WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiplexing barker-code-based spectrum

  1. Capacity analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. First the capacity of a single-user SS spatial multiplexing system is investigated in two scenarios that assume different receivers. To explicitly show the capacity scaling law of SS MIMO systems, some approximate capacity expressions for the two scenarios are derived. Next, we extend our analysis to a multiple user system with zero-forcing receivers (ZF) under spatially-independent scheduling and analyze the sum-rate. Furthermore, we provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different parameters on the multiuser diversity gain. Our results show that the secondary system with a smaller number of transmit antennas Nt and a larger number of receive antennas Nr can achieve higher capacity at lower interference temperature Q, but at high Q the capacity follows the scaling law of the conventional MIMO systems. However, for a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system, the secondary system with small Nt and large Nr can achieve the highest capacity throughout the entire region of Q. For a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system with scheduling, the asymptotic sum-rate scales like Ntlog2(Q(KNtNp-1)/Nt), where Np denotes the number of antennas of the primary receiver and K represents the number of secondary transmitters.

  2. Performance improvement of hybrid subcarrier multiplexing optical spectrum code division multiplexing system using spectral direct decoding detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbudin, R. K. Z.; Abdullah, M. K.; Mokhtar, M.

    2009-06-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid subcarrier multiplexing/optical spectrum code division multiplexing (SCM/OSCDM) system for the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Optical spectrum code division multiple-access (OSCDMA) is one of the multiplexing techniques that is becoming popular because of the flexibility in the allocation of channels, ability to operate asynchronously, enhanced privacy and increased capacity in bursty nature networks. On the other hand, subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) technique is able to enhance the channel data rate of OSCDMA systems. In this paper, a newly developed detection technique for the OSCDM called spectral direct decoding (SDD) detection technique is compared mathematically with the AND subtraction detection technique. The system utilizes a new unified code construction named KS (Khazani-Syed) code. The results characterizing the bit-error-rate (BER) show that SDD offers a significant improved performance at BER of 10 -9.

  3. Large object investigation by digital holography with effective spectrum multiplexing under single-exposure approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning, E-mail: coolboy006@sohu.com; Zhang, Yingying; Xie, Jun [College of Physics and Electronics, Nanjing XiaoZhuang University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 211171 (China)

    2014-10-13

    We present a method to investigate large object by digital holography with effective spectrum multiplexing under single-exposure approach. This method splits the original reference beam and redirects one of its branches as a second object beam. Through the modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the two object beams can illuminate different parts of the large object and create a spectrum multiplexed hologram onto the focal plane array of the charge-coupled device/complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera. After correct spectrum extraction and image reconstruction, the large object can be fully observed within only one single snap-shot. The flexibility and great performance make our method a very attractive and promising technique for large object investigation under common 632.8 nm illumination.

  4. Super-channel oriented routing, spectrum and core assignment under crosstalk limit in spatial division multiplexing elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Zhu, Ye; Wang, Chunhui; Yu, Xiaosong; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Binglin; Zhang, Jie

    2017-07-01

    With the capacity increasing in optical networks enabled by spatial division multiplexing (SDM) technology, spatial division multiplexing elastic optical networks (SDM-EONs) attract much attention from both academic and industry. Super-channel is an important type of service provisioning in SDM-EONs. This paper focuses on the issue of super-channel construction in SDM-EONs. Mixed super-channel oriented routing, spectrum and core assignment (MS-RSCA) algorithm is proposed in SDM-EONs considering inter-core crosstalk. Simulation results show that MS-RSCA can improve spectrum resource utilization and reduce blocking probability significantly compared with the baseline RSCA algorithms.

  5. Spectrum multiplexing and coherent-state decomposition in Fourier ptychographic imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Siyuan; Nanda, Pariksheet; Zheng, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Information multiplexing is important for biomedical imaging and chemical sensing. In this paper, we report a microscopy imaging technique, termed state-multiplexed Fourier ptychography (FP), for information multiplexing and coherent-state decomposition. Similar to a typical Fourier ptychographic setting, we use an array of light sources to illuminate the sample from different incident angles and acquire corresponding low-resolution images using a monochromatic camera. In the reported technique, however, multiple light sources are lit up simultaneously for information multiplexing, and the acquired images thus represent incoherent summations of the sample transmission profiles corresponding to different coherent states. We show that, by using the state-multiplexed FP recovery routine, we can decompose the incoherent mixture of the FP acquisitions to recover a high-resolution sample image. We also show that, color-multiplexed imaging can be performed by simultaneously turning on R/G/B LEDs for data acquisition...

  6. Double random phase spread spectrum spread space technique for secure parallel optical multiplexing with individual encryption key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, B. M.; Javidi, B.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2005-09-01

    A number of methods have been recently proposed in the literature for the encryption of 2-D information using linear optical systems. In particular the double random phase encoding system has received widespread attention. This system uses two Random Phase Keys (RPK) positioned in the input spatial domain and the spatial frequency domain and if these random phases are described by statistically independent white noises then the encrypted image can be shown to be a white noise. Decryption only requires knowledge of the RPK in the frequency domain. The RPK may be implemented using a Spatial Light Modulators (SLM). In this paper we propose and investigate the use of SLMs for secure optical multiplexing. We show that in this case it is possible to encrypt multiple images in parallel and multiplex them for transmission or storage. The signal energy is effectively spread in the spatial frequency domain. As expected the number of images that can be multiplexed together and recovered without loss is proportional to the ratio of the input image and the SLM resolution. Many more images may be multiplexed with some loss in recovery. Furthermore each individual encryption is more robust than traditional double random phase encoding since decryption requires knowledge of both RPK and a lowpass filter in order to despread the spectrum and decrypt the image. Numerical simulations are presented and discussed.

  7. Crosstalk-aware routing, spectrum, and core assignment in space-division multiplexing optical networks with multicore fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiuyan; Yang, Hui; Xiao, Hongyun; Zhao, Yongli; Zhu, Ruijie; Zhang, Jie

    2017-06-01

    The transmission capacity of existing optical fiber will reach its physical limitation due to increasing network bandwidth. Recently, space-division multiplexing (SDM) technology has been proposed to increase the fiber transmission capacity. Multicore fiber (MCF) is a strong candidate for SDM transmission, but the intercore crosstalk will be a critical issue with MCF transmission. We make a specific analysis of transmission crosstalk in elastic optical networks. Then, the concept of spare spectrum availability is introduced to accommodate connection requests. Based on it, two different crosstalk-aware routing, spectrum, and core assignment algorithms are presented at different network states. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme improves the spectrum resource utilization and reduces blocking, with a cost of additional algorithm complexity and set-up delay.

  8. Sum-rate analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems with zero-forcing and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2013-06-01

    This paper considers a multiuser spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with zero-forcing (ZF) operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. We provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different parameters on the multiuser diversity gain. For a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system with scheduling, the asymptotic sum-rate scales like Nt log2(Q(Nt Np√K - 1)/N t), where Np denotes the number of antennas of primary receiver, Q is the interference temperature, and K represents the number of secondary transmitters. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. A highly sensitive, multiplex broad-spectrum PCR-DNA-enzyme immunoassay and reverse hybridization assay for rapid detection and identification of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quint, K.D.; Doorn, L.J. van; Kleter, B.; Koning, M.N. de; Munckhof, H.A. van den; Morre, S.A.; Harmsel, B. ter; Weiderpass, E.; Harbers, G.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Quint, W.G.V.

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) comprises distinct serogroups and serovars. The present study evaluates a novel Ct amplification, detection, and genotyping method (Ct-DT assay). The Ct-DT amplification step is a multiplex broad-spectrum PCR for the cryptic plasmid and the VD2-region of ompl. The Ct-DT de

  10. Early developmental regression in autism spectrum disorder: evidence from an international multiplex sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy R; Le Couteur, Ann; Baird, Gillian; Rutter, Michael; Pickles, Andrew; Fombonne, Eric; Bailey, Anthony J

    2011-03-01

    The characteristics of early developmental regression (EDR) were investigated in individuals with ASD from affected relative pairs recruited to the International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (IMGSAC). Four hundred and fifty-eight individuals with ASD were recruited from 226 IMGSAC families. Regression before age 36 months occurred in 23.9% of individuals. The observed concordance rate for EDR within sibling pairs (18.9%) was not significantly above the rate expected under independence (13.5%, p = 0.10). The rate of regression in individuals with ASD from multiplex families was similar to that reported in singleton and epidemiological samples. Regression concordance data were not supportive of a separate familial influence on EDR, other than as a part of autism itself.

  11. Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum.......The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum....

  12. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for genetic screening in autism spectrum disorders: Efficient identification of known microduplications and identification of a novel microduplication in ASMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Jennifer G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has previously been shown that specific microdeletions and microduplications, many of which also associated with cognitive impairment (CI, can present with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA represents an efficient method to screen for such recurrent microdeletions and microduplications. Methods In the current study, a total of 279 unrelated subjects ascertained for ASDs were screened for genomic disorders associated with CI using MLPA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR and/or direct DNA sequencing were used to validate potential microdeletions and microduplications. Methylation-sensitive MLPA was used to characterize individuals with duplications in the Prader-Willi/Angelman (PWA region. Results MLPA showed two subjects with typical ASD-associated interstitial duplications of the 15q11-q13 PWA region of maternal origin. Two additional subjects showed smaller, de novo duplications of the PWA region that had not been previously characterized. Genes in these two novel duplications include GABRB3 and ATP10A in one case, and MKRN3, MAGEL2 and NDN in the other. In addition, two subjects showed duplications of the 22q11/DiGeorge syndrome region. One individual was found to carry a 12 kb deletion in one copy of the ASPA gene on 17p13, which when mutated in both alleles leads to Canavan disease. Two subjects showed partial duplication of the TM4SF2 gene on Xp11.4, previously implicated in X-linked non-specific mental retardation, but in our subsequent analyses such variants were also found in controls. A partial duplication in the ASMT gene, located in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1 of the sex chromosomes and previously suggested to be involved in ASD susceptibility, was observed in 6–7% of the cases but in only 2% of controls (P = 0.003. Conclusion MLPA proves to be an efficient method to screen for chromosomal

  13. A simple multiplex PCR for assessing prevalence of extended-spectrumβ-lactamases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Intensive Care Units of a referral hospital in Shiraz, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Younes Ghasemi; Talieh Archin; Mohammad Kargar; Milad Mohkam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify three common genes (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) responsible for ESBL production in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) isolated from Intensive Care Units of Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods:A total of 60 non-repetitive nosocomial isolates from 60 patients were selected during 2009-2010. The phenotypic identification of ESBL production was confirmed by Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST) according to CLSI guidelines. The ESBL’s genotype was then analyzed by multiplex PCR of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes and DNA sequencing. Results: The primary susceptibility tests of K. pneumoniae showed that among 10 examined antibiotics, the most resistant and susceptible antibiotics identified in this study were ampicillin and imipenem, respectively. The phenotypic determination of ESBL by DDST showed that 60%(n=36) of isolates produced ESBL. Multiplex PCR of genes among K. pneumoniae isolates showed that 39% (n=18) of them have TEM, 39% (n=18) of them have both CTX-M and TEM and 13% (n=8) of them have TEM, SHV, CTX-M. Conclusions:Our findings reveal the high prevalence (60%) of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae from ICU patients along with a new pattern of blaTEM distribution differ from other countries.

  14. Mutation spectrum of 122 hemophilia A families from Taiwanese population by LD-PCR, DHPLC, multiplex PCR and evaluating the clinical application of HRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chieh-Ting

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemophilia A represents the most common and severe inherited hemorrhagic disorder. It is caused by mutations in the F8 gene, which leads to a deficiency or dysfunctional factor VIII protein, an essential cofactor in the factor X activation complex. Methods We used long-distance polymerase chain reaction and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography for mutation scanning of the F8 gene. We designed the competitive multiplex PCR to identify the carrier with exonal deletions. In order to facilitate throughput and minimize the cost of mutation scanning, we also evaluated a new mutation scanning technique, high resolution melting analysis (HRM, as an alternative screening method. Results We presented the results of detailed screening of 122 Taiwanese families with hemophilia A and reported twenty-nine novel mutations. There was one family identified with whole exons deletion, and the carriers were successfully recognized by multiplex PCR. By HRM, the different melting curve patterns were easily identified in 25 out of 28 cases (89% and 15 out of 15 (100% carriers. The sensitivity was 93 % (40/43. The overall mutation detection rate of hemophilia A was 100% in this study. Conclusion We proposed a diagnostic strategy for hemophilia A genetic diagnosis. We consider HRM as a powerful screening tool that would provide us with a more cost-effective protocol for hemophilia A mutation identification.

  15. Screening for copy number alterations in loci associated with autism spectrum disorders by two-color multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremer, Anna; Giacobini, Maibritt; Nordenskjöld, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogenous condition characterized by impaired socialization and communication in association with stereotypic behaviors. ASD is highly heritable and heterogeneous with a complex genetic etiology. Recurrent submicroscopic deletions or duplications have been...... of a continuously increasing number of CNAs associated with autism. Our result show that MLPA assay is an easy and cost-effective method for the identification of selected CNAs in diagnostic laboratories....

  16. Multiplexity and multireciprocity in directed multiplexes

    CERN Document Server

    Gemmetto, Valerio; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, the study of multi-layer complex networks has received significant attention. In this work, we provide new measures to analyse dependencies between directed links in different layers of multiplex networks. We show that this requires more than a straightforward extension of the corresponding multiplexity measures that have been developed for undirected multiplexes. In particular, one should take into account the effects of reciprocity, i.e. the tendency of pairs of vertices to establish mutual connections. It is well known that reciprocity is a crucial property of many directed single-layer networks, affecting several dynamical processes taking place on such systems. Here we extend this quantity to directed multiplexes and introduce the notion of multireciprocity, defined as the tendency of links in one layer to be reciprocated by links in a different layer. We introduce multireciprocity measures valid for both binary and weighted networks and then validate these novel quantities on the ...

  17. Sandpiles on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Kim, I -M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the sandpile model on multiplex networks with more than one type of edges and investigate its scaling and dynamical behaviors. We find that the introduction of multiplexity does not alter the scaling behavior of avalanche dynamics; the system is critical with the asymptotic power-law avalanche size distribution with exponent $\\tau = 3/2$ on duplex random networks. Detailed cascade dynamics, however, is affected by the multiplex coupling. For example, higher-degree nodes such as hubs in scale-free networks fail more often in the multiplex dynamics than in the simplex network counterpart in which different types of edges are simply aggregated. Our results suggest that multiplex modeling would be necessary in order to gain better understanding of cascading failure phenomena of real-world multiplex complex systems, such as the global economic crisis.

  18. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Menichetti, Giulia; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of $N$ nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multipa...

  19. Spectral properties of the Laplacian of multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sole-Ribalta, Albert; Kouvaris, Nikos E; Diaz-Guilera, Albert; Gomez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2013-01-01

    One of the more challenging tasks in the understanding of dynamical properties of models on top of complex networks is to capture the precise role of multiplex topologies. In a recent paper, Gomez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 028701 (2013)] proposed a framework for the study of diffusion processes in such networks. Here, we extend the previous framework to deal with general configurations in several layers of networks, and analyze the behavior of the spectrum of the Laplacian of the full multiplex. We derive an interesting decoupling of the problem that allow us to unravel the role played by the interconnections of the multiplex in the dynamical processes on top of them. Capitalizing on this decoupling we perform an asymptotic analysis that allow us to derive analytical expressions for the full spectrum of eigenvalues. This spectrum is used to gain insight into physical phenomena on top of multiplex, specifically, diffusion processes and synchronizability.

  20. Digital holograms for laser mode multiplexing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, T

    2014-10-02

    Full Text Available : spatial modes, multiplex, mode coupling 1. INTRODUCTION Optical networks form a foundation of modern communications networks since the replacement of copper wires with optical fibres in the 1980’s. This fibre technology has been based on single mode fibres... been show that aberrated wave fronts result in a distorted modal spectrum.7 We illustrate that by taking this into account, we can successful multiplex and demultiplexed the LG modes of two degrees of freedom in free-space, with minimized mode coupling...

  1. Multiplexity and multireciprocity in directed multiplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmetto, Valerio; Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Real-world multilayer networks feature nontrivial dependencies among links of different layers. Here we argue that if links are directed, then dependencies are twofold. Besides the ordinary tendency of links of different layers to align as the result of "multiplexity," there is also a tendency to antialign as a result of what we call "multireciprocity," i.e., the fact that links in one layer can be reciprocated by opposite links in a different layer. Multireciprocity generalizes the scalar definition of single-layer reciprocity to that of a square matrix involving all pairs of layers. We introduce multiplexity and multireciprocity matrices for both binary and weighted multiplexes and validate their statistical significance against maximum-entropy null models that filter out the effects of node heterogeneity. We then perform a detailed empirical analysis of the world trade multiplex (WTM), representing the import-export relationships between world countries in different commodities. We show that the WTM exhibits strong multiplexity and multireciprocity, an effect which is, however, largely encoded into the degree or strength sequences of individual layers. The residual effects are still significant and allow us to classify pairs of commodities according to their tendency to be traded together in the same direction and/or in opposite ones. We also find that the multireciprocity of the WTM is significantly lower than the usual reciprocity measured on the aggregate network. Moreover, layers with low (high) internal reciprocity are embedded within sets of layers with comparably low (high) mutual multireciprocity. This suggests that, in the WTM, reciprocity is inherent to groups of related commodities rather than to individual commodities. We discuss the implications for international trade research focusing on product taxonomies, the product space, and fitness and complexity metrics.

  2. Multiplex tokamak power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-07-01

    The concept of multiplexing for a fusion power core as an option for producing power is explored. Superconducting, as well as normal magnet, coils in either first or second stability regimes are considered. The results show that multiplex plants with superconducting magnets operating in the second stability regime could be competitive with the single-unit plants in some unit sizes. The key issues that impact the expected benefits of multiplexing must be investigated further. These are factory fabrication, economy of scale, the extent of equipment sharing, inherent safety, maintainability, and utility load management.

  3. Functional Multiplex PageRank

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overl...

  4. Multiplex editing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a multiplex editing system. The system allows multiple editing of nucleic acid sequences such as genomic sequences, such as knockins of genes of interest in a genome, knockouts of genomic sequences and/or allele replacement. Also provided herein are a method...... for editing nucleic acids and a cell comprising a stably integrated endonuclease....

  5. Multiplex PageRank

    CERN Document Server

    Halu, Arda; Pansaraza, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the in...

  6. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen Markussen; Balslev, Thomas; Møller-Madsen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a sign rather than a diagnosis. It implies contractures in multiple body areas and occurs in 1:3,000-5,000 live births. Primary aetiologies include neuropathic, myopathic, metabolic, end plate and vascular disorder affecting the developing foetus...

  7. The Microwave SQUID Multiplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mates, John Arthur Benson

    2011-12-01

    This thesis describes a multiplexer of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) with low-noise, ultra-low power dissipation, and great scalability. The multiplexer circuit measures the magnetic flux in a large number of unshunted rf SQUIDs by coupling each SQUID to a superconducting microwave resonator tuned to a unique resonance frequency and driving the resonators from a common feedline. A superposition of microwave tones measures each SQUID simultaneously using only two coaxial cables between the cryogenic device and room temperature. This multiplexer will enable the instrumentation of arrays with hundreds of thousands of low-temperature detectors for new applications in cosmology, materials analysis, and nuclear non-proliferation. The driving application of the Microwave SQUID Multiplexer is the readout of large arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors, by some figures of merit the most sensitive detectors of electromagnetic signals over a span of more than nine orders of magnitude in energy, from 40 GHz microwaves to 200 keV gamma rays. Modern transition-edge sensors have noise-equivalent power as low as 10-20 W / Hz1/2 and energy resolution as good as 2 eV at 6 keV. These per-pixel sensitivities approach theoretical limits set by the underlying signals, motivating a rapid increase in pixel count to access new science. Compelling applications, like the non-destructive assay of nuclear material for treaty verification or the search for primordial gravity waves from inflation use arrays of these detectors to increase collection area or tile a focal plane. We developed three generations of SQUID multiplexers, optimizing the first for flux noise 0.17 muPhi0 / Hz1/2, the second for input current noise 19 pA / Hz1/2, and the last for practical multiplexing of large arrays of cosmic microwave background polarimeters based on transition-edge sensors. Using the last design we demonstrated multiplexed readout of prototype polarimeters with the

  8. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  9. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  10. Experimental Demonstration of Nonlinear Frequency Division Multiplexed Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid; Schuh, Karsten; Idler, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an NFDM optical system with modulation over nonlinear discrete spectrum. Particularly, each symbol carries 4-bits from multiplexing two eigenvalues modulated by QPSK constellation. We show a low error performance using NFT detection with 4Gbps rate over 640km.

  11. Shot-noise limited detection sensitivity in multiplex CARS microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.; Schins, J.M.; Wurpel, G.W.H.

    2004-01-01

    In multiplex CARS microscopy the generated anti-Stokes signal is generated and detected simultaneously over a significant part of the vibrational spectrum. The signal-to-noise ratio of the thus detected spectra is limited only by shot-noise. This principle is demonstrated using a dilution series of

  12. Multiplexing oscillatory biochemical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that biochemical signals are not necessarily constant in time and that the temporal dynamics of a signal can be the information carrier. Moreover, it is now well established that the protein signaling network of living cells has a bow-tie structure and that components are often shared between different signaling pathways. Here we show by mathematical modeling that living cells can multiplex a constant and an oscillatory signal: they can transmit these two signals simultaneously through a common signaling pathway, and yet respond to them specifically and reliably. We find that information transmission is reduced not only by noise arising from the intrinsic stochasticity of biochemical reactions, but also by crosstalk between the different channels. Yet, under biologically relevant conditions more than 2 bits of information can be transmitted per channel, even when the two signals are transmitted simultaneously. These observations suggest that oscillatory signals are ideal for multiplexing signals.

  13. Analysis and Research of Multiplexing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭惠玲; 王仝杰; 刘越男

    2001-01-01

    The development of optical transmission was summarized. The multiplexing system was show in detail. The concepts, characteristic, key technology, expand trend and application prospect of frequency-division multiplexing, time-division multiplexing, code-division multiplexing and wave-division multiplexing were illustrated.

  14. Extracting Information from Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from Big Data. For these reasons characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function $\\widetilde{\\Theta}^{S}$ for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying thes...

  15. Clustering Coefficients in Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzo, Emanuele; De Domenico, Manlio; Solé, Albert; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Porter, Mason A; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of complex networked systems has highlighted that our interconnected world is made of networks that are coupled together through different layers that each stand for one type of interaction or system. Despite this situation, it is traditional to aggregate multiplex data into a single weighted network in order take advantage of existing tools. This is admittedly convenient, but it is also extremely problematic. In this paper, we generalize the concept of clustering coefficients for multiplex networks. We show how the layered structure of multiplex networks introduces a new degree of freedom that has a fundamental effect on transitivity. We compute our new multiplex clustering coefficients for several real multiplex networks and illustrate why generalizing monoplex concepts to multiplex networks must be done with great care.

  16. Functional Multiplex PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-10-01

    Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.

  17. Portable Multiplex Pathogen Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S; McBride, M T; Matthews, D; Rao, R

    2002-07-15

    Tumor marker concentrations in serum provide useful information regarding clinical stage and prognosis of cancer and can thus be used for presymptomatic diagnostic purposes. Currently, detection and identification of soluble analytes in biological fluids is conducted by methods including bioassays, ELISA, PCR, DNA chip or strip tests. While these technologies are generally sensitive and specific, they are time consuming, labor intensive and cannot be multiplexed. Our goal is to develop a simple, point-of-care, portable, liquid array-based immunoassay device capable of simultaneous detection of a variety of cancer markers. Here we describe the development of assays for the detection of Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Ovalbumin from a single sample. The multiplexed immunoassays utilize polystyrene microbeads. The beads are imbedded with precise ratios of red and orange fluorescent dyes yielding an array of 100 beads, each with a unique spectral address (Figure 1). Each bead can be coated with capture antibodies specific for a given antigen. After antigen capture, secondary antibodies sandwich the bound antigen and are indirectly labeled by the fluorescent reporter phycoerythrin (PE). Each optically encoded and fluorescently-labeled microbead is then individually interrogated. A red laser excites the dye molecules imbedded inside the bead and classifies the bead to its unique bead set, and a green laser quantifies the assay at the bead surface. This technology has been proven to be comparable to the ELISA in terms of sensitivity and specificity. We also describe the laser-based instrumentation used to acquire fluorescent bead images Following the assay, droplets of bead suspension containing a mixture of bead classes were deposited onto filters held in place by a disposable plexiglass device and the resultant arrays viewed under the fluorescent imaging setup. Using the appropriate filter sets to extract the necessary red, orange and green fluorescence from the

  18. A 128 Multiplexing Factor Time-Domain SQUID Multiplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.; Decourcelle, T.; Perbost, C.; Chapron, C.; Rambaud, D.; Maestre, S.; Marty, W.; Montier, L.

    2016-07-01

    A cryogenic 128:1 Time-Domain Multiplexer (TDM) has been developed for the readout of kilo-pixel Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays dedicated to the Q&U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology (QUBIC) instrument which aims to measure the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are usually used to read out TESs. Moreover, SQUIDs are used to build TDM by biasing sequentially the SQUIDs connected together—one for each TES. In addition to this common technique which allows a typical 32 multiplexing factor, a cryogenic integrated circuit provides a 4:1 second multiplexing stage. This cryogenic integrated circuit is one of the original part of our TDM achieving an unprecedented 128 multiplexing factor. We present these two dimension TDM stages: topology of the SQUID multiplexer, operation of the cryogenic integrated circuit, and integration of the full system to read out a TES array dedicated to the QUBIC instrument. Flux-locked loop operation in multiplexed mode is also discussed.

  19. Percolation in real multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-01-01

    We present an exact mathematical framework able to describe site-percolation transitions in real multiplex networks. Specifically, we consider the average percolation diagram valid over an infinite number of random configurations where nodes are present in the system with given probability. The approach relies on the locally treelike ansatz, so that it is expected to accurately reproduce the true percolation diagram of sparse multiplex networks with negligible number of short loops. The performance of our theory is tested in social, biological, and transportation multiplex graphs. When compared against previously introduced methods, we observe improvements in the prediction of the percolation diagrams in all networks analyzed. Results from our method confirm previous claims about the robustness of real multiplex networks, in the sense that the average connectedness of the system does not exhibit any significant abrupt change as its individual components are randomly destroyed.

  20. Percolation in real multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Radicchi, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    We present an exact mathematical framework able to describe site-percolation transitions in real multiplex networks. Specifically, we consider the average percolation diagram valid over an infinite number of random configurations where nodes are present in the system with given probability. The approach relies on the locally treelike ansatz, so that it is expected to accurately reproduce the true percolation diagram of sparse multiplex networks with negligible number of short loops. The performance of our theory is tested in social, biological, and transportation multiplex graphs. When compared against previously introduced methods, we observe improvements in the prediction of the percolation diagrams in all networks analyzed. Results from our method confirm previous claims about the robustness of real multiplex networks, in the sense that the average connectedness of the system does not exhibit any significant abrupt change as its individual components are randomly destroyed.

  1. Bond percolation on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hackett, A; Gómez, S; Arenas, A; Gleeson, J P

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical approach for bond percolation on multiplex networks and use it to determine the expected size of the giant connected component and the value of the critical bond occupation probability in these networks. We advocate the relevance of these tools to the modeling of multilayer robustness and contribute to the debate on whether any benefit is to be yielded from studying a full multiplex structure as opposed to its monoplex projection, especially in the seemingly irrelevant case of a bond occupation probability that does not depend on the layer. Although we find that in many cases the predictions of our theory for multiplex networks coincide with previously derived results for monoplex networks, we also uncover the remarkable result that for a certain class of multiplex networks, well described by our theory, new critical phenomena occur as multiple percolation phase transitions are present. We provide an instance of this phenomenon in a multipex network constructed from London rail and Eu...

  2. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  3. Navigability of multiplex temporal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qiao-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Real world complex systems have multiple levels of relationships and in many cases, they need to be modeled as multiplex networks where the same nodes can interact with each other in different layers, such as social networks. However, social relationships only appear at prescribed times so the temporal structures of edge activations can also affect the dynamical processes located above them. To consider both factors are simultaneously, we introduce multiplex temporal networks and propose three different walk strategies to investigate the concurrent dynamics of random walks and the temporal structure of multiplex networks. Thus, we derive analytical results for the multiplex centrality and coverage function in multiplex temporal networks. By comparing them with the numerical results, we show how the underlying topology of the layers and the walk strategy affect the efficiency when exploring the networks. In particular, the most interesting result is the emergence of a super-diffusion process, where the time scale of the multiplex is faster than that of both layers acting separately.

  4. Multiplexed lasing in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Qiushu; Fan, Xudong

    2017-02-01

    Biolasers are an emerging technology for next generation biochemical detection and clinical applications. Progress has recently been made to achieve lasing from biomolecules and single living cells. Tissues, which consist of cells embedded in extracellular matrix, mimic more closely the actual complex biological environment in a living body and therefore are of more practical significance. Here, we developed a highly versatile tissue laser platform, in which tissues stained with fluorophores are sandwiched in a high-Q Fabry-Pérot microcavity. Distinct lasing emissions from muscle and adipose tissues stained respectively with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY), and hybrid muscle/adipose tissue with dual-staining were achieved with a threshold of only 10 μJ/mm2. Additionally, we investigated how tissue structure/geometry, tissue thickness, and staining dye concentration affect the tissue laser. It is further found that, despite large fluorescence spectral overlap between FITC and BODIPY in tissues, their lasing emissions could be clearly distinguished and controlled due to their narrow lasing bands and different lasing thresholds, thus enabling highly multiplexed detection. Our tissue laser platform can be broadly applicable to various types of tissues/diseases. It provides a new tool for a wide range of biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics/screening of tissues and identification/monitoring of biological transformations in tissue engineering.

  5. Correlated multiplexity induces unusual connectivity in multiplex random networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Cho, Won-kuk; Goh, K -I; Kim, I -M

    2011-01-01

    Nodes in a complex networked system often engage in more than one type of interactions among them; they form a multiplex network with multiple types of links. In real-world complex systems, a node's degree for one type of links and that for the other are not randomly distributed but correlated, which we term correlated multiplexity. In this paper we study a simple model of multiplex random networks and show that the correlated multiplexity can induce unusual properties of giant component in the network. Specifically, when the degrees of a node for different interactions in a duplex Erdos-Renyi network are maximally correlated, the network contains the giant component for any nonzero link densities. On the contrary, when the degrees of a node are maximally anti-correlated, the emergence of giant component is significantly delayed, yet the entire network becomes connected into a single component at a finite link density. We also discuss the mixing patterns and the cases with imperfect correlated multiplexity.

  6. Efficient exploration of multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2016-04-01

    Efficient techniques to navigate networks with local information are fundamental to sample large-scale online social systems and to retrieve resources in peer-to-peer systems. Biased random walks, i.e. walks whose motion is biased on properties of neighbouring nodes, have been largely exploited to design smart local strategies to explore a network, for instance by constructing maximally mixing trajectories or by allowing an almost uniform sampling of the nodes. Here we introduce and study biased random walks on multiplex networks, graphs where the nodes are related through different types of links organised in distinct and interacting layers, and we provide analytical solutions for their long-time properties, including the stationary occupation probability distribution and the entropy rate. We focus on degree-biased random walks and distinguish between two classes of walks, namely those whose transition probability depends on a number of parameters which is extensive in the number of layers, and those whose motion depends on intrinsically multiplex properties of the neighbouring nodes. We analyse the effect of the structure of the multiplex network on the steady-state behaviour of the walkers, and we find that heterogeneous degree distributions as well as the presence of inter-layer degree correlations and edge overlap determine the extent to which a multiplex can be efficiently explored by a biased walk. Finally we show that, in real-world multiplex transportation networks, the trade-off between efficient navigation and resilience to link failure has resulted into systems whose diffusion properties are qualitatively different from those of appropriately randomised multiplex graphs. This fact suggests that multiplexity is an important ingredient to include in the modelling of real-world systems.

  7. Laguerre Gaussian beam multiplexing through turbulence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2014-08-17

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of multiplexed Laguerre Gaussian modes. We present a method to multiplex Laguerre Gaussian modes using digital holograms and decompose the resulting field after encountering a...

  8. Holographic data storage system combining shift-multiplexing with peristrophic-multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kengo; Tsukamoto, Yu; Okubo, Kaito; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2014-02-01

    Holographic data storage (HDS) is a next-generation optical storage that uses the principles of holography. The multiplex holographic recording method is an important factor that affects the recording capacity of this storage. Various multiplex recording methods have been proposed so far. In this study, we focus on shift multiplexing with spherical waves and propose a method of shift multiplex recording that combines the peristrophic multiplexed recording. Simulation and experimental verification shows that the proposed method is effective in principle.

  9. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay Project Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, R P; Langlois, R G; Nasarabadi, S; Benett, W J; Colston, B W; Johnson, D C; Brown, S B; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-04-17

    This report covers phase 2 (year 2) of the Nucleic Acid System--Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay project. The objective of the project is to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in a multiplex mode using flow cytometry. The Hybrid instrument consists of a flow-through PCR module capable of handling a multiplexed PCR assay, a hybridizing module capable of hybridizing multiplexed PCR amplicons and beads, and a flow cytometer module for bead-based identification, all controlled by a single computer. Multiplex immunoassay using bead-based Luminex flow cytometry is available, allowing rapid screening for many agents. PCR is highly specific and complements and verifies immunoassay. It can also be multiplexed and detection provided using the bead-based Luminex flow cytometer. This approach allows full access to the speed and 100-fold multiplex capability of flow cytometry for rapid screening as well as the accuracy and specificity of PCR. This project has two principal activities: (1) Design, build and test a prototype hybrid PCR/flow cytometer with the basic capabilities for rapid, broad spectrum detection and identification, and (2) Develop and evaluate multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products. This project requires not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This involves development and evaluation of multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products.

  10. Does the cognitive architecture of simplex and multiplex ASD families differ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings from 54 simplex (SPX, one individual in the family affected) and 59 multiplex (MPX, two or more individuals affected) families, and 124 controls were assessed on intelligence, social cognition and executive functions. SPX

  11. Does the Cognitive Architecture of Simplex and Multiplex ASD Families Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings from 54 simplex (SPX, one individual in the family affected) and 59 multiplex (MPX, two or more individuals affected) families, and 124 controls were assessed on intelligence, social cognition and executive functions. SPX and MPX ASD probands displayed similar cognitive…

  12. Code Division Multiplexing Using AI Based Custom Constellation Scheme - Efficient Modulation for High Data rate Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.SESHADRI SASTRY,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high bit rate in transmission over wireless channels frequency reuse is an encouraging concept . Rather than dividing allocated frequency spectrum into narrow band width channels , one for each user information is transmitted over a very wide frequency spectrum using the same carrier frequency within same frequency band . In this paper we propose code division multiplexing scheme in which Custom QAM modulator itself is used as code . The propose system is simulated and tested in Matlab 7.4.

  13. Stability of Boolean Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-01-01

    We extend the formalism of Random Boolean Networks with canalizing rules to multilevel complex networks. The formalism allows to model genetic networks in which each gene might take part in more than one signaling pathway. We use a semi-annealed approach to study the stability of this class of models when coupled in a multiplex network and show that the analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Our main finding is that the multiplex structure provides a mechanism for the stabilization of the system and of chaotic regimes of individual layers. Our results help understanding why some genetic networks that are theoretically expected to operate in the chaotic regime can actually display dynamical stability.

  14. Wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Han Chuen; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2010-08-01

    The realization of an entanglement distribution optical fiber network connecting multiple parties would permit implementation of many information security applications such as entanglement-based quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing. However, due to material absorption and scattering in optical fiber, photons that are the carriers of quantum entanglement experience loss during propagation and the overall photon arrival rate can be very low in such a network. One way to increase photon arrival rate is to make full use of the available transmission bandwidth of optical fiber and this is achievable via wavelength-multiplexing. We review our recent work on wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution and discuss system design considerations from a telecommunication engineering perspective.

  15. Multiplexed DNA-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinker, Jason D; Muren, Natalie B; Gorodetsky, Alon A; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2010-03-03

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with 4-fold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with high reproducibility, as confirmed by statistical comparison to commercially available rod electrodes. The working electrode areas on the chips were reduced to 10 microm in diameter, revealing microelectrode behavior that is beneficial for high sensitivity and rapid kinetic analysis. These results illustrate how DME chips facilitate sensitive and selective detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets in a robust and internally standardized multiplexed format.

  16. Multiplexed DNA-Modified Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Slinker, Jason D.; Muren, Natalie B.; Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with fourfold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with ...

  17. Atypical Steatocystoma Multiplex with Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Hasibur; Islam, Muhammad Saiful; Ansari, Nazma Parvin

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old male reported to us with an atypical case of giant steatocystoma multiplex in the scrotum with calcification. There was no family history of similar lesions. Yellowish, creamy material was expressed from a nodule during punch biopsy. The diagnosis was based on clinical as well as histological findings. Successful surgical excision was done to cure the case without any complications. PMID:22363850

  18. Combined Optical and Electrical Spectrum Shaping for High-Baud-Rate Nyquist-WDM Transceivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Borkowski, Robert; Preussler, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the benefits and limitations of optical time-division multiplexing 22 (OTDM) techniques based on the optical generation of a periodic train of sinc pulses for 23 wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission at high baud rates. It is shown 24 how the modulated OTDM spectrum bandw...

  19. Consideration for wavelength multiplexing versus time multiplexing in optical transport network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limal, Emmanuel; Stubkjær, Kristian Elmholdt

    1999-01-01

    We compare optical wavelength multiplexing and time multiplexing techniquesfor optical transport network by studying the space switch sizes of OXCs andtheir interfaces as a function of the fraction of add/drop traffic....

  20. The multiplex dependency structure of financial markets

    CERN Document Server

    Musmeci, Nicoló; Aste, Tomaso; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    We propose here a multiplex network approach to investigate simultaneously different types of dependency in complex data sets. In particular, we consider multiplex networks made of four layers corresponding respectively to linear, non-linear, tail, and partial correlations among a set of financial time series. We construct the sparse graph on each layer using a standard network filtering procedure, and we then analyse the structural properties of the obtained multiplex networks. The study of the time evolution of the multiplex constructed from financial data uncovers important changes in intrinsically multiplex properties of the network, and such changes are associated with periods of financial stress. We observe that some features are unique to the multiplex structure and would not be visible otherwise by the separate analysis of the single-layer networks corresponding to each dependency measure.

  1. Measuring and modelling correlations in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosia, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    In many complex systems the interactions among the elementary components can be of qualitatively different nature. Such systems are therefore naturally described and represented in terms of multiplex or multi-layer networks, i.e. networks where each layer stands for a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes. There is today a growing interest in understanding when and why a description in terms of a multiplex network is necessary and more informative than a single-layer projection. Here, we contribute to this debate by presenting a comprehensive study of correlations in multiplex networks. Correlations in node properties, especially degree-degree correlations, have been thoroughly studied in single-layer networks. Here we extend this idea to investigate and characterize correlations between the different layers of a multiplex network. These correlations are intrinsically multiplex, and we first study them empirically by constructing and analyzing various multiplex networks from the real-wor...

  2. Indoor RF signal distribution using a coherence multiplexed/subcarrier multiplexed optical transmission system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taniman, Robert; Meijerink, Arjan; Etten, van Wim; Haartsen, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    A Radio over Fiber (RoF) distribution network based on single-mode fiber (SMF) and a combination of coherence multiplexing (CM) and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) is proposed. CM is a relatively unknown and potentially inexpensive form of photonic code-division multiplexing, and is used here as a mea

  3. Accelerated genome engineering through multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zehua; Cobb, Ryan E; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the biological sciences, the past 15 years have seen a push toward the analysis and engineering of biological systems at the organism level. Given the complexity of even the simplest organisms, though, to elicit a phenotype of interest often requires genotypic manipulation of several loci. By traditional means, sequential editing of genomic targets requires a significant investment of time and labor, as the desired editing event typically occurs at a very low frequency against an overwhelming unedited background. In recent years, the development of a suite of new techniques has greatly increased editing efficiency, opening up the possibility for multiple editing events to occur in parallel. Termed as multiplexed genome engineering, this approach to genome editing has greatly expanded the scope of possible genome manipulations in diverse hosts, ranging from bacteria to human cells. The enabling technologies for multiplexed genome engineering include oligonucleotide-based and nuclease-based methodologies, and their application has led to the great breadth of successful examples described in this review. While many technical challenges remain, there also exists a multiplicity of opportunities in this rapidly expanding field.

  4. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  5. multiplex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Algebraic procedures for the analysis of multiple social networks are delivered with this package. Among other things, it is possible to create and manipulate multivariate network data with different formats, and there are effective ways available to treat multiple networks with routines that com......Algebraic procedures for the analysis of multiple social networks are delivered with this package. Among other things, it is possible to create and manipulate multivariate network data with different formats, and there are effective ways available to treat multiple networks with routines...... that combine algebraic systems like the partially ordered semigroup or the semiring structure together with the relational bundles occurring in different types of multivariate network data sets. As well an algebraic approach for two-mode networks is made through Galois derivations between families of the pair...

  6. Multiplexed measurements by time resolved spectroscopy using colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, U.; Jimenez de Aberasturi, D.; Malinowski, R.; Amin, F.; Parak, W. J.; Heimbrodt, W., E-mail: Wolfram.Heimbrodt@physik.uni-marburg.de [Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps-University of Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2014-01-27

    Multiplexed measurements of analytes in parallel is a topical demand in bioanalysis and bioimaging. An interesting alternative to commonly performed spectral multiplexing is lifetime multiplexing. In this Letter, we present a proof of principle of single-color lifetime multiplexing by coupling the same fluorophore to different nanoparticles. The effective lifetime of the fluorophores can be tuned by more than one order of magnitude due to resonance energy transfer from donor states. Measurements have been done on a model systems consisting of ATTO-590 dye molecules linked to either gold particles or to CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots. Both systems show the same luminescence spectrum of ATTO-590 dye emission in continuous wave excitation, but can be distinguished by means of time resolved measurements. The dye molecules bound to gold particles exhibit a mono-exponential decay with a lifetime of 4.5 ns, whereas the dye molecules bound to CdSe/ZnS dots show a nonexponential decay with a slow component of about 135 ns due to the energy transfer from the quantum dots. We demonstrate the fundamental possibility to determine the mixing ratio for dyes with equal luminescence spectra but very different transients. This opens up a pathway independent of the standard optical multiplexing with many different fluorophores emitting from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral region.

  7. A novel spectrum sharing scheme for cognitive radios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach, which combines spectrum adaptation and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), is proposed to share the licensed spectrum dynamically for cognitive radio systems. Given spectrum sensing and channel estimation information by the receiver, an improved model due to signal power thresholds is adopted to achieve spectrum adaptation for unlicensed users. In order to efficiently allocate the unlicensed signal power, a dynamic power allocation algorithm is also proposed. Simulation results indicate that the propositional scheme solves the partial interference problem of interference temperature model (ITM) and improves the spectrum utilization.

  8. Information transport in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Cunlai; Yang, Xianxia; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study information transport in multiplex networks comprised of two coupled subnetworks. The upper subnetwork, called the logical layer, employs the shortest paths protocol to determine the logical paths for packets transmission, while the lower subnetwork acts as the physical layer, in which packets are delivered by the biased random walk mechanism characterized with a parameter $\\alpha$. Through simulation, we obtain the optimal $\\alpha$ corresponding to the maximum network lifetime and the maximum number of the arrival packets. Assortative coupling is better than the random coupling and the disassortative coupling, since it achieves much better transmission performances. Generally, the more homogeneous the lower subnetwork, the better the transmission performances are, which is opposite for the upper subnetwork. Finally, we propose an attack centrality for nodes based on the topological information of both subnetworks, and further investigate the transmission performances under targeted at...

  9. Multiplex Modeling of the Society

    CERN Document Server

    Kertesz, Janos; Murase, Yohsuke; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    The society has a multi-layered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of inter-layer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multi-layer WSN model, where the indirect inter-layer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved. Furthermore, the network of social interactions can be considered as a multiplex from another point of view too: each layer corresponds to one communication channel and the aggregate of all them constitutes the entire social network. However, usually one has information onl...

  10. Cooperative epidemics on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N

    2015-01-01

    The spread of one disease, in some cases, can stimulate the spreading of another infectious disease. Here, we treat analytically a symmetric co-infection model for spreading of two diseases on a 2-layer multiplex network. We allow layer overlapping, but we assume that each layer is random and locally loop-less. Infection with one of the diseases increases the probability to get infected by the other. Using generating function method, we calculate exactly the fraction of individuals infected with both diseases (so-called co-infected clusters) in the stationary state, as well as the epidemic spreading thresholds and the phase diagram of the model. With increasing cooperation, we observe a tricritical point and the type of transition changes from continuous to hybrid. Finally we compare the co-infected clusters in the case of co-operating diseases with the so-called viable clusters in networks with dependencies.

  11. Research of a newer spread-spectrum CDM telemetry communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永建; 周廷显

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce the multiplexing interference and enhance the information data transmission efficiency of the common spread-spectrum telemetry communication system, based on the m-sequence' s parallel move equivalent sequence, one type of spread-spectrum CDM(code division multiplexing) telemetry communication system is issued. The method of anti-multiplexing interference of the system is given, i.e. through using the parallel move equivalent sequence to modulate the antipodal signal of each path's data, then transmitted with the same channel. Data transmission rate,the error probability and multiplexing interference of the proposed system are analyzed. Mathematic analysis provesthat the system not only holds all the merits which are inherent in common spread-spectrum telemetry communication system,but also has better transmission efficiency. Simulation result validated the proved conclusion.

  12. Levy random walks on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Quantong; Zheng, Zhiming; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Random walks constitute a fundamental mechanism for many dynamics taking place on complex networks. Besides, as a more realistic description of our society, multiplex networks have been receiving a growing interest, as well as the dynamical processes that occur on top of them. Here, inspired by one specific model of random walks that seems to be ubiquitous across many scientific fields, the Levy flight, we study a new navigation strategy on top of multiplex networks. Capitalizing on spectral graph and stochastic matrix theories, we derive analytical expressions for the mean first passage time and the average time to reach a node on these networks. Moreover, we also explore the efficiency of Levy random walks, which we found to be very different as compared to the single layer scenario, accounting for the structure and dynamics inherent to the multiplex network. Finally, by comparing with some other important random walk processes defined on multiplex networks, we find that in some region of the parameters, a ...

  13. Overlapped frequency-time division multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui; LI Dao-ben

    2009-01-01

    A technique named overlapped frequency-time division multiplexing (OVFTDM)) is proposed in this article. The technique is derived from Nyquist system and frequency-time division multiplexing system. When the signals are compactly overlapped without the orthogonality in time domain, the technique is named overlapped time division multiplexing (OVTDM), whereas when signals are compactly overlapped without the orthogonality in frequency domain, the technique is called overlapped frequency division multiplexing (OVFDM). To further improve spectral efficiency, the OVFTDM in which signals are overlapped both in frequency domain and in time domain is explored. OVFTDM does not depend on orthogonality whatever in time domain or in frequency domain like Nyquist system or OFDM system, but on the convolutional constraint relationship among signals. Therefore, not only the spectral efficiency but also the reliability is improved. The simulations verify the validity of this theory.

  14. Correlated Edge Overlaps in Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Gareth J; da Costa, Rui A; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N; Mendes, José F F

    2016-01-01

    We develop the theory of sparse multiplex networks with partially overlapping links based on their local tree-likeness. This theory enables us to find the giant mutually connected component in a two-layer multiplex network with arbitrary correlations between connections of different types. We find that correlations between the overlapping and non-overlapping links markedly change the phase diagram of the system, leading to multiple hybrid phase transitions. For assortative correlations we observe recurrent hybrid phase transitions.

  15. Simulation of ATM multiplexer for bursty sources

    OpenAIRE

    Conger, Chen

    1993-01-01

    Asynchronous transfer mode ( ATM ) is a promising multiplexing and switching technique for implementing an integrated access as well as transport network and has been adopted by CCITT as a basis for the future broadband integrated services digital network ( BISDN ). The ATM technique allows digital communication of any type to share common transmission links and switching devices on a statistical multiplexing basis. Information is transmitted in the form of constant le...

  16. Optimization of synchronizability in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dwivedi, Sanjiv K; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the optimization of synchronizability in multiplex networks and demonstrate that the interlayer coupling strength is the deciding factor for the efficiency of optimization. The optimized networks have homogeneity in the degree as well as in the betweenness centrality. Additionally, the interlayer coupling strength crucially affects various properties of individual layers in the optimized multiplex networks. We provide an understanding to how the emerged network properties are shaped or affected when the evolution renders them better synchronizable.

  17. Identifying communities from multiplex biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Didier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Various biological networks can be constructed, each featuring gene/protein relationships of different meanings (e.g., protein interactions or gene co-expression. However, this diversity is classically not considered and the different interaction categories are usually aggregated in a single network. The multiplex framework, where biological relationships are represented by different network layers reflecting the various nature of interactions, is expected to retain more information. Here we assessed aggregation, consensus and multiplex-modularity approaches to detect communities from multiple network sources. By simulating random networks, we demonstrated that the multiplex-modularity method outperforms the aggregation and consensus approaches when network layers are incomplete or heterogeneous in density. Application to a multiplex biological network containing 4 layers of physical or functional interactions allowed recovering communities more accurately annotated than their aggregated counterparts. Overall, taking into account the multiplexity of biological networks leads to better-defined functional modules. A user-friendly graphical software to detect communities from multiplex networks, and corresponding C source codes, are available at GitHub (https://github.com/gilles-didier/MolTi.

  18. Competing spreading processes on multiplex networks: awareness and epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Granell, Clara; Arenas, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic-like spreading processes on top of multilayered interconnected complex networks reveal a rich phase diagram of intertwined competition effects. A recent study by the authors [Granell et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 128701 (2013)] presented the analysis of the interrelation between two processes accounting for the spreading of an epidemics, and the spreading of information awareness to prevent its infection, on top of multiplex networks. The results in the case in which awareness implies total immunization to the disease, revealed the existence of a metacritical point at which the critical onset of the epidemics starts depending on the reaching of the awareness process. Here we present a full analysis of these critical properties in the more general scenario where the awareness spreading does not imply total immunization, and where infection does not imply immediate awareness of it. We find the critical relation between both competing processes for a wide spectrum of parameters representing the interacti...

  19. Integrated three channel laser and optical multiplexer for narrowband wavelength division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragdale, C. M.; Reid, T. J.; Reid, D. C. J.; Carter, A. C.

    1994-05-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a monolithically integrated three channel narrowband wavelength multiplexer and DBR laser are reported. The multiplexers include Bragg gratings with an extinction ratio of greater than 20 dB anda bandwidth of approximately 1 nm to give channel spacings of less than 10 nm.

  20. Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Narrowand Broad-band Spectral Systems: Analysis and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Gregory B.

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) are important holographic optical elements in many spectral systems. Using multiple volume gratings, whether multiplexed or arranged sequentially, provides advantages to many types of systems in overall efficiency, dispersion performance, flexibility of design, etc. However, the use of multiple gratings---particularly when the gratings are multiplexed in a single holographic optical element (HOE)---is subject to inter-grating coupling effects that ultimately limit system performance. Analyzing these coupling effects requires a more complex mathematical model than the straightforward analysis of a single volume grating. We present a matrix-based algorithm for determining diffraction efficiencies of significant coupled waves in these multiplexed grating holographic optical elements (HOEs). Several carefully constructed experiments with spectrally multiplexed gratings in dichromated gelatin verify our conclusions. Applications of this theory to broad- and narrow-band systems are explored in detailed simulations. Broadband systems include spectrum splitters for diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells. Volume Bragg gratings can serve as effective spectrum splitters, but the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit ultimate performance. We explore broadband multi-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in sandwiched arrangements where individual single-grating HOEs are placed in series, and in multiplexed arrangements where multiple gratings are recorded in a single HOE. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems

  1. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei

    2017-04-01

    potential of this 24-colour (super-multiplex) optical imaging approach for elucidating intricate interactions in complex biological systems.

  2. High Spectrum Narrowing Tolerant 112 Gb/s Dual Polarization QPSK Optical Communication Systems Using Digital Adaptive Channel Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate high spectrum narrowing tolerant 112-Gb/s QPSK polarization multiplex system based on digital adaptive channel estimation method. The proposed algorithm is able to detect severe spectrum-narrowed signal even with 20GHz 3dB bandwidth.......We experimentally demonstrate high spectrum narrowing tolerant 112-Gb/s QPSK polarization multiplex system based on digital adaptive channel estimation method. The proposed algorithm is able to detect severe spectrum-narrowed signal even with 20GHz 3dB bandwidth....

  3. Biased random walks on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Battiston, Federico; Latora, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Biased random walks on complex networks are a particular type of walks whose motion is biased on properties of the destination node, such as its degree. In recent years they have been exploited to design efficient strategies to explore a network, for instance by constructing maximally mixing trajectories or by sampling homogeneously the nodes. In multiplex networks, the nodes are related through different types of links (layers or communication channels), and the presence of connections at different layers multiplies the number of possible paths in the graph. In this work we introduce biased random walks on multiplex networks and provide analytical solutions for their long-term properties such as the stationary distribution and the entropy rate. We focus on degree-biased walks and distinguish between two subclasses of random walks: extensive biased walks consider the properties of each node separately at each layer, intensive biased walks deal instead with intrinsically multiplex variables. We study the effec...

  4. Emergence of multiplex communities in collaboration networks

    CERN Document Server

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Bianconi, Ginestra; Latora, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Community structures in collaboration networks reflect the natural tendency of individuals to organize their work in groups in order to better achieve common goals. In most of the cases, individuals exploit their connections to introduce themselves to new areas of interests, giving rise to multifaceted collaborations which span different fields. In this paper, we analyse collaborations in science and among movie actors as multiplex networks, where the layers represent respectively research topics and movie genres, and we show that communities indeed coexist and overlap at the different layers of such systems. We then propose a model to grow multiplex networks based on two mechanisms of intra and inter-layer triadic closure which mimic the real processes in which collaborations evolve. We show that our model is able to explain the multiplex community structure observed empirically, and we infer the strength of the two underlying social mechanisms from real-world systems. Being also able to correctly reproduce ...

  5. Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Dwivedi, Sanjiv K

    2016-01-01

    Investigating relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising of anti-symmetric couplings in one layer, depicting predator-prey relation, and symmetric couplings in the other, depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relation, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue. We find that the correlated multiplexity emerges as evolution progresses. The evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the inter-link coupling strength. Furthermore, the inter-layer coupling strength governs the evolution of disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering star like networks in both the layers. The model and tools used here are useful for understanding the principles governing the stability as well as importance of such patterns in ...

  6. Metric projection for dynamic multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jurman, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Evolving multiplex networks are a powerful model for representing the dynamics along time of different phenomena, such as social networks, power grids, biological pathways. However, exploring the structure of the multiplex network time series is still an open problem. Here we propose a two-steps strategy to tackle this problem based on the concept of distance (metric) between networks. Given a multiplex graph, first a network of networks is built for each time steps, and then a real valued time series is obtained by the sequence of (simple) networks by evaluating the distance from the first element of the series. The effectiveness of this approach in detecting the occurring changes along the original time series is shown on a synthetic example first, and then on the Gulf dataset of political events.

  7. Multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency in a solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, G.; Rentzsch, N.; Halfmann, T.

    2012-11-01

    We report on frequency- and angle-multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. Frequency multiplexing by EIT relies on simultaneous storage of light pulses in atomic coherences, driven in different frequency ensembles of the inhomogeneously broadened solid medium. Angular multiplexing by EIT relies on phase matching of the driving laser beams, which permits simultaneous storage of light pulses propagating under different angles into the crystal. We apply the multiplexing techniques to increase the storage capacity of the EIT-driven optical memory, in particular to implement multiplexed storage of larger two-dimensional amounts of data (images). We demonstrate selective storage and readout of images by frequency-multiplexed EIT and angular-multiplexed EIT, as well as the potential to combine both multiplexing approaches towards further enhanced storage capacities.

  8. Multiplex bioanalytical methods for food and environmental monitoreing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebe, S.; Haasnoot, W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in miniaturization of analytical systems and newly emerging technologies offer platforms with greater automation and multiplexing capabilities than traditional biological binding assays. Multiplexed bioanalytical techniques provide control agencies and food industries with new possib

  9. Fluorinated polymer with high thermal stability for fabrication of 32-channel arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer on silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; LI Ai-ze; SUN Wei; YI Mao-bin; JIANG Zhen-hua; LIU Shi-yong; ZHANG Da-ming

    2005-01-01

    A cross-linkable fluorinated poly (ether ether ketone) (FPEEK) was synthesized for the fabrication of arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) multiplexer. The results of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and near-infrared absorption spectrum show that the materials have high thermal stability and high optical transparency in the infrared communication region. The refractive index of FPEEK can be controlled easily by changing the fluorine content of the materials. The 32-channel AWG multiplexer is fabricated using the FPEEK and oxygen reactive ion etching technology. The AWG multiplexer exhibits that the insertion loss is from 12.8 to 17.8 dB and the channel crosstalk is less than -20 dB. The wavelength channel spacing and the center wavelength are 0.8 nm and 1 548 nm, respectively.

  10. Performance modeling, loss networks, and statistical multiplexing

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph presents a concise mathematical approach for modeling and analyzing the performance of communication networks with the aim of understanding the phenomenon of statistical multiplexing. The novelty of the monograph is the fresh approach and insights provided by a sample-path methodology for queueing models that highlights the important ideas of Palm distributions associated with traffic models and their role in performance measures. Also presented are recent ideas of large buffer, and many sources asymptotics that play an important role in understanding statistical multiplexing. I

  11. Evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Reinares, Irene; Arenas, Alex; Floría, Luis Mario

    2012-01-01

    We study evolutionary game dynamics on structured populations in which individuals take part in several layers of networks of interactions simultaneously. This multiplex of interdependent networks accounts for the different kind of social ties each individual has. By coupling the evolutionary dynamics of a Prisoner's Dilemma game in each of the networks, we show that the resilience of cooperative behaviors for extremely large values of the temptation to defect is enhanced by the multiplex structure. Furthermore, this resilience is intrinsically related to a non-trivial organization of cooperation across the network layers, thus providing a new way out for cooperation to survive in structured populations.

  12. Centrality of nodes in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sola, Luis; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; del Amo, Alejandro Garcia; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the de?nition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially di?erent results when applied to the same multiplex structure, and highlight the non-trivial relationships between the di?erent measures of centrality introduced.

  13. Optimization of multi-grating volume holographic spectrum splitters for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, G B; Leger, J R

    2016-07-10

    Recent research has shown that using multiple diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells in conjunction with a spectrum splitting optical system can significantly improve PV power generation efficiency. Although volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) can serve as effective spectrum splitters, the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a single holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple single volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit the ultimate performance. This work explores broadband two-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in multiplexed (single element) and sandwiched-grating arrangements. Particle swarm optimization is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum, taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems exhibit performance improvements over single-grating solutions, especially when reduced dispersion is required. Under a ±2° constraint on output angular spread from wavelength dispersion, sandwiched-, multiplexed-, and single-grating systems exhibit power conversion efficiencies of 82.1%, 80.9%, and 77.5%, respectively, compared to an ideal bandpass spectrum splitter. Dispersion performance can be further improved by employing more than two VBGs in the spectrum splitter, but efficiency is compromised by additional cross-coupling effects. Multiplexed-grating systems are especially susceptible to these effects, but have the advantage of utilizing only a single HOE.

  14. Quadrotor system identification using the multivariate multiplex b-spline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for aircraft system identification is presented that is based on a new multivariate spline type; the multivariate multiplex B-spline. The multivariate multiplex B-spline is a generalization of the recently introduced tensor-simplex B-spline. Multivariate multiplex splines obtain simil

  15. Characterization of multiple topological scales in multiplex networks through supra-Laplacian eigengaps

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzo, E

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer networks have been the subject of intense research during the last few years, as they represent better the interdependent nature of many real world systems. Here, we address the question of describing the three different structural phases in which a multiplex network might exist. We show that each phase can be characterized by the presence of gaps in the spectrum of the supra-Laplacian of the multiplex network. We therefore unveil the existence of different topological scales in the system, whose relation characterizes each phase. Moreover, by capitalizing on the coarse-grained representation that is given in terms of quotient graphs, we explain the mechanisms that produce those gaps as well as their dynamical consequences.

  16. Development of the rf-SQUID Based Multiplexing System for the HOLMES Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiu, A.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Giachero, A.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Nucciotti, A.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    Measuring the neutrino mass is one of the most compelling issues in particle physics. The European Research Council has funded HOLMES, a new experiment for a direct measurement of neutrino mass that started in 2014. HOLMES will perform a precise measurement of the end point of the Electron Capture decay spectrum of ^{163}Ho in order to extract information on neutrino mass with a sensitivity as low as 0.4 eV. HOLMES, in its final configuration, will deploy a 1000 pixel array of low-temperature microcalorimeters: each calorimeter consists of an absorber, where the Ho atoms will be implanted, coupled to a transition edge sensor thermometer. The read out for an array of 1000 cryogenic detectors is a crucial matter: for HOLMES, a special radio-frequency-based multiplexing system is being developed. In this contribution, we outline the performance and special features of the multiplexing system and readout methods chosen for HOLMES.

  17. Delay grid multiplexing: simple time-based multiplexing and readout method for silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jun Yeon; Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a fully time-based multiplexing and readout method that uses the principle of the global positioning system. Time-based multiplexing allows simplifying the multiplexing circuits where the only innate traces that connect the signal pins of the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) channels to the readout channels are used as the multiplexing circuit. Every SiPM channel is connected to the delay grid that consists of the traces on a printed circuit board, and the inherent transit times from each SiPM channel to the readout channels encode the position information uniquely. Thus, the position of each SiPM can be identified using the time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements. The proposed multiplexing can also allow simplification of the readout circuit using the time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), where the time-over-threshold (ToT) is used to extract the energy information after multiplexing. In order to verify the proposed multiplexing method, we built a positron emission tomography (PET) detector that consisted of an array of 4  ×  4 LGSO crystals, each with a dimension of 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3, and one- to-one coupled SiPM channels. We first employed the waveform sampler as an initial study, and then replaced the waveform sampler with an FPGA-TDC to further simplify the readout circuits. The 16 crystals were clearly resolved using only the time information obtained from the four readout channels. The coincidence resolving times (CRTs) were 382 and 406 ps FWHM when using the waveform sampler and the FPGA-TDC, respectively. The proposed simple multiplexing and readout methods can be useful for time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners.

  18. Delay grid multiplexing: simple time-based multiplexing and readout method for silicon photomultipliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jun Yeon; Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-10-07

    In this paper, we propose a fully time-based multiplexing and readout method that uses the principle of the global positioning system. Time-based multiplexing allows simplifying the multiplexing circuits where the only innate traces that connect the signal pins of the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) channels to the readout channels are used as the multiplexing circuit. Every SiPM channel is connected to the delay grid that consists of the traces on a printed circuit board, and the inherent transit times from each SiPM channel to the readout channels encode the position information uniquely. Thus, the position of each SiPM can be identified using the time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements. The proposed multiplexing can also allow simplification of the readout circuit using the time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), where the time-over-threshold (ToT) is used to extract the energy information after multiplexing. In order to verify the proposed multiplexing method, we built a positron emission tomography (PET) detector that consisted of an array of 4  ×  4 LGSO crystals, each with a dimension of 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm(3), and one- to-one coupled SiPM channels. We first employed the waveform sampler as an initial study, and then replaced the waveform sampler with an FPGA-TDC to further simplify the readout circuits. The 16 crystals were clearly resolved using only the time information obtained from the four readout channels. The coincidence resolving times (CRTs) were 382 and 406 ps FWHM when using the waveform sampler and the FPGA-TDC, respectively. The proposed simple multiplexing and readout methods can be useful for time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners.

  19. Feedback Quantization for Linear Precoded Spatial Multiplexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, C.; Leus, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview and a comparison of recent feedback quantization schemes for linear precoded spatial multiplexing systems. In addition, feedback compression methods are presented that exploit the time correlation of the channel. These methods can be roughly divided into two classes. The

  20. On-chip mode division multiplexing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Frellsen, Louise Floor; Guan, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    using one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal silicon waveguides. We furthermore use the fabricated devices to demonstrate on-chip point-to-point mode division multiplexing transmission, and all-optical signal processing by mode-selective wavelength conversion. Finally, we report an efficient silicon...

  1. Low-Loss Fiber De-Multiplexers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Kuang; Chen; Sien; Chi; Shiao-Min; Tseng

    2003-01-01

    Reported are fiber de-multiplexers based on side-polished fibers with a long interaction length and intra-core fiber Bragg gratings. In conjunction with the silicon processing technologies, we demonstrate fiber filters and advantages of our approaches are addressed.

  2. Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Mode Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit enabling multiplexing of orthogonal modes in a few-mode fiber (FMF). By selectively launching light to four vertical grating couplers, all six orthogonal spatial and polarization modes supported by the FMF are successfully...

  3. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  4. Multiple routes transmitted epidemics on multiplex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dawei [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computer Network, Shandong Computer Science Center, Jinan 250014 (China); Li, Lixiang [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Peng, Haipeng, E-mail: penghaipeng@bupt.edu.cn [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Luo, Qun; Yang, Yixian [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-02-01

    This letter investigates the multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. We propose detailed theoretical analysis that allows us to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. It is found that the epidemic can spread across the multiplex network even if all the network layers are well below their respective epidemic thresholds. Strong positive degree–degree correlation of nodes in multiplex network could lead to a much lower epidemic threshold and a relatively smaller outbreak size. However, the average similarity of neighbors from different layers of nodes has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. -- Highlights: •We studies multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. •SIR model and bond percolation theory are used to analyze the epidemic processes. •We derive equations to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •ASN has no effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •Strong positive DDC leads to a lower epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size.

  5. Immunity of multiplex networks via acquaintance vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Da-Wei; Wang, Lin; Sun, Gui-Quan; Jin, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    How to find the effective approach of immunizing a population is one open question in the research of complex systems. Up to now, there have been a great number of works focusing on the efficiency of various immunization strategies. However, the majority of these existing achievements are limited to isolated networks, how immunization affects disease spreading in multiplex networks seems to need further exploration. In this letter, we explore the impact of the acquaintance immunization in multiplex networks, where two kinds of immunization strategies, multiplex node-based acquaintance immunization and layer node-based acquaintance immunization, are proposed. With the generating function method, our theoretical framework is able to accurately calculate the critical immunization threshold which is one of the most important indexes to predict the epidemic regime. Moreover, we further uncover that, with the increment of degree correlation between network layers, the immunization threshold declines for multiplex node-based acquaintance immunization, but slowly increases for layer node-based acquaintance immunization.

  6. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  7. Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Perc, Matjaž; Latora, Vito

    2017-07-01

    Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.

  8. Coherence-Multiplexed Optical RF Feeder Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Arjan; Taniman, Robert O.; Etten, van Wim

    2007-01-01

    An optical RF feeding system for wireless access is proposed, in which the radio access points are distinguished by means of coherence multiplexing (CM). CM is a rather unknown and potentially inexpensive optical code division multiple access technique, which is particularly suitable for relatively

  9. Zellweger Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe defect, resulting in essentially nonfunctional peroxisomes. This phenomenon produces the range of severity of the disorders. How is the Zellweger Spectrum Diagnosed? The distinctive shape of the head and face of a child born with one of the diseases of the ...

  10. Preliminary Assessment of Microwave Readout Multiplexing Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, Mark Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D. A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Mates, J. A. B. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Gard, J. D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Becker, D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Schmidt, D. R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Ullom, J. N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Ultra-high resolution microcalorimeter gamma spectroscopy is a new non-destructive assay technology for measurement of plutonium isotopic composition, with the potential to reduce total measurement uncertainty to a level competitive with destructive analysis methods [1-4]. Achieving this level of performance in practical applications requires not only the energy resolution now routinely achieved with transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter arrays (an order of magnitude better than for germanium detectors) but also high throughput. Microcalorimeter gamma spectrometers have not yet achieved detection efficiency and count rate capability that is comparable to germanium detectors, largely because of limits from existing readout technology. Microcalorimeter detectors must be operated at low temperature to achieve their exceptional energy resolution. Although the typical 100 mK operating temperatures can be achieved with reliable, cryogen-free systems, the cryogenic complexity and heat load from individual readout channels for large sensor arrays is prohibitive. Multiplexing is required for practical systems. The most mature multiplexing technology at present is time-division multiplexing (TDM) [3, 5-6]. In TDM, the sensor outputs are switched by applying bias current to one SQUID amplifier at a time. Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays as large as 256 pixels have been developed for X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy using TDM technology. Due to bandwidth limits and noise scaling, TDM is limited to a maximum multiplexing factor of approximately 32-40 sensors on one readout line [8]. Increasing the size of microcalorimeter arrays above the kilopixel scale, required to match the throughput of germanium detectors, requires the development of a new readout technology with a much higher multiplexing factor.

  11. A novel IPTV program multiplex access system to EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian; Liu, Deming; He, Wei; Lu, Xi

    2007-11-01

    With the rapid development of high speed networks, such as Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON), traffic patterns in access networks have evolved from traditional text-oriented service to the mixed text-, voice- and video- based services, leading to so called "Triple Play". For supporting IPTV service in EPON access network infrastructure, in this article we propose a novel IPTV program multiplex access system to EPON, which enables multiple IPTV program source servers to seamlessly access to IPTV service access port of optical line terminal (OLT) in EPON. There are two multiplex schemes, namely static multiplex scheme and dynamic multiplex scheme, in implementing the program multiplexing. Static multiplex scheme is to multiplex all the IPTV programs and forward them to the OLT, regardless of the need of end-users. While dynamic multiplex scheme can dynamically multiplex and forward IPTV programs according to what the end-users actually demand and those watched by no end-user would not be multiplexed. By comparing these two schemes, a reduced traffic of EPON can be achieved by using dynamic multiplex scheme, especially when most end-users are watching the same few IPTV programs. Both schemes are implemented in our system, with their hardware and software designs described.

  12. Multiplex and genome-wide analyses reveal distinctive properties of KIR+ and CD56+ T cells in human blood

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Wing Keung; Rujkijyanont, Piya; Neale, Geoffrey; Jie YANG; Bari, Rafijul; Gupta, Neha Das; Holladay, Martha; Rooney, Barbara; Leung, Wing

    2013-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on natural killer (NK) cells have been linked to a wide spectrum of health conditions such as chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, pregnancy complications, cancers, and transplant failures. A small subset of effector memory T cells also expresses KIRs. Here, we use modern analytic tools including genome-wide and multiplex molecular, phenotypic, and functional assays to characterize the KIR+ T cells in human blood. We find that KIR+ T cells ...

  13. Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Zeuner, Franziska; Li, Xin; Reineke, Bernhard; He, Shan; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Metasurfaces, as the ultrathin version of metamaterials, have caught growing attention due to their superior capability in controlling the phase, amplitude and polarization states of light. Among various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurface that encodes a geometric or Pancharatnam-Berry phase into the orientation angle of the constituent meta-atoms has shown great potential in controlling light in both linear and nonlinear optical regimes. The robust and dispersionless nature of the geometric phase simplifies the wave manipulation tremendously. Benefitting from the continuous phase control, metasurface holography has exhibited advantages over conventional depth controlled holography with discretized phase levels. Here we report on spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography, which allows construction of multiple target holographic images carried independently by the fundamental and harmonic generation waves of different spins. The nonlinear holograms provide independent, nondispersive and crosstalk-free post-selective channels for holographic multiplexing and multidimensional optical data storages, anti-counterfeiting, and optical encryption.

  14. Cycles and Clustering in Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Gareth J; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N; Mendes, José F F

    2016-01-01

    In multiplex networks, cycles cannot be characterized only by their length, as edges may occur in different layers in different combinations. We define a classification of cycles by the number of edges in each layer and the number of switches between layers. We calculate the expected number of cycles of each type in the configuration model of a large sparse multiplex network. Our method accounts for the full degree distribution including correlations between degrees in different layers. In particular, we obtain the numbers of cycles of length 3 of all possible types. Using these, we give a complete set of clustering coefficients and their expected values. We show that correlations between the degrees of a vertex in different layers strongly affect the number of cycles of a given type, and the number of switches between layers. Both increase with assortative correlations and are strongly decreased by disassortative correlations. The effect of correlations on clustering coefficients is equally pronounced.

  15. Chicken QTL mapping by multiplex PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate rapid determination of the chromosomal location of quantitative trait loci, the current approaches to gene mapping are improved using a multiplex PCR technique. The high-throughput linkage analysis method described here allows selection of 178 from 328 microsatellite markers through the multiplex PCR method combined with the semi-automatic fluorescence-labeled DNA analysis technology. Those polymorphism markers are distributed on 23 autosomes and one sex chromosome (chromosome Z), covering 3080cM genetic distance. The average marker density is 18cM, dispersed into 30 different sets. These selected polymorphism microsatellite markers segregate with the family members, following the Mendel's heritage laws, and are very useful for chicken linkage map analysis as well as for the research on some important economic quantitative characters of chicken.

  16. Hidden geometric correlations in real multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián; Ángeles Serrano, M.; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos

    2016-11-01

    Real networks often form interacting parts of larger and more complex systems. Examples can be found in different domains, ranging from the Internet to structural and functional brain networks. Here, we show that these multiplex systems are not random combinations of single network layers. Instead, they are organized in specific ways dictated by hidden geometric correlations between the layers. We find that these correlations are significant in different real multiplexes, and form a key framework for answering many important questions. Specifically, we show that these geometric correlations facilitate the definition and detection of multidimensional communities, which are sets of nodes that are simultaneously similar in multiple layers. They also enable accurate trans-layer link prediction, meaning that connections in one layer can be predicted by observing the hidden geometric space of another layer. And they allow efficient targeted navigation in the multilayer system using only local knowledge, outperforming navigation in the single layers only if the geometric correlations are sufficiently strong.

  17. Observability of Boolean multiplex control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuhu; Xu, Jingxue; Sun, Xi-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Boolean multiplex (multilevel) networks (BMNs) are currently receiving considerable attention as theoretical arguments for modeling of biological systems and system level analysis. Studying control-related problems in BMNs may not only provide new views into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems, but also enable us to develop a method for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. In this article, the observability of the Boolean multiplex control networks (BMCNs) are studied. First, the dynamical model and structure of BMCNs with control inputs and outputs are constructed. By using of Semi-Tensor Product (STP) approach, the logical dynamics of BMCNs is converted into an equivalent algebraic representation. Then, the observability of the BMCNs with two different kinds of control inputs is investigated by giving necessary and sufficient conditions. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained theoretical results.

  18. Spectrally multiplexed chromatic confocal multipoint sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Matthias; Lorenz, Lucia; Kleindienst, Roman; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2013-11-15

    We present a concept for chromatic confocal distance sensing that employs two levels of spectral multiplexing for the parallelized evaluation of multiple lateral measurement points; at the first level, the chromatic confocal principle is used to encode distance information within the spectral distribution of the sensor signal. For lateral multiplexing, the total spectral bandwidth of the sensor is split into bands. Each band is assigned to a different lateral measurement point by a segmented diffractive element. Based on this concept, we experimentally demonstrate a chromatic confocal three-point sensor that is suitable for harsh production environments, since it works with a single-point spectrometer and does not require scanning functionality. The experimental system has a working distance of more than 50 mm, a measurement range of 9 mm, and an axial resolution of 50 μm.

  19. Magnetically Multiplexed Heating of Single Domain Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Michael G; Anikeeva, Polina

    2014-01-01

    Selective hysteretic heating of multiple collocated sets of single domain magnetic nanoparticles (SDMNPs) by alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) may offer a useful tool for biomedical applications. The possibility of magnetothermal multiplexing has not yet been realized, in part due to prevalent use of linear response theory to model SDMNP heating in AMFs. Predictive successes of dynamic hysteresis (DH), a more generalized model for heat dissipation by SDMNPs, are observed experimentally with detailed calorimetry measurements performed at varied AMF amplitudes and frequencies. The DH model suggests that specific driving conditions play an underappreciated role in determining optimal material selection strategies for high heat dissipation. Motivated by this observation, magnetothermal multiplexing is theoretically predicted and empirically demonstrated for the first time by selecting SDMNPs with properties that suggest optimal hysteretic heat dissipation at dissimilar AMF driving conditions. This form of multip...

  20. Enzyme-based multiplexer and demultiplexer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arugula, Mary A; Bocharova, Vera; Halámek, Jan; Pita, Marcos; Katz, Evgeny

    2010-04-22

    A digital 2-to-1 multiplexer and a 1-to-2 demultiplexer were mimicked by biocatalytic reactions involving concerted operation of several enzymes. Using glucose oxidase (GOx) and laccase (Lac) as the data input signals and variable pH as the addressing signal, ferrocyanide oxidation in the output channel was selectively activated by one from two inputs, thus mimicking the multiplexer operation. A demultiplexer based on the enzyme system composed of GOx, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) allowed selective activation of different output channels (oxidation of ferrocyanide or reduction of NAD(+)) by the glucose input. The selection of the output channel was controlled by the addressing input of NAD(+). The designed systems represent important novel components of future branched enzyme networks processing biochemical signals for biosensing and bioactuating.

  1. Multiplex congruence network of natural numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Chen, Guan-Rong; Shi, Ding-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Congruence theory has many applications in physical, social, biological and technological systems. Congruence arithmetic has been a fundamental tool for data security and computer algebra etc.. However, much less attention was devoted to the topological features of congruence relations among natural numbers. Here, we explore the congruence relations in the setting of a multiplex network and unveil some unique and outstanding properties of the multiplex congruence network. Analytical results show that every layer therein is a sparse and heterogeneous subnetwork with a scale-free topology. Counterintuitively, every layer has an extremely strong controllability in spite of its scale-free structure that is usually difficult to control. Another amazing feature is that the controllability is robust against targeted attacks to critical nodes but vulnerable to random failures, which also differs from normal scale-free networks. The multi-chain structure with a small number of chain roots arising from each layer accou...

  2. Demand and Congestion in Multiplex Transportation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Awwad, Zeyad; Jiang, Shan; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Urban transportation systems are multimodal, sociotechnical systems; however, while their multimodal aspect has received extensive attention in recent literature on multiplex networks, their sociotechnical aspect has been largely neglected. We present the first study of an urban transportation system using multiplex network analysis and validated Origin-Destination travel demand, with Riyadh’s planned metro as a case study. We develop methods for analyzing the impact of additional transportation layers on existing dynamics, and show that demand structure plays key quantitative and qualitative roles. There exist fundamental geometrical limits to the metro’s impact on traffic dynamics, and the bulk of environmental accrue at metro speeds only slightly faster than those planned. We develop a simple model for informing the use of additional, “feeder” layers to maximize reductions in global congestion. Our techniques are computationally practical, easily extensible to arbitrary transportation layers with complex transfer logic, and implementable in open-source software. PMID:27657738

  3. Fundamentals of multiplexing with digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Alexandra S; Huggett, Jim F; Tzonev, Svilen

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade numerous publications have demonstrated how digital PCR (dPCR) enables precise and sensitive quantification of nucleic acids in a wide range of applications in both healthcare and environmental analysis. This has occurred in parallel with the advances in partitioning fluidics that enable a reaction to be subdivided into an increasing number of partitions. As the majority of dPCR systems are based on detection in two discrete optical channels, most research to date has focused on quantification of one or two targets within a single reaction. Here we describe 'higher order multiplexing' that is the unique ability of dPCR to precisely measure more than two targets in the same reaction. Using examples, we describe the different types of duplex and multiplex reactions that can be achieved. We also describe essential experimental considerations to ensure accurate quantification of multiple targets.

  4. DAB: Multiplex and system support features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J. L.

    This Report describes the multiplex and system support features of the Eureka 147/DAB digital audio system. It sets out the requirements of all users along the broadcast chain from service providers and broadcaster through to the listener. The contents of the transmission frame are examined drawing the distinction between the main service multiplex and the provision of control information in a separate fast data channel. The concept of the DAB service structure is introduced and the inherent system flexibility for altering the service arrangement is explained. A wide range of service information features builds on those provided in earlier systems, such as RDS (Radio Data System) and is intended to make it easier for a listener to find any required service and to add a further dimension to audio broadcasting. The choices available to users in all of these areas are examined.

  5. Interests Diffusion on a Semantic Multiplex

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the information about members of a Social Network (SN) represents one of the most attractive and dwelling subjects for both academic and applied scientists. The community of Complexity Science and especially those researchers working on multiplex social systems are devoting increasing efforts to outline general laws, models, and theories, to the purpose of predicting emergent phenomena in SN's (e.g. success of a product). On the other side the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services tailored to specific people needs. This implies defining constructs, models and methods for handling the semantic layer of SNs. We combined models and techniques from both the former fields to provide a hybrid approach to understand a basic (yet complex) phenomenon: the propagation of individual interests along the social networks. Since information may move along different social networks, one should take into account a multiplex structure. Therefore we introduced the notion of ...

  6. Multiplexing Short Primers for Viral Family PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Hiddessen, A L; Hara, C A; Williams, P L; Wagner, M; Colston, B W

    2008-06-26

    We describe a Multiplex Primer Prediction (MPP) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets for large, diverse, and unalignable sets of target sequences. The MPP algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. We applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly large number of primers ({approx}3700 18-mers or {approx}2000 10-mers) to generate amplicons from all sequenced viruses. We then designed primer sets separately for each viral family, and for several diverse species such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments of influenza A virus, Norwalk virus, and HIV-1.

  7. Nanophotonic modal dichroism: mode-multiplexed modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susobhan; Fardad, Shima; Kim, Inki; Rho, Junsuk; Hui, Rongqing; Salandrino, Alessandro

    2016-09-15

    As the diffraction limit is approached, device miniaturization to integrate more functionality per area becomes more and more challenging. Here we propose a strategy to increase the functionality-per-area by exploiting the modal properties of a waveguide system. With such an approach the design of a mode-multiplexed nanophotonic modulator relying on the mode-selective absorption of a patterned indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is proposed. Full-wave simulations of a device operating at the telecom wavelength of 1550 nm show that two modes can be independently modulated, while maintaining performances in line with conventional single-mode ITO modulators reported in the recent literature. The proposed design principles can pave the way to a class of mode-multiplexed compact photonic devices able to effectively multiply the functionality-per-area in integrated photonic systems.

  8. Broadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy employing photonic-crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Paulsen, Henrik Nørgaard; Birkedal, Victoria

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate spectral multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy and microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). The Stokes pulse is generated by spectral conversion of the laser pulse in a PCF. The pump pulse...... is either a highly chirped pulse or a pulse spectrally compressed in a PCF. A region of the Raman spectrum from 800 to 4000 cm(-1) is accessible with two different PCFs. Spectral resolution improvement by 1 order of magnitude over a transform-limited pump pulse utilizing a chirped or spectrally compressed...

  9. Microgels for multiplex and direct fluorescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causa, Filippo; Aliberti, Anna; Cusano, Angela M.; Battista, Edmondo; Netti, Paolo A.

    2015-05-01

    Blood borne oligonucleotides fragments contain useful clinical information whose detection and monitoring represent the new frontier in liquid biopsy as they can transform the current diagnosis procedure. For instance, recent studies have identified a new class of circulating biomarkers such as s miRNAs, and demonstrated that changes in their concentration are closely associated with the development of cancer and other pathologies. However, direct detection of miRNAs in body fluids is particularly challenging and demands high sensitivity -concentration range between atto to femtomolarspecificity, and multiplexing Here we report on engineered multifunctional microgels and innovative probe design for a direct and multiplex detection of relevant clinical miRNAs in fluorescence by single particle assay. Polyethyleneglycol-based microgels have a coreshell architecture with two spectrally encoded fluorescent dyes for multiplex analyses and are endowed with fluorescent probes for miRNA detection. Encoding and detection fluorescence signals are distinguishable by not overlapping emission spectra. Tuneable fluorescence probe conjugation and corresponding emission confinement on single microgel allows for enhanced target detection. Such suspension array has indeed high selectivity and sensitivity with a detection limit of 10-15 M and a dynamic range from 10-9 to 10-15 M. We believe that sensitivity in the fM concentration range, signal background minimization, multiplexed capability and direct measurement of such microgels will translate into diagnostic benefits opening up new roots toward liquid biopsy in the context of point-of-care testing through an easy and fast detection of sensitive diagnostic biomarkers directly in serum.

  10. Multiplexed Electrochemistry of DNA-bound Metalloproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheeney, Catrina G.; Arnold, Anna R.; Grodick, Michael A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe a multiplexed electrochemical characterization of DNA-bound proteins containing [4Fe-4S] clusters. DNA-modified electrodes have become an essential tool for the characterization of the redox chemistry of DNA repair proteins containing redox cofactors, and multiplexing offers a means to probe different complex samples and substrates in parallel to elucidate this chemistry. Multiplexed analysis of EndonucleaseIII (EndoIII), a DNA repair protein containing a [4Fe-4S] cluster known to be accessible via DNA-mediated charge transport, shows subtle differences in the electrochemical behavior as a function of DNA morphology. The peak splitting, signal broadness, sensitivity to π-stack perturbations, and kinetics were all characterized for the DNA-bound reduction of EndoIII on both closely and loosely packed DNA films. DNA-bound EndoIII is seen to have two different electron transfer pathways for reduction, either through the DNA base stack or through direct surface reduction; closely packed DNA films, where the protein has limited surface accessibility, produce electrochemical signals reflecting electron transfer that is DNA-mediated. Multiplexing furthermore permits the comparison of the electrochemistry of EndoIII mutants, including a new family of mutations altering the electrostatics surrounding the [4Fe-4S] cluster. While little change in the midpoint potential was found for this family of mutants, significant variations in the efficiency of DNA-mediated electron transfer were apparent. Based on the stability of these proteins, examined by circular dichroism, we propose that the electron transfer pathway can be perturbed not only by the removal of aromatic residues but also through changes in solvation near the cluster. PMID:23899026

  11. Wireless Multiplexed Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Sensor is a new technology for obtaining multiple, real-time measurements under extreme environmental conditions. This project plans to develop a wireless multiplexed sensor system that uses SAW sensors, with no batteries or semiconductors, that are passive and rugged, can operate down to cryogenic temperatures and up to hundreds of degrees C, and can be used to sense a wide variety of parameters over reasonable distances (meters).

  12. Emergence of Multiplex Communities in Collaboration Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Battiston

    Full Text Available Community structures in collaboration networks reflect the natural tendency of individuals to organize their work in groups in order to better achieve common goals. In most of the cases, individuals exploit their connections to introduce themselves to new areas of interests, giving rise to multifaceted collaborations which span different fields. In this paper, we analyse collaborations in science and among movie actors as multiplex networks, where the layers represent respectively research topics and movie genres, and we show that communities indeed coexist and overlap at the different layers of such systems. We then propose a model to grow multiplex networks based on two mechanisms of intra and inter-layer triadic closure which mimic the real processes by which collaborations evolve. We show that our model is able to explain the multiplex community structure observed empirically, and we infer the strength of the two underlying social mechanisms from real-world systems. Being also able to correctly reproduce the values of intra-layer and inter-layer assortativity correlations, the model contributes to a better understanding of the principles driving the evolution of social networks.

  13. Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sanjiv K.; Jalan, Sarika

    2017-02-01

    Investigating the relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and the stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand the importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising antisymmetric couplings in one layer depicting predator-prey relationship and symmetric couplings in the other depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relationship, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue of the corresponding adjacency matrices. We find that there is an emergence of the correlated multiplexity between the mirror nodes as the evolution progresses. Importantly, evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the interlayer coupling strength. Additionally, the interlayer coupling strength governs the evolution of the disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering starlike networks representing both the layers. The framework discussed here is useful for understanding principles governing the stability as well as the importance of various patterns in the underlying networks of real-world systems ranging from the brain to ecology which consist of multiple types of interaction behavior.

  14. Multiplex congruence network of natural numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Chen, Guan-Rong; Shi, Ding-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Congruence theory has many applications in physical, social, biological and technological systems. Congruence arithmetic has been a fundamental tool for data security and computer algebra. However, much less attention was devoted to the topological features of congruence relations among natural numbers. Here, we explore the congruence relations in the setting of a multiplex network and unveil some unique and outstanding properties of the multiplex congruence network. Analytical results show that every layer therein is a sparse and heterogeneous subnetwork with a scale-free topology. Counterintuitively, every layer has an extremely strong controllability in spite of its scale-free structure that is usually difficult to control. Another amazing feature is that the controllability is robust against targeted attacks to critical nodes but vulnerable to random failures, which also differs from ordinary scale-free networks. The multi-chain structure with a small number of chain roots arising from each layer accounts for the strong controllability and the abnormal feature. The multiplex congruence network offers a graphical solution to the simultaneous congruences problem, which may have implication in cryptography based on simultaneous congruences. Our work also gains insight into the design of networks integrating advantages of both heterogeneous and homogeneous networks without inheriting their limitations.

  15. Multiplex congruence network of natural numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Chen, Guan-Rong; Shi, Ding-Hua

    2016-03-31

    Congruence theory has many applications in physical, social, biological and technological systems. Congruence arithmetic has been a fundamental tool for data security and computer algebra. However, much less attention was devoted to the topological features of congruence relations among natural numbers. Here, we explore the congruence relations in the setting of a multiplex network and unveil some unique and outstanding properties of the multiplex congruence network. Analytical results show that every layer therein is a sparse and heterogeneous subnetwork with a scale-free topology. Counterintuitively, every layer has an extremely strong controllability in spite of its scale-free structure that is usually difficult to control. Another amazing feature is that the controllability is robust against targeted attacks to critical nodes but vulnerable to random failures, which also differs from ordinary scale-free networks. The multi-chain structure with a small number of chain roots arising from each layer accounts for the strong controllability and the abnormal feature. The multiplex congruence network offers a graphical solution to the simultaneous congruences problem, which may have implication in cryptography based on simultaneous congruences. Our work also gains insight into the design of networks integrating advantages of both heterogeneous and homogeneous networks without inheriting their limitations.

  16. Identification of Tryptic Peptides from Large Databases using Multiplexed Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Simulations and Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masselon, Christophe D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Lee, Sang-Won (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Li, Lingjun (Illinois Univ Of-Urbana/Champa); Anderson, Gordon A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Harkewicz, Richard (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Richard D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-07-01

    Multiplexed MS/MS was recently demonstrated as a means to increase the throughput of peptides identification in LC-MS/MS experiments. In this approach, a set of parent species is dissociated simultaneously and measured in a single spectrum (in the same manner that a single parent ion is conventionally studied), providing a gain in sensitivity and throughput proportional to the number of species that can be simultaneously addressed. In the present work, simulations performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans predicted proteome database show that multiplexed MS/MS data allow the identification of tryptic peptides from mixtures of up to 10 peptides from a single dataset with only 3 y or b fragments per peptide and a mass accuracy of 2.5 to 5 ppm. At this level of database and data complexity, 98% of the 500 peptides considered in the simulation were correctly identified. This compares favorably with the rates obtained for classical MS/MS at more modest mass measurement accuracy. LC-multiplexed FTICR MS/MS data obtained from a 66 kDa protein (bovine serum albumin) tryptic digest sample are presented to illustrate the approach, and confirm that peptides can be effectively identified from the C. elegans database to which the protein sequence had been appended.

  17. Polarization multiplexed dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator based on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiuyou; Ma, Liang; Shao, Yuchen; Ye, Qing; Gu, Yiying; Zhao, Mingshan

    2017-01-01

    A polarization multiplexed dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The narrow bandwidth of SBS gain spectrum is utilized to implement the phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion and select the oscillation mode of the OEO. The polarization multiplexed dual-loop is constructed to suppress the side modes with Vernier effect. The output frequency of the OEO can be tuned by changing the frequency of the signal or the pump light wave. With the polarization multiplexed dual-loop the side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 45 dB is achieved at 10 GHz. The generated oscillation frequency is tuned from 4 GHz to 16 GHz by changing the frequency of the signal light wave. The phase noise decreases with the power increase of the signal light wave when it is under the threshold of SBS. By adjusting the polarization state of the light wave, the influence of the power distribution between the long loop and the short loop on the phase noise of the OEO is investigated. The results show that more power in the long loop is helpful to suppress the near end phase noise.

  18. Monolithically integrated reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for mode-division-multiplexing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shipeng; Wu, Hao; Tsang, Hon Ki; Dai, Daoxin

    2016-11-15

    An integrated reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) for mode-division-multiplexing systems is proposed and demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The present ROADM with four mode-channels is composed of a four-channel mode demultiplexer, four identical 2×2 thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder switches (MZSs), and a four-channel mode multiplexer, which are integrated monolithically on silicon. All the devices are designed for operation with TM polarization. The ROADM can add/drop any one of the mode channels freely by thermally turning on/off the corresponding MZS. For the added/dropped mode-channels, the excess loss is 1-5 dB, and the extinction ratio is 15-20 dB in the wavelength range of 1535-1565 nm.

  19. Low-Voltage MOS Current Mode Logic Multiplexer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gupta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new low-voltage MOS current mode logic (MCML multiplexer based on the triple-tail cell concept is proposed. An analytical model for static parameters is formulated and is applied to develop a design approach for the proposed low-voltage MCML multiplexer. The delay of the proposed low-voltage MCML multiplexer is expressed in terms of the bias current and the voltage swing so that it can be traded off with the power consumption. The proposed low-voltage MCML multiplexer is analyzed for the three design cases namely high-speed, power-efficient, and low-power. Finally, a comparison in performance of the proposed low-voltage MCML multiplexer with the traditional MCML multiplexer is carried out for all the cases.

  20. Reversible chemical reactions for single-color multiplexing microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox, Dominik; Schwering, Michael; Engelhardt, Johann; Herten, Dirk-Peter

    2014-08-04

    Recent developments in biology demand an increasing number of simultaneously imaged structures with standard fluorescence microscopy. However, the number of multiplexed channels is limited for most multiplexing modalities, such as spectral multiplexing or fluorescence-lifetime imaging. We propose extending the number of imaging channels by using chemical reactions, controlling the emissive state of fluorescent dyes. As proof of concept, we reversibly switch a fluorescent copper sensor to enable successive imaging of two different structures in the same spectral channel. We also show that this chemical multiplexing is orthogonal to existing methods. By using two different dyes, we combine chemical with spectral multiplexing for the simultaneous imaging of four different structures with only two spectrally different channels. We characterize and discuss the approach and provide perspectives for extending imaging modalities in stimulated emission depletion microscopy, for which spectral multiplexing is technically demanding.

  1. Fission Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  2. Multidiameter optical ring and Hermite-Gaussian vortices for wavelength division multiplexing-mode division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphawan, Angela; Fazea, Yousef

    2016-10-01

    Optical vortices are high-capacity data carriers for mode division multiplexing (MDM) in multimode fiber (MMF). This paper reports on the MDM of a combination of helical-phased optical vortices comprising donut modes and Hermite-Gaussian (HG) modes for different radial offsets from the MMF axis. A data rate of 44 Gbps is achieved for wavelength division multiplexing-MDM of two pairs of helical-phased donut mode and HG mode at wavelengths 1550.12 and 1551.72 nm for a MMF length of 1500 m.

  3. Novel optical add-drop multiplexer for wavelength-division-multiplexing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng-Chun; Chang, Ching-Hung; Lu, Hai-Han; Lin, Yi-Tzai; Sun, Jen-Wei; Jiang, Chang-Han

    2012-06-01

    Two novel optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) with different self-healing functionalities for reliable wavelength-division-multiplexing networks are presented and demonstrated. Single or multiple failure-link traffics can be bi-directionally restored without the need for wavelength conversion or extra backup fiber links. To evaluate the performances of the proposed structures, a 77-channel CATV signal is experimentally transmitted with a favorable carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO) and composite triple beat (CTB) performances.

  4. Rare Inherited and De Novo CNVs Reveal Complex Contributions to ASD Risk in Multiplex Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppa, Virpi M; Kravitz, Stephanie N; Martin, Christa Lese; Andrieux, Joris; Le Caignec, Cedric; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; DyBuncio, Christina; Sanders, Stephan J; Lowe, Jennifer K; Cantor, Rita M; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2016-09-01

    Rare mutations, including copy-number variants (CNVs), contribute significantly to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Although their importance has been established in families with only one affected child (simplex families), the contribution of both de novo and inherited CNVs to ASD in families with multiple affected individuals (multiplex families) is less well understood. We analyzed 1,532 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) to assess the impact of de novo and rare CNVs on ASD risk in multiplex families. We observed a higher burden of large, rare CNVs, including inherited events, in individuals with ASD than in their unaffected siblings (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7), but the rate of de novo events was significantly lower than in simplex families. In previously characterized ASD risk loci, we identified 49 CNVs, comprising 24 inherited events, 19 de novo events, and 6 events of unknown inheritance, a significant enrichment in affected versus control individuals (OR = 3.3). In 21 of the 30 families (71%) in whom at least one affected sibling harbored an established ASD major risk CNV, including five families harboring inherited CNVs, the CNV was not shared by all affected siblings, indicating that other risk factors are contributing. We also identified a rare risk locus for ASD and language delay at chromosomal region 2q24 (implicating NR4A2) and another lower-penetrance locus involving inherited deletions and duplications of WWOX. The genetic architecture in multiplex families differs from that in simplex families and is complex, warranting more complete genetic characterization of larger multiplex ASD cohorts. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiplex-FISH (M-FISH): technique, developments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, L

    2006-01-01

    Multiplex FISH (M-FISH) represents one of the most significant developments in molecular cytogenetics of the past decade. Originally designed to generate 24 colour karyotyping, the technique has spawned many variations and an equally diverse range of applications. In tumour and leukaemia cytogenetics, the two groups that have been targeted represent both ends of the cytogenetic spectrum: those with an apparently normal karyotype (suspected of harbouring small rearrangements not detectable by conventional cytogenetics) and those with a complex aberrant karyotype (which are difficult to karyotype accurately due to the sheer number of aberrations). In research, mouse M-FISH provides a powerful tool to characterize mouse models of a disease. In addition, the ability to accurately karyotype single metaphases without selection makes M-FISH the perfect tool in chromosome breakage studies and for characterizing clonal evolution of tumours. Finally, M-FISH has emerged as the perfect partner for the developing genomic microarray (array CGH) technologies, providing a powerful approach to gene discovery.

  6. Large scale multiplex PCR improves pathogen detection by DNA microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krönke Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium density DNA microchips that carry a collection of probes for a broad spectrum of pathogens, have the potential to be powerful tools for simultaneous species identification, detection of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance determinants. However, their widespread use in microbiological diagnostics is limited by the problem of low pathogen numbers in clinical specimens revealing relatively low amounts of pathogen DNA. Results To increase the detection power of a fluorescence-based prototype-microarray designed to identify pathogenic microorganisms involved in sepsis, we propose a large scale multiplex PCR (LSplex PCR for amplification of several dozens of gene-segments of 9 pathogenic species. This protocol employs a large set of primer pairs, potentially able to amplify 800 different gene segments that correspond to the capture probes spotted on the microarray. The LSplex protocol is shown to selectively amplify only the gene segments corresponding to the specific pathogen present in the analyte. Application of LSplex increases the microarray detection of target templates by a factor of 100 to 1000. Conclusion Our data provide a proof of principle for the improvement of detection of pathogen DNA by microarray hybridization by using LSplex PCR.

  7. Communicability reveals a transition to coordinated behavior in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the flow of information in multiplex networks by means of the communicability function. First, we generalize this measure from its definition from simple graphs to multiplex networks. Then, we study its relevance for the analysis of real-world systems by studying a social multiplex where information flows using formal/informal channels and an air transportation system where the layers represent different air companies. Accordingly, the communicability, which is essential for the good performance of these complex systems, emerges at a systemic operation point in the multiplex where the performance of the layers operates in a coordinated way very differently from the state represented by a collection of unconnected networks.

  8. Shift-peristrophic multiplexing for holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Hiroyuki; Mori, Jun; Tsukamoto, Yu; Yamamoto, Keiko; Yoshida, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2014-09-01

    Holographic data storage (HDS) is a promising technology that has huge capacity. A multiplexing method plays a significant role in increasing the data capacity. Various multiplexing methods have been researched so far. In this paper, we proposed shift-peristrophic multiplexing using spherical reference wave and experimentally verified that this method is efficiently increase the data capacity. A series of holograms was recorded with shift multiplexing and rotating recording material with the axis of rotation being perpendicular to the material's surface. This method can realize more than 1 Tbits/inch2 data density recording. Furthermore if we maximize the performance of a recording medium, several TB per disk capacity would be available.

  9. Communicability reveals a transition to coordinated behavior in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    We analyze the flow of information in multiplex networks by means of the communicability function. First, we generalize this measure from its definition from simple graphs to multiplex networks. Then, we study its relevance for the analysis of real-world systems by studying a social multiplex where information flows using formal-informal channels and an air transportation system where the layers represent different air companies. Accordingly, the communicability, which is essential for the good performance of these complex systems, emerges at a systemic operation point in the multiplex where the performance of the layers operates in a coordinated way very differently from the state represented by a collection of unconnected networks.

  10. Statistical mechanics of multiplex networks: entropy and overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-06-01

    There is growing interest in multiplex networks where individual nodes take part in several layers of networks simultaneously. This is the case, for example, in social networks where each individual node has different kinds of social ties or transportation systems where each location is connected to another location by different types of transport. Many of these multiplexes are characterized by a significant overlap of the links in different layers. In this paper we introduce a statistical mechanics framework to describe multiplex ensembles. A multiplex is a system formed by N nodes and M layers of interactions where each node belongs to the M layers at the same time. Each layer α is formed by a network G^{α}. Here we introduce the concept of correlated multiplex ensembles in which the existence of a link in one layer is correlated with the existence of a link in another layer. This implies that a typical multiplex of the ensemble can have a significant overlap of the links in the different layers. Moreover, we characterize microcanonical and canonical multiplex ensembles satisfying respectively hard and soft constraints and we discuss how to construct multiplexes in these ensembles. Finally, we provide the expression for the entropy of these ensembles that can be useful to address different inference problems involving multiplexes.

  11. Transmission qualities of natural lines of mine telecommunication network in the aspect of multiplexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penkala, E.

    1982-10-01

    The parameters of natural lines of mine telecommunication cables which are essential for multiplexing are discussed. It is shown that a method of time multiplexing permits better use to be made of line capacity than does frequency multiplexing.

  12. Front-end Multiplexing - applied to SQUID multiplexing : Athena X-IFU and QUBIC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Prêle, Damien

    2015-01-01

    As we have seen for digital camera market and a sensor resolution increasing to "megapixels", all the scientific and high-tech imagers (whatever the wave length - from radio to X-ray range) tends also to always increases the pixels number. So the constraints on front-end signals transmission increase too. An almost unavoidable solution to simplify integration of large arrays of pixels is front-end multiplexing. Moreover, "simple" and "efficient" techniques allow integration of read-out multiplexers in the focal plane itself. For instance, CCD (Charge Coupled Device) technology has boost number of pixels in digital camera. Indeed, this is exactly a planar technology which integrates both the sensors and a front-end multiplexed readout. In this context, front-end multiplexing techniques will be discussed for a better understanding of their advantages and their limits. Finally, the cases of astronomical instruments in the millimeter and in the X-ray ranges using SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device...

  13. Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita: Multiple Congenital Joint Contractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Sucuoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC is a syndrome characterized by nonprogressive multiple congenital joint contractures. The etiology of disease is multifactorial; it is most commonly suspected from absent fetal movements and genetic defects. AMC affects mainly limbs; also it might present with other organs involvement. It is crucial that the diagnosis of AMC should be kept in mind by musculoskeletal physicians in newborns with multiple joint contractures and patients must begin rehabilitation in early stage after accurate diagnosis in terms of functional independence. We present the diagnosis, types, clinical features, and treatment approaches of this disease in our case with literature reviews.

  14. Performance modeling, stochastic networks, and statistical multiplexing

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Ravi R

    2013-01-01

    This monograph presents a concise mathematical approach for modeling and analyzing the performance of communication networks with the aim of introducing an appropriate mathematical framework for modeling and analysis as well as understanding the phenomenon of statistical multiplexing. The models, techniques, and results presented form the core of traffic engineering methods used to design, control and allocate resources in communication networks.The novelty of the monograph is the fresh approach and insights provided by a sample-path methodology for queueing models that highlights the importan

  15. Wavelength division multiplexing a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Grobe, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this book, Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is approached from a strictly practical and application-oriented point of view. Based on the characteristics and constraints of modern fiber-optic components, transport systems and fibers, the text provides relevant rules of thumb and practical hints for technology selection, WDM system and link dimensioning, and also for network-related aspects such as wavelength assignment and resilience mechanisms. Actual 10/40 Gb/s WDM systems are considered, and a preview of the upcoming 100 Gb/s systems and technologies for even higher bit rate

  16. Digitally encoded all-optical sensor multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Anjum

    1992-01-01

    A digital, all-optical temperature sensor design concept based on optical sampling and digital encoding is presented. The proposed sensor generates 2M binary digital codewords of length M bits. The codewords are generated serially and, therefore, only a single output fiber line is required. A multiplexing scheme, which minimizes the power requirement per sensor array and facilitates a cost-effective digit regeneration for remote monitoring over long distance, is presented. The sensor arrays are used as building blocks to configure large scale sensor networks based on LAN topologies.

  17. A simple multiforce layout for multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fatemi, Zahra; Magnani, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce multiforce, a force-directed layout for multiplex networks, where the nodes of the network are organized into multiple layers and both in-layer and inter-layer relationships among nodes are used to compute node coordinates. The proposed approach generalizes existing work, providing a range of intermediate layouts in-between the ones produced by known methods. Our experiments on real data show that multiforce can keep nodes reasonably aligned across different layers without significantly affecting the internal layout of each layer.

  18. Few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hirokazu; Morioka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A study is presented of the fiber properties needed to achieve 10-mode multiplexing transmission. A combination of MIMO processing with optical LP mode separation is proposed to prevent the need for massive MIMO computation. The impact of mode crosstalk, differential mode delay, and the mode dependent loss of the few-mode fibers on mode multiplexing are discussed.

  19. Total joint replacement in multiplex congenita contractures: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Hugh U.

    1998-01-01

    A 34-year-old man with multiplex congenita contractures underwent replacement of 2 hips and 1 knee. Even though a good range of movement was achieved at surgery and intensive physiotherapy, his joints returned to their preoperative status within 2 years. This outcome suggests that total joint replacement has little to offer the patient with multiplex congenita contractures who has immobile joints.

  20. Multiplexing technique for computer communications via satellite channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, R.

    1975-01-01

    Multiplexing scheme combines technique of dynamic allocation with conventional time-division multiplexing. Scheme is designed to expedite short-duration interactive or priority traffic and to delay large data transfers; as result, each node has effective capacity of almost total channel capacity when other nodes have light traffic loads.

  1. Magnetic Forces and DNA Mechanics in Multiplexed Magnetic Tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vlaminck, I.; Henighan, T.; Van Loenhout, M.T.J.; Burnham, D.R.; Dekker, C.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers (MT) are a powerful tool for the study of DNA-enzyme interactions. Both the magnet-based manipulation and the camera-based detection used in MT are well suited for multiplexed measurements. Here, we systematically address challenges related to scaling of multiplexed magnetic

  2. Impairment-Aware Routing in Translucent Spectrum-Sliced Elastic Optical Path Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.; Kuipers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) technology offers a more flexible bandwidth allocation in optical networks than wavelength division multiplexing. It allows different connections to be served via different modulation formats. However, as with any optical network, the optical signal may b

  3. Spectrum Trading for Efficient Spectrum Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional command and control based spectrum management has led to substantial underutilization of some spectrum bands while severely crowding others due to the uneven and dynamic needs that vary over time and at different locations. Spectrum trading has emerged as a promising management approach to substantially improve spectrum utilization and user experience in wireless communications by taking advantage of market-based mechanisms. This article presents an overview of spectrum trading, including the fundamental characteristics of spectrum trading markets, the state-of-the-art techniques for modeling and resolving various spectrum trading issues, and trading based dynamic spectrum sharing and access. Moreover, some open issues in spectrum trading are identified for future research in this area.

  4. Depth of focus increase by multiplexing programmable diffractive lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemmi, C; Campos, J; Escalera, J C; López-Coronado, O; Gimeno, R; Yzuel, M J

    2006-10-30

    A combination of several diffractive lenses written onto a single programmable liquid crystal display (LCD) is proposed for increasing the Depth of Focus (DOF) of the imaging system as a whole. The lenses are spatially multiplexed in a random scheme onto the LCD. The axial irradiance distribution produced by each lens overlaps with the next one producing an extended focal depth. To compare the image quality of the multiplexed lenses, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is calculated. Finally we obtain the experimental Point Spread Functions (PSF) for these multiplexed lenses and experimental results in which an extended object is illuminated under spatially incoherent monochromatic light. We compare the images obtained in the focal plane and in some defocused planes with the single lens and with three multiplexed lenses. The experimental results confirm that the multiplexed lenses produce a high increase in the depth of focus.

  5. Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2011-11-01

    The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.

  6. Precoding for Multiuser Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Downlink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bijun; ZHU Guangxi; LIU Yingzhuang

    2006-01-01

    Previous precoding algorithms have concentrated on the single user scenario where the precoding scheme assumes perfect channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter or on limited feedback techniques, such as channel quantization or limited feedback signal designs. This paper proposes a novel unitary downlink precoding design scheme for multiuser spatial multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. With the perfect CSI available at the transmitter and the linear decoder at the receiver, the cost function was constructed based on the minimum average probability of vector symbol error and the design method of the precoding matrices was given. These proposed precoding matrices can completely eliminate co-channel interference for each user at the transmitter, and each user will eventually observe an interference-free single user channel, thus simplify the decoding of each user. The impact of channel feedback errors on the system performance and the upper bounds of several schemes for performance comparison were investigated. The simulation results show that the proposed precoding for multiuser spatial multiplexing system obtains almost the same performance as the single user precoding system.

  7. Implementing Statistical Multiplexing in DVB-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rezaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique for implementing statistical multiplexing (StatMux of broadcast services over Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds (DVB-H channels is proposed. DVB-H uses a time-sliced transmission scheme to reduce the power consumption used for radio reception part in DVB-H receivers. Due to the time-sliced transmission scheme, the implementation of known StatMux methods for DVB-H application presents some challenges which are addressed in this paper. The proposed StatMux technique is implemented in conjunction with the time-slicing transmission scheme. The combination is similar to a time division multiplexing (TDM scheme. The proposed StatMux method considerably decreases the end-to-end delay of DVB-H services while it maximizes the usage of available bandwidth. Moreover, the proposed method can effectively decrease the channel switching delay of DVB-H services. Simulation results show a high performance for the proposed StatMux method.

  8. Link prediction in multiplex online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi; Orouskhani, Yasin; Asgari, Milad; Alipourfard, Nazanin; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks play a major role in modern societies, and they have shaped the way social relationships evolve. Link prediction in social networks has many potential applications such as recommending new items to users, friendship suggestion and discovering spurious connections. Many real social networks evolve the connections in multiple layers (e.g. multiple social networking platforms). In this article, we study the link prediction problem in multiplex networks. As an example, we consider a multiplex network of Twitter (as a microblogging service) and Foursquare (as a location-based social network). We consider social networks of the same users in these two platforms and develop a meta-path-based algorithm for predicting the links. The connectivity information of the two layers is used to predict the links in Foursquare network. Three classical classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machines (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour) are used for the classification task. Although the networks are not highly correlated in the layers, our experiments show that including the cross-layer information significantly improves the prediction performance. The SVM classifier results in the best performance with an average accuracy of 89%.

  9. Metrics for the analysis of multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Battiston, Federico; Latora, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems consist of a set of elementary units connected by relationships of different kinds. All such systems are better described in terms of multi-layer networks, where the links at each layer represent a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes, rather than in terms of (single-layer) networks. In this paper we present a general framework to describe and study multi-layer networks, whose links are either unweighted or weighted. In particular we propose a series of measures to characterise the multiplexity of the systems in terms of: i) basic node and link properties such as the node degree, and the edge overlap and reinforcement, ii) local properties such as the clustering coefficient and the transitivity, iii) global properties related to the navigability of the multiplex across the different layers. The measures we introduce are validated on a genuine multi-layer dataset of Indonesian terrorists, where information among 78 individuals are recorded with respect to ...

  10. Controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Wang, Xingyuan; Liu, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this article, the controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks (ABMCNs) is studied. First, the model of Boolean multiplex control networks under Harvey' asynchronous update is presented. By means of semi-tensor product approach, the logical dynamics is converted into linear representation, and a generalized formula of control-depending network transition matrices is achieved. Second, a necessary and sufficient condition is proposed to verify that only control-depending fixed points of ABMCNs can be controlled with probability one. Third, using two types of controls, the controllability of system is studied and formulae are given to show: (a) when an initial state is given, the reachable set at time s under a group of specified controls; (b) the reachable set at time s under arbitrary controls; (c) the specific probability values from a given initial state to destination states. Based on the above formulae, an algorithm to calculate overall reachable states from a specified initial state is presented. Moreover, we also discuss an approach to find the particular control sequence which steers the system between two states with maximum probability. Examples are shown to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  11. Maintaining extensivity in evolutionary multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, we explore the role of network topology on its extensive character. We study analytically and numerically how the topology contributes to maintaining extensivity of entropy in multiplex networks, i.e. networks of subnetworks, by means of the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents, $H_{KS}$, a quantity related to entropy. We show that extensivity relies not only on the interplay between the coupling strengths of the dynamics associated to the intra (short-range) and inter (long-range) interactions, but also on the sum of the intra-degrees of the nodes of the subnetworks. For the analytically treated networks of size $N$, if the sum of the intra-degrees (and the sum of inter-degrees) scales as $N^{\\theta+1}$, extensivity can be maintained if the intra-coupling (and the inter-coupling) strength scales as $N^{-\\theta}$, when evolution is driven by the maximization of $H_{KS}$. We then verify our analytical result by doing numerical simulations in multiplex networks formed by electrically and chemi...

  12. Multiplexed microsatellite recovery using massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, T N; Knaus, B J; Mullins, T D; Haig, S M; Cronn, R C

    2011-11-01

    Conservation and management of natural populations requires accurate and inexpensive genotyping methods. Traditional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), marker analysis remains a popular genotyping method because of the comparatively low cost of marker development, ease of analysis and high power of genotype discrimination. With the availability of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), it is now possible to sequence microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries in multiplex pools. To test this approach, we prepared seven microsatellite-enriched, barcoded genomic libraries from diverse taxa (two conifer trees, five birds) and sequenced these on one lane of the Illumina Genome Analyzer using paired-end 80-bp reads. In this experiment, we screened 6.1 million sequences and identified 356,958 unique microreads that contained di- or trinucleotide microsatellites. Examination of four species shows that our conversion rate from raw sequences to polymorphic markers compares favourably to Sanger- and 454-based methods. The advantage of multiplexed MPS is that the staggering capacity of modern microread sequencing is spread across many libraries; this reduces sample preparation and sequencing costs to less than $400 (USD) per species. This price is sufficiently low that microsatellite libraries could be prepared and sequenced for all 1373 organisms listed as 'threatened' and 'endangered' in the United States for under $0.5 M (USD).

  13. Controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Wang, Xingyuan; Liu, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this article, the controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks (ABMCNs) is studied. First, the model of Boolean multiplex control networks under Harvey' asynchronous update is presented. By means of semi-tensor product approach, the logical dynamics is converted into linear representation, and a generalized formula of control-depending network transition matrices is achieved. Second, a necessary and sufficient condition is proposed to verify that only control-depending fixed points of ABMCNs can be controlled with probability one. Third, using two types of controls, the controllability of system is studied and formulae are given to show: (a) when an initial state is given, the reachable set at time s under a group of specified controls; (b) the reachable set at time s under arbitrary controls; (c) the specific probability values from a given initial state to destination states. Based on the above formulae, an algorithm to calculate overall reachable states from a specified initial state is presented. Moreover, we also discuss an approach to find the particular control sequence which steers the system between two states with maximum probability. Examples are shown to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  14. Link prediction in multiplex online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi; Orouskhani, Yasin; Asgari, Milad; Alipourfard, Nazanin; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks play a major role in modern societies, and they have shaped the way social relationships evolve. Link prediction in social networks has many potential applications such as recommending new items to users, friendship suggestion and discovering spurious connections. Many real social networks evolve the connections in multiple layers (e.g. multiple social networking platforms). In this article, we study the link prediction problem in multiplex networks. As an example, we consider a multiplex network of Twitter (as a microblogging service) and Foursquare (as a location-based social network). We consider social networks of the same users in these two platforms and develop a meta-path-based algorithm for predicting the links. The connectivity information of the two layers is used to predict the links in Foursquare network. Three classical classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machines (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour) are used for the classification task. Although the networks are not highly correlated in the layers, our experiments show that including the cross-layer information significantly improves the prediction performance. The SVM classifier results in the best performance with an average accuracy of 89%.

  15. An Efficient Statistical Multiplexing Method for H.264 VBR Video Sources for Improved Traffic Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Raghuveera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frame level H.264/MPEG encoded VBR video traffic is highly bursty in nature because of inherent coding techniques employed. Multiplexing traffic from many VBR sources results in smoothing of generated traffic from the multiplexer, and improves Statistical Multiplexing Gain (SMG. An efficient multiplexing methodology can greatly enhance resource utilization. Performance of multiplexer can be estimated by addressing the burstiness and statistical multiplexing gain. We present here a new multiplexing method named “ERA multiplexing”, which is quite simple, faster and efficient as opposed to any other known methods like, Frame-aligned multiplexing, Frame-lag based multiplexing and random multiplexing. Our experiments have proved that ERA method is much superior in terms of smoothing the traffic and achieving better statistical multiplexing gain. We have tested the technique with high quality frame size traces of Star Wars-IV encoded using H.264/SVC and H.264/AVC to justify our claims

  16. Analysis of a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay as a sensitive tool for the diagnosis of indeterminate and tuberculoid forms of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sundeep Chaitanya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective/Background: Clinical diagnosis of indeterminate and tuberculoid leprosy is often difficult due to limited and confounding signs and symptoms. In the current study, we evaluated the utility of new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR using Mycobacterium leprae-specific DNA sequences in the pseudogene regions of ML1545, ML2180, and ML2179 for PCR-based diagnosis of indeterminate leprosy (IND and leprosy cases across the immunological spectrum. The sensitivity was compared with that of RLEP PCR. Methods: DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens of 220 leprosy cases, which were divided into IND (41, tuberculoid form (3, borderline tuberculoid (42, midborderline (3, borderline lepromatous (n=59, and lepromatous leprosy (72 cases. PCR positivity of both multiplex and RLEP PCR were compared in all the samples. A decision tree was constructed using the classification and regression trees algorithm to predict the probability of PCR positivity with the new multiplex PCR scheme in various clinical groups of leprosy. Sensitivity of each pseudogene target was determined using real-time PCR assays, and specificity was confirmed by PCR amplification of DNA extracted from three other mycobacterial species and skin biopsies of 44 non-leprosy cases. Results: A multiplex PCR positivity of 75.61% was noted in IND cases when compared to that of 58.54% using RLEP PCR (P < 0.05. Enhanced multiplex PCR positivity was noted across various clinical groups in comparison to RLEP PCR. The decision tree classifier has predicted statistically significant probability for multiplex PCR positivity among RLEP-PCR negative group and clinical groups with a low bacillary load. Conclusion: This new multiplex PCR scheme can support the diagnosis of indeterminate and tuberculoid forms of leprosy with limited clinical manifestations and can be implemented in basic clinical/diagnostic setting that possess conventional PCR facilities.

  17. Does epilepsy in multiplex autism pedigrees define a different subgroup in terms of clinical characteristics and genetic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiet, Claire; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Laurent, Claudine; Bodeau, Nicolas; Génin, Bérengère; Leguern, Eric; Tordjman, Sylvie; Cohen, David

    2013-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy frequently occur together. Prevalence rates are variable, and have been attributed to age, gender, comorbidity, subtype of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and risk factors. Recent studies have suggested disparate clinical and genetic settings depending on simplex or multiplex autism. The aim of this study was to assess: 1) the prevalence of epilepsy in multiplex autism and its association with genetic and non-genetic risk factors of major effect, intellectual disability and gender; and 2) whether autism and epilepsy cosegregate within multiplex autism families. We extracted from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) database (n = 3,818 children from 1,264 families) all families with relevant medical data (n = 664 children from 290 families). The sample included 478 children with ASD and 186 siblings without ASD. We analyzed the following variables: seizures, genetic and non-genetic risk factors, gender, and cognitive functioning as assessed by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). The prevalence of epilepsy was 12.8% in cases with ASD and 2.2% in siblings without ASD (P VABS measure, the risk of epilepsy in multiplex autism was significantly associated with intellectual disability, but not with gender. Identified risk factors (genetic or non-genetic) of autism tended to be significantly associated with epilepsy (P = 0.052). When children with prematurity, pre- or perinatal insult, or cerebral palsy were excluded, a genetic risk factor was reported for 6/59 (10.2%) of children with epilepsy and 12/395 (3.0%) of children without epilepsy (P = 0.002). Finally, using a permutation test, there was significant evidence that the epilepsy phenotype co-segregated within families (P <10-4). Epilepsy in multiplex autism may define a different subgroup in terms of clinical characteristics and genetic risk.

  18. Automated high multiplex qPCR platform for simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple nucleic acid targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlousek, Louis; Voronov, Sergey; Diankov, Vesselin; Leblang, Amy B; Wells, Patrick J; Ford, Donna M; Nolling, Jork; Hart, Kyle W; Espinoza, Patricio A; Bristol, Michael R; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Slepnev, Vladimir I; Kong, Lilly I; Lee, Ming-Chou

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) using real-time detection of amplification is limited to a small number of targets within a single reaction. The ICEPlex system, using our scalable target analysis routine (STAR) technology, was developed to provide an automated, high multiplexing PCR solution. ICEPlex combines PCR thermal cycling with dynamic, sequential amplicon separation by capillary electrophoresis and two-color quantitative detection in a single integrated system. In contrast to probe-based qPCR, ICEPlex directly measures amplicon accumulation through incorporation of labeled primers. Three orders of magnitude of optical detection range and at least 7 logs of detectable target concentration range are demonstrated. The system can separate more than 50 amplicons per color channel, ranging from 100 to 500 bases, providing broad multiplexing capabilities for a wide spectrum of nucleic acid amplification applications. ICEPlex can be used for analysis of viral DNA or RNA targets, detection of genetic variants, and for reverse-transcriptase PCR gene expression panels.

  19. Multiplexity versus correlation: the role of local constraints in real multiplexes

    CERN Document Server

    Gemmetto, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Several real-world systems can be represented as multi-layer complex networks, i.e. in terms of a superposition of various graphs, each related to a different mode of connection between nodes. Hence, the definition of proper mathematical quantities aiming at capturing the level of complexity of those systems is required. Various attempts have been made to measure the empirical dependencies between the layers of a multiplex, for both binary and weighted networks. In the simplest case, such dependencies are measured via correlation-based metrics: we show that this is equivalent to the use of completely homogeneous benchmarks specifying only global constraints, such as the total number of links in each layer. However, these approaches do not take into account the heterogeneity in the degree and strength distributions, which are instead a fundamental feature of real-world multiplexes. In this work, we compare the observed dependencies between layers with the expected values obtained from reference models that app...

  20. Free Space Optical Polarization De-multiplexing and Multiplexing by means of Conical Refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Turpin Avilés, Alejandro; Loiko, Yurii; Kalkandjiev, Todor Kirilov; Mompart Penina, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Polarization demultiplexing and multiplexing by means of conical refraction is proposed to increase the channel capacity for free-space optical communication applications. The proposed technique is based on the forward-backward optical transform occurring when a light beam propagates consecutively along the optic axes of two identical biaxial crystals with opposite orientations of their conical refraction characteristic vectors. We present an experimental proof of usefulness of the conical re...

  1. Multiplex autoantibody detection for autoimmune liver diseases and autoimmune gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlocht, Joris; van der Cruys, Mart; Stals, Frans; Bakker-Jonges, Liesbeth; Damoiseaux, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Autoantibody detection for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is traditionally performed by IIF on a combination of tissues. Multiplex line/dot blots (LIA/DIA) offer multiple advantages, i.e. automation, objective reading, no interfering reactivities, no coincidental findings. In the current study we evaluated automated DIA (D-Tek) for detecting autoantibodies related to autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We tested samples of the Dutch EQC program and compared the results with the consensus of the participating labs. For the autoimmune liver diseases and AIG, respectively, 64 and 36 samples were tested. For anti-mitochondrial and anti-smooth muscle antibodies a concordance rate of 97% and 88% was observed, respectively. The concordance rate for anti-parietal cell antibodies was 92% when samples without EQC consensus (n=15) were excluded. For antibodies against intrinsic factor a concordance of 96% was observed. For all these antibodies discrepancies were identified that relate to the different test characteristics and the preponderance of IIF utilizing labs in the EQC program. In conclusion, we observed good agreement of the tested DIA blots with the consensus results of the Dutch EQC program. Taken together with the logistic advantages these blots are a good alternative for autoantibody detection in the respective diseases. A large prospective multicenter study is warranted to position these novel tests further in the whole spectrum of assays for the detection of these antibodies in a routine autoimmune laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergence of network features from multiplexity

    CERN Document Server

    Cardillo, Alessio; Zanin, Massimiliano; Romance, Miguel; Papo, David; del Pozo, Francisco; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Many biological and man-made networked systems are characterized by the simultaneous presence of different sub-networks organized in separate layers, with links and nodes of qualitatively different types. While during the past few years theoretical studies have examined a variety of structural features of complex networks, the outstanding question is whether such features are characterizing all single layers, or rather emerge as a result of coarse-graining, i.e. when going from the multilayered to the aggregate network representation. Here we address this issue with the help of real data. We analyze the structural properties of an intrinsically multilayered real network, the European Air Transportation Multiplex Network in which each commercial airline defines a network layer. We examine how several structural measures evolve as layers are progressively merged together. In particular, we discuss how the topology of each layer affects the emergence of structural properties in the aggregate network.

  3. Lab-on-a-Chip Multiplex Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Harald; Wienke, Julia; Bier, Frank F

    2017-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip multiplex assays allow a rapid identification of multiple parameters in an automated manner. Here we describe a lab-based preparation followed by a rapid and fully automated DNA microarray hybridization and readout in less than 10 min using the Fraunhofer in vitro diagnostics (ivD) platform to enable rapid identification of bacterial species and detection of antibiotic resistance. The use of DNA microarrays allows a fast adaptation of new biomarkers enabling the identification of different genes as well as single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes. In this protocol we describe a DNA microarray developed for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and the mecA resistance gene.

  4. Emergence of network features from multiplexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Alessio; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Zanin, Massimiliano; Romance, Miguel; Papo, David; Pozo, Francisco del; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made networked systems are characterized by the simultaneous presence of different sub-networks organized in separate layers, with links and nodes of qualitatively different types. While during the past few years theoretical studies have examined a variety of structural features of complex networks, the outstanding question is whether such features are characterizing all single layers, or rather emerge as a result of coarse-graining, i.e. when going from the multilayered to the aggregate network representation. Here we address this issue with the help of real data. We analyze the structural properties of an intrinsically multilayered real network, the European Air Transportation Multiplex Network in which each commercial airline defines a network layer. We examine how several structural measures evolve as layers are progressively merged together. In particular, we discuss how the topology of each layer affects the emergence of structural properties in the aggregate network. PMID:23446838

  5. Multiplex single particle analysis in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, D; Romeo, G; Causa, F; De Santo, I; Netti, P A

    2014-10-21

    A straightforward way to measure separated micrometric sized particles in microfluidic flow is reported. The light scattering profile (LSP) of each single particle is fully characterized by using a CMOS-camera based small angle light scattering (SALS) apparatus, ranging from 2° up to 30°. To ensure controlled particle passage through the incident laser, a viscoelastic 3D alignment effect by viscoelastic induced particle migration has been implemented in a simple and cost-effective microfluidic device. Different polystyrene particle sizes are measured in microfluidic flows and the obtained scattering signatures are matched with the Lorenz-Mie based scattering theory. The results confirm the possibility of using this apparatus for real multiplex particle analyses in microfluidic particle flows.

  6. Temporal correlations in social multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions are composite, involve different communication layers and evolve in time. However, a rigorous analysis of the whole complexity of social networks has been hindered so far by lack of suitable data. Here we consider both the multi-layer and dynamic nature of social relations by analysing a diverse set of empirical temporal multiplex networks. We focus on the measurement and characterization of inter-layer correlations to investigate how activity in one layer affects social acts in another layer. We define observables able to detect when genuine correlations are present in empirical data, and single out spurious correlation induced by the bursty nature of human dynamics. We show that such temporal correlations do exist in social interactions where they act to depress the tendency to concentrate long stretches of activity on the same layer and imply some amount of potential predictability in the connection patterns between layers. Our work sets up a general framework to measure temporal correl...

  7. Space Division Multiplexing in Optical Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, D J; Nelson, L E

    2013-01-01

    Optical communications technology has made enormous and steady progress for several decades, providing the key resource in our increasingly information-driven society and economy. Much of this progress has been in finding innovative ways to increase the data carrying capacity of a single optical fibre. In this search, researchers have explored (and close to maximally exploited) every available degree of freedom, and even commercial systems now utilize multiplexing in time, wavelength, polarization, and phase to speed more information through the fibre infrastructure. Conspicuously, one potentially enormous source of improvement has however been left untapped in these systems: fibres can easily support hundreds of spatial modes, but today's commercial systems (single-mode or multi-mode) make no attempt to use these as parallel channels for independent signals.

  8. Optical Wavelet Signals Processing and Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Moreolo, Michela Svaluto; Neri, Alessandro

    2005-12-01

    We present compact integrable architectures to perform the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the wavelet packet (WP) decomposition of an optical digital signal, and we show that the combined use of planar lightwave circuits (PLC) technology and multiresolution analysis (MRA) can add flexibility to current multiple access optical networks. We furnish the design guidelines to synthesize wavelet filters as two-port lattice-form planar devices, and we give some examples of optical signal denoising and compression/decompression techniques in the wavelet domain. Finally, we present a fully optical wavelet packet division multiplexing (WPDM) scheme where data signals are waveform-coded onto wavelet atom functions for transmission, and numerically evaluate its performances.

  9. Emergence of network features from multiplexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Alessio; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Zanin, Massimiliano; Romance, Miguel; Papo, David; del Pozo, Francisco; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made networked systems are characterized by the simultaneous presence of different sub-networks organized in separate layers, with links and nodes of qualitatively different types. While during the past few years theoretical studies have examined a variety of structural features of complex networks, the outstanding question is whether such features are characterizing all single layers, or rather emerge as a result of coarse-graining, i.e. when going from the multilayered to the aggregate network representation. Here we address this issue with the help of real data. We analyze the structural properties of an intrinsically multilayered real network, the European Air Transportation Multiplex Network in which each commercial airline defines a network layer. We examine how several structural measures evolve as layers are progressively merged together. In particular, we discuss how the topology of each layer affects the emergence of structural properties in the aggregate network.

  10. Multiview multiperspective time multiplexed autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiec, Stephen A.; Markov, Vladimir B.; Hopper, Darrel G.; Saini, Gurdial

    2008-02-01

    The implementation of a time multiplexed display capable of eight simultaneously visible viewing zones will be described. The system employs a high speed digital micromirror device (DMD) to allow for the high framerate essential for flicker free display of multiple viewing zones. A combination of custom graphical processor unit (GPU) programming and a correspondingly optimized field programmable gate array (FPGA) DMD driver allows for real time interactive rendering of scenes. The rendering engine is entirely based on off the shelf with the use of a standard DVI-D interface for data transfer to the DMD interface. A rapidly switched LED light engine is employed to overcome the speed limitations of color wheel light sources, as well as providing a highly saturated color gamut. Selection of viewing zones is achieved by the use of a high-speed shutter interfaced directly to the DMD driver for precise synchronization.

  11. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available.

  12. Multiplexing of discrete chaotic signals in presence of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G

    2009-09-01

    Multiplexing of discrete chaotic signals in presence of noise is investigated. The existing methods are based on chaotic synchronization, which is susceptible to noise, precision limitations, and requires more iterates. Furthermore, most of these methods fail for multiplexing more than two discrete chaotic signals. We propose novel methods to multiplex multiple discrete chaotic signals based on the principle of symbolic sequence invariance in presence of noise and finite precision implementation of finding the initial condition of an arbitrarily long symbolic sequence of a chaotic map. Our methods work for single precision and as less as 35 iterates. For two signals, our method is robust up to 50% noise level.

  13. Inter-layer synchronization in multiplex networks of identical layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevilla-Escoboza, R. [Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco 47460 (Mexico); Sendiña-Nadal, I.; Leyva, I.; Buldú, J. M. [Complex Systems Group & GISC, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain); Center for Biomedical Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Gutiérrez, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Boccaletti, S. [CNR-Institute of Complex Systems, Via Madonna del Piano, 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); The Italian Embassy in Israel, 25 Hamered st., 68125 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2016-06-15

    Inter-layer synchronization is a distinctive process of multiplex networks whereby each node in a given layer evolves synchronously with all its replicas in other layers, irrespective of whether or not it is synchronized with the other units of the same layer. We analytically derive the necessary conditions for the existence and stability of such a state, and verify numerically the analytical predictions in several cases where such a state emerges. We further inspect its robustness against a progressive de-multiplexing of the network, and provide experimental evidence by means of multiplexes of nonlinear electronic circuits affected by intrinsic noise and parameter mismatch.

  14. Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff in the Low-SNR Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Loyka, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    An extension of the popular diversity-multiplexing tradeoff framework to the low-SNR (or wideband) regime is proposed. The concept of diversity gain is shown to be redundant in this regime since the outage probability is SNR-independent and depends on the multiplexing gain and the channel power gain statistics only. The outage probability under the DMT framework is obtained in an explicit, closed form for a broad class of channels. The low and high-SNR regime boundaries are explicitly determined for the scalar Rayleigh-fading channel, indicating a significant limitation of the SNR-asymptotic DMT when the multiplexing gain is small.

  15. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  16. A Novel Architecture for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Multiplexer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Roohi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA technology is attractive due to its low power consumption, fast speed and small dimension; therefore it is a promising alternative to CMOS technology. Additionally, multiplexer is a useful part in many important circuits. In this paper we propose a novel design of 2:1 MUX in QCA. Moreover, a 4:1 multiplexer, an XOR gate and a latch are proposed based on our 2:1 multiplexer design. The simulation results have been verified using the QCADesigner.

  17. Multiplex detection of RNA expression in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, Dave; Mizutani, Claudia M; Lemons, Derek; Cox, W Gregory; McGinnis, William; Bier, Ethan

    2004-08-06

    We present a fluorescence-based, multiplex in situ hybridization method that permits the simultaneous detection of five differently labeled antisense RNA probes and up to seven differ-ent transcripts in a single Drosophila embryo. We also show that it should be possible to increase the number of detected transcripts substantially with nascent transcript multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization. These multiplex methods fill a current technological gap between high-resolution in situ hybridization with one or two fluorescently labeled probes and low-resolution but genome-wide microarray RNA profiling and should be of great utility in establishing gene networks.

  18. Experimental demonstration of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, José; Ruiz-Alba, Antonio; Amaya, Waldimar; Martínez, Alfonso; García-Muñoz, Víctor; Calvo, David; Capmany, José

    2012-06-01

    We provide, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of sending several parallel keys by exploiting the technique of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) widely employed in microwave photonics. This approach brings several advantages such as high spectral efficiency compatible with the actual secure key rates, the sharing of the optical fainted pulse by all the quantum multiplexed channels reducing the system complexity, and the possibility of upgrading with wavelength division multiplexing in a two-tier scheme, to increase the number of parallel keys. Two independent quantum SCM channels featuring a sifted key rate of 10 Kb/s/channel over a link with quantum bit error rate <2% is reported.

  19. C6 Peptide-Based Multiplex Phosphorescence Analysis (PHOSPHAN for Serologic Confirmation of Lyme Borreliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera G Pomelova

    Full Text Available A single-tier immunoassay using the C6 peptide of VlsE (C6 from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bb has been proposed as a potential alternative to conventional two-tier testing for the serologic diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States and Europe.To evaluate the performance of C6 peptide based multiplex Phosphorescence Analysis (PHOSPHAN for the serologic confirmation of Lyme borreliosis (LB in Russian patients.Serum samples (n = 351 were collected from 146 patients with erythema migrans (EM; samples from 131 of these patients were taken several times prior to treatment and at different stages of recovery. The control group consisted of 197 healthy blood donors and 31 patients with other diseases, all from the same highly endemic region of Russia. All samples were analyzed by PHOSPHAN for IgM and IgG to Bb C6, recombinant OspC and VlsE proteins, and C6 peptides from B. garinii and B. afzelii.IgM and IgG to Bb C6 were identified in 43 and 95 out of 131 patients (32.8 and 72.5%, respectively; seroconversion of IgM antibodies was observed in about half of the patients (51.2%, and of IgG antibodies, in almost all of them (88.4%. Additional detection of OspC-IgM and VlsE-IgM or IgG to C6 from B. garinii or B. afzelii did not contribute significantly to the overall sensitivity of the multiplex immunoassay.The multiplex phosphorescence immunoassay is a promising method for simultaneously revealing the spectrum of antibodies to several Borrelia antigens. Detection of IgM and IgG to Bb C6 in the sera of EM patients provides effective serologic confirmation of LB and, with high probability, indicates an active infection process.

  20. Efficient Routing and Spectrum Allocation Considering QoT in Elastic Optical Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM-based elastic optical network (EON has drawn increasing attention in both academia and industry. Compared to traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM network, EON is capable of supporting variable data rate, accommodating traffic demands flexibly with finer provisioning granularity, and utilizing spectrum more efficiently. Accordingly, the resource management in EON is different from that in WDM networks and addresses new challenges in network design and control. In this paper, we study the routing, modulation level and spectrum allocation (RMLSA problem in EON. We propose an efficient link-based mixed integer linear programming (MILP model with the objective to optimally utilize the spectrum resources while considering the constraint on Quality of Transmission (QoT. Then, the performance of the proposed model is evaluated and analyzed through case study. 

  1. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Matamalas, Joan T; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the $T-S$ plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy...

  2. High Channel Count, Low Cost, Multiplexed FBG Sensor Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. J. Pan; FengQing Zhou; Kejian Guan; Joy Jiang; Liang Dong; Albert Li; Xiangdong Qiu; Jonathan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    With rich products development experience in WDM telecommunication networks, we introduce a few of high channel count, multiplexed FBG fiber optic sensor systems featured in reliable high performance and low cost.

  3. Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexed Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Sima; Razavi, Mohsen; Salehi, Jawad A.

    2015-12-01

    We propose orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), as a spectrally efficient multiplexing technique, for quantum key distribution (QKD) at the core of trustednode quantum networks. Two main schemes are proposed and analyzed in detail, considering system imperfections, specifically, time misalignment issues. It turns out that while multiple service providers can share the network infrastructure using the proposed multiplexing techniques, no gain in the total secret key generation rate is obtained if one uses conventional all-optical passive OFDM decoders. To achieve a linear increase in the key rate with the number of channels, an alternative active setup for OFDM decoding is proposed, which employs an optical switch in addition to conventional passive circuits. We show that by using our proposed decoder the bandwidth utilization is considerably improved as compared to conventional wavelength division multiplexing techniques.

  4. On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Qiming; Gu, Min

    2016-05-13

    Angular momentum division has emerged as a physically orthogonal multiplexing method in high-capacity optical information technologies. However, the typical bulky elements used for information retrieval from the overall diffracted field, based on the interference method, impose a fundamental limit toward realizing on-chip multiplexing. We demonstrate noninterference angular momentum multiplexing by using a mode-sorting nanoring aperture with a chip-scale footprint as small as 4.2 micrometers by 4.2 micrometers, where nanoring slits exhibit a distinctive outcoupling efficiency on tightly confined plasmonic modes. The nonresonant mode-sorting sensitivity and scalability of our approach enable on-chip parallel multiplexing over a bandwidth of 150 nanometers in the visible wavelength range. The results offer the possibility of ultrahigh-capacity and miniaturized nanophotonic devices harnessing angular momentum division.

  5. Time/Wavelength Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing Sensor Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel time/wavelength-multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor array is presented. This type of sensor array has the advantages of more points for multi-point measurement, simple structure and low cost.

  6. Photonic crystal microcapsules for label-free multiplex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Baofen; Ding, Haibo; Cheng, Yao; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-05-28

    A novel suspension array, which possesses the joint advantages of photonic crystal encoded technology, bioresponsive hydrogels, and photonic crystal sensors with capability of full multiplexing label-free detection is developed.

  7. Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single photon sources

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Matthew J; Rey, Isabella H; Vo, Trung D; He, Jiakun; Shahnia, Shayan; Reardon, Christopher; Steel, M J; Krauss, Thomas F; Clark, Alex S; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    The non-deterministic nature of photon sources is a key limitation for single photon quantum processors. Spatial multiplexing overcomes this by enhancing the heralded single photon yield without enhancing the output noise. Here the intrinsic statistical limit of an individual source is surpassed by spatially multiplexing two monolithic silicon correlated photon pair sources, demonstrating a 62.4% increase in the heralded single photon output without an increase in unwanted multi-pair generation. We further demonstrate the scalability of this scheme by multiplexing photons generated in two waveguides pumped via an integrated coupler with a 63.1% increase in the heralded photon rate. This demonstration paves the way for a scalable architecture for multiplexing many photon sources in a compact integrated platform and achieving efficient two photon interference, required at the core of optical quantum computing and quantum communication protocols.

  8. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  9. Multiplex versus multiple taxonomy of paraphilia: case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Gregory K; Money, John

    2003-01-01

    Several different paraphilias are presently diagnosed in some individuals whereas a more parsimonious taxonomy would be that of one multiplex paraphilia. A multiplex paraphilia may be expressed by variations of content at different times in an individual's life or in different situations. The present case example shows the unfolding of a multiplex paraphilia over a lifetime. At age 7 the subject was dressed in public as a girl wearing a diaper as a humiliation for bed-wetting. This experience had 3 paraphilic components that were separately manifested at different times in his life: fetishistic transvestism, pedophilic incest, and infantilism. A multiplex paraphilia taxonomy may lead to improved identification of etiology, prognosis, and treatment of paraphilia.

  10. Digital image compression for a 2f multiplexing optical setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, J.; Amaya, D.; Rueda, E.

    2016-07-01

    In this work a virtual 2f multiplexing system was implemented in combination with digital image compression techniques and redundant information elimination. Depending on the image type to be multiplexed, a memory-usage saving of as much as 99% was obtained. The feasibility of the system was tested using three types of images, binary characters, QR codes, and grey level images. A multiplexing step was implemented digitally, while a demultiplexing step was implemented in a virtual 2f optical setup following real experimental parameters. To avoid cross-talk noise, each image was codified with a specially designed phase diffraction carrier that would allow the separation and relocation of the multiplexed images on the observation plane by simple light propagation. A description of the system is presented together with simulations that corroborate the method. The present work may allow future experimental implementations that will make use of all the parallel processing capabilities of optical systems.

  11. Steatocystoma multiplex suppurativa: case report of a rare condition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Cândida Naira Lima e Lima; Pereira, Daniele do Nascimento; Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Leal, Juliana Martins; Obadia, Daniel Lago; da Silva, Roberto Souto

    2016-01-01

    Steatocystoma multiplex is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the presence of hamartomatous malformations at the junction of the pilosebaceous duct. It consists of encapsulated cystic lesions in the dermis, with adjacent sebaceous gland. When associated with inflammation, resembling hidradenitis, it is called steatocystoma multiplex suppurativa, a condition rarely reported. This is the first case of steatocystoma multiplex suppurativa reported in the Brazilian literature. Female patient, 23 years old, with papular and nodular cystic lesions that started in the armpits and groin, later spreading to the trunk, lower limbs, anticubital fossa, face and scalp. The presence of papular-nodular lesions associated with disseminated hidradenitis-like lesions in flexural areas and the histopathological diagnosis of steatocystoma defined the diagnosis of steatocystoma multiplex suppurativa.

  12. Multiplexing technique using amplitude-modulated chirped fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Allan C. L.; Childs, Paul A.; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2007-07-01

    We propose a new multiplexing technique using amplitude-modulated chirped fiber Bragg gratings that have an identical center Bragg wavelength. Each grating is inscribed with a unique amplitude modulation that allows them to be multiplexed with complete overlapping within a certain bandwidth. To demodulate the multiplexed signal, the discrete wavelet transform is employed. Concurrently, a wavelet denoising technique is used to reduce the noise. This proposed multiplexing technique has been verified through strain measurements. Experimental results showed that for strains applied up to 1250 μɛ the absolute error and cross-talk are within ±20 μɛ and 16 μɛ, respectively. A strain resolution of 4 μɛ is obtained.

  13. Depth profilometry via multiplexed optical high-coherence interferometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Behr, Bradford B; Hajian, Arsen R

    2015-01-01

    ... such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument...

  14. Multiplexing of spatial modes in the mid-IR region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gailele, Lucas M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ceiling in the near future. Communications using orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying modes offers in finite dimensional states, providing means to increase link capacity by multiplexing spatially overlapping modes in both the azimuthal and radial...

  15. Multiplexed Dosing Assays by Digitally Definable Hydrogel Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack

    2016-01-01

    Stable and low-cost multiplexed drug sensitivity assays using small volumes of cells or tissue are in demand for personalized medicine, including patientspecific combination chemotherapy. Spatially defined projected light photopolymerization of hydrogels with embedded active compounds is introduc...

  16. Efficient Design of Reversible Multiplexers with Low Quantum Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Malhotra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiplexing is the generic term used to designate the operation of sending one or more analogue or digital signals over a common transmission line at dissimilar times or speeds and as such, the scheme we use to do just that is called a Multiplexer. In digital electronics, multiplexers are similarly known as data selectors as they can “select” each input line, are made from individual Analogue Switches encased in a single IC package as conflicting to the “mechanical” type selectors such as standard conservative switches and relays. In today era, reversibility has become essential part of digital world to make digital circuits more efficient. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to reduce quantum cost and power for various multiplexers. The results are simulated in Xilinx by using VHDL language.

  17. Characteristics of Multiplexed Grooved Nozzles for High Flow Rate Electrospray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Sang Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The electrospray operated in the cone-jet mode can generate highly charged micro droplets in an almost uniform size at flow rates. Therefore, the multiplexing system which can retain the characteristics of the cone-jet mode is inevitable for the electrospray application. This experiment reports the multiplexed grooved nozzle system with the extractor. The effects of the grooves and the extractor on the performance of the electrospray were evaluated through experiments. Using the grooved nozzle, the stable cone-jet mode can be achieved at the each groove in the grooved mode. Furthermore, the number of nozzles per unit area is increased by the extractor. The multiplexing density is 12 jets per cm{sup 2} at 30 mm distance from the nozzle tip to the ground plate. The multiplexing system for the high flow rate electrospray is realized with the extractor which can diminish the space charge effect without sacrificing characteristics of the cone-jet mode.

  18. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita - a rare congenital stiff joints syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is not a disease but a term describing multiple congenital contractures. Etiological factors include neurological and primary myogenic diseases. This rare syndrome is present at birth and is characterized by reduced mobility of many joints. The contractures involve two or more joints with ankylosis. The accompanying musculature is hypoplastic, but multiple pterygia are also present. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of...

  19. Diversity Multiplexing Tradeoff of Asynchronous Cooperative Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnakumar, R N; Kumar, P Vijay

    2008-01-01

    The assumption of nodes in a cooperative communication relay network operating in synchronous fashion is often unrealistic. In the present paper, we consider two different models of asynchronous operation in cooperative-diversity networks experiencing slow fading and examine the corresponding diversity-multiplexing tradeoffs (DMT). For both models, we propose protocols and distributed space-time codes that asymptotically achieve the transmit diversity bound for all multiplexing gains and for any number of relays.

  20. Dynamic X-Y Crosstalk / Aliasing Errors of Multiplexing BPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumann, T.; /SLAC

    2005-08-09

    Multiplexing Beam Position Monitors are widely used for their simplicity and inherent drift cancellation property. These systems successively feed the signals of (typically four) RF pickups through one single detector channel. The beam position is calculated from the demultiplexed base band signal. However, as shown below, transverse beam motion results in positional aliasing errors due to the finite multiplexing frequency. Fast vertical motion, for example, can alias into an apparent, slow horizontal position change.

  1. Pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S. Q.; Li, Yueming

    1997-12-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of two hardwared priority schemes: the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performance of the proposed bus is significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time-division multiplexing optical buses. The possibilities of using our buses to construct multichannel switches and multidimensional processor arrays are also discussed.

  2. Signal processing for on-chip space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing;

    2015-01-01

    Our recent results on the demonstration of on-chip mode-division multiplexing are reviewed, with special emphasis on nonlinear all-optical signal processing. Mode-selective parametric processes are demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide.......Our recent results on the demonstration of on-chip mode-division multiplexing are reviewed, with special emphasis on nonlinear all-optical signal processing. Mode-selective parametric processes are demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide....

  3. Statistical multiplexing of identical bursty sources in an ATM network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars; Jacobsen, Søren B

    1988-01-01

    The authors study the performance of a statistical multiplexer with a common buffer and bursty sources. A uniform arrival and service model has been used to calculate the loss probability as a function of several parameters. It is shown that the ratio of the number of cells in an average burst...... with with multiplexing of many sources can be a very efficient way to lower cell loss probability...

  4. Preliminary Genomic Characterization of Ten Hardwood Tree Species from Multiplexed Low Coverage Whole Genome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Staton

    Full Text Available Forest health issues are on the rise in the United States, resulting from introduction of alien pests and diseases, coupled with abiotic stresses related to climate change. Increasingly, forest scientists are finding genetic/genomic resources valuable in addressing forest health issues. For a set of ten ecologically and economically important native hardwood tree species representing a broad phylogenetic spectrum, we used low coverage whole genome sequencing from multiplex Illumina paired ends to economically profile their genomic content. For six species, the genome content was further analyzed by flow cytometry in order to determine the nuclear genome size. Sequencing yielded a depth of 0.8X to 7.5X, from which in silico analysis yielded preliminary estimates of gene and repetitive sequence content in the genome for each species. Thousands of genomic SSRs were identified, with a clear predisposition toward dinucleotide repeats and AT-rich repeat motifs. Flanking primers were designed for SSR loci for all ten species, ranging from 891 loci in sugar maple to 18,167 in redbay. In summary, we have demonstrated that useful preliminary genome information including repeat content, gene content and useful SSR markers can be obtained at low cost and time input from a single lane of Illumina multiplex sequence.

  5. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  6. Free-space optical communications using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing combined with MIMO-based spatial multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Cao, Yinwen; Liu, Cong; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Willner, Asher; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Linquist, Roger D; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F; Willner, Alan E

    2015-09-15

    We explore the potential of combining the advantages of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-based spatial multiplexing with those of orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space optical (FSO) communications. We experimentally demonstrate an 80 Gbit/s FSO system with a 2×2 aperture architecture, in which each transmitter aperture contains two multiplexed data-carrying OAM modes. Inter-channel crosstalk effects are minimized by the OAM beams' inherent orthogonality and by the use of 4×4 MIMO signal processing. Our experimental results show that the bit-error rates can reach below the forward error correction limit of 3.8×10(-3) and the power penalties are less than 3.6 dB for all channels after MIMO processing. This indicates that OAM and MIMO-based spatial multiplexing could be simultaneously utilized, thereby providing the potential to enhance system performance.

  7. A multiplexed reverse transcriptase PCR assay for identification of viral respiratory pathogens at point-of-care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S E; .Ortiz, J I; Tammero, L; Birch, J M; Derlet, R W; Cohen, S; Manning, D; McBride, M T

    2007-04-11

    We have developed a nucleic acid-based assay that is rapid, sensitive, specific, and can be used for the simultaneous detection of 5 common human respiratory pathogens including influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza type 1 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus group B, C, and E. Typically, diagnosis on an un-extracted clinical sample can be provided in less than 3 hours, including sample collection, preparation, and processing, as well as data analysis. Such a multiplexed panel would enable rapid broad-spectrum pathogen testing on nasal swabs, and therefore allow implementation of infection control measures, and timely administration of antiviral therapies. This article presents a summary of the assay performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Limits of detection are provided for each targeted respiratory pathogen, and result comparisons are performed on clinical samples, our goal being to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the multiplexed assay to the combination of immunofluorescence and shell vial culture currently implemented at the UCDMC hospital. Overall, the use of the multiplexed RT-PCR assay reduced the rate of false negatives by 4% and reduced the rate of false positives by up to 10%. The assay correctly identified 99.3% of the clinical negatives, 97% of adenovirus, 95% of RSV, 92% of influenza B, and 77% of influenza A without any extraction performed on the clinical samples. The data also showed that extraction will be needed for parainfluenza virus, which was only identified correctly 24% of the time on un-extracted samples.

  8. Variance in multiplex suspension array assays: A distribution generation machine for multiplex counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Brian P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study attempted to replicate Luminex experimental results for large numbers of beads per classifier using multiplexed assays and routine instrument use conditions. Conclusion Using larger numbers of microspheres per classifier highlights a fundamental stochastic distribution of bead counts issue complicated by other factors. The more classifiers and the higher the count required per classifier there are, the more apparent the distribution of counts per classifier will be, and the more microspheres are required. Additional problems have been identified. Alternate methods of improving precision and reliability are recommended such as intraplexing and multi-well sample replicates to improve precision and confidence.

  9. Control and Detection of Discrete Spectral Amplitudes in Nonlinear Fourier Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear Fourier division Multiplexing (NFDM) can be realized from modulating the discrete nonlinear spectrum of an $N$-solitary waveform. To generate an $N$-solitary waveform from desired discrete spectrum (eigenvalue and discrete spectral amplitudes), we use the Darboux Transform. We explain how to the norming factors must be set in order to have the desired discrete spectrum. To derive these norming factors, we study the evolution of nonlinear spectrum by adding a new eigenvalue and its spectral amplitude. We further simplify the Darboux transform algorithm. We propose a novel algorithm (to the best of our knowledge) to numerically compute the nonlinear Fourier Transform (NFT) of a given pulse. The NFT algorithm, called forward-backward method, is based on splitting the signal into two parts and computing the nonlinear spectrum of each part from boundary ($\\pm\\infty$) inward. The nonlinear spectrum (discrete and continuous) derived from efficiently combining both parts has a promising numerical precision....

  10. Ultrasonic sensor employing two cascaded phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings suitable for multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Okabe, Yoji

    2012-08-15

    An ultrasonic sensor based on two cascaded phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings (PS-FBGs) is proposed and demonstrated. In place of an external cavity laser, a broadband amplified spontaneous emission light source is used to demonstrate multiplexing ability suitable for sensor networks. The system has a high sensitivity to ultrasonic waves generated by a PZT actuator placed 7.5 cm away from the PS-FBG, because of the steep slope in the center of the PS-FBG spectrum. A second advantage of the phase shift is to reduce the effective sensor length, leading to the achievement of broadband characteristics. A pencil lead break test was performed and all results are compared to a traditional PZT sensor.

  11. Data Optical Networking Architecture Using Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Method for Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been a growth in the number of fiber optical sensors used for health monitoring in the hostile environment of commercial aircraft. Health monitoring to detect the onset of failure in structural systems from such causes as corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue is a critical factor in safety as well in aircraft maintenance costs. This report presents an assessment of an analysis model of optical data networking architectures used for monitoring data signals among these optical sensors. Our model is focused on the design concept of the wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) method since most of the optical sensors deployed in the aircraft for health monitoring typically operate in a wide spectrum of optical wavelengths from 710 to 1550 nm.

  12. Effects of pattern dependence on high-power polarization-division-multiplexing applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anlin Yi; Lianshan Yan; Bin Luo; Wei Pan; Jia Ye

    2012-01-01

    High-power polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) systems or functional modules,such as self-phasemodulation (SPM)-based all-optical regenerators,cross-phase-modulation (XPM)-based wavelength convertors or format convertors,all-optical logical gate,and so on,may suffer from the effects of pattern dependence.Such effects are experimentally investigated using relative time delay variation between bit sequences with orthogonal polarization states in a 2 × 10.65 Gb/s high-power on-off keying (OOK) PDM system.Eye-diagram-based signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth of broadened spectrum are measured and compared.An eye-diagram-based SNR fluctuation of up to 4 dB may occur as the delay changes.

  13. Digitally synthesized beat frequency multiplexing for sub-millisecond fluorescence microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Diebold, Eric D; Gossett, Daniel R; Jalali, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is the most widely used method for unveiling the molecular composition of biological specimens. However, the weak optical emission of fluorescent probes and the tradeoff between imaging speed and sensitivity is problematic for acquiring blur-free images of fast phenomena, such as sub-millisecond biochemical dynamics in live cells and tissues, and cells flowing at high speed. We report a solution that achieves real-time pixel readout rates one order of magnitude faster than a modern electron multiplier charge coupled device (EMCCD) - the gold standard in high-speed fluorescence imaging technology. Deemed fluorescence imaging using radiofrequency-multiplexed excitation (FIRE), this approach maps the image into the radiofrequency spectrum using the beating of digitally synthesized optical fields. We demonstrate diffraction-limited confocal fluorescence imaging of stationary cells at a frame rate of 4.4 kHz, as well as fluorescence microscopy in flow at a throughput of approximately 50,000 ce...

  14. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  15. Multiplexed microfluidic quantification of proteins in serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Nitin; Rajauria, Sukumar; Cleland, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and low cost immunoassays targeting proteins in blood or other bodily fluids are highly sought after for point-of-care devices and early screening of patients. Immunoturbidimetric assays utilize latex particles functionalized with antibodies, with particle aggregation in the presence of the analyte detected by a change in absorbance. Using a high throughput micro-fluidic particle analyzer based solely on electrical signals (resistive pulse sensing), we are able to accurately quantify the degree of aggregation by analyzing the changes in the particle size distribution. Thus we study the aggregation of streptavidin (SAv) coated beads in the presence of biotinylated bovine serum albumin as a proof-of-principle assay and extract the binding capacity of the SAv beads from the dose-response curve. We also use our aggregation measurement platform to characterize a commercial C-reactive protein (CRP) immunoturbidimetric assay (hsCRP, Diazyme Inc.). We obtain a linear calibration curve as well as a better limit of detection of CRP than that obtained by absorbance measurements. By using different bead sizes functionalized with different antibodies, multiplexed analyte detection is also possible. We demonstrate this by combining the commercial anti-CRP functionalized beads (0.4 microns) with biotin coated beads (1.0 microns), and carry out the simultaneous detection of SAv and CRP in a single sample.

  16. Clostridium perfringens isolate typing by multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Ahsani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen that provokes numerous different diseases. This bacterium is classified into five different types, each of which capable of causing a different disease. There are various methods for the bacterial identification, many are labor-intensive, time-consuming, expensive and also present low sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this research was to identify the different types of C. perfringens using PCR molecular method. In this study, 130 sheep-dung samples were randomly collected from areas around the city of Kerman, southeastern Iran. After processing and culturing of samples, the produced colonies were morphologically studied, gram stain test was also carried out and the genera of these bacteria were identified through biochemical tests. DNA extracted from isolated bacteria for genotyping was tested by multiplex PCR with specific primers. Based on length of synthesized fragments by PCR, toxin types and bacterial strains were detected. C. perfringens isolated types were divided as follows: 17.39% type A, 21.74% type B, 34.78% type C and 26.09% type D. It should be emphasized that, up to the present moment, C. perfringens type A has not been reported in Iran.

  17. Multiplexed coding in the human basal ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, D. S.; Cerquetti, D.; Merello, M.

    2016-04-01

    A classic controversy in neuroscience is whether information carried by spike trains is encoded by a time averaged measure (e.g. a rate code), or by complex time patterns (i.e. a time code). Here we apply a tool to quantitatively analyze the neural code. We make use of an algorithm based on the calculation of the temporal structure function, which permits to distinguish what scales of a signal are dominated by a complex temporal organization or a randomly generated process. In terms of the neural code, this kind of analysis makes it possible to detect temporal scales at which a time patterns coding scheme or alternatively a rate code are present. Additionally, finding the temporal scale at which the correlation between interspike intervals fades, the length of the basic information unit of the code can be established, and hence the word length of the code can be found. We apply this algorithm to neuronal recordings obtained from the Globus Pallidus pars interna from a human patient with Parkinson’s disease, and show that a time pattern coding and a rate coding scheme co-exist at different temporal scales, offering a new example of multiplexed neuronal coding.

  18. Multiplexed modular genetic targeting of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Saumya; Beck, Lauren E; Maji, Suvrajit; Baty, Catherine J; Wang, Yi; Yan, Qi; Watkins, Simon C; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2014-11-25

    While DNA-directed nanotechnology is now a well-established platform for bioinspired nanoscale assembly in vitro, the direct targeting of various nanomaterials in living biological systems remains a significant challenge. Hybrid biological systems with integrated and targeted nanomaterials may have interesting and exploitable properties, so methods for targeting various nanomaterials to precise biological locations are required. Fluorescence imaging has benefited from the use of nanoparticles with superior optical properties compared to fluorescent organic dyes or fluorescent proteins. While single-particle tracking (SPT) in living cells with genetically encoded proteins is limited to very short trajectories, the high photon output of genetically targeted and multiplexed quantum dots (QDs) would enable long-trajectory analysis of multiple proteins. However, challenges with genetic targeting of QDs limit their application in these experiments. In this report, we establish a modular method for targeting QD nanoparticles selectively to multiple genetically encoded tags by precomplexing QD-streptavidin conjugates with cognate biotinylated hapten molecules. This approach enables labeling and SPT of multiple genetically encoded proteins on living cells at high speed and can label expressed proteins in the cytosol upon microinjection into living cells. While we demonstrate labeling with three distinct QD conjugates, the approach can be extended to other specific hapten-affinity molecule interactions and alternative nanoparticles, enabling precise directed targeting of nanoparticles in living biological systems.

  19. Controllability of multiplex, multi-timescale networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pósfai, Márton; Cornelius, Sean P; Barabási, Albert-László; D'Souza, Raissa M

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of layered networks is used to describe many real-world systems -- from biological networks, to social organizations and transportation systems. Recently there has been much progress in understanding the general properties of multilayer networks, our understanding of how to control such systems remains limited. One aspect that makes this endeavor challenging is that each layer can operate at a different timescale, thus we cannot directly apply standard ideas from structural control theory of individual networks. Here we address the problem of controlling multilayer and multi-timescale networks focusing on two-layer multiplex networks with one-to-one interlayer coupling. We investigate the case when the control signal is applied to the nodes of one layer. We develop a theory based on disjoint path covers to determine the minimum number of inputs ($N_\\T i$) necessary for full control. We show that if both layers operate on the same timescale then the network structure of both layers equally affect ...

  20. Dynamic Time Multiplexing Fabrication of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals for Increased Wavelength Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K. (Inventor); Rai, Kashma (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein is a new holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) medium with broadband reflective properties, and a new technique for fabrication of broadband HPDLC mediums. The new technique involves dynamic variation of the holography setup during HPDLC formation, enabling the broadening of the HPDLC medium's wavelength response. Dynamic variation of the holography setup may include the rotation and/or translation of one or more motorized stages, allowing for time and spatial, or angular, multiplexing through variation of the incident angles of one or more laser beams on a pre-polymer mixture during manufacture. An HPDLC medium manufactured using these techniques exhibits improved optical response by reflecting a broadband spectrum of wavelengths. A new broadband holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film polymeric mirror stack with electrically-switchable beam steering capability is disclosed. XXXX Described herein is a new holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) medium with broadband reflective properties, and a new technique for fabrication of broadband 10 HPDLC mediums. The new technique involves dynamic variation of the holography setup during HPDLC formation, enabling the broadening of the HPDLC medium's wavelength response. Dynamic variation of the holography setup may include the rotation and/or translation of one or more 15 motorized stages, allowing for time and spatial, or angular, multiplexing through variation of the incident angles of one or more laser beams on a pre-polymer mixture during manufacture. An HPDLC medium manufactured using these techniques exhibits improved optical response by reflecting 20 a broadband spectrum of wavelengths. A new broadband holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film polymeric mirror stack with electrically switchable beam steering capability is disclosed.

  1. Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heiat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually, more than 14 million people are reported to be infected with Leishmaniasis all over the world. In Iran, this disease is seen in the form of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, of which the cutaneous form is more wide spread. In recent years, cutaneous leishmaniaisis is diagnosed by PCR utilizing specific primers in order to amplify different parasite genes including ribosomal RNA genes, kinetoplast DNA or tandem repeating sequences. The aim of this research was to detect early stage cutaneous leishmaniasis using Multiplex-PCR technique. Methods: In this study, 67 samples were prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA was extracted with phenolchloroform. Each specimen was analyzed using two different pairs of PCR primers. The sensitivity of each PCR was optimized on pure Leishmania DNA prior to use for diagnosis. Two standard parasites L. major and L. tropica were used as positive control. Results: DNA amplification fragments were two 115 bp and 683 bp for AB and UL primers, respectively. The sensitivity of two primers was not equal for detection of L. major and L. tropica. The sensivity of PCR with AB primer was 35 cells, while that for UL primer was 40 cells. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that PCR is a sensitive diagnostic assay for cutaneous leishmaniasis and could be employed as the new standard for routine diagnosis when species identification is not required. However, the ability to identify species is especially important in prognosis of the disease and in deciding appropriate therapy, especially in regions where more than one type of species and disease are seen by clinicians.

  2. SBE primer : multiplexing minisequencing-based genotyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaderali, L. (Lars); Deshpande, A. (Alina); Uribe-Romeo, F. J. (Francisco J.); Schliep, A.; Torney, D. C. (David C.)

    2002-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a powerful tool for mapping and diagnosing disease-related alleles. Most of the known genetic diseases are caused by point mutations, and a growing number of SNPs will be routinely analyzed to diagnose genetic disorders. Mutation analysis by polymerase mediated single-base primer extension (minisequencing) can be massively parallelized using for example DNA microchips or flow cytometry with microspheres as solid support. By adding a unique oligonucleotide tag to the 5-inch end of the minisequencing primer and attaching the complementary anti-tag to the array or bead surface, the assay can be 'demultiplexed'. However, such high-throughput scoring of SNPs requires a high level of primer multiplexing in order to analyze multiple loci in one assay, thus enabling inexpensive and fast polymorphism scoring. Primers can be chosen from either the plus or the minus strand, and primers used in the same experiment must not bind to one another. To genotype a given number of polymorphic sites, the question is which primer to use for each SNP, and which primers to group into the same experiment. Furthermore, a crosshybridization-free tag/anti-tag code is required in order to sort the extended primers to the corresponding microspheres or chip spots. These problems pose challenging algorithmic questions. We present a computer program lo automate the design process for the assay. Oligonucleotide primers for the reaction are automatically selected by the software, a unique DNA tag/anti-tag system is generated, and the pairing of primers and DNA-Tags is automatically done in a way to avoid any crossreactivity. We report first results on a 45-plex genotyping assay, indicating that minisequencing can be adapted to be a powerful tool for high-throughput, massively parallel genotyping.

  3. Multiplexed photonic Doppler velocimetry for large channel count experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Edward; Burk, Martin; Holtkamp, David; Miller, Edward Kirk; Rutkowski, Araceli; Strand, Oliver Ted; Pena, Michael; Perez, Carlos; Gallegos, Cenobio

    2017-01-01

    Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is routinely employed as a means of measuring surface velocities for shockwave experimentation. Scientists typically collect ˜4 to 12 channels of PDV data and use extrapolation, assumptions, and models to determine the velocities in regions of the experiment that were not observed directly. We have designed, built and applied a new optical velocimetry diagnostic—the Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimeter (MPDV)—for use on shock physics experiments that require a large number (100s) of spatial points to be measured. MPDV expands upon PDV measurement capabilities via frequency and time multiplexing using commercially available products developed for the telecommunications industry. The MPDV uses the heterodyne method to multiplex four data channels in the frequency domain combined with fiber delays to multiplex an additional four-channel dataset in the time domain, all of which are recorded onto the same digitizer input. This means that each digitizer input records data from eight separate spatial points, so that a single 4-input digitizer may record a total of 32 channels of data. Motivation for development of a multiplexed PDV was driven by requirements for an economical, high-fidelity, high channel-count optical velocimetry system. We present a survey of the methods, components, and trade-offs incorporated into this recent development in optical velocimetry.

  4. Multiplex PCR: Optimization and Application in Diagnostic Virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnifro, Elfath M.; Ashshi, Ahmed M.; Cooper, Robert J.; Klapper, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    PCR has revolutionized the field of infectious disease diagnosis. To overcome the inherent disadvantage of cost and to improve the diagnostic capacity of the test, multiplex PCR, a variant of the test in which more than one target sequence is amplified using more than one pair of primers, has been developed. Multiplex PCRs to detect viral, bacterial, and/or other infectious agents in one reaction tube have been described. Early studies highlighted the obstacles that can jeopardize the production of sensitive and specific multiplex assays, but more recent studies have provided systematic protocols and technical improvements for simple test design. The most useful of these are the empirical choice of oligonucleotide primers and the use of hot start-based PCR methodology. These advances along with others to enhance sensitivity and specificity and to facilitate automation have resulted in the appearance of numerous publications regarding the application of multiplex PCR in the diagnosis of infectious agents, especially those which target viral nucleic acids. This article reviews the principles, optimization, and application of multiplex PCR for the detection of viruses of clinical and epidemiological importance. PMID:11023957

  5. Redundant Interdependencies Boost the Robustness of Multiplex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2017-01-01

    In the analysis of the robustness of multiplex networks, it is commonly assumed that a node is functioning only if its interdependent nodes are simultaneously functioning. According to this model, a multiplex network becomes more and more fragile as the number of layers increases. In this respect, the addition of a new layer of interdependent nodes to a preexisting multiplex network will never improve its robustness. Whereas such a model seems appropriate to understand the effect of interdependencies in the simplest scenario of a network composed of only two layers, it may seem unsuitable to characterize the robustness of real systems formed by multiple network layers. In fact, it seems unrealistic that a real system evolved, through the development of multiple layers of interactions, towards a fragile structure. In this paper, we introduce a model of percolation where the condition that makes a node functional is that the node is functioning in at least two of the layers of the network. The model reduces to the commonly adopted percolation model for multiplex networks when the number of layers equals two. a larger number of layers, however, the model describes a scenario where the addition of new layers boosts the robustness of the system by creating redundant interdependencies among layers. We prove this fact thanks to the development of a message-passing theory that is able to characterize the model in both synthetic and real-world multiplex graphs.

  6. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamalas, Joan T; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the T-S plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy in all layers (coherent), and others that don't (incoherent). This second group of players is responsible for the surprising fact of a non full-cooperation in the Harmony Game on multiplex, never observed before, as well as a higher-than-expected cooperation rates in some regions of the other three social dilemmas.

  7. Characterization of a group unrelated patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Valdés-Flores

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a relatively rare neuromuscular syndrome, with a prevalence of 1:3000-5000 newborns. In this study, the authors describe the clinical features of a group of 50 unrelated Mexican patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. METHODS: Patients were diagnosed by physical and radiographic examination and the family history was evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 50 cases, nine presented other features (pectum excavatum, cleft palate, mental retardation, ulnar agenesis, etc.. Environmental factors, as well as prenatal and family history, were analyzed. The chromosomal anomalies and clinical entities associated with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita were reported. No chromosomal aberrations were present in the cases with mental retardation. Three unrelated familial cases with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita were observed in which autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and X-linked inheritance patterns are possible. A literature review regarding arthrogryposis multiplex congenita was also conducted. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to establish patient-specific physical therapy and rehabilitation programs. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary, with medical, surgical, rehabilitation, social and psychological care, including genetic counseling.

  8. Simultaneous multiplex PCR detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Yeon; Hong, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Jea; Choi, Sun Hee; Min, Byeong Eun; Song, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Ryu, Ki Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10 pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53 °C to 63 °C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed.

  9. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamalas, Joan T.; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the T - S plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy in all layers (coherent), and others that don't (incoherent). This second group of players is responsible for the surprising fact of a non full-cooperation in the Harmony Game on multiplex, never observed before, as well as a higher-than-expected cooperation rates in some regions of the other three social dilemmas.

  10. Spatial code division multiplexing in optical data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Mendlovic, David; Solomon, Jonathan

    2002-09-01

    The increasing popularity of optical communication has also brought a demand for broader bandwidth. The natural trend was to implement methods from traditional communication on optical fibers. One of the most effective "traditional" methods is code division multiple access (CDMA). In this paper, we suggest the use of this approach for spatial coding applied to images, and for superresolution. In spatial coding, the approach is to multiplex several filters into one plane while keeping their mutual orthogonality. It is shown that within specific restrictions the output of all the filters can be sampled in the original image resolution and fully recovered through an all-optical setup. A theoretical analysis of such a setup is brought as well as experimental demonstrations are presented. Implementation for invariant pattern recognition is suggested. In superresolution, we propose using code division multiplexing in order to transfer a wider range of frequencies. Traditional methods for super resolution have sacrificed field of view for resolution. These methods multiplexed the signal on different carriers. Code division multiplexing for such a usage, has been shown to have superior capabilities, nearing almost Shannon's channel capacity limit. To enable such multiplexing we propose a unique setup that creates an incoherent cosine transform of the image. A theoretical analysis of the setup is brought and later compared with the empirical results.

  11. Simultaneous detection of HBV and HCV by multiplex PCR normalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wang; Xue-Qin Gao; Jin-Xiang Han

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To design and establish a method of multiplex PCR normalization for simultaneously detecting HBV and HCV.METHODS: Two pairs of primers with a 20 bp joint sequence were used to amplify the target genes of HBV and HCV by two rounds of amplification. After the two rounds of amplification all the products had the joint sequence. Then the joint sequence was used as primers to finish the last amplification. Finally multiplex PCR was normalized to a single PCR system to eliminate multiplex factor interference. Four kinds of nucleic acid extraction methods were compared and screened. A multiplex PCR normalization method was established and optimized by orthogonal design of 6 key factors. Then twenty serum samples were detected to evaluate the validity and authenticity of this method.RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic index and efficiency were 83.3%, 70%, 153.3% and 72.2%,respectively for both HBsAg and anti-HCV positive patients,and were 78.6%, 80%, 258.6% and 79.2%, respectively for HBsAg positive patients, and were 75%, 90%, 165%and 83.3%, respectively for anti-HCV positive patients.CONCLUSION: The multiplex PCR normalization method shows a broad prospect in simultaneous amplification of multiple genes of different sources. It is practical, correct and authentic, and can be used to prevent and control HBV and HCV.

  12. The new challenges of multiplex networks: Measures and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2017-02-01

    What do societies, the Internet, and the human brain have in common? They are all examples of complex relational systems, whose emerging behaviours are largely determined by the non-trivial networks of interactions among their constituents, namely individuals, computers, or neurons, rather than only by the properties of the units themselves. In the last two decades, network scientists have proposed models of increasing complexity to better understand real-world systems. Only recently we have realised that multiplexity, i.e. the coexistence of several types of interactions among the constituents of a complex system, is responsible for substantial qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and variety of behaviours that a complex system can exhibit. As a consequence, multilayer and multiplex networks have become a hot topic in complexity science. Here we provide an overview of some of the measures proposed so far to characterise the structure of multiplex networks, and a selection of models aiming at reproducing those structural properties and quantifying their statistical significance. Focusing on a subset of relevant topics, this brief review is a quite comprehensive introduction to the most basic tools for the analysis of multiplex networks observed in the real-world. The wide applicability of multiplex networks as a framework to model complex systems in different fields, from biology to social sciences, and the colloquial tone of the paper will make it an interesting read for researchers working on both theoretical and experimental analysis of networked systems.

  13. The multianalyser system of the three axes neutron spectrometer PUMA: Pilot experiments with the innovative multiplex technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Oleg; Hoffmann, Ron; Gibhardt, Holger; Jünke, Norbert; Knorr, Andreas; Meyer, Volker; Eckold, Götz

    2015-02-01

    A new type of multiplex technique for three axes neutron spectrometers has been realized and successfully commissioned at the PUMA spectrometer at FRM II. Consisting of eleven analyser-detector channels which can be configured individually, this technique is especially suitable for kinetic experiments where a single excitation spectrum is recorded as a function of time without the need to move the spectrometer. On a time-scale of seconds an entire spectrum can be recorded thus allowing users to monitor changes during fast kinetic processes in single shot experiments without the need for stroboscopic techniques. Moreover, the multianalyser system provides an efficient and rapid tool for mapping excitations in (Q,ω)-space. The results of pilot experiments demonstrate the performance of this new technique and a user-friendly software is presented which assists users during their experiments.

  14. Computing approximate blocking probability of inverse multiplexing and sub-band conversion in the flexible-grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yamei; You, Shanhong

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid growth of data rate, the optical network is evolving from fixed-grid to flexible-grid to provide spectrum-efficient and scalable transport of 100 Gb/s services and beyond. Also, the deployment of wavelength converter in the existing network can increase the flexibility of routing and wavelength allocation (RWA) and improve blocking performance of the optical networks. In this paper, we present a methodology for computing approximate blocking probabilities of the provision of multiclass services in the flexible-grid optical networks with sub-band spectrum conversion and inverse multiplexing respectively. Numerical calculation results based on the model are compared to the simulation results for the different cases. It is shown that the calculation results match well with the simulation results for the flexible-grid optical networks at different scenarios.

  15. Towards effective visual analytics on multiplex and multilayer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Luca; Magnani, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss visualisation strategies for multiplex networks. Since Moreno’s early works on network analysis, visualisation has been one of the main ways to understand networks thanks to its ability to summarise a complex structure into a single representation highlighting multiple...... properties of the data. However, despite the large renewed interest in the analysis of multiplex networks, no study has proposed specialised visualisation approaches for this context and traditional methods are typically applied instead. In this paper we initiate a critical and structured discussion...... of this topic, and claim that the development of specific visualisation methods for multiplex networks will be one of the main drivers pushing current research results into daily practice....

  16. Congestion induced by the structure of multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex networks are representations of multilayer interconnected complex networks where the nodes are the same at every layer. They turn out to be good abstractions of the intricate connectivity of multimodal transportation networks, among other types of complex systems. One of the most important critical phenomena arising in such networks is the emergence of congestion in transportation flows. Here we prove analytically that the structure of multiplex networks can induce congestion for flows that otherwise will be decongested if the individual layers were not interconnected. We provide explicit equations for the onset of congestion and approximations that allow to compute this onset from individual descriptors of the individual layers. The observed cooperative phenomenon reminds the Braess' paradox in which adding extra capacity to a network when the moving entities selfishly choose their route can in some cases reduce overall performance. Similarly, in the multiplex structure, the efficiency in transport...

  17. The new challenges of multiplex networks: measures and models

    CERN Document Server

    Battiston, Federico; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    What do societies, the Internet, and the human brain have in common? The immediate answer might be "not that much", but in reality they are all examples of complex relational systems, whose emerging behaviours are largely determined by the non-trivial networks of interactions among their constituents, namely individuals, computers, or neurons. In the last two decades, network scientists have proposed models of increasing complexity to better understand real-world systems. Only recently we have realised that multiplexity, i.e. the coexistence of several types of interactions among the constituents of a complex system, is responsible for substantial qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and variety of behaviours that a complex system can exhibit. As a consequence, multilayer and multiplex networks have become a hot topic in complexity science. Here we provide an overview of some of the measures proposed so far to characterise the structure of multiplex networks, and a selection of models aiming a...

  18. Multiplex amplification of large sets of human exons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Gregory J; Zhang, Kun; Li, Jin Billy; Xie, Bin; Austin, Derek; Vassallo, Sara L; LeProust, Emily M; Peck, Bill J; Emig, Christopher J; Dahl, Fredrik; Gao, Yuan; Church, George M; Shendure, Jay

    2007-11-01

    A new generation of technologies is poised to reduce DNA sequencing costs by several orders of magnitude. But our ability to fully leverage the power of these technologies is crippled by the absence of suitable 'front-end' methods for isolating complex subsets of a mammalian genome at a scale that matches the throughput at which these platforms will routinely operate. We show that targeting oligonucleotides released from programmable microarrays can be used to capture and amplify approximately 10,000 human exons in a single multiplex reaction. Additionally, we show integration of this protocol with ultra-high-throughput sequencing for targeted variation discovery. Although the multiplex capture reaction is highly specific, we found that nonuniform capture is a key issue that will need to be resolved by additional optimization. We anticipate that highly multiplexed methods for targeted amplification will enable the comprehensive resequencing of human exons at a fraction of the cost of whole-genome resequencing.

  19. More ethical and more efficient clinical research: multiplex trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Nijsten, Maarten W

    2014-08-14

    Today's clinical research faces challenges such as a lack of clinical equipoise between treatment arms, reluctance in randomizing for multiple treatments simultaneously, inability to address interactions and increasingly restricted resources. Furthermore, many trials are biased by extensive exclusion criteria, relatively small sample size and less appropriate outcome measures. We propose a 'Multiplex' trial design that preserves clinical equipoise with a continuous and factorial trial design that will also result in more efficient use of resources. This multiplex design accommodates subtrials with appropriate choice of treatment arms within each subtrial. Clinical equipoise should increase consent rates while the factorial design is the best way to identify interactions. The multiplex design may evolve naturally from today's research limitations and challenges, while principal objections seem absent. However this new design poses important infrastructural, organisational and psychological challenges that need in depth consideration.

  20. DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Beril; Spinnler, Bernhard; Ferreira, Filipe; van den Borne, Dirk; Lobato, Adriana; Adhikari, Susmita; Sleiffer, Vincent A J M; Kuschnerov, Maxim; Hanik, Norbert; Jansen, Sander L

    2012-05-07

    The complexities of common equalizer schemes are analytically analyzed in this paper in terms of complex multiplications per bit. Based on this approach we compare the complexity of mode-division multiplexed digital signal processing algorithms with different numbers of multiplexed modes in terms of modal dispersion and distance. It is found that training symbol based equalizers have significantly lower complexity compared to blind approaches for long-haul transmission. Among the training symbol based schemes, OFDM requires the lowest complexity for crosstalk compensation in a mode-division multiplexed receiver. The main challenge for training symbol based schemes is the additional overhead required to compensate modal crosstalk, which increases the data rate. In order to achieve 2000 km transmission, the effective modal dispersion must therefore be below 6 ps/km when the OFDM specific overhead is limited to 10%. It is concluded that for few mode transmission systems the reduction of modal delay is crucial to enable long-haul performance.

  1. Interplay of inhibition and multiplexing : Largest eigenvalue statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Ivanchenko, Mikhail V; Jalan, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    The largest eigenvalue of a network provides understanding to various dynamical as well as stability properties of the underlying system. We investigate an interplay of inhibition and multiplexing on the largest eigenvalue statistics of networks. Using numerical experiments, we demonstrate that presence of the inhibitory coupling may lead to a very different behaviour of the largest eigenvalue statistics of multiplex networks than those of the isolated networks depending upon network architecture of the individual layer. We demonstrate that there is a transition from the Weibull to the Gumbel or to the Frechet distribution as networks are multiplexed. Furthermore, for denser networks, there is a convergence to the Gumbel distribution as network size increases indicating higher stability of larger systems.

  2. General purpose multiplexing device for cryogenic microwave systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin J.; Moores, Bradley A.; Rosenthal, Eric I.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Lehnert, K. W.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and experimentally characterize a general purpose device for signal processing in circuit quantum electrodynamics systems. The device is a broadband two-port microwave circuit element with three modes of operation: it can transmit, reflect, or invert incident signals between 4 and 8 GHz. This property makes it a versatile tool for lossless signal processing at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, rapid switching (≤ 15 ns ) between these operation modes enables several multiplexing readout protocols for superconducting qubits. We report the device's performance in a two-channel code domain multiplexing demonstration. The multiplexed data are recovered with fast readout times (up to 400 ns ) and infidelities ≤ 10-2 for probe powers ≥ 7 fW , in agreement with the expectation for binary signaling with Gaussian noise.

  3. Layer-layer competition in multiplex complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Gerardo; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of multiple types of interactions within social, technological and biological networks has moved the focus of the physics of complex systems towards a multiplex description of the interactions between their constituents. This novel approach has unveiled that the multiplex nature of complex systems has strong influence in the emergence of collective states and their critical properties. Here we address an important issue that is intrinsic to the coexistence of multiple means of interactions within a network: their competition. To this aim, we study a two-layer multiplex in which the activity of users can be localized in each of the layer or shared between them, favoring that neighboring nodes within a layer focus their activity on the same layer. This framework mimics the coexistence and competition of multiple communication channels, in a way that the prevalence of a particular communication platform emerges as a result of the localization of users activity in one single interaction layer. Our...

  4. Escaping the avalanche collapse in self-similar multiplexes

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, M Angeles; Boguna, Marian

    2015-01-01

    We deduce and discuss the implications of self-similarity for the stability in terms of robustness to failure of multiplexes, depending on interlayer degree correlations. First, we define self-similarity of multiplexes and we illustrate the concept in practice using the configuration model ensemble. Circumscribing robustness to survival of the mutually percolated state, we find a new explanation based on self-similarity both for the observed fragility of interconnected systems of networks and for their robustness to failure when interlayer degree correlations are present. Extending the self-similarity arguments, we show that interlayer degree correlations can change completely the stability properties of self-similar multiplexes, so that they can even recover a zero percolation threshold and a continuous transition in the thermodynamic limit, qualitatively exhibiting thus the ordinary stability attributes of noninteracting networks. We confirm these results with numerical simulations.

  5. Rare Earth core/shell nanobarcodes for multiplexed trace biodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Xiaomin; Shen, Dengke; Zhou, Lei; Zhu, Dan; Fan, Chunhai; Zhang, Fan

    2015-06-02

    Multiplexed detection technology has been attractive for its simultaneous assay of several analytes, which play significant roles in applications such as screening for combinatorial chemistry, genetic analysis, and clinical diagnostics. This work reports a novel and potentially powerful encoding system based upon dispersible suspension arrays of multilayer rare earth core/shell nanoparticles that are capable of multiplexed, high-sensitivity reporting for biomolecule detection by the Z-contrast imaging. These nanobarcode arrays are encoded by nanostructure design based on different atomic numbers. With the well-resolved high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) decoding technique, many thousands of unique nanobarcodes can be identified by multilayer core/shell nanostructure. Their applications to multiplexed biodetection of DNA demonstrated the highly sensitive (picomole) features of this novel nanobarcode system.

  6. Time-division multiplexing vs network calculus: A comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Rasmus Bo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Networks-on-chip are increasingly common in modern multicore architectures. However, general-purpose networks-on-chip are not always well suited for real-time applications that require bandwidth and latency guarantees. Two approaches to provide real-time guarantees have emerged: time......-division multiplexing, where traffic is scheduled according to a precalculated static schedule, and network calculus, a mathematical framework to reason about dynamically scheduled networks. This paper compares the two approaches to provide insight into their relative advantages and disadvantages. The results show...... that time-division multiplexing leads to better worst-case latencies, while network calculus supports higher bandwidths. Furthermore, time-division multiplexing leads to a simpler hardware implementation, while dynamically scheduled networks-on-chip allow the integration of best-effort traffic in the on...

  7. Mapping multiplex hubs in human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly centralones, i.e. hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studieshave shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components ofbrain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However,the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneouslyis still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify eachfrequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploitingthe recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that eachfrequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately modelbrain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in generaldifferent from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signalsas usual, provide a more accurate map of brain’s most important functional regions, allowingto distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventionalnetwork approaches.

  8. Multiplex PCR Screening of Y Chromosome Microdeletions in Azoospermic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-yi YU; Guang-lun ZHUANG; Can-quan ZHOU; Ning SU; Qing-xue ZHANG; Dong-zi YANG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To develop a multiplex PCR protocol for routine screening of microdeletions on the Y chromosome Methods Five multiplex sets were established and Y chromosome microdeletions screening were carried out in 26 azoospermic men who undertook ICSI and 30 azoospermic men who undertook testicular biopsy. Results In 56 azoospermic men, 5 patients were found with AZFc/DAZ microdeletions,2 patients were accompanied by AZFc/DAZ and AZFb/RBM1 double microdeletion,and 1 patient had only single Sy153 microdeletion.Conclusion The multiplex PCR protocol presented in this study is an easy and reliable method for detecting microdeletions on the Y chromosome. Routine screening for microdeletions on the Y chromosome in azoospermic patients is essential.

  9. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... microbiology/MCM devices. The ultimate goal is to advance regulatory science for highly multiplexed devices... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly...

  10. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... paper entitled ''Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure... the ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly...

  11. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10(2) copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. MPprimer: a program for reliable multiplex PCR primer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhiyong; Qu, Wubin; Wang, Wen; Lu, Yiming; Wu, Yonghong; Li, Zhifeng; Hang, Xingyi; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Dongsheng; Zhang, Chenggang

    2010-03-18

    Multiplex PCR, defined as the simultaneous amplification of multiple regions of a DNA template or multiple DNA templates using more than one primer set (comprising a forward primer and a reverse primer) in one tube, has been widely used in diagnostic applications of clinical and environmental microbiology studies. However, primer design for multiplex PCR is still a challenging problem and several factors need to be considered. These problems include mis-priming due to nonspecific binding to non-target DNA templates, primer dimerization, and the inability to separate and purify DNA amplicons with similar electrophoretic mobility. A program named MPprimer was developed to help users for reliable multiplex PCR primer design. It employs the widely used primer design program Primer3 and the primer specificity evaluation program MFEprimer to design and evaluate the candidate primers based on genomic or transcript DNA database, followed by careful examination to avoid primer dimerization. The graph-expanding algorithm derived from the greedy algorithm was used to determine the optimal primer set combinations (PSCs) for multiplex PCR assay. In addition, MPprimer provides a virtual electrophotogram to help users choose the best PSC. The experimental validation from 2x to 5x plex PCR demonstrates the reliability of MPprimer. As another example, MPprimer is able to design the multiplex PCR primers for DMD (dystrophin gene which caused Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy), which has 79 exons, for 20x, 20x, 20x, 14x, and 5x plex PCR reactions in five tubes to detect underlying exon deletions. MPprimer is a valuable tool for designing specific, non-dimerizing primer set combinations with constrained amplicons size for multiplex PCR assays.

  13. MPprimer: a program for reliable multiplex PCR primer design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaolei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex PCR, defined as the simultaneous amplification of multiple regions of a DNA template or multiple DNA templates using more than one primer set (comprising a forward primer and a reverse primer in one tube, has been widely used in diagnostic applications of clinical and environmental microbiology studies. However, primer design for multiplex PCR is still a challenging problem and several factors need to be considered. These problems include mis-priming due to nonspecific binding to non-target DNA templates, primer dimerization, and the inability to separate and purify DNA amplicons with similar electrophoretic mobility. Results A program named MPprimer was developed to help users for reliable multiplex PCR primer design. It employs the widely used primer design program Primer3 and the primer specificity evaluation program MFEprimer to design and evaluate the candidate primers based on genomic or transcript DNA database, followed by careful examination to avoid primer dimerization. The graph-expanding algorithm derived from the greedy algorithm was used to determine the optimal primer set combinations (PSCs for multiplex PCR assay. In addition, MPprimer provides a virtual electrophotogram to help users choose the best PSC. The experimental validation from 2× to 5× plex PCR demonstrates the reliability of MPprimer. As another example, MPprimer is able to design the multiplex PCR primers for DMD (dystrophin gene which caused Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, which has 79 exons, for 20×, 20×, 20×, 14×, and 5× plex PCR reactions in five tubes to detect underlying exon deletions. Conclusions MPprimer is a valuable tool for designing specific, non-dimerizing primer set combinations with constrained amplicons size for multiplex PCR assays.

  14. Multiple resource demands and viability in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Byungjoon

    2014-01-01

    Many complex systems demand manifold resources to be supplied from distinct channels to function properly, i.e, water, gas, and electricity for a city. Here, we study a model for viability of such systems demanding more than one type of vital resources produced and distributed by source nodes in multiplex networks. We found a rich variety of behaviors such as discontinuity, bistability, and hysteresis in the fraction of viable nodes with respect to the density of networks and the fraction of source nodes. Our result suggests that viability in multiplex networks is not only exposed to the risk of abrupt collapse but also suffers excessive complication in recovery.

  15. Non-linear growth and condensation in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito; Barthelemy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Different types of interactions coexist and coevolve to shape the structure and function of a multiplex network. We propose here a general class of growth models in which the various layers of a multiplex network coevolve through a set of non-linear preferential attachment rules. We show, both numerically and analytically, that by tuning the level of non-linearity these models allow to reproduce either homogeneous or heterogeneous degree distributions, together with positive or negative degree correlations across layers. In particular, we derive the condition for the appearance of a condensed state in which a single node connects to nearly all other nodes of a layer.

  16. Optimization and analysis of code-division multiplexed TES microcalorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, J W; Hilton, G C; Irwin, K D; Schmidt, D R; Stiehl, G M; Swetz, D S; Ullom, J N; Vale., L R

    2011-01-01

    We are developing code-division multiplexing (CDM) systems for transition-edge sensor arrays with the goal of reaching multiplexing factors in the hundreds. We report on x-ray measurements made with a four-channel prototype CDM system that employs a flux-summing architecture, emphasizing data-analysis issues. We describe an empirical method to determine the demodulation matrix that minimizes cross-talk. This CDM system achieves energy resolutions of between 2.3 eV and 3.0 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV.

  17. Color multiplexing using directional holographic gratings and linear polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, L I; Rodriguez, A; Ramirez, G; Guel, S; Nunez, O F, E-mail: roca@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO) Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (UASLP) (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system of multiplexing and de-multiplexing, which uses a holographic diffraction grating to compel modulated light of different colors to be sent through an optical fiber. Diffraction gratings were fabricated specifically to pick the desired direction in which we wanted the light of different wavelengths to impinge the optic fiber, and also to be separated at the output. It was been found that the system preserves the polarization of light, which give us a one more freedom degree, allowing us to process twice the original information amount.

  18. Statistical Multiplexing of Video Traffic and Data Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies statistical multiplexing performance byinput of video traffic and data traffic. The inputs have different Qos requirements such as loss and delay jitter. By applying a modified FBM model, we present methods to estimate effective bandwidth of the aggregated traffic. Simulationswere paformed to evaluate effective bandwidth. The comparison between the estimation and the simulation shows that the estimations can give correct data for the effective bandwidths in terms of our interests. The analysis of gain by using priority multiplexing also addresses proper Qos configuration for the inputs in order to achieve positive gains.

  19. Typing of Y chromosome SNPs with multiplex PCR methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We describe a method for the simultaneous typing of Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers by means of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies that allow the detection of 35 Y chromosome SNPs on 25 amplicons from 100 to 200 pg of chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid...... factors for the creation of larger SNP typing PCR multiplexes include careful selection of primers for the primary amplification and the SBE reaction, use of DNA primers with homogenous composition, and balancing the primer concentrations for both the amplification and the SBE reactions....

  20. Multiplexing symbolic dynamics-based chaos communications using synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Corron, Ned J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel form of multiplexing information-bearing chaotic waveforms is demonstrated experimentally. This scheme dramatically increases the information carrying capacity of a chaotic communication system. In the transmitter, information is encoded in the chaotic waveforms of two electronic circuits using small perturbations to induce the symbolic dynamics to follow a prescribed symbol sequence. Waveforms from each of the drive oscillators are summed to form a single scalar signal that is transmitted to the receiver. Identical oscillators in the receiver synchronize to their counterparts in the drive system, effectively de-multiplexing the transmitted signal. The transmitted information in each channel is extracted from simple return maps of the receiver oscillators.

  1. Optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Chen, Min-Chou

    2014-01-15

    An optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and spatial light modulators with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulating signals over a 17.5 m free-space link is proposed and demonstrated. With the help of a low-noise amplifier and data comparator, good bit error rate performance is obtained for each optical channel. Such an optical free-space WDM transport system would be attractive for providing services including data and telecommunication services.

  2. Network based management for multiplexed electric vehicle charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching Yen; Qui, Li

    2017-04-11

    A system for multiplexing charging of electric vehicles, comprising a server coupled to a plurality of charging control modules over a network. Each of said charging modules being connected to a voltage source such that each charging control module is configured to regulate distribution of voltage from the voltage source to an electric vehicle coupled to the charging control module. Data collection and control software is provided on the server for identifying a plurality of electric vehicles coupled to the plurality of charging control modules and selectively distributing charging of the plurality of charging control modules to multiplex distribution of voltage to the plurality of electric vehicles.

  3. A new synchronization scheme based on time division multiplexing and wavelength division multiplexing technology for practical quantum key distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Ping-Ping; Zhang Hua-Ni; Wang Jin-Dong; Qin Xiao-Juan; Wei zheng-Jun; Chen Shuai; Liu Song-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Three clock synchronization schemes for a quantum key distribution system are compared experimentally through the outdoor fibre and the interaction physical model of the the clock signal and the the quantum signal in the quantum key distribution system is analysed to propose a new synchronization scheme based on time division multiplexing and wavelength division multiplexing technology to reduce quantum bits error rates under some transmission rate conditions.The proposed synchronization scheme can not only completely eliminate noise photons from the bright background light of the the clock signal, but also suppress the fibre nonlinear crosstalk.

  4. DMD mutation spectrum analysis in 613 Chinese patients with dystrophinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruolan; Zhu, Guosheng; Zhu, Huimin; Ma, Ruiyu; Peng, Ying; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-08-01

    Dystrophinopathy is a group of inherited diseases caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Within the dystrophinopathy spectrum, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are common X-linked recessive disorders that mainly feature striated muscle necrosis. We combined multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification with Sanger sequencing to detect large deletions/duplications and point mutations in the DMD gene in 613 Chinese patients. A total of 571 (93.1%) patients were diagnosed, including 428 (69.8%) with large deletions/duplications and 143 (23.3%) with point mutations. Deletion/duplication breakpoints gathered mostly in introns 44-55. Reading frame rules could explain 88.6% of deletion mutations. We identified seventy novel point mutations that had not been previously reported. Spectrum expansion and genotype-phenotype analysis of DMD mutations on such a large sample size in Han Chinese population would provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanism underlying dystrophinopathies.

  5. Multiplexed Dip Pen Nanolithography patterning by simple desktop nanolithography platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Smetana, Alexander; Stiles, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Multiplexed patterning in the micro-scale has been required in order to accomplish functional bio-materials templating on the subcellular length scale. Multiplexed bio-material patterns can be used in several fields: high sensitivity DNA/protein chip development, cell adhesion/differentiation studies, and biological sensor applications. Especially, two or more materials' patterning in subcellular length scale is highly demanding to develop a multi-functional and highintegrated chip device. The multiplexing patterning of two or more materials is a challenge because of difficulty in an alignment and a precision of patterning. In this work, we demonstrate that multiplexed dip pen nanolithography® (DPN®) patterning up to four different material inks by means of using recently developed new generation nanolithography platform (NLP 2000™, NanoInk, Inc., Skokie, IL). Ink materials were prepared by adding different colored fluorescent dyes to matrix carrier materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) and lipid material (1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DOPC). Finally, dot-array patterns of four different inks were obtained in 50 × 50 μm2 area. This lithography platform is capable of patterning 12 separate materials within micrometer areas by efficient use of the available MEMS accessories. This number can be scaled up further with development of new accessories.

  6. Group differences in reciprocity, multiplexity and exchange : measures and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, Filip; Skvoretz, John

    2012-01-01

    Local forces structure social networks. One major and widely researched local force is reciprocity, often assumed to work homogeneously across actors-i.e., all actors are equally subject to the same level of force towards reciprocity. Other local forces, like multiplexity and exchange, are also ofte

  7. Diagnostic multiplex PCR for toxin genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Christoph G; Schotte, Ulrich; Amtsberg, Gunter; Goethe, Ralph

    2004-05-20

    In this study we provide a protocol for genotyping Clostridium perfringens with a new multiplex PCR. This PCR enables reliable and specific detection of the toxin genes cpa, cpb, etx, iap, cpe and cpb2 from heat lysed bacterial suspensions. The efficiency of the protocol was demonstrated by typing C. perfringens reference strains and isolates from veterinary bacteriological routine diagnostic specimens.

  8. Multiplexed noise shaping structures for Delta-Sigma modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnul, Z.; Yesilyurt, A. G.; Temes, G. C.

    1991-12-01

    A new structure for realizing a multiplexed noise-shaping A/D convertor is proposed. It improves the performance of first- or second-order Delta-Sigma modulators by employing additional feedback paths for suppressing the quantizer error. The structure, its theoretical analysis, and simulations confirming the improved resolution are presented.

  9. Steatocystoma multiplex hos 39-årig kvinde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Jonas Raymond; Siersen, Hans Erik; Bonde, Christian T

    2011-01-01

    A clinical case of the rare disorder steatocystoma multiplex is described in a 39-year-old female. The patient was diagnosed with generalized intradermal lesions that started presenting in early adulthood. There was no family history of similar lesions.Skin examination showed multiple, skin-colou...

  10. Mode Division Multiplexing Exploring Hollow-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jing; Lyngso, Jens Kristian; Leick, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We review our recent exploratory investigations on mode division multiplexing using hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBGFs). Compared with traditional multimode fibers, HC-PBGFs have several attractive features such as ultra-low nonlinearities, low-loss transmission window around 2 µm etc....

  11. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a SU-8 chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Balmer; Bang, Dang Duong; Wolff, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We present the detection of Campylobacter at species level using multiplex PCR in a micro fabricated PCR chip. The chip is based on the polymer SU-8 that allows integration with different microfluidic components, e.g., sample pre-treatment before PCR, and DNA detection simultaneously with or afte...

  12. 47 CFR 73.319 - FM multiplex subcarrier technical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subcarriers except those used for stereophonic sound broadcasts under the provisions of § 73.322. (b... range of 20 kHz to 99 kHz. (2) During stereophonic sound program transmissions (see § 73.322), multiplex... requiring any mechanical or electrical modifications in the transmitter FM exciter circuits. (f)...

  13. Multiplex biosensor immunoassays for antibiotics in the food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals may result in unwanted residues in food products. The main objective of the present research was to study the development and application of fast and automated multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassays (BIAs), based on mul

  14. The power of multiplexed functional analysis of genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Molly; Starita, Lea; Shendure, Jay

    2016-10-01

    New technologies have recently enabled saturation mutagenesis and functional analysis of nearly all possible variants of regulatory elements or proteins of interest in single experiments. Here we discuss the past, present, and future of such multiplexed (functional) assays for variant effects (MAVEs). MAVEs provide detailed insight into sequence-function relationships, and they may prove critical for the prospective clinical interpretation of genetic variants.

  15. Development of a Multiplexed Fingerprinting Set in Blackberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reliable and fast method for confirming identity and paternity in blackberry is needed. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are ideal for cultivar fingerprinting, paternity testing and identity certification. The objective of this study was to develop a multiplexed fingerprintin...

  16. Fluorescence lifetime multiplexing with nanocrystals and organic labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabolle, Markus; Kapusta, Peter; Nann, Thomas; Shu, Xu; Ziegler, Jan; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2009-09-15

    The potential of semiconducting nanocrystals or so-called quantum dots (QDs) for lifetime multiplexing has not been investigated yet, despite the increasing use of QDs in (bio)analytical detection, biosensing, and fluorescence imaging and the obvious need for simple and cost-effective tools and strategies for the simultaneous detection of multiple analytes or events. This is most likely related to their multiexponential decay behavior as for multiplex chromophores, typically monoexponential decay kinetics are requested. The fluorescence decay kinetics of various mixtures of a long-lived, multiexponentially decaying CdSe QD and a short-lived organic dye were analyzed, and a model was developed for the quantification of these labels from the measured complex decay kinetics as a first proof-of-concept for the huge potential of these labels for lifetime multiplexing. In a second step, we evaluated the potential of mixtures of two types of QDs, varying in constituent material to realize distinguishable, yet multiexponential decay kinetics and similar absorption and emission spectra. Strategies for lifetime multiplexing with nanocrystalline labels were derived on the basis of these measurements.

  17. Multiplex biosensor immunoassays for antibiotics in the food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals may result in unwanted residues in food products. The main objective of the present research was to study the development and application of fast and automated multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassays (BIAs), based on

  18. Cascaded wavelength division multiplexing for byte-wide optical interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J.; Garrett, H. E.; Germelos, S.; Haigh,R. E.; Henderer, B. D.; Lowry, M. E.; Walker, J.D.

    1997-11-17

    We demonstrate a wavelength division multiplexing approach for byte-wide optical interconnects over multimode fiber optic ribbon cable using filters based on common plastic ferrules. A dual wavelength link with eight cascaded filter stages exhibits bit error rates {le}l0{sup -l4}.

  19. Structure-function clustering in multiplex brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, J. J.; Forrester, M.; O'Dea, R. D.

    2016-10-01

    A key question in neuroscience is to understand how a rich functional repertoire of brain activity arises within relatively static networks of structurally connected neural populations: elucidating the subtle interactions between evoked “functional connectivity” and the underlying “structural connectivity” has the potential to address this. These structural-functional networks (and neural networks more generally) are more naturally described using a multilayer or multiplex network approach, in favour of standard single-layer network analyses that are more typically applied to such systems. In this letter, we address such issues by exploring important structure-function relations in the Macaque cortical network by modelling it as a duplex network that comprises an anatomical layer, describing the known (macro-scale) network topology of the Macaque monkey, and a functional layer derived from simulated neural activity. We investigate and characterize correlations between structural and functional layers, as system parameters controlling simulated neural activity are varied, by employing recently described multiplex network measures. Moreover, we propose a novel measure of multiplex structure-function clustering which allows us to investigate the emergence of functional connections that are distinct from the underlying cortical structure, and to highlight the dependence of multiplex structure on the neural dynamical regime.

  20. Barcoded Primers Used in Multiplex Amplicon Pyrosequencing Bias Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    “Barcode-tagged” PCR primers used for multiplex amplicon sequencing generate a thus-far-overlooked amplification bias that produces variable terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and pyrosequencing data from the same environmental DNA template. We propose a simple two-step PCR approach that increases reproducibility and consistently recovers higher genetic diversity in pyrosequencing libraries.

  1. A Practical Detection System of Multiplexed Wavelength Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A practical demodulation of multiplexed wavelength FBGs is proposed. The detection wavelength of adjacent FBGs and the wavelength resolution are discussed. Experimental results show the wavelength resolution is 0.01nm and strain resolution is 8.27× 10-6.

  2. All-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to an all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter for generating an OFDM output signal. The transmitter comprises a first time-domain optical Fourier transform (OFT) assembly, the first OFT assembly is of a K-D-K configuration and comprises...

  3. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  4. Multiplexing of spatial modes in the mid-IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailele, Lucas; Maweza, Loyiso; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Rosales-Guzman, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Traditional optical communication systems optimize multiplexing in polarization and wavelength both trans- mitted in fiber and free-space to attain high bandwidth data communication. Yet despite these technologies, we are expected to reach a bandwidth ceiling in the near future. Communications using orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying modes offers infinite dimensional states, providing means to increase link capacity by multiplexing spatially overlapping modes in both the azimuthal and radial degrees of freedom. OAM modes are multiplexed and de-multiplexed by the use of spatial light modulators (SLM). Implementation of complex amplitude modulation is employed on laser beams phase and amplitude to generate Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes. Modal decomposition is employed to detect these modes due to their orthogonality as they propagate in space. We demonstrate data transfer by sending images as a proof-of concept in a lab-based scheme. We demonstrate the creation and detection of OAM modes in the mid-IR region as a precursor to a mid-IR free-space communication link.

  5. Multiplexed operation of a micromachined ultrasonic droplet ejector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2007-10-01

    A dual-sample ultrasonic droplet ejector array is developed for use as a soft-ionization ion source for multiplexed mass spectrometry (MS). Such a multiplexed ion source aims to reduce MS analysis time for multiple analyte streams, as well as allow for the synchronized ejection of the sample(s) and an internal standard for quantitative results and mass calibration. Multiplexing is achieved at the device level by division of the fluid reservoir and separating the active electrodes of the piezoelectric transducer for isolated application of ultrasonic wave energy to each domain. The transducer is mechanically shaped to further reduce the acoustical crosstalk between the domains. Device design is performed using finite-element analysis simulations and supported by experimental characterization. Isolated ejection of approximately 5 microm diameter water droplets from individual domains in the micromachined droplet ejector array at around 1 MHz frequency is demonstrated by experiments. The proof-of-concept demonstration using a dual-sample device also shows potential for multiplexing with larger numbers of analytes.

  6. Role of multiplex polymerase chain reaction in diagnosing tubercular meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Berwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is one of the most serious manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Timely and accurate diagnosis provides a favorable prognosis in patients with TBM. The study evaluated the use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of TBM. A study was conducted on 74 patients clinically suspected with TBM. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF specimens were processed for smear microscopy, middle brook 7H9 culture, and multiplex PCR using primers directed against IS6110 gene and 38 kD protein for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results were analyzed to assess the role of multiplex PCR in the diagnosis of TBM. A total of 26 (35.1% patients were diagnosed with TBM. Microscopy was negative in all while culture was positive in two cases only. Comparing with clinical diagnosis and CSF adenosine deaminase levels of ≥10 U/L, multiplex PCR showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 71.4%, 89.6%, 83.3%, and 81.2%, respectively, in the diagnosis of TBM.

  7. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with diversity for future wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Khoa N

    2012-01-01

    The book examines several aspects of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) employing linear diversity techniques such as inter-carrier interference, bit error rate, peak to average power and inter-block interference. It should be a useful reference for readers interested in modern wireless communication systems.

  8. Steroid responsive mononeuritis multiplex in the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YL Lo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS is a rare disorder of unknown origin characterized by generalized gastrointestinal polyposis, alopecia, hyperpigmentation and onychodystrophy. We report a case of CCS with concomitant presentation of mononeuritis multiplex. The electrophysiological findings and steroid responsiveness suggests presence of an autoimmune mechanism.

  9. Towards effective visual analytics on multiplex and multilayer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Luca; Magnani, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss visualisation strategies for multiplex networks. Since Moreno’s early works on network analysis, visualisation has been one of the main ways to understand networks thanks to its ability to summarise a complex structure into a single representation highlighting multiple ...

  10. Robust and Flexible Wavelength Division Multiplexed Optical Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Grobe, Klaus

    Future wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) access networks should be as flexible as possible. One flexibility is port wavelength-agnosticism at the optical network unit (ONU) interface, achieved via tunable laser. At the same time such systems needs to be robust against crosstalk impairments...

  11. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction tests for detection of pathogens associated with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Morrison, Scott; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2015-06-01

    A wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic algorithms are time-consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. Advances in molecular technology have provided new clinical diagnostic tools. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing has been used in gastroenterology diagnostics in recent years. This article presents a review of recent laboratory-developed multiplex PCR tests and current commercial multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen tests. It focuses on two commercial syndromic multiplex tests: Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel and BioFire FilmArray gastrointestinal test. Multiplex PCR tests have shown superior sensitivity to conventional methods for detection of most pathogens.

  12. Massively multiplexed microbial identification using resequencing DNA microarrays for outbreak investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, T. A.; Ansumana, R.; Jimmy, D. H.; Bangura, U.; Malanoski, A. P.; Lin, B.; Stenger, D. A.

    2011-06-01

    Multiplexed microbial diagnostic assays are a promising method for detection and identification of pathogens causing syndromes characterized by nonspecific symptoms in which traditional differential diagnosis is difficult. Also such assays can play an important role in outbreak investigations and environmental screening for intentional or accidental release of biothreat agents, which requires simultaneous testing for hundreds of potential pathogens. The resequencing pathogen microarray (RPM) is an emerging technological platform, relying on a combination of massively multiplex PCR and high-density DNA microarrays for rapid detection and high-resolution identification of hundreds of infectious agents simultaneously. The RPM diagnostic system was deployed in Sierra Leone, West Africa in collaboration with Njala University and Mercy Hospital Research Laboratory located in Bo. We used the RPM-Flu microarray designed for broad-range detection of human respiratory pathogens, to investigate a suspected outbreak of avian influenza in a number of poultry farms in which significant mortality of chickens was observed. The microarray results were additionally confirmed by influenza specific real-time PCR. The results of the study excluded the possibility that the outbreak was caused by influenza, but implicated Klebsiella pneumoniae as a possible pathogen. The outcome of this feasibility study confirms that application of broad-spectrum detection platforms for outbreak investigation in low-resource locations is possible and allows for rapid discovery of the responsible agents, even in cases when different agents are suspected. This strategy enables quick and cost effective detection of low probability events such as outbreak of a rare disease or intentional release of a biothreat agent.

  13. Comparative evaluation of six commercialized multiplex PCR kits for the diagnosis of respiratory infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Pillet

    Full Text Available The molecular diagnosis of respiratory infection can be performed using different commercial multiplex-based PCR kits whose performances have been previously compared individually to those of conventional techniques. This study compared the practicability and the diagnostic performances of six CE-marked kits available in 2011 on the French market, including 2 detecting viruses and atypical bacteria (from Pathofinder and Seegene companies and 4 detecting only viruses (from Abbott, Genomica, Qiagen and Seegene companies. The respective sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and agreement of each multiplex technique were calculated by comparison to commercial duplex PCR tests (Argene/bioMérieux used as gold standard. Eighty-eight respiratory specimens with no pathogen (n = 11, single infections (n = 33 or co-infections (n = 44 were selected to cover 9 viruses or groups of viruses and 3 atypical bacteria. All samples were extracted using the NUCLISENS® easyMAG™ instrument (bioMérieux. The overall sensitivity ranged from 56.25% to 91.67% for viruses and was below 50% with both tests for bacteria. The overall specificity was excellent (>94% for all pathogens. For each tested kit, the overall agreement with the reference test was strong for viruses (kappa test >0.60 and moderate for bacteria. After the extraction step, the hands-on time varied from 50 min to 2h30 and the complete results were available in 2h30 to 9 h. The spectrum of tested agents and the technology used to reveal the PCR products as well as the laboratory organization are determinant for the selection of a kit.

  14. Multiplexed Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay To Detect Intestinal Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crannell, Zachary; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Nair, Gayatri; Mejia, Rojelio; White, A Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    This work describes a proof-of-concept multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay with lateral flow readout that is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating DNA from any of the diarrhea-causing protozoa Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. Together, these parasites contribute significantly to the global burden of diarrheal illness. Differential diagnosis of these parasites is traditionally accomplished via stool microscopy. However, microscopy is insensitive and can miss up to half of all cases. DNA-based diagnostics such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are far more sensitive; however, they rely on expensive thermal cycling equipment, limiting their availability to centralized reference laboratories. Isothermal DNA amplification platforms, such as the RPA platform used in this study, alleviate the need for thermal cycling equipment and have the potential to broaden access to more sensitive diagnostics. Until now, multiplex RPA assays have not been developed that are capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating infections caused by different pathogens. We developed a multiplex RPA assay to detect the presence of DNA from Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. The multiplex assay was characterized using synthetic DNA, where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 403, 425, and 368 gene copies per reaction of the synthetic Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba targets, respectively (roughly 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than for the same targets in a singleplex RPA assay). The multiplex assay was also characterized using DNA extracted from live parasites spiked into stool samples where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 444, 6, and 9 parasites per reaction for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba parasites, respectively. This proof-of-concept assay may be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of targets by re-designing the primer and probe sequences.

  15. Mesoscopic Structures Reveal the Network Between the Layers of Multiplex Datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex networks describe a large variety of complex systems, whose elements (nodes) can be connected by different types of interactions forming different layers (networks) of the multiplex. Multiplex networks include social networks, transportation networks or biological networks in the cell or in the brain. Extracting relevant information from these networks is of crucial importance for solving challenging inference problems and for characterizing the multiplex networks microscopic and mesoscopic structure. Here we propose an information theory method to extract the network between the layers of multiplex datasets, forming a "network of networks". We build an indicator function, based on the entropy of network ensembles, to characterize the mesoscopic similarities between the layers of a multiplex network and we use clustering techniques to characterize the communities present in this network of networks. We apply the proposed method to study the Multiplex Collaboration Network formed by scientists collab...

  16. On-chip two-mode division multiplexing using tapered directional coupler-based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing; Da Ros, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    ), and large fabrication tolerance (20 nm) are measured. An on-chip mode multiplexing experiment is carried out on the fabricated circuit with non return-to-zero (NRZ) on-off keying (OOK) signals at 40 Gbit/s. The experimental results show clear eye diagrams and moderate power penalty for both TE0 and TE1...

  17. Multiplexing technique using amplitude-modulated chirped fibre Bragg gratings with applications in two-parameter sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Allan C. L.; Childs, Paul A.; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2007-11-01

    A multiplexing technique using amplitude-modulated chirped fibre Bragg gratings (AMCFBGs) is presented. This technique realises the multiplexing of spectrally overlapped AMCFBGs with identical centre Bragg wavelength and bandwidth. Since it is fully compatible with the wavelength division multiplexing scheme, the number of gratings that can be multiplexed can be increased by several times. The discrete wavelet transform is used to demodulate such multiplexed signal. A wavelet denoising technique is applied to the multiplexed signal in conjunction with the demodulation. Strain measurements are performed to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of this multiplexing technique. The absolute error and crosstalk are measured. An application to simultaneous two-parameter sensing is also demonstrated.

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... factors that may put children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. More E-mail ...

  19. The CMBR spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, A.

    1997-05-01

    Here we give an introduction to the observed spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) and discuss what can be learned about it. Particular attention will be given to how Compton scattering can distort the spectrum of the CMBR. An incomplete bibliography of relevant papers is also provided.

  20. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  2. Wave Reflection Coefficient Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞聿修; 邵利民; 柳淑学

    2003-01-01

    The wave reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and directional spectrum for concrete face slope breakwaters and rubble mound breakwaters are investigated through physical model tests in the present study. The reflection coefficients of oblique irregular waves are analyzed by the Modified Two-Point Method (MTPM) proposed by the authors. The results show that the wave reflection coefficient decreases with increasing wave frequency and incident angle or decreasing structure slope. The reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and its variation with Iribarren number are given in this paper. The paper also suggests an empirical 3-dimensional reflection coefficient spectrum, i.e. reflection coefficient directional spectrum, which can be used to illustrate quantitatively the variation of reflection coefficient with the incident angle and the Iribarren number for oblique irregular waves.

  3. Evaluation of a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay STDFinder for the simultaneous detection of 7 sexually transmitted disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Dhont, Nathalie; Verhelst, Rita; Crucitti, Tania; Reijans, Martin; Mulders, Brit; Simons, Guus; Temmerman, Marleen; Claeys, Geert; Padalko, Elizaveta

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), "STDFinder assay", a novel multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for the simultaneous detection of 7 clinically relevant pathogens of STDs, i.e., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). An internal amplification control was included in the mPCR reaction. The limits of detection for the STDFinder assay varied among the 7 target organisms from 1 to 20 copies per MLPA assay. There were no cross-reactions among any of the probes. Two hundred and forty-two vaginal swabs and an additional 80 specimens with known results for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, obtained from infertile women seen at an infertility research clinic at the Kigali Teaching Hospital in Rwanda, were tested by STDFinder assay and the results were confirmed by single real-time PCR using different species-specific targets. Compared to the reference standard, the STDFinder assay showed specificities and sensitivities of 100% and 100%, respectively, for N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium; 90.2% and 100%, respectively, for Trichomonas vaginalis; and 96.1% and 100%, respectively, for HSV-2. No specimen was found to be positive for HSV-1 by either the STDFinder assay or the comparator method. Similarly, the sensitivity for Treponema pallidum could not be calculated due to the absence of any Treponema pallidum-positive samples. In conclusion, the STDFinder assays have comparable clinical sensitivity to the conventional mono and duplex real-time PCR assay and are suitable for the routine detection of a broad spectrum of these STDs at relatively low cost due to multiplexing.

  4. Single-tube multiplexed molecular detection of endemic porcine viruses in combination with background screening for transboundary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Detection of several pathogens with multiplexed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays in a one-step setup allows the simultaneous detection of two endemic porcine and four different selected transboundary viruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR systems for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), two of the most economically important pathogens of swine worldwide, were combined with a screening system for diseases notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health, namely, classical and African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and Aujeszky's disease. Background screening was implemented using the identical fluorophore for all four different RT-qPCR assays. The novel multiplex RT-qPCR system was validated with a large panel of different body fluids and tissues from pigs and other animal species. Both reference samples and clinical specimens were used for a complete evaluation. It could be demonstrated that a highly sensitive and specific parallel detection of the different viruses was possible. The assays for the notifiable diseases were even not affected by the simultaneous amplification of very high loads of PRRSV- and PCV2-specific sequences. The novel broad-spectrum multiplex assay allows in a unique form the routine investigation for endemic porcine pathogens with exclusion diagnostics of the most important transboundary diseases in samples from pigs with unspecific clinical signs, such as fever or hemorrhages. The new system could significantly improve early detection of the most important notifiable diseases of swine and could lead to a new approach in syndromic surveillance.

  5. Spatio-angularly multiplexed (SAM) holographic storage in photorefractive crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan

    In this thesis a novel multiplexing scheme for dense holographic storage in photorefractive crystals, Spatio-Angular Multiplexing (or SAM), is described in detail. In SAM Fourier transform holograms are formed in spatially overlapping regions of a crystal and are distinguished from one another by using variously angled reference beams. SAM takes advantage of both the high storage density possible using angularly multiplexed volume holograms and also the low crosstalk possible using spatially multiplexed Fourier transform holograms. Compared to pure spatial multiplexing, SAM increases the storage capacity by fully utilising the volume of the storage medium. On the other hand, SAM reduces the number of holograms overlapping any one hologram in a given volume, and so increases the diffraction efficiency achievable as compared to pure angular multiplexing. SAM offers the possibility of incorporating the recorded crystal into a content addressable memory (CAM) system for parallel access of all stored patterns. In order to obtain the maximum diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio, the hologram must be replayed by a readout beam incident at the correct angle of readout beam. The optimum angle may be shifted away from the angle used in recording by a ''Bragg-shift", caused (under certain conditions) by phase coupling between the two writing beams during recording. Although this Bragg shift is small, a large diffraction efficiency enhancement is obtained when the grating is read out at the optimum angle. We have calculated the Bragg shift, using a numerical calculation based on an earlier theory, and have obtained good agreement with experiment. Using the novel SAM scheme, we have succeeded in storing 756 high resolution binary patterns in an Fe:LiNbO3 crystal of volume 1cm3, with an average diffraction efficiency of 0.5%. This large database is designed for practical use in a novel associative memory system, called a high order feedback neural network (HOFNET

  6. Optimization of a spectrum splitter using differential evolution algorithm for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Faryad, Muhammad; Barber, Greg D.; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Monk, Peter B.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-01-01

    A spectrum splitter can be used to spatially multiplex different solar cells that have high efficiency in mutually exclusive parts of the solar spectrum. We investigated the use of a grating, comprising an array of dielectric cylinders embedded in a dielectric slab, for specularly transmitting one part of the solar spectrum while the other part is transmitted nonspecularly and the total reflectance is very low. A combination of (1) the rigorous coupled-wave approach for computing the reflection and transmission coefficients of the grating and (2) the differential evolution algorithm for optimizing the grating geometry and the refractive indices of dielectric materials was devised as a design tool. We used this tool to optimize two candidate gratings and obtained definite improvements to the initial guesses for the structural and constitutive parameters. Significant spectrum splitting can be achieved if the angle of incidence does not exceed 15 deg.

  7. Probability-consistent spectrum and code spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建文; 石树中

    2004-01-01

    In the seismic safety evaluation (SSE) for key projects, the probability-consistent spectrum (PCS), usually obtained from probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), is not consistent with the design response spectrum given by Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (GB50011-2001). Sometimes, there may be a remarkable difference between them. If the PCS is lower than the corresponding code design response spectrum (CDS), the seismic fortification criterion for the key projects would be lower than that for the general industry and civil buildings. In the paper, the relation between PCS and CDS is discussed by using the ideal simple potential seismic source. The results show that in the most areas influenced mainly by the potential sources of the epicentral earthquakes and the regional earthquakes, PCS is generally lower than CDS in the long periods. We point out that the long-period response spectra of the code should be further studied and combined with the probability method of seismic zoning as much as possible. Because of the uncertainties in SSE, it should be prudent to use the long-period response spectra given by SSE for key projects when they are lower than CDS.

  8. Differential requirements of singleplex and multiplex recombineering of large DNA constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Thimma R; Kelsall, Emma J; Fevat, Léna M S; Munson, Sarah E; Cowley, Shaun M

    2015-01-01

    Recombineering is an in vivo genetic engineering technique involving homologous recombination mediated by phage recombination proteins. The use of recombineering methodology is not limited by size and sequence constraints and therefore has enabled the streamlined construction of bacterial strains and multi-component plasmids. Recombineering applications commonly utilize singleplex strategies and the parameters are extensively tested. However, singleplex recombineering is not suitable for the modification of several loci in genome recoding and strain engineering exercises, which requires a multiplex recombineering design. Defining the main parameters affecting multiplex efficiency especially the insertion of multiple large genes is necessary to enable efficient large-scale modification of the genome. Here, we have tested different recombineering operational parameters of the lambda phage Red recombination system and compared singleplex and multiplex recombineering of large gene sized DNA cassettes. We have found that optimal multiplex recombination required long homology lengths in excess of 120 bp. However, efficient multiplexing was possible with only 60 bp of homology. Multiplex recombination was more limited by lower amounts of DNA than singleplex recombineering and was greatly enhanced by use of phosphorothioate protection of DNA. Exploring the mechanism of multiplexing revealed that efficient recombination required co-selection of an antibiotic marker and the presence of all three Red proteins. Building on these results, we substantially increased multiplex efficiency using an ExoVII deletion strain. Our findings elucidate key differences between singleplex and multiplex recombineering and provide important clues for further improving multiplex recombination efficiency.

  9. Differential requirements of singleplex and multiplex recombineering of large DNA constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimma R Reddy

    Full Text Available Recombineering is an in vivo genetic engineering technique involving homologous recombination mediated by phage recombination proteins. The use of recombineering methodology is not limited by size and sequence constraints and therefore has enabled the streamlined construction of bacterial strains and multi-component plasmids. Recombineering applications commonly utilize singleplex strategies and the parameters are extensively tested. However, singleplex recombineering is not suitable for the modification of several loci in genome recoding and strain engineering exercises, which requires a multiplex recombineering design. Defining the main parameters affecting multiplex efficiency especially the insertion of multiple large genes is necessary to enable efficient large-scale modification of the genome. Here, we have tested different recombineering operational parameters of the lambda phage Red recombination system and compared singleplex and multiplex recombineering of large gene sized DNA cassettes. We have found that optimal multiplex recombination required long homology lengths in excess of 120 bp. However, efficient multiplexing was possible with only 60 bp of homology. Multiplex recombination was more limited by lower amounts of DNA than singleplex recombineering and was greatly enhanced by use of phosphorothioate protection of DNA. Exploring the mechanism of multiplexing revealed that efficient recombination required co-selection of an antibiotic marker and the presence of all three Red proteins. Building on these results, we substantially increased multiplex efficiency using an ExoVII deletion strain. Our findings elucidate key differences between singleplex and multiplex recombineering and provide important clues for further improving multiplex recombination efficiency.

  10. Remote (250 km Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lopez-Amo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system.

  11. A Time-Multiplexed Track-Trigger architecture for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Geoffrey; Pesaresi, Mark Franco; Rose, A

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Tracker under development for the High Luminosity LHC includes an outer tracker based on ``PT-modules'' which will provide track stubs based on coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, aiming to reject low transverse momentum track hits before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with data originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data is still an open question. One attractive option is to explore a Time Multiplexed design similar to one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The Time Multiplexed Trigger concept is explained, the potential benefits of applying it for processing future tracker data are described and a possible design based on cur...

  12. Dynamic multiplexed analysis method using ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA

    2010-05-18

    A method for multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer in which the effectiveness and efficiency of the multiplexed method is optimized by automatically adjusting rates of passage of analyte materials through an IMS drift tube during operation of the system. This automatic adjustment is performed by the IMS instrument itself after determining the appropriate levels of adjustment according to the method of the present invention. In one example, the adjustment of the rates of passage for these materials is determined by quantifying the total number of analyte molecules delivered to the ion trap in a preselected period of time, comparing this number to the charge capacity of the ion trap, selecting a gate opening sequence; and implementing the selected gate opening sequence to obtain a preselected rate of analytes within said IMS drift tube.

  13. Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Peter De B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer

    2002-07-01

    The topics of experimental design and modeling are important for inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. Many general chemistry and quantitative analysis courses introduce students to spreadsheet programs, such as MS Excel. Students in the laboratory sections of these courses use titrimetry as a quantitative measurement method. Unfortunately, the only model that students may be exposed to in introductory chemistry courses is the working curve that uses the linear model. A novel experiment based on a multiplex model has been devised for titrating several vinegar samples at a time. The multiplex titration can be applied to many other routine determinations. An experimental design model is fit to titrimetric measurements using the MS Excel LINEST function to estimate concentration from each sample. This experiment provides valuable lessons in error analysis, Class A glassware tolerances, experimental simulation, statistics, modeling, and experimental design.

  14. Novel Quaternary Quantum Decoder, Multiplexer and Demultiplexer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2017-05-01

    Multiple valued logic is a promising approach to reduce the width of the reversible or quantum circuits, moreover, quaternary logic is considered as being a good choice for future quantum computing technology hence it is very suitable for the encoded realization of binary logic functions through its grouping of 2-bits together into quaternary values. The Quaternary decoder, multiplexer, and demultiplexer are essential units of quaternary digital systems. In this paper, we have initially designed a quantum realization of the quaternary decoder circuit using quaternary 1-qudit gates and quaternary Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates. Then we have presented quantum realization of quaternary multiplexer and demultiplexer circuits using the constructed quaternary decoder circuit and quaternary controlled Feynman gates. The suggested circuits in this paper have a lower quantum cost and hardware complexity than the existing designs that are currently used in quaternary digital systems. All the scales applied in this paper are based on Nanometric area.

  15. A layer reduction based community detection algorithm on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Detecting hidden communities is important for the analysis of complex networks. However, many algorithms have been designed for single layer networks (SLNs) while just a few approaches have been designed for multiplex networks (MNs). In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on layer reduction for detecting communities on MNs, which is termed as LRCD-MNs. First, we improve a layer reduction algorithm termed as neighaggre to combine similar layers and keep others separated. Then, we use neighaggre to find the community structure hidden in MNs. Experiments on real-life networks show that neighaggre can obtain higher relative entropy than the other algorithm. Moreover, we apply LRCD-MNs on some real-life and synthetic multiplex networks and the results demonstrate that, although LRCD-MNs does not have the advantage in terms of modularity, it can obtain higher values of surprise, which is used to evaluate the quality of partitions of a network.

  16. Novel Quaternary Quantum Decoder, Multiplexer and Demultiplexer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2017-02-01

    Multiple valued logic is a promising approach to reduce the width of the reversible or quantum circuits, moreover, quaternary logic is considered as being a good choice for future quantum computing technology hence it is very suitable for the encoded realization of binary logic functions through its grouping of 2-bits together into quaternary values. The Quaternary decoder, multiplexer, and demultiplexer are essential units of quaternary digital systems. In this paper, we have initially designed a quantum realization of the quaternary decoder circuit using quaternary 1-qudit gates and quaternary Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates. Then we have presented quantum realization of quaternary multiplexer and demultiplexer circuits using the constructed quaternary decoder circuit and quaternary controlled Feynman gates. The suggested circuits in this paper have a lower quantum cost and hardware complexity than the existing designs that are currently used in quaternary digital systems. All the scales applied in this paper are based on Nanometric area.

  17. Efficient Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed Entangled Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min

    2016-12-01

    We present two schemes to generate frequency-multiplexed entangled (FME) single photons by coherently mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory based on Raman interactions. By splitting a single photon and performing subsequent state transfer, we separate the generation of entanglement and its frequency conversion, and find that the both progresses have the characteristic of inherent determinacy. Our theory can reproduce the prominent features of observed results including pulse shapes and the condition for deterministically generating the FME single photons. The schemes are suitable for the entangled photon pairs with a wider frequency range, and could be immune to the photon loss originating from cavity-mode damping, spontaneous emission, and the dephasing due to atomic thermal motion. The sources might have significant applications in wavelength-division-multiplexing quantum key distribution.

  18. Simultaneous detection of bee viruses by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sguazza, Guillermo Hernán; Reynaldi, Francisco José; Galosi, Cecilia Mónica; Pecoraro, Marcelo Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    Honey bee mortality is a serious problem that beekeepers in Argentina have had to face during the last 3 years. It is known that the consequence of the complex interactions between environmental and beekeeping parameters added to the effect of different disease agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasitic mites may result in a sudden collapse of the colony. In addition, multiple viral infections are detected frequently concomitantly in bee colonies. The aim of this study was to establish a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for rapid and simultaneous detection of the most prevalent bee viruses. This multiplex PCR assay will provide specific, rapid and reliable results and allow for the cost effective detection of a particular virus as well as multiple virus infections in a single reaction tube. This method could be a helpful tool in the surveillance of the most frequently found bee viruses and to study the dynamics and the interactions of the virus populations within colonies.

  19. Growing Multiplex Networks with Arbitrary Number of Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Fotouhi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of growing multiplex networks. Currently, the results on the inter-layer degree distribution of growing multiplex networks present in the literature pertain to the case of two layers, and are confined to the special case of homogeneous growth. In the present paper, we obtain closed-form solutions for the inter-layer degree distribution of heterogeneously growing multilayer networks with arbitrary number of layers in the steady state. Heterogeneous growth means that each incoming node establishes different numbers of links in different layers. We first briefly consider the problem for two layers: we consider the cases of preferential attachment and uniform attachment separately, and we obtain closed-form expressions for the inter-layer degree distribution and expected degree distributions in each layer. Then for both attachment schemes, we generalize the problem to $M$ layers, and provide solutions for the joint degree distribution across all layers.

  20. Bridging Online and Offline Social Networks: Multiplex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Filiposka, Sonja; Dimitrova, Tamara; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    We show that three basic actor characteristics, namely normalized reciprocity, three cycles, and triplets, can be expressed using an unified framework that is based on computing the similarity index between two sets associated with the actor: the set of her/his friends and the set of those considering her/him as a friend. These metrics are extended to multiplex networks and then computed for two friendship networks generated by collecting data from two groups of undergraduate students. We found that in offline communication strong and weak ties are (almost) equally presented, while in online communication weak ties are dominant. Moreover, weak ties are much less reciprocal than strong ties. However, across different layers of the multiplex network reciprocities are preserved, while triads (measured with normalized three cycles and triplets) are not significant.

  1. Multiplex engineering of industrial yeast genomes using CRISPRm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Owen W; Cate, Jamie H D

    2014-01-01

    Global demand has driven the use of industrial strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for large-scale production of biofuels and renewable chemicals. However, the genetic basis of desired domestication traits is poorly understood because robust genetic tools do not exist for industrial hosts. We present an efficient, marker-free, high-throughput, and multiplexed genome editing platform for industrial strains of S. cerevisiae that uses plasmid-based expression of the CRISPR/Cas9 endonuclease and multiple ribozyme-protected single guide RNAs. With this multiplex CRISPR (CRISPRm) system, it is possible to integrate DNA libraries into the chromosome for evolution experiments, and to engineer multiple loci simultaneously. The CRISPRm tools should therefore find use in many higher-order synthetic biology applications to accelerate improvements in industrial microorganisms.

  2. Interplay of Delay and multiplexing: Impact on Cluster Synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aradhana; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Communication delays and multiplexing are ubiquitous features of real-world networked systems. We here introduce a simple model where these two features are simultaneously present, and report the rich phe- nomenology which is actually due to their interplay on cluster synchronization. A delay in one layer has non trivial impacts on the collective dynamics of the other layers, enhancing or suppressing synchronization. At the same time, multiplexing may also enhance cluster synchronization of delayed layers. We elucidate several non trivial (and anti-intuitive) scenarios, which are of interest and potential application in various real-world systems, where introduction of a delay may render synchronization of a layer robust against changes in the properties of the other layers.

  3. Research on copying system of dynamic multiplex holographic stereograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaiping; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Tong

    2003-05-01

    The most important advantage of holographic stereograms over conventional hologram is that they can produce 3D images at any desired scale with movement, holographers in many countries involved in the studies towards it. We began our works in the early 80's and accomplished two research projects automatic system for making synthetic holograms and multiplex synthetic rainbow holograms, Based on these works, a large scale holographic stereogram of an animated goldfish was made by us for practical advertisement. In order to meet the needs of the market, a copying system for making multiplex holographic stereograms, and a special kind of silver halide holographic film developed by us recently. The characteristic of the copying system and the property of the special silver-halide emulsion are introduced in this paper.

  4. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Multiplexing Techniques: Evaluation of Photonic Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Daykin

    2012-05-24

    This poster reports progress related to photonic technologies. Specifically, the authors developed diagnostic system architecture for a Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (MPDV) that incorporates frequency and time-division multiplexing into existing PDV methodology to provide increased channel count. Current MPDV design increases number of data records per digitizer channel 8x, and also operates as a laser-safe (Class 3a) system. Further, they applied heterodyne interferometry to allow for direction-of-travel determination and enable high-velocity measurements (>10 km/s) via optical downshifting. They also leveraged commercially available, inexpensive and robust components originally developed for telecom applications. Proposed MPDV architectures employ only commercially available, fiber-coupled hardware.

  5. Multiplexed communication over a high-speed quantum channel

    CERN Document Server

    Heurs, M; Dunlop, A E; Harb, C C; Ralph, T C; Huntington, E H

    2010-01-01

    In quantum information systems it is of particular interest to consider the best way in which to use the non-classical resources consumed by that system. Quantum communication protocols are integral to quantum information systems and are amongst the most promising near-term applications of quantum information science. Here we show that a multiplexed, digital quantum communications system supported by comb of vacuum squeezing has a greater channel capacity per photon than a source of broadband squeezing with the same analogue bandwidth. We report on the time-resolved, simultaneous observation of the first dozen teeth in a 2.4 GHz comb of vacuum squeezing produced by a sub-threshold OPO, as required for such a quantum communications channel. We also demonstrate multiplexed communication on that channel.

  6. Multiplexed Predictive Control of a Large Commercial Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, hanz; Singaraju, Anil; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2008-01-01

    Model predictive control is a strategy well-suited to handle the highly complex, nonlinear, uncertain, and constrained dynamics involved in aircraft engine control problems. However, it has thus far been infeasible to implement model predictive control in engine control applications, because of the combination of model complexity and the time allotted for the control update calculation. In this paper, a multiplexed implementation is proposed that dramatically reduces the computational burden of the quadratic programming optimization that must be solved online as part of the model-predictive-control algorithm. Actuator updates are calculated sequentially and cyclically in a multiplexed implementation, as opposed to the simultaneous optimization taking place in conventional model predictive control. Theoretical aspects are discussed based on a nominal model, and actual computational savings are demonstrated using a realistic commercial engine model.

  7. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System with Frequency Offset Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghashree D.Nimje

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM system, use a large number of parallel narrowband subcarriers instead of a single wide-band carrier to transport information. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is the modulation technique use in digital communication systems . Carrier frequency offset occurs due to Doppler effect or noise. Carrier frequency offsets (CFOs is the Offset between the transmitter and the receiver oscillators .CFO damages the orthogonality of the carries ,resulting in degradation of the systems performance. Carrier frequency offset estimation method is discussed in this paper. In this paper one complex training sequence use, which can effectively estimate carrier frequency offset in the time domain and frequency domain. Here fine and coarse frequency is estimated to improve the improve the system performance. This paper shows the estimation range for frequency offset can be improve to large extent..

  8. Multiplexed entangled photon sources for all fiber quantum networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yin-Hai Li Zhi-Yuan; Xu, Li-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal of quantum information science is to build a global quantum network, which enables quantum resources to be distributed and shared between remote parties. Such quantum network can be realized by all fiber elements, which takes advantage of low transmission loss,low cost, scalable and mutual fiber communication techniques such as dense wavelength division multiplexing. Therefore high quality entangled photon sources based on fibers are on demanding for building up such kind of quantum network. Here we report multiplexed polarization and timebin entanglement photon sources based on dispersion shifted fiber operating at room temperature. High qualities of entanglement are characterized by using interference, Bell inequality and quantum state tomography. Simultaneous presence of entanglements in multichannel pairs of a 100GHz DWDM shows the great capacity for entanglements distribution over multi-users. Our research provides a versatile platform and moves a first step toward constructing an all f...

  9. Capacity of arbitrary-order orbital angular momentum multiplexing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Zhong, Xin; Ren, Guanghui; He, Shengyang; Wu, Zhilu

    2017-03-01

    Arbitrary-order orbital angular momentum multiplexing (AOAMM) systems utilize OAM modes with both integer and fractional topological charges which are non-orthogonal. In this paper, the transmission matrix and the capacity per unit bandwidth, i.e., the spectral efficiency (SE) of an AOAMM system is derived based on the spatial cross correlations of the OAM submodes under different aperture conditions. The results show that in limited apertures, the SEs of AOAMM systems increase dramatically as the interval of two adjacent OAM submodes decreases by losing orthogonality. AOAMM systems are effective choices for satisfying the explosive growth of the communication requirements. This paper provides insight into the selection of spatially multiplexing approaches and the design of interference mitigation techniques for AOAMM systems with increased SEs.

  10. Photonic digital-to-analog conversion based on wavelength multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuna; Hu, Miao; Chi, Hao; Li, Qiliang

    2017-10-01

    A novel photonic digital-to-analog conversion (PDAC) scheme, which is based on optical intensity weighting and multiplexing/summing of different wavelengths, is proposed. The employment of wavelength multiplexing in the system, which conducts the function of modulated light intensity summation, greatly simplifies the system complexity and improves the conversion speed/accuracy limited by large-area photo-detectors and associated electronics. A 4-bit PDAC with a conversion speed of 10 GS/s demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed scheme. In addition, the performance degradation induced by the limited extinction ratios of the applied electro-optic modulators, the synchronization errors among different wavelength channels, and the bit resolutions of the built system is also discussed.

  11. Epidemic spreading and immunization strategy in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zuzek, Lucila G Alvarez; Braunstein, Lidia A

    2015-01-01

    A more connected world has brought major consequences such as facilitate the spread of diseases all over the world to quickly become epidemics, reason why researchers are concentrated in modeling the propagation of epidemics and outbreaks in Multilayer Networks. In this networks all nodes interact in different layers with different type of links. However, in many scenarios such as in the society, a Multiplex Network framework is not completely suitable since not all individuals participate in all layers. In this paper, we use a partially overlapped Multiplex Network where only a fraction of the individuals are shared by the layers. We develop a mitigation strategy for stopping a disease propagation, considering the Susceptible-Infected-Recover model, in a system consisted by two layers. We consider a random immunization in one of the layers and study the effect of the overlapping fraction in both, the propagation of the disease and the immunization strategy. Using branching theory, we study this scenario theo...

  12. Bridging online and offline social networks: Multiplex analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiposka, Sonja; Gajduk, Andrej; Dimitrova, Tamara; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2017-04-01

    We show that three basic actor characteristics, namely normalized reciprocity, three cycles, and triplets, can be expressed using an unified framework that is based on computing the similarity index between two sets associated with the actor: the set of her/his friends and the set of those considering her/him as a friend. These metrics are extended to multiplex networks and then computed for two friendship networks generated by collecting data from two groups of undergraduate students. We found that in offline communication strong and weak ties are (almost) equally presented, while in online communication weak ties are dominant. Moreover, weak ties are much less reciprocal than strong ties. However, across different layers of the multiplex network reciprocities are preserved, while triads (measured with normalized three cycles and triplets) are not significant.

  13. A high-throughput multiplex method adapted for GMO detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Chupeau, Gaëlle; Berard, Aurélie; McKhann, Heather; Romaniuk, Marcel; Giancola, Sandra; Laval, Valérie; Bertheau, Yves; Brunel, Dominique

    2008-12-24

    A high-throughput multiplex assay for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was developed on the basis of the existing SNPlex method designed for SNP genotyping. This SNPlex assay allows the simultaneous detection of up to 48 short DNA sequences (approximately 70 bp; "signature sequences") from taxa endogenous reference genes, from GMO constructions, screening targets, construct-specific, and event-specific targets, and finally from donor organisms. This assay avoids certain shortcomings of multiplex PCR-based methods already in widespread use for GMO detection. The assay demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity. The results suggest that this assay is reliable, flexible, and cost- and time-effective for high-throughput GMO detection.

  14. Multiplexed displacement fiber sensor using thin core fiber exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Hefferman, Gerald; Wei, Tao

    2015-06-01

    This letter reports a multiplexed optical displacement sensor using a thin core fiber (TCF) exciter. The TCF exciter is followed by a stripped single mode optical fiber. A small section of buffer is used as the movable component along the single mode fiber. Ultra-weak cladding mode reflection (coating boundary. The position change of the movable buffer segment results in a delay change of the cladding mode reflection. Thus, it is a measure of the displacement of the buffer segment with respect to the glass fiber. The insertion loss of one sensor was measured to be less than 3 dB. A linear relationship was evaluated between the measurement position and absolute position of the moving actuator. Multiplexed capability was demonstrated and no cross talk was found between the sensors.

  15. Steatocystoma Multiplex, Treatment With Electrosurgery - A Novel Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri Koushik; Sengupta Sujit R

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of steatocystoma multiplex with the existing modalities of management, is often cumbersome and, sometimes, frustrating. The incisional, excisional and sclerotic methods, all have their limitations. The proposed technique, in the present study, is an improvisation of the incisinal and excisional methods with some modifications by electro surgical techniques. The result is encouraging in almost all the patients with lesions over different regions of their bodies.

  16. Quantum Multiplexer Designing and Optimization applying Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarka Mukhopadhyay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to design efficient quantum multiplexer circuit borrowed from classical computer design. The design will show that it is composed of some Toffole gates or C2NOT gate and some two input CNOT gates. Every C2NOT gate is synthesized and optimized by applying the genetic algorithm to get the best possible combination for the design of these gate circuits.

  17. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Human Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Claudia; Lu, Yan; Higa, Naomi; Nakasone, Noboru; Isabel CHINEN; Baschkier, Ariela; Rivas, Marta; Iwanaga, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for the identification of human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. The targets selected for each category were eae for enteropathogenic E. coli, stx for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, elt and est for enterotoxigenic E. coli, ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli, and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli. This assay allowed the categorization of a diarrheagenic E. coli strain in a single reaction tube.

  18. BAMBUS: a new inelastic multiplexed neutron spectrometer for PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. A.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Čermák, P.; Lake, B.; Schneidewind, A.; Inosov, D. S.

    2015-03-01

    We report on plans for a multiplexed neutron analyser option for the PANDA spectrometer. The key design concept is to have many analysers positioned to give a large coverage in the scattering plane, and multiple arcs of these analysers to measure different energy transfers simultaneously. The main goal is to bring intensity gains and improved reciprocal-space and energy mapping capabilities to the existing cold triple-axis spectrometer.

  19. Multiplex biosensor immunoassays for antibiotics in the food chain

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals may result in unwanted residues in food products. The main objective of the present research was to study the development and application of fast and automated multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassays (BIAs), based on multi-component antibodies and/or combined immunoassays in serially connected flow channels, for the detection of selected antibiotics in the food chain. The scientific challenges to deal with were: t...

  20. Applications of photonic crystal in wavelength multiplex visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shi; Lei, Zhang

    2016-10-01

    The triple-channel photonic crystal filters are proposed designed. These devices have advantages of better filtering effect and high wavelength accuracy. In wavelength multiplex visualization, these filters can bring different wavelength of view entering into eyes so that stereo images are formed. we discuss the problem about minimization of the angle shift .The simulation shows that higher-index material and more high-index material in a basic period can decrease the angle shift.

  1. Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E; Sun, Wenzhi; Tan, Zhongchao; Kerlin, Aaron; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S.; Ji, Na

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed aberration measurement method that modulates the intensity or phase of light rays at multiple pupil segments in parallel to determine their phase gradients. Applicable to fluorescent-protein-labeled structures of arbitrary complexity, it allows us to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in various samples in vivo. For the strongly scattering mouse brain, a single aberration correction improves structural and functional imaging of fine neuronal processes over a large...

  2. Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E.; Sun, Wenzhi; Tan, Zhongchao; Kerlin, Aaron; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S.; Ji, Na

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed aberration measurement method that modulates the intensity or phase of light rays at multiple pupil segments in parallel to determine their phase gradients. Applicable to fluorescent-protein-labeled structures of arbitrary complexity, it allows us to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in various samples in vivo. For the strongly scattering mouse brain, a single aberration correction improves structural and functional imaging of fine neuronal processes over a large imaging volume. PMID:25128976

  3. Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli by multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hegde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrheagenic E.coli (DEC are an important cause of childhood diarrhea.Identification of DEC strains needs to detect factors that determine the virulence of these organisms. There is not much data regarding the importance of DEC as a cause of diarrhea in children in India.The prevalence of DEC in children belowfive years with and without diarrhea was studied using two multiplex PCR assays. Materials and Methods: Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect genes of five types of DEC.The targets selected for each category were eae and bfpA (bundle-forming pilus forEnteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC, hlyA for Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC, elt and stla for Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC, CVD432 for Enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC and ial for Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC. Results: In 200 children with diarrhea 52 (26% DEC infections were found. Among 100 controls 8 (8% DEC infections were found. EAEC was the most common DEC by multiplex PCR both in cases (26, 13%and controls (5,5%, followed byEPEC seen in 16% cases and 3% controls. ETEC and EIEC were found in 7 (3.5% and 3 (1.5% of the diarrheal cases. EIEC and ETEC were not detected in the control cases. EHEC was not isolated from either the diarrheal or control cases. Conclusion: DEC strains are a significant cause of diarrhea in children. The two Multiplex PCR assays can be used for the detection of DEC in routine diagnostic laboratories. These assays are specific and sensitive for the rapid detection of DEC. EAEC was the most frequent pathotype in the population under study.

  4. Time-multiplexed measurements of nonclassical light at telecom wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, G.; Silberhorn, C.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.; Motka, L.; Stoklasa, B.; Sánchez-Soto, L. L.

    2014-10-01

    We report the experimental reconstruction of the statistical properties of an ultrafast pulsed type II parametric down-conversion source in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide at telecom wavelengths, with almost perfect photon-number correlations. We use a photon-number-resolving time-multiplexed detector based on a fiber-optical setup and a pair of avalanche photodiodes. By resorting to a germane data-pattern tomography, we assess the properties of the nonclassical light states with unprecedented precision.

  5. A Large Area Fiber Optic Gyroscope on multiplexed fiber network

    OpenAIRE

    Clivati, Cecilia; Calonico, Davide; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Mura, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Marco; Levi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    We describe a fiber optical gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect realized on a multiplexed telecom fiber network. Our loop encloses an area of 20 km^2 and coexists with Internet data traffic. This Sagnac interferometer achieves a sensitivity of about 1e-8 (rad/s)/sqrt(Hz), thus approaching ring laser gyroscopes without using narrow-linewidth laser nor sophisticated optics. The proposed gyroscope is sensitive enough for seismic applications, opening new possibilities for this kind of optical f...

  6. A Large Area Fiber Optic Gyroscope on multiplexed fiber network

    CERN Document Server

    Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Mura, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Marco; Levi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    We describe a fiber optical gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect realized on a multiplexed telecom fiber network. Our loop encloses an area of 20 km^2 and coexists with Internet data traffic. This Sagnac interferometer achieves a sensitivity of about 1e-8 (rad/s)/sqrt(Hz), thus approaching ring laser gyroscopes without using narrow-linewidth laser nor sophisticated optics. The proposed gyroscope is sensitive enough for seismic applications, opening new possibilities for this kind of optical fiber sensors

  7. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Human Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for the identification of human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. The targets selected for each category were eae for enteropathogenic E. coli, stx for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, elt and est for enterotoxigenic E. coli, ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli, and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli. This assay allowed the categorization of a diarrheagenic E. coli strain in a single reaction tube.

  8. Designing Two-Layer Optical Networks with Statistical Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, B.; Capone, A.; Carello, G.; Malucelli, F.; Fumagalli, M.; Pedrin Elli, E.

    The possibility of adding multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support to transport networks is considered an important opportunity by telecom carriers that want to add packet services and applications to their networks. However, the question that arises is whether it is suitable to have MPLS nodes just at the edge of the network to collect packet traffic from users, or also to introduce MPLS facilities on a subset of the core nodes in order to exploit packet switching flexibility and multiplexing, thus providing induction of a better bandwidth allocation. In this article, we address this complex decisional problem with the support of a mathematical programming approach. We consider two-layer networks where MPLS is overlaid on top of transport networks-synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) or wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)-depending on the required link speed. The discussions' decisions take into account the trade-off between the cost of adding MPLS support in the core nodes and the savings in the link bandwidth allocation due to the statistical multiplexing and the traffic grooming effects induced by MPLS nodes. The traffic matrix specifies for each point-to-point request a pair of values: a mean traffic value and an additional one. Using this traffic model, the effect of statistical multiplexing on a link allows the allocation of a capacity equal to the sum of all the mean values of the traffic demands routed on the link and only the highest additional one. The proposed approach is suitable to solve real instances in reasonable time.

  9. An introduction to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

    OpenAIRE

    Edfors, Ove; Sandell, Magnus; van de Beek, Jan-Jaap; Landström, Daniel; Sjöberg, Frank

    1996-01-01

    This report is an introduction to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The focus is on signal processing areas pursued by our research group at Luleå University of Technology. We present an historical background and some frequently used system models. Typical areas of applications are also described, both wireless and wired. In addition to the general overview, the addressed areas include synchronization, channel estimation and channel coding. Both time and frequency synchroniza...

  10. MPD: multiplex primer design for next-generation targeted sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Thomas S; Kotlar, Alex; Cutler, David J

    2017-01-05

    Targeted resequencing offers a cost-effective alternative to whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing when investigating regions known to be associated with a trait or disease. There are a number of approaches to targeted resequencing, including microfluidic PCR amplification, which may be enhanced by multiplex PCR. Currently, there is no open-source software that can design next-generation multiplex PCR experiments that ensures primers are unique at a genome-level and efficiently pools compatible primers. We present MPD, a software package that automates the design of multiplex PCR primers for next-generation sequencing. The core of MPD is implemented in C for speed and uses a hashed genome to ensure primer uniqueness, avoids placing primers over sites of known variation, and efficiently pools compatible primers. A JavaScript web application ( http://multiplexprimer.io ) utilizing the MPD Perl package provides a convenient platform for users to make designs. Using a realistic set of genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we achieve 90% coverage of all exonic regions using stringent design criteria. Using the first 47 primer pools for wet-lab validation, we sequenced ~25Kb at 99.7% completeness with a mean coverage of 300X among 313 samples simultaneously and identified 224 variants. The number and nature of variants we observe are consistent with high quality sequencing. MPD can successfully design multiplex PCR experiments suitable for next-generation sequencing, and simplifies retooling targeted resequencing pipelines to focus on new targets as new genetic evidence emerges.

  11. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  12. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  13. Multiplexed refractive index-based sensing using optical fiber microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; André, Ricardo M.; Dellith, Jan; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Optical fibers are promising tools for performing biological and biomedical sensing due to their small cross section and potential for multiplexing. In particular, fabricating ultra-small sensing devices is of increasing interest for measuring biological material such as cells. A promising direction is the use of interferometric techniques combined with optical fiber post-processing. In this work we present recent progress in the development of Fabry-Perot micro-cavities written into optical fiber tapers using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. We first demonstrate that FIB milled optical fiber microcavities are sensitive enough to measure polyelectrolyte layer deposition. We then present new results on the fabrication and optical characterization of serially-multiplexed dual cavity micro-sensors. Two cavities were written serially along the fiber with two different cavity lengths, producing a total of four reflecting surfaces and thus six possible interferometric pairs/cavities. By using fast Fourier transform it is possible to obtain de-multiplexed measurements for each cavity. This will be particularly important for bioassays where positive and negative controls are required to be measured within close spatial proximity.

  14. Optimization of multiplexed RADseq libraries using low-cost adaptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Hélène; Cariou, Marie; Terraz, Gabriel; Martinez, Sonia; El Filali, Adil; Veyssiere, Marine; Duret, Laurent; Charlat, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    Reduced representation genomics approaches, of which RADseq is currently the most popular form, offer the possibility to produce genome wide data from potentially any species, without previous genomic information. The application of RADseq to highly multiplexed libraries (including numerous specimens, and potentially numerous different species) is however limited by technical constraints. First, the cost of synthesis of Illumina adaptors including molecular identifiers (MIDs) becomes excessive when numerous specimens are to be multiplexed. Second, the necessity to empirically adjust the ratio of adaptors to genomic DNA concentration impedes the high throughput application of RADseq to heterogeneous samples, of variable DNA concentration and quality. In an attempt to solve these problems, we propose here some adjustments regarding the adaptor synthesis. First, we show that the common and unique (MID) parts of adaptors can be synthesized separately and subsequently ligated, which drastically reduces the synthesis cost, and thus allows multiplexing hundreds of specimens. Second, we show that self-ligation of adaptors, which makes the adaptor concentration so critical, can be simply prevented by using unphosphorylated adaptors, which significantly improves the ligation and sequencing yield.

  15. Multiplexed electrochemical protein detection and translation to personalized cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusling, James F

    2013-06-04

    Measuring diagnostic panels of multiple proteins promises a new, personalized approach to early detection and therapy of diseases like cancer. Levels of biomarker proteins in patient serum can provide a continually updated record of disease status. Research in electrochemical detection of proteins has produced exquisitely sensitive approaches. Most utilize ELISA-like sandwich immunoassays incorporating various aspects of nanotechnology. Several of these ultrasensitive methodologies have been extended to microfluidic multiplexed protein detection, but engineered solutions are needed to measure more proteins in a single device from a small patient sample such as a drop of blood or tissue lysate. To achieve clinical or point-of-care (POC) use, simplicity and low cost are essential. In multiplexed microfluidic immunoassays, required reagent additions and washing steps pose a significant problem calling for creative engineering. A grand challenge is to develop a general cancer screening device to accurately measure 50-100 proteins in a simple, cost-effective fashion. This will require creative solutions to simplified reagent addition and multiplexing.

  16. Evolution of cooperation under social pressure in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, María

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to contribute to the understanding of human prosocial behavior by studying the influence that a particular form of social pressure, "being watched," has on the evolution of cooperative behavior. We study how cooperation emerges in multiplex complex topologies by analyzing a particular bidirectionally coupled dynamics on top of a two-layer multiplex network (duplex). The coupled dynamics appears between the prisoner's dilemma game in a network and a threshold cascade model in the other. The threshold model is intended to abstract the behavior of a network of vigilant nodes that impose the pressure of being observed altering hence the temptation to defect of the dilemma. Cooperation or defection in the game also affects the state of a node of being vigilant. We analyze these processes on different duplex networks structures and assess the influence of the topology, average degree and correlated multiplexity, on the outcome of cooperation. Interestingly, we find that the social pressure of vigilance may impact cooperation positively or negatively, depending on the duplex structure, specifically the degree correlations between layers is determinant. Our results give further quantitative insights in the promotion of cooperation under social pressure.

  17. Evolution of cooperation under social pressure in multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, María

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to contribute to the understanding of human prosocial behavior by studying the influence that a particular form of social pressure, "being watched," has on the evolution of cooperative behavior. We study how cooperation emerges in multiplex complex topologies by analyzing a particular bidirectionally coupled dynamics on top of a two-layer multiplex network (duplex). The coupled dynamics appears between the prisoner's dilemma game in a network and a threshold cascade model in the other. The threshold model is intended to abstract the behavior of a network of vigilant nodes that impose the pressure of being observed altering hence the temptation to defect of the dilemma. Cooperation or defection in the game also affects the state of a node of being vigilant. We analyze these processes on different duplex networks structures and assess the influence of the topology, average degree and correlated multiplexity, on the outcome of cooperation. Interestingly, we find that the social pressure of vigilance may impact cooperation positively or negatively, depending on the duplex structure, specifically the degree correlations between layers is determinant. Our results give further quantitative insights in the promotion of cooperation under social pressure.

  18. Highly Multiplexed Profiling of Low Abundance Tumor Mutations in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, Matthew; Pel, Joel; Vysotskaia, Valentina; Broemeling, David; Marziali, Andre; Hanson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated a novel somatic mutation enrichment methodology demonstrating multiplexed detection of tumor mutations in plasma with sensitivity as low as 0.01% compared to normal DNA. This highly sensitive detection of low abundance mutations is achieved using electrophoretic separation and enrichment of DNA fragments containing point mutations over their wild-type counterparts. Commercialized as the OnTarget platform by Boreal Genomics, the system enriches nucleic acid samples for specific targets prior to amplification and detection, enabling the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) or other detection assays for plasma or FFPE-based mutation detection and profiling. We present data demonstrating highly sensitive and multiplexed detection of panels of up to 100 mutations in plasma samples, improving the sensitivity of NGS assays to below 0.01% mutant content. We also report on concordance studies comparing low tumor content FFPE tissue and matched plasma in human samples demonstrating that OnTarget represents a robust, highly sensitive and multiplexed platform for non-invasive tumor monitoring.

  19. Multiplexed Imaging of Trace Residues in a Single Latent Fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyan; Zhou, Wen; Xue, Yang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-12-20

    The development of highly sensitive, selective, nondestructive, and multiplexed imaging modalities is essential for latent fingerprint (LFP) identification and fingerprint residues detection. Herein, we present a versatile strategy to identify LFPs and to probe the multiple trace residues in a single LFP simultaneously. With the purpose of achieving high sensitivity, we for the first time introduced a polydopamine (PDA)-triggered Au growth method to prepare superbright and multiplex surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tags, which were endowed with high selectivity by conjugating with specific antibodies. In combination with a rapid Raman mapping technique, the sensitivity of the SERS probes was down to picogram scale and all the three levels of LFP features can be clearly seen. More significantly, the multiplexed imaging of diverse residues in a single LFP provides more accurate information than that using monochromatic imaging of individuals alone. The high analytical figures of merit enable this approach great promise for use in the fields ranging from chemical detection to molecular imaging.

  20. Multiplexed label-free optical biosensor for medical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Fornasari, Lucia; Frangolho, Ana; Giudicatti, Silvia; Mantovani, Alberto; Marabelli, Franco; Marchesini, Gerardo; Pellacani, Paola; Therisod, Rita; Valsesia, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new multiplexed label-free biosensor. The detection technology is based on nanostructured gold-polymer surfaces. These surfaces support surface plasmon resonance modes that can be probed by a miniaturized optical setup. The optical characterization of the sensing chip shows the sensitivity and the limit-of-detection to refractive index changes. Moreover, by studying the progressive adhesion of molecular monolayers of polyelectrolytes, the decay of the plasmonic mode electric field above the surface has been reconstructed. A multiplexed label-free biosensing device is then described and characterized in terms of sensitivity, lateral resolution, and sensitivity to a model biological assay. The sensitivity in imaging mode of the device is of the order of 10-6 refractive index units, while the measured lateral resolution is 6.25 μm within a field of view of several tenths of mm2, making the instrument unique in terms of multiplexing capability. Finally, the proof-of-concept application of the technology as a point-of-care diagnostic tool for an inflammatory marker is demonstrated.

  1. Hybrid hydrogel photonic barcodes for multiplex detection of tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueshuang; Zhang, Xiaoping; Luan, Chengxin; Wang, Huan; Chen, Baoan; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2017-01-15

    Barcodes-based suspension array have for demonstrated values in multiplex assay of tumor markers. Photonic barcodes which are encoded by their characteristic reflection peaks are the important supports for suspension array due to their stable code, low fluorescent background and high surface-volume ratio. Attempts to develop this technology tend to improve the function of the photonic barcodes. Here, we present a new type of hybrid hydrogel photonic barcodes for efficient multiplex assays. This photonic barcodes are hybrid inverse opal hydrogel composed of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) and agarose. The polymerized PEG-DA hydrogel could guarantee the stabilities of the inverse opal structure and its resultant code, while the agarose could offer active chemical groups for the probe immobilization and homogeneous water surrounding for the bioassay. In addition, the interconnected pores inverse opal structure could provide channels for biomolecules diffusing and reaction into the voids of barcodes. These features imparted the hybrid hydrogel photonic barcodes with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.78ng/mL for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and 0.21ng/mL for α-fetoprotein (AFP), respectively. It was also demonstrated that the proposed barcodes showed acceptable accuracy and detection reproducibility, and the results were in acceptable agreement with those from common clinic method for the detections of practical clinical samples. Thus, our technique provides a new platform for simultaneous multiplex immunoassay.

  2. Coevolution of Cooperation and Layer Selection Strategy in Multiplex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuki Hayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the emergent dynamics in multiplex networks, composed of layers of multiple networks, has been discussed extensively in network sciences. However, little is still known about whether and how the evolution of strategy for selecting a layer to participate in can contribute to the emergence of cooperative behaviors in multiplex networks of social interactions. To investigate these issues, we constructed a coevolutionary model of cooperation and layer selection strategies in which each an individual selects one layer from multiple layers of social networks and plays the Prisoner’s Dilemma with neighbors in the selected layer. We found that the proportion of cooperative strategies increased with increasing the number of layers regardless of the degree of dilemma, and this increase occurred due to a cyclic coevolution process of game strategies and layer selection strategies. We also showed that the heterogeneity of links among layers is a key factor for multiplex networks to facilitate the evolution of cooperation, and such positive effects on cooperation were observed regardless of the difference in the stochastic properties of network topologies.

  3. Interdigitated multicolored bioink micropatterns by multiplexed polymer pen lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Greiner, Alexandra M; Weschenfelder, Markus; Waterkotte, Björn; Bastmeyer, Martin; Fuchs, Harald

    2013-10-11

    Multiplexing, i.e., the application and integration of more than one ink in an interdigitated microscale pattern, is still a challenge for microcontact printing (μCP) and similar techniques. On the other hand there is a strong demand for interdigitated patterns of more than one protein on subcellular to cellular length scales in the lower micrometer range in biological experiments. Here, a new integrative approach is presented for the fabrication of bioactive microarrays and complex multi-ink patterns by polymer pen lithography (PPL). By taking advantage of the strength of microcontact printing (μCP) combined with the spatial control and capability of precise repetition of PPL in an innovative way, a new inking and writing strategy is introduced for PPL that enables true multiplexing within each repetitive subpattern. Furthermore, a specific ink/substrate platform is demonstrated that can be used to immobilize functional proteins and other bioactive compounds over a biotin-streptavidin approach. This patterning strategy aims specifically at application by cell biologists and biochemists addressing a wide range of relevant pattern sizes, easy pattern generation and adjustment, the use of only biofriendly, nontoxic chemicals, and mild processing conditions during the patterning steps. The retained bioactivity of the fabricated cm(2) area filling multiprotein patterns is demonstrated by showing the interaction of fibroblasts and neurons with multiplexed structures of fibronectin and laminin or laminin and ephrin, respectively.

  4. Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Sasai, Shuntaro; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches. PMID:27471443

  5. Space division multiplexing optical communication using few-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2017-07-01

    To realize ultra-high capacity long-haul transmission, space-division multiplexing (SDM) has emerged as a promising solution, in which each data channel is modulated into an individual spatial/polarization modes in few-mode fibers (FMF) to increase the overall number of parallel channels. In this paper, we review the latest advances in SDM technology on the FMF, component, digital signal processing (DSP), as well as transmission demonstrations. First, we introduce the FMF characteristics, fabrication and manufacturing issues including modal dispersion, mode coupling, and nonlinearities. We next discuss in detail several key SDM components such as spatial multiplexers/demultiplexers (MUX/DeMUX), optical amplifiers, mode converters and SDM reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM). Accordingly, we explore the DSP algorithms for SDM systems, covering least mean squares (LMS), recursive least squares (RLS), hardware complexity analysis, and mode dependent effects. Besides, a number of recent experimental validations are evaluated enabling higher transmission capacity for short, medium and long distances.

  6. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  7. An all-digital receiver for satellite audio broadcasting signals using trellis coded quasi-orthogonal code-division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Walter; Eglin, Peter; Abello, Ricard

    1993-02-01

    Spread Spectrum Code Division Multiplex is an attractive scheme for the transmission of multiple signals over a satellite transponder. By using orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal spreading codes the interference between the users can be virtually eliminated. However, the acquisition and tracking of the spreading code phase can not take advantage of the code orthogonality since sequential acquisition and Delay-Locked loop tracking depend on correlation with code phases other than the optimal despreading phase. Hence, synchronization is a critical issue in such a system. A demonstration hardware for the verification of the orthogonal CDM synchronization and data transmission concept is being designed and implemented. The system concept, the synchronization scheme, and the implementation are described. The performance of the system is discussed based on computer simulations.

  8. Several Multiplexes in the same City: The role of wealth differences in urban mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Lotero, Laura; Hurtado, Rafael; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyze the architecture of real urban mobility networks from the multiplex perspective. In particular, based on empirical data about the mobility patterns in the cities of Bogota and Medell\\'{\\i}n, each city is represented by six multiplex networks, each one representing the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population characterized a particular wealth status. The nodes of each multiplex are the different urban locations whereas links represent the existence of a trip from one node (origin) to another (destination). On the other hand, the different layers of each multiplex correspond to the different existing transportation modes. By exploiting the characterization of multiplex transportation networks combining different means of transportation we aim at characterizing the mobility patterns of each subset of the population. Our results show that the socioeconomic characteristics of the population have an extraordinary impact in the layer organization of these multiplex sys...

  9. Distributed optical multiplexing with precise frequency allocation using fiber frequency conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomoyuki; Okabe, Ryo; Watanabe, Shigeki

    2013-12-01

    Effective utilization of fiber capacity in optical communication networks is required to keep up with the increasing traffic demand. Precise optical frequency allocation among carriers is essential for improving the spectral efficiency to utilize the limited spectral resource. In this paper, we show a distributed optical multiplexing scheme, in which data signals are sequentially multiplexed by frequency-division multiplexing on a single-wavelength optical carrier using fiber frequency conversion with locally provided optical subcarrier signals. The scheme achieves dense packing of distributed multi-channel signals with precise frequency allocation using free-running lasers. Using the scheme we demonstrate a precise multiplexing of coherent-optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing.

  10. Gene changes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Comparison of multiplex PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohli Sudha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a common X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 3,500 live male births. About 65% of cases are caused by deletions; ~5% to 8%, by duplication; and the remaining, by point mutations of the dystrophin gene. The frequency of complex rearrangements (double-deletion and non-contiguous duplications is reported to be 4%. Aim: In this study, we examined the usefulness of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA for screening of deletion and duplication mutations in a group of DMD/ BMD (Becker muscular dystrophy patients from India. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 180 patients referred from all over India, by both multiplex PCR technique (22 exons and MLPA (all 79 exons. Results and Conclusion: By multiplex PCR, deletions were detected in 90 (50% patients. MLPA studies in these cases detected 3 additional deletions, 16 (8.9% duplications and 2 point mutations. MLPA is useful to verify absence of deletions/ duplications in all 79 exons. This sets the stage to look for point mutations using RNA- or DNA-based tests because of the availability of the drug PTC124. Also, the extent of the deletions and duplications could be more accurately defined by MLPA. The delineation of the precise extent of deletion helps in deciding whether exon-skipping technique would be useful as therapy.

  11. A novel method of polarization state control for olarization division multiplexing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiecheng Wang; Shoufeng Lan; Junfeng Jiang; Tiegen Liu

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm in a cost effective polarization division multiplexing (PDM) system. Without modifying the existing transmitter, receiver electronics, or softwares, we use a special optical scheme to demultiplex the signal multiplexed and improve it with a conjugated gradient algorithm. We experimentally resume the polarization state with a deviation under 5% and the power loss less than 20 dB which proves the feasibility of the polarization control algorithm in the new polarization multiplexing system.

  12. Multicolored Silver Nanoparticles for Multiplexed Disease Diagnostics: Distinguishing Dengue, Yellow Fever, and Ebola Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chun-Wan; de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina; Gómez-Márquez, José; Bosch, Irene; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Gehrke, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices are needed for field-forward screening of severe acute systemic febrile illnesses. Multiplexed rapid lateral flow diagnostics have the potential to distinguish among multiple pathogens, thereby facilitating diagnosis and improving patient care. Here, we present a platform for multiplexed pathogen detection using multi-colored silver nanoplates. This design requires no external excitation source and permits multiplexed analysis in a single channel, facilitating integration and manufacturing. PMID:25672590

  13. Diversity and Multiplexing Tradeoff in the Uplink of Cellular Systems with Linear MMSE Receiver

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Xiaoshi; Liu, Danpu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the diversity and multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) analysis from point-to-point channels to cellular systems to evaluate the impact of inter-cell interference on the system reliability and efficiency. Fundamental tradeoff among diversity order, multiplexing gain and inter-cell interference intensity is characterized to reveal the capability of multiple antennas in cellular systems. And the detrimental effects of the inter-cell interference on the system performance of diversity and multiplexing is presented and analyzed.

  14. Preface to the special issue on next-generation multiplexing schemes in fiber-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillard, Pierre; Essiambre, René-Jean; Jung, Yongmin; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Since the beginning of optical communications in the late 70s, capacity has kept up with the exponential growth of traffic demand. This has been enabled by many technologies among which the most up-to-date wavelength multiplexing combined with coherent detection of polarized-multiplexed quadrature-amplitude-modulated signals. There is, however, a growing realization that this might no longer be sufficient and that next-generation multiplexing schemes are needed to avoid an imminent capacity crunch.

  15. Support for calcium channel gene defects in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ake Tzu-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternation of synaptic homeostasis is a biological process whose disruption might predispose children to autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Calcium channel genes (CCG contribute to modulating neuronal function and evidence implicating CCG in ASD has been accumulating. We conducted a targeted association analysis of CCG using existing genome-wide association study (GWAS data and imputation methods in a combined sample of parent/affected child trios from two ASD family collections to explore this hypothesis. Methods A total of 2,176 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP (703 genotyped and 1,473 imputed covering the genes that encode the α1 subunit proteins of 10 calcium channels were tested for association with ASD in a combined sample of 2,781 parent/affected child trios from 543 multiplex Caucasian ASD families from the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange (AGRE and 1,651 multiplex and simplex Caucasian ASD families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP. SNP imputation using IMPUTE2 and a combined reference panel from the HapMap3 and the 1,000 Genomes Project increased coverage density of the CCG. Family-based association was tested using the FBAT software which controls for population stratification and accounts for the non-independence of siblings within multiplex families. The level of significance for association was set at 2.3E-05, providing a Bonferroni correction for this targeted 10-gene panel. Results Four SNPs in three CCGs were associated with ASD. One, rs10848653, is located in CACNA1C, a gene in which rare de novo mutations are responsible for Timothy syndrome, a Mendelian disorder that features ASD. Two others, rs198538 and rs198545, located in CACN1G, and a fourth, rs5750860, located in CACNA1I, are in CCGs that encode T-type calcium channels, genes with previous ASD associations. Conclusions These associations support a role for common CCG SNPs in ASD.

  16. A multiplex endpoint RT-PCR assay for quality assessment of RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovic Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples is chemically modified and degraded, which compromises its use in gene expression studies. Most of the current approaches for RNA quality assessment are not suitable for FFPE derived RNA. Results We have developed a single-tube multiplex endpoint RT-PCR assay specifically designed to evaluate RNA extracted from FFPE tissues for mRNA integrity and performance in reverse transcription - quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR assays. This single-tube quality control (QC assay minimises the amount of RNA used in quality control. mRNA integrity and the suitability of RNA for RT-PCR is evaluated by the multiplex endpoint RT-PCR assay using the TBP gene mRNA as the target sequence. The RT-PCR amplicon sizes, 92, 161, 252 and 300 bp, cover a range of amplicon sizes suitable for a wide range of RT-qPCR assays. The QC assay was used to evaluate RNA prepared by two different protocols for extracting total RNA from needle microdissected FFPE breast tumour samples. The amplification products were analysed by gel electrophoresis where the spectrum of amplicon sizes indicated the level of RNA degradation and thus the suitability of the RNA for PCR. The ability of the multiplex endpoint RT-PCR QC assay to identify FFPE samples with an adequate RNA quality was validated by examining the Cq values of an RT-qPCR assay with an 87 bp amplicon. Conclusions The multiplex endpoint RT-PCR assay is well suited for the determination of the quality of FFPE derived RNAs, to identify which RT-PCR assays they are suitable for, and is also applicable to assess non-FFPE RNA for gene expression studies. Furthermore, the assay can also be used for the evaluation of RNA extraction protocols from FFPE samples.

  17. [Fiber monitoring network of methane concentration based on space division multiplexing in coal mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Long; Wang, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Li, Xiao; Wang, Zhi-Wen

    2010-06-01

    Methane explosion accidents occur frequently, and accurate and real-time detection and early warning of methane concentration are the effective means of preventing these accidents. The research was based on the spectrum absorption properties of methane, and a near-infrared tunable DFB laser diode of 1.65 microm wave band was used. With the mode-hopping features of laser diode, a differential absorption of double-wavelength and single-fiber optical sensor network was designed. Sixteen methane sensors were multiplexed in this system with space division multiple access technology and optical switch, and the key technologies of anti-dust in gas absorption cell were researched. All signals were gathered by the PCI data acquisition card, and information of each way was analyzed and displayed with virtual instrument. The results of experiment show that the method can reach the sensitivity of 0.05% even without using a phase-locked amplifier and the absorption light path is only 10 centimeters. Long-time accuracy and stability of all sensors could meet the practical demands, and the response time of each sensor was less than 1 seconds. With the replacement of lasers, the network can be used for the real-time detection of other gases.

  18. Recurrent de novo BICD2 mutation associated with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Gianina; Di Donato, Nataliya; Hahn, Gabriele; Davis, Mark R; Craven, Paul D; Poke, Gemma; Neas, Katherine R; Neuhann, Teresa M; Dobyns, William B; Laing, Nigel G

    2016-11-01

    Autosomal dominantly inherited mutations of BICD2 are associated with congenital-onset spinal muscular atrophy characterised by lower limb predominance. A few cases have also showed upper motor neuron pathology, including presenting with features resembling hereditary spastic paraplegia. The age-of-onset for the published families is usually at birth but also included cases with childhood- and adult-onset disease. In this report we described two isolated probands that presented in utero with features associated with reduced fetal movements. Both cases were diagnosed at birth with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) and hypotonia. Other variable features included congenital fractures, hip dislocation, micrognathia, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly and bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria. Patient 1 is 4 years of age and stable, but shows significant motor developmental delay and delayed speech. Patient 2 passed away at 7 weeks of age. Through next generation sequencing we identified the same missense substitution in BICD2 (p.Arg694Cys) in both probands. Sanger sequencing showed that in both cases the mutation arose de novo. The in utero onset in both cases suggests that the p.Arg694Cys substitution may have a more deleterious effect on BICD2 function than previously described mutations. Our results broaden the phenotypes associated with BICD2 mutations to include AMC and cortical malformations and therefore to a similar phenotypic spectrum to that associated with its binding partner DYNC1H1.

  19. Handheld imaging photonic crystal biosensor for multiplexed, label-free protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Sabrina; Bräu, Marion; Meyer, Björn-Ole; Karrock, Torben; Gutekunst, Sören B; Blohm, Lars; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Buhmann, Raymund; Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Gerken, Martina

    2015-10-01

    We present a handheld biosensor system for the label-free and specific multiplexed detection of several biomarkers employing a spectrometer-free imaging measurement system. A photonic crystal surface functionalized with multiple specific ligands forms the optical transducer. The photonic crystal slab is fabricated on a glass substrate by replicating a periodic grating master stamp with a period of 370 nm into a photoresist via nanoimprint lithography and deposition of a 70-nm titanium dioxide layer. Capture molecules are coupled covalently and drop-wise to the photonic crystal surface. With a simple camera and imaging optics the surface-normal transmission is detected. In the transmission spectrum guided-mode resonances are observed that shift due to protein binding. This shift is observed as an intensity change in the green color channel of the camera. Non-functionalized image sections are used for continuous elimination of background drift. In a first experiment we demonstrate the specific and time-resolved detection of 90.0 nm CD40 ligand antibody, 90.0 nM EGF antibody, and 500 nM streptavidin in parallel on one sensor chip. In a second experiment, aptamers with two different spacer lengths are used as receptor. The binding kinetics with association and dissociation of 250 nM thrombin and regeneration of the sensor surface with acidic tris-HCl-buffer (pH 5.0) is presented for two measurement cycles.

  20. Multiplex and simultaneous measurement of displacement and temperature using tapered fiber and fiber Bragg grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Chongke; Zhao Chunliu; Kang Juan; Dong Xinyong; Jin Shangzhong [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2012-05-15

    A simple method to work out the multiplexing of tapered fiber based sensors is proposed and demonstrated. By cascading a tapered fiber with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), the sensor head is provided with a wavelength identification, different FBGs provide the sensor heads with different reflective peaks and they can be distinguished in optical spectrum. By compositing several such sensor heads with a multi-channel beam splitter, a star-style topological structure sensor for multipoint sensing is achieved. At the same time, the output intensity at the peak wavelength is sensitive to one external physical parameter applied on the related FBG-cascaded tapered fiber and the central wavelength of the peak is only sensitive to temperature, so that that parameter and temperature can be measured simultaneously. A sensor for dual-point measurement of the displacement and temperature simultaneously is experimentally demonstrated by using a 2 x 2 coupler in this paper. Experiment results show that the sensor works well and the largest sensitivities reach to 0.11 dB/{mu}m for displacement in the range of 0-400 {mu}m, and {approx}0.0097 nm/ deg. C for temperature between 20 deg. C and 70 deg. C.

  1. [In situ temperature measurement by absorption spectroscopy based on time division multiplexing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Nan-zheng; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology is a kind of high sensitivity, high selectivity of non contacting gas in situ measurement technique. In the present paper, in situ gas temperature measurement of an open environment was achieved by means of direct scanning multiple characteristic lines of H2O and combined with least-squares algorithm. Through the use of HITRAN spectral database, the boundary effect on the gas temperature and concentration measurements was discussed in detail, and results showed that the combination of scanning multiple characteristic lines and least-squares algorithm can effectively reduce the boundary effect on the gas temperature measurements under the open environment. Experiments using time division multiplexing technology to simultaneously scan 7444.36, 7185.60, 7182.95 and 7447.48 cm(-1), the four characteristic H2O lines, the gas temperature of tubular furnace in the range of 573-973 K was measured under different conditions. The maximum temperature difference between absorption spectrum measurement and thermocouple signal was less than 52.4 K, and the maximum relative error of temperature measurement was 6.8%.

  2. Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access and Wavelength Division Multiplexing: Hybrid Scheme Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susthitha Menon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hybrid Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access (OCDMA and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM have flourished as successful schemes for expanding the transmission capacity as well as enhancing the security for OCDMA. However, a comprehensive review related to this hybrid system are lacking currently. Approach: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on OCDMA-WDM overlay systems, including our hybrid approach of one-dimensional coding of SAC OCDMA with WDM signals. In addition, we present an additional review of other categorios of hybrid WDM/OCDMA schemes, where codes of OCDMA can be employed on each WDM wavelength. Furthermore, an essential background of OCDMA, recent coding techniques and security issues are also presented. Results: Our results indicate that the feasibility of transmitting both OCDMA and WDM users on the same spectrum band can be achieved using MQC family code with an acceptable performance as well as good data confidentiality. In addition, the WDM interference signals can be suppressed properly for detection of optical broadband CDMA using notch filters. Conclusion: The paper provides a comprehensive overview of hybrid OCDMA-WDM systems and can be used as a baseline study for other scientists in the similar scope of research.

  3. Evaluation of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis versus multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays in the detection of dystrophin gene rearrangements in an Iranian population subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD gene is located in the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp21. It spans 2.4 Mb of the human genomic DNA and is composed of 79 exons. Mutations in the Dystrophin gene result in DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy. In this study, the efficiency of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA over multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays in an Iranian population was investigated. Materials and Methods: Multiplex PCR assays and MLPA analysis were carried out in 74 patients affected with DMD. Results: Multiplex PCR detected deletions in 51% of the patients with DMD. MLPA analysis could determine all the deletions detected by the multiplex PCR. Additionally, MLPA was able to identify one more deletion and duplication in patients without detectable mutations by multiplex PCR. Moreover, MLPA precisely determined the exact size of the deletions. Conclusion: Although MLPA analysis is more sensitive for detection of deletions and duplications in the dystrophin gene, multiplex PCR might be used for the initial analysis of the boys affected with DMD in the Iranian population as it was able to detect 95% of the rearrangements in patients with DMD.

  4. IR Spectrum Data Bank System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Dilin

    2004-01-01

    The infrared spectra of pure compounds of ninety thousands, poly compounds of twelve thousand, drugs of one thousand were included in the data bank. All of them can be searched out according to their serial number, chemical name, commercial name, amount of each atoms, or molecular formula, as well as their spectrum peak appearances. Program for spectrum information inputting, program for spectrum information search and program for spectrum peak appearance search were included in the system; in addition, spectrum information data bank, spectrum peak code data bank and spectrum figure data bank were attached to the system. System program was written by Visial Basic, and run under Windows system. The spectrum information data bank and spectrum figure data bank were administrated by Microsoft Access.The program for spectrum message inputting can be used to add message data and spectrum figure of some new compounds into the data banks by users themselves. The program for spectrum message search was designed to find out all the message data and spectrum figure of interested compound according to someone of the message data. The program for spectrum peak search was designed to find out some spectra most similar in peak shape with unknown spectrum by peak to peak comparison. When the wavenumbers and transmittances of main peaks in the spectrum of unknown sample were entered, the spectrum peak search was performed and several hits with higher similarity were reported including their similarity scores, spectrum serial numbers, sample's states,melt points, molecular formulas as well as spectrum images. If the search result was not satisfactory,some methods to modify spectrum parameters were reminded and search was performed again.

  5. All-fiber mode selective couplers for mode-division-multiplexed optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon; Lee, Joon Ki

    2017-01-01

    All-fiber mode selective coupler (MSC) is comprised of a few mode fiber (FMF) and a single mode fiber (SMF), coupling the LP01 mode of the SMF to a specific higher-order mode (HOM) of the FMF. In order to achieve high coupling ratio and low insertion loss, phase-matching condition between the LP01 mode of SMF arm and the HOM of FMF arm should be satisfied. A polished-type MSC is made by getting their cores into intimate contact. Prism coupling with a polished coupler block can measure the effective refractive index of the mode accurately. We propose and demonstrate three kinds of allfiber mode multiplexer that is composed of consecutive MSCs. 4-mode multiplexer can multiplex 4 modes of LP01, LP11, LP21, and LP02 by cascading LP11, LP21, and LP02 MSCs. It is used for MDM transmission of three modes with 120 Gb/s DP-QPSK signals. In order to enhance the signal transmission performance by receiving degenerate LP modes simultaneously, a mode multiplexer to utilize two-fold degenerate LP11 modes is proposed. It is composed of two consecutive LP11 MSCs that allows the multiplexing of LP01 mode and two orthogonal LP11 modes. We demonstrates WDM transmission of 30 wavelength channels with 33.3 GHz spacing, each carrying 3 modes, over 560 km of FMF. 6- mode multiplexer can multiplex 6 modes of LP01, LP11a, LP11b, LP21a, LP21b, LP02 modes. We demonstrated WDM-MDM transmission with the all-fiber 6-mode multiplexer. In this paper, the manufacturing method and the recent advancements of the all-fiber mode multiplexer based on the MSCs are reviewed. Long-distance mode division multiplexing (MDM) optical signal transmissions with the all-fiber mode multiplexer are experimentally demonstrated.

  6. Colorimetric aptasensor using unmodified gold nanoparticles for homogeneous multiplex detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucao Niu

    Full Text Available Colorimetric aptasensors using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have attracted much attention because of their low cost, simplicity, and practicality, and they have been developed for various targets in the past several years. However, previous research has focused on developing single-target assays. Here, we report the development of a homogeneous multiplex aptasensor by using more than one class of aptamers to stabilize AuNPs. Using sulfadimethoxine (SDM, kanamycin (KAN and adenosine (ADE as example targets, a KAN aptamer (750 nM, an SDM aptamer (250 nM and an ADE aptamer (500 nM were mixed at a 1∶1∶1 volume ratio and adsorbed directly onto the surface of unmodified AuNPs by electrostatic interaction. Upon the addition of any of the three targets, the conformation of the corresponding aptamer changed from a random coil structure to a rigid folded structure, which could not adsorb and stabilize AuNPs. The AuNPs aggregated in a specific reaction buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl containing 20 mM NaCl and 5 mM KCl, which led to a color change from red to purple/blue. These results demonstrate that the multiplex colorimetric aptasensor detected three targets simultaneously while maintaining the same sensitivity as a single-target aptasensor for each individual target. The multiplex aptasensor could be extended to other aptamers for various molecular detection events. Due to its simple design, easy operation, fast response, cost effectiveness and lack of need for sophisticated instrumentation, the proposed strategy provides a powerful tool to examine large numbers of samples to screen for a small number of potentially positive samples containing more than one analyte, which can be further validated using sophisticated instruments.

  7. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-07

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day.

  8. Community structure in time-dependent, multiscale, and multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Peter J; Richardson, Thomas; Macon, Kevin; Porter, Mason A; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2010-05-14

    Network science is an interdisciplinary endeavor, with methods and applications drawn from across the natural, social, and information sciences. A prominent problem in network science is the algorithmic detection of tightly connected groups of nodes known as communities. We developed a generalized framework of network quality functions that allowed us to study the community structure of arbitrary multislice networks, which are combinations of individual networks coupled through links that connect each node in one network slice to itself in other slices. This framework allows studies of community structure in a general setting encompassing networks that evolve over time, have multiple types of links (multiplexity), and have multiple scales.

  9. Evolution of sum-chirp in polarization multiplexed communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Wang Zhen-Li

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of sum-chirp for an initially chirped Gaussian pulse is studied in the polarization multiplexed communication system, with fibre attenuation considered. The sum-chirp is found to have the character of saturation.Its value appears different along the two different polarization axes, determined by the incidence polarization angle. We also find that sum-chirp is dominated by the initial chirp at a short distance, and by the cross-phase modulation effect at long distance. And it is influenced apparently by a wavevector mismatch parameter below 10 ps/km. Further, its saturation results from the effective distance determined by fibre attenuation.

  10. Multiplexed Force and Deflection Sensing Shell Membranes for Robotic Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lae; Black, Richard; Moslehi, Behzad; Cutkosky, Mark; Chau, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Force sensing is an essential requirement for dexterous robot manipulation, e.g., for extravehicular robots making vehicle repairs. Although strain gauges have been widely used, a new sensing approach is desirable for applications that require greater robustness, design flexibility including a high degree of multiplexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic noise. This invention is a force and deflection sensor a flexible shell formed with an elastomer having passageways formed by apertures in the shell, with an optical fiber having one or more Bragg gratings positioned in the passageways for the measurement of force and deflection.

  11. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  12. New model for holographic storage by simultaneous angular multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, J. C.; Urzua, D.; Olivares-Peréz, A.; Ortiz-Gutierrez, M.

    2006-05-01

    We describe a technique for holographic storage by simultaneous angular multiplexing to obtain a large-scale holographic memory. We recorded 72 objects at the same time in one point on holographic plate PFG-03M from Slavich Co., using a He-Ne laser (λ = 633 nm). Each object is placed on a circular photographic transparency, separate 0.94 degree each one. The technique allows us simultaneous reconstruction of the 72 images without cross-talk. The diffraction efficiency obtained at order one is 6%. Experimental results are shown.

  13. Topology-optimized silicon photonic wire mode (de)multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frellsen, Louise Floor; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Ding, Yunhong;

    2015-01-01

    of ~4.4 μm x ~2.8 μm and was fabricated for different design resolutions and design threshold values to verify the robustness of the structure to fabrication tolerances. The multiplexing functionality was confirmed by recording mode profiles using an infrared camera and vertical grating couplers. All...... structures were experimentally found to maintain functionality throughout a 100 nm wavelength range limited by available laser sources and insertion losses were generally lower than 1.3 dB. The cross talk was around -12 dB and the extinction ratio was measured to be better than 8 dB....

  14. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  15. Encoded and multiplexed surface plasmon resonance sensor platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Katja F; Lowe, Christopher R; Norman, Carl E

    2008-10-15

    We present a flexible new sensor system that combines the joint advantages of (i) discretely functionalized, code-bearing, microparticles and (ii) label-free detection using grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance. This system offers the possibility of simultaneously investigating the real-time binding kinetics of a variety of molecular interactions. One single multiplexed assay could employ a wide range of immobilization chemistries, surface preparation methods, and formats. Thus, the new system offers a very high level of assay conformability to the end user, particularly when compared to fixed microarrays.

  16. Baseband feedback for SAFARI-SPICA using Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounab, A.; de Korte, P.; Cros, A.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; Monna, B.; Mossel, R.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.; Ravera, L.

    We report on the performance of the digital baseband feedback circuit developed to readout and process signals from arrays of transition edge sensors for SPICA-SAFARI in frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). The standard procedure to readout the SQUID current amplifiers is to use a feedback loop (flux-locked loop: FLL). However the achievable FFL bandwidth is limited by the cable transport delay t_d, which makes standard feedback inconvenient. A much better approach is to use baseband feedback. We have developed a model of the electronic readout chain for SPICA-SAFARI instrument by using an Anlog-digital co-simulation based on Simulink-System Generator environment.

  17. Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoffs in MIMO Relay Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Gunduz, Deniz; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    A multi-hop relay channel with multiple antenna terminals in a quasi-static slow fading environment is considered. For both full-duplex and half-duplex relays the fundamental diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is analyzed. It is shown that, while decode-and-forward (DF) relaying achieves the optimal DMT in the full-duplex relay scenario, the dynamic decode-and-forward (DDF) protocol is needed to achieve the optimal DMT if the relay is constrained to half-duplex operation. For the latter case, static protocols are considered as well, and the corresponding achievable DMT performance is characterized.

  18. Wavelength-Multiplexed Solitons in Optical Communications Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Alan Frederic

    1992-01-01

    Solitons in optical fibers have proved exceedingly useful for counteracting dispersive pulse spreading in ultra-long distance data transmission in optical fibers. However, optical solitons have only been used for point-to-point communication, and have only utilized 1 [ THz] transmission bandwidth available in low-loss optical fiber. An extremely promising proposed system architecture for high-capacity multi-node communication utilizes generation, transmission, and detection of ensembles of pulses denoting data packets, encoded at 1 bit per wavelength. The use of optical solitons in such a wavelength-multiplexed packet switching network promises extremely high long distance capacity, but is complicated by nonlinear interactions between solitons during transmission. We investigate the generation, propagation, and detection of wavelength multiplexed optical soliton data packets through a combination of theoretical analysis utilizing the Inverse Scattering Transform technique, computational numerical analysis, and laboratory experimentation. The optical waveform envelopes evolve by the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation, an integrable nonlinear partial differential equation. There exists an invariant parameter domain, termed the scattering domain, which is nonlinearly related to the spatial domain, where the parameters describing a nonlinear evolving waveform either evolve linearly with time or are constant. Data may therefore be encoded upon these invariant parameters for transmission and effective detection. Through a series of four techniques, ranging from purely theoretical and exact to approximate and highly practical, we demonstrate that, given the expected restrictions on possible pulse parameters for optical communications systems, the information denoted by an ensemble of strongly interacting, wavelength-multiplexed solitons may be extracted from the frequency domain data for the waveform. This demonstrates that it is quite feasible to use solitons for long

  19. Blocking Analysis of Time-Division Multiplexed Multicast Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The particular switch concerned here is a Three-Stage Time-space-time (TST) interconnection network and performs the time-division circuit switching. The input and output stages are Time Slot Interchangers (TSI). The central stage is a time-multiplexed switch with two ports per address. By exploiting the channel grouping at the central stage as well as reducing the average loading at each internal frame,the three-stage multicast switch has potential to remove almost all slot contention blockings.

  20. Sub-diffraction-limit imaging using mode multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Miyazaki, Jun; He, Jinping; Seto, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2015-05-01

    Pixel-by-pixel processed fluorescence difference microscopy is experimentally demonstrated by multiplexing excitation laser beams with Gaussian and donut spot shapes and then demultiplexing the fluorescent signals using lock-in amplifiers. With this scheme, a fixed sample of fluorescent spheres and a slice of mouse brain tissue are imaged with resolutions that exceed the diffraction limit. Compared to previously reported subtraction imaging techniques, this pixel-by-pixel scan can be applied to improve the resolution of a moving sample without introducing subtraction errors. The synchronized signal detection feature makes this method extendible to various applications.

  1. Full-color hologram using spatial multiplexing of dielectric metasurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Liu, Bingyi; Jiang, Huan; Song, Jie; Pei, Yanbo; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate theoretically a full-color hologram using spatial multiplexing of dielectric metasurface for three primary colors, capable of reconstructing arbitrary RGB images. The discrete phase maps for the red, green, and blue components of the target image are extracted through a classical Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and reside in the corresponding subcells of each pixel. Silicon nanobars supporting narrow spectral response at the wavelengths of the three primary colors are employed as the basic meta-atoms to imprint the Pancharatnam-Berry phase while maintaining minimum crosstalk between different colors. The reconstructed holographic images agree well with the target images making it promising for colorful display.

  2. PCR Amplicon Prediction from Multiplex Degenerate Primer and Probe Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-08

    Assessing primer specificity and predicting both desired and off-target amplification products is an essential step for robust PCR assay design. Code is described to predict potential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons in a large sequence database such as NCBI nt from either singleplex or a large multiplexed set of primers, allowing degenerate primer and probe bases, with target mismatch annotates amplicons with gene information automatically downloaded from NCBI, and optionally it can predict whether there are also TaqMan/Luminex probe matches within predicted amplicons.

  3. Multiplexed absorption tomography with calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Weiwei; Kaminski, Clemens F., E-mail: cfk23@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14

    We propose a multiplexed absorption tomography technique, which uses calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with tunable semiconductor lasers for the simultaneous imaging of temperature and species concentration in harsh combustion environments. Compared with the commonly used direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) counterpart, the present variant enjoys better signal-to-noise ratios and requires no baseline fitting, a particularly desirable feature for high-pressure applications, where adjacent absorption features overlap and interfere severely. We present proof-of-concept numerical demonstrations of the technique using realistic phantom models of harsh combustion environments and prove that the proposed techniques outperform currently available tomography techniques based on DAS.

  4. Sinclair ZX Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the hardware, software, peripheral devices, performance capabilities, and programing capacity of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum microcomputer. The computer's display system, its version of the BASIC programing language, its graphics capabilities, and the unique features of its data entry keyboard are discussed. (JL)

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with: 1 Communication and interaction with other people Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors Different people with autism can have different symptoms. For this reason, autism is known as a spectrum disorder —which means that there is a range of ...

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  7. What is a Spectrum?

    CERN Document Server

    Bolton, Adam S; Brownstein, Joel; Pandey, Parul; Schlegel, David; Shu, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    This contribution describes the "spectro-perfectionism" algorithm of Bolton & Schlegel (2010, PASP, 122, 248) that is being implemented within the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), in terms of its potential to deliver Poisson-limited sky subtraction and lossless compression of the input spectrum likelihood functional given raw CCD data.

  8. Battlefield spectrum management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, C.

    1997-06-01

    Modern tactical communications systems rely on radios to support network and user connectivity. One of the challenges for network planners and managers is to make best use of scarce and vulnerable frequency spectrum resources to support the communication needs of war fighters. With the wide variety of Iris radio types typically to be deployed in the battlefield (ranging from high frequency to super high frequency), a comprehensive suite of tools is necessary to ensure that frequency interference is kept minimum. Without a sophisticated frequency spectrum management system, the most advanced tactical communications systems could be rendered useless, jeopardizing human life and national security. For these reasons, it is important to develop an Iris wide battlefield spectrum management capability that takes full advantage of current frequency spectrum management research and development (R&D), related tools, and supporting technology for assigning frequencies. This session briefly describes various assignment strategies being adopted in the Iris BFSM for overcoming cosite/collocated/farsite interferences along with the propagation models [from high frequency (HF) to super high frequency (SHF)] used for the assignment of frequencies. Also a brief thread outlining the process for generating frequency allocation/assignment request and analysis of frequency interference is discussed.

  9. FBMC receiver for multi-user asynchronous transmission on fragmented spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Jean-Baptiste; Berg, Vincent; Cassiau, Nicolas; Kténas, Dimitri

    2014-12-01

    Relaxed synchronization and access to fragmented spectrum are considered for future generations of wireless networks. Frequency division multiple access for filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) modulation provides promising performance without strict synchronization requirements contrary to conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The architecture of a FBMC receiver suitable for this scenario is considered. Carrier frequency offset (CFO) compensation is combined with intercarrier interference (ICI) cancellation and performs well under very large frequency offsets. Channel estimation and interpolation had to be adapted and proved effective even for heavily fragmented spectrum usage. Channel equalization can sustain large delay spread. Because all the receiver baseband signal processing functionalities are proposed in the frequency domain, the overall architecture is suitable for multiuser asynchronous transmission on fragmented spectrum.

  10. Numerical simulations on inter-page crosstalk characteristics in three-dimensional shift multiplexed self-referential holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Taisuke; Takabayashi, Masanori; Okamoto, Atsushi; Bunsen, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) shift multiplexing technique is applied to increase the number of multiplexed datapages in self-referential holographic data storage (SR-HDS), enabling holographic recording with purely one-beam geometry. In the 3D shift multiplexing technique, the recording medium is shifted not only along the x- and y-axes but also along the z-axis to multiplex the datapages. Because the shift directions in the 3D shift multiplexing technique are expanded compared with the conventional 2D technique, the number of multiplexed datapages is expected to be increased. We numerically clarify the appropriate 3D recording layout of holograms in which the effect of the inter-page crosstalk can be reduced after showing that datapages are multiplexed on shifting the recording medium along the z-axis. The results show 3D shift multiplexing can effectively realize high-density SR-HDS when appropriately designed layouts are used.

  11. Spectrum sensing and resource allocation for multicarrier cognitive radio systems under interference and power constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmese, Sener; Srinivasan, Sudharsan; Shaat, Musbah; Bader, Faouzi; Renfors, Markku

    2014-12-01

    Multicarrier waveforms have been commonly recognized as strong candidates for cognitive radio. In this paper, we study the dynamics of spectrum sensing and spectrum allocation functions in cognitive radio context using very practical signal models for the primary users (PUs), including the effects of power amplifier nonlinearities. We start by sensing the spectrum with energy detection-based wideband multichannel spectrum sensing algorithm and continue by investigating optimal resource allocation methods. Along the way, we examine the effects of spectral regrowth due to the inevitable power amplifier nonlinearities of the PU transmitters. The signal model includes frequency selective block-fading channel models for both secondary and primary transmissions. Filter bank-based wideband spectrum sensing techniques are applied for detecting spectral holes and filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is selected for transmission as an alternative multicarrier waveform to avoid the disadvantage of limited spectral containment of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based multicarrier systems. The optimization technique used for the resource allocation approach considered in this study utilizes the information obtained through spectrum sensing and knowledge of spectrum leakage effects of the underlying waveforms, including a practical power amplifier model for the PU transmitter. This study utilizes a computationally efficient algorithm to maximize the SU link capacity with power and interference constraints. It is seen that the SU transmission capacity depends critically on the spectral containment of the PU waveform, and these effects are quantified in a case study using an 802.11-g WLAN scenario.

  12. Associative recall in a volume holographic storage system based on phase-code multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G.; Denz, C.; Orlov, S. S.; Phillips, B.; Hesselink, L.

    2001-12-01

    We present two different techniques on how to realize a content-addressed holographic memory when using phase-code multiplexing, relying on simple intensity measurements rather than phase distributions. Theoretical and experimental results of associative recall in a phase-coded system designed for digital data storage will be presented and compared to the corresponding method when using angular multiplexing.

  13. Determination of Transmission Routing of OXC Nodes Based on AWG Multiplexer by Matrix Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ai-huang; FU Jun-mei

    2004-01-01

    The structures of the space switching and the wavelength switching optical cross connect (OXC)nodes which are based on the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) multiplexer are analyzed. By the matrix transformation relation between the input and output wavelengths of the AWG multiplexer, the wavelength transmission routings of the space switching and wavelength switching OXC nodes are determined.

  14. Numerical simulations on the focus-shift multiplexing technique for self-referential holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Masanori; Eto, Taisuke; Okamoto, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    For increasing the data density of holographic data storage (HDS), combining more than two multiplexing techniques is effective. This is also true in self-referential holographic data storage (SR-HDS) that enables holographic recording purely with a single beam. In this paper, a focus-shift multiplexing technique is applied to xy-shift multiplexed SR-HDS, the feasibility of which has been shown in our previous work. The focus-shift multiplexing technique enables the multiplexing of datapages by slightly changing the focal length of the objective lens. However, the required focus-shift distance for multiplexing and the implementation method of the focus-shift have not been clarified. First, the focus-shift selectivity is investigated by the numerical simulations. In the case where the focus-shift multiplexing technique is applied to xy-shift multiplexed SR-HDS, the inter-page crosstalk properties are clarified to decide the recording layout that can achieve a low-crosstalk readout. Second, the technique of displaying an additional phase pattern onto the spatial light modulator (SLM) is introduced, which is a focus-shift method without any special optical components, such as varifocal lenses. Finally, we investigate the relationship between the accuracy of the focus-shift and the parameters of SLM.

  15. Numerical simulations on the focus-shift multiplexing technique for self-referential holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Masanori; Eto, Taisuke; Okamoto, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    For increasing the data density of holographic data storage (HDS), combining more than two multiplexing techniques is effective. This is also true in self-referential holographic data storage (SR-HDS) that enables holographic recording purely with a single beam. In this paper, a focus-shift multiplexing technique is applied to xy -shift multiplexed SR-HDS, the feasibility of which has been shown in our previous work. The focus-shift multiplexing technique enables the multiplexing of datapages by slightly changing the focal length of the objective lens. However, the required focus-shift distance for multiplexing and the implementation method of the focus-shift have not been clarified. First, the focus-shift selectivity is investigated by the numerical simulations. In the case where the focus-shift multiplexing technique is applied to xy -shift multiplexed SR-HDS, the inter-page crosstalk properties are clarified to decide the recording layout that can achieve a low-crosstalk readout. Second, the technique of displaying an additional phase pattern onto the spatial light modulator (SLM) is introduced, which is a focus-shift method without any special optical components, such as varifocal lenses. Finally, we investigate the relationship between the accuracy of the focus-shift and the parameters of SLM.

  16. Linear Frequency Modulated Signals VS Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Signals for Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    FREQUENCY MODULATED SIGNALS VS ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING SIGNALS FOR SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR SYSTEMS by Sade A. Holder June...SIGNALS VS ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING SIGNALS FOR SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR SYSTEMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Sade A. Holder 7...OFDM) signal versus a linear frequency modulated or chirp signal on simulated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Various parameters of the

  17. High core count single-mode multicore fiber for dense space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aikawa, K.; Sasaki, Y.; Amma, Y.;

    2016-01-01

    Multicore fibers and few-mode fibers have the potential to realize dense-space-division multiplexing systems. Several dense-space-division multiplexing system transmission experiments over multicore fibers and few-mode fibers have been demonstrated so far. Multicore fibers, including recent resul...

  18. 47 CFR 73.669 - TV stereophonic aural and multiplex subcarrier operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV stereophonic aural and multiplex subcarrier... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.669 TV stereophonic aural and multiplex subcarrier operation. (a) A TV broadcast station may without specific authority from the...

  19. Transmission performance through cascaded 1-nm arrayed waveguide multiplexers at 10 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissov, Morten; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Jørgensen, Bo Foged

    1997-01-01

    The transmission properties of cascaded arrayed waveguide multiplexers are examined in a recirculating loop experiment. We show that a cascade of 40 multiplexers each with 3-dB bandwidth of ∼1 nm can be passed penalty-free at 10 Gb/s. Furthermore, we show that the allowable fluctuation of the cen......The transmission properties of cascaded arrayed waveguide multiplexers are examined in a recirculating loop experiment. We show that a cascade of 40 multiplexers each with 3-dB bandwidth of ∼1 nm can be passed penalty-free at 10 Gb/s. Furthermore, we show that the allowable fluctuation...... of the center frequency for a 10 Gb/s signal is reduced to 24 GHz at bit-error rate (BER)=10-9 for a concatenation of 40 multiplexers....

  20. Polymeric 32-channel arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer using fluorinated poly (ether ether ketone)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wang(王菲); Wei Sun(孙伟); Aize Li(李艾泽); Maobin Yi(衣茂斌); Zhenhua Jiang(姜振华); Daming Zhang(张大明)

    2004-01-01

    In wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems, an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) multiplexer is a key component. A polymeric AWG multiplexer has recently attracted much attention due to its low cost processing and a potential of integration with other devices. Fluorinated poly (ether ether ketone)(FPEEK) is excellent material for fabrication of optical waveguides due to its low absorption loss at 1.55-μm wavelength and high thermal stability. A 32-channel AWG multiplexer has been designed based on the grating diffraction theory and fabricated using newly synthesized FPEEK. During the fabrication process of the Polymer/Si AWG device, spin coating, vaporizing, photolithographic patterning and reactive ion etching (RIE) are used. The AWG multiplexer measurement system is based on a tunable semiconductor laser, infrared camera and a Peltier-type heater. The device exhibits a wavelength channel spacing of 0.8nm and a center wavelength of 1548 nm in the room temperature.

  1. Cavity-enhanced eigenmode and angular hybrid multiplexing in holographic data storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bo E; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2016-12-26

    Resonant optical cavities have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiencies in Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). The orthogonal reference beams supported as cavity eigenmodes can provide another multiplexing degree of freedom to push storage densities toward the limit of 3D optical data storage. While keeping the increased energy efficiency of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modification of current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  2. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can c...

  3. Analog signal multiplexing for PSAPD-based PET detectors: simulation and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Frances W Y; Vandenbroucke, Arne; Reynolds, Paul D; Olcott, Peter D; Horowitz, Mark A; Levin, Craig S

    2010-12-07

    A 1 mm(3) resolution clinical positron emission tomography (PET) system employing 4608 position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) is under development. This paper describes a detector multiplexing technique that simplifies the readout electronics and reduces the density of the circuit board design. The multiplexing scheme was validated using a simulation framework that models the PSAPDs and front-end multiplexing circuits to predict the signal-to-noise ratio and flood histogram performance. Two independent experimental setups measured the energy resolution, time resolution, crystal identification ability and count rate both with and without multiplexing. With multiplexing, there was no significant degradation in energy resolution, time resolution and count rate. There was a relative 6.9 ± 1.0% and 9.4 ± 1.0% degradation in the figure of merit that characterizes the crystal identification ability observed in the measured and simulated ceramic-mounted PSAPD module flood histograms, respectively.

  4. A Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassay for Zika Virus Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Wong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious agents is essential for patient care, disease control, and countermeasure development. The present serologic diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV infection relies mainly on IgM-capture ELISA which is confounded with the flaw of cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. In this communication, we report a multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MIA that captures the diagnostic power of viral envelope protein (that elicits robust, yet cross-reactive antibodies to other flaviviruses and the differential power of viral nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS5 (that induce more virus-type specific antibodies. Using 153 patient specimens with known ZIKV and/or dengue virus (DENV; a closely related flavivirus infections, we showed that (i ZIKV envelope-based MIA is equivalent or more sensitive than IgM-capture ELISA in diagnosing ZIKV infection, (ii antibody responses to NS1 and NS5 proteins are more ZIKV-specific than antibody response to envelope protein, (iii inclusion of NS1 and NS5 in the MIA improves the diagnostic accuracy when compared with the MIA that uses envelope protein alone. The multiplex MIA achieves a rapid diagnosis (turnaround time < 4 h and requires small specimen volume (10 μl in a single reaction. This serologic assay could be developed for use in clinical diagnosis of ZIKV infection and for monitoring immune responses in vaccine trials.

  5. Multiplexed temporal coding of electric communication signals in mormyrid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christa A; Kohashi, Tsunehiko; Lyons-Warren, Ariel M; Ma, Xiaofeng; Carlson, Bruce A

    2013-07-01

    The coding of stimulus information into patterns of spike times occurs widely in sensory systems. Determining how temporally coded information is decoded by central neurons is essential to understanding how brains process sensory stimuli. Mormyrid weakly electric fishes are experts at time coding, making them an exemplary organism for addressing this question. Mormyrids generate brief, stereotyped electric pulses. Pulse waveform carries information about sender identity, and it is encoded into submillisecond-to-millisecond differences in spike timing between receptors. Mormyrids vary the time between pulses to communicate behavioral state, and these intervals are encoded into the sequence of interspike intervals within receptors. Thus, the responses of peripheral electroreceptors establish a temporally multiplexed code for communication signals, one consisting of spike timing differences between receptors and a second consisting of interspike intervals within receptors. These signals are processed in a dedicated sensory pathway, and recent studies have shed light on the mechanisms by which central circuits can extract behaviorally relevant information from multiplexed temporal codes. Evolutionary change in the anatomy of this pathway is related to differences in electrosensory perception, which appears to have influenced the diversification of electric signals and species. However, it remains unknown how this evolutionary change relates to differences in sensory coding schemes, neuronal circuitry and central sensory processing. The mormyrid electric communication pathway is a powerful model for integrating mechanistic studies of temporal coding with evolutionary studies of correlated differences in brain and behavior to investigate neural mechanisms for processing temporal codes.

  6. Multiplexed site-specific electrode functionalization for multitarget biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrie, Karen; Jans, Karolien; Vos, Rita; Ardakanian, Niyousha; Verellen, Niels; Van Hoof, Chris; Lagae, Liesbet; Stakenborg, Tim

    2016-12-01

    Multitarget biosensors hold great promise to improve point-of-care diagnostics as they enable simultaneous detection of different biomolecular markers. Multiplexed detection of different markers, like genes, proteins, or a combination of both, propels advancement in numerous fields such as genomics, medical diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The functionalization of these biosensors, however, necessitates patterned immobilization of different bioreceptors, which remains challenging and time-consuming. We demonstrate a simple method for the patterned multiplexing of bioreceptors on a multi-electrode chip. By using the lithographically defined electrodes for surface functionalization, additional patterning steps become obsolete. Using the electrodes for self-aligned immobilization provides a spatial resolution that is limited by the electrode patterning process and that cannot be easily obtained by alternative dispensing or coating techniques. Via electrochemical reduction of diazonium salts combined with click chemistry, we achieved site-specific immobilization of two different ssDNA probes side by side on a single chip. This method was experimentally verified by cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and specific target recognition was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The combination of the electroaddressability of electrografting with the chemoselectivity of click chemistry, offers a versatile platform for highly efficient site-specific functionalization of multitarget biosensors.

  7. A Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassay for Zika Virus Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Susan J; Furuya, Andrea; Zou, Jing; Xie, Xuping; Dupuis, Alan P; Kramer, Laura D; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-02-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious agents is essential for patient care, disease control, and countermeasure development. The present serologic diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection relies mainly on IgM-capture ELISA which is confounded with the flaw of cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. In this communication, we report a multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MIA) that captures the diagnostic power of viral envelope protein (that elicits robust, yet cross-reactive antibodies to other flaviviruses) and the differential power of viral nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS5 (that induce more virus-type specific antibodies). Using 153 patient specimens with known ZIKV and/or dengue virus (DENV; a closely related flavivirus) infections, we showed that (i) ZIKV envelope-based MIA is equivalent or more sensitive than IgM-capture ELISA in diagnosing ZIKV infection, (ii) antibody responses to NS1 and NS5 proteins are more ZIKV-specific than antibody response to envelope protein, (iii) inclusion of NS1 and NS5 in the MIA improves the diagnostic accuracy when compared with the MIA that uses envelope protein alone. The multiplex MIA achieves a rapid diagnosis (turnaround time<4h) and requires small specimen volume (10μl) in a single reaction. This serologic assay could be developed for use in clinical diagnosis of ZIKV infection and for monitoring immune responses in vaccine trials.

  8. Conditions for Viral Influence Spreading through Multiplex Correlated Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanqing; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-04-01

    A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up "new ideas." Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through "viral" influence spreading, producing cascades of followers and fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the rise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the rise of Facebook to the detriment of Myspace. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex-correlated graph with hidden "influence links." Analytical solutions predict percolation-phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers, as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of the local correlation function between multilayers, which we also confirm empirically. Ultimately, the theory predicts the conditions for viral cascading in a large class of multiplex networks ranging from social to financial systems and markets.

  9. Depth profilometry via multiplexed optical high-coherence interferometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoud Kazemzadeh

    Full Text Available Depth Profilometry involves the measurement of the depth profile of objects, and has significant potential for various industrial applications that benefit from non-destructive sub-surface profiling such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument utilizes the spatial coherence of a laser and the interferometric properties of light to probe the reflectivity as a function of depth of a sample. The axial and lateral resolutions, as well as imaging depth, are decoupled in the MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument is capable of multiplexing interferometric measurements into 480 one-dimensional interferograms at a location on the sample and is built with axial and lateral resolutions of 40 μm at a maximum imaging depth of 700 μm. Preliminary results, where a piece of sand-blasted aluminum, an NBK7 glass piece, and an optical phantom were successfully probed using the MOHI instrument to produce depth profiles, demonstrate the feasibility of such an instrument for performing depth profilometry.

  10. Extreme multiplex spectroscopy at wide-field 4-m telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Content, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design and science case for a spectrograph for the prime focus of classical 4-m wide-field telescopes that can deliver at least 4000 MOS slits over a 1 degree field. This extreme multiplex capability means that 25000 galaxy redshifts can be measured in a single night, opening up the possibilities for large galaxy redshift surveys out to z~0.7 and beyond for the purpose of measuring the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale and for many other science goals. The design features four cloned spectrographs and exploits the exclusive possibility of tiling the focal plane of wide-field 4-m telescopes with CCDs for multi-object spectroscopic purposes. In ~200 night projects, such spectrographs have the potential to make galaxy redshift surveys of ~6 million galaxies over a wide redshift range and thus may provide a low-cost alternative to other survey routes such as WFMOS and SKA. Two of these extreme multiplex spectrographs are currently being designed for the AAT (NG1dF) and Calar Alto (XMS) 4-m c...

  11. Multiplexed polymer surface plasmon sensor with integrated optical coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Hyeon-Bong; Park, Se Ho; Chung, Kwang Hyo; Choi, Chang Auck

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel multiplexed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor which is made of cyclic olefin copolymers (COCs, TOPAS TM). This material has excellent chemical resistance, low water uptake (multiplexed detection of DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). To evaluate the sensitivity of COC-SPR sensor, we first patterned MgF II on gold-coated COC-SPR sensor and observed the shift of minimum reflectivity (SPR dip) in pixel address. As incident light source we used an expanded, collimated, rectangular shaped He-Ne laser, with a diffuser for beam homogenization. With expanded laser beam we varied incident angle so that the angular shift is expressed as the darkest pixel shift on CCD. For optimized SPR characteristics and sensor configuration, analytical calculations (Fresnel equation) were performed, and the best SPR conditions were found to be d Au~48 nm at wavelength λ=633 nm with respected resonance angle at θ SPR =44.2° for COC-SPR sensor.

  12. Clustering determines the dynamics of complex contagions in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yong; Arenas, Alex; Yaǧan, Osman

    2017-01-01

    We present the mathematical analysis of generalized complex contagions in a class of clustered multiplex networks. The model is intended to understand spread of influence, or any other spreading process implying a threshold dynamics, in setups of interconnected networks with significant clustering. The contagion is assumed to be general enough to account for a content-dependent linear threshold model, where each link type has a different weight (for spreading influence) that may depend on the content (e.g., product, rumor, political view) that is being spread. Using the generating functions formalism, we determine the conditions, probability, and expected size of the emergent global cascades. This analysis provides a generalization of previous approaches and is especially useful in problems related to spreading and percolation. The results present nontrivial dependencies between the clustering coefficient of the networks and its average degree. In particular, several phase transitions are shown to occur depending on these descriptors. Generally speaking, our findings reveal that increasing clustering decreases the probability of having global cascades and their size, however, this tendency changes with the average degree. There exists a certain average degree from which on clustering favors the probability and size of the contagion. By comparing the dynamics of complex contagions over multiplex networks and their monoplex projections, we demonstrate that ignoring link types and aggregating network layers may lead to inaccurate conclusions about contagion dynamics, particularly when the correlation of degrees between layers is high.

  13. Multiplex PCR System Optimization with Potato SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shao-peng; Liu Shang-wu; Li Yong; Liu Wei-ting; Lv Dian-qiu

    2012-01-01

    Potato variety Kexin18 was used as testing materials in this research to study the influence on main components in multiplex PCR system, different primer ratios and annealing temperatures in SSR marker amplification. Concentration and gradient experiments for four components (enzyme, MgCl2, DNA template and dNTPs) in PCR system were used in the research with the concentration of the other component remained the same; the orthogonal design L9 (34) was applied in the optimization of four sets of primers (STM0014, Pat, SSI, and UGP) in the reaction system at three levels; the temperature gradient selection was used to find out the optimum annealing temperature for the primer. The optimized multiplex PCR system of potato SSR marker with a total volume of 20 μL : 2.5 μL 25 mmol.L-1 MgCl2, 0.6 μL 10 mmol·L-1 dNTPs, 0.8 U Taq, 80 ng DNA template was ultimately established through the comparison and analysis of test results; the ratio of four pairs of 4 mmol. L1 primers was 2 : 1 : 2 : 3, and the annealing temperature was 54.7℃. The optimized reaction system could be repeated stably; and the stable and reliable amplification results were able to clearly distinguish different potato varieties. This research built the solid foundation for the further study of genetic diversity of potato germplasms and construction of DNA fingerprinting..

  14. Low-cost, multiplexed biosensor for disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Christopher J.; Delaney, Marie; Todorof, Kathryn; Heil, James; Givens, Monique; Schooley, Robert T.; Lochhead, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    Cost-effective disease diagnosis in resource-limited settings remains a critical global health challenge. Qualitative rapid tests based on lateral flow technology provide valuable screening information, but require relatively expensive confirmatory tests and generally lack quantitation. We report on a fluorescence technology that combines low cost instrumented readout with passive pumping in a disposable cartridge. The detection system utilizes a novel waveguide illumination approach in conjunction with commercial CMOS imagers. Total instrument cost in production are projected to be around $100 This cost structure and instrument ease of use will enable use in point-of-care settings, outside of centralized laboratories. The system has been used for detection and analysis of proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cells. Here we will report first on our development of a multiplexed, array-based serology assay for HIV and common AIDS co-infections. Data will be presented for HIV/HCV antibody testing in human serum samples. In addition, we will present data on the use of the system for sensitive detection of bacterial RNA. Current detection limit for the model multiplexed RNA sandwich assay is 1 femtomolar target RNA. Finally, a high magnification version of the system is used to image immunostained human T cells.

  15. Spectral multiplexing using stacked volume-phase holographic gratings - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Landoni, M.; Riva, M.; Bianco, A.

    2017-08-01

    Many focal-reducer spectrographs, currently available at state-of-the-art telescopes facilities, would benefit from a simple refurbishing that could increase both the resolution and spectral range in order to cope with the progressively challenging scientific requirements, but, in order to make this update appealing, it should minimize the changes in the existing structure of the instrument. In the past, many authors proposed solutions based on stacking subsequently layers of dispersive elements and recording multiple spectra in one shot (multiplexing). Although this idea is promising, it brings several drawbacks and complexities that prevent the straightforward integration of such a device in a spectrograph. Fortunately, nowadays, the situation has changed dramatically, thanks to the successful experience achieved through photopolymeric holographic films, used to fabricate common volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHGs). Thanks to the various advantages made available by these materials in this context, we propose an innovative solution to design a stacked multiplexed VPHG that is able to secure efficiently different spectra in a single shot. This allows us to increase resolution and spectral range enabling astronomers to greatly economize their awarded time at the telescope. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of our solution, both in terms of expected performance and feasibility, supposing the upgrade of the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS).

  16. Multiplexed detection of bacteria and toxins using a microflow cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason S; Anderson, George P; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Golden, Joel P; Nasir, Mansoor; Ligler, Frances S

    2009-07-01

    A microfabricated flow cytometer was used to demonstrate multiplexed detection of bacteria and toxins using fluorescent coded microspheres. Antibody-coated microspheres bound biothreat targets in a sandwich immunoassay format. The microfluidic cytometer focused the microspheres in three dimensions within the laser interrogation region using passive groove structures to surround the sample stream with sheath fluid. Optical analysis at four different wavelengths identified the coded microspheres and quantified target bound by the presence of phycoerythrin tracer. The multiplexed assays in the microflow cytometer had performance approaching that of a commercial benchtop flow cytometer. The respective limits of detection for bacteria (Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Salmonella) were found to be 10(3), 10(5), and 10(4) cfu/mL for the microflow cytometer and 10(3), 10(6), and 10(5) cfu/mL for the commercial system. Limits of detection for the toxins (cholera toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, and ricin) were 1.6, 0.064, and 1.6 ng/mL for the microflow cytometer and 1.6, 0.064, and 8.0 ng/mL for the commercial system.

  17. Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong [Quantum Communication Technology Co., Ltd., Anhui, Hefei, Anhui 230088 (China); Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun, E-mail: tychen@ustc.edu.cn; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users.

  18. Multiplexed labeling system for high-throughput cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Song, In Hyun; Shin, Woo Jung; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Dong-Ik; Um, Soong Ho

    2016-09-01

    Flow cytometry and fluorescence activated cell sorting techniques were designed to realize configurable classification and separation of target cells. A number of cell phenotypes with different functionalities have recently been revealed. Before simultaneous selective capture of cells, it is desirable to label different samples with the corresponding dyes in a multiplexing manner to allow for a single analysis. However, few methods to obtain multiple fluorescent colors for various cell types have been developed. Even when restricted laser sources are employed, a small number of color codes can be expressed simultaneously. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to manifest DNA nanostructure-based multifluorescent colors formed by a complex of dyes. Highly precise self-assembly of fluorescent dye-conjugated oligonucleotides gives anisotropic DNA nanostructures, Y- and tree-shaped DNA (Y-DNA and T-DNA, respectively), which may be used as platforms for fluorescent codes. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated seven different fluorescent codes with only two different fluorescent dyes using T-DNA. This method provides maximum efficiency for current flow cytometry. We are confident that this system will provide highly efficient multiplexed fluorescent detection for bioanalysis compared with one-to-one fluorescent correspondence for specific marker detection.

  19. Few-mode fiber technology for mode division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Wada, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhide

    2017-02-01

    We review recent progress on few-mode fiber (FMF) technologies for mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission. First, we introduce fibers for use without and with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) to compensate for modal crosstalk, and briefly report recent work on FMF for use without/with a MIMO DSP system. We next discuss in detail a fiber for MIMO transmission systems, and show numerically that a graded-index core can flexibly tune the differential mode group delay (DMD) and a cladding trench can flexibly control the guiding mode number. We optimized the spacing of the core and trench. Accordingly, we can achieve a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode operation and a low DMD while preventing the high index difference that leads to manufacturing difficulties and any loss increase. We finally describe our experimental results for a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode transmission line for use in a C + L band wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) MDM transmission with MIMO DSP.

  20. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for Legionella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Min; Jeong, Yoojung; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2015-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (sg1) accounts for the majority of infections in humans, but other Legionella species are also associated with human disease. In this study, a new SYBR Green I-based multiplex real-time PCR assay in a single reaction was developed to allow the rapid detection and differentiation of Legionella species by targeting specific gene sequences. Candidate target genes were selected, and primer sets were designed by referring to comparative genomic hybridization data of Legionella species. The Legionella species-specific groES primer set successfully detected all 30 Legionella strains tested. The xcpX and rfbA primers specifically detected L. pneumophila sg1-15 and L. pneumophila sg1, respectively. In addition, this assay was validated by testing clinical samples and isolates. In conclusion, this novel multiplex real-time PCR assay might be a useful diagnostic tool for the rapid detection and differentiation of Legionella species in both clinical and epidemiological studies.

  1. Multiplex visibility graphs to investigate recurrent neural network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Filippo Maria; Livi, Lorenzo; Alippi, Cesare; Jenssen, Robert

    2017-03-01

    A recurrent neural network (RNN) is a universal approximator of dynamical systems, whose performance often depends on sensitive hyperparameters. Tuning them properly may be difficult and, typically, based on a trial-and-error approach. In this work, we adopt a graph-based framework to interpret and characterize internal dynamics of a class of RNNs called echo state networks (ESNs). We design principled unsupervised methods to derive hyperparameters configurations yielding maximal ESN performance, expressed in terms of prediction error and memory capacity. In particular, we propose to model time series generated by each neuron activations with a horizontal visibility graph, whose topological properties have been shown to be related to the underlying system dynamics. Successively, horizontal visibility graphs associated with all neurons become layers of a larger structure called a multiplex. We show that topological properties of such a multiplex reflect important features of ESN dynamics that can be used to guide the tuning of its hyperparamers. Results obtained on several benchmarks and a real-world dataset of telephone call data records show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  2. Bioplasmonic calligraphy for multiplexed label-free biodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Limei; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Park, Sang Hyun; Liu, Keng-Ku; Morrissey, Jeremiah J; Kharasch, Evan D; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2014-09-15

    Printable multi-marker biochips that enable simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple target biomarkers in point-of-care and resource-limited settings are a holy grail in the field of biodiagnostics. However, preserving the functionality of biomolecules, which are routinely employed as recognition elements, during conventional printing approaches remains challenging. In this article, we introduce a simple yet powerful approach, namely plasmonic calligraphy, for realizing multiplexed label-free bioassays. Plasmonic calligraphy involves a regular ballpoint pen filled with biofunctionalized gold nanorods as plasmonic ink for creating isolated test domains on paper substrates. Biofriendly plasmonic calligraphy approach serves as a facile method to miniaturize the test domain size to few mm(2), which significantly improves the sensitivity of the plasmonic biosensor compared to bioplasmonic paper fabricated using immersion approach. Furthermore, plasmonic calligraphy also serves as a simple and efficient means to isolate multiple test domains on a single test strip, which facilitates multiplexed biodetection and multi-marker biochips. Plasmonic calligraphy, which can be potentially automated by implementing with a robotic arm, serves as an alternate path forward to overcome the limitations of conventional ink-jet printing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiplex micro-respiratory measurements of Arabidopsis tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Holzmann, Cristián; Huang, Shaobai; Taylor, Nicolas L; Jordana, Xavier; Millar, A Harvey

    2013-11-01

    Researchers often want to study the respiratory properties of individual parts of plants in response to a range of treatments. Arabidopsis is an obvious model for this work; however, because of its size, it represents a challenge for gas exchange measurements of respiration. The combination of micro-respiratory technologies with multiplex assays has the potential to bridge this gap, and make measurements possible in this model plant species. We show the adaptation of the commercial technology used for mammalian cell respiration analysis to study three critical tissues of interest: leaf sections, root tips and seeds. The measurement of respiration in single leaf discs has allowed the age dependence of the respiration rate in Arabidopsis leaves across the rosette to be observed. The oxygen consumption of single root tips from plate-grown seedlings shows the enhanced respiration of root tips and their time-dependent susceptibility to salinity. The monitoring of single Arabidopsis seeds shows the kinetics of respiration over 48 h post-imbibition, and the effect of the phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA3 ) and abscisic acid (ABA) on respiration during seed germination. These studies highlight the potential for multiplexed micro-respiratory assays to study oxygen consumption in Arabidopsis tissues, and open up new possibilities to screen and study mutants and to identify differences in ecotypes or populations of different plant species.

  4. Synchronization, retiming and time-division multiplexing of an asynchronous 10 gigabit NRZ Ethernet packet to Terabit Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2011-01-01

    time-division multiplexed with a serial 1.28 Tb/s signal including a vacant time slot, thus forming a 1.29 Tb/s time-division multiplexed serial signal. Error-free performance of synchronizing, retiming, time-division multiplexing to a Terabit data stream and finally demultiplexing back to 10 Gb...

  5. A new multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification a panel of bacteria involved in bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fazzeli

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The presented multiplex PCR offers a rapid and accurate molecular diagnostic tool for simultaneous detection of some pathogenic microorganisms. The IC exists in the multiplex PCR accompanied by other primers in the system, can serve as a simple, cost- effective internal control for the multiplex PCR assay.

  6. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  7. Raman spectrum of asphaltene

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael A.

    2012-11-05

    Asphaltenes extracted from seven different crude oils representing different geological formations from around the globe were analyzed using the Raman spectroscopic technique. Each spectrum is fitted with four main peaks using the Gaussian function. On the basis of D1 and G bands of the Raman spectrum, asphaltene indicated an ordered structure with the presence of boundary defected edges. The average aromatic sheet size of the asphaltene molecules is estimated within the range of 1.52-1.88 nm, which represents approximately seven to eight aromatic fused rings. This estimation is based on the integrated intensity of D1 and G bands, as proposed by Tunistra and Koenig. The results here are in perfect agreement with so many other used techniques and indicate the potential applicability of Raman measurements to determine the average aromatic ring size and its boundary. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. The Supersymmetric Particle Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Ohmann, P

    1994-01-01

    We examine the spectrum of supersymmetric particles predicted by grand unified theoretical (GUT) models where the electroweak symmetry breaking is accomplished radiatively. We evolve the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters according to the renormalization group equations (RGE). The minimization of the Higgs potential is conveniently described by means of tadpole diagrams. We present complete one-loop expressions for these minimization conditions, including contributions from the matter and the gauge sectors. We concentrate on the low $\\tan \\beta$ fixed point region (that provides a natural explanation of a large top quark mass) for which we find solutions to the RGE satisfying both experimental bounds and fine-tuning criteria. We also find that the constraint from the consideration of the lightest supersymmetric particle as the dark matter of the universe is accommodated in much of parameter space where the lightest neutralino is predominantly gaugino. The supersymmetric mass spectrum displays correlations...

  9. [Clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owecki, Michał K; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease with a wide variety of symptoms involving the skin as well as nervous, musculosceletal and cardiovascular systems. Lyme disease is caused by spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by Ixodes tics in endemic regions. The diverse manifestations of neuroborreliosis require it to be included in differential diagnosis of many neurological disorders. The paper reviews the spectrum of clinical symptoms of nervous system involvement in early and late Lyme disease.

  10. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna

    2011-01-01

    Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...

  11. Energy efficient flexible hybrid wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing passive optical network with pay as you grow deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit Kumar; Madavi, Amresh Ashok; Janyani, Vijay

    2017-02-01

    A flexible hybrid wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing passive optical network architecture that allows dual rate signals to be sent at 1 and 10 Gbps to each optical networking unit depending upon the traffic load is proposed. The proposed design allows dynamic wavelength allocation with pay-as-you-grow deployment capability. This architecture is capable of providing up to 40 Gbps of equal data rates to all optical distribution networks (ODNs) and up to 70 Gbps of a asymmetrical data rate to the specific ODN. The proposed design handles broadcasting capability with simultaneous point-to-point transmission, which further reduces energy consumption. In this architecture, each module sends a wavelength to each ODN, thus making the architecture fully flexible; this flexibility allows network providers to use only required OLT components and switch off others. The design is also reliable to any module or TRx failure and provides services without any service disruption. Dynamic wavelength allocation and pay-as-you-grow deployment support network extensibility and bandwidth scalability to handle future generation access networks.

  12. Spectrum Services 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, L.; Budavári, T.; Csabai, I.; Szalay, A. S.

    2008-10-01

    We present the Filter and Spectrum Services consisting of easy-to-use web applications and web services for searching, plotting and managing large collections of spectral energy distribution data and filter profiles as well as for performing various scientific operations on spectra in a unified framework. The services provide keyword search, advanced query forms and SQL query possibilities for selecting spectra or bandpass curves which may be retrieved in a variety of file formats including XML, VOTable and ASCII. All SDSS DR1-DR5 spectra had been loaded into a database as well as the entire 2dF catalog that adds up to more than 2.5 million SEDs of about a million spatial objects, but registered users can upload their own data making it available for the rest of the community and are free to modify or delete them at any time. Theoretical catalogs, such as the Bruzual-Charlot stochastic burst model spectrum library (100k spectra) and the BaSeL stellar library are also available. Scientific services allow building rest-frame composite spectra out of selected spectra; calculating synthetic magnitudes by convolving spectra with an arbitrary set of bandpass curves of optical instrument filters to generate simulated photometric catalogs on-the-fly; galactic extinction correction, fitting of the continuum using different set of templates (Bruzual-Charlot '03 templates, SDSS eigenspectra), line fitting. All scientific functionalities are available from the web user interface and via the SOAP web services for programmers. MySpectrum is a cross-platform version of the spectrum web service for setting up your own spectrum repository. It integrates into the main service allowing easy access to your data for the whole VO community. The main idea behind our web services is to move scientific functionalities physically close to the database in order to spare network bandwidth. This way scientists may do research without setting up expensive hardware, downloading large datasets

  13. Blind Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation via Power Spectrum Analysis in MIMO OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lu; ZHANG Xianda

    2009-01-01

    As a generalization of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems,multi-input multi-output (MIMO) OFDM systems are very sensitive to carrier frequency offset (CFO).This paper proposes a blind CFO estimation method based on power spectrum analysis,which has high bandwidth efficiency and is much less complex.This method can be used to estimate the residual CFO,which is less than half of the subcarrier spacing.The method uses a cosine cost function to get a closed-form CFO estimate.Simulation results illustrate that the method is effective for MIMO OFDM systems.

  14. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  15. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita - a rare congenital stiff joints syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is not a disease but a term describing multiple congenital contractures. Etiological factors include neurological and primary myogenic diseases. This rare syndrome is present at birth and is characterized by reduced mobility of many joints. The contractures involve two or more joints with ankylosis. The accompanying musculature is hypoplastic, but multiple pterygia are also present. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders with the incidence rate of 6.2/100000 liveborn infants. The true incidence cannot be established, because many cases result in spontaneous miscarriages or stillbirth. More than 90% of cases are associated with birth defects. The cause of this syndrome is unknown. Many forms are not hereditary, though there are hereditary forms as well. Case report. This paper presents a case with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. The pregnancy was not controlled regularly. During the pregnancy, oligohydramnion was detected. Due to contractures, labor ended is cesarean section. The child was born in the 34th week of gestation. Flexion and extension joint contractures were observed. Active and passive mobility of the afflicted joints was reduced. There was a limited motor function in the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints with a slight internal rotation of the shoulder joint and lower arm joints during pronation. The hips were subluxated; the feet were in equinovarus position and the fingers in ulnar deviation with partial syndactyly of the 4th and 5th fingers on the left hand. The infant had abnormal dermatoglyphics. The neck was short, and the 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebrae were fused. There was also a slight left-sided thoracic scoliosis. Trismus was present due to the existing ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint. The karyotype was normal. The serum creatinine phosphokinase was slightly elevated. The electromyographic picture indicate non-specific signs of

  16. Multiplex Serum Cytokine Immunoassay Using Nanoplasmonic Biosensor Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengyu; Chung, Meng Ting; McHugh, Walker; Nidetz, Robert; Li, Yuwei; Fu, Jianping; Cornell, Timothy T.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    Precise monitoring of the rapidly changing immune status during the course of a disease requires multiplex analysis of cytokines from frequently sampled human blood. However, the current lack of rapid, multiplex, and low volume assays makes immune monitoring for clinical decision-making (e.g., critically ill patients) impractical. Without such assays, immune monitoring is even virtually impossible for infants and neonates with infectious diseases and/or immune mediated disorders as access to their blood in large quantities is prohibited. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based microfluidic optical biosensing is a promising approach to fill this technical gap as it could potentially permit real-time refractometric detection of biomolecular binding on a metallic nanoparticle surface and sensor miniaturization, both leading to rapid and sample-sparing analyte analysis. Despite this promise, practical implementation of such a microfluidic assay for cytokine biomarker detection in serum samples has not been established primarily due to the limited sensitivity of LSPR biosensing. Here, we developed a high-throughput, label-free, multiarrayed LSPR optical biosensor device with 480 nanoplasmonic sensing spots in microfluidic channel arrays and demonstrated parallel multiplex immunoassays of six cytokines in a complex serum matrix on a single device chip while overcoming technical limitations. The device was fabricated using easy-to-implement, one-step microfluidic patterning and antibody conjugation of gold nanorods (AuNRs). When scanning the scattering light intensity across the microarrays of AuNR ensembles with dark-field imaging optics, our LSPR biosensing technique allowed for high-sensitivity quantitative cytokine measurements at concentrations down to 5–20 pg/mL from a 1 µL serum sample. Using the nanoplasmonic biosensor microarray device, we demonstrated the ability to monitor the inflammatory responses of infants following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB

  17. Multiplex and genome-wide analyses reveal distinctive properties of KIR+ and CD56+ T cells in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing Keung; Rujkijyanont, Piya; Neale, Geoffrey; Yang, Jie; Bari, Rafijul; Das Gupta, Neha; Holladay, Martha; Rooney, Barbara; Leung, Wing

    2013-08-15

    Killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) on NK cells have been linked to a wide spectrum of health conditions such as chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, pregnancy complications, cancers, and transplant failures. A small subset of effector memory T cells also expresses KIRs. In this study, we use modern analytic tools including genome-wide and multiplex molecular, phenotypic, and functional assays to characterize the KIR(+) T cells in human blood. We find that KIR(+) T cells primarily reside in the CD56(+) T population that is distinctively DNAM-1(high) with a genome-wide quiescent transcriptome, short telomere, and limited TCR excision circles. During CMV reactivation in bone marrow transplant recipients, KIR(+)CD56(+) T cells rapidly expanded in real-time but not KIR(+)CD56(-) T cells or KIR(+) NK cells. In CMV(+) asymptomatic donors, as much as 50% of CD56(+) T cells are KIR(+), and most are distinguishably KIR2DL2/3(+)NKG2C(+)CD57(+). Functionally, the KIR(+)CD56(+) T cell subset lyses cancer cells and CMVpp65-pulsed target cells in a dual KIR-dependent and TCR-dependent manner. Analysis of metabolic transcriptome confirms the immunological memory status of KIR(+)CD56(+) T cells in contrast to KIR(-)CD56(+) T cells that are more active in energy metabolism and effector differentiation. KIR(-)CD56(+) T cells have >25-fold higher level of expression of RORC than the KIR(+) counterpart and are a previously unknown producer of IL-13 rather than IL-17 in multiplex cytokine arrays. Our data provide fundamental insights into KIR(+) T cells biologically and clinically.

  18. Simulations and first manufacturing steps of a fully integrated WDM-element in the visible spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höll, S.; Haupt, M.; Fischer, U. H. P.

    2013-09-01

    Due to their economical and easy-manageable advantages, POFs (polymer optical fiber) are going to replace traditional communication media such as copper and glass step by step within short distance communication systems. POFs are already used in various fields of optical communication, e.g. the automotive sector or in-house communication. Though single channel communication systems are state of the art technology, using of only one channel/wavelength for communication limits the bandwidth. For future scenarios this traditional technology is the bottleneck of bandwidth, particularly for HDTV with IP-TV. One solution to breakthrough this limitation is to use more than one wavelength over one single fiber, this is called WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) and is well-established for GOF communication. This technique will be adapted for the visible spectrum for POF. However this multiplexing technology requires two more key-elements: a multiplexer, which combines the multiple wavelengths signals into one fiber, and a demultiplexer at the end of the network to separate the colored signals. In this paper, the development of this key-element based on a Rowland spectrometer will be shown. It starts with the simulation, this is done by means of raytracing. Also the next process steps and solutions for injection molding are described.

  19. Mesoscopic structures reveal the network between the layers of multiplex data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Wu, Zhihao; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-10-01

    Multiplex networks describe a large variety of complex systems, whose elements (nodes) can be connected by different types of interactions forming different layers (networks) of the multiplex. Multiplex networks include social networks, transportation networks, or biological networks in the cell or in the brain. Extracting relevant information from these networks is of crucial importance for solving challenging inference problems and for characterizing the multiplex networks microscopic and mesoscopic structure. Here we propose an information theory method to extract the network between the layers of multiplex data sets, forming a "network of networks." We build an indicator function, based on the entropy of network ensembles, to characterize the mesoscopic similarities between the layers of a multiplex network, and we use clustering techniques to characterize the communities present in this network of networks. We apply the proposed method to study the Multiplex Collaboration Network formed by scientists collaborating on different subjects and publishing in the American Physical Society journals. The analysis of this data set reveals the interplay between the collaboration networks and the organization of knowledge in physics.

  20. Multiplex lexical networks reveal patterns in early word acquisition in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Massimo; Beckage, Nicole M.; Brede, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Network models of language have provided a way of linking cognitive processes to language structure. However, current approaches focus only on one linguistic relationship at a time, missing the complex multi-relational nature of language. In this work, we overcome this limitation by modelling the mental lexicon of English-speaking toddlers as a multiplex lexical network, i.e. a multi-layered network where N = 529 words/nodes are connected according to four relationship: (i) free association, (ii) feature sharing, (iii) co-occurrence, and (iv) phonological similarity. We investigate the topology of the resulting multiplex and then proceed to evaluate single layers and the full multiplex structure on their ability to predict empirically observed age of acquisition data of English speaking toddlers. We find that the multiplex topology is an important proxy of the cognitive processes of acquisition, capable of capturing emergent lexicon structure. In fact, we show that the multiplex structure is fundamentally more powerful than individual layers in predicting the ordering with which words are acquired. Furthermore, multiplex analysis allows for a quantification of distinct phases of lexical acquisition in early learners: while initially all the multiplex layers contribute to word learning, after about month 23 free associations take the lead in driving word acquisition.

  1. Mesoscopic structures reveal the network between the layers of multiplex data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Wu, Zhihao; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-10-01

    Multiplex networks describe a large variety of complex systems, whose elements (nodes) can be connected by different types of interactions forming different layers (networks) of the multiplex. Multiplex networks include social networks, transportation networks, or biological networks in the cell or in the brain. Extracting relevant information from these networks is of crucial importance for solving challenging inference problems and for characterizing the multiplex networks microscopic and mesoscopic structure. Here we propose an information theory method to extract the network between the layers of multiplex data sets, forming a "network of networks." We build an indicator function, based on the entropy of network ensembles, to characterize the mesoscopic similarities between the layers of a multiplex network, and we use clustering techniques to characterize the communities present in this network of networks. We apply the proposed method to study the Multiplex Collaboration Network formed by scientists collaborating on different subjects and publishing in the American Physical Society journals. The analysis of this data set reveals the interplay between the collaboration networks and the organization of knowledge in physics.

  2. Development of a multiplex PCR assay detecting 52 autosomal SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Phillips, C.; Børsting, Claus

    2006-01-01

    be performed. The SNPforID consortium (www.snpforid.org) was established in 2003 with the principal goal of developing a SNP-based system of DNA analysis that would have comparable discrimination power and ease of use to those of existing short tandem repeat (STR) based techniques. Here, we describe a strategy...... for amplifying 52 genomic DNA fragments, each containing one SNP, in a single tube, and accurately genotyping the PCR product mixture using two single base extension reactions. This multiplex approach reduces the cost of SNP genotyping and requires as little as 0.5 ng of genomic DNA to detect 52 SNPs. We used...... a multiple injection approach for DNA sequencers that can effectively detect all the SNPs amplified in a single electrophoretic run. We present SNP data for 700 unrelated individuals from 9 populations...

  3. Multiplexed CV quantum teleportation for high rates in quantum communication

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge of today's quantum communication systems lies in the transmission of quantum information with high rates over long distances in the presence of unavoidable losses. Thereby the achievable quantum communication rate is fundamentally limited by the amount of energy that can be transmitted per use of the channel. It is hence vital to develop quantum communication protocols which encode quantum information as energy efficiently as possible. To this aim we investigate continuous-variable quantum teleportation as a method of distributing quantum information. We explore the possibility to encode information on multiple optical modes and derive upper and lower bounds on the achievable quantum channel capacities. This analysis enables us to benchmark single-mode vs. multi-mode entanglement resources. Our research reveals that multiplexing does not only feature an enhanced energy efficiency, significantly increasing the achievable quantum communication rates in comparison to single-mode coding, but als...

  4. On-chip data exchange for mode division multiplexed signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mengyuan; Yu, Yu; Sun, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-11

    Data exchange is an important function for flexible optical network, and it has been extensively investigated for the time and wavelength domains. The mode division multiplexing (MDM) has been proposed to further increase the transmission capacity by carrying information on different modes with only single wavelength carrier. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel on-chip data exchange circuit for the MDM signals by utilizing two micro-ring resonator (MRR) based mode converters. For demonstration, single and four wavelengths non-return-to-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK) signals at 10 Gb/s carried on different modes are successfully processed, with open and clear eye diagrams. Measured bit error ratio (BER) results show reasonable power penalties. The proposed circuit can be potentially used in advanced and flexible MDM optical networks.

  5. Suppressing disease spreading by using information diffusion on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Braunstein, Lidia A; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Although there is always an interplay between the dynamics of information diffusion and disease spreading, the empirical research on the systemic coevolution mechanisms connecting these two spreading dynamics is still lacking. Here we investigate the coevolution mechanisms and dynamics between information and disease spreading by utilizing real data and a proposed model on multiplex network. Our empirical analysis finds asymmetrical interactions between the information and disease spreading dynamics. Our results obtained from both the theoretical framework and intensive stochastic numerical simulations suggest that an information outbreak can be triggered on a communication network by its own spreading dynamics or the disease outbreak on a contact network, but that the disease threshold is not affected by information spreading. Our key finding is that there is an optimal information transmission rate that markedly suppresses the disease speading. We find that the time evolution of the dynamics in the proposed...

  6. A SURVEY ON WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (WDM NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ramesh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication networks have emerged as a source of empowerment in today’s society. At the global level, the Internet is becoming the backbone of the modern economy. The new generations in developed countries cannot even conceive of a world without broadband access to the Internet. The inability of the current Internet infrastructure to cope with the wide variety and ever growing number of users, emerging networked applications, usage patterns and business models is increasingly being recognized worldwide. The dynamic growth of Internet traffic and its bursty nature requires high transmission rate. With the advances and the progress in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM technology, the amount of raw bandwidth available in fiber links has increased to high magnitude. This paper presents a survey on WDM networks from its development to the current status. Also an analysis on buffer size in optical networks for real time traffic was performed.

  7. Conditions for viral influence spreading through correlated multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yanqing; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up ``new ideas''. Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through ``viral'' influence spreading producing cascades of followers fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the raise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the raise of Facebook.com to the detriment of Myspace.com. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex correlated graph with hidden ``influence links''. Analytical solutions predict percolation phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of...

  8. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed Quantum Key Distribution Using Entangled Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Mower, Jacob; Shapiro, Jeff H; Englund, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables two parties to establish a secret key over a potentially hostile channel by exchanging photonic quantum states, relying on the fact that it is impossible for an eavesdropper to tap the quantum channel without disturbing these photons in a way that can be detected [1]. Here we introduce a large-alphabet QKD protocol that makes optimal use of temporal and spectral correlations of entangled photons, reaching the maximum number of inde- pendent basis states (the Schmidt number) and enabling extremely high information content per photon together with an optimal rate of secret key generation. This protocol, which we call 'Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed Quantum Key Distribution' (DWDM-QKD), derives its security by the conjugate nature of the temporal and spectral entanglement of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion. By using a combination of spectral and temporal bases, we can adjust the protocol to be resource efficient. We show that DWDM-QKD...

  9. Intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors and their multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anbo

    2007-12-11

    An intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical sensor includes a thin film sandwiched between two fiber ends. When light is launched into the fiber, two reflections are generated at the two fiber/thin film interfaces due to a difference in refractive indices between the fibers and the film, giving rise to the sensor output. In another embodiment, a portion of the cladding of a fiber is removed, creating two parallel surfaces. Part of the evanescent fields of light propagating in the fiber is reflected at each of the surfaces, giving rise to the sensor output. In a third embodiment, the refractive index of a small portion of a fiber is changed through exposure to a laser beam or other radiation. Interference between reflections at the ends of the small portion give rise to the sensor output. Multiple sensors along a single fiber are multiplexed using an optical time domain reflectometry method.

  10. Multiplexed optical operation of distributed nanoelectromechanical systems arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, A; Ekinci, K L; Murray, T W

    2011-03-09

    We report a versatile all optical technique to excite and read-out a distributed nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) array. The NEMS array is driven by a distributed, intensity modulated optical pump through the photothermal effect. The ensuing vibrational response of the array is multiplexed onto a single probe beam in the form of a high frequency phase modulation. The phase modulation is optically down converted to a low frequency intensity modulation using an adaptive full-field interferometer, and subsequently detected using a CCD array. Rapid and single step mechanical characterization of ∼44 nominally identical high-frequency resonators is demonstrated. The technique may enable sensitivity improvements over single NEMS resonators by averaging signals coming from a multitude of devices in the array. In addition, the diffraction limited spatial resolution may allow for position-dependent read-out of NEMS sensor chips for sensing multiple analytes or spatially inhomogeneous forces.

  11. Time multiplexed pinhole array based lensless three-dimensional imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ariel; Wang, Jingang; Shemer, Amir; Zalevsky, Zeev; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    We present an overview of multi variable coded aperture (MVCA) for lensless three-dimensional integral imaging (3D II) systems. The new configuration is based on a time multiplexing method using a variable pinholes array design. The system provides higher resolution 3D images with improved light intensity and signal to noise ratio as compared to single pinhole system. The MVCA 3D II system configuration can be designed to achieve high light intensity for practical use as micro lenslets arrays. This new configuration preserves the advantages of pinhole optics while solving the resolution limitation problem and the long exposure time of such systems. The three dimensional images are obtained with improved resolution, signal to noise ratio and sensitivity efficiency. This integral imaging lensless system is characterized by large depth of focus, simplicity and low cost. In this paper we present numerical simulations as well as experimental results that validate the proposed lensless imaging configuration.

  12. Competing spreading processes and immunization in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic spreading on physical contact network will naturally introduce the human awareness information diffusion on virtual contact network, and the awareness diffusion will in turn depress the epidemic spreading, thus forming the competing spreading processes of epidemic and awareness in a multiplex networks. In this paper, we study the competing dynamics of epidemic and awareness, both of which follow the SIR process, in a two-layer networks based on microscopic Markov chain approach and numerical simulations. We find that strong capacities of awareness diffusion and self-protection of individuals could lead to a much higher epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size. However, the self-awareness of individuals has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. In addition, the immunization of the physical contact network under the interplay between of epidemic and awareness spreading is also investigated. The targeted immunization is found performs much better than random immunization, ...

  13. Multiplex PCR for identification of herpes virus infections in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durzyńska, Julia; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Maria; Hanć, Tomasz; Durda, Magdalena; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a multiplex PCR (mPCR) for a rapid and simultaneous detection of herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in squamous oral cells obtained from adolescents. Accuracy of the method was tested in a group of 513 adolescents, almost 11% of subjects were positive for infection with herpes viruses. Correlations with gender, age, and place of residence were sought. A similar incidence of HSV-2 and HCMV was found (4.3% and 5.4%, respectively) and the incidence of HSV-1 was the lowest (1%) in the study group. Conversely to HSV-2, HCMV was detected mostly in the youngest individuals. The same occurrence of all viruses was observed in boys and girls. The mPCR method described is suggested as a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of active herpes infections.

  14. Diversity-multiplexing Gain Tradeoff: a Tool in Algebra?

    CERN Document Server

    Vehkalahti, Roope

    2011-01-01

    Since the invention of space-time coding numerous algebraic methods have been applied in code design. In particular algebraic number theory and central simple algebras have been on the forefront of the research. In this paper we are turning the table and asking whether information theory can be used as a tool in algebra. We will first derive some corollaries from diversity-multiplexing gain (DMT) bounds by Zheng and Tse and later show how these results can be used to analyze the unit group of orders of certain division algebras. The authors do not claim that the algebraic results are new, but we do find that this interesting relation between algebra and information theory is quite surprising and worth pointing out.

  15. A New DREADD Facilitates the Multiplexed Chemogenetic Interrogation of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, Eyal; Robinson, J. Elliott; Li, Chia; Olsen, Reid H. J.; DiBerto, Jeffrey F.; Giguere, Patrick M.; Sassano, Flori M.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Zhu, Hu; Urban, Daniel J.; White, Kate L.; Rittiner, Joseph E.; Crowley, Nicole A.; Pleil, Kristen E.; Mazzone, Christopher M.; Mosier, Philip D.; Song, Juan; Kash, Thomas L.; Malanga, C. J.; Krashes, Michael J.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2015-01-01

    DREADDs are chemogenetic tools widely used to remotely control cellular signaling, neuronal activity and behavior. Here we used a structure-based approach to develop a new Gi coupled DREADD using the kappa-opioid receptor as template (KORD) that is activated by the pharmacologically inert ligand salvinorin B (SALB). Activation of virally-expressed KORD in several neuronal contexts robustly attenuated neuronal activity and modified behaviors. Additionally, co-expression of the KORD and the Gq coupled M3-DREADD within the same neuronal population facilitated the sequential and bi-directional remote control of behavior. The availability of DREADDs activated by different ligands provides enhanced opportunities for investigating diverse physiological systems using multiplexed chemogenetic actuators. PMID:25937170

  16. Clinical and histologic features of 64 cases of steatocystoma multiplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Choi, Jee-Ho; Sung, Kyung-Jeh; Moon, Kee-Chan; Koh, Jai-Kyoung

    2002-03-01

    Steatocystoma multiplex (SM) shares many clinical features and may show overlapping histopathological features with eruptive vellus hair cyst (EVHC). Clinical data and pathologic features of 64 patients with SM were evaluated in detail. Most of the cases were sporadic, with an average onset age of 26 years and distribution on the arms, chest, axillae, and neck. All cases exhibited eosinophilic cuticle and lack of granular layer, and 17-42% displayed vellus hair, hair follicles, keratin, and smooth muscle components within the cavity, in the wall, or adjacent to it. The results of this study add further evidence to the hypothesis that SM is a hamartomatous condition and that SM and EVHC are variants of one disorder which originates in the pilosebaceous duct.

  17. Impact of WCDMA channel multiplexing on smart antenna systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎璐; 谢剑英; 支小莉

    2004-01-01

    Smart antenna has been regarded as one promising technology to enhance the performance of CDMA mobile communication systems. However, when applied to 3G systems, the performance of traditional adaptive arrays may degrade due to code and time multiplexing in dedicated physical channels. A novel semiblind adaptive array approach is proposed to solve this problem. It overcomes the self-interfering problem by introducing a quasi-despreading technique for the control channel, and contains a time-multipexed structure to utilize both pilot symbols and unknown control symbols within the control channel. The blind part of the proposed approach is based on the competition of two parallel branches with different reference sequences. Simulation results show significant improvement can be achieved by the proposed approach in a fast-fading WCDMA environment.

  18. Simultaneous Multiplexed Measurement of RNA and Proteins in Single Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Darmanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in methods to analyze genomes and transcriptomes of single cells, but to fully define cell states, proteins must also be accessed as central actors defining a cell’s phenotype. Methods currently used to analyze endogenous protein expression in single cells are limited in specificity, throughput, or multiplex capability. Here, we present an approach to simultaneously and specifically interrogate large sets of protein and RNA targets in lysates from individual cells, enabling investigations of cell functions and responses. We applied our method to investigate the effects of BMP4, an experimental therapeutic agent, on early-passage glioblastoma cell cultures. We uncovered significant heterogeneity in responses to treatment at levels of RNA and protein, with a subset of cells reacting in a distinct manner to BMP4. Moreover, we found overall poor correlation between protein and RNA at the level of single cells, with proteins more accurately defining responses to treatment.

  19. Air-segmented amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Koji; Uemura, Takeshi; Ogusu, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Hideji

    2011-01-01

    Air-segmentation is applied to amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis, which we proposed recently. Sample solutions, the flow rates of which are varied periodically, are merged with reagent and/or diluent solution. The merged stream is segmented by air-bubbles and, downstream, its absorbance is measured after deaeration. The analytes in the samples are quantified from the amplitudes of the respective wave components in the absorbance. The proposed method is applied to the determinations of a food dye, phosphate ions and nitrite ions. The air-segmentation is effective for limiting amplitude damping through the axial dispersion, resulting in an improvement in sensitivity. This effect is more pronounced at shorter control periods and longer flow path lengths.

  20. Paper-Origami-Based Multiplexed Malaria Diagnostics from Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaolian; Nolder, Debbie; Reboud, Julien; Oguike, Mary C; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Sutherland, Colin J; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2016-12-05

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the multiplexed determination of microbial species from whole blood using the paper-folding technique of origami to enable the sequential steps of DNA extraction, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and array-based fluorescence detection. A low-cost handheld flashlight reveals the presence of the final DNA amplicon to the naked eye, providing a "sample-to-answer" diagnosis from a finger-prick volume of human blood, within 45 min, with minimal user intervention. To demonstrate the method, we showed the identification of three species of Plasmodium, analyzing 80 patient samples benchmarked against the gold-standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in an operator-blinded study. We also show that the test retains its diagnostic accuracy when using stored or fixed reference samples.