have many water resources, low communication infrastructure level, etc. So the typographic aspects of the European municipalities are alike (in eastern countries as well). Nuclear energy whose existence is sometimes called in question by press media, citizens and inhabitants, needs full agreement within the territory in order to work at its best. Moreover, the territory on which the plant is installed must have the necessary means of infrastructure ( development from a social and economic point of view) as well as the dues for its future and for a new positive reality as far as the citizens are concerned in order to face the corresponding challenges. Having got to this point, a territorial debate should be focused on the balance between the state's general interest and the local one as normalised operation of nuclear facilities is and will be possible only in a context of mutual respect. The new European political map and the last governmental decisions in energetic strategies grant more value to the opinion of the local authorities on the territories affected by these facilities. So, in order to express their opinion

  9. Municipal management and geo-hydrological aspects of importance in the potable water supply of Lindley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Nealer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When the South African Government in 1998 re-demarcated its 283 municipalities so that they completely cover the country in a “wall-to-wall” manner, their main focus was on growing local economies and maintaining the provision of an increased number of diverse and more complex basic municipal services to new geographical areas consisting of millions of citizens who might previously had been neglected. In most of the instances the newly established and merged municipalities were demarcated according to geographical aspects inherited from the previous political dispensation, historical municipal areas and magisterial district farm names. The fact that these municipal government jurisdictions for the purpose of improving co-operative municipal- and integrated water resources management (IWRM, in most instances do not correspond with environmental and physical land features such as the demarcated surface water (rivers drainage regions’ boundaries, could lead to the ineffective, inefficient and non-economic municipal management of water, sanitation and environmental services. The aforementioned is a case with reference to water services management in the Free State Province town of Lindley located in the Vals River catchment and the Nketoana Local Municipality’s area of jurisdiction. An extensive literature review, the use and study of geographic tools such as maps, ortho- photos and information data bases, as well as two field visits to the area, enabled the researchers to identify the essential geographical, geo-hydrological and municipal management aspects of importance for the potable water service providers and managers in the Lindley municipal area. The researchers argue that effective trans-boundary municipal management through simunye-type co-operative governance and IWRM must be facilitated in the Vals River surface water catchment between the respective local- and district municipalities for the benefit of the Lindley, Arlington

  10. Folk medicine in Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State: an ethnobotanical approach=Medicina popular em Mandaguaçu, Estado do Paraná: uma abordagem etnobotânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Caroline Novakowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present results from an ethnobotanical study (from February to August 2009 aiming the improvement and rationalization of medical practices, based on popular use of plants. We applied semi-structured interviews to 220 families from the urban area of Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State. During the interviews we recorded the following information about the used plants: common name; plant part used; method of preparation; collection site; therapeutic indication, and known adverse effects. Additionally, we compared the data obtained in the interviews with the literature in order to identify contradiction in use and application. Among the interviewees, 90% use medicinal plants, obtained especially from the backyards. We recorded 44 ethnobotanical citations, comprising 47 species (22 families. The species most frequently mentioned in the interviews were, respectively, Cymbopogon citrates (DC Stapf. (Lemon grass, Mentha sp. (Mint, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (False Boldo and Plectranthus ornatus Codd (Dog bane. The applications most cited were: the treatment of diseases from the digestive tract (122 citations, respiratory (67 citations and nervous system (40 citations. In general, the population knows the correct method for preparing the medicinal plants. However, they report that do not know any adverse effect caused by these plants. This scenario is worrying because some species are recognized in the literature as potentially toxic or responsible for adverse effects.Apresenta-se resultado de estudo etnobotânico (fevereiro a agosto/2009 visando melhoramento e racionalização das práticas medicinais populares fundamentadas no uso de plantas. Foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas a 220 famílias pertencentes à zona urbana do município de Mandaguaçu, Estado do Paraná. Durante as entrevistas foram registradas as seguintes informações das plantas utilizadas: nome comum, parte usada, modo de preparo, local de coleta, indica

  11. Epidemiology of snakebite accidents in the municipalities of the state of Paraíba, Brazil Epidemiologia dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Moreno Barros

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving venomous animals represent an important, albeit neglected, public health issue worldwide. A descriptive study was made of snakebite cases attended and recorded between 2007 and 2010 in the health units of the municipalities of Cariri, State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Health Ministry and a total of 351 records of snakebite victims were reviewed. Victims were predominantly male farm workers over 50. The highest incidence of snakebites occurred in rural areas, between April and June of 2007 and 2010. Snakes of the genus Bothrops were responsible for most cases, and victims were mostly bitten on the feet. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after being bitten. The most common clinical manifestations were pain, edema and ecchymosis, which were mainly classified as mild or moderate. Two deaths were reported. It was concluded that there is a significant impact of seasonality in snakebites, the prevalence of attacks caused by Bothrops, affecting the lower limbs of adult male farmers in rural areas. The findings of this study may contribute to identify the conditions that increase the risk of snake attacks in the northeastern region.Acidentes por animais peçonhentos representam um importante, embora negligenciado, problema de saúde pública mundial. Neste sentido, foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos acidentes ofídicos atendidos e registrados, entre 2007 e 2010, nas unidades de saúde dos municípios do Cariri, Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. As informações foram coletadas do banco de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação do Ministério da Saúde. Um total de 351 registros de vítimas de ataques por serpentes peçonhentas foram analisados. As vítimas foram predominantemente trabalhadores rurais do sexo masculino com mais de 50 anos. As maiores incidências de

  12. Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana em um município do Estado do Piauí, Região Nordeste do Brasil Seroepidemiological survey of human cysticercosis in a municipality of Piaui State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrando as pesquisas sobre parasitoses na região do entorno do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Piauí, Brasil, realizadas entre 1999 e 2001, o presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a situação epidemiológica da cisticercose humana no Município de João Costa, no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram obtidas informações clínico-epidemiológicas e coletadas amostras de sangue para testes sorológicos imunoenzimáticos (ELISA e Western blot, empregando cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps como antígeno. Na primeira etapa, em 1999, foram investigadas 169 pessoas com história confirmada ou suspeita de infecção/doença pelo complexo teníase-cisticercose, e seus familiares. Na análise, 13,6% das pessoas apresentaram soros reagentes para cisticercose pelo método ELISA. Na segunda etapa, em 2001, foram avaliadas 92 amostras de soro de indivíduos reativos para cisticercose detectados no primeiro momento e seus familiares, sendo que 24,0% das amostras de soro foram reagentes para cisticercose pelo ELISA, e 29,0%, pelo WB. Nessa mesma etapa, realizou-se inquérito coprológico em 701 pessoas, incluindo voluntários. A prevalência de parasitoses intestinais foi de 51,0%, tendo sido observada uma maior prevalência de protozoários (95,0% em relação aos helmintos (5,0%. Os resultados do estudo indicam o caráter endêmico da cisticercose na área, além da elevada freqüência de protozooses intestinais.As part of parasitological studies in the area surrounding the Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí State, Northeast Brazil, from 1999 to 2001, the current study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological profile of human cysticercosis in the Municipality of João Costa. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained, and blood samples were drawn for immunoenzymatic serological tests (ELISA and Western blot, using Taenia crassiceps as the antigen. The first stage, in 1999, investigated 169 individuals with a confirmed history or suspicion of

  13. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of ''traditional'' electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states' least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process

  14. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of ``traditional`` electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states` least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  15. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of traditional'' electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states' least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  16. Delegation within municipal health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystedt, Maria; Eriksson, Maria; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2011-05-01

    To describe how registered nurses (RNs) perceive delegation to unlicensed personnel (UP) in a municipal healthcare context in Sweden. Within municipal health care RNs often delegate tasks to UP. The latter have practical training, but lack formal competence. Twelve RNs were interviewed and the material was analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Owing to a shortage of RNs, delegation is seen as a prerequisite for a functioning organization. This necessity also involves a number of perceived contradictions in three areas: (1) the work situation of RNs - facilitation and relief vs. lack of control, powerlessness, vagueness regarding responsibility, and resignation; (2) the relationship with unlicensed personnel - stimulation, possibility for mentoring, use of UP competence and the creation of fairness vs. questioning UP competence; and (3) The patients - increase in continuity, quicker treatment, and increased security vs. insecurity (with respect to, for example, the handling of medicine). Registered nurses perceptions of delegation within municipal healthcare involve their own work situation, the UP and the patients. Registered nurses who delegate to UP must be given time for mentoring such that the nursing care is safe care of high quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Performance management by co-operating and participating. Lessons learned from transfering service responsibiliy from state to municipal level Árangursstjórnun með samstarfi og þátttöku: Lærdómur af yfirfærslu verkefna frá ríki til sveitarfélaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óskar Dýrmundur Ólafsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning from decentralization of services from state to municipal level: The transfer of services from state to municipality level in the past 15 years has created an environment for learning and provides opportunities for development and innovation. This article is mainly based on findings from a case study in Akureyri, a municipality in north Iceland, which did implement services from the state to the municipal level and has been called the Akureyri model. The change was made possible by a legislative change in 1994. The case study is based on qualitative interviews with management personel about their management methods during implementation and data collection from previous sources. Findings show that cross-professional methods, wholistic solutions and a service orientated approach matter for performance. The organizational structure of the municipality support these methods and can improve performance. When managing municipalities it is recommended to put more emphasize on empowerment, learning and enable possibilities to increase efficiency by systems thinking.Yfrfærsla á þjónustu frá ríki til sveitarfélaga sem hefur átt sér stað síðastliðinn 15 ár hefur stuðlað að þróun og nýsköpun hjá sveitarfélögunum. Því er gagnlegt að líta til reynslu þeirra og draga fram lærdóm um slíkar breytingar. Þessi grein byggir meðal annars á niðurstöðum tilviksrannsóknar um stjórnun Akureyrarbæjar við yfirfærslu þjónustu frá ríki til sveitarfélaga. Hófust breytingarnar með lögum frá 1994 og gengu undir heitinu Akureyrarlíkanið. Tekin voru sex viðtöl við stjórnendur bæjarins og reynsla þeirra af yfirfærslunni sem og aðferðir við stjórnun skoðuð. Fram kom að árangur þeirra byggðist meðal annars á þverfaglegu samstarfi, heildstæðum lausnum og þjónustu sem byggist fyrst og fremst á þörfum íbúa. Skipulag sveitarfélaga hentaði vel til þess að ná þessum árangri. Fram kemur a

  18. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  19. Municipal services as a means of increasing the citizens’ activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Yakhina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to propose ways of increasing the activity of Russian citizens through the institution of municipal services. Methods the methodological basis of the study was a systematic and integrated approach to the analysis of the institution of municipal services. The general philosophical method was used as well as general scientific methods of cognition dialectical systemic analysis and synthesis induction and deduction and specific scientific methods comparativelegal formallegal historicallegal sociological systemicfunctional theoreticalprognostic linguolegal methods. In particular the formallegal method was used to study the problem of the legal fixation of administrative regulations statuses the theoreticalprognostic method was used in preparing recommendations to increase the activity of citizens. Results the municipal services are regarded by the author as a way to meet the needs of the population of a particular territory and as a way of interaction between local public authorities and the citizens. The issue of the functioning of emunicipalities is studied as well as the shortcomings in the legal regulation in this field. The problem is discussed of insufficient use of the Internet in the local authoritiesrsquo interaction with citizens. The author suggests ways to improve the Federal Law quotOn the organization of state and municipal servicesquot N 210FZ of July 2 2010 regarding the use of the Internet as a means of feedback between the public authorities and the population of a territory. Special attention is paid to normative legal acts regulating the procedure of municipal services provision i.e. the administrative regulations of local authorities. The emerging challenges in the legal regulation of the specified institution are identified the solutions to the identified problems are proposed. Scientific novelty in 2010 the institution of municipal services has undergone significant modernization thus the necessity to its research

  20. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  1. An Analysis of health conditions in municipalities of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovídio Cesar Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to analyze the health conditions in the municipal districts checking which of them best optimize the available resources, consequently offering more and better services to the population. In this approach, first was characterized the public health in Brazil, in the state of Paraná and in its municipalities. We build a Performance Indicator for each county in the state (PI and used variables representing mortality and longevity - infant mortality, mortality up to five years, life expectancy and probability of achieving 60 years. Regarding variables, those relating to health spending, the analysis period was from 2007 to 2010, the population information refer to the 2010 Census and the related infrastructure and health of the population, were collected at the DATASUS. The work includes all municipalities in the state of Paraná. By analyzing the results it was found that there are municipalities that can equate better their inputs and thus provide better service to its population, consequently your ID is better. Another aspect to consider is that the municipalities considered Big City are less dependent on current transfers both the state and the Union, which also have better PI. The city of Colombo was the one with the best performance indicator, while the municipalities of Cruzmaltina and Cantagalo have the worst state ID.

  2. Prefeitura Municipal de Amparo - Prefeitura Municipal de Amparo

    Science.gov (United States)

    , educação inclusiva, calendário educação, plano municipal de educação, projetos, notícias entre estagiários Confira as vagas para estagiários Painel de Vagas de Estágio ENSINO MEDIO (2501642 Sebastião 07 de Janeiro de 2017 - 29 de Janeiro de 2017 Carnaval de rua de Amparo 25 de Fevereiro de 2017

  3. Características da clientela atendida por crise hipertensiva na emergência de um hospital municipal de Fortaleza, Estado do Ceará = Characteristics of the clientele assisted for hypertensive crisis in the emergency of a municipal hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Cavalcante Lacerda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever as características da clientela com crise hipertensiva. A pesquisa, quantitativa, descritiva e documental foi realizada em um hospital municipal de Fortaleza, Estado do Ceará em 2006. Na análise de 790 fichas de atendimento, observamos que 48,2% dos pacientes que apresentavam crise hipertensiva, encontravam-se na faixa etária de 40 a 59 anos e a maioria dos indivíduos era de casados (57,5%. Os principais sintomas encontrados foram cefaleia (35,7% e dor precordial (12.3% e, em 36,8% das fichas, não houve registro de sinais e sintomas. As medicações mais prescritas foram o captopril (90,6% e furosemida (53%. Conclui-se que a crise hipertensiva acomete muitos adultos, a maioria casados e que geralmente vão à emergência para fazer avaliação clínica de algum sinal/sintoma. Ressalta-se a necessidade de se alertar os profissionais de saúde quanto à importância do registro para conhecimento e compreensão das características dessa clientela para o controle e a prevenção da crise hipertensiva.The objective was to describe the characteristics of the clientele with hypertensive crisis. The research, which was quantitative, descriptive and documentary, was conducted at a municipal hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará Estate in 2006. In the analysis of 790 patient files, we found that 48.2% of patients presenting hypertensive crisis were in the age group between 40 and 59 years old. Most of the individuals were married (57.5%. The main symptoms were headache (35.7% and chest pain (12.3%, and in 36.8% of files there was no record of signs and symptoms. The most prescribed medications were captopril (90.6% and furosemide (53%. We conclude that hypertensive crisis affects many adults, most married and who usually go to the emergency room for clinical evaluation of a sign/symptom. We emphasize the need to alert health professionals about the importance of records for knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of that

  4. The deficit mechanism of the Hungarian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    The management of the Hungarian municipal sector has received special attention since the crisis in 2008 and interest in the sector increased further due to the changes in legislation in 2011. A great number of economy experts and speakers on behalf of the government or the municipalities provided further details on prevailing issues in the municipal sector, however, their assessment of the severity of these issues varied greatly. By describing the logical framework of the deficit mechanism t...

  5. The Main Recreative Areas in Podujeva Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , F. Humolli; , S. Bulliqi

    2016-01-01

    Recreation is time available to human kind, excluding normal working hours that are a time for physiological and physical needs of human kind and time for sleep, which is used for entertainment, sport, hobby, rest etc. Well known fact is that recreation is a need of contemporary man, which is at the same time the reason for elaborating this subject. Podujeva Municipality is one of Republic of Kosova’s municipality, and likewise all other municipalities, offer possibilities and have similar pr...

  6. Information System of Municipal Office

    OpenAIRE

    Surý, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá problematikou návrhu a implementací informačního systému obecního úřadu. Pro práci byly použity tyto programovací jazyky: PHP, JavaScript, HTML, CSS a databáze MySQL. The Bachelor's Thesis is concerned with the dilemma of suggestion and implementation of information system for municipal office. The programming languages: PHP, JavaScript, HTML, CSS and database MySQL were used for this bachelor's thesis. E

  7. New Orleans may go municipal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehrle, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent moves by the New Orleans City Council to consolidate two investor-owned utilities operating under franchise agreements into a publicly owned utility could make the 179,000-user utility the nation's 12th ranking public power system. Voters have changed their minds on the advantages of local control because of costly blackouts. At the root of the effort are economic concerns and some unpaid IOUs owed by the franchise companies because of nuclear plant construction. A task force recommended a municipal buyout

  8. Public deliberation in municipal planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohøj, Morten; Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory participatory design process aimed at supporting citizen deliberation in municipal planning. It presents the main outcomes of this process in terms of selected prototypes and an approach to the use setting. We support and discuss different ways for citizens...... to act and reflect on proposed plans: in-situ, while physically close to the planning object, and ex-situ, when citizens are remote from this. The support of in-situ and ex-situ participation allows citizens to engage in continuous reflection-in and on-action as a collaborative activity with other...

  9. Mercado municipal en Sant Quirze

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo Díez, Laura

    2010-01-01

    El proyecto satisface la necesidad de un Mercado Municipal en Sant Quirze. Situado en el actual recinto ferial del pueblo, el parque de la Betzuca, un punto céntrico cerca del casco antiguo y de las nuevas urbanizaciones. Las condiciones del lugar enriquecen el proyecto permitiendo usos múltiples muy adecuados a cada banda del solar: zona de mercado, galerías exteriores, supermercado, guardería, restaurante y bares vinculados a la zona del río, almacenes, zonas de carga y descarga y un gra...

  10. Vandellos, the future of a municipality without NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellnou, J.

    2000-01-01

    The positive and negative effects of introducing nuclear power plants into a municipality are shown by analysing the example of Vandellos. Town councils work to try to encourage alternative activities but they cannot on their own face the entire process of change and adaptation. An active participation of the European Union, of state and companies is needed in order to encourage this sort of development. The situation existing in smaller communities should not be forgotten. They are the ones that have to bear the brand and they are the ones who can show the future in co-operation, because they are the once who are best acquainted with the municipality and their own villages. With the help of companies, member states and European Union, a sustainable future either with or without nuclear power plants can be faced. The experience of Vandellos could be used as an example to other towns and villages in Europe

  11. Resource Prospects of Municipal Solid Wastes Generatedin the Ga East Municipal Assembly of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Benedicta Abiti; Susanne Hartard; Heike B. Bradl; Davar Pishva; John Kojo Ahiakpa

    2017-01-01

    Background. Municipal solid wastes management has recently become an important public health concern. Municipal solid wastes are a major source of raw materials that could be used for resource recovery for diverse applications. Objectives. The present study aimed to determine the composition of municipal solid waste and recoverable resources from the waste of the Ga East Municipal Assembly (GEMA) in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Methods. An exploratory approach was used to collect ...

  12. The impact of municipal budgets and land-use management on the hazardous waste production of Malaga municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Ismael P.; Gemar, German; Jimenez-Madrid, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Economic development and the search for competitiveness have become key issues in regions' economic success. However, despite the direct relationship between economic and environmental management, few land-use plans consider the latter aspect, and city managers delegate the responsibility for environmental impacts to state legislation and private initiatives. This myopic search for competitiveness has meant that a holistic view of environmental issues is often not integrated into municipal decision-making processes. Therefore, this study's objective was to determine the relevant direct and indirect relationships of land management and budgetary procedures of municipalities with overall production levels of hazardous waste. To this end, a primary tourist region, Málaga, was examined in terms of how this waste's environmental impacts can affect the region's vital tourism sector. This research used principal component analysis, regression by ordinary least squares, cluster analysis in two stages and a means test to compare the data for the Province of Malaga's subregions. The results confirm a positive relationship between municipal expenditure and waste production and highlight the environmental benefits of land use involving environmentally non-aggressive crops. The results also reveal a negative relationship between waste production and financial assets and a direct relationship between unproductive land and the production of hazardous waste. The findings also highlight the necessity of raising awareness about the need for collaboration between different agents, especially in the development of inter-municipal strategies.

  13. The Impact of the Information Logistics Flows on the Processes of Municipal Wastes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samohovych Oleksandr S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifying the impact of information incompleteness and asymmetry, irrational behavior of actors on the processes of municipal wastes management. It has been found that, at the present moment in Ukraine, quality of the transfer of information flows on the municipal wastes management between the State authority, local government bodies, enterprises, and the public stays at a low level. The urban sanitation schemes are being adopted and waste management technologies are being introduced at the local level, but the local government bodies have not been provided with sufficient information to make optimal decisions. Acting independently, the market mechanism would not be able to overcome the asymmetry of information in the short terms, and the State intervention would be needed to correct the information inadequacy of the municipal waste market. Prospect for future research will be determining conditions for an effective distribution of information flows in the process of municipal wastes management.

  14. Insegurança alimentar das famílias residentes em municípios do interior do estado da Paraíba, Brasil Household food insecurity in municipalities of the Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo Vianna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de segurança alimentar e dos diferentes graus de insegurança alimentar entre famílias residentes em 14 municípios da Paraíba e a relacionar com o perfil social, demográfico e econômico destas famílias. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se inquérito populacional no qual 4.533 famílias foram entrevistadas. Utilizou-se questionário para avaliar as características sócio-demográficas, juntamente com a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. Foram calculadas medidas de prevalência e verificada a associação entre as variáveis do estudo pelo teste qui-quadrado. Ajustou-se um modelo de regressão logística para examinar a associação dos fatores de risco à segurança e à insegurança alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de 11,3% de insegurança alimentar grave, 17,6% de insegurança moderada, 23,6% de insegurança leve; 47,5% da população foi classificada em situação de segurança alimentar. As áreas rurais apresentaram pior situação. O principal motivo referido para insegurança alimentar foi a falta de dinheiro para aquisição de comida. A regressão logística final foi composta por três variáveis: baixa renda familiar per capita (R$25,00 versus R$300,00, Odds Ratio=19,10, moradia precária (Odds Ratio=1,98 e falta de água permanente (Odds Ratio=1,38. As famílias do menor estrato de renda apresentaram menor prevalência de insegurança alimentar grave, quando incluídas em programas sociais. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de insegurança alimentar foi elevada. O instrumento utilizado demonstrou ser uma ferramenta importante de avaliação da situação de segurança alimentar e útil para o monitoramento de políticas públicas, como é o caso dos programas sociais que integram a estratégia Fome Zero do Governo Federal.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of household food security in 14 municipalities of Paraiba State and examine its association with

  15. Evolution of municipal law in 2014-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Blagov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342The subject. This article is devoted the municipal reform 2014-2016. The reform of state are institutes of territorial organization, organizational principles, competency bases of local self-government.The purpose of this paper is to show that the municipal reform 2014-2016 is directed on limiting local self-government and the subordination of local self-government to state authorities of the subjects of Russia.Methodology. The author uses a dialectical method, a method of analysis and synthesis, a formal legal method, a comparative legal method.Results, scope. Urban districts with intracity and intercity division areas – two new municipalities have been legally introduced. In science municipal law formed two points of view on the admissibility and feasibility of separating the urban district in the inner city areas. According to the first point of view, the separation of large urban districts in the inner city areas is acceptable and appropriate. According to the second point of view, the separation of large urban districts in the inner city areas is unacceptable and inappropriate. The author adheres to the second point of view, since the introduction of a two-tier model of local government organization would violate the principle of unity of municipal economy, will lead to the rupture of a single urban space on the organizational and financial sustainability areas dependent city district, will lead to a sharp increase in the number of deputies and municipal employees, unnecessary increase financial expenses.Municipal and regulatory policy in the sphere of organizational principles of local self-government is aimed at the maximum limit of direct elections of the population of the local self-government, which leads to their further alienation from the local authorities (the direct election of saved only 11 urban districts (13 %, which are the administrative centers of the subject of the Russian Federation. In addition, the actual

  16. The Role of Transnational Municipal Networks in Transboundary Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Jetoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary nature of stressors impacting shared water bodies has been traditionally recognized in agreements between nation states. Several developments have led to new layers of cross border environmental actors, including regional and city level interactions. This proliferation of non-state actors is witnessed in two large water bodies, the Baltic Sea and the North American Great Lakes. In both regions, transboundary water governance was led by nation states in agreements to improve heavily contaminated waters, the Helsinki Convention (1974 and the North American Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972, respectively. Whilst there has been much research on transnational regional networks, especially in Europe, there has been less theoretical work done on transnational municipal transboundary water networks due to the delay of recognition of the legitimacy of these local government actors. This paper aims to examine the role of the transnational municipal networks in transboundary water governance by looking at the case studies of the Union of Baltic cities in the Baltic Sea region and the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative in the North American Great Lakes Basin. It does this by assessing the role of these transnational municipal networks in bridging water governance gaps in these regions.

  17. GEOMORPHOLOGY OF JOÃO PESSOA MUNICIPALITY AND ITS ANTHROPOGENIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Max Furrier; Tamires Silva Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the geomorphology of the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil, analyzing the outlines of the current natural landforms as well as technogenic relief. From this analysis, morphostructural and morphosculptural units, patterns and landforms, shape types and current morphogenetic processes were identified and quantified in the municipality along with landforms produced exclusively by human processes. The current forms and technogenic relief ob...

  18. LEAP: local environmental action plan. Municipality of Dolneni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Municipality of Dolneni is situated in the northern part of the Pelagonia Valley, at about 600 meters above the sea level. It is surrounded on three sides (north, northeast, east and northwest) by the mountain massifs of Dautica, Babuna and Busova Planina. The assesment of the state of the environment in the Municipality of Dolneni presented in this document is based on several principles, including, before all, human health, as well as impacts from human activities on urban and natural environment, social and economic development, etc. The impacts from environmental pollution on human health in the Municipality of Dolneni are evident. Major problem is the lack of sewerage system to collect wastewater and absence of organized landfill(s) for solid waste disposal. In addition, the improper drinking water supply in most of the settlements contributes to the increased human health risk in the Municipality. The absence of urban planning has lead to developments and uncontrolled use of natural resources that cause degradation of the environment and consequently decrease in quality of living for the population. The above problems affect the quality of living conditions and human health both directly and indirectly. In recent years, incidence of epidemics of communicable hepatitis was recovered (Debreste, Desovo), and there is a concern for a high risk of appearance of intestinal and other infectious diseases. There are no indicators of the soil quality of surface running water resources with regard to pollution. In any case, on the basis of the manner of land use and specific human activities on the territory of the Municipality, as well as on the basis of the above mentioned solid waste and waste water related problems, it may be concluded that these resources are in a rather poor condition. Other aspects of determining the quality of the environment (atmosphere, noise, natural ecosystems and biodiversity in general) are not under serious human pressure at present

  19. Alternativa pedagógica para favorecer la rehabilitación física de niños (as de edad preescolar con\tdesviaciones físico – motoras del consejo popular Celso Maragoto Lara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Hernández Albisa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consiste en diseñar una alternativa pedagógica para favorecer  la rehabilitación física de niños (as con  desviaciones físico-motoras de edad preescolar  del Consejo Popular Celso Maragoto Lara encaminada a propiciar la actividad físico deportiva que cumple tres funciones esenciales en la vida del niño: una la función biológica determinada por el necesario desarrollo de las capacidades motrices tan vitales para el desarrollo del cuerpo humano; una función psicológica determinada por la garantía de la armonía, la estabilidad, la confianza y la seguridad en si mismo y  una función social encaminada a desarrollar estilos sanos de vida y una personalidad humana integral más su integración social en la vida adulta independiente. A partir de un estudio previo se caracterizó el proceso de rehabilitación física de niños (as con desviaciones físico-motoras de edad preescolar, se determinaron las deficiencias, las cuales sirvieron  de  indicadores  para  diseñar  una    alternativa  pedagógica  para  la rehabilitación física, a través del uso de programas de la revolución, proporcionar  actividades a la familia brindándole  el apoyo afectivo necesario , ofreciéndole información que le permita crear un ambiente familiar armónico y equilibrado al conocer el valor de la rehabilitación física de sus hijos. Esta alternativa pedagógica   además se convierte en un material de apoyo a la docencia,  por  cuanto  facilita  al  docente  variadas  formas  en  que  puede contribuir  en  sus  alumnos  a la  rehabilitación  física a  partir  del  carácter interdisciplinario  y  las  potencialidades  que  brinda  el  contenido  docente  el trabajo hacia ese fin.   La alternativa pedagógica fue aplicada en el Consejo Popular Celso Maragoto Lara de forma experimental, por lo que se tendrán en cuenta las valoraciones, considerando que la misma pueda ser enriquecida

  20. Elma Bahçelerinde Bazı Önemli Zararlılara Karşı Azadirachtin ve Kaolin Uygulamalarının Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım KÜÇÜKBALLI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Elma bahçelerinde ekonomik kayıplara neden olan birçok hastalık, zararlı ve yabancıot türü bulunmaktadır. Zararlılar içinde elma içkurdu, kırmızıörümcekler ve yaprakbitleri ana zararlılar arasında yer almaktadır. Elma üretiminin yoğun yapıldığı Isparta ilinde özellikle yağışlı geçen yıllarda yılda 20 kezden daha fazla ilaçlama yapıldığı bilinmektedir. Bu çalışmada söz konusu zararlılara karşı çevre ve yararlılara fazla etkisi olmadığı bilinen azadirachtin ve kaolinin etkisi 2015 yılında incelenmiştir. Denemeler Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi bünyesinde bulunan 5 ve 2 dekarlık iki elma bahçesinde yürütülmüştür. Her bahçe dört parsele ayrılmış ve her bir parsele kaolin, azadirachtin (neem, karşılaştırma ilacı olarak chlorpyrifos-ethyl ve Kontrol parseline de su püskürtme şeklinde uygulanmıştır. Denemeler tesadüf blokları deneme desenine göre kurulmuş olup, her tekerrürde 8 ağaç olacak şekilde 6 tekerrürlü olarak düzenlenmiştir. Her hafta, her bir ağaçtan 40 yaprak örneği alınarak Tetranychus urticae, Pananychus ulmi, Aphis pomi ve Dysaphis plantaginea sayımları yapılmıştır. Elma içkurdu zararı ise hasat zamanında ağaç üzerinde ve yere düşen meyvelerde bulaşma oranına göre belirlenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda yaprakbitine karşı en etkili Chlorpyrifos-ethyl bulunmuş, bunu kaolin ve neem izlemiştir. Preparatlar kırmızıörümceklere karşı benzer etki gösterirken elma içkurdu bulaşma oranları sırasıyla, kontrol parselinde %49.99, kaolin parselinde %42.27, neem parselinde %41.20 ve chlorpyrifos-ethyl parselinde %31.23 olmuştur.

  1. La actividad física mediante juegos tradicionales adaptados para mejorar la incorporación del adulto mayor a los círculos de abuelos del consejo popular Celso Maragoto Lara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Emilio Castro Lázaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se dan a conocer los resultados de la aplicación de juegos tradicionales adaptados para mejorar la incorporación del adulto mayor a los Círculos de Abuelos de la comunidad perteneciente al consultorio # 217 del consejo popular Celso Maragoto Lara del municipio Pinar del Río. Como paso previó se realizó un diagnóstico inicial pudiéndose constatar: . La poca incorporación del adulto mayor a la actividad física. . No se sienten motivados por las actividades físicas que se realizan en los Círculos de Abuelos y . A los adultos mayores incorporados a la realización de actividades físicas les gustaría mucho realizar juegos tradicionales como parte de sus clases en el Círculo de Abuelos. Sobre la base de las dificultades detectadas, se elaboró y aplicó durante seis meses un plan de juegos tradicionales para hacer más dinámica y entretenida la clase con estos adultas mayores que necesitan atención por parte del profesor de Cultura Física, así como del médico de la familia contribuyendo a elevar la autoestima y las relaciones sociales. La aplicación de estas actividades tuvo un resultado positivo, pues se incremento la participación de los adultos mayores al Círculo de Abuelos.

  2. Optimization of energy planning strategies in municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    approach, suffers from insufficient information, tools and resources. Municipalities are often unable to take on a steering role in community energy planning. To overcome these barriers and guide municipalities in the pre-project phase, a decision-support methodology, based on community energy profiles...

  3. 75 FR 54465 - Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... derivatives, guaranteed investment contracts, and the recommendation of and brokerage of municipal escrow... concerning guaranteed investment contracts, (4) recommendation and/or brokerage of municipal escrow...

  4. Índice de desenvolvimento da família: uma análise comparativa em 21 municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Family development index: a comparative analysis in 21 municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lopes Najar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma adaptação do índice de desenvolvimento da família, e detalha os resultados de sua aplicação em 21 municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil no ano 2000. O estudo insere-se na pesquisa de linha de base do Projeto de Expansão e Consolidação do Saúde da Família, e foi proposto como um instrumento para acompanhamento e análise da realidade municipal no contexto de discussão de uma política pública que tem a família como eixo central. Os resultados mostram uma situação muito grave ou grave das famílias no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As dimensões mais críticas são aquelas relativas às desigualdades de resultado, nos aspectos de disponibilidade de recursos e acesso ao mercado de trabalho; além de uma dimensão relativa à desigualdade de oportunidade, qual seja o acesso ao conhecimento. Os grupos mais vulneráveis são aqueles formados por famílias cujo chefe tem mais do que 65 anos de idade e por famílias cujos chefes são mulheres.This article presents an adaptation of the family development index, with a detailed description of the results of its application in 21 municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2000. The research is part of the Baseline Study on the Project for Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Strategy and was proposed as an instrument for monitoring and analyzing the municipal reality in the context of a family-centered public policy. The results show a serious-to-severe situation for families in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The most critical dimensions relate to inequalities in results, availability of resources, and labor market access, in addition to a key aspect involving inequality of opportunities, namely access to knowledge. The most vulnerable groups consist of families headed by individuals over 65 years of age and families headed by women.

  5. Municipal and Cantonal Elections in France in 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Communication from the Department of Human Resources and from the Relations with the Host States Service 1 - Members of the personnel wishing to stand as candidates in municipal and cantonal elections in France in 2008 are reminded of their obligation to comply with the provisions of Chapter I, section 3, Conduct, of the Organization’s Staff Rules and Regulations and with the pertinent implementation texts. 2 - Members of the personnel wishing to stand as candidates in municipal elections must first notify the Director-General in writing. 3 - Members of the personnel wishing to engage in political activities must refrain from any act or activity that is incompatible with their functions or which could be materially or morally prejudicial to the Organization. 4 - In particular, standing as a candidate for the post of, and serving a term of office as, a town councillor are considered to be compatible with the status of member of the personnel. However, the functions of mayo...

  6. European municipalities and the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Municipalities are directly affected by the liberalization of the energy markets. Because they all consume or even produce energy, whether it be for their own consumption or to resell it, they often distribute gas, electricity or heat, they plan urban areas and organize the energy networks on their territory, while in addition citizens expect municipalities to inform them and even protect them against the possible excesses of energy salesmen. Elected representatives administrations, local agencies, municipal companies, citizens' associations etc., all have to innovate. This supplement to Energie-Cites INFO is intended to provide you with practical information and further analyses of the liberalization process. (authors)

  7. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Nava, Alessandra; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.

  8. Tuberculosis control program in the municipal context: performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemi Arakawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Tuberculosis Control Program in municipalities of the State of São Paulo. METHODS This is a program evaluation research, with ecological design, which uses three non-hierarchical groups of the municipalities of the State of São Paulo according to their performance in relation to operational indicators. We have selected 195 municipalities with at least five new cases of tuberculosis notified in the Notification System of the State of São Paulo and with 20,000 inhabitants or more in 2010. The multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify the association between the groups of different performances, the epidemiological and demographic characteristics, and the characteristics of the health systems of the municipalities. RESULTS The group with the worst performance showed the highest rates of abandonment (average [avg] = 10.4, standard deviation [sd] = 9.4 and the lowest rates of supervision of Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 6.1, sd = 12.9, and it was associated with low incidence of tuberculosis, high tuberculosis and HIV, small population, high coverage of the Family Health Strategy/Program of Community Health Agents, and being located on the countryside. The group with the best performance presented the highest cure rate (avg = 83.7, sd = 10.5 and the highest rate of cases in Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 83.0, sd = 12.7; the group of regular performance showed regular results for outcome (avg cure = 79.8, sd = 13.2; abandonment avg = 9.5, sd = 8.3 and supervision of the Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 42.8, sd = 18.8. Large population, low coverage of the Family Health Strategy/Program of Community Health Agents, high incidence of tuberculosis and AIDS, and being located on the coast and in metropolitan areas were associated with these groups. CONCLUSIONS The findings highlight the importance of the Directly Observed Treatment in relation

  9. O programa de controle da esquistossomose em dois municípios da zona da mata de Pernambuco: uma análise de implantação Implementation analysis of the schistosomiasis control program in two municipalities in the zona da mata region of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisiana Regadas de Macedo Quinino

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer os fatores intervenientes na variação do grau de implantação (GI do Programa de Controle da Esquistossomose (PCE em dois municípios de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: análise de implantação, que avaliou a influência do contexto no GI do PCE. Utilizaram-se questionários estruturados que foram aplicados aos coordenadores do PCE, aos secretários de saúde, coordenadores e agentes de saúde ambiental. Também foram pesquisados registros oficiais e realizou-se observação direta. Empregou-se um sistema de escores que classificou o GI do PCE em implantado (90 a 100 pontos, parcialmente implantado (60 a 89 pontos e não implantado (OBJECTIVES: to understand the factors that give rise to variations in the degree of implementation (DI of the Schistosomiasis Control Program (SCP in two municipalities in the Brazilian State of Pernambuco. METHODS: an implementation analysis was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the context the DI of the SCP. Structured questionnaires were used to interview SCP coordinators, health secretaries, and environmental health coordinators and agents. Research was also carried out using official records and direct observation. A points system was used to classify the DI of the SCP as implemented (90 to 100 points, partially implemented (60 to 89 points and not implemented (< 59. RESULTS: the DI of the SCP in the first municipality was "not implemented" (52.85 points and in the second municipality 'partially implemented' (63.65 points. The main impediments to the implementation of schistosomiasis control measures were lack of knowledge of how the SCP works, insufficient planning of control measures, low priority given to the program, insufficient infrastructure, and failure to include control measures in tools used to manage and centralize action. CONCLUSIONS: there is a need to rethink the way schistosomiasis is controlled and to contemplate integrated and equitable decentralization of action, with a

  10. Models of municipal solid waste generation and collection costs applicable to all municipalities in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chira Bureecam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and measure the variables which influence municipal solid waste (MSW generation and collection costs in Thai municipality. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a survey conducted in a sample size of 570 municipalities across the country. The results from the MSW generation model indicate that the population density, the household size and the size of municipality are the significant determinant of waste generation. Meanwhile, with regards to the MSW collection cost model, the results showed some existence of positive in the volume of MSW collected, population density, the distance between the center of municipality to the disposal site the hazardous sorting and the size of municipality whereas, there were no evidence of the frequency of collection and the ratio of recycled material to waste generation on cost.

  11. Transparency of the municipal public management: a study from the homepages of the large Brazilian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cláudia Ferreira; Ferreira, Aracéli Cristina de Sousa; Silva, Lino Martins da; Macedo, Marcelo Álvaro da Silva

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to check the transparency level of information in public administration published in the homepages of 96 municipalities included among the 100 most populous in Brazil and what characteristics and socioeconomic indicators of the municipalities can contribute to explain the level of transparency observed. The level of transparency in public administration was established from a research model called Transparency Index Municipal Public Management (ITGP-M) constructed based on...

  12. Trans-Americas leads the way into municipal textile recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgley, H.

    1998-08-01

    Most textile waste in the US still goes to the landfill--an estimated 6.6 million tons each year. But thanks to the efforts of textile recycles--such as Trans-Americas Textile Recycling CO. (Brooklyn, NY)--another 1.25 million tons gets salvaged for reuse overseas or as a feedstock for the wiping and fiber industries, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. In an era where global population levels are increasing the demand for textile waste from the Western world and municipalities are struggling to reach their waste diversion goals, boosting textile recovery rates makes sense. And it`s a waste that can be easily incorporated into existing municipal curbside or drop-off recycling programs. Since 1942, when the company first opened its doors in Brooklyn, NY, it purchased textile discards from charities. While those discards still make up the majority of Trans-Americas` supply, in the last two years, the company also began purchasing post-consumer material from municipalities. Textiles are definitely going to be an increasingly important part of recycling, as states look to meet their mandates.

  13. A lean six sigma approach to improve municipal service processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelbert Zefaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the current state of process management for municipal subsidies and is proposing to improve the process by reducing motion, deadlines and excessive actions and to eliminate duplication of processes and overproduction. Time spent and process effi ciency is the subject tackled in this research. Several areas of action that affect the overall process as departments, regulations, time, experts, movements, materials and procedures have been explored. Lean six sigma/DMAIC model is used as an adequate mechanism for the implementation of this project which aims to improve the quality of service. The result of the research is not limited to only one specific process, the applied model in this study can be used to improve many processes in municipalities. Currently, in order to receive a fi nal response from municipal authorities for subsidies allocation, 41hr of process time, 160 hr of calendar time and 232 hr of wait time are needed. The process effi ciency is only 10%.

  14. The role of the municipality in water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Carneiro de Noronha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes decentralization of the water resources management within the watershed, where the municipality problems are delimited. The analysis of the water management development in Brazil indicates that the legal framework is embedded in a process of decentralization. The Constitution of 1988 establishes that the superficial waters are goods of the Union and the States. Later, the National Water Resources Policy establishes the watershed as the territorial unit of management. However, the supervision and management of basins remain centralized and without providing an interconnection between water use and other environmental goods. Among the attributions of the municipality are the environmental enforcement, agricultural policy, definition of conservation units and management of the urban territory. The incorporation of these policies in an environmental zoning based in the water management allows better utilization of water availability and local participation in administrative decisions watershed through the municipality.

  15. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a municipal or private water supply system. (b) Possible loss of values: Discharges can affect the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal...

  16. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: solid waste, household, waste bin, willingness to pay, municipal. 1. INTRODUCTION .... significant differences between WTP and household ... Gender. Income of Household. Education Status. House Type. Household Size. Male.

  17. Municipal Forest Management in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Book cover Municipal Forest Management in Latin America ... forest management schemes we could use as models to develop policies? ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  18. SAFE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTES IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    affairs in the management of municipal solid waste in most parts of Nigeria. ... 1 John G. Rau and David Wooten (eds), Environmental Impact Analysis Handbook (Mc- ..... Up to date efficient “cleaner production technologies” are expected to be.

  19. Do Municipal Mergers Improve Fiscal Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling; Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Improved fiscal management is a frequent justification for promoting boundary consolidations. However, whether or not this is actually the case is rarely placed under rigorous empirical scrutiny. Hence, this article investigates if fiscal outcomes are improved when municipalities are merged....... The basic argument is that the conceptualisation of fiscal management in political science is often too narrow as it focuses on the budget and pays hardly any attention to balances in the final accounts and debts – elements of management which are central to policy making. On this background, the causal...... relationship between municipal mergers and fiscal outcomes is analysed. Measured on the balance between revenues and expenses, liquid assets and debts, municipal mergers improve the fiscal outcomes of the municipalities in a five-year perspective, although the pre-reform effects tend to be negative...

  20. A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities in South Africa. ... Hence, the Water Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project ... and available tools to achieve sustainable groundwater management reflect ...

  1. CURRENT STATUS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES FOR ACADEMIC-COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF VENEZUELA IN COJEDES STATE, IN THE CONTEXT OF MUNICIPALIZATION / ESTADO ACTUAL DE LA DIRECCIÓN POR PROCESOS DEL PROYECTO ACADÉMICO-COMUNITARIO DE LA UNIVERSIDAD BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA EN EL ESTADO COJEDES, EN EL CONTEXTO DE LA MUNICIPALIZACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Aular Quiroz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic-community project of the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV, represents an integrated core, where converge the theory and practice, to join the process of training, research and community interaction. However, in the context of the contradictions that exist in scenarios related to municipalization in Cojedes state university villages, these assumptions differ from the local reality. Well, the key objectives of the UBV, related handling tools for critical reflection and methodology of the project, not taken into account, the absence of a body directed to respond to the needs of research, related to the changes lives our society. The original model of PFG Social Management, was based on the idea of micro-research units (project groups, distributed with the figure of a teacher-advisor in charge of the research team, students and community members, without however, this view reflects a classic model of distribution functions, a task-focused task, which carries a closed flow of information within each project group. In this sense, this paper aims to establish the theoretical-methodological state of the project process management academic community in the UBV Cojedes state, in order to contribute to strengthening the mechanisms of management and organization, structuring appropriate changes from evaluation procedures and take appropriate decisions based on the success of the organization.

  2. Effects of vinasse accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs of water used for washing cane sugar in water resources in Dobrada municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Efeitos da estocagem de vinhaca e das aguas de lavagem da cana-de-acucar na qualidade dos recursos hidricos da regiao de Dobrada, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabadia, Jose Antonio Beltrao; Reboucas, Aldo da Cunha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    1996-12-31

    This work shows the results of a monitoring carried out in an area of about 21 km{sup 2}, Dobrada Municipality, central west region of the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil), where the impacts in ground water and surface water were evaluated by the infiltration and percolation of vinasse and water used for washing cane sugar, through accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs, respectively, in areas of Bauru Aquifer (Cretaceous). The Bauru Aquifer, free and porous, occurs in a extended area of 104.000 km{sup 2} in Sao Paulo State, as a major exploitable aquifer (more than 15.000 wells), used for domestic and industrial water supplies. For the groundwater, the following measures were found in analyses exceeding drinking water standards (WHO; CONAMA/Brazil and Sao Paulo State): manganese (0,03 to 3,5 mg/l), iron (0.45 to 34 mg/l), aluminum (1 to 52 mg/l) and phosphate (0,03 to 0.38 mg/l). For superficial water, the following measures exceeded drinking water standards: total iron (3 mg/l) and phosphate (0,035 mg/l). The main purpose of this research is to improve the field methodology to characterize the impacts of vinasse and washing water of cane sugar infiltration/percolation., detaching the relationship between ground and surface water, with the major aim to supply the legislation to protect drinking water resources. (author) 11 refs.

  3. Confiabilidade dos dados relativos ao cumprimento da Emenda Constitucional nº. 29 declarados ao Sistema de Informações sobre Orçamentos Públicos em Saúde pelos municípios de Pernambuco, Brasil Reliability of data on compliance with Constitutional Amendment 29 reported to the Public Healthcare Budget Information System by municipalities in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Fabiano Gonçalves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa a confiabilidade dos dados relativos ao cumprimento da Emenda Constitucional nº. 29 (EC29 declarados ao Sistema de Informações sobre Orçamentos Públicos em Saúde (SIOPS pelos municípios de Pernambuco, Brasil. Configura-se como um estudo quantitativo, do tipo transversal e de caráter analítico, tendo como referência o período de 2000 a 2005. Os demonstrativos contábeis auditados pelo Tribunal de Contas do Estado (TCE foram tomados como parâmetro para verificar a confiabilidade dos percentuais de aplicação da EC29 declarados ao SIOPS, sendo utilizado o coeficiente de correlação intraclasses (CCI como prova estatística na medição da concordância dos dados. Os resultados demonstram a dissonância existente entre as bases consultadas, sugerindo um nível de concordância discreto a moderado entre os dados do SIOPS e do TCE. A baixa concordância identificada pode ser decorrente da falta de consenso pelos municípios acerca da composição das receitas e despesas vinculadas à saúde ou da existência de critérios diferentes no cálculo da EC29 entre o SIOPS e a auditoria do TCE.The present study analyzes the reliability of data on compliance with Constitutional Amendment 29 (CA29 reported to the Public Healthcare Budget Information System (known as SIOPS by municipalities in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A quantitative, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted using the years 2000 to 2005 as the reference. Invoices audited by the State Accounts Court were used as the parameter for determining reliability of the percentage of compliance with CA29 as reported to SIOPS, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC to measure data agreement. The results show a mismatch between the databases, suggesting slight to moderate agreement between the SIOPS data and those from the State Accounts Court. The low degree of agreement may result from lack of consensus among municipalities regarding definition of

  4. When municipalities lead co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    from research in governance and leadership, the paper analyses a critical case of co-production in the Danish Municipality of Holbæk. The main focus is on exploring how leadership interventions are enacted by civil servants and politicians, and how these shape the co-production process. The analysis...... points to the significant role played by municipalities as hands-off leaders of co-production processes, and identifies leadership dynamics which merit further exploration....

  5. Development of Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Teibe, Inara

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on an empirical work done by author on a series of case studies such us document studies and analyzing the best practices examples. The objective of this research is to find out barriers to reach regional waste management plan demands in three municipalities: Salacgriva, Saulkrasti and Ikskile. Author gives proposal with some recommendations for development of municipal waste management as well. There are several views and attitudes of local stakeholders such us municipali...

  6. Lessons Learned: Community Solar for Municipal Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This report outlines the work that STAT has completed, discusses the range of approaches utilities are taking, and highlights several challenges municipal utilities face in deciding whether and how to pursue community solar. As this report shows, there is no 'silver bullet' in terms of municipal utility community solar design or implementation - programs vary significantly and are highly dependent on localized contexts.

  7. Observance on zoning ordinance and priority projects of Municipality of Lingayen, Pangasinan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova E. Arquillano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Municipality of Lingayen being the capital town of the Province of Pangasinan is an attractive site not only because of its rich history but the present tourism and trading condition that makes it more welcoming. As the municipality becomes a better place to live and to invest, increase of population is an inevitable phenomenon that needs legislative and administrative measures in order to have less negative consequences in the future. The Municipal Zoning Ordinance and the Comprehensive Land Use Plan are the two important documents in this research. These are guides in the construction of survey instrument. This research looked into the provisions that make concerned local offices responsible in implementing and monitoring the priority projects. It was conducted in the Municipality of Lingayen from January to April 2014. It found out that all the provisions stated in the Municipal Zoning Ordinance were observed and the priority projects of the municipality are in on-going status. It is recommended that there should be monitoring and assessment activities to be done in order to remind those in-charge of the projects to finish them according to plan. Also, partnership with private enterprises and other local government units should be strengthened in order to implement the priority projects.

  8. Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Plummer, Joseph; Fischlein, Miriam; Smith, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important-rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in every state except Hawaii. We provide a background on rural co-operatives and municipal utilities in the context of the US electric sector and highlight the challenges and opportunities of implementing DSM programs in these institutions. Where past studies of utility DSM have mostly focused on IOUs or consisted of qualitative case studies of municipal utilities with exemplary DSM performance, this study makes a unique contribution to the DSM literature by systematically analyzing an entire co-operative and municipal utility population in Minnesota through the use of a survey. In doing so, we provide policy recommendations relevant to energy planners and policy makers to support DSM in rural electric co-operatives and municipal utilities

  9. The experience of Electricity Municipal Department of Pocos de Caldas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in conception and construction of Antas 2 hydroelectric power plant: a hand-made power plant; A experiencia do Departamento Municipal de Eletricidade de Pocos de Caldas na concepcao e construcao da Usina Hidreletrica Antas 2: uma usina concebida e realizada na ponta do lapis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Cicero Machado de [Departamento Municipal de Eletricidade de Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Nasseh, Oscar [Mecanica Pesada S.A., Taubate, SP (Brazil); Hellmuth, Harald [Siemens S.A. (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The Antas 2 hydroelectric power plant, located in Pocos de Caldas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is under construction and have deadline to start operation in the beginning of 1994. Considered a high-head plant, with 165,05 m of fall, Antas 2 have three generation units of 5,7 MW and will supply a residential and industry demand of electric energy. This paper presents that the construction of an energy profit with this capacity can be performed under the mostly updated technologies with low costs, resulting in a high productivity, with reliance and asserted rentability profit 1 tab.

  10. RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN PRACTICE OF VALUATING MUNICIPAL REAL ESTATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Likhomanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the real estate tax system of England, France, Germany, the USA, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Chile, Singapore, the Philippines, and Japan. The following activities are proposed with the aim of creating an effective system of municipal real estate management and improving the quality of local government: to organize the smooth functioning of full and timely accounting of the municipal real estate, the introduction of an automated registry system, including legal, technical, and economic components of records; to develop scientifically based optimal management solutions on the disposal of municipal property, in compliance with the balance of fiscal, investment and socially-oriented objectives in the course of operational management, transfer in use or trust, disposition, use as the authorized capital; to develop the optimal solutions for selecting strategies for achieving maximum economic efficiency and increasing investment attractiveness of municipal property; to exercise effective control over regulatory use of municipal property (especially land resources for its intended purpose; to organize work on reliable cadastral valuation of the property; to provide the state budget institutions for cadastral valuation established in the regions with qualified personnel from among the practicing independent appraisers; to engage independent appraisers for analysis and monitoring of real estate market with the aim of identifying pricing factors and ensuring reliable results, compliant with relevant market data; to completely eliminate the possibility of pressure by officials of local self-government bodies at the state budget institutions for the cadastral valuation to establish the desired orientations of the cadastral value. The authors propose to initiate the introduction of uniform date of establishment of the cadastral value on the territory of the Russian Federation with the aim of providing a

  11. Distorted governance: A case of the municipal unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Local government community participation units or departments ineffectively and inefficiently operate based on the directive from their political organisations instead of achieving the objectives of the municipality as per the Integrated Development Plan (IDP. This has resulted in the marginalisation of the local communities on their participation in municipal governance which also has been exacerbated by the employment of employees based on political competencies rather than the unit’s core business requirements. On the backdrop of the above, this study aims to reveal municipal operational hindrances that prevent local communities to participate effectively in the eThekwini Municipality governance as permitted by South African local government legislation. This stated background has necessitated the study to adopt a qualitative approach whereby non-standardized interviews were conducted by the researcher to the sample size of 23. The findings of the study were analysed using NVivo software (version 10. The study revealed an extreme percentage (39% of activities performed by Community Participation and Action Support Unit (CP&AS which were based on coordinating unclear activities. Whereas, 22% were on capacity development of local communities, 12% on communication with internal and external stakeholders, 8% on monitoring and evaluation, 5% on policies, and 3% on partnership with other departments and spheres of government and elected officials and research respectively. The unbalanced and unclear activities performed by the respondents will assist the municipal decision-makers to understand the core causes of poor service delivery as it lies on the failure of the municipal officials to concentrate on their core business. This study contributes to the decision-makers’ understanding of the implications of using the municipal resources to advance political activities, consequently disadvantaging the alleged indigent local communities. The

  12. Avaliação da implementação da assistência ao planejamento reprodutivo em três municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro entre 2005 e 2007 An evaluation of the implementation of family planning assistance in three municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2005 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bonan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a implementação das ações de assistência ao planejamento reprodutivo (PR em três municípios fluminenses e os aspectos contextuais. MÉTODOS: pesquisa avaliativa realizada entre 2005-2007. Foram realizadas entrevistas com gestores e profissionais de saúde, observação de serviços e análise de documentos. Para análise do grau de implementação do programa foi desenvolvida matriz de avaliação com três componentes - assistência, educação e gerenciamento - e estabelecidos padrões e critérios. Fontes orais e documentais possibilitaram análise do contexto de implementação. RESULTADOS: a implementação do PR no município metropolitano está avançada e nos municípios do interior é incipiente. Atividades educativas apresentaram maior conformidade com critérios do que atividades clínico-assistenciais. Irregularidade de métodos contraceptivos, problemas na oferta de contracepção cirúrgica, ausência de atenção à infertilidade e à saúde reprodutiva masculina foram aspectos frágeis. Existem equipes multiprofissionais, mas há necessidade de capacitação. No município metropolitano, o gerenciamento do programa é ponto forte, mas nos demais é débil. CONCLUSÕES: o grau de implementação da assistência ao PR se relacionou com desigualdades geopolíticas entre os municípios e aspectos do contexto institucional do SUS - pouca integração da rede assistencial e regionalização limitada. O estudo pode contribuir para institucionalização da prática de monitoramento e avaliação das ações de assistência ao planejamento reprodutivo.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the implementation of family planning (FP assistance in three municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, along with contextual factors. METHODS: the evaluation was carried out between 2005 and 2007. Interviews were conducted with health workers and managers, the provision of services was observed, and documents consulted. The

  13. MODERN MUNICIPAL POLICIES FOR YOUTH IN RUSSIA: RESULTS OF OUR RESEARCH; THE WAY FORWARD; THE MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Knyazkova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present the data provided from the research that was devoted to the study about the main conclusions and subsidiary findings of the Municipal Youth Policy, and the development of proposals for action based on its principles.The positive results from the research were as follows:1       There is a theoretical discussion in terms of how to realize the aims of the Municipal Youth Policy.2       It is demonstrated that the State Youth Policy can be made more effective by working with young people in a more target-oriented way, being considerate towards the needs and interests of young people in their local societies.3       The Municipal Youth Policy is studied as a part of the State Youth Policy for the Russian Federation. The MYP has its priorities connected with the place of residence and customs of the local area.4       It is noted that the MYP has not yet been fully implemented, despite the constitutional, legislative and basic legal backing of the local administrations;5       A case is made to increase the political cultural awareness amongst young people who participate in the development of political resources based on the Municipal Youth Policy;6       On the basis of the recognized discrepancies and tendencies of the Municipal Youth Policy, the proposals have been elaborated in regards to the formation of the effective model of the Municipal Youth PolicyThe methodology of the studies conducted uses a wide range of scientific methods. At different stages of the study, a wide range of fact-collecting methods was used, and the processing, analyzing and interpreting of it was flexible.The results of the study may be expressed as follows:1       On the one hand, the Municipal Youth Policy is determined by the State Youth Policy, and its priorities in relation to the young generation; and on the other hand, it is a fundamentally new concept for the Russian Federation.2

  14. Current Status of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Budhiarta, Iwan; Siwar, Chamhuri; Basri, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations in 2010 resulted information that population of Kuala Lumpur City Area has reached 1.66 million people (JPM, 2009). With the population growth rate of 6.1 percent, then the population in the year 2010 can be estimated at least to 1.69 million people. The number of municipal solid waste generated from Kuala Lumpur State Territory and delivered to TBTS was recorded of 2,000 tonnes per day. Accordingly, the solid waste generation average for any person is 1.2 kilograms a da...

  15. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  16. Municipal consultation key to understanding haul road maintenance agreements for Saskatchewan rural municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, R.E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Current municipal perspectives regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were described. Municipal jurisdiction and authority regarding road development and heavy haul road maintenance agreements were defined. Based on actual work experience, collaborative working relationships between the oil and gas industry and the municipal sector is well worth some industry time and effort since it will result in cost savings for the industry. In general, rural municipalities receive very limited tax benefits to recapture the costs of road reconstruction and maintenance caused by heavy industry traffic. Road servicing costs can be recaptured only if companies respect the weight limits, hauling regulations and road bans. On the whole, municipalities in Saskatchewan are favourably disposed towards the oil and gas industry, and have done well in the past to accommodate industry's needs. It is not unreasonable therefore to expect that industry show sensitivity to the impact of its activities on the local municipality, and does its level best to be on good terms with the municipalities through early two-way communication. Text of some relevant acts of the Legislature respecting the powers and authorities of rural municipalities are appended

  17. Gravidez na adolescência e características socioeconômicas dos municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: análise espacial Teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Zangiacomi Martinez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A gravidez na adolescência é um problema de saúde pública comum em todo o mundo. O objetivo deste estudo ecológico é estudar o padrão espacial da associação entre os percentuais de gravidez na adolescência e características socioeconômicas dos municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Para isso, foi utilizado um modelo bayesiano com uma distribuição espacial que segue uma estrutura condicional autorregressiva (CAR, baseado em algoritmos Monte Carlo em cadeias de Markov (MCMC. Foram usados dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. Verificou-se que a ocorrência de gravidezes precoces apresentou-se maior nos municípios de menor produto interno bruto (PIB per capita, com maior incidência de pobreza, de menor tamanho populacional, menor índice de desenvolvimento humano (IDH e maior percentual de indivíduos com índice paulista de vulnerabilidade social (IPVS igual a 5 ou 6, ou seja, mais vulneráveis. O estudo demonstra uma estreita associação entre gravidez na adolescência e indicadores econômicos e sociais.Teenage pregnancy is a common public health problem worldwide. The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the spatial association between teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil. We used a Bayesian model with a spatial distribution following a conditional autoregressive (CAR form based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We used data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. Early pregnancy was more frequent in municipalities with lower per capital gross domestic product (GDP, higher poverty rate, smaller population, lower human development index (HDI, and a higher percentage of individuals with State social vulnerability index of 5 or 6 (more vulnerable. The study demonstrates a

  18. Localizing Climate Information for Municipal Planning in the Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulski, M.; Umphlett, N.; Abdel-Monem, T.; Tang, Z.; Uhlarik, F.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of projected climate change are an ongoing concern for municipalities. Planning at the local level often involves investigations of multiple hazards on decadal timescales. Of particular interest to cities are implications of too much or too little water, snow storms, heat waves, and freeze/thaw cycles on infrastructure, health, energy demands and water quality and availability. A two-year project led by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln has brought together scientist and stakeholder for the purpose of informing municipal planning and climate adaptation for 12 cities in the lower Missouri River Basin states (IA, NE, KS, MO). City-specific climate reports have been developed with municipal input to aid local planning efforts. Surveys to assess municipal climate data usage were distributed to all cities with a population greater than 5,000 in the four-state region. In addition, planning efforts for 18 municipalities have been evaluated for nearly 20 cities in the region to investigate local hazard mitigation, emergency, and comprehensive plans. This presentation will outline key outcomes of the project and discuss decision support tools developed in co-production with city planners.

  19. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  20. Espécies de flebotomíneos (Diptera, Psychodidae coletadas em ambiente urbano em municípios com transmissão de Leishmaniose Visceral do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Species of phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae collected in urban municipalities with transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os flebotomíneos são os vetores naturais de alguns agentes etiológicos de doenças humanas e de animais, tais como protozoários do gênero Leishmania Ross, 1903. A fauna flebotomínica no Mato Grosso do Sul é relativamente bem conhecida e até o momento compõe-se de 54 espécies. O presente estudo baseia-se no levantamento de flebotomíneos em área urbana de 18 municípios com transmissão de leishmaniose visceral no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, com objetivo de verificar as principais espécies e fornecer subsídios para o programa de controle das leishmanioses. As coletas foram realizadas com armadilhas automáticas luminosas, instaladas mensalmente durante três noites consecutivas, das 18:00 horas às 6:00, no período de dois anos. Foram coletadas 36 espécies dentre os 34.799 exemplares identificados. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes, 1939 foram as espécies mais dispersas, a primeira foi encontrada em 16 e a segunda em 15 dos 18 municípios investigados, contudo, Lu. longipalpis foi predominante em todos esses municípios Ny. whitmani não predominou em nenhum deles. Corumbá contribuiu com 40.92% de todos flebotomíneos capturados e nesse município Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938 respondeu por 92.50% dos exemplares coletados. Ressalta-se que as espécies do gênero Lutzomyia e Nyssomyia whitmani podem estar envolvidas com a transmissão de leishmanioses no Mato Grosso do Sul.The phlebotomine sand flies are the natural vectors of some etiological agents of human and animal diseases, such as the protozoa of the genus Leishmania Ross, 1903. The phlebotomine fauna in Mato Grosso do Sul is relatively well known and so far consists of 54 species. The present study is based on the survey of the phlebotomine fauna of the urban area of the 18 municipal districts with transmission of visceral leishmaniasis, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, for the purpose of verifying the main species and

  1. Cities, Towns and Villages - Municipalities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — These data were created for planimetric display and tax area analysis.Procedures_Used:The principal method of data entry used coordinate geometry software.Digitizing...

  2. Municipal energy managers; Responsables energie municipaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    On 1 and 2 July, municipal energy managers from all over Europe met in Stuttgart, Germany. On these two days, more the 150 participants form 22 countries listened to presentations, took part in excursions to cutting-edge energy conservation projects in Stuttgart and, above all, participated in a broad array of workshops presented by experts firmly grounded in local practice. 27 experts drawn from 11 European countries showcased their projects and imparted their experience. The event has been accompanied by an exhibition of companies and service providers offering energy-conservation products and planning services. The first workshop dealt with energy management in Europe and examples from different active municipalities; the second one with energy management in Germany and best practice in the leading cities; the third one with non-municipal and European projects. (A.L.B.)

  3. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  4. Municipal service provision in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... hierarchies and considering local resources and place bound potentials.  This paper draws on a study of rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are managed by rural municipalities and local communities. The paper further discusses whether rural...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....

  5. School in the border municipalities of Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Vesna S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Border municipalities in eastern Serbia have peripheral position in relation to the central state territory: geographical distance from the administrative, political, economic and cultural center shaping their overall social development, which is generally far behind the devel­opment of other parts of Serbia. At various stages of transition, starting from the nineties to the present, the border municipalities were, it seems, more exposed to the negative effects of the neoliberal development strategy: there was a change of ownership of industry, as well as a deindustrialization, which led to significant reduction of the workforce. The devastation of the economies in these areas has intensified negative demographic processes in the border municipalities of Eastern Serbia with the onset of the economic crisis in the eighties and the subsequent processes there caused: (a depopulation (population between census periods from 1991 to 2011 fell by more than 20% of the territory of Bor district, (b reduction in the birth rate, which for decades was showing negative trends (eg. natural growth rate in the Negotin krajina, according to the Census of 2011, amounts to -6.7 % annually (v migration of the young, working population (Census 2011 shows that nearly one-quarter of the economically active population of the Bor district 'work abroad', ie. employment is found in western European countries, they educate their own children there and, apparently, do not intend to return to the place of birth. The devastation of the economy leads to a legitimate social devastation and collapse of culture (Mitrović, 2009 and education. The main parameter to be monitored in the new neoliberal strategies of development is economic growth, which points to the direction of changes in macroeconomic processes, but not to the improvement of the quality of life of people who participate in these processes. The achieved rate of economic growth does not automatically provide

  6. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  7. Municipalities as facilitators, regulators and energy consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    Biogas provides many potential benefits as far as renewable energy production, environmental protection and job creation etc. Insufficient initiatives from government/municipalities however hamper more biogas plants to be established, and hence that the large manure potential, and other types...... of digestible organic waste materials, are being utilized for energy purposes. By looking at municipalities as energy consumer’s, that constitutes a local market for biogas, as regulator’s, enforcing new requirements and regulations on the biogas sector, and finally as facilitator’s, assisting and helping...

  8. Municipal Officials’ Perceived Barriers to Consideration of Physical Activity in Community Design Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, Karin Valentine; Schneider, Kristin L.; Brownson, Ross; Carnoske, Cheryl; Evenson, Kelly; Eyler, Amy; Heinrich, Katie; Litt, Jill; Lyn, Rodney; Maddock, Jay; Reed, Hannah; Tompkins, Nancy O’Hara; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Built environment-focused interventions and policies are recommended as sustainable approaches for promoting physical activity. Physical activity has not traditionally been considered in land use and transportation decision making. Effective collaboration with non-public health partners requires knowledge of their perceived barriers to consideration of physical activity in decision making. Objective This study aimed to 1) identify barriers to the consideration of physical activity in community design and planning decisions among municipal decision makers and 2) explore differences in these barriers among a wide range of job functions and departments in a geographically diverse sample. Design A web-based survey was conducted among municipal officials in 94 cities and towns with populations of at least 50,000 residents in eight states. Participants 453 municipal officials from public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, city management, and municipal legislatures responded to the survey. Main Outcome Measures Five barriers to consideration of physical activity in community design and layout were assessed. Results The most common barriers included lack of political will (23.5%), limited staff (20.4%) and lack of collaboration across municipal departments (16.2%). Fewer participants reported opposition from the business community or residents as barriers. Compared to other professionals, public health department personnel were more likely to report the barriers of limited staff and lack of collaboration across municipal departments. They were also more likely to report lack of political will compared to city managers or mayors and municipal legislators. Conclusions Barriers to increasing consideration of physical activity in decision making about community design and layout are encouragingly low. Implications for public health practice include the need to strategically increase political will

  9. Municipal officials' perceived barriers to consideration of physical activity in community design decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, Karin Valentine; Schneider, Kristin L; Brownson, Ross; Carnoske, Cheryl; Evenson, Kelly R; Eyler, Amy; Heinrich, Katie; Litt, Jill; Lyn, Rodney; Maddock, Jay; Reed, Hannah; Tompkins, Nancy Oʼhara; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2013-01-01

    Built environment-focused interventions and policies are recommended as sustainable approaches for promoting physical activity. Physical activity has not traditionally been considered in land use and transportation decision making. Effective collaboration with non-public health partners requires knowledge of their perceived barriers to such consideration. This analysis sought to (a) establish prevalence estimates of selected barriers to the consideration of physical activity in community design and layout decisions and (b) describe how barrier reporting by public health officials differs from other municipal officials among a wide range of job functions and departments in a geographically diverse sample. A Web-based survey was conducted among municipal officials in 94 cities and towns with populations of at least 50 000 residents in 8 states. A total of 453 municipal officials from public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, city management, and municipal legislatures in 83 cities and towns responded to the survey. Five barriers to consideration of physical activity in community design and layout were assessed. The most common barriers included lack of political will (23.5%), limited staff (20.4%), and lack of collaboration across municipal departments (16.2%). Fewer participants reported opposition from the business community or residents as barriers. Public health department personnel were more likely to report the barriers of limited staff and lack of collaboration across municipal departments than other professionals. They were also more likely to report lack of political will than city managers or mayors and municipal legislators. Barriers to increasing consideration of physical activity in decision making about community design and layout are encouragingly low. Implications for public health practice include the need to strategically increase political will despite public health staffing

  10. Municipal boards and educational management: the continuing education distance and its movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalla Corte, Marilene Gabriel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Through scientific research in development, this article is based on distance extension actions of continuing education of a specific public program, the National Program of Training Municipal Counselors of Education (Pro-Council. This program targets a policy of democratization of education management and qualification on work of municipal counselors of education as well as education technicians in relation to educational practices, legislation, financing mechanisms, transfer and control of the use of funds of education in order to enable a good performance of the Municipal Boards of Education (MCE in their socio-educational institutions. In this context, the objective is recognizing and analyzing the continuing education impacts developed under Pro-Council/Federal University of Santa Maria about aspects as competence and commitment of ex-attendants at the Municipal Councils of Education as a democratic collective bodies. The study is developed under a quantitative and qualitative approach, using the production of semi-open questionnaires data applied to counselors and technicians. From this, we stress the growing interest of the Boards of Education and the Departments of Education to capacitate their counselors and technicians; the establishment and implementation of new Municipal Boards of Education in Rio Grande do Sul State/Brazil; the relationship between the professional exercise and political and theoretical reflection; and so on. Whereas the Municipal Boards of Education are required to consolidate the democratic management, it is very important the training of individuals involved and especially establishing dialogic processes with social demands of each municipality, mainly, the educational ones, in the sense of [re] building the public policies for basic education in a responsible and participatory way.

  11. Educational service specialist: reality reflection of a municipality paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Grasiela Gomes Liduenha Gonçalves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to analyze the Specialized Educational Care (AEE, in Portuguese in Brazil, southeast region, state of São Paulo, specifically in a paulista municipality. Therefore, was used the laws that guide the pedagogical work within this space, official social indicators and empirical data, which was created during visits to the city, when was realized the observation in the resource room and an interview with the responsible teacher. The results indicate: increase in the number of classes that offer the AEE in Brazilian schools, in the southeast region and in the state of São Paulo; with respect to the municipality analyzed, was found that teaching the AEE is isolated from the school context and the service is directed to students with learning disabilities, although there is presence of students with other disabilities in school, in addition, the service is limited to an autonomous life activities , especially in the development of mental processes. The results showed that still there are difficulties in implementing the AEE in school that need more policies and actions based on local realities.

  12. A dinâmica institucional de uso comunitário dos produtos nativos do cerrado no município de japonvar (Minas Gerais The institutional dynamics of the community use of cerrado's native products in the municipality of Japonvar (Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir Inácio de Azevedo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto estuda um arranjo comunitário que administra o acesso e uso do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e outros frutos nativos do cerrado por grupos sociais que combinam agricultura familiar e coleta vegetal. O local do estudo fica em Japonvar, município do norte de Minas Gerais. Fundamenta-se na teoria dos bens e recursos de uso comum de Elinor Ostrom e adota uma perspectiva analítica institucionalista. Identifica e descreve cada componente social que exerce alguma influência sobre a experiência de uso comum do pequi e que configura a moldura institucional do funcionamento deste sistema coletivo.This article examines a social arrangement that allows community access and use of the pequi (Caryocar brasiliense and other native fruit species of the Brazilian savanna (cerrado by groups that combine family farming with plant collection. The study is focused on Japonvar, a municipality located in the north of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. It is grounded of the theory of common use of goods and resources developed by Elinor Ostrom and adopts an institutionalist perspective. It identifies and describes each social component that exerts influence on the common use experience of the pequi and is an operational part of the institutional framework of this collective system.

  13. SEROPREVALENCIA DE Toxoplasma gondii EN UNA COMUNIDAD INDÍGENA DEL MUNICIPIO CEDEÑO, ESTADO BOLÍVAR, VENEZUELA I SEROPREVALENCE OF Toxop la s ma gondii IN AN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY OF, CEDEÑO MUNICIPALITY, BOLÍVAR STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO DEVERA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in indigenous populations in eastern Venezuela is not known, a study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of T. gon dii in the indigenous community “Las Bateas” (Piaroa ethnicity, Cedeño Municipality, Bolívar State. A total of 151 serums were analyzed from individuals of both sexes and aged between 0 and 70 years old. The toxoplasmic antibodies were determined by the indirect hemaglutination and ELISA techniques. The sample included the 64.25% of the total population (n = 151/235, finding a seroprevalence of 68.87% (104/151. Of the seropositive individuals, 54 were female (51.92% and 50 male (48.08%. The greatest number of positive cases occurred among people over 15 years old. There was no statistically significant difference with respect to sex. In conclusion, our results showed a high seroprevalence of T. gon dii in the indigenous community of Las Bateas, being higher among adults but without difference in relation to gender.

  14. Aspectos fitossociológicos, florísticos e etnobotânicos das palmeiras (Arecaceae de floresta secundária no município de Bragança, PA, Brasil Phytosociological, floristic, and ethnobotanical aspects of the palms (Arecaceae in a secondary forest in the Municipality of Bragança, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Elielson Sousa da Rocha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento das palmeiras em seis fragmentos de floresta secundária, no município de Bragança, PA, Brasil. Registraram-se 14 espécies distribuídas em nove gêneros, com predominância para Maximiliana maripa (Aubl. Drude e Astrocaryum gynacanthum Mart. São apresentados chave de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, citações de material examinado, e de nomes populares, comentários taxonômicos e etnobotânicos dessas espécies.The purpose of this study was to conduct a floristic inventory of the palms in six fragments of secondary forest in the Municipality of Bragança, Pará State, Brazil. In this study 14 species (nine genera were identified. Maximiliana maripa (Aubl. Drude and Astrocaryum gynacanthum Mart. were the dominant species. We present ethnobotanical data, identification keys, descriptions, illustrations, specimens examined, common names, and general comments about the species.

  15. 75 FR 54930 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... offer or sale of a primary offering of municipal securities on behalf of an issuer; (iii) the provision... political parties, and bond ballot campaigns, as well as other information, on Form G-37 to allow public... contributions to issuer officials, state or local political parties, and bond ballot campaigns would be subject...

  16. Planejamento estratégico em saúde com base em determinantes: o caso do município de Campo Bom (RS. Uma proposta metodológica para a gestão descentralizada Strategic health planning based on determinants: case of the municipality of Campo Bom, Rio Grande do Sul State. A methodological proposal for the decentralized management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Maximino León González

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar o modelo de planejamento estratégico em saúde com base em determinantes, utilizado na experiência do município de Campo Bom, realizou-se estudo observacional, qualitativo, de análise documental e avaliação de novas tecnologias de processo na gestão local de saúde. O estudo contém uma análise de coerência metodológica e de aplicabilidade do modelo, a partir da revisão dos planos municipal e locais. Nele, apresenta-se o caso de Campo Bom, no qual foi possível integrar e aplicar, em nível local, um modelo estratégico de planejamento em saúde orientado às novas conceituações da saúde, considerando elementos dos diferentes desenvolvimentos teóricos, sendo viável responder às necessidades e situações locais prevalentes. Identificam-se etapas evolutivas do planejamento em saúde e analisam-se elementos integradores do modelo e limitações na sua aplicação, salientando-se a necessidade de apoiar o aprofundamento do estudo e o desenvolvimento do campo.With the purpose to analyze the health strategic planning model based on determinants experienced in the municipality of Campo Bom, Rio Grande do Sul State, it was conducted an observational, qualitative study, of documental analysis as well as an evaluation of new process technologies in local health administration. This study contains an analysis of the methodological coherency and applicability of this model, based on the revision of the elaborated plans. The plans presented at Campo Bom case shows the possibility of integration and applicability at local level, of a health strategic planning model oriented to the new health concepts considering elements of different theoretical developments that enables the response to the most common local needs and situations. It was identified evolutional stages of health planning and analyzed integrative elements of the model and limitations of its application, pointing to the need of support the deepening on

  17. Implementation of a bridge management system in the municipal environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of a bridge management system (BMS) in the municipal environment, with specific reference to the City of Cape Town, the Johannesburg Roads Agency and the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC (MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT OF THE SPHERE OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kuznetsova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The state, municipality, population and entrepreneurship interrelation mechanism is far from being perfect in Russian housing and communal services industry. The problem may be solved provided interests of all the above participants of the industry are balanced. Most reasonable is to provide for parallel functioning of the market and governmental and municipal bodies, all of them acting in accordance with respective legal norms. More power should be given to municipalities who are non-governmental local public self-management bodies formed to provide for proper living conditions topopulation within certain territory by asserting priority interests common for this population. Negative consequences of the monopoly status of suppliers and providers of communal services should be eradicated. Transition from the monopolistic and closed communal services market to that open and competitive should become general strategy of Russian housing and communal services industry development.

  19. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  20. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  1. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  3. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Zanzibar Municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Saltwater intrusion problems are widespread where there are over pumping of groundwater from coastal aquifers. Water samples were .... urbanized area. Although more than 70% of the municipality residents are connected to public water system, it does not meet the demand (Table 1) and as such there are many private ...

  4. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  5. TOURISM AS A FACTOR OF MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefka Timareva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world, which has extremely diverse impact on the lifestyle of the local population on the one hand and on the other for the modern traveler. At the same time, this modern "phenomenon" plays an important role in the socio-economic and political development of the host country, region or municipality, offering new employment opportunities for the local population and improving the way of life by providing additional income. The development of tourism in a municipality is based on a certain resource base, which consists of a variety of natural and anthropogenic resources, a prerequisite for the development of various alternative types of tourism. Its importance as a form of recreation consists mainly of its potential to be a leading factor in the development of municipalities and in diversifying their economic structure. Tourism has significant effects manifested by positive migratory balance, especially where the tourism industry is leading and is a driver of positive development. For the successful realization of tourism as a leading economic and social factor, it is important to make a real and precise system for its planning and management, adequate human resources competence as well as close cooperation between the public and private sector, legal tourist base, development and the implementation of tourism projects and last but not least, a real development strategy in the relevant municipality.

  6. 40 CFR 40.115-4 - Municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 208 of the act. (b) Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a city, town, borough, county... subdivision thereof. (c) In all other cases, a city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or other public... DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.115-4 Municipality. (a) Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, a city, town...

  7. Types, risks and market of municipal bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal bonds are issued by cities, municipalities or other local communities in order to quickly raise funds to cover current budget deficits, finish infrastructure projects for production and distribution of thermal energy, improve water supply, road construction, sports and recreation centers, schools or to fund such projects on more favorable terms than to borrow from banks. In this manner, necessary conditions are created for faster development of the real sector. The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance, possibilities and effects of the bond issue in the Republika Srpska aimed at securing funding for and development of local communities. Good examples that local government bonds enhance community development include capital markets in countries that have made the transition from the socialist system design, similar to the market of the Republika Srpska, like the Polish, Slovakian, Hungarian and Croatian markets. Issues of municipal bonds in the Republika Srpska succeeded mostly due to the workings of Investment-Development Bank of RS. However, it certainly shows that further high-quality municipal bonds could attract more interest from various institutional investors, especially mutual funds and insurance companies, and investors who are more risk-averse will be able to familiarize and inform themselves with the functioning of capital markets. In this manner, our capital market would confirm its essential role and thus become a generator of overall economic development of the Republika Srpska because it would enable more efficient collection and allocation of capital resources.

  8. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... building projects through municipal planning practices, and how do they cope with these challenges? The report is based on an in-depth study of proactive planning practices performed by municipal partners in the Class 1 project and a series of experiences, strategies and instru-ments are identified...

  9. MUNICIPAL FOREST MANAGEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    National Library of Indonesia Cataloging – in-Publication Data: ..... with both the threat of specific population sectors or elites monopolizing local power and the .... These units have been quite active in delimiting municipal forest areas; many .... in the health and education sectors than those in other Latin American countries.

  10. O MODELO POLÍTICO ADMINISTRATIVO DO ESTADO NOVO PORTUGUÊS: CORPORATIVISMO E REPRESENTAÇÃO POLÍTICA DAS AUTARQUIAS (1936-1959 = THE POLITICAL-ADMINISTRATIVE MODEL OF THE PORTUGUESE NEW STATE: CORPORATISM AND POLITICAL REPRESENTATION OF MUNICIPALITIES...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Rafael Amaro

    2015-12-01

    Administrative Code of 1936 breaks with the liberal and demo liberal tradition of election and of political representation of the municipalities, substituting this individual representation by the organic and corporative suffrage. To understand, therefore, how Salazar integrated into the corporative state the local municipalities it cannot be also a way to meet an important part of the explanation of the nature of the New State and even of its governance arrangements and political legitimacy.

  11. Conjunto de actividades educativas y físicas para mejorar el control metabólico de los pacientes diabéticos, de la tercera edad del\tconsultorio #154, del Consejo Popular Celso Maragoto Lara del municipio Pinar del Río

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydel Gámez García

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El profesor de educación física en su interacción con personas de la tercera edad se encuentra con uno de los problemas de salud de la actualidad: la diabetes mellitus. La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad crónica, heredable y es considerada una enfermedad grave, cuyo tratamiento exige de educación y ejercicio físico. Teniendo en cuenta esta problemática nos proponemos un conjunto  de  actividades  educativas  y  físicas  para mejorar  el  control metabólico de los pacientes diabéticos de la tercera edad, del  consultorio #154, del consejo popular Celso Maragoto Lara del  municipio Pinar del Río.

  12. Effect of municipal liquid waste on corrosion susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation studied the effect of municipal liquid waste discharged into the environment within Kano municipal area on the corrosion susceptibility of galvanized steel pipe burial underground. Six stagnant and six moving municipal liquid waste samples were used for the investigation. The corrosion rate of the ...

  13. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  14. Energy management in municipal heritage; Management de l'energie dans le patrimoine municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy management in municipal heritage; Management de l'energie dans le patrimoine municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  16. Overview of air pollution controls for municipal waste combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The growth in incineration of municipal solid waste has lead to concerns of potential harmful emissions of acid gases, heavy metal and toxic trace organic compounds into the environment. This has lead to the promulgations of emissions control limits in many countries in Europe, the United States and Japan. Several different technologies are currently available and new approaches are emerging for improved control of specific pollutants of concern. Technology transfer is such that a successful application of a new technology any where in the world may rapidly lead to applications throughout the world. This paper presents an overview of technologies being applied to MWC's for the control of NO x acid gases, particulate matter, heavy metals and toxic trace organic compounds (PCDD's/PCDF's). The technologies presented are reviewed as to their state of development and control efficiencies

  17. Working and benefit project by the in-situ leaching of the copper-uranium ore of the deposit named Luz del Cobre, in the municipality of Soyopa, state of Sonora, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parga P, J.de J.

    1976-01-01

    This research was carried out with the object to recover the existing uranium in the copper-uranium deposit of Luz del Cobre located at 1300 Kms. approximately of the NW of Mexico City in the state of Sonora this deposit is geologically formed by a partially mineralized chimney which contains 572,732 tons of uranium ore with an average of 362.26g. of U 3 O 8 per ton, which represents 207,374 tons of U 3 O 8 in situ. To recover the uranium from this deposit, the only technical and economical possibility which presents a real interest is the system of leaching in situ. This operation will consist in the selective dissolution of the copper and uranium through leaching solution with a pH varying from 2.2 to 2.5, leaving the gangue on the ground and collecting the enriched solutions at the lower level of the mine, precipitating the copper subsequently through scrap iron and recovering the uranium from the tails of the copper precipitation plant through an ionic interchange process in counter current and its subsequent elution solvent extraction, reextraction and precipitation. This system makes possible to recover an uranium concentrate up to 98% of U 3 O 8 and practically free from impurities. The production cost would cost exceeding $300.00 Mexican currency per Kg of U 3 O 8 . (author)

  18. Should large Spanish municipalities be financially compensated? Costs and benefits of being a capital/central municipality [WP-IEB

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Roca, Núria; Espasa Queralt, Marta; Montolio, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyse the costs and benefits of being a capital or central municipality, where central costs are understood to be incurred specifically as a result of the problems large municipalities located at the centre of an urban agglomeration face and capital costs are understood to result from the presence of regional and/or central government institutions in the municipality. However, these two qualities might also be beneficial to municipalities, resulting in a direct increase in their ...

  19. Relación de afecciones bucales con el estado nutricional en escolares de primaria del municipio Bauta Relation between oral affections and nutritional state in primary school children from Bauta municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Quiñonez Ybarría

    2006-04-01

    the first years of life, we proposed ourselves to determine the relation existing between the nutritional state and the main oral affections. To this end, a study of 52 primary school children selected according to a study previously conducted by General Comprehensive Medicine was conducted. Of them, 26 were normoweight and 26 had nutritional disorders. Of the latter, 14 were slim and 12 were low weight. Children were examined to the natural light in their schools. The variables analyzed were age, nutritional state, the coe-d and COP indices, the presence of malocclusions and the PMA index. The coe-d and COP indices were elevated in children with nutritional disorders (coe-d 1,50 y COP 0,66, whereas in the normoweight they were 0.73 and 0.53 for coe-d and COP, respectively. It was observed a high prevalence of malocclusions in the low weight with 66,6 %, 46,15 % in the normoweight and an elevated percentage of gingivitis in slim children and in low weight (14.28 and 16.66, respectively. In the normoweight it was 23.07.

  20. An Industrial Ecology Approach to Municipal Solid Waste ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste provides abundant opportunities for industrial ecology-based symbiotic use. Energy production, economics, and environmental aspects are analyzed for four alternatives based on different technologies: incineration with energy recovery, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation. In these cases electricity and ethanol are the products considered, but other products and attempts at symbiosis can be made. The four technologies are in various states of commercial development. To highlight their relative complexities some adjustable parameters which are important for the operability of each process are discussed. While these technologies need to be considered for specific locations and circumstances, generalized economic and environmental information suggests relative comparisons for newly conceptualized processes. The results of industrial ecology-based analysis suggest that anaerobic digestion may improve seven emission categories, while fermentation, gasification, and incineration successively improve fewer emissions. A conceptual level analysis indicates that gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation alternatives lead to positive economic results. In each case the alternatives and their assumptions need further analysis for any particular community. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  1. Emission from open burning of municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Kanchan; Kumar, Sunil; Rajagopal, Vineel; Khare, Ankur; Kumar, Rakesh

    2017-07-27

    Open burning of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a potential non-point source of emission, which causes greater concern especially in developing countries such as India. Lack of awareness about environmental impact of open burning, and ignorance of the fact, i.e. 'Open burning is a source of emission of carcinogenic substances' are major hindrances towards an appropriate municipal solid waste management system in India. The paper highlights the open burning of MSW practices in India, and the current and projected emission of 10 major pollutants (dioxin, furans, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and 1-hexene) emitted due to the open burning of MSW. Waste to Energy potential of MSW was also estimated adopting effective biological and thermal techniques. Statistical techniques were applied to analyse the data and current and projected emission of various pollutants were estimated. Data pertaining to population, MSW generation and its collection efficiency were compiled for 29 States and 7 Union Territories. Thereafter, emission of 10 pollutants was measured following methodology prescribed in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guideline for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006. The study revealed that people living in Metropolitan cities are more affected by emissions from open burning.

  2. [Municipal Health Councils: activity and representation of grassroots communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschman, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    This article was based on the results of research concerning health policy in municipalities that achieved the most extensive development of decentralization and innovation in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study applied a questionnaire for health system users' representatives in Municipal Health Councils. The central issues were: the Councils' political role; social control by the Councils, viewed as surveillance by organized society over government actions; the nature of social representation exercised by the Council members; and the type of mandate they serve. Community representatives in the Councils reinforce aspects pertaining to the exercise of representation in unequal societies. There is a predominance of a differentiated elite consisting of older males with more schooling and higher income than the community average. The notion of "social control" as the basis for the Councils is difficult for the members to grasp. Exercise of representation is diffuse, occurring by way of designation by community associations, election in assemblies, or designation by institutional health policy agencies.

  3. A unique approach to municipal waste management in Chianti, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhargalkar, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Innovative solutions are required to manage the growing problem of disposal of municipal waste throughout the world. Recovery of energy by combustion of municipal waste has become an acceptable approach in many communities. A unique system with a capacity of 200 tons of waste per day with simultaneous production of electric power and fuel gas is currently under construction in Greve located in the famous wine region of Chianti, Italy. The refuse-derived fuel will be treated in a fluidized bed gasifier. A portion of the gas produced by the gasifier will be used to produce 6.7 MW of electric power; the remaining gas will be used as a fuel in the neighboring cement plant. The plant will be equipped with a state-of-the-art emission control system including an afterburner, a quench reactor, dry venturi and a fabric filter to minimize emissions to the atmosphere. This is the first plant in Europe to employ the fluidized bed gasifier technology on refuse-derived fuel. Design highlights of the overall plant including the air quality control system are presented in this paper

  4. Cognitive and functional status of elderly people of a long stay institution of the municipality Divinópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil = Estado cognitivo e funcional de idosos de uma instituição de longa permanência do município de Divinópolis, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Valério Gontijo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate and characterize the functional capacity and cognitive status of elderly people living in a long-stay institution of the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais State. The population consisted of 67 elderly people aged between 62 and 102 years, 76% female and 24% male. Data were gathered using the Barthel index of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a form for the social characterization. A significant correlation was observed between the Barthel index and the MMSE, i.e. between functional capacity and cognitive status. Also a significant correlation was detected between education and mental state and between age and mental and functional state. The sex of the participants had no influence on the results. A percentage of 55% had no cognitive impairment, 39% were considered independent and 37% semi-dependent, and only 24% were totally dependent to perform activities of daily living. Therefore, it is emphasized the importance of thinking about the reasons that take to the institutionalization of elderly people.O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar e caracterizar a capacidade funcional e o estado cognitivo de idosos residentes de uma instituição de longa permanência do município de Divinópolis, MG. A população avaliada constou de 67 idosos com idade entre 62 e 102 anos, sendo 76% do sexo feminino e 24% do sexo masculino. Os dados foram obtidos utilizando do Índice de Barthel, do Miniexame do Estado Mental e também de um formulário para caracterização social dos idosos. Houve correlação significativa entre o Índice de Barthel e o MEEM, ou seja, entre capacidade funcional e estado cognitivo. Observou-se uma relação significativa entre escolaridade e estado mental e entre idade e estado mental e funcional. O sexo dos pesquisados não influenciou nos resultados dos testes. Uma porcentagem de 55% dos pesquisados não apresentaram déficit cognitivo, sendo que 39% foram considerados

  5. Avaliação da Vigilância Epidemiológica em âmbito municipal Evaluation of epidemiological surveillance in municipal ambit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Freese de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a vigilância epidemiológica (VE e as características específicas da gestão municipal. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados onze municípios de Pernambuco conforme critérios geográficos, porte populacional e condição de gestão. O grau de implantação foi estimado através de entrevistas com atores-chave em três níveis de atuação da VE: nível central, unidades de saúde da família (USF e unidades de saúde tradicionais (UST, enfatizando aspectos relativos à infra-estrutura e ao processo de trabalho. Às variáveis selecionadas foram atribuídos pontos, cujo somatório, classificou a VE como: implantada, parcialmente implantada e não implantada. Para avaliar as características da gestão foram entrevistados os onze secretários municipais de saúde. RESULTADOS: a VE apresentou-se implantada em apenas 27% dos municípios e parcialmente implantada em 46%, encontrando-se mais estruturada nos municípios de grande porte e com gestão plena do sistema municipal, onde, dos três níveis estudados, observou-se que o nível central apresentou mais fragilidades, e as USF, quando comparadas às UST, obtiveram melhor desempenho. Quanto às características de gestão, embora todos os municípios estivessem certificados para realizar ações de VE, foram identificados entraves significativos para sua efetiva realização. CONCLUSÕES: A VE apresentou deficiências que comprometem a sua implantação plena no âmbito municipal.ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: to evaluate epidemiological surveil-lance (ES and its specifics management at municipal level. METHODS: eleven municipalities were selected in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, based on the geographical, demographic and management criteria. The level of implementation was estimated by way of interviews with key-players at three levels of ES: the headquarters, family health units (FHUs and traditional health units (THUs, laying emphasis on features relating to infrastructure and the work

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado do Amazonas Epidemiological and clinical aspects of snake accidentes in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Campos Borges

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available No Amazonas, o acidente ofídico é um problema de saúde pública pouco conhecido. Por este motivo, foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos acidentes ofídicos atendidos nas Unidades de Saúde de 34 municípios, um distrito e dois pelotões de fronteira do Estado do Amazonas. As características mais comuns encontradas dentre os pacientes foram: agricultor (50,4%, do sexo masculino (81,3%, em idade produtiva (72,1%, picado no membro inferior (88,5%, por jararaca (48,6% ou surucucu (46,8%, na zona rural de seu município (70,2% e que só recebeu atendimento médico em tempo superior a seis horas, após acidente (57,3%. As manifestações locais mais freqüentes foram: edema (76,9%, dor (68,7%, eritema (10,2% e hemorragia (9,3%. Hemorragia (18,8% foi a manifestação sistêmica mais freqüente. O antiveneno foi administrado em apenas 65,9% dos pacientes. A via mais utilizada foi a endovenosa (52,3%, sendo relevante o uso de vias não mais recomendadas (47,7%. O antiveneno administrado, na maioria dos pacientes, foi o antibotrópico (66,7%. As complicações mais freqüentes foram abcesso (13,7%, necrose (12,3%, infecção secundária (8,3%, insuficiência renal (2,5% e gangrena (2,5%. Os procedimentos médicos mais usados para o tratamento das complicações foram: drenagem (52,6%, debridamento (28,9%, amputação (10,5%, limpeza cirúrgica (5,3% e diálise peritoneal (2,6%. A letalidade foi de 1%.In the State of Amazonas, accidents with snakes are a public health problem. For this reasons, the objective of this work was to carry out a descriptive study of the snake accidents attended in the health units of 34 municipalities, one district and two border platoons in the State of Amazonas. The characteristics most commonly observed among those involved in snake accidents were: farmers (50.4%, male (81.3%, belonging to the working age-group (72.1%, bitten on an upper limb (88.5% by a "jararaca" (48.6% or a "surucucu" (46.8% in the rural part of the

  7. Tendência da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais e interior do Brasil entre 1980 e 2006 Tendencia de la mortalidad por cáncer en las capitales e interior de Brasil entre 1980 y 2006 Cancer mortality trends in Brazilian state capitals and other municipalities between 1980 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2011-12-01

    .585.012 originados por cáncer entre 1980 y 2006 fueron obtenidos en el Sistema de Informaciones sobre Mortalidad, y los demográficos, en el Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. Las tasas de mortalidad general por cáncer y principales tipos fueron corregidas redistribuyendo proporcionalmente 50% de las muertes mal definidas y estandarizándolas por edad según población patrón mundial. Las curvas de tendencia para Brasil y grandes regiones fueron calculadas para capitales y demás municipios según sexo y evaluadas por medio de regresión linear simple. RESULTADOS: Entre los hombres, las tasas de mortalidad para los cánceres de pulmón, próstata y colorrectal fueron ascendentes; declinantes para el de estomago y estables para el de esófago. Entre las mujeres, hubo aumento de la mortalidad por cáncer de mama, pulmón y colorrectal; y disminución de las tasas para los cánceres de cuello uterino y de estomago. La evolución de la mortalidad varió entre las regiones del País, con patrones distintos entre las capitales y demás municipios. CONCLUSIONES: La corrección de las tasas de mortalidad con redistribución de los óbitos mal definidos aumentó la magnitud de la mortalidad general por cáncer en Brasil en cerca de 10% en 1980 y 5% en 2006. En los municipios del interior no se observó tendencia de disminución o estabilidad como en las capitales. Menor alcance de las acciones de prevención y la dificultad de acceso a servicios diagnóstico y tratamiento para cáncer para la población residente fuera de los grandes centros urbanos pueden explicar, en parte, estas diferencias.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the corrected trend of overall cancer mortality and leading sites in the state capitals and other municipalities of Brazil between 1980 and 2006. METHODS: Data on deaths (n = 2,585,012 caused by cancer between 1980 and 2006 were obtained from Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (Mortality Information System, and demographic data were provided by Instituto

  8. Regionalization of municipal solid waste management in Japan: balancing the proximity principle with economic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Itaru; Thomson, Vivian E

    2007-07-01

    The proximity principle - disposing of waste close to its origin - has been a central value in municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Japan for the last 30 years and its widespread adoption has helped resolve numerous "Not in My Backyard" issues related to MSW management. However, MSW management costs have soared, in large part because of aggressive recycling efforts and because most MSW is incinerated in a country that has scarce landfill capacity. In addition, smaller, less sophisticated incinerators have been closed because of high dioxin emissions. Rising costs combined with the closure of smaller incinerators have shifted MSW management policy toward regionalization, which is the sharing of waste management facilities across municipalities. Despite the increased use of regionalized MSW facilities, the proximity principle remains the central value in Japanese MSW management. Municipal solid waste management has become increasingly regionalized in the United States, too, but different driving forces are at work in these two countries. The transition to regionalized MSW management in Japan results from strong governmental control at all levels, with the central government providing funds and policy direction and prefectures and municipalities being the primary implementing authorities. By contrast, market forces are a much stronger force with US MSW management, where local governments - with state government oversight - have primary responsibility for MSW management. We describe recent changes in Japan's MSW programs. We examine the connections between MSW facility regionalization, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the proximity principle, coordination among local governments, central government control, and financing mechanisms.

  9. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  10. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming obese, healthier eating patterns are urgent. Organic school meals may be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children. The purpose of this study was to take a closer look into the current status of organic school meal systems...... in Denmark, by conducting a case study of three municipalities in the Zealand region that have the most developed models for school meals service in this country. These municipalities have for some years introduced organic food for sale in their primary schools, with three quite different approaches....... Copenhagen has established a large central kitchen, producing partly organic food that is heated and sold in tuck shops at the schools. Roskilde cooperates with an organic catering company, delivering food to be sold in school canteens. Gladsaxe has part-time employed staff preparing and selling food at each...

  11. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mapeamento da cobertura da terra dos Parques Estaduais do Jalapão (PEJ, Cantão (PEC e município de Itaguatins (Tocantins / Land cover mapping in state parks Jalapão, Cantão and municipality Itaguatins (Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ribeiro Santiago

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O estado do Tocantins não possui um programa de monitoramento continuo de sua cobertura vegetal, o que levou a formalização de um convenio entre o Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia, por meio do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, e o Instituto Natureza do Tocantins, com o intuito de solucionar esta problemática. Para isso, foram adquiridas cenas do sensor TM/Landsat-5, referentes ao período de estiagem de 2007, abrangendo os Parques Estaduais do Jalapão (PEJ, Cantão (PEC e o município de Itaguatins, sendo georreferenciadas, convertidas as imagens-fração, segmentadas e classificadas. Identificaram-se as classes: área urbana, agropecuária, bancos de areia, capoeira, campo limpo e sujo, cerrado sentido restrito denso e/ou típico, cerrado sentido restrito ralo e/ou rupestre, corpos hídricos, deposição de areia, floresta estacional semidecidual aluvial, floresta estacional semidecidual submontana, mata ciliar, mata-de-galeria, pecuária e vereda. Os índices de Exatidão Total / Kappa para o PEJ, PEC e Itaguatins foram de 78,38% / 0,72; 86,67% / 0,69 e 84,62% / 0,81; respectivamente. Estes dados confirmam a eficiência da metodologia aplicada, podendo ser implementada em um programa de monitoramento da cobertura vegetal do Estado.AbstractTocantins state does not have a program of continuous monitoring of its vegetation. This situation leaded to a formal agreement between the Ministry of Science and Technology, through the National Institute of Space Research and the Nature Institute of Tocantins, with the aim at solving the problem of monitoring vegetation. Hence, scenes were acquired from the sensor TM/Landsat-5, during the period of droughts in 2007, covering the state parks Jalapão (PEJ, Cantão (PEC and the municipality of Itaguatins. Those data were geographically referred, converted into images-fraction, segmented and classified. Classes were, then, identified as: urban, agriculture, sand banks, secondary vegetation

  13. Application of accrual accounting in Iran municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eamaeilzade Maghariee; Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Rahele Abdi

    2015-01-01

    Accrual accounting is a technique for recognizing expenses when incurred and revenue when earned rather than when payment is made or received. In the cash method of accounting, on the other hand, cash receipts and disbursements technique of accounting or cash accounting records revenue when cash is earned, and expenses when they are paid in cash. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the effect of implementing accrual accounting in municipality of Amol, Iran. The surve...

  14. Application of accrual accounting in Iran municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eamaeilzade Maghariee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accrual accounting is a technique for recognizing expenses when incurred and revenue when earned rather than when payment is made or received. In the cash method of accounting, on the other hand, cash receipts and disbursements technique of accounting or cash accounting records revenue when cash is earned, and expenses when they are paid in cash. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the effect of implementing accrual accounting in municipality of Amol, Iran. The survey investigates whether or not financial reporting based on accrual accounting compared with a cash basis could provide a better method for promoting accountability. Using, regression analysis, the study compares the performance of accrual accounting versus cash accounting and the results have indicated that accrual accounting could improve the performance of accounting in municipality system. In addition, the study has examined whether or not converting cash to accrual accounting basis in municipalities could improve qualitative characteristics of accounting information. To examine this hypothesis, the study has designed a questionnaire in Likert scale to measure the quality of information and, using some statistical tests, the survey has concluded accrual accounting indeed provided better quality characteristics information.

  15. Municipal recycling support program. Guide to applicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Municipal Recycling Support Program stems from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment's policies and programs begun in 1980 aimed at encouraging the development of source separation projects in Ontario. To qualify for financial assistance, municipalities must play a central role in the implementation and ongoing development of recycling; applications will be supported only if there is adequate and reasonable commitment from markets for recovered materials; recycling systems must operate within the framework of a complete waste management system in which cost effectiveness is an important factor; multi-material projects are encouraged as much as possible; and the Ministry will share the costs of projects with the municipalities. The Ministry provides grants for up to 5 years per project to cover the net operating cost of a project up to a specified maximum percentage of eligible gross operating expenses. This manual provides guidelines for applying for such funding, including definitions of eligibility for operating and capital costs, the use of household bins, and guidelines for promotion and advertising, education, demonstration, and feasibility studies.

  16. Digital Governance (in Romanian Municipalities. A Longitudinal Assessment of Municipal Web Sites in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative cross-country study in order to know the level of web services implementation at the municipality level (what are the public services that municipalities offer to their citizens using the electronic platforms. We’ve accessed each municipality web portal from Romania (103 in total and using a defined scale; and rated every one very strictly. Most of the elements used in this research are taken from previous studies, adapted afterwards to take in relevant values for my country. Although there are numerous Romanian initiatives of connecting to the Internet even smaller communities, like small towns or even communes, we have chosen the municipalities due to the positive relation between the number of inhabitants and the capacity to e-Government of the local public administration. All of the 103 Romanian municipalities have been analysed and the results obtained will be presented on each class (there are 5 different classes – e-doc, transparency, etc., but also by the final results.

  17. Implementing the Green City Policy in Municipal Spatial Planning: The Case of Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abongile Dlani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “eco-city,” and similar concepts such as “green” and “sustainable” cities, has evolved overtime concurrent to the development of the understanding of social change and mankind’s impact on environmental and economic health. With the advent of climate change impacts, modern economies developed the green city policy to create sustainable urban development, low emission, and environmentally friendly cities. In South Africa municipalities, including Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM have been tasked to and implement the green city policy. However, BCMM is yet to develop the green city policy that clearly articulate how the municipality will combat climate change and reduce its Green House Gases (GHG emissions in its spatial planning designs. Against this background, this article reviews and analyses green policy landscape in Metropolitan Municipalities. It is envisaged that the research will provide the basis for the development of a comprehensive green policy strategies and programmes for the local transition to action in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, in the Eastern Cape Province.

  18. Características da clientela atendida por crise hipertensiva na emergência de um hospital municipal de Fortaleza, Estado do Ceará - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.5746 Characteristics of the clientele assisted for hypertensive crisis in the emergency of a municipal hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará State - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.5746

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Caetano de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever as características da clientela com crise hipertensiva. A pesquisa, quantitativa, descritiva e documental foi realizada em um hospital municipal de Fortaleza, Estado do Ceará em 2006. Na análise de 790 fichas de atendimento, observamos que 48,2% dos pacientes que apresentavam crise hipertensiva, encontravam-se na faixa etária de 40 a 59 anos e a maioria dos indivíduos era de casados (57,5%. Os principais sintomas encontrados foram cefaleia (35,7% e dor precordial (12.3% e, em 36,8% das fichas, não houve registro de sinais e sintomas. As medicações mais prescritas foram o captopril (90,6% e furosemida (53%. Conclui-se que a crise hipertensiva acomete muitos adultos, a maioria casados e que geralmente vão à emergência para fazer avaliação clínica de algum sinal/sintoma. Ressalta-se a necessidade de se alertar os profissionais de saúde quanto à importância do registro para conhecimento e compreensão das características dessa clientela para o controle e a prevenção da crise hipertensiva.The objective was to describe the characteristics of the clientele with hypertensive crisis. The research, which was quantitative, descriptive and documentary, was conducted at a municipal hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará Estate in 2006. In the analysis of 790 patient files, we found that 48.2% of patients presenting hypertensive crisis were in the age group between 40 and 59 years old. Most of the individuals were married (57.5%. The main symptoms were headache (35.7% and chest pain (12.3%, and in 36.8% of files there was no record of signs and symptoms. The most prescribed medications were captopril (90.6% and furosemide (53%. We conclude that hypertensive crisis affects many adults, most married and who usually go to the emergency room for clinical evaluation of a sign/symptom. We emphasize the need to alert health professionals about the importance of records for knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of that

  19. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans; Premier forum ''BISE'' pour: l'energie intelligente dans les minicipalites des nouveaux etats membres, des pays candidats et des Balkans occidentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  20. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans; Premier forum ''BISE'' pour: l'energie intelligente dans les minicipalites des nouveaux etats membres, des pays candidats et des Balkans occidentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  1. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  2. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  3. An overview of municipal solid waste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xudong; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in China warrants particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world and the total amount of MSW it produces continues to increase. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve MSWM in China. New regulations and policies have been issued, urban infrastructure has been improved, and commercialization and international cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new opportunities and challenges regarding MSWM in China. This paper shows that since the late 1990s, the amount of MSW collected has been largely decoupled from economic growth and incineration has become an increasingly widespread treatment method for MSW. We identify and discuss four major challenges and barriers related to China's MSWM, and propose an integrated management framework to improve the overall eco-efficiency of MSWM.

  4. Geologic report, Middlesex Municipal Landfill site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This is a report on geologic and hydrologic investigations of the former Municipal Landfill, Middlesex, New Jersey, conducted during 1982 and 1983 by Bechtel National, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office. The investigations were designed to assess the feasibility of stabilizing the radioactive contamination present on site. The investigations were conducted in two phases: Phase 1 consisted of permeability tests; Phase 2 consisted of tests to ascertain the extent of hydraulic interconnection between various stratigraphic units. The investigations revealed that a complete separation of bedrock and overburden did not exist and that the clay present could not be relied upon to confine vertical migration of contaminants over the long term. 6 references, 27 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Geologic report, Middlesex Municipal Landfill site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This is a report on geologic and hydrologic investigations of the former Municipal Landfill, Middlesex, New Jersey, conducted during 1982 and 1983 by Bechtel National, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office. The investigations were designed to assess the feasibility of stabilizing the radioactive contamination present on site. The investigations were conducted in two phases: Phase 1 consisted of permeability tests; Phase 2 consisted of tests to ascertain the extent of hydraulic interconnection between various stratigraphic units. The investigations revealed that a complete separation of bedrock and overburden did not exist and that the clay present could not be relied upon to confine vertical migration of contaminants over the long term. 6 references, 27 figures, 6 tables

  6. Exergy analysis of aluminum recovery from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Allegrini, Elisa; Laner, D.

    Two main challenges, associated with the recovery of aluminum from state-of-the-art municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, are yield as well as quality losses of metallic aluminum due to particle surface oxidation and presence of impurities. Yet, in the framework of life cycle assessment...... (LCA) a direct measure for expressing the quality of primary and secondary resources is missing. In view of a possible solution, exergy has been proposed as a concept to evaluate the quality of resources. In this paper, LCA and exergy analyses for two waste treatment approaches are conducted...... in parallel to each other, with a goal to evaluate the added value of exergy for LCA studies in the resource recovery context. The functional unit is the treatment of 1 ton MSW. Two alternative approaches for recovering aluminum from MSW directed to a waste-to-energy plant are considered. A) MSW is treated...

  7. The Port Hope area initiative municipal involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, Rick; Stevenson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Port Hope (Canada) contains one of the world's oldest nuclear facility sites. From the 1930's through to the 1970's, processing residues from radium refining facilities located at the Port Hope Harbour were being stored and/or deposited on numerous sites throughout the municipality. For a variety of reasons, including spillage of material during transportation and un-monitored or unauthorized diversion of materials, many private and public properties in the municipality were contaminated with low level radioactive waste. Over the past 30 years, the community has demanded that the nuclear industry and the federal government clean up the mess left in Port Hope. In the 1980's and 1990's, the federal government sought to fulfill its commitment to clean up over one million cubic metres of contaminated material remaining in Port Hope but was unable to find a solution. The Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Siting Task Force worked in trying to find a home for historic LLRW in the 1980's and 1990's. It is only within the past 6 years that Port Hope's community began to see the 'light at the end of the tunnel'. And, the light began to shine when the communities took the issue of long term management of the waste into their own hands and proposed possible solutions to the federal government. So the Port Hope Area Initiative is a community-based initiative. In this paper the author presents some of the reasons for success (so far) and some opportunities and challenges that his municipality, and specifically municipal Council, faces as a partner in this Environmental Assessment and project development process. He addresses some of the key elements of the Project that he believes have led to the success of the Project to this point, including: the Legal Agreement and Agreement Monitoring process; the Property Value Protection Program; the Hosting Fee; the Municipal veto on some decisions; the end Use as an asset to the Community; the Value of Peer Review. He also touches

  8. Municipalities as the subjects of tax administration in the Republic of Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.5+347.73The subject. Article deals with problem of the participation of the municipalities in tax administration in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is clarify how municipalities may participate in tax administration in the Republic of LithuaniaThe methodology of the research includes the analysis of Constitution and legislation of Republic of Lithuania, system analysis, logical-analytical method.Results, scope of it’s application. The existence of a unified state tax system, does not mean that the administrative-territorial unit (municipality do not possess certain powers upon the introduction of taxes and (or in the regulation of their collection. So, municipalities obtain part of the revenue by taxes, which rates are established by the councils of municipalities, not exceeding statutory dimensions, etc. Participation of municipalities in tax administration bases on the provisions of the Constitution on the law of the administrative territorial units to self-government and to have their own budget.Elements of centralization and decentralization, based on the recognition of the single state tax system, are combined in Lithuania in the determination of tax competence.The tax legislation of the Republic of Lithuania almost does not provide for local governments to participate in the tax collection process or in monitoring their collection.Tax laws provide the right to local authorities to refine (adjust the individual elements of taxes, although the establishment of these elements remain the exclusive right of bodies of the state (central authorities. Besides, local authorities have the right to establishment and the provision of common and individual tax benefits, the right to use the incomes received in the form of taxes, etc.Conclusions. Local authorities are involved in the process of tax regulation and possess a certain autonomy in this area – the Council of the municipality has the right to adjust tax

  9. Comércio formal e perfil de consumidores de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos no município de Itaqui - RS Formal trade and profile of consumers of medicinal plants and phytomedicine in Itaqui Municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Z Ethur

    2011-01-01

    do Sul State, Brazil. Data collection was performed in two complementary stages focusing on consumers and stores, especially drugstores. First, the profile of medicinal plant users was diagnosed through a semi-structured questionnaire which was applied to 183 people approached in areas frequently visited by inhabitants from different villages of the municipality; in the second stage, the trade and the view of formal trade was evaluated in the eight drugstores of the municipality. The results of interviews to build the profile of medicinal plant users showed that 71% interviewees were between 21 and 60 years old and most of them had monthly income of up to three minimum wages; as to the use of plants in folk medicine, around 82% stated to have had efficiency and, in cases of health problems, 47% searched for these plants; as regards cultivation, 55% interviewees cultivated medicinal plants in their houses. The second stage, carried out in drugstores, also indicated that phytomedicines and medicinal plants were purchased mostly by women, 75% adults and 25% elderly. The most sold teas were slimming and digestive teas, and the value paid for this type of product was between R$ 1.00 and R$ 3.00. In conclusion, there is market for medicinal plants and phytomedicine and there is also the need for further information related to their cultivation form and proper botanical identification, as well as information to users, quality and efficacy of products, and their use

  10. The relationship between the oil industry and municipalities in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerecke, D.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between oil companies and rural municipalities in Saskatchewan and the recent changes to Saskatchewan's property tax assessment scheme were discussed. There are approximately 300 rural municipalities in Saskatchewan, each having its own bylaws and policies. The bylaws and policies dealing with roads and fees are the ones which affect the oil companies the most. From the industry's point of view, the biggest problem is that there is no consistency from one rural municipality to another regarding the rules that oil companies must follow. The Rural Municipalities Act and the Planning and Development Act are the sources of jurisdiction for rural municipalities. These acts allow municipalities to pass zoning bylaws for land use and development restrictions that could prevent or restrict the drilling of wells, the installation of road approaches, the crossing of roads with a pipeline or gas line, and waste disposal, among others. Examples of how the rural municipalities in Saskatchewan are dealing with the oil industry are presented. One factor that rural municipalities sometimes overlook is that trying to coexist peacefully with the oil industry frequently encourages development and keeps taxes down. The property tax reassessment based on the 1989 Rural Municipality Act, the impact of reassessment on rural municipalities, appeals against assessment, 1997 changes to the appeal rules, and major appeal issues in 1997 were also reviewed

  11. Utilização de benzodiazepínicos no Serviço Municipal de Saúde de Coronel Fabriciano, Minas Gerais Use of benzodiazepines in local public health services in Coronel Fabriciano in the State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karleyla Fassarelo Firmino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliadas as indicações de benzodiazepínicos no Serviço Municipal de Saúde de Coronel FabricianoMG, verificando sua conformidade com o preconizado pela literatura. O estudo avaliou todas as receitas desses medicamentos provenientes das Unidades Municipais de Saúde no período de Setembro a Outubro de 2006, os formulários de indicação clínica preenchidos pelo prescritor e cadastros informatizados do serviço. Analisaram-se 1.866 receitas, sendo 59,7% do Diazepam e o restante do Clonazepam. A Dose Diária Definida por mil habitantes por dia foi de 24,69 para o Diazepam e de 3,58 para o Clonazepam. Cerca de 50% das indicações relatadas pelos médicos foram como hipnótico ou ansiolítico, 21,9% para "uso crônico/dependência" e o restante para outras indicações. Das receitas que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão para análise da adequação da indicação (1618, cerca de 70% foram consideradas não adequadas, tendo em vista a indicação e o tempo de tratamento. Houve um alto percentual de inadequação na utilização de benzodiazepínicos, principalmente pelo uso prolongado e para atender a casos considerados pelos prescritores como uso crônico/dependência. Assim, há responsabilidade do serviço de saúde na manutenção da dependência.In this study, indications for benzodiazepines in the healthcare services of the city of Coronel Fabriciano (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil were analyzed in terms of compliance with the indications established in the literature. The study was carried out using all prescriptions for benzodiazepines in municipal healthcare units between September and October 2006, as well as the prescription form filled out by the prescriber and computer files. A total of 1866 prescriptions were analyzed; 59.7% were for diazepam and the rest were for clonazepam. The mean daily dose per 1000 inhabitants/day was 24.69 for diazepam and 3.58 for clonazepam. Approximately 50% of the indications

  12. Declínio da cárie em um município da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1998 a 2004 Declining caries rate in a municipality in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil, 1998-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Jefferson Martins

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os índices CPOD, ceod, SiC Index e a porcentagem de crianças livres de cárie, em escolares de 5 a 12 anos da rede pública do Município de Bilac, São Paulo, Brasil, em estudos realizados nos anos de 1998, 2000, 2002 e 2004. Utilizou-se a mesma metodologia (OMS-1997 em todos os levantamentos. O teste estatístico kappa foi calculado a cada estudo, obtendo-se o valor de concordância interexaminadores mínimo de 0,86 e máximo de 0,89, e intra-examinador mínimo de 0,91. O índice ceod diminuiu pouco nos anos de 1998 e 2004. Houve uma redução contínua do índice CPOD aos 12 anos, passando de 5,28 em 1998 para 4,11 em 2000, 3,47 em 2002 e 2,62 em 2004, e o fenômeno da polarização. Na proporção inversa, a porcentagem de crianças com 5 anos livres de cárie aumentou de 37,9% em 1998 para 40% em 2000 e 2002, e 45,3% em 2004. Conclui-se que está ocorrendo a redução da cárie dentária na faixa etária de 12 anos entre escolares do ensino público do município.This study analyzes the DMF and DEF indices, SiC index, and percentage of caries-free public schoolchildren in the municipality of Bilac, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2004. The same methodology was employed (WHO-1997 in all the surveys. Kappa test was carried out at each stage, and the minimal and maximum inter-examiner agreement values obtained were 0.86 and 0.89, respectively, while minimal intra-examiner agreement values were 0.91. DEF indices decreased slightly in the years 1998 and 2004. There was a continuous reduction in the DMF index, as well as the phenomenon of polarization at 12 years of age. The rate was 5.28 in 1998, decreasing to 4.11 in 2000, 3.47 in 2002, and 2.62 in 2004. Inversely, the proportion of caries-free 5-year-olds increased from 37.9% in 1998 to 40% in 2000 and 2002 and 45.3% in 2004. In conclusion, there has been a decrease in dental caries in 12 year-old public schoolchildren in the municipality.

  13. Mapeamento e Caracterização Ambiental das Áreas Apícolas dos Municípios de Mucajaí e Cantá do Estado de Roraima. Mapping and Environmental Description of Beekeeping Areas in Mucajaí and Cantá Municipalities of Roraima State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorvanir da S. Barros

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo mapear, identificar e caracterizar ambientalmente as áreas apícolas dos municípios de Mucajaí e Cantá do Estado de Roraima, a partir de informações referentes às cartas temáticas de geologia, geomorfologia, pedologia, vegetação, hidrografia, aptidão agrícola e informações da atividade apícola local. Um mapa básico destes municípios foi gerado, numa escala de 1:200.000 e 1:500.000, respectivamente, correlacionados com as cartas temáticas das áreas apícolas e localização dos apiários. Constatou-se que todas as áreas são favoráveis a exploração apícola, visto que, tanto em áreas inaptas e/ou restritas as culturas de ciclo curto e longo, da diversidade da vegetação, da rede de drenagem, contribuem para o desenvolvimento e ampliação da apicultura. Consubstanciando para cadastro dos apicultores junto ao Programa Nacional de Georeferenciamento das áreas apícolas do País, usufruindo dos benefícios de um sistema de informações geográficas (SIG, consolidando uma melhor alternativa de preservação das florestas em áreas com severas restrições a pecuária e a agricultura. Ressaltando que a exploração apícola engloba o tripé da sustentabilidade: O econômico, o social e o Ecológico. = This study aimed to map, identify and environmentally describe beekeeping areas of two municipalities in the state of Roraima, derived from information related to thematic maps on geology, geomorphology, pedology, vegetation, hydrography, agricultural capability and geopositioning of beekeeping areas. It was drawn a cartographic map of the two municipalities on the scales of 1:200.000 and 1:500.000, respectively, correlated with the thematic maps describing the apiculture areas. It appeared that all areas are in favor of holding beekeeping. So, those areas unfit and / or restricted to the short and long cycle culture, as well as those areas with a diversity of vegetation, and areas where a

  14. Aspectos ecológicos de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em área urbana do município de Ponta Porã, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Ecological aspects of Phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae in the urban area of Ponta Porã municipality, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Neste trabalho, realizou-se análise faunística de flebotomíneos e levantamento dos índices de infestações (intra e peridomicílio na área urbana de Ponta Porã/MS, de setembro de 2005 a agosto de 2007. MÉTODOS: As coletas foram realizadas com armadilhas automáticas luminosas do tipo CDC, instaladas mensalmente durante três noites consecutivas, das 18h às 6h. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 3.946 flebotomíneos, pertencentes a oito espécies, com amplo predomínio de Lutzomyia longipalpis, apresentando os maiores índices de frequência, constância, abundância e dominância. Do total capturado, 82,9% foram de machos e 17,1% fêmeas. A média mensal de machos capturados (136,29 ± 152,01 foi significativamente maior que o número médio de fêmeas. Embora não tenham sido constatadas diferenças significativas, verificou-se que a incidência média de flebotomíneos no peridomicílio foi maior do que no intradomicílio. Uma análise de correlação revelou que três variáveis ambientais medidas (temperatura máxima, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica, correlacionaram-se positivamente de forma significativa com a abundância de flebotomíneos. CONCLUSÕES: Constitui-se motivo de alerta a predominância de L. longipalpis no município de Ponta Porã, visto que implica na possibilidade de surtos de leishmaniose visceral na área, pois essa espécie é o principal vetor da Leishmania chagasi no estado bem como em outras localidades do Brasil.INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to carry out an analysis of urban phlebotomine fauna and a survey of infestations (intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary in Ponta Porã municipality State of Mato Grosso do Sul. METHODS: Sand flies were collected with automatic CDC light traps, installed monthly on three consecutive nights, from 18h to 6h, from September 2005 to September 2007. RESULTS: A total of 3,946 phlebotomines, representing eight species, were captured, among

  15. Epidemiologic features of HIV infection in three municipalities of inner Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Características epidemiológicas da infecção pelo HIV em três municípios do interior do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Eyer-Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil relatively little attention is being paid to the study of the features of the spread of the AIDS epidemic towards small cities and rural areas. We report a descriptive study on the epidemiological features of HIV infection among 208 adult patients seen between July 1999 and May 2006 in the municipal HIV/AIDS Programs of three cities of inner Rio de Janeiro State: Saquarema, Santo Antonio de Pádua and Miracema. A portrait of a heterosexual epidemic emerged, with an overall male to female ratio of 1.1. More than 90% were residents of the studied cities, demonstrating a local demand for HIV-related assistance and the importance of municipal HIV/AIDS Programs. Past or current use of snorted cocaine was reported by a quarter of the patients. Older age and male gender were independent predictors of having a diagnosis of AIDS at presentation. The latter is in accordance with a more recent wave of epidemic spread towards female gender. A low frequency of male circumcision, an important determinant of heterosexual HIV transmission, was recorded. Almost 60% of the patients first presented in advanced stages of HIV infection, suggesting the existence of a large pool of undiagnosed cases in the community.No Brasil, relativamente pouca atenção vem sendo dispensada ao estudo das características do avanço da epidemia de Aids em direção aos pequenos municípios e áreas rurais. Apresentamos um estudo descritivo sobre as características epidemiológicas da infecção pelo HIV entre 208 pacientes adultos atendidos entre julho de 1999 e maio de 2006 pelos Programas Municipais de HIV/Aids de três municípios do interior do Estado do Rio de Janeiro: Saquarema, Santo Antonio de Pádua, e Miracema. Os resultados delineiam uma epidemia de perfil heterossexual, com uma razão de sexos homem-mulher de 1,1. Mais de 90% eram residentes das cidades estudadas, demonstrando uma demanda local por assistência relacionada ao HIV e a importância dos Programas

  16. RESISTÊNCIA ANTI-HELMÍNTICA EM REBANHOS OVINOS DA REGIÃO DA ASSOCIAÇÃO DOS MUNICÍPIOS DO ALTO IRANI (AMAI, OESTE DE SANTA CATARINA ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE ON SHEEP FLOCKS FROM ASSOCIATION OF THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE ALTO IRANI REGION (AMAI, WEST OF SANTA CATARINA STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kelly Zanchet

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para conhecer a situação da resistência anti-hel-míntica em ovinos de propriedades localizadas nos mu-nicípios da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI, oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foram avalia-dos nove rebanhos pelo teste de redução da OPG (ovos por grama de fezes. Este teste consiste na comparação da média da OPG de um grupo de animais quatorze dias após o tratamento com a média de um grupo controle não-medicado. Consideraram-se efetivas as drogas capazes de reduzir a OPG em 95%. Os princípios ativos utilizados foram: levamisol (7,5 mg/kg, closantel (7,5 mg/Kg, al-bendazol (10 e 5 mg/Kg, ivermectin e moxidectin (0,2 mg/Kg. Detectou-se resistência dos nematódeos gastrin-testinais a todos os grupos anti-helmínticos testados, sen-do que 100% das propriedades apresentam resistência ao ivermectin; 66,7% ao moxidectin, 44,4% ao levamisol e 75% aos benzimidazóis. Para as lactonas macrocíclicas e benzimidazóis, tanto o gênero Haemonchus sp. quanto Trichostrongylus sp. apresentaram resistência. Para o le-vamisol, a resistência está restrita a Trichostrongylus sp. Também foi detectada a presença de uma população de Haemonchus sp. resistente ao closantel e uma de Nema-todirus sp. resistente ao albendazol. Estes dados mostram a urgência de difundir medidas de controle integrado de parasitoses, visando prolongar a vida  útil dos princípios ativos ainda disponíveis para uso.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Ovinos, resistência anti-helmíntica, Santa Catarina.

    In order to know the situation of the anthelmintic resistance in sheep farms in the municipalities of Asso-ciation of the municipalities of the High Irani Region - AMAI, West of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, nine flocks were submitted to the faecal egg counts reduction test (FECRT. This test consists in comparing the mean FEC of a group of sheep, 14 days after treatment with the mean FEC of a non-treated control group. Only drugs that could

  17. Management and Employee Sati sfaction in a Municipal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kambič

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Do knowledge and skills of the director of municipal administration have an influence on employee satisfaction? Purpose: To research the knowledge and skills, a leader needs to guide employees towards reaching a work place satisfaction and consequently towards higher effectiveness of the organization. Method: A case study on a smaller municipal administration based on an interview with the director of municipal administration on development of knowledge and skills; a questionnaire for determining leadership abilities and a questionnaire for measuring work satisfaction of employees in municipal administration. Results: The influence of knowledge and skills of the director of municipal administration on employee satisfaction. Organization: Organization that strives for success needs to devote special attention to people management. Satisfied employees are successful in their work assignments and consequently contribute to effectiveness of the organization. Society: The purpose of municipal administration is to fulfill the needs of its citizens as much as possible. A quality service for citizens as service users can only be provided by satisfied employees in the municipal administration. Originality: In the municipal administration of the studied municipality a research study on the influence of knowledge and skills of the leader on employee satisfaction has not been carried out yet, so this will serve as grounds for improvement of organizational climate in the organization. Limitations/further research: The director of municipal administration is the author’s subordinate. The municipal administration has only eight employees, which is a limited sample size even though all employees participated in the research study. In the future it would be wise to conduct a study with all three municipal administrations of the Bela krajina region, as this would provide a clearer picture of employee satisfaction in the municipalities of

  18. Municipal resources and patient outcomes through the first year after a hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruths, Sabine; Baste, Valborg; Bakken, Marit Stordal; Engesæter, Lars Birger; Lie, Stein Atle; Haugland, Siren

    2017-02-16

    Hip fractures represent major critical events for older people, and put huge demands on economic and personnel resources. Most hip fracture patients are in need of postoperative rehabilitation services. Through the Coordination Reform, the municipalities in Norway were given increased responsibility for community-based treatment and rehabilitation after surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between municipal resources and patient outcomes through the first year after a hip fracture, focusing on survival and health-related quality of life. We conducted a nationwide cohort study on people experiencing a hip fracture in 2011-2012 in Norway, with a 1-year follow-up. We obtained data on date of hip fracture, demographics, total morbidity (ASA) score, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-3 L), date of death if applicable, municipality of residence (Norwegian Hip Fracture Register), date of hospital readmission due to complications (Norwegian Patient Register), and information on municipalities' characteristics (Municipality-State-Reporting). The study population comprised 15,757 patients, mean age 80.8 years, 68.6% women. All-cause mortality was 8.6% at 30 days, and 25.3% at 12 months. Mortality was lower in the municipalities with the highest overall staff time for rehabilitation. A high proportion of the population aged 80+, was associated with low rates of self-reported anxiety/depression 12 months after surgery, as well as higher general health scores (EQ-5D VAS). There were no other differences in outcome according to rehabilitation resources, when comparing municipalities with the highest and lowest staffing. The study revealed no substantial impact of municipal resources on survival and health-related quality of life through the first year after a hip fracture. To evaluate major organizational changes and allocate resources according to best practice, there is a need to monitor health outcomes and use of resources over time through

  19. External evaluation in municipal level: The impacts of an experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Ferrarotto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The external evaluation is a consolidated reality in our country. Besides the state and federal ones, there are some municipalities that develop their own evaluation programs. To contribute with the debate about the external evaluations, this article presents data from a research which aim was to identify the actions from the Educational Secretariat from a city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, opposite to the results of PROMASE (Municipal Assessment of the Educational System and its impact in school’s units. It is still being analyzed the path taken by the program with the aim of explaining its conception of the teaching quality. This way, the qualitative research was chosen based on the interviews with the Educational Secretary, teachers and school’s managers. Accordingly with the Secretary, after PROMASE, actions since improvements in the buildings to curricular restructuring and continuing educational were made. Even without the rankings and performance payments, it is noticeable in schools the built of what is called “hidden” and “adjustment” rankings of the pedagogical and evaluative practices to the matrix and to the evaluative instrument of the program to improve the teaching quality and improve the index. For an evaluative system to bring contributions to the network, it is noticeable that the quality must be anchored to the social quality, which more than the index, establishes its own scale as a protagonist in the process of looking to itself, adverse to the blaming of the teachers for the standards tests results and that, consequently, favors the social, political, cultural and human formation of the students.

  20. Estudo dos fatores condicionantes do índice de desenvolvimento humano nos municípios do estado do Paraná: instrumento de controladoria para a tomada de decisões na gestão governamental Conditioning factors of the human development index of municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil: an accounting tool for public management decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Scarpin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aponta uma modelagem matemática para determinar o valor futuro do IDH-M para os municípios do Paraná, com base em dados contábeis atuais e outras variáveis. O referencial teórico abrange, entre outros, aspectos de externalidades e bens públicos, analisando as razões pelas quais são necessários investimentos públicos e também contempla aspectos sobre o cálculo do IDH-M. O artigo é baseado em uma pesquisa explicativa, e o instrumental utilizado é a análise de regressão, com regressões múltiplas a partir de 87 variáveis independentes, sendo 10 variáveis não-contábeis e 77 contábeis. Fica evidente que o IDH-M possui relação com as variáveis de IDH-M passado, distância em relação à capital, altitude, nível de população rural, receita tributária, despesa com pessoal, despesa com saúde e saneamento, investimentos e gastos com indústria e comércio.This article presents a mathematical model for determining the future valueof local HDI of municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on current accounting data and other variables. The theoretical framework considers externalities and public assets, analyzing the reasons why public investments are necessary, as well as how the HDI is calculated. This explanatory research uses regression analysis with multiple regressions of 87 independent variables, 10 of them non-accounting and 77 accounting variables. The tests showed that local HDI has relation with past local HDI variables, distance to the state capital, altitude, level of rural population, tax revenue, expenses with civil service personnel, public health and sanitation expenditure, investments and expenses with commerce and industry.

  1. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotos, G.; Karagiannidis, A.; Zampetoglou, S.; Malamakis, A.; Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings

  2. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Does municipal co-financing reduce hospitalisation rates in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten; Lærke Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To provide a preliminary answer to the question of whether the economic incentives introduced by the municipal co-financing of hospital services work as intended in the reform. Methods: This study is based on 30 statistical cross-section linear regressions, OLS, using data from Statistics...... Denmark (Statistikbanken) and the Municipal Financial Accounts. Supplemented by data from a survey study from municipal health managers in all municipalities of the country. Results: Despite the favourable conditions presented by the design of our analysis, it is not possible to demonstrate a clear link...... between local efforts and number of admissions from the municipalities. Conclusions: The study does not support one of the fundamental theoretical assumptions behind the municipal co-financing introduced in the 2007 structural reform in Denmark. While the study failed to establish systematic links between...

  4. Compliance audits in the federal funds programs of the municipalities of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis M. López

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The municipalities of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are eligible to receive funds from the federal government of the United States. This study presents a descriptive discussion of the federal funding received by these municipalities during fiscal years 2005 to 2009. The findings of the audits performed in connection with these funds are also discussed. The results indicate that the municipalities in the sample received an average of $8.2 million a year in federal funding. The municipality of San Juan, the capital city of Puerto Rico, received an average of $126.5 million a year and was largest recipient of federal funds during the sample period. The results also indicate that 72.99 percent of the audits disclosed reportable conditions and 31.02 percent disclosed material weaknesses. In addition,auditors issued a qualified opinion report on 33.69 percent of the conducted audits. Lastly, 53.15 percent of all audited funds are associated with programs that disclosed audit findings.

  5. Defining a Canadian approach to municipal consolidation in major city-regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lightbody

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Where there is a central government with an exclusive mandate over municipalities, along with a state executive structure using the Westminster model, then the consolidation of squabbling municipalities within metropolitan boundaries becomes a distinct possibility A general model of municipal restructuring for the Canadian metropolis is more widespread than the superficially unique circumstances of each case might suggest. The thinking here is informed by Clarence Stone’s urban regime model, which helps to clarify what influences constituted the political tipping point for central government action. The paper focuses primarily on the Toronto and Montreal city-regional municipal consolidations at the end of the last century. It is argued that the decisive element in setting the stage for significant change lay in the pervasive influence of corporate Canada in generally shaping provincial political discourse. What has not previously been of much interest for investigators is the matter of direct consequences for the low politics of city-regional governance. As will be seen, they were both tangible and considerable.

  6. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF GOAT PARATUBERCULOSIS IN FIVE MUNICIPALITIES OF CENTRAL VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Itzcoatl Martínez Herrera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of goat paratuberculosis and risk factors were determined in flocks from five municipalities in the center of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, by a cross-sectional study using a stratified multistage approach. Sample size was calculated with the program Win Episcope Version 2.0 using the mode "estimate percentages" for 50 % seroprevalence, 5 % error and 95 % confidence, resulting in 182 animals and six animals per flock. According to the tables by Cannon and Roe, a sample size of 26 flocks was obtained, of which six flocks were sampled in the municipality of Tlacolulan and five flocks in each of the remaining four municipalities (Chiconquiaco, Yecuatla, Coacoatzintla and Coatepec. Identification of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was made by indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence was determined with the program VassarStat® for calculating ratios, and the risk factors by odds ratio. Overall seroprevalence was 0.6 % (95 % CI: 0.03 - 3.5. Reactors were only observed in Coatepec. Seroprevalence by municipality was 20 % (95 % CI: 1.0 - 70.12 and by flock 3.85 % (95 % CI: 0.2 - 21.59. There were no risk or protective factors detected. In conclusion, goat paratuberculosis is scarcely distributed in flocks from central Veracruz.

  7. CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL CONTROL IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF FAIR SANTANA - BAHIA: THE DECENTRALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Lima Falcão do Vale

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of Brazil as a citizen tends to open spaces for democratic construction, so that with this organizing principle of society shall participate effectively in state actions. Thus, the goal of research is to understand the process of implementation of local health councils in the county. The study is exploratory and descriptive, using secondary data collected through document analysis. The period of data collection began in September 2012 until January 2013. The bill (PL that provides for the establishment of Local Health Councils (CLS was approved in 1999, but the following year the city suffers a setback in social control when, after new municipal management, the same PL was repealed. The apex of the discussions was the Municipal Health Conference VI moment it strengthens the idea of embedding the CLS in the municipality. In 2006 it is proposed to draw up a supplementary standard to ensure the inclusion of this event in the municipal health plan. Procedurally, the next actions are updates of directors and expansion of CLS. We consider the technical and political empowerment of the counselors are essential to respond to the needs of the community.

  8. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, P

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

  9. Social, Environmental, and Health Vulnerability to Climate Change: The Case of the Municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Quintão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to climate change is a complex and dynamic phenomenon involving both social and physical/environmental aspects. It is presented as a method for the quantification of the vulnerability of all municipalities of Minas Gerais, a state in southeastern Brazil. It is based on the aggregation of different kinds of environmental, climatic, social, institutional, and epidemiological variables, to form a composite index. This was named “Index of Human Vulnerability” and was calculated using a software (SisVuClima® specifically developed for this purpose. Social, environmental, and health data were combined with the climatic scenarios RCP 4.5 and 8.5, downscaled from ETA-HadGEM2-ES for each municipality. The Index of Human Vulnerability associated with the RCP 8.5 has shown a higher vulnerability for municipalities in the southern and eastern parts of the state of Minas Gerais.

  10. Study on Construction Technology of Municipal Road and Bridge Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fuyong

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous development of social economy and the accelerating process of urbanization, municipal road and bridge projects have also shown a trend of rapid development. Municipal road and bridge work can fully reflect the economic and cultural development level of cities and is also an important symbol of urban development. As a basic material of construction, concrete is widely used in engineering construction. This article will analyze the municipal road and bridge concrete construction technology, put forward corresponding measures.

  11. Perceived tourism impacts in municipalities with different tourism concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec Rudež, Helena; Vodeb, Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts in Koper and Piran municipality which are located on the Slovenian coast. The two municipalities have different tourism concentration defined as the ratio between the number of tourists and the number of residents. Specifically, the study attempts to explore differences between tourism impacts in the two municipalities. For the purpose of this study, tourism impacts are divided into economic, socio-cultural and environmental. Pr...

  12. A Business Case Method for IT Investments in Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2012-01-01

    Effective management of information technology (IT) investments is increasingly important for Danish municipalities. This is why they along with other both public and private sector organizations increasingly are using IT business cases. The business case is a document specifying the main rationale...... behind the expected value and cost of an IT investment for the adopting organization. However, experiences from Danish municipalities reveal difficulties in developing effective IT business cases for purposes beyond simple cost savings. Based on collaborative action research with Danish municipalities...

  13. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tourist valorization of the municipality of Negotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čučulović Rodoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to its physical-geographical and socio-economical characteristics, the municipality of Negotin belongs to the territories with favorable tourist potentials. In order to scientifically validate this fact, in this paper tourist valorization has been performed using quantitative-qualitative method, giving attractiveness ranking values, based on which conclusions have been made on the direction and forms of tourist potential. The results obtained from tourist valorization have shown that the hydrographic potential and fauna are rated as good (3, and have the highest general tourist value among natural resources. General values are graded as satisfactory (1.8 and the climate is graded as unsatisfactory (1.2. Valorization of anthropogenic characteristics gave the maximal general value (4 to cultural-historical objects including sacral objects - monasteries and churches and the Rajac pimnice. The Rajac pimnice have an especially high value, as they represent, for us, a unique value that can be considered in diverse ways and adjusted to tourist utilization. Based on the performed tourist valorization it can be noted that the general tourist value of the municipality of Negotin is of regional ranking, though anthropogenic potentials are of national ranking and part of them, as emphasized, are objects that are internationally important. The basic shortcoming is the low road quality leading to places of important tourist value, even though the road network is favorable, and there are also many weaknesses in the receptive tourist base. Improvement of these shortcomings would create a good image of the municipality of Negotin in continental tourism of the Republic of Serbia.

  15. CITIZENSHIP, DEMOCRACY Y DEMANDA OF NEW MUNICIPALITIES IN SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús López-Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the construction of citizenship and democracy in the cities of Eldorado in Culiacán municipality and Juan José Ríos in the Guasave municipality. In the processes, the following elements are present: the different social culture identities that it has built the citizens of rural communities and citizens who reside in main town of the municipality, feeling of injustice generated in largely of citizens by deficient municipality public service; and struggle for the extension and political rights. Analyzing the information provided by the social actors who have participated in these lawsuits is complemented.

  16. The characteristics to consider in municipal shared spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkoe, Rikke; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is through collaboration with practitioners to identify key characteristics of municipal shared spaces and, based on these, developing a guide for establishing a shared space in a municipal real-estate portfolio. Design/methodology/approach This paper builds...... to establishing a shared space in a municipal real-estate portfolio, created in collaboration between researchers and practitioners. It provides an introduction to the topic and outlines a number of tasks that must be completed in different parts of a project, thereby providing a tool which practitioners can use...... in a municipal real-estate portfolio....

  17. Early mathematics intervention in a Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Weng, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We describe a pilot project 2009 – 2010 about early intervention in second grade mathematics (about 8 years old) in Frederiksberg, a Danish urban municipality. We shortly describe the background of the pilot project, aims and organisation in four design cycles. We explore the pilot teachers......' feedback during the pilot process, how pilot teacher feedback was applied in material production, and the relations between the feedback and the project’s theoretical basis. The project is based on original theory (Math Holes theory), but international frameworks, like Mathematics Recovery, serve...

  18. Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  19. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...... is considered to be an effective strategy to promote such changes and increasingly such strategies become embedded organic supply polices and strategies that pursue environmental goals. The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look into the current status of the organic school meal programme in Denmark....... Three municipalities which are involved in the organic school meal programme are chosen as the study subjects....

  20. Escuela náutica municipal

    OpenAIRE

    Mejón Vandrell, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Qualificació obtinguda: 9 El proyecto se sitúa en la ciudad de Lisboa, en una zona de borde marítimo, frente al estuario del rio Tajo, la propuesta trata de desarrollar un club municipal náutico, el programa intenta dar respuesta y contenido a la función para la cual se dirige, pero también ser un revulsivo en la zona elegida, que sirva de impronta para un futuro crecimiento y disfrute. El lugar, nos da la oportunidad, de pensar en aquellas arquitecturas industriales que han albergad...

  1. AUDIT OF MUNICIPALITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS - THE CASE STUDY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Public economics examines the influence of the state on economic equality and efficiency, and on conduction of business entities in connection with the various tax systems and individual behavior in private consumption. To manage the public economy is thorough knowledge of the real decision-making and allocation mechanisms. From a budgetary perspective, the public economy in the Czech Republic is characterized mainly by the state budget, 6,249 municipal budgets and 14 budgets of local government units. These all units are together subject to annual statutory audit, which mainly represents the analysis of the system of the Audit informative and monitoring indicators (ASIMI. The paper analyzes the outcome of the audit with the use of absolute and relative indicators and suggests possible changes and consolidation of municipal and local government budgets in the Czech Republic.

  2. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: a shared input DEA-model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposed an adjusted "shared-input" version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. ► Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. ► Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted “shared-input” version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities’ cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  4. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Municipal hydraulic planning for energy saving; Planeacion hidraulica municipal para el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Garcia, Enrique [PTF S.C. Consultores, Leon, Gto. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The efficient handling of the economic and natural resources of the municipalities, is nowadays so much complex, that it requires a formal planning. In the public service of potable water supply, two fundamental approaches are conjugated to consider: the rational use of the water resource and the efficient use of the electrical energy, for its extraction from the underground deep reservoirs. In the paper that is presented, the individual features of the previous matters are described and the positive results in a municipality of the Guanajuato's Low Lands (Bajio ), where already the dual objectives are obtained and that with a more professional municipal hydraulic planning, these will be permanent, with the inherent benefit towards the population. [Spanish] El manejo eficiente de los recursos economicos y naturales de los municipios, es hoy en dia cada vez mas complejo, que requiere una planeacion formal. En el servicio publico de abastecimiento de agua potable, se conjugan dos enfoques primordiales a considerar: el uso racional del recurso agua y la utilizacion eficiente de la energia electrica, para su extraccion de los acuiferos subterraneos profundos. En el trabajo que se presenta, se describen las particularidades de lo anterior y los resultados positivos en un municipio del Bajio guanajuatense, donde ya se logran los objetivos duales y que con una planeacion hidraulica municipal mas profesional, estos seran permanentes, con el beneficio inherente hacia la poblacion.

  6. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  7. Ocorrência da Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Município de Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae in riverine communities of the Purus river, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de estimar as prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi e calcular taxa de infecção parasitária nos simulídeos. O trabalho foi realizado em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil. As prevalências foram obtidas por meio do método de gota espessa de sangue obtido por porção digital. Os simulídeos coletados foram dissecados para estimar a taxa de infecção parasitária. A prevalência de M. ozzardi foi de 27,3% (282/77. Foram observadas maiores prevalências nos homens (31,97% que nas mulheres (22,22%, nos agricultores (48% e nos indivíduos entre: 38-47 (60%, 48-57 (66,66% e 58-67 (75%. A microfilaremia foi maior nos indivíduos entre 58-67 anos (média = 58,41mf/40µL, sexo masculino (41,44mf/40µL e nos agricultores (49,94mf/40µL. Somente o simulídeo Cerqueirellum amazonicum foi encontrado infectado com taxa de infecção parasitária de 0,98%.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi and calculate the parasitic infection rate in simuliid blackflies. The research was conducted in communities on the Purus River, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Prevalence was measured using the thick smear method. Captured blackflies were dissected to verify the parasitic infection rate. M. ozzardi prevalence was 27.30% (77/282. The study showed higher prevalence in men (31.97% than women (22.22%, farmers (48.99%, and individuals in the 38-47 (60.00%, 48-57 (66.66%, and 58-67-year age brackets (75.00%. Microfilaremia was higher in individuals 58 to 67 years of age (average= 58.41mf/40µl, men (41.44mf/40µl, and farmers (49.94mf/40µl. Only the simuliid Cerqueirellum amazonicum was found infected with a parasitic infection rate of 0.98%.

  8. Autoavaliação de saúde bucal: resultados da Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde - Atenção Básica em quatro municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 2005 Self-rated oral health: results of the World Health Survey - Primary Care in four municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herika Luciana Chaves de Mendonça

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A autoavaliação da saúde é um indicador subjetivo que combina componentes físicos, emocionais e do bem-estar individual e vem adquirindo papel importante na área da Saúde Pública, sendo utilizado na avaliação do estado de saúde da população geral. Este trabalho objetivou estudar os cuidados assistenciais e o estado de saúde bucal, incluindo a autoavaliação, utilizando dados de 1.871 indivíduos, com 18 anos ou mais de idade, entrevistados na Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde - Atenção Básica, realizada em quatro municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no ano de 2005. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão logística binária para identificar os determinantes da autoavaliação de saúde bucal "excelente" ou "boa". Para ambos os sexos, as variáveis significativamente associadas à autoavaliação da saúde bucal foram: renda domiciliar per capita, frequência de visita odontológica e perda de dentes e uso de prótese. Os resultados evidenciam um gradiente socioeconômico na percepção subjetiva, uma precária saúde bucal entre os idosos e a importância da visita odontológica regular para manutenção da saúde bucal.Self-rated health is a subjective indicator that combines physical and emotional components and individual well-being. It has gained an important role in Public Health, with increasing use in the evaluation of the general population's health status. This study focuses on dental care and oral health status, including self-rated oral health, using data from 1,871 individuals 18 years or older, interviewed in World Health Survey - Primary Care, conducted in four municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the determinants of 'excellent' or 'good' self-rated oral health. For both men and women, variables significantly associated with self-rated oral health were: per capita family income, frequency of dental visits, tooth loss, and use of

  9. Estimativa da taxa de desmatamento do município de bannach, pará - amazônia legal, utilizando imagens landsat5/tm Estimation of deforestation rate in bannach municipality, pará state - amazon, using images landsat5/tm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Luna Arraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Amazônia, maior floresta tropical do planeta, apresenta uma superfície de aproximadamente 6,4 milhões de quilômetros quadrados na América do Sul e ocupa 63% do território Brasileiro. Devido ao desmatamento, o monitoramento dessas áreas se faz necessário, principalmente pelo avanço das fronteiras agrícolas. Assim, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo estimar a taxa de desmatamento anual e diária para o Município de Bannach, Pará, Brasil. Foram adquiridas imagens do satélite Landsat 5, sensor TM (Thematic Mapper, para os anos de 1997 a 2009. Utilizou-se a classificação supervisionada por Maximum Likelihood. O índice de exatidão global apresentou resultados superiores a 90% e índices Kappa superiores a 0,83 para todos os anos de estudo. Ao longo da série temporal, observa-se um aumento do desmatamento de forma contínua, acarretado principalmente pela pecuária.The Amazon, the planet’s largest rain forest, has an area of approximately 6.4 million square kilometers in South America and occupies 63% of the Brazilian territory. Due to deforestation, the monitoring of these areas is needed, mainly by the expansion of management of the productive farming process. Thus, this study aims to estimate the annual and daily rate of deforestation for the Municipality of Bannach, Para State, Brazil. The Landsat images, sensor 5 TM (Thematic Mapper from 1997 to 2009 years were used. The supervised classification by Maximum Likelihood was made for analysis the deforestation rate. The index showed an overall accuracy results above 90% and the Kappa index above 0.83 for all years of study. Therefore, throughout the series, there is an increase in deforestation continuously with mainly land use by livestock.

  10. Should large Spanish municipalities be financially compensated? Costs and benefits of being a capital/central municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Roca, Núria; Espasa Queralt, Marta; Montolio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We determine the costs and benefits of being a capital or central municipality, where central costs are understood to be incurred specifically as a result of the problems large municipalities located at the centre of an urban agglomeration face (including costs associated with social issues, immigration, commuting and diseconomies of scale) and capital costs result from the presence of regional and/or central government institutions in the municipality (loss of revenue or increase in expendit...

  11. Beneficial Use and Recycling of Municipal Waste Combustion Residues - A Comprehensive Resource Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, C.; Shepherd, P.

    1999-04-26

    This document summarizes information from worldwide sources on the beneficial use of residues from the combustion of municipal. The information presented, including results of numerous research projects, field demonstrations, and actual full-scale projects, demonstrates that the ash can be safely used. It includes data on ash characteristics, environmental considerations, guidance on selected ash use applications, and information on federal and state regulations and policies affecting ash use.

  12. The Search for the Solution of Personnel Problems of Municipal Service in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вадим Вадимович Кушнир

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of a current state of personnel base of municipal service in Russia. The circle of the main problems is outlined, a number of effective technologies and the options promoting their permission are offered. The separate attention is paid to a question of formation of a personnel reserve of the young specialists who have ended higher educational institutions, a technique of selection of highly skilled employees.

  13. Interaction of Degradation, Deformation and Transport Processes in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Bente, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a model for the complex interactions between deformation, degradation and transport processe in municipal solid waste landfills is presented. Key aspects of the model are a joint continuum mechanical framework and a monolithic solution of the governing equations within the Theory of Porous Media. Interactions are considered by coupling the governing physical fields over the domain of a representative elementary volume via selected state variables. A simplified two-stage degrada...

  14. Community participation in waste minimization : the case of Emfuleni Local Municipality / Nompazamo Alma Ludidi

    OpenAIRE

    Ludidi, Nompazamo Alma

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand factors contributing to successes and challenges in community participation especially in waste minimization initiatives; in order to inform policies and contribute to improve the design of the initiative. The objectives of the research are: firstly, to understand the current state of public participation in waste minimization at Emfuleni Local Municipality. Secondly, it is to determine the extent of willingness of the community to participate in ...

  15. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Do Municipal Governments Need More Tax Powers? A Background Paper on Municipal Finance in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville McMillan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in Alberta have faced considerable and variable challenges over the past 60 years. For example, the rapid population and economic growth during the 1950s, ’60s and ’70s created exceptional demands for schools, schooling and municipal infrastructure; demands exceeding those of the last 30 years. Local and especially municipal financing has relied heavily on the property tax throughout. Questions are being asked today about whether the property tax is sufficient for municipal government. Our historical analysis provides insights into the fiscal situation of Alberta’s municipalities that can assist in addressing those questions. The main findings are highlighted here. We conclude that current demands, though considerable, are not creating stress on the property tax as a source of municipal revenue. • The property tax burden in Alberta during the past decade is the lowest that it has been over the past 60 years. Presently, property taxes are about 3.5 per cent of personal income. They were as high as seven per cent during much of the 1960s and averaged in the four to five per cent range from 1950 to 2000. Local and provincial school taxes were responsible for most of the fluctuations in the property tax burden. Municipal property taxes ranged from two to three per cent of personal incomes and recently amounted to about 2.5 per cent, a level typical of that over the past 20 years. • Investment in local infrastructure has over the past 30 years been at half the rate of that of the previous 30 years. Only since 2006, with the assistance of provincial capital grants, has infrastructure spending shown upward movement. Capital spending lagged population growth for many years and probably contributed to a deterioration of infrastructure. • Municipal current or operating expenditures (about three-quarters of the total have been a declining share of personal incomes since the late 1980s and, since 2000, are a smaller share than

  17. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day

  18. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurasova, O.I.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology

  19. Ultraviolet disinfection of treated municipal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Laan, H; Cairns, B

    1993-12-31

    A wastewater disinfection system developed by a Canadian company, Trojan Technologies Inc., was discussed. Disinfection for pathogen reduction prior to discharge of treated municipal wastewater back into rivers and lakes has been either ignored or treated by the use of chemicals. In 1979 the first pilot ultraviolet (UV) wastewater disinfection system was established. Since then, over 500 municipal UV installations have been commissioned. The largest installation can process 212 million gallons of water per day. The advantages of UV as a disinfectant are: (1) It is more effective than chlorine. (2) There are no mutagenic/carcinogenic byproducts formed with UV. (3) No toxic chemical residuals are discharged. (4) UV is safe to both the operators and the public. (5) It is cost effective. Europe has not been as active in wastewater disinfection as has North America. One result of the absence of wastewater disinfection in Europe is that the Rhine River, for example, carries 50 million salmonella per second. Disinfection of wastewater effluents is, of course, indispensable in protecting our drinking water supply. 2 figs.

  20. Capilla del Hospital Municipal de Mannheim, Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutschler, C.

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available This building was completed when the Municipal Hospital of Mannheim was enlarged and became a Faculty of Medicine. It serves equally well for catholic and protestant religious services. The visitor reaches the church after traversing a gently inclined path: the main feature that holds his attention on entering is the altar and sacristy zone. Advancing up a ramp a gallery is reached, which enables sick people on wheelchairs, or in beds, to participate in the liturgical acts. The main materials utilised have been untreated brick and concrete.Construida a raíz de la ampliación del Hospital Municipal de Mannheim y su conversión en Facultad de Medicina, sirve indistintamente para la celebración de los actos litúrgicos de ambas confesiones. El visitante, por un camino suavemente inclinado, ingresa en el interior del edificio, cuyo núcleo focal está constituido por la zona del altar y las sacristías. Subiendo por una rampa se accede a una galería que permite el que los enfermos, en sillones con ruedas, o en Ja cama, etc., puedan participar desde allí en los actos litúrgicos. Los materiales fundamentales empleados son: ladrillo a cara vista y hormigón, igualmente visto.

  1. Environmental factors and elements of Ljig municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljanović Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the basic natural and social-geographic factors are analyzed, with the aim to identify their influence on the environmental status. Qualitative assessment are attempted about the various elements of the environment, and attention directed to the problems of noise, and problems of communal waste disposal. A synthetic presentation of the environmental status in the municipality of Ljig is given. The territory of Ljig has been spatially differentiated, namely, it has been categorized according to the degree of pollution. High concentration of the population, and activities, in the town Ljig itself has produced a degradation worse than in the other settlements. On the other hand, the settlements in which is situated the locationally non-flexible industry (quarrying and processing of stone are facing problems of other sort. In the villages, however, which are slowly becoming depopulated, the quality of the environment is satisfactory. In accordance with such facts, revealed about the environmental status, basic aims have been defined as to how to protect the environment in the future. For the realization of environmental aims, various measures and activities are being proposed, with the purpose to improve the situation in the threatened zones, and to safeguard the quality of the environment on the entire municipal territory of Ljig.

  2. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  3. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasova, O I [Institut Obshchej i Kommunal' noj Gigieny, Moscow (USSR)

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology.

  4. Synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukuru, Godefroid; Jian, Yang

    2005-01-01

    A study on a pilot plant accomplishing synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization was conducted at a municipal sewerage treatment plant. Stabilization of sewerage and sludge is achieved in three-step process: anaerobic reactor, roughing filter and a microbial-earthworm-ecofilter. The integrated ecofilter utilizes an artificial ecosystem to degrade and stabilize the sewerage and sludge. When the hydraulic retention time(HRT) of the anaerobic reactor is 6 h, the hydraulic load(HL) of the bio-filter is 16 m3/(m2 x d), the HL of the eco-filter is 5 m3/(m2 x d), the recycle ratio of nitrified liquor is 1.5, the removal efficiency is 83%-89% for COD(Cr), 94%-96% for BOD5, 96%-98% for SS, and 76%-95% for NH3-N. The whole system realizes the zero emission of sludge, and has the characteristics of saving energy consumption and operational costs.

  5. Cluster Interaction of Enterprise Structures in Housing Sector of Municipalities in Ensuring Improvement of Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelin Mikhail, D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of modernization and greening of business activity is considered in the paper. This process requires in terms of the development dynamics of Russian regions, the implementation of directed towards the modern transformation of the municipal infrastructure in the region, which allows to transform the reform processes on different objects to achieve well-being in the Russian regions from the perspective of state interests, business and civil society. The effective direction for the modernization of the system to ensure the regional social-economic development is the creation of our proposed mechanism of cluster interaction of state and business structures in the sphere of housing and communal services of municipalities. Therefore, in this study, an analysis of the directions of state support for the development of cluster cooperation in the sphere of housing and communal services of municipalities, aimed at achieving a multiplier effect, in the exercise of entrepreneurial activity in the region socially significant areas, in particular - in the landscaping and planting areas is carried out.

  6. HIV infection and AIDS in a small municipality in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyer-Silva Walter A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies on the aspects of HIV infection in small Brazilian municipalities are invaluable to appropriately design control strategies, better allocate resources, and improve health care services. The objective of the study was to assess the clinical and epidemiological aspects of HIV infection in a small municipality. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in Miracema, a small municipality in the northwestern area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between July 1999 and December 2003. All HIV-infected adult patients followed up at the local HIV/AIDS Program were included. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics were prospectively assessed through standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 65 adult patients who attended the local HIV/AIDS Program were analyzed. Most (34 were women (male to female ratio: 0.9. An absolute predominance of patients who were born in Miracema or neighboring municipalities (94%, lived in Miracema (90.7%, were single (70.8%, attributed the acquisition of HIV infection to unprotected heterosexual intercourse (72.3% and had a past history of snorting cocaine (27.7 was found Central nervous system disorders (including five cases of cryptococcal meningitis and acute pulmonary pneumocystosis-like respiratory failure were major causes of morbidity. Most patients (56.9% were at presented in advanced stages of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of patients on advanced stages of HIV infection suggest the existence of a large pool of undiagnosed cases in the community. A major feature of the cohort was an inverted male to female ratio. Further investigations over a broader geographic area are urgently needed for better understanding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in small Brazilian municipalities and rural areas.

  7. HIV infection and AIDS in a small municipality in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A Eyer-Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies on the aspects of HIV infection in small Brazilian municipalities are invaluable to appropriately design control strategies, better allocate resources, and improve health care services. The objective of the study was to assess the clinical and epidemiological aspects of HIV infection in a small municipality. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in Miracema, a small municipality in the northwestern area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between July 1999 and December 2003. All HIV-infected adult patients followed up at the local HIV/AIDS Program were included. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics were prospectively assessed through standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 65 adult patients who attended the local HIV/AIDS Program were analyzed. Most (34 were women (male to female ratio: 0.9. An absolute predominance of patients who were born in Miracema or neighboring municipalities (94%, lived in Miracema (90.7%, were single (70.8%, attributed the acquisition of HIV infection to unprotected heterosexual intercourse (72.3% and had a past history of snorting cocaine (27.7 was found Central nervous system disorders (including five cases of cryptococcal meningitis and acute pulmonary pneumocystosis-like respiratory failure were major causes of morbidity. Most patients (56.9% were at presented in advanced stages of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of patients on advanced stages of HIV infection suggest the existence of a large pool of undiagnosed cases in the community. A major feature of the cohort was an inverted male to female ratio. Further investigations over a broader geographic area are urgently needed for better understanding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in small Brazilian municipalities and rural areas.

  8. Predicting the calorific value of refuse derived fuel from the characteristics of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Norasalwa Zakaria; Khaironie Mohd Takip; Rohyiza Ba'an

    2006-01-01

    The Imposing need to manage the municipal solid waste generated by society in a proper manner has urged municipalities to look into new management methods, which are not only environmentally friendly but also economically profitable. One such way is by converting this waste material into fuel. Currently, Kajang in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, generates about 700 tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) a day. Due to rapid development, lack of land area for new landfill and the environmental impact of raw landfills, the local municipal council has collaborated with a local company in the management of this waste. The company has proposed to convert the MSW to Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). In view of this, a pilot plant to convert MSW to RDF was erected by the company and begun operation in January 2002. This pilot plant has the capability of converting 15 tons of MSW to 5 tons of RDF. At the same time studies, have been carried out to assess the plant performance, the flue gas analysis, and also the MSW and RDF characteristic. This paper will highlight the findings of the MSW and RDF characterization work carried out over the past year. Sampling and analysis was carried in accordance with ASTM standards. Results of the waste analysis showed that the calorific value of the resulting RDF could be predicted from the physical characteristics as well as the moisture content. Regression analysis on the available data has been used to create equations relating the proximate composition and moisture content of the incoming municipal solid waste to the calorific value of the RDF

  9. A política municipal de saúde em dados: a experiência da pesquisa municipal unificada - PMU 1992, 1995 e 1997 da fundação SEADE The municipal health policy in data: the unified municipal research experience - PMU 1992, 1995 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Pereira da Silva

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção e a disseminação de informações municipais vêm assumindo papel cada vez mais estratégico enquanto instrumento de gerenciamento dos sistemas municipais de saúde e de subsiadiador do diálogo entre o poder central, os setores estaduais e a prefeitura municipal. Com o objetivo de disponibilizar e divulgar informações que procuram valorizar o SUS municipal, foi feita uma pesquisa nos 645 municípios paulistas, cujos resultados foram sistematizados em produto eletrônico com 11 temas. A divulgação de um painel de informações revela que os municípios têm-se adequado aos princípios do SUS. Os resultados também indicam que a necessidade da informação como ferramenta de gestão vem envolvendo, cada vez mais, os responsáveis pelas políticas de saúde. As informações coletadas e disponibilizadas no tema Saúde suprem lacunas de pesquisas primárias que não abordam os 645 municípios do Estado; estas informações e as dos demais temas possibilitam o desenho de um panorama intersetorial de cada um dos municípios.Production and dissemination of municipal information have played an increasingly strategic role as management tools of municipal health systems and dialogue subsidizer among federal authorities, state sectors and municipal authorities. Research was carried out in 645 cities in the State of São Paulo and the results systematized in an electronic product with 11 topics. Its purpose was to make information available and disseminate information that values the municipal SUS. The promotion of an information board reveals that the cities have adjusted to SUS principles. The results also indicate that the need to have information as a management tool is increasingly involving those responsible for health policies. Information gathered and conveyed in the topic. Health topic fills gaps of primary research that did not cover the 645 cities of the State. This information and data on other topics enable the design of an

  10. The development of a municipal water conservation and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Municipalities often fail to realise that most WC/WDM activities will pay for themselves and that financial institutions will fund these projects if a proper business case could be compiled. Ironically municipalities have complained that they are unable to obtain funding while most financial institutions complain that they cannot ...

  11. Moss as Indicator of Heavy Metals Pollution in Kano Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-09-23

    Sep 23, 2015 ... Metals accumulation was determined in moss specie funaria hygrometrica collected from industrial and neighbouring residential .... of Lead in street dust to index its pollution in. Kano municipality. Spectrum journal, 1: 94-. 97. Sharada. Bompai. City campus Kano municipal. Zoo Road. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30.

  12. Probabilistic assessment of wildfire hazard and municipal watershed exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Scott; Don Helmbrecht; Matthew P. Thompson; David E. Calkin; Kate Marcille

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of wildfires within municipal watersheds can result in significant impacts to water quality and ultimately human health and safety. In this paper, we illustrate the application of geospatial analysis and burn probability modeling to assess the exposure of municipal watersheds to wildfire. Our assessment of wildfire exposure consists of two primary...

  13. Monograph of Keçiören Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Zafer Şahin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, urban administration can be defined from a judicial perspective as the bundle of powers vested in municipalities. It is known that throughout republican history, municipalities, using these powers, have differentiated themselves via their own internal dynamics in parallel to the evolution of public policy and changes in legislation. Yet, it is obvious that there are important gaps in understanding this differentiation taking into consideration the structural conditions of individual municipalities. In particular, in order to thoroughly understand municipalities, it is important to consider periodical pictures of how each municipality has been affected by waves of decentralization and centralization experienced over the last thirty years. In this respect, this monograph, using the same monographic approach developed for the Çankaya Municipality, provides a picture of the existing situation of Ankara’s Keçiören Municipality and presents related problems and potential. This monograph, based on qualitative and quantitative research, presents a holistic evaluation of Keçiören Municipality in terms of its external environment, provision of services, decision-making processes, use of technology and communications.

  14. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  15. ESCO in Danish municipalities: Basic, integrative or strategic approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Balslev Nielsen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    , energy savings, type of collaboration etc. Background: Since 2008, several Danish municipalities have started energy retrofitting of municipal buildings, based on contracts with Energy Service Companies. In spite of the strong growth of ESCOs, there is also widespread scepticism about ESCO, as many...

  16. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  17. Implementation of health impact assessment in Danish municipal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Stella Rebecca Johnsdatter; Nikolajsen, Louise Theilgaard; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Danish municipalities has been analyzed using the Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Municipalities were chosen from among those who presented their health policies on websites according to the status of inclusion of HIA into health policy. Qualitative interviews were conducted in 6 municipalities (3 with HIA inducted in their health policy and 3 without it) gathering information on knowledge and attitudes to HIA, barriers to its implementation, social system and communication channels used or expected to be used for implementation of HIA. No significant differences were found among analyzed municipalities by status of HIA inclusion into health policy. Among barriers; a lack of tools with general validity, a lack of intersectoral working culture, balance between centralized versus participatory way of working and organizational structure of a municipality, and a lack of capacities were enlisted as most relevant. The last one is a crucial factor of an internal social system of a municipality. With regards to communication channels, reporting and presentation skills of implementers and doers are of key importance. Systematic and sustainable capacity building is needed to achieve high level implementation of HIA in Danish municipalities. Development of validated tools, most importantly screening tools with focus on priorities of national public health policy would enhance implementation on municipal level.

  18. Factors affecting the job satisfaction of municipal sport officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To prevent the voluntary turnover of their employees, municipalities have the obligation to ensure that the needs and expectations of these employees are satisfied. The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the job satisfaction of municipal sport officers. Using a quantitative approach, a questionnaire was ...

  19. Evaluation of the environmental noise levels in Abuja Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the equivalent noise level (Leq) in Abuja municipality and promote a simple method for regular assessment of Leq within our environment. Methods: This is a cross-sectional community based study of the environmental Leq of Abuja municipality conducted between January 2014 and January 2016.

  20. A mathematical model of combustion kinetics of municipal solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Municipal Solid Waste has become a serious environmental problem troubling many cities. In this paper, a mathematical model of combustion kinetics of municipal solid waste with focus on plastic waste was studied. An analytical solution is obtained for the model. From the numerical simulation, it is observed that the ...

  1. Compaction and packaging of dry active municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Xi Xinmin

    1994-01-01

    The authors present the feature of a compaction system for active municipal wastes and the radiological monitoring results of workplace and environment. A variety of dry active municipal wastes could be compacted by this system. Volume reduction factor attained to 5 to 7 for soft wastes and 8 to 13 for hard wastes. No evident radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  2. Avaliação da qualidade da fluoretação de águas de abastecimento público em 88 municípios da região Nordeste do estado de São Paulo (Brasil | Quality Assessment of fluoridation of public water supply in 88 municipalities in the Northeast region of the state of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Dovidauskas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Durante um ano, o Núcleo de Ciências Químicas e Bromatológicas do Centro de Laboratório Regional do Instituto Adolfo Lutz de Ribeirão Preto (SP, Brasil aumentou o número de amostras de águas de abastecimento público analisadas para concentração de fluoreto em relação ao que é normalmente solicitado por 88 Vigilâncias Sanitárias Municipais do Nordeste do estado de São Paulo (Brasil. Objetivo: Verificar se os valores dos Indicadores de Fluoretação variam quando se aumenta o número de amostras analisadas e avaliar a qualidade da fluoretação na região. Método: Fluoreto foi determinado por cromatografia de íons em amostras coletadas pelas Vigilâncias Sanitárias. Resultados: Os valores dos Indicadores de Fluoretação obtidos nas duas amostragens (das Vigilâncias e as ampliadas foram similares para a maioria dos casos. O mapeamento indicou um maior número de municípios com indicadores maiores que 80% nos Departamentos Regionais de Saúde de Barretos e Franca, enquanto nos de Araraquara e Ribeirão Preto prevalecem indicadores menores que 40%. Conclusões: Investimento e assessoria técnica são insuficientes para elevar os indicadores a valores acima de 80% em municípios com populações pequenas. Para os casos em que os valores são menores que 40% sugere-se uma abordagem baseada na similaridade entre municípios para se aumentar esses valores. ========================================== Introduction: During 1 year, the Núcleo de Ciências Químicas e Bromatológicas do Centro de Laboratório Regional do Instituto Adolfo Lutz de Ribeirão Preto (SP, Brasil has increased the number of public water supply samples analyzed for fluoride concentration in relation to what is usually requested by 88 Municipal Sanitary Surveillance of Northeast State of São Paulo (Brazil. Objective: To verify if fluoridation indicators values will vary when increasing the number of samples analyzed and to assess the quality of

  3. Implementation of health impact assessment in Danish municipal context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella R. J.; Nikolajsen, Louise Theilgaard; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    . Conclusions: Systematic and sustainable capacity building is needed to achieve high level implementation of HIA in Danish municipalities. Development of validated tools, most importantly screening tools with focus on priorities of national public health policy would enhance implementation on municipal level.......Aims: Implementation of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Danish municipalities has been analyzed using the Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Municipalities were chosen from among those who presented their health policies on websites according to the status of inclusion of HIA into health...... policy. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted in 6 municipalities (3 with HIA inducted in their health policy and 3 without it) gathering information on knowledge and attitudes to HIA, barriers to its implementation, social system and communication channels used or expected to be used...

  4. Obtenção e uso das plantas medicinais no distrito de Martim Francisco, Município de Mogi-Mirim, SP, Brasil Acquisition and use of medicinal plants in Martim Francisco district, Mogi Mirim Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Andrea Curitiba Pilla

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um inventário das plantas medicinais conhecidas e usadas pela população do distrito de Martim Francisco, Município de Mogi-Mirim, SP, bem como conhecer seus empregos e sua importância na comunidade. Foram amostradas aleatoriamente 50 unidades domiciliares. Apenas um dos adultos responsáveis pela casa (homem ou mulher foi entrevistado, através de questionários. As plantas citadas foram coletadas e fotografadas paralelamente à aplicação dos questionários. O material botânico foi identificado e depositado no Herbarium Rioclarense (HRCB. Ao todo, foram catalogadas 107 espécies botânicas, predominantemente herbáceas e cultivadas, distribuídas em 40 famílias, sendo as famílias Lamiaceae e Asteraceae as mais representativas. Os índices de diversidade (H' = 4,07; e = 0,87 foram altos, se comparados aos obtidos em outros trabalhos no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Na preparação dos remédios, as folhas foram a parte da planta mais utilizada e a decocção a principal forma de preparo. A via oral foi a mais empregada para a administração dos medicamentos e as doenças mais freqüentemente tratadas por remédios caseiros referem-se aos Sistemas Digestivo e Respiratório. Não existe um rigor na posologia e na duração do tratamento, ficando este a critério do hábito de cada pessoa entrevistada. As plantas que apresentaram índice de importância relativa e concordância de uso acima de 60% foram: boldo (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, hortelã (Mentha sp. 2 e poejo (Cunila microcephala Benth..The aim of this work was to do an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants known and used by people in the Martim Francisco district, Mogi Mirim Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, as well as to investigate their application and importance for the community. A questionnaire was applied to a random sample of 50 households; in each, one adult (male

  5. Uso e diversidade de plantas medicinais da Caatinga na comunidade rural de Laginhas, município de Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (Nordeste do Brasil Use and diversity of medicinal plants from Caatinga in the rural community of Laginhas, Caicó Municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State (Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Roque

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar as formas de uso de plantas medicinais nativas do bioma Caatinga, em comunidade rural no município de Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (Nordeste do Brasil. Utilizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas e estruturadas buscando informações, junto a especialistas locais, sobre o uso das plantas. São descritos os usos medicinais de 62 espécies, reportadas por 12 informantes (mateiros, rezadeiras, raizeiros, agricultores e donas-de-casa com idade superior a 35 anos. As famílias com maior representatividade na consulta foram Fabaceae (13 spp., Euphorbiaceae (6 spp. Cactaceae (3 spp. e Lamiaceae (3 spp.. Para revelar as espécies mais importantes foi considerado o grau de consenso entre as respostas dos informantes. A aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão e o cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemão A. C. Sm. destacaram-se como as espécies com o maior número de citações, sendo estas também as que obtiveram o maior número de indicações de usos terapêuticos. As cascas e as raízes foram as partes predominantemente consumidas. Os dados levantados por esta pesquisa evidenciaram uma diversidade de espécies da flora seridoense com potencial medicinal e reforçam a importância que a biodiversidade tem sobre as comunidades rurais, viabilizando o início do estudo de manejo da vegetação local.The present study aimed to identify the different uses of medicinal plants native to Caatinga biome in a rural community from Caicó Municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Semi-structured and structured interviews with local specialists were used to collect information about the use of such plants. The medicinal uses of 62 species were described by 12 informants (woodsmen, faith healers, herb doctors, farmers and housewives older than 35 years. The most representative families reported in the survey were Fabaceae (13 spp, Euphorbiaceae (6 spp., Cactaceae (3 spp., and Lamiaceae (3 spp.. The degree of

  6. Índice de Competitividad Municipal 2013: Metodología para su construcción basada en Análisis Factorial y su aplicación en municipios urbanos en México || Municipal Competitiveness Index 2013: Methodology of definition based on Factorial Analysis and application to Mexican urban municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Peón, Sylvia Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El documento presenta una descripción detallada de la metodología para construir el Índice de Competitividad Municipal 2013 para México. El índice es calculado utilizando una metodología basada en Análisis Factorial y compara el desempeño de 96 municipios pertenecientes a 24 zonas metropolitanas en diferentes estados de la República Mexicana. El índice incluye 61 variables agrupadas en cuatro dimensiones o subíndices: Económica, Institucional, Socio-demográfica y Urbano Ambiental. El Índice de Competitividad Municipal es el promedio de los cuatro índices. Los resultados muestran evidencia de que los municipios pertenecientes a la zona metropolitana de Monterrey son los que en general tienen más alta posición en el ranking de competitividad y resaltan la necesidad de una mayor cooperación y coordinación intermunicipal para mejorar la competitividad de aquellos municipios que pertenecen a una misma zona metropolitana. El estudio se enfoca particularmente en el análisis de los factores de cada dimensión de la competitividad para los municipios del Estado de Puebla incluidos en la muestra. || This paper presents a detailed explanation of the methodology to construct the Municipal Competitiveness Index 2013 for Mexico. The index is calculated using a methodology based on Factor Analysis and compares the performance of 96 municipalities belonging to 24 metropolitan areas in different States of the Mexican Republic. The index includes 61 variables grouped into four dimensions or sub-indexes: Economic, Institutional, Socio-demographic and Urban-environmental. The Municipal Competitiveness Index is the average of the four indexes. The results show evidence that municipalities of Monterrey metropolitan area are, in general, the ones with higher position in the competitiveness ranking, and highlight the need of inter-municipal cooperation and coordination in order to improve competitiveness of those municipalities belonging to a common

  7. Assessing the vulnerability of Brazilian municipalities to the vectorial transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi using multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhaes, Márcio Costa; de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Reis, Priscilleyne Ouverney; de Lacerda Sousa, Ana Carolina; Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; da Costa, Veruska Maia; Alves, Renato Vieira; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2014-09-01

    Despite the dramatic reduction in Trypanosoma cruzi vectorial transmission in Brazil, acute cases of Chagas disease (CD) continue to be recorded. The identification of areas with greater vulnerability to the occurrence of vector-borne CD is essential to prevention, control, and surveillance activities. In the current study, data on the occurrence of domiciliated triatomines in Brazil (non-Amazonian regions) between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed. Municipalities' vulnerability was assessed based on socioeconomic, demographic, entomological, and environmental indicators using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Overall, 2275 municipalities were positive for at least one of the six triatomine species analyzed (Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma infestans, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma rubrovaria, and Triatoma sordida). The municipalities that were most vulnerable to vector-borne CD were mainly in the northeast region and exhibited a higher occurrence of domiciliated triatomines, lower socioeconomic levels, and more extensive anthropized areas. Most of the 39 new vector-borne CD cases confirmed between 2001 and 2012 in non-Amazonian regions occurred within the more vulnerable municipalities. Thus, MCDA can help to identify the states and municipalities that are most vulnerable to the transmission of T. cruzi by domiciliated triatomines, which is critical for directing adequate surveillance, prevention, and control activities. The methodological approach and results presented here can be used to enhance CD surveillance in Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Port Hope area initiative from municipal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.

    2006-01-01

    'Full text:' This paper explores the Municipal perspective of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The PHAI is unique in that it emerged from proposals to the Federal Government and subsequently a tri-partite agreement between the Federal Government and the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington for the cleanup and management of historic low-level radioactive wastes in long-term waste management facilities in their Municipalities. A key feature of the Port Hope Project is the remediation of many major and small scale sites in the urban area. As part of this Legal Agreement, each Municipality is required to give consent at key milestones for the project to proceed to the next stage. In addition, the Municipality also has veto authority if the preferred option is changed by the federal government during its final review. The Agreement also ensures that the Municipalities have the resources to conduct an independent assessment of the work completed by the federal proponent and to advise the Municipality on related matters. While this Legal Agreement provides the Municipalities with influence over the outcome of the EA and the project description, especially when compared with the typical role of municipalities in other Federal EAs, there are many challenges that Port Hope faces as partner in this process. These include: Balancing Port Hope's interests with those of the Federal Government; Reaching agreement on how clean the remediation sites should be; Considering the interests of future generations while meeting the needs of existing residents; Ensuring that the Project will have a positive legacy for Port Hope; Ensuring that institutional controls are in place and that Port Hope has a partnership role in monitoring the Project performance during the Construction Phase and the long term Maintenance and Monitoring Phase. In this context, this paper presents the unique aspects of the Municipal involvement in the process to finally achieve a safe, environmentally

  9. Evaluation of the groundwater Hydric resources of the Guarani Aquifer System from Municipality of Araguari, Minas Gerais Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegasse Velasquez, L. . E- mail: menegasse@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br; De Carvalho Filho, C.; Costa Camargos, C. .E- mail: cacf@cdtn.br; E- mail: rena@cpd.ufmt.br

    2007-01-01

    The municipality of Araguari, with a total territorial area of 2.745.85 km2, is located in the western border of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and is situated at the northeastern limit of the Guarani Aquifer System-GAS. This work intends to increase the knowledge of the quantitative potencial and of the dynamics of the GAS in the Municipality bythe development of the following technical activities: elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeologic model of the GAS in the municipality; evaluation of the groundwater recharge; evaluation of groundwater reserves and resources; hydrochemical characterization; investigacion of the provenance and dynamics of groundwater by means of the stable isotopes analysis; elaboration of a hydrogeologic mathematical model of Bauru Aquifer; and evaluation of the natural vulnerability of Bauru Aquifer to anthropic pollution

  10. Partnerships between Dutch municipalities and municipalities in countries of migration to the Netherlands; knowledge exchange and mutuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, E.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a growing number of Dutch municipalities have established relations with local governments in the countries of migration to the Netherlands (e.g. Turkey, Suriname and Morocco). In addition to strengthening local governance and improving service delivery in the partner municipalities,

  11. Fiscal Instruments for the Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSW in the Mexican Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Mendezcarlo Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation (municipal waste in the cities is, as we all know, one of the main current environmental issues. Responsibility for this kind of pollution is not only the companies’ but also the homeowners’ and the general public’s, who must redirect their behavior towards a responsible consumption, not only regarding the choices of environmentally friendly products and services but should also strive to influence the reduction of environmental damage caused by the waste itself.  The goal of this research work is to make clear that the local government (in Mexico’s case, the municipalities has the unavoidable duty of raising awareness of this issue by using tools to encourage responsible waste management, such as fiscal instruments, which in addition results in the extra benefit of raising public funds to neutralize the problem. 

  12. Adsorption of Phthalates on Municipal Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates (PAEs are commonly detected in discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plants. This study investigated the removal of six typical PAEs with activated sludge and the results revealed that concentrations of aqueous PAEs decreased rapidly during the beginning 15 min and reached equilibrium within 2 hours due to the adsorption of activated sludge. The process followed first-order kinetic equation, except for dioctyl phthalate (DOP. The factors influencing the adsorption were also evaluated and it was found that higher initial concentrations of PAEs enhanced the removal but affected little the adsorption equilibrium time. The adsorption of PAEs favored lower operating temperature (the optimum temperature was approximately 25°C in this research, which could be an exothermic process. Additionally, lower aqueous pH could also benefit the adsorption.

  13. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  14. Thermophilic composting of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elango, D.; Thinakaran, N.; Panneerselvam, P.; Sivanesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Process of composting has been developed for recycling of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The bioreactor design was modified to reduce the composting process time. The main goal of this investigation was to find the optimal value of time period for composting of MSW in thermophilic bioreactor under aerobic condition. The temperature profiles correlated well with experimental data obtained during the maturation process. During this period biological degraders are introduced in to the reactor to accelerate the composting process. The compost materials were analyzed at various stages and the environmental parameters were considered. The final composting materials contained large organic content with in a short duration of 40 days. The quantity of volume reduction of raw MSW was 78%. The test result shows that the final compost material from the thermophilic reactor provides good humus to build up soil characteristics and some basic plant nutrients

  15. Drinking water quality of Sukkur municipal corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhar, I.A.; Ansari, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    SMC (Sukkur Municipal Corporation) supply the (filtered/settled) water for domestic purpose to the consumers, through intermittent water supply, from Phases I to IV. The water supply distribution network is underground and at most places pass parallel to sewerage lines. The grab sampling technique was followed for collecting representative samples. The official US-EPA and standard methods of water analysis have been used for drinking water quality analysis. DR/2000 spectrophotometer has been used for monitoring: Nitrates, Fluorides, Sulfates, Copper, Chromium, Iron and manganese. The trace metals Cr/sup 6/, Fe/sup 2+/ and other contaminants like; Turbidity and TSS (Total Suspended Solids) have been found higher than World Health Organization (WHO-1993) guideline values. (author)

  16. Governing health equity in Scandinavian municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild; Diderichsen, Finn

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Local governments in the Scandinavian countries are increasingly committed to reduce health inequity through 'health equity in all policies' (HEiAP) governance. There exists, however, only very sporadic implementation evidence concerning municipal HEiAP governance, which is the focus...... of this study. METHODS: Data are based on qualitative thematic network analysis of 20 interviews conducted from 2014 to 2015 with Scandinavian political and administrative practitioners. RESULTS: We identify 24 factors located within three categories; political processes, where insufficient political commitment...... to health equity goals outside of the health sector and inadequate economic prioritization budget curbs implementation. Concerning evidence, there is a lack of epidemiological data, detailed evidence of health equity interventions as well as indicators relevant for monitoring implementation. Concerted...

  17. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies....

  18. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  19. Evaluating municipal energy efficiency in biorefinery integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haikonen, Turo; Tuomaala, Mari; Holmberg, Henrik; Ahtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    In this study biomass-based energy production was introduced to an urban city area of Helsinki, Finland. The study compared two cases in integration with a municipality: (1) biomass fuelled small-scale CHP (combined heat and power)-plant and (2) a biorefinery. The comparison was made according to primary energy consumption, primary energy factors, CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions and the price of produced biowax. It was also studied how results are influenced by different assumptions. The results showed that the primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions were higher in the biorefinery case in absolute amounts as more products i.e. biowax was produced. The results indicated the primary energy factors were almost the same for both cases. Additionally, the primary energy use was very low for district heat and electricity produced in the biorefinery, when the primary energy use of the biorefinery was allocated only to the biowax. The sensitivity analysis of biowax pricing showed that a biorefinery is a competitive alternative for a CHP-plant if the prices of biomass and market electricity are low and the price of CO 2 allowance is high. In terms of overall energy efficiency comparison, the comparison cannot be properly completed, because of the different end-products of the plants. - Highlights: • Primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in a municipality are studied. • Energy production in a biorefinery is compared to a conventional CHP-plant. • In the biorefinery CO 2 emission per produced energy unit (CO 2 /MWh) is the lowest. • The CHP-case benefits from low primary energy consumption and electricity demand. • More than one energy efficiency figure needs to be considered in analyses

  20. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs