WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple techniques determining

  1. Regenerated silk fibers: Structural studies and solid state NMR techniques for efficient multiple distance determinations in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liivak, Oskar

    2000-09-01

    Material Science is the science of understanding the relationship between the molecular level structure of a material and its macroscopic properties. Such research requires both the ability to determine molecular structure and the ability to control and modify the molecular structure. The present research into silks, especially the dragline silk from the spider Nephila clavipes , is occurring at a time when these two criteria are beginning to be met for proteins like spider silk. Genetic engineering has evolved to the point where material scientists have full control over the primary sequence of amino acids that comprise proteins. In addition, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques exist which allow us to probe molecular structure. This work applies solid state NMR to the study of the structure of silk fibers. In particular, we focus on techniques of fiber regeneration from solution. The purpose is not only to develop the techniques by which genetically engineered fibers could be spun into fibers for mass production but also as a tool into fundamental silk research. Results on these regenerated fibers show a correlation between the fraction of the silk's alanine residues which are in the β-sheet conformation and the ultimate tensile strength of the fibers. In addition, in a clever mating of the fiber regeneration technique and the solid state NMR distance measurement experiment, rotational echo double resonance (REDOR), we investigate the supramolecular topology of the alanine β-sheet crystals. Even though the REDOR technique has failings for the complicated ISn spin systems found in the silk samples, a qualitative analysis does indicate that the β-sheet crystals are intermolecular. Finally, we investigate a new class of REDOR-like experiments which are designed to overcome the failings of REDOR in ISn spin systems. Experimental data is shown to validate these ideas. An alternate pulse sequence is also introduced and verified with experimental

  2. Multiple frequency atmospheric radar techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Gary Richard

    The use of multiple frequency coding to improve the vertical resolution of pulsed-Doppler very high frequency atmospheric radars, especially with regards to the two-frequency techniques known as frequency domain interferometry (FDI), is presented. This technique consists of transmitting alternate pulses on two distinct carrier frequencies. The two resulting time series are used to evaluate the normalized cross-correlation function, whose magnitude and phase are related to the thickness and position of a scattering layer. These same time series are also used to evaluate cross-spectra, which yield magnitude and phase values for each Doppler frequency component of the return signal.

  3. Multiple Uses of a Word Study Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Orlins, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies that illustrate the multiple uses of word sorts, a word study phonics technique. Case study children were Sara, a second grader, who had difficulty with reading basic words and John, a third grader, who had difficulty with spelling basic words. Multiple baseline designs were employed to study the effects of…

  4. Proposition of an Unexploited Multiple Access Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidi Ahmed Djennas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Continual growth in number of telecommunication network users encourages engineers to bring solutions to avoid overload and conflict. The situation is remedied by multiple access techniques and protocols. In fact, several ideas were applied with success to overcome difficulties. Basically, these ideas are based on discrimination in time, frequency, space and modulating code or time management. Within the context, we propose in this paper a new technique which helps us to avoid the conflict between users and manage optimally the information convoy. The basic idea for the new technique, baptized on the occasion by FAT (Fundamentals Agreement Technique, is to develop every signal and to convert it into a form with fundamentals as components. Of course emission and reception parts are in agreement about fundamentals to allow signals recovery later.

  5. A new multiple noncontinuous puncture (pointage technique for corneal tattooing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To assess the safety and cosmetic efficacy of a new multiple noncontinuous transepithelial puncture technique for tattooing a decompensated cornea.METHODS:It was anon-comparative clinical case series study.The study examines 33 eyes in 33 patients with total corneal opacity due to corneal decompensation, which developed following intraocular surgery.Corneal tattooing was performed using the multiple noncontinuous transepithelial puncture technique (i.e. pointage. The safety of this new surgical strategy was assessed by occurrence of adverse events for the follow-up period. The cosmetic efficacy was determined by the patient’s cosmetic satisfaction and independent observer’s opinion about patient appearance.RESULTS:Seven women and 26 men were included in the study. The mean age was 46.4±17.5y (range:7-67. In total, 30 of 33 patients (91% reported cosmetic satisfaction within the follow-up period. Only 3 patients (9% required additional tattooing due to cosmetic unsatisfaction. Cosmetic outcomes were analyzed and classified as excellent or good in 13 (39% and 17 (52% patients, respectively. No serious adverse events developed, except delayed epithelial healing in 3 cases.CONCLUSION:The cosmetic outcomes of the multiple noncontinuous transepithelial puncture technique for corneal tattooing were good. The safety of this method is higher than conventional procedures. This new procedure also provides improved cost-effectiveness and safety over current corneal tattooing techniques.

  6. Multiple-energy Techniques in Industrial Computerized Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneberk, D.; Martz, H.; Azevedo, S.

    1990-08-01

    Considerable effort is being applied to develop multiple-energy industrial CT techniques for materials characterization. Multiple-energy CT can provide reliable estimates of effective Z (Z{sub eff}), weight fraction, and rigorous calculations of absolute density, all at the spatial resolution of the scanner. Currently, a wide variety of techniques exist for CT scanners, but each has certain problems and limitations. Ultimately, the best multi-energy CT technique would combine the qualities of accuracy, reliability, and wide range of application, and would require the smallest number of additional measurements. We have developed techniques for calculating material properties of industrial objects that differ somewhat from currently used methods. In this paper, we present our methods for calculating Z{sub eff}, weight fraction, and density. We begin with the simplest case -- methods for multiple-energy CT using isotopic sources -- and proceed to multiple-energy work with x-ray machine sources. The methods discussed here are illustrated on CT scans of PBX-9502 high explosives, a lexan-aluminum phantom, and a cylinder of glass beads used in a preliminary study to determine if CT can resolve three phases: air, water, and a high-Z oil. In the CT project at LLNL, we have constructed several CT scanners of varying scanning geometries using {gamma}- and x-ray sources. In our research, we employed two of these scanners: pencil-beam CAT for CT data using isotopic sources and video-CAT equipped with an IRT micro-focal x-ray machine source.

  7. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vandana S Inamdar; Priti P Rege

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the robustness of the watermarking algorithm, a dual watermarking method is proposed to prove copyright ownership. Visible watermarking is important for protecting online resources from unauthorized reproduction. However robust, visible watermarks are vulnerable to illegal removal and other common signal processing and geometric attacks. Multiple invisible watermarks can enhance the protection of the visibly watermarked image. When the ownership of tampered image is in question, the invisible watermark can be extracted to provide appropriate ownership information. We have proposed dual watermarking scheme with multiple biometric watermarks in which it embeds speech and face biometric traits of owner invisibly and lastly offline signature is overlaid translucently on image. Before embedding, speech is compressed using Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) and Gabor face is created from face biometric trait. All three watermarks Gabor face, LPC coefficients and offline signature are the biometric characteristics of the owner and hence they are highly related with copyright holder. The proposed scheme is robust enough, Gabor face and LPC coefficients can be extracted from the signature marked image or even from the tampered image from which signature is removed illegally or legally. As multiple watermarks are embedded at least one watermark survives under different attacks. It can find application for joint ownership or to address single ownership multiple times.

  8. Performance Comparison of single and multiple watermarking techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohananthini Natarajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work compares single and multiple watermarking by using discrete wavelet transform and different embedding methods. The different embedding methods are additive, multiplicative and hybrid watermarking with importance on its robustness versus the imperceptibility of the watermark. The objective quality metrics are demonstrated that, the additive embedding method achieves superior performance against watermark attacks on multiple watermarking technique.

  9. Direct Position Determination of Multiple Radio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common methods for position determination of radio signal emitters such as communications or radar transmitters are based on measuring a specified parameter such as angle of arrival (AOA or time of arrival (TOA of the signal. The measured parameters are then used to estimate the transmitter's location. Since the measurements are done at each base station independently, without using the constraint that the AOA/TOA estimates at different base stations should correspond to the same transmitter's location, this is a suboptimal location determination technique. Further, if the number of array elements at each base station is , and the signal waveforms are unknown, the number of cochannel simultaneous transmitters that can be localized by AOA is limited to . Also, most AOA algorithms fail when the sources are not well angularly separated. We propose a technique that uses exactly the same data as the common AOA methods but the position determination is direct. The proposed method can handle more than cochannel simultaneous signals. Although there are many stray parameters, only a two-dimensional search is required for a planar geometry. The technique provides a natural solution to the measurements sources association problem that is encountered in AOA-based location systems. In addition to new algorithms, we provide analytical performance analysis, Cramér-Rao bounds and Monte Carlo simulations. We demonstrate that the proposed approach frequently outperforms the traditional AOA methods for unknown as well as known signal waveforms.

  10. Photogrammetric Technique for Center of Gravity Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Shemwell, Dave; Shreves, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    A new measurement technique for determination of the center of gravity (CG) for large scale objects has been demonstrated. The experimental method was conducted as part of an LS-DYNA model validation program for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module. The test was conducted on the full scale crew module concept at NASA Langley Research Center. Multi-camera photogrammetry was used to measure the test article in several asymmetric configurations. The objective of these measurements was to provide validation of the CG as computed from the original mechanical design. The methodology, measurement technique, and measurement results are presented.

  11. Gravity field determination and error assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D. N.; Shum, C. K.; Tapley, B. D.

    1989-01-01

    Linear estimation theory, along with a new technique to compute relative data weights, was applied to the determination of the Earth's geopotential field and other geophysical model parameters using a combination of satellite ground-based tracking data, satellite altimetry data, and the surface gravimetry data. The relative data weights for the inhomogeneous data sets are estimated simultaneously with the gravity field and other geophysical and orbit parameters in a least squares approach to produce the University of Texas gravity field models. New techniques to perform calibration of the formal covariance matrix for the geopotential solution were developed to obtain a reliable gravity field error estimate. Different techniques, which include orbit residual analysis, surface gravity anomaly residual analysis, subset gravity solution comparisons and consider covariance analysis, were applied to investigate the reliability of the calibration.

  12. Modern imaging techniques during therapy in patients with multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horger, M; Claussen, CD; Lichy, M (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. (Germany)), email: marius.horger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Weisel, K (Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Hematology and Oncology, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. (Germany)); Bares, R (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. (Germany)); Ernemann, U; Fenchel, M (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroadiology, Eberhard-Karls-Univ., Tuebingen (Germany))

    2011-10-15

    Imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma have evolved and most of them are also suitable for either early or mid-term monitoring of response to novel antimyeloma therapy. This pictorial essay focuses on modern imaging techniques for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with multiple myeloma in order to highlight their individual strengths and limitations. Also, the impact of recently established modern pharmaceutical therapy, like anti-angiogenic medication, on the tumor is addressed

  13. Multiple Myeloma: A Review of Imaging Features and Radiological Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Healy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently updated Durie/Salmon PLUS staging system published in 2006 highlights the many advances that have been made in the imaging of multiple myeloma, a common malignancy of plasma cells. In this article, we shall focus primarily on the more sensitive and specific whole-body imaging techniques, including whole-body computed tomography, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission computed tomography. We shall also discuss new and emerging imaging techniques and future developments in the radiological assessment of multiple myeloma.

  14. Multiple myeloma: a review of imaging features and radiological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, C F; Murray, J G; Eustace, S J; Madewell, J; O'Gorman, P J; O'Sullivan, P

    2011-01-01

    The recently updated Durie/Salmon PLUS staging system published in 2006 highlights the many advances that have been made in the imaging of multiple myeloma, a common malignancy of plasma cells. In this article, we shall focus primarily on the more sensitive and specific whole-body imaging techniques, including whole-body computed tomography, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission computed tomography. We shall also discuss new and emerging imaging techniques and future developments in the radiological assessment of multiple myeloma.

  15. Use of multiple attributes decision-making Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS for Ghare-Gheshlagh calcite in determination of optimum geochemical sampling sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei Azizi

    2015-04-01

    for green, white and pink calcites were varied 0.087, 0.247 and 0.997 respectively. The low amounts of Eu anomaly for green and white calcites attributed to low rock/fluid ratio (Nesbitt et al., 1990 and relatively more pH value (Cheng et al., 2013, however, increasing the Eu anomaly may be due to high rock/fluid ratio and less pH value. Ce anomalies are 0.0241, 0.0113 and 0.0131 in pink, white and green calcites respectively. The most negative Ce anomaly values show that calcite have precipitated under reduction conditions (Nesbitt et al., 1990. Discussion Recently, multiple attributes decision-making techniques help scientist to solve decision-making problems related to various controlling factors (Zhijun et al., 2013. One of these techniques is a Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS which is a quantitative weighted method (Momenei 2006. The identified criteria are CaO abundant in solution (C1, Eu anomaly (C2, Ce anomaly (C3, Sr abundant (C4 and volume (C5. The Index-Rock matrix also includes A1, A2 and A3 alternatives; as pink, green and white calcite respectively. The weighted normalized decision matrix can be calculated by multiplying the normalized evaluation matrix with its associated weight to obtain the result. The result show that Eu anomaly, volume, Sr abundant and Ce anomaly in order have higher role to investigate the geochemical study of area. Calculation of the relative closeness to the ideal solution (Cl * for pink, green and white calcites are 0.837, 0.445 and 0.157 respectively. It can be deduced that the most preferable calcite to be sampled for investigating geochemically are pink and green calcites. References Cheng, D.L., Jiang-haob, L., Shou-pengc, Z., Lianga, L., Zhao-bina, Y., Guo-lina, G. and Tinga, L., 2013. Geochemical characteristics of calcite and dolomite in sandstone of Dongying Sinking, Shandong Province, China. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 7(4: 504 – 507. Eftekharnezhad, J., 1973

  16. Teaching Multiple Online Sections/Courses: Tactics and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rodger; LaBrecque, Bryan; Fortner, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of teaching online increases as the number of sections or courses increase in a semester. The tactics and techniques which enrich online instruction in the tradition of quality matters can be modified and adapted to the demands of multiple instructional needs during a semester. This paper addresses time management and instructional…

  17. Statistical technique for analysing functional connectivity of multiple spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Borisyuk, Roman

    2011-03-15

    A new statistical technique, the Cox method, used for analysing functional connectivity of simultaneously recorded multiple spike trains is presented. This method is based on the theory of modulated renewal processes and it estimates a vector of influence strengths from multiple spike trains (called reference trains) to the selected (target) spike train. Selecting another target spike train and repeating the calculation of the influence strengths from the reference spike trains enables researchers to find all functional connections among multiple spike trains. In order to study functional connectivity an "influence function" is identified. This function recognises the specificity of neuronal interactions and reflects the dynamics of postsynaptic potential. In comparison to existing techniques, the Cox method has the following advantages: it does not use bins (binless method); it is applicable to cases where the sample size is small; it is sufficiently sensitive such that it estimates weak influences; it supports the simultaneous analysis of multiple influences; it is able to identify a correct connectivity scheme in difficult cases of "common source" or "indirect" connectivity. The Cox method has been thoroughly tested using multiple sets of data generated by the neural network model of the leaky integrate and fire neurons with a prescribed architecture of connections. The results suggest that this method is highly successful for analysing functional connectivity of simultaneously recorded multiple spike trains.

  18. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    multiplication of tissue culture potato plantlets. F. Nuwagira1,3, S.B. ... are genotype dependant. The use of higher .... hormonal combinations and the interaction showed no ..... PhD Thesis, ... Environment and Industrial Innovation. Volume 12.

  19. Techniques for Performance Improvement of Integer Multiplication in Cryptographic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brumnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of arithmetic operations performance in number fields is actively researched by many scientists, as evidenced by significant publications in this field. In this work, we offer some techniques to increase performance of software implementation of finite field multiplication algorithm, for both 32-bit and 64-bit platforms. The developed technique, called “delayed carry mechanism,” allows to preventing necessity to consider a significant bit carry at each iteration of the sum accumulation loop. This mechanism enables reducing the total number of additions and applies the modern parallelization technologies effectively.

  20. Thermally assisted OSL application for equivalent dose estimation; comparison of multiple equivalent dose values as well as saturation levels determined by luminescence and ESR techniques for a sedimentary sample collected from a fault gouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şahiner, Eren, E-mail: sahiner@ankara.edu.tr; Meriç, Niyazi, E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.tr; Polymeris, George S., E-mail: gspolymeris@ankara.edu.tr

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Multiple equivalent dose estimations were carried out. • Additive ESR and regenerative luminescence were applied. • Preliminary SAR results employing TA-OSL signal were discussed. • Saturation levels of ESR and luminescence were investigated. • IRSL{sub 175} and SAR TA-OSL stand as very promising for large doses. - Abstract: Equivalent dose estimation (D{sub e}) constitutes the most important part of either trap-charge dating techniques or dosimetry applications. In the present work, multiple, independent equivalent dose estimation approaches were adopted, using both luminescence and ESR techniques; two different minerals were studied, namely quartz as well as feldspathic polymineral samples. The work is divided into three independent parts, depending on the type of signal employed. Firstly, different D{sub e} estimation approaches were carried out on both polymineral and contaminated quartz, using single aliquot regenerative dose protocols employing conventional OSL and IRSL signals, acquired at different temperatures. Secondly, ESR equivalent dose estimations using the additive dose procedure both at room temperature and at 90 K were discussed. Lastly, for the first time in the literature, a single aliquot regenerative protocol employing a thermally assisted OSL signal originating from Very Deep Traps was applied for natural minerals. Rejection criteria such as recycling and recovery ratios are also presented. The SAR protocol, whenever applied, provided with compatible D{sub e} estimations with great accuracy, independent on either the type of mineral or the stimulation temperature. Low temperature ESR signals resulting from Al and Ti centers indicate very large D{sub e} values due to bleaching in-ability, associated with large uncertainty values. Additionally, dose saturation of different approaches was investigated. For the signal arising from Very Deep Traps in quartz saturation is extended almost by one order of magnitude. It is

  1. Thermally assisted OSL application for equivalent dose estimation; comparison of multiple equivalent dose values as well as saturation levels determined by luminescence and ESR techniques for a sedimentary sample collected from a fault gouge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahiner, Eren; Meriç, Niyazi; Polymeris, George S.

    2017-02-01

    Equivalent dose estimation (De) constitutes the most important part of either trap-charge dating techniques or dosimetry applications. In the present work, multiple, independent equivalent dose estimation approaches were adopted, using both luminescence and ESR techniques; two different minerals were studied, namely quartz as well as feldspathic polymineral samples. The work is divided into three independent parts, depending on the type of signal employed. Firstly, different De estimation approaches were carried out on both polymineral and contaminated quartz, using single aliquot regenerative dose protocols employing conventional OSL and IRSL signals, acquired at different temperatures. Secondly, ESR equivalent dose estimations using the additive dose procedure both at room temperature and at 90 K were discussed. Lastly, for the first time in the literature, a single aliquot regenerative protocol employing a thermally assisted OSL signal originating from Very Deep Traps was applied for natural minerals. Rejection criteria such as recycling and recovery ratios are also presented. The SAR protocol, whenever applied, provided with compatible De estimations with great accuracy, independent on either the type of mineral or the stimulation temperature. Low temperature ESR signals resulting from Al and Ti centers indicate very large De values due to bleaching in-ability, associated with large uncertainty values. Additionally, dose saturation of different approaches was investigated. For the signal arising from Very Deep Traps in quartz saturation is extended almost by one order of magnitude. It is interesting that most of De values yielded using different luminescence signals agree with each other and ESR Ge center has very large D0 values. The results presented above highly support the argument that the stability and the initial ESR signal of the Ge center is highly sample-dependent, without any instability problems for the cases of quartz resulting from fault gouge.

  2. Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, E M; Bull, A M J; McGregor, A H

    2015-04-01

    In rowing, the parameters of injury, performance, and technique are all interrelated and in dynamic equilibrium. Whilst rowing requires extreme physical strength and endurance, a high level of skill and technique is essential to enable an effective transfer of power through the rowing sequence. This study aimed to determine discrete aspects of rowing technique, which strongly influence foot force production and asymmetries at the foot-stretchers, as these are biomechanical parameters often associated with performance and injury risk. Twenty elite female rowers performed an incremental rowing test on an instrumented rowing ergometer, which measured force at the handle and foot-stretchers, while three-dimensional kinematic recordings of the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar-pelvic joints were made. Multiple regression analyses identified hip kinematics as a key predictor of foot force output (R(2)  = 0.48), whereas knee and lumbar-pelvic kinematics were the main determinants in optimizing the horizontal foot force component (R(2)  = .41). Bilateral asymmetries of the foot-stretchers were also seen to significantly influence lumbar-pelvic kinematics (R(2)  = 0.43) and pelvic twisting (R(2)  = 0.32) during the rowing stroke. These results provide biomechanical evidence toward aspects of technique that can be modified to optimize force output and performance, which can be of direct benefit to coaches and athletes.

  3. Effectiveness of applying progressive muscle relaxation technique on quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Somayeh; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Nabavi, Masoud; Anoshirvan, Kazemnejad; Memarian, Robabe; Rafatbakhsh, Mohamad

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of applying Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique on Quality of Life of patients with multiple Sclerosis. In view of the growing caring options in Multiple Sclerosis, improvement of quality of life has become increasingly relevant as a caring intervention. Complementary therapies are widely used by multiple sclerosis patients and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique is a form of complementary therapies. Quasi-experimental study. Multiple Sclerosis patients (n = 66) were selected with no probability sampling then assigned to experimental and control groups (33 patients in each group). Means of data collection included: Individual Information Questionnaire, SF-8 Health Survey, Self-reported checklist. PMRT performed for 63 sessions by experimental group during two months but no intervention was done for control group. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software. Student t-test showed that there was no significant difference between two groups in mean scores of health-related quality of life before the study but this test showed a significant difference between two groups, one and two months after intervention (p Relaxation Technique on quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients, further research is required to determine better methods to promote quality of life of patients suffer multiple sclerosis and other chronic disease. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique is practically feasible and is associated with increase of life quality of multiple sclerosis patients; so that health professionals need to update their knowledge about complementary therapies.

  4. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  5. Screening of TiO2 and Au nanoparticles in cosmetics and determination of elemental impurities by multiple techniques (DLS, SP-ICP-MS, ICP-MS and ICP-OES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle, Inmaculada; Menta, Mathieu; Klein, Marlène; Séby, Fabienne

    2017-08-15

    Cosmetics are part of the daily life of most of the people. Thus, a complete characterization of the products we applied in our skin is necessary. In this work, an analytical investigation of a wide variety of cosmetics from the point of view of total element content and metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has been performed. Firstly, we analyzed the total element content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES after acid digestion as an assessment of the presence of metal impurities. Prohibited elements in cosmetics, according to the European Commission regulation No 1223/2009, were not detected, and only elements mentioned in the label were found (e.g. Al, Fe, Ti and Si). Secondly, a screening of the presence of NPs has been performed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Single Particle Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS). Two sample preparation procedures were applied. The first protocol consisted in the preparation of suspensions in 0.1% w/v SDS and the second based on defatting with hexane followed by resuspension in water. DLS was employed as a routine method for a fast analysis of NPs, but this technique showed limitations due to the lack of specificity. SP-ICP-MS analyses were then performed, first as a screening technique to evaluate the presence of TiO2 and Au NPs in cosmetics suspensions prepared in SDS; and second, when a positive answer was obtained about the presence of NPs from the screening, SP-ICP-MS was used for particle size determination. Results showed that only TiO2 NPs were present in two sunscreens, one anti-wrinkle day cream, one lip balm protector labeled as 'nano' and in one brand of toothpaste not labeled as 'nano'. Sizes obtained for both sample preparations were compared and ranged from 30 to 120nm in most of the samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple quantum spin counting techniques with quadrupolar nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Andrew J; van Eck, Ernst R H

    2004-01-01

    Phase incremented and continuous irradiation multiple spin correlation methods are applied to spin [Formula: see text] nuclei with small quadrupole couplings such as (7)Li in LiCl and are shown to successfully produce a coherently coupled dipolar spin network. Application to the analogous Na salt shows successful spin correlation evolving at a slower rate due to the weaker homonuclear dipolar coupling strength between Na nuclei. The results are analysed using a statistical approach. Spin counting is non-trivial as not only multiple quantum coherences between spins are generated but also within the quadrupolar spin levels. Na(2)C(2)O(4) is investigated as a material with non-negligible quadrupole coupling and it is in this limit that the spin correlation techniques are found to break down.

  7. Clustering economies based on multiple criteria decision making techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary concerns on many countries is to determine different important factors affecting economic growth. In this paper, we study some factors such as unemployment rate, inflation ratio, population growth, average annual income, etc to cluster different countries. The proposed model of this paper uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to prioritize the criteria and then uses a K-mean technique to cluster 59 countries based on the ranked criteria into four groups. The first group i...

  8. Techniques for determining physical zones of influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F; Lopez-Marrero, Vanessa

    2013-11-26

    Techniques for analyzing flow of a quantity in a given domain are provided. In one aspect, a method for modeling regions in a domain affected by a flow of a quantity is provided which includes the following steps. A physical representation of the domain is provided. A grid that contains a plurality of grid-points in the domain is created. Sources are identified in the domain. Given a vector field that defines a direction of flow of the quantity within the domain, a boundary value problem is defined for each of one or more of the sources identified in the domain. Each of the boundary value problems is solved numerically to obtain a solution for the boundary value problems at each of the grid-points. The boundary problem solutions are post-processed to model the regions affected by the flow of the quantity on the physical representation of the domain.

  9. Plagiarism Detection Using Artificial Intelligence Technique In Multiple Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausumi Sahu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism relates to the act of taking information or ideas of someone else and demand it as your own. Basically it reproduce the existing information in modified format. In every field of education it becomes a serious issue. Various techniques and tools are derived these days to detect plagiarism. Various types of plagiarism are there like text matching copy paste grammar based method etc.This paper proposes a new method implemented in a program where we utilise a text set to identify the copied part by comparing with some existing multiple files. Here we put the concept of a machine learning language i.e k-NN. It helps us to identify whether a paper is plagiarized or not.

  10. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  11. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  12. Continuous analog of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique for computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Kiyoko; Yamaguchi, Yusaku; Abou Al-Ola, Omar M.; Kojima, Takeshi; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    We propose a hybrid dynamical system as a continuous analog to the block-iterative multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (BI-MART), which is a well-known iterative image reconstruction algorithm for computed tomography. The hybrid system is described by a switched nonlinear system with a piecewise smooth vector field or differential equation and, for consistent inverse problems, the convergence of non-negatively constrained solutions to a globally stable equilibrium is guaranteed by the Lyapunov theorem. Namely, we can prove theoretically that a weighted Kullback-Leibler divergence measure can be a common Lyapunov function for the switched system. We show that discretizing the differential equation by using the first-order approximation (Euler's method) based on the geometric multiplicative calculus leads to the same iterative formula of the BI-MART with the scaling parameter as a time-step of numerical discretization. The present paper is the first to reveal that a kind of iterative image reconstruction algorithm is constructed by the discretization of a continuous-time dynamical system for solving tomographic inverse problems. Iterative algorithms with not only the Euler method but also the Runge-Kutta methods of lower-orders applied for discretizing the continuous-time system can be used for image reconstruction. A numerical example showing the characteristics of the discretized iterative methods is presented.

  13. Survey of Multiple Information Hiding Techniques using Visual Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijoy Chhetri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Information now a day‟s seems to have become abundant and the secure transmission and visualization of it has been a challenge. The major security concerns are of Authentication, Confidentiality and Data Integrity.  In regard to this, the various security methodologies have been introduced and Cryptography is one of the schemes where the information is transferred in the disguise form and only authentic user can reveal the exact information. Various Cryptographic techniques has played a very vital role in this regard, among which Visual Cryptographic System(VCS is one of such kind  where the secret data (image, text etc is encoded into multiple images and decoded using Human Visual System(HVS without having to tedious calculations and sound  knowledge of Cryptography. VC  is one of such methodology where the secret information is bifurcated into many disguise images and on super imposing these images, the original secret information is revealed, using Human Visual System(HVS unlike the traditional cryptography where lot of complex mathematical and time consuming calculation are to be performed. In this paper study of various VC techniques has been done based on number of shares, number of secret messages and types of shares in the cases of Grayscale Image.

  14. Magnetic resonance techniques for investigation of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Alex; Laule, Cornelia; Li, David K. B.; Meyers, Sandra M.; Russell-Schulz, Bretta; Vavasour, Irene M.

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common neurological disease which can cause loss of vision and balance, muscle weakness, impaired speech, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and even paralysis. The key pathological processes in MS are inflammation, edema, myelin loss, axonal loss and gliosis. Unfortunately, the cause of MS is still not understood and there is currently no cure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important clinical and research tool for MS. 'Conventional' MRI images of MS brain reveal bright lesions, or plaques, which demark regions of severe tissue damage. Conventional MRI has been extremely valuable for the diagnosis and management of people who have MS and also for the assessment of therapies designed to reduce inflammation and promote repair. While conventional MRI is clearly valuable, it lack pathological specificity and, in some cases, sensitivity to non-lesional pathology. Advanced MR techniques have been developed to provide information that is more sensitive and specific than what is available with clinical scanning. Diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer provide a general but non-specific measure of the pathological state of brain tissue. MR spectroscopy provides concentrations of brain metabolites which can be related to specific pathologies. Myelin water imaging was designed to assess brain myelination and has proved useful for measuring myelin loss in MS. To combat MS, it is crucial that the pharmaceutical industry finds therapies which can reverse the neurodegenerative processes which occur in the disease. The challenge for magnetic resonance researchers is to design imaging techniques which can provide detailed pathological information relating to the mechanisms of MS therapies. This paper briefly describes the pathologies of MS and demonstrates how MS-associated pathologies can be followed using both conventional and advanced MR imaging protocols.

  15. Hot Resistance Estimation for Dry Type Transformer Using Multiple Variable Regression, Multiple Polynomial Regression and Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents a novel method for the determination of average winding temperature rise of transformers under its predetermined field operating conditions. Rise in the winding temperature was determined from the estimated values of winding resistance during the heat run test conducted as per IEC standard. Approach: The estimation of hot resistance was modeled using Multiple Variable Regression (MVR, Multiple Polynomial Regression (MPR and soft computing techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. The modeled hot resistance will help to find the load losses at any load situation without using complicated measurement set up in transformers. Results: These techniques were applied for the hot resistance estimation for dry type transformer by using the input variables cold resistance, ambient temperature and temperature rise. The results are compared and they show a good agreement between measured and computed values. Conclusion: According to our experiments, the proposed methods are verified using experimental results, which have been obtained from temperature rise test performed on a 55 kVA dry-type transformer.

  16. Clustering economies based on multiple criteria decision making techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Momeni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on many countries is to determine different important factors affecting economic growth. In this paper, we study some factors such as unemployment rate, inflation ratio, population growth, average annual income, etc to cluster different countries. The proposed model of this paper uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to prioritize the criteria and then uses a K-mean technique to cluster 59 countries based on the ranked criteria into four groups. The first group includes countries with high standards such as Germany and Japan. In the second cluster, there are some developing countries with relatively good economic growth such as Saudi Arabia and Iran. The third cluster belongs to countries with faster rates of growth compared with the countries located in the second group such as China, India and Mexico. Finally, the fourth cluster includes countries with relatively very low rates of growth such as Jordan, Mali, Niger, etc.

  17. Sample size determination in clinical trials with multiple endpoints

    CERN Document Server

    Sozu, Takashi; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Evans, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates recent methodological developments for calculating the sample size and power in trials with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, offering an important reference work for statisticians working in this area. The determination of sample size and the evaluation of power are fundamental and critical elements in the design of clinical trials. If the sample size is too small, important effects may go unnoticed; if the sample size is too large, it represents a waste of resources and unethically puts more participants at risk than necessary. Recently many clinical trials have been designed with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, creating a need for new approaches to the design and analysis of these clinical trials. The book focuses on the evaluation of power and sample size determination when comparing the effects of two interventions in superiority clinical trials with multiple endpoints. Methods for sample size calculation in clin...

  18. A technique for determining prosthetic joint contact areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S M; Moran, J M; Stahurski, T M; Cepulo, A J

    1984-01-01

    A technique to determine the contact areas of total joint replacements has been developed. A thin film of petroleum jelly is deposited by the metallic component on the plastic component when load is applied. Fingerprint powder is then used to highlight the petroleum jelly coated area. Experimental data produced using this technique was found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  19. Improved acoustic viscosimeter technique. [for determining fluid shear viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, M. R.; Moeller, R. P.; Carome, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved technique has been developed for studies of the shear viscosity of fluids. It utilizes an acoustic resonator as a four-terminal electrical device; the resonator's amplitude response may be determined directly and simply related to the fluid's viscosity. The use of this technique is discussed briefly and data obtained in several fluids is presented.

  20. Application of multiplicative array techniques for multibeam sounder systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.

    Multiplicative array processing is well known for its narrow beamwidth and low sidelobe level, but the array gain is quite low. The effectiveness of such a system becomes lower, especially when the signal to noise ratio is low. Proposed some...

  1. Experimental Data Mining Techniques(Using Multiple Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zaidi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possible solutions of non-linear multivariable by experimental Data mining techniques using on orthogonal array. Taguchi method is a very useful technique to reduce the time and cost of the experiment but the ignoring all kind of interaction effects. The results are not much encouraging and motivate to study Laser cutting process of non-linear multivariable is modeled by one and two way analysis of variance also linear and non linear regression analysis. These techniques are used to explore better analysis techniques and improve the laser cutting quality by reducing process variations caused by controllable process parameters. The size of data set causes difficulties in modeling and simulation of the problem such as decision tree is useful technique but it is not able to predict better results. The results of analysis of variance are encouraging. Taguchi and regression normally optimizes input process parameters for single characteristics.

  2. Tissue Culture and Rapid Multiplication Techniques of Apocynum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate rapid multiplication of Apocynum by tissue culture so as to provide plantlet sources for its industrialized cultivation. [Method] The asepsis seedlings were obtained by dealing with Apocynum seeds. Its cotyledons, hypocotyls and shoot tips were cultured on the media containing different concentrations of hormones. Finally, the influence of different hormone combinations on differentiation of cotyledons and hypocotyls, rapid multiplication of shoot tips, rapid multiplication of regenerated shoots, and rooting of test-tube plantlets was com- pared. [Result] MS+2.0 mg/L BA+0.03 mg/L NAA and MS+0.07 mg/L NAA were the optimum medium for inducing regenerated buds from cotyledons and hypocotyls re- spectively; MS+2.0 mg/L BA+0.02 mg/L NAA was the best medium for rapid multi- plication of shoot tips; MS+1.9 mg/L BA+I.7 mg/L NAA was the best medium for rapid multiplication of regenerated buds: and 1/2MS+0.6 mg/L NAA was the best medium for inducing roots. [Conclusion] The optimum hormone combination was de- termined for Apocynum rapid multiplication by tissue culture, which provides technical support on Apocynum industrialized cultivation.

  3. A technique to determine a desired preparation axial inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Harry; Ivanhoe, John R; Blalock, John S; Frazier, Kevin B; Plummer, Kevin D

    2003-10-01

    The guidelines recommended in the literature for the convergence angle of a crown preparation vary from 3 to 24 degrees. There is a lack of guidelines on techniques to achieve a specific axial inclination. The purpose of this article was to present a practical technique, with a diamond rotary cutting instrument of known axial inclination, to determine the diamond rotary cutting instrument angulations required to achieve the desired axial inclination of a preparation.

  4. Development of Layered Treatment Technique for Multiple Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhimian; Wu Dehua

    1995-01-01

    @@ In order to solve the problems that there is steam absorbing inhomogeneity in various layers of well in heavy oil reservoirs during steam injection, and upperlayers and high permeability layers repeat steam absorption, as well as middle or low permeability layers absorb little steam or no steam, we have studied and developed seperate-layer treatment techniques for huff and puff wells in recent years. By test and application,these techniques have been proved successful in increasing steam stimulated effect and recovery efficiency in the period of cyclic steam stimulations of oil wells in multilayer heavy oil reservoirs.

  5. Solar Axion Search Technique with Correlated Signals from Multiple Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wenqin

    2016-01-01

    The coherent Bragg scattering of solar axions inside crystals would boost the signal for axion-photon coupling enhancing experimental sensitivity for these hypothetical particles. Knowledge of the scattering angle of solar axions with respect to the crystal lattice is required to make theoretical predications of signal strength. Hence, both the lattice axis angle within a crystal and the absolute angle between the crystal and the Sun must be known. In this paper, we demonstrate that, in a multiple-crystal setup, knowledge of the relative axis orientation between multiple crystals can improve the experimental sensitivity, or equivalently, relax the precision on the absolute solar angle measurement. However, if absolute angles of all crystal axes are measured, we find that a precision of 2 degrees to 4 degrees will suffice. Finally, we also show that, given a minimum number of detectors, a signal model averaged over angles can substitute for precise crystal angular measurements, with some loss of sensitivity.

  6. Fuzzy Technique Tracking Control for Multiple Unmanned Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzi Fraga; Liu Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A Fuzzy logic control law is presented and implemented for trajectory tracking of multiple under actuated autonomous surface vessels. In this study, an individual unmanned ship is used to be the leader that tracks the desired path; other unmanned ships are used to be the followers which track the leader only by using its position. A fuzzy controller was implemented for the ship leader position with a constant velocity; however, the ship follower needed a fuzzy controller for the position and ...

  7. Multiple Access Techniques for Next Generation Wireless: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Krishna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in multiple access techniques has been one of the key drivers in moving from one cellular generation to another. Starting from the first generation, several multiple access techniques have been explored in different generations and various emerging multiplexing/multiple access techniques are being investigated for the next generation of cellular networks. In this context, this paper first provides a detailed review on the existing Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA related works. Subsequently, it highlights the main features and the drawbacks of various existing and emerging multiplexing/multiple access techniques. Finally, we propose a novel concept of clustered orthogonal signature division multiple access for the next generation of cellular networks. The proposed concept envisions to employ joint antenna coding in order to enhance the orthogonality of SDMA beams with the objective of enhancing the spectral efficiency of future cellular networks.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electromagnetic techniques for moisture content determination of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Hübner, Christof

    2010-08-01

    Based on a short introduction to the dielectric properties of water and aqueous solutions, this review summarizes current techniques of electromagnetic aquametry. The techniques described here include time-domain and frequency-domain procedures, enabling moisture determination in a broad spectral range from millihertz to terahertz frequencies. In this review, quasi-static capacitance and impedance approaches as well as microwave and submillimetre wave reflection, transmission and resonant methods are presented. Sensor configurations and electronic measurement setups, including remote sensing, are discussed briefly. A broad spectrum of applications is introduced to show the extended usability of electromagnetic techniques of moisture content determination. The dielectric properties of some reference materials, suitable for the calibration of sensors and of electronic measurement devices, are tabulated. Reference is also made to some dielectric models of water-containing materials and to superior evaluation routines.

  9. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  10. DETERMINE OPTIMUM NUMBER OF COMPACT OVERLAPPED CLUSTERS USING FRLVQ TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenhuan; Huang Qiang; Ji Zhen; Zhang Jihong

    2005-01-01

    A method, named XHJ-method, is proposed in this letter to determine the number of clusters of a data set, which incorporates with the Fuzzy Reinforced Learning Vector Quantization (FRLVQ) technique. The simulation results show that this new method works well for the traditional iris data and an artificial data set, which contains un-equally sized and spaced clusters.

  11. Fuzzy Technique Tracking Control for Multiple Unmanned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Fraga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Fuzzy logic control law is presented and implemented for trajectory tracking of multiple under actuated autonomous surface vessels. In this study, an individual unmanned ship is used to be the leader that tracks the desired path; other unmanned ships are used to be the followers which track the leader only by using its position. A fuzzy controller was implemented for the ship leader position with a constant velocity; however, the ship follower needed a fuzzy controller for the position and the forward velocity. Simulation results show that the fuzzy method presents an interesting robustness against the environmental disturbances and effective tracking results.

  12. Combining Multiple Feature Extraction Techniques for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an OCR for Handwritten Devnagari Characters. Basic symbols are recognized by neural classifier. We have used four feature extraction techniques namely, intersection, shadow feature, chain code histogram and straight line fitting features. Shadow features are computed globally for character image while intersection features, chain code histogram features and line fitting features are computed by dividing the character image into different segments. Weighted majority voting technique is used for combining the classification decision obtained from four Multi Layer Perceptron(MLP) based classifier. On experimentation with a dataset of 4900 samples the overall recognition rate observed is 92.80% as we considered top five choices results. This method is compared with other recent methods for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition and it has been observed that this approach has better success rate than other methods.

  13. Contribution of multiple inert gas elimination technique to pulmonary medicine. 1. Principles and information content of the multiple inert gas elimination technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J.; Wagner, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    This introductory review summarises four different aspects of the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). Firstly, the historical background that facilitated, in the mid 1970s, the development of the MIGET as a tool to obtain more information about the entire spectrum of VA/Q distribution in the lung by measuring the exchange of six gases of different solubility in trace concentrations. Its principle is based on the observation that the retention (or excretion) of any gas is dependent on the solubility (lambda) of that gas and the VA/Q distribution. A second major aspect is the analysis of the information content and limitations of the technique. During the last 15 years a substantial amount of clinical research using the MIGET has been generated by several groups around the world. The technique has been shown to be adequate in understanding the mechanisms of hypoxaemia in different forms of pulmonary disease and the effects of therapeutic interventions, but also in separately determining the quantitative role of each extrapulmonary factor on systemic arterial PO2 when they change between two conditions of MIGET measurement. This information will be extensively reviewed in the forthcoming articles of this series. Next, the different modalities of the MIGET, practical considerations involved in the measurements and the guidelines for quality control have been indicated. Finally, a section has been devoted to the analysis of available data in healthy subjects under different conditions. The lack of systematic information on the VA/Q distributions of older healthy subjects is emphasised, since it will be required to fully understand the changes brought about by diseases that affect the older population. PMID:8091330

  14. Multiple regenerative techniques for class II furcation defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of the periodontium is a major goal in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration is quite challenging, especially when it is in the furcation area. There are several techniques used alone or in combination, considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in the response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case report describes the management of a buccal class II furcation defect, with the help of surgical intervention, including the guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in a healthy periodontium, with radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain. This case report demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of the etiological factors and utilizing combined treatment modalities, restored health and function of the tooth with severe attachment loss, at the 18-month follow-up.

  15. Human resource allocation management in multiple projects using sociometric techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros-Pérez, Pablo; González-Cruz, M. C.; Fernández-Diego, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a new application of key psychological concepts in the area of Sociometry for the selection of workers within organizations in which projects are developed. The project manager can use a new procedure to determine which individuals should be chosen from a given pool of resources and how to combine them into one or several simultaneous groups/projects in order to assure the highest possible overall work efficiency from the standpoint of social interaction. The optimizati...

  16. Probing Radiation Damage in Plutonium Alloys with Multiple Measurement Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, S K; Fluss, M J; Chung, B W

    2010-04-21

    A material subjected to radiation damage will usually experience changes in its physical properties. Measuring these changes in the physical properties provides a basis to study radiation damage in a material which is important for a variety of real world applications from reactor materials to semiconducting devices. When investigating radiation damage, the relative sensitivity of any given property can vary considerably based on the concentration and type of damage present as well as external parameters such as the temperature and starting material composition. By measuring multiple physical properties, these differing sensitivities can be leveraged to provide greater insight into the different aspects of radiation damage accumulation, thereby providing a broader understanding of the mechanisms involved. In this report, self-damage from {alpha}-particle decay in Pu is investigated by measuring two different properties: magnetic susceptibility and resistivity. The results suggest that while the first annealing stage obeys second order chemical kinetics, the primary mechanism is not the recombination of vacancy-interstitial close pairs.

  17. Analysis of multiple faults in synchronous sequential circuits by Boolean difference techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1978-04-01

    The Boolean difference is a mathematical concept which has found significant application in the study of single and multiple ''stuck at'' faults in combinational logic circuits. The concept of vector Boolean difference is extended to the analysis of multiple stuck-at faults in synchronous sequential circuits. A vector Boolean difference technique is utilized to determine the set of input/state pairs that will produce a difference in either output or next-state between the fault-free and faulty circuits. Assuming that the fault-free and faulty circuits start in the same initial state, they must be driven by applying a sequence of input vectors to a state in which either a difference in output or next-state is evidenced. If a difference in output cannot be achieved immediately, a second sequence of input vectors must be applied in order to propagate the state difference to the output. Methods for combining the Boolean difference analysis with techniques for deriving the required input vector sequence are discussed.

  18. Determination of dynamic fracture toughness using a new experimental technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cady Carl M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In other studies dynamic fracture toughness has been measured using Charpy impact and modified Hopkinson Bar techniques. In this paper results will be shown for the measurement of fracture toughness using a new test geometry. The crack propagation velocities range from ∼0.15 mm/s to 2.5 m/s. Digital image correlation (DIC will be the technique used to measure both the strain and the crack growth rates. The boundary of the crack is determined using the correlation coefficient generated during image analysis and with interframe timing the crack growth rate and crack opening can be determined. A comparison of static and dynamic loading experiments will be made for brittle polymeric materials. The analysis technique presented by Sammis et al. [1] is a semi-empirical solution, however, additional Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics analysis of the strain fields generated as part of the DIC analysis allow for the more commonly used method resembling the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD experiment. It should be noted that this technique was developed because limited amounts of material were available and crack growth rates were to fast for a standard CTOD method.

  19. Multiple Fan-Beam Optical Tomography: Modelling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Jon Fea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains in detail the solution to the forward and inverse problem faced in this research. In the forward problem section, the projection geometry and the sensor modelling are discussed. The dimensions, distributions and arrangements of the optical fibre sensors are determined based on the real hardware constructed and these are explained in the projection geometry section. The general idea in sensor modelling is to simulate an artificial environment, but with similar system properties, to predict the actual sensor values for various flow models in the hardware system. The sensitivity maps produced from the solution of the forward problems are important in reconstructing the tomographic image.

  20. Remote sensing of temperature profiles in vegetation canopies using multiple view angles and inversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical method is presented which allows the determination of vertical temperature profiles of vegetation canopies from multiple sensor view angles and some knowledge of the vegetation geometric structure. The technique was evaluated with data from several wheat canopies at different stages of development, and shown to be most useful in the separation of vegetation and substrate temperatures with greater accuracy in the case of intermediate and dense vegetation canopies than in sparse ones. The converse is true for substrate temperatures. Root-mean-square prediction accuracies of temperatures for intermediate-density wheat canopies were 1.8 C and 1.4 C for an exact and an overdeterminate system, respectively. The findings have implication for remote sensing research in agriculture, geology or other earth resources disciplines.

  1. Analysis of Various Symbol Detection Techniques in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output System (MIMO)

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Shrikrishan; Pal, B L; 10.5121/acij.2012.3211

    2012-01-01

    Wireless communication is the fastest growing area of the communication industry. To keep swiftness with the indefinite increase in customers' demands and expectations, and the market competition among companies for the services offered,there is need for higher data rate along with reliable communication at low cost so that the applications can reach all. Until now, many technical challenges remain in designing robust and fast wireless systems that deliver the performance necessary to support emerging applications, due to the fact that wireless channels are frequency selective, power-limited, susceptible to noise and interference. Demand for high data rate and increasing applications offered by a wireless device calls for an effective method. Due to limit on the available bandwidth, there is a need for exploiting the available bandwidth in a way so that we get maximum advantage. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output system does exactly this thing by multiplying the data rate without any expansion in the bandwidth. T...

  2. Recent Microextraction Techniques for Determination and Chemical Speciation of Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed S. A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research designed to improve extraction has led to the development of microextraction techniques (ME, which involve simple, low cost, and effective preconcentrationof analytes in various matrices. This review is concerned with the principles and theoretical background of ME, as well as the development of applications for selenium analysis during the period from 2008 to 2016. Among all ME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was found to be most favorable for selenium. On the other hand, atomic absorption spectrometry was the most frequently used instrumentation. Selenium ME have rarely been coupled to spectrophotometry and X-ray spectrophotometry methods, and there is no published application of ME with electrochemical techniques. We strongly support the idea of using a double preconcentration process, which consists of microextraction prior to preconcentration, followed by selenium determination using cathodic stripping voltammetry (ME-CSV. More attention should focus on the development of accurate, precise, and green methods for selenium analysis.

  3. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. De Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a {lambda}-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  4. Possibilities of the mirror through transmission electromagnetic-acoustic technique on multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, K. V.; Muravieva, O. V.; Gabbasova, M. A.; Zorin, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    The approaches to the implementation of the mirror through transmission electromagnetic-acoustic (EMA) testing technique on multiple reflections are introduced. Operating principles of through-type EMA transducers and the special-purpose installation realizing the mirror through transmission EMA testing technique on multiple reflections are described. The modeling results of electrodynamic mechanism of interaction between the through type EMA transducers are presented and used for the efficiency increase and the improvement of dimensional characteristics. The special model, with the use of which the formation principles of through-type EMA transducer acoustic fields in cylindrical objects were investigated, is developed. The additional informative parameters based on the correlation, spectral and probability and statistic analyses of the multiple reflections oscillograms are suggested. The results of structural analysis and investigation of acoustoelasticity with the use of the mirror through transmission EMA technique on the multiple reflections are presented.

  5. Soot particle density determination from a laser extinction multipass technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaros, Gregory E.

    1994-09-01

    Methods of measuring soot particle densities have been of interest for several decades. Plume signature determination of both rocket and air-breathing engines is of concern when applied to pollution and theater missile ballistic defense strategies. Application of non-intrusive traditional techniques employing Bouguer's law relied on Sauter mean diameter statistical deviation and the probability density function in order to compensate for the ambiguities present in the extension of classical Mie theory. Our investigation developed an apparatus which will determine soot particle densities by measuring extinction from absorption of light energy transmitted through an exhaust plume. The method used was a two-pass technique using an optical phase conjugator (OPC) which returned the non-absorbed portion of light energy. When the apparatus was used with a retroreflector, it produced accurate results but did not compensate for thermal blooming or beam steering. Characteristics of a photorefractive crystal used in the QPC process allowed for the return of an incident beam corrected for aberrations. Although the OPC returned the phase conjugate of the incident beam its size precluded the return of all of the transmitted data because data was lost on the blossomed beam.

  6. A Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been several studies for portfolio management. One of the primary concerns on any stock market is to detect the risk associated with various assets. One of the recognized methods in order to measure, to forecast, and to manage the existing risk is associated with Value at Risk (VaR, which draws much attention by financial institutions in recent years. VaR is a method for recognizing and evaluating of risk, which uses the standard statistical techniques and the method has been used in other fields, increasingly. The present study has measured the value at risk of 26 companies from chemical industry in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2009-2011 using the simulation technique of Monte Carlo with 95% confidence level. The used variability in the present study has been the daily return resulted from the stock daily price change. Moreover, the weight of optimal investment has been determined using a hybrid model called Markowitz and Winker model in each determined stocks. The results showed that the maximum loss would not exceed from 1259432 Rials at 95% confidence level in future day.

  7. Ruminal bacteria and protozoa composition, digestibility, and amino acid profile determined by multiple hydrolysis times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessenden, S W; Hackmann, T J; Ross, D A; Foskolos, A; Van Amburgh, M E

    2017-09-01

    Microbial samples from 4 independent experiments in lactating dairy cattle were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, AA digestibility, and AA profile after multiple hydrolysis times ranging from 2 to 168 h. Similar bacterial and protozoal isolation techniques were used for all isolations. Omasal bacteria and protozoa samples were analyzed for AA digestibility using a new in vitro technique. Multiple time point hydrolysis and least squares nonlinear regression were used to determine the AA content of omasal bacteria and protozoa, and equivalency comparisons were made against single time point hydrolysis. Formalin was used in 1 experiment, which negatively affected AA digestibility and likely limited the complete release of AA during acid hydrolysis. The mean AA digestibility was 87.8 and 81.6% for non-formalin-treated bacteria and protozoa, respectively. Preservation of microbe samples in formalin likely decreased recovery of several individual AA. Results from the multiple time point hydrolysis indicated that Ile, Val, and Met hydrolyzed at a slower rate compared with other essential AA. Singe time point hydrolysis was found to be nonequivalent to multiple time point hydrolysis when considering biologically important changes in estimated microbial AA profiles. Several AA, including Met, Ile, and Val, were underpredicted using AA determination after a single 24-h hydrolysis. Models for predicting postruminal supply of AA might need to consider potential bias present in postruminal AA flow literature when AA determinations are performed after single time point hydrolysis and when using formalin as a preservative for microbial samples. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  9. Efficient Area and Speed Optimized Multiplication Technique Using Vedic and Tree Addition Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Mishra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Now days we are living in digital world, where all the operations get performed more reliably and with highest accuracy by digital signal processor. The multiplier is the key element of all these processor like Microprocessor, Microcontroller, DSP processor etc. After through study and deep analysis work we have seen that the existing Vedic multiplication hardware has some limitation in terms of area. To overcome these limitations a novel approach has been proposed to design the Vedic multiplier with unique addition structure, which is used to add partially generated products. To meet our major concern ‘Speed’ we need particular high speed multiplier, the speed of multiplier greatly depends upon the type of multiplication technique used in it. We have come up with the idea to merge two different multiplication techniques Vedic and Tree addition structure and these gives us a fast and area efficient multiplication approach.

  10. Simultaneous detection of randomly arranged multiple barcodes using time division multiplexing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saad Md. Jaglul; Islam, Md. Kafiul

    2010-02-01

    A method of detecting multiple barcodes simultaneously using time division multiplexing technique has been proposed in this paper to minimize the effective time needed for handling multiple tags of barcodes and to lessen the overall workload. Available barcode detection systems can handle multiple types of barcode but a single barcode at a time. This is not so efficient and can create large queue and chaos in places like mega shopping malls or large warehouses where we need to scan huge number of barcodes daily. Our proposed system is expected to improve the real time identification of goods or products on production lines and in automated warehouses or in mega shopping malls in a much more convenient and efficient way. For identifying of multiple barcodes simultaneously, a particular arrangement and orientation of LASER scanner and reflector have been used with a special curve shaped basement where the barcodes are placed. An effective and novel algorithm is developed to extract information from multiple barcodes which introduces starting pattern and ending pattern in barcodes with bit stuffing technique for the convenience of multiple detections. CRC technique is also used for trustworthiness of detection. The overall system enhances the existing single barcode detection system by a great amount although it is easy to implement and use.

  11. Multiple Triangulation Analysis: another approach to determine the orientation of magnetic flux ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Z. Zhou

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Another approach (Multiple Triangulation Analysis, MTA is presented to determine the orientation of magnetic flux rope, based on 4-point measurements. A 2-D flux rope model is used to examine the accuracy of the MTA technique in a theoretical way. It is found that the precision of the estimated orientation is dependent on both the spacecraft separation and the constellation path relative to the flux rope structure. However, the MTA error range can be shown to be smaller than that of the traditional MVA technique. As an application to real Cluster data, several flux rope events on 26 January 2001 are analyzed using MTA, to obtain their orientations. The results are compared with the ones obtained by several other methods which also yield flux rope orientation. The estimated axis orientations are shown to be fairly close, suggesting the reliability of the MTA method.

  12. A Tuning Computation Technique for a Multiple-Antenna-Port and Multiple-User-Port Antenna Tuner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Broydé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiple-user-port antenna tuner having the structure of a multidimensional π-network has recently been disclosed, together with design equations which assume lossless circuit elements. This paper is about the design of this type of antenna tuner, when losses are taken into account in each circuit element of the antenna tuner. The problem to be solved is the tuning computation, the intended results of which are the reactance values of the adjustable impedance devices of the antenna tuner, which provide an ideal match, if such reactance values exist. An efficient iterative tuning computation technique is presented and demonstrated.

  13. Application of interactive multiple goal programming techniques for analysis and planning of regional agricultural development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Keulen, van H.; Seligman, N.G.; Spharim, I.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a method of investigating development possibilities for a region under various constraints and demands. Use is made of an interactive multiple goal linear programming technique. The method is illustrated with an example from a semi-arid zone in the Mediterranean Basin. It is con

  14. Multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques: performance trade-offs in cellular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two very important and active areas of wireless research are multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques. Wireless multihop relaying can increase the aggregate network data capacity and improve coverage of cellular systems by reducing path loss, mitigating shadowing, and enabling spatial reuse. In particular, multihop relaying can improve the throughput for mobiles suffering from poor signal to interference and noise ratio at the edge of a cell and reduce cell size to increase spectral efficiency. On the other hand, multiple antenna techniques can take advantage of scattering in the wireless channel to achieve higher capacity on individual links. Multiple antennas can provide impressive capacity gains, but the greatest gains occur in high scattering environments with high signal to interference and noise ratio, which are not typical characteristics of cellular systems. Emerging standards for fourth generation cellular systems include both multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques, so it is necessary to study how these two work jointly in a realistic cellular system. In this paper, we look at the joint application of these two techniques in a cellular system and analyze the fundamental tradeoff between them. In order to obtain meaningful results, system performance is evaluated using realistic propagation models.

  15. A new technique to determine the value of G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Wescott, Michael; Overcash, Dan; Voulgaris, George; Cokkinides, George; Morawiec, Pawel; Datta, Timir

    2009-11-01

    The Big-G or Newton's constant of universal gravitational was implied in the formulation of the law of gravitation proposed by Sir Isaac Newton in the Principia Mathematica (1687). G also appears in Albert Einstein's General Theory of relativity as well as in quantum theories of gravitation. It is the least precisely known fundamental constants of nature; the accuracy of its value (1/10,000) has increased only modestly since Cavendish. A dynamical experiment to measure G is in progress in our laboratory. Some of the challenging problems are the inability to shield background gravitation, knowledge of exact mass distribution and precise determination of time scale. Our technique, (i) explicitly corrects for tidal changes in the background, (ii) incorporates simple solid cylinder geometries, (iii) defines period of oscillation by Fourier analysis of the entire sets of time displacement data and (iv) the measurements are compared with numerical finite element analysis of test mass acceleration. A description of the apparatus and measurements will be presented.

  16. Datafish Multiphase Data Mining Technique to Match Multiple Mutually Inclusive Independent Variables in Large PACS Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan P; Klochko, Chad; Halabi, Safwan; Siegal, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Retrospective data mining has tremendous potential in research but is time and labor intensive. Current data mining software contains many advanced search features but is limited in its ability to identify patients who meet multiple complex independent search criteria. Simple keyword and Boolean search techniques are ineffective when more complex searches are required, or when a search for multiple mutually inclusive variables becomes important. This is particularly true when trying to identify patients with a set of specific radiologic findings or proximity in time across multiple different imaging modalities. Another challenge that arises in retrospective data mining is that much variation still exists in how image findings are described in radiology reports. We present an algorithmic approach to solve this problem and describe a specific use case scenario in which we applied our technique to a real-world data set in order to identify patients who matched several independent variables in our institution's picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) database.

  17. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  18. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  19. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  20. Fast magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging techniques in human brain- applications in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Iedani, Oun; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Ribbons, Karen; Ramadan, Saadallah

    2017-02-28

    Multi voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is an important imaging tool that combines imaging and spectroscopic techniques. MRSI of the human brain has been beneficially applied to different clinical applications in neurology, particularly in neurooncology but also in multiple sclerosis, stroke and epilepsy. However, a major challenge in conventional MRSI is the longer acquisition time required for adequate signal to be collected. Fast MRSI of the brain in vivo is an alternative approach to reduce scanning time and make MRSI more clinically suitable.Fast MRSI can be categorised into spiral, echo-planar, parallel and turbo imaging techniques, each with its own strengths. After a brief introduction on the basics of non-invasive examination ((1)H-MRS) and localization techniques principles, different fast MRSI techniques will be discussed from their initial development to the recent innovations with particular emphasis on their capacity to record neurochemical changes in the brain in a variety of pathologies.The clinical applications of whole brain fast spectroscopic techniques, can assist in the assessment of neurochemical changes in the human brain and help in understanding the roles they play in disease. To give a good example of the utilities of these techniques in clinical context, MRSI application in multiple sclerosis was chosen. The available up to date and relevant literature is discussed and an outline of future research is presented.

  1. A computational algorithm for crack determination: The multiple crack case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Kurt; Vogelius, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for recovering a collection of linear cracks in a homogeneous electrical conductor from boundary measurements of voltages induced by specified current fluxes is developed. The technique is a variation of Newton's method and is based on taking weighted averages of the boundary data. The method also adaptively changes the applied current flux at each iteration to maintain maximum sensitivity to the estimated locations of the cracks.

  2. The value of remote sensing techniques in supporting effective extrapolation across multiple marine spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, James Asa; Elliott, Michael

    2017-03-15

    The reporting of ecological phenomena and environmental status routinely required point observations, collected with traditional sampling approaches to be extrapolated to larger reporting scales. This process encompasses difficulties that can quickly entrain significant errors. Remote sensing techniques offer insights and exceptional spatial coverage for observing the marine environment. This review provides guidance on (i) the structures and discontinuities inherent within the extrapolative process, (ii) how to extrapolate effectively across multiple spatial scales, and (iii) remote sensing techniques and data sets that can facilitate this process. This evaluation illustrates that remote sensing techniques are a critical component in extrapolation and likely to underpin the production of high-quality assessments of ecological phenomena and the regional reporting of environmental status. Ultimately, is it hoped that this guidance will aid the production of robust and consistent extrapolations that also make full use of the techniques and data sets that expedite this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 54073 - Medicaid Program; Withdrawal of Determination of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug Definition, and Upper Limits for Multiple Source Drugs... the statutory definition of `average manufacturer price' or the statutory definition of `multiple... provisions we are proposing to withdraw are as follows: The determination of average manufacturer price (AMP...

  4. Impression technique for a complete-arch prosthesis with multiple implants using additive manufacturing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-León, Marta; Sánchez-Rubio, José Luis; Oteo-Calatayud, Jesús; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-06-01

    This article describes an impression technique for a complete-arch prosthesis supported by multiple implants where additive manufacturing technologies were used to fabricate a splinting framework and a custom tray. The technique presented uses a shim method to control the homogenous splinting acrylic resin and impression material during the procedure, thereby reducing laboratory and chairside time and the number of impression copings and laboratory analogs needed. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of multiple gingival recessions adopting modified tunnel subepithelial connective tissue graft technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession related to periodontal disease or developmental problems can result in root sensitivity, root caries, and esthetically unacceptable root exposures. In the past, multiple surgical procedures have been proposed to obtain root coverage on exposed buccal root surfaces. There has been great interest in the treatment of gingival recession defects, especially with subepithelial connective-tissue grafting (SCTG. Recent advances have focused on SCTG by the tunnel technique. This article highlights the esthetic results obtained by adopting a modification of the tunnel technique using a single vertical incision along with autologous SCTG in the management of multiple adjacent Miller Class-II gingival recessions. A single vertical incision was used along with tunnel preparation for the facile placement of SCTG into the prepared tunnel. After 6 months of follow-up, the clinical condition was stable with satisfactory root coverage outcome. An excellent esthetical outcome was achieved and the patient was satisfied with the result.

  6. Multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques: performance trade-offs in cellular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson Kevin; Krzymień Witold

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two very important and active areas of wireless research are multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques. Wireless multihop relaying can increase the aggregate network data capacity and improve coverage of cellular systems by reducing path loss, mitigating shadowing, and enabling spatial reuse. In particular, multihop relaying can improve the throughput for mobiles suffering from poor signal to interference and noise ratio at the edge of a cell and reduce cell size to increase ...

  7. Developing a technique to master multiplication facts 6 to 9 for year 5 pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmat, Norhayati; Mohamed, Nurul Huda; Azmee, Nor Afzalina; Adham, Sarah Mohd

    2017-05-01

    This study was performed to enhance the mastery of multiplication facts 6 to 9 amongst the year 5 pupils. The samples of this study were 40 pupils of year 5 from one of primary school at Teluk Intan, Perak. The samples were divided into two groups, the control group and the treatment group where each group consists of 20 pupils respectively. In this study, new multiplication facts technique, known as `Teknik Sifir Jari' has been introduced to the treatment group. The objectives of the study are to test the effectiveness of the new technique and to increase multiplication fact fluency among pupils. The instruments that have been used in this study are the achievement tests (pre-test and post-test). The data obtained were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 21.A t-test had also been carried out to test the null hypothesis. The results showed that there was an increment in the students' achievement for the students who were taught using the `Teknik Sifir Jari'. Therefore, the `Teknik Sifir Jari' has proved its effectiveness to support students in mastering multiplication facts.

  8. Anchor-wire technique for multiple plastic biliary stents to prevent stent dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsuyoshi Hamada; Kazuhiko Koike; Yousuke Nakai; Saburo Matsubara; Hiroyuki Isayama; Akiko Narita; Kazuhiro Watanabe; Yukihiro Koike; Shigeo Matsukawa; Tateo Kawase

    2011-01-01

    In endoscopic placement of multiple plastic biliary stents (PBSs), we sometimes experience proximal dislocation of the first PBS at the time of subsequent PBS insertion. We describe the case of a 79-year-old male with obstructive jaundice caused by cholangiocarcinoma who needed to receive multiple PBS placements for management of cholangitis. Although proximal dislocation of the first PBS was observed, we prevented the dislocation via our technique of using guidewire inserted from the distal end of the first PBS to the side hole as the anchor-wire. We could complete this technique only by inserting guidewire through the side hole of the first PBS during the process of releasing the first PBS and pulling out the guidewire and the inner sheath. It did not matter whether the anchor-wire went towards the third portion of the duodenum or the duodenal bulb. Here we introduce this "anchor-wire technique", which is useful for the prevention of PBS proximal dislocation in placing multiple PBSs.

  9. Dual SAW sensor technique for determining mass and modulus changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, S L; Hietala, V M; Brinker, C J

    2001-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors, which are sensitive to a variety of surface changes, have been widely used for chemical and physical sensing. The ability to control or compensate for the many surface forces has been instrumental in collecting valid data. In cases in which it is not possible to neglect certain effects, such as frequency drift with temperature, methods such as the "dual sensor" technique have been utilized. This paper describes a novel use of a dual sensor technique, using two sensor materials (quartz and GaAs) to separate out the contributions of mass and modulus of the frequency change during gas adsorption experiments. The large modulus change in the film calculated using this technique and predicted by the Gassmann equation provide a greater understanding of the challenges of SAW sensing.

  10. A Rank Aggregation Algorithm for Ensemble of Multiple Feature Selection Techniques in Credit Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Dahiya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In credit risk evaluation the accuracy of a classifier is very significant for classifying the high-risk loan applicants correctly. Feature selection is one way of improving the accuracy of a classifier. It provides the classifier with important and relevant features for model development. This study uses the ensemble of multiple feature ranking techniques for feature selection of credit data. It uses five individual rank based feature selection methods. It proposes a novel rank aggregation algorithm for combining the ranks of the individual feature selection methods of the ensemble. This algorithm uses the rank order along with the rank score of the features in the ranked list of each feature selection method for rank aggregation. The ensemble of multiple feature selection techniques uses the novel rank aggregation algorithm and selects the relevant features using the 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% thresholds from the top of the aggregated ranked list for building the C4.5, MLP, C4.5 based Bagging and MLP based Bagging models. It was observed that the performance of models using the ensemble of multiple feature selection techniques is better than the performance of 5 individual rank based feature selection methods. The average performance of all the models was observed as best for the ensemble of feature selection techniques at 60% threshold. Also, the bagging based models outperformed the individual models most significantly for the 60% threshold. This increase in performance is more significant from the fact that the number of features were reduced by 40% for building the highest performing models. This reduces the data dimensions and hence the overall data size phenomenally for model building. The use of the ensemble of feature selection techniques using the novel aggregation algorithm provided more accurate models which are simpler, faster and easy to interpret.

  11. Determination of multiple solutions of load flow equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PANKAJ MAHATA; P S NAGENDRA RAO

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of finding all the real solutions (all components of the solution vector must be real values) of load flow equations. Solutions in which some of the components are complex values are of no interest as they have no physical significance as a load flow solution. This problem issignificant not only because of its theoretical challenge but also, its relationship with several system behavior related issues. Approaches suggested so far for solving this problem are rather ad hoc, computationally demanding and have been demonstrated only on very small systems. Further, it has been subsequently shown by others that many of these methods are not capable of finding all solutions. In this work a new approach is proposed which is more systematic and seems to have the potential to handle even large problems. We show that for any system it is possible to find the multiple load flow solutions (MLFS) corresponding to a given operating point extremely easily, starting from a set of points that are referred to as zero load solutions (ZLS) in this paper.It is shown that the complete set of ZLS is unique for a system and MLFS for any other operating point can be obtained starting from these ZLS using only the Newton’s load flow method. The set of procedures for implementing the proposed scheme are illustrated and their features are highlighted by considering several sample systems.

  12. Desorption Techniques for Determination of Metals Mobility in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bartoš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three leaching techniques for assessment of fixed and mobile metal or radionuclides in soils are demonstrated on radiocaesium speciation. A new leaching technique based on the variation of the leaching solution volume to solid phase amount is proposed. It enables parallel treatment of large numbers of samples and, therefore, is suitable for a routine analysis of contaminant mobility in soils. As a leaching solution, 1 M ammonium acetate is proposed for caesium, but any other desorption solution harmonised with existing speciation schemes can be used.

  13. Tricuspid regurgitation: noninvasive techniques for determining causes and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Ross, J; Iskandrian, A S; Nestico, P F; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S; Segal, B L; Hakki, A H; Morganroth, J

    1984-06-01

    Tricuspid regurgitation is often not apparent on physical examination and several methods are now available to aid in this difficult assessment. Cardiac catheterization using right ventriculography, previously considered the diagnostic standard, has several limitations. Currently available noninvasive tools such as M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography (with or without contrast), Doppler techniques and even radionuclide cardiologic imaging have added significantly to the precise assessment of the presence and severity of tricuspid regurgitation. This review examines the comparative use and limitations of these various techniques.

  14. Application of the multiple PRF technique to resolve Doppler centroid estimation ambiguity for spaceborne SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Estimation of the Doppler centroid ambiguity is a necessary element of the signal processing for SAR systems with large antenna pointing errors. Without proper resolution of the Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) ambiguity, the image quality will be degraded in the system impulse response function and the geometric fidelity. Two techniques for resolution of DCE ambiguity for the spaceborne SAR are presented; they include a brief review of the range cross-correlation technique and presentation of a new technique using multiple pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). For SAR systems, where other performance factors control selection of the PRF's, an algorithm is devised to resolve the ambiguity that uses PRF's of arbitrary numerical values. The performance of this multiple PRF technique is analyzed based on a statistical error model. An example is presented that demonstrates for the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) C-band SAR, the probability of correct ambiguity resolution is higher than 95 percent for antenna attitude errors as large as 3 deg.

  15. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis, E-mail: gkotsikoris@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Zygomalas, Apollon, E-mail: azygomalas@upatras.gr [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Patras (Greece); Papas, Theofanis, E-mail: pfanis@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Maras, Dimitris, E-mail: dimmaras@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Pavlidis, Polyvios, E-mail: polpavlidis@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Andrikopoulou, Maria, E-mail: madric@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Tsanis, Antonis, E-mail: atsanis@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Radiology, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Alivizatos, Vasileios, E-mail: valiviz@hol.gr [Department of General Surgery and Artificial Nutrition Unit, “Agios Andreas” General Hospital of Patras (Greece); Bessias, Nikolaos, E-mail: bessias@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates.

  16. A New Measurement Equivalence Technique Based on Latent Class Regression as Compared with Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurement equivalence is an essential prerequisite for making valid comparisons in mental health questionnaires across groups. In most methods used for assessing measurement equivalence, which is known as Differential Item Functioning (DIF), latent variables are assumed to be continuous. Objective: To compare a new method called Latent Class Regression (LCR) designed for discrete latent variable with the multiple indicators multiple cause (MIMIC) as a continuous latent variable technique to assess the measurement equivalence of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which is a cross deferent subgroup of Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 among 771 nurses working in the hospitals of Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran. To identify the Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD), the nurses completed self-report GHQ-12 questionnaires and sociodemographic questions. Two uniform-DIF detection methods, LCR and MIMIC, were applied for comparability when the GHQ-12 score was assumed to be discrete and continuous, respectively. Results: The result of fitting LCR with 2 classes indicated that 27.4% of the nurses had MPD. Gender was identified as an influential factor of the level of MPD.LCR and MIMIC agree with detection of DIF and DIF-free items by gender, age, education and marital status in 83.3, 100.0, 91.7 and 83.3% cases, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that the GHQ-12 is to a great degree, an invariant measure for the assessment of MPD among nurses. High convergence between the two methods suggests using the LCR approach in cases of discrete latent variable, e.g. GHQ-12 and adequate sample size. PMID:27482129

  17. Nanostructure Determination by Co-Refining Models to Multiple Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billinge, Simon

    2011-05-31

    The results of the work are contained in the publications resulting from the grant (which are listed below). Here I summarize the main findings from the last period of the award, 2006-2007: • Published a paper in Science with Igor Levin outlining the “Nanostructure Problem”, our inability to solve structure at the nanoscale. • Published a paper in Nature demonstrating the first ever ab-initio structure determination of a nanoparticle from atomic pair distribution function (PDF) data. • Published one book and 3 overview articles on PDF methods and the nanostructure problem. • Completed a project that sought to find a structural response to the presence of the so-called “intermediate phase” in network glasses which appears close to the rigidity percolation threshold in these systems. The main result was that we did not see convincing evidence for this, which drew into doubt the idea that GexSe1-x glasses were a model system exhibiting rigidity percolation.

  18. Mass Hierarchy Determination Using Neutrinos from Multiple Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Zhang, Xinmin

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of Monte Carlo simulations of a medium baseline reactor neutrino experiment. The difference in baselines resulting from the 1 km separations of Daya Bay and Ling Ao reactors reduces the amplitudes of 1-3 oscillations at low energies, decreasing the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy. A perpendicular detector location eliminates this effect. We simulate experiments under several mountains perpendicular to the Daya Bay/Ling Ao reactors, considering in particular the background from the TaiShan and YangJiang reactor complexes. In general the hierarchy can be determined most reliably underneath the 1000 meter mountain BaiYunZhang, which is 44.5 km from Daya Bay. If some planned reactors are not built then nearby 700 meter mountains at 47-51 km baselines gain a small advantage. Neglecting their low overhead burdens, hills near DongKeng would be the optimal locations. We use a weighted Fourier transform to avoid a spurious dependence on the high energy neutrino spectrum and find that a...

  19. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods : A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60, or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60 for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4 in group US and 3 (2-5 in group NS (P =0.27. Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5% of group US and four patients (6.67% of group NS (P > =0.35. Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  20. Multiple Target Localization with Bistatic Radar Using Heuristic Computational Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We assume Bistatic Phase Multiple Input Multiple Output radar having passive Centrosymmetric Cross Shape Sensor Array (CSCA on its receiver. Let the transmitter of this Bistatic radar send coherent signals using a subarray that gives a fairly wide beam with a large solid angle so as to cover up any potential relevant target in the near field. We developed Heuristic Computational Intelligence (HCI based techniques to jointly estimate the range, amplitude, and elevation and azimuth angles of these multiple targets impinging on the CSCA. In this connection, first the global search optimizers, that is,are developed separately Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Differential Evolution (DE are developed separately, and, to enhance the performances further, both of them are hybridized with a local search optimizer called Active Set Algorithm (ASA. Initially, the performance of PSO, DE, PSO hybridized with ASA, and DE hybridized with ASA are compared with each other and then with some traditional techniques available in literature using root mean square error (RMSE as figure of merit.

  1. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, DK; Sibi, Maj. E; Datta, Barun; Gogoi, Biraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS) or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods: A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60), or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60) for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range) number of skin punctures were 2 (2–4) in group US and 3 (2–5) in group NS (P =0.27). Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5%) of group US and four patients (6.67%) of group NS (P > =0.35). Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. PMID:25624532

  2. Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry, voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma techniques, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Approximately 126 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques published in international journals since 2013 are reviewed.

  3. Determination of hyperfine fields orientation in nuclear probe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, K.; Olszewski, W.; Satuła, D.; Gawryluk, D. J.; Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Kalska-Szostko, B.

    2017-02-01

    One of the most popular nuclear probes, 57Fe is used for the investigation of orientations of hyperfine fields and also for the determination of other important properties. In particular, the orientation of iron magnetic moments can be unambiguously determined, including its signs. Experiments with polarized radiation are presented with regard to selected systems. Orientation of electric field gradient is used for acquiring information about the shape of the texture-free spectra. Applications on the analysis of iron-based superconductors are presented.

  4. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J. (Richland, WA); Diaz, Aaron A. (W. Richland, WA); Judd, Kayte M. (Richland, WA); Pappas, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Cliff, William C. (Richland, WA); Pfund, David M. (Richland, WA); Morgen, Gerald P. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  5. Radiation technique to determine early peopling of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shigueo; Ayta, Walter E.F.; Callata, Henry J.C.; Farias, Thiago M.B.; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear], e-mail: lacifid@dfn.if.usp.br; Etchevarne, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas. Dept. de Antropologia e Etnologia], e-mail: etchvrn@ufba.br

    2009-07-01

    Peopling American Continent and in particular of Brazil has been subject of research for a long time. With the results of dating of several pertinent materials many theories have been proposed. In Brazil, there is a National Park (Serra da Capivara Park) which is worldwide known due to thousands of wall paintings, most of them in rockshelters. N. Guidon, head of the Serra da Capivara National Park, found charcoal pellets in several archaeological sites and they were dated by radiocarbon technique. Ages ranging from 6 to 48 ka have been found. In one of the shelter a thin white covering was found that was proved to be calcite. This calcite was dated by Thermoluminescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance techniques and ages of 35 to 36 ka were obtained. In 2007, thin calcite covering wall paintings found in Iraquara County, Bahia state, has been dated. Ages of 50 ka have been obtained. The proposal of this work is that the early settlers crossed Atlantic Ocean from westernmost point of African Continent to easternmost point in Brazil more than 50000 years ago. The theory here proposed is possible once the distance between these two points is less than 3000 km distance far shorter than from Siberia to South America as proposed by other researchers.(author)

  6. Determining the Success Rate of a Modified Underlay Myringoplasty Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Faramarzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Chronic otitis media surgery is the most common procedure in the field of otology in developing countries. Subtotal and total tympanic membrane perforation with inadequate anterior remnant is associated with higher rate of graft failure. This study aimed to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of a modified underlay myringoplasty technique. Methods: In the present prospective clinical study, 45 patients with subtotal or total tympanic membrane perforation and inadequate anterior remnant underwent tympanoplasty (+/- mastoidectomy. Anterior tip of the temporalis fascia was secured in a mucosal pocket on the lateral wall of Eustachian tube orifice. Data on graft take rate, preoperative and postoperative hearing status and intraoperative findings were analyzed. The anatomical and functional findings of this procedure were analyzed by paired t-test. Results: A graft success rate of 91.1%, without lateralization, blunting, atelectasia or epithelial pearls was achieved in this study. About 24 % of patients had an air bone gap within 25db before intervention, which increased to 71% postoperatively.(P<0.001. Conclusion: It seems that the current technique could be a convenient and suitable method for cases with subtotal or total tympanic membrane perforation and inadequate anterior remnant. Key words: Tympanic membrane, Perforation, Tympanoplasty, Eustachian tube

  7. T-38C Optimal Landing Technique Determination (Project Talon Spot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    for each landing was determined via two methods. IRIG time was recorded on the data acquisition system (DAS) when the main wheels touched down, and...Marker GPS Global Positioning System HOT Height Over Threshold HUD Heads Up Display IRIG Inter-Range Instrumentation Group LTT Latch-to-the

  8. A new ionospheric tomographic algorithm – constrained multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (CMART)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wen Debao; Liu Sanzhi

    2010-08-01

    For the limitation of the conventional multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), a constrained MART (CMART) is proposed in this paper. In the new tomographic algorithm, a popular two-dimensional multi-point finite difference approximation of the second order Laplacian operator is used to smooth the electron density field. The feasibility and superiority of the new method are demonstrated by using the numerical simulation experiment. Finally, the CMART is used to reconstruct the regional electron density field by using the actual GNSS data under geomagnetic quiet and disturbed days. The available ionosonde data from Beijing station further validates the superiority of the new method.

  9. Key issues of multiple access technique for LEO satellite communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温萍萍; 顾学迈

    2004-01-01

    The large carrier frequency shift caused by the high-speed movement of satellite (Doppler effects) and the propagation delay on the up-down link are very critical issues in an LEO satellite communication system, which affects both the selection and the implementation of a suitable access method. A Doppler based multiple access technique is used here to control the flow and an MPRMA-HS protocol is proposed for the application in LEO satellite communication systems. The extended simulation trials prove that the proposed scheme seems to be a very promising access method.

  10. A new ionospheric tomographic algorithm — constrained multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (CMART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Debao; Liu, Sanzhi

    2010-08-01

    For the limitation of the conventional multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), a constrained MART (CMART) is proposed in this paper. In the new tomographic algorithm, a popular two-dimensional multi-point finite difference approximation of the second order Laplacian operator is used to smooth the electron density field. The feasibility and superiority of the new method are demonstrated by using the numerical simulation experiment. Finally, the CMART is used to reconstruct the regional electron density field by using the actual GNSS data under geomagnetic quiet and disturbed days. The available ionosonde data from Beijing station further validates the superiority of the new method.

  11. Multiple and high-throughput droplet reactions via combination of microsampling technique and microfluidic chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2012-11-20

    Microdroplets offer unique compartments for accommodating a large number of chemical and biological reactions in tiny volume with precise control. A major concern in droplet-based microfluidics is the difficulty to address droplets individually and achieve high throughput at the same time. Here, we have combined an improved cartridge sampling technique with a microfluidic chip to perform droplet screenings and aggressive reaction with minimal (nanoliter-scale) reagent consumption. The droplet composition, distance, volume (nanoliter to subnanoliter scale), number, and sequence could be precisely and digitally programmed through the improved sampling technique, while sample evaporation and cross-contamination are effectively eliminated. Our combined device provides a simple model to utilize multiple droplets for various reactions with low reagent consumption and high throughput. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Fingerprint Identification Based on DCT and DWT using Multiple Matching Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya B. N.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint is a physiological trait used to identify a person. In this paper, Performance Evaluation of Fingerprint Identification based on DCT and DWT using Multiple Matching Techniques (FDDMM is proposed. The fingerprint is segmented into four cells of each size 150*240. The DCT is applied on each cell. The Harr Wavelet is applied on DCT coefficient of each cell. The directional information features and centre area features are computed on LL sub band. The final Feature Vector is obtained by concatenating Directional Information and Centre Area Features. The matching techniques viz., ED, SVM, and RF are used to compare test image feature with database image features. It is observed that the values of TSR and FRR are better in the case of proposed algorithm compared to existing algorithm.

  13. Reconstruction of elongated bubbles fusing the information from multiple optical probes through a Bayesian inference technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhankar; Roy Chaudhuri, Partha; Das, Prasanta Kr

    2016-07-01

    In this communication, a novel optical technique has been proposed for the reconstruction of the shape of a Taylor bubble using measurements from multiple arrays of optical sensors. The deviation of an optical beam passing through the bubble depends on the contour of bubble surface. A theoretical model of the deviation of a beam during the traverse of a Taylor bubble through it has been developed. Using this model and the time history of the deviation captured by the sensor array, the bubble shape has been reconstructed. The reconstruction has been performed using an inverse algorithm based on Bayesian inference technique and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm. The reconstructed nose shape has been compared with the true shape, extracted through image processing of high speed images. Finally, an error analysis has been performed to pinpoint the sources of the errors.

  14. Accurate determination of electronic transport properties of silicon wafers by nonlinear photocarrier radiometry with multiple pump beam sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian [Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Bincheng, E-mail: bcli@uestc.ac.cn [Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209 (China); School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, photocarrier radiometry (PCR) technique with multiple pump beam sizes is employed to determine simultaneously the electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) of silicon wafers. By employing the multiple pump beam sizes, the influence of instrumental frequency response on the multi-parameter estimation is totally eliminated. A nonlinear PCR model is developed to interpret the PCR signal. Theoretical simulations are performed to investigate the uncertainties of the estimated parameter values by investigating the dependence of a mean square variance on the corresponding transport parameters and compared to that obtained by the conventional frequency-scan method, in which only the frequency dependences of the PCR amplitude and phase are recorded at single pump beam size. Simulation results show that the proposed multiple-pump-beam-size method can improve significantly the accuracy of the determination of the electronic transport parameters. Comparative experiments with a p-type silicon wafer with resistivity 0.1–0.2 Ω·cm are performed, and the electronic transport properties are determined simultaneously. The estimated uncertainties of the carrier lifetime, diffusion coefficient, and front surface recombination velocity are approximately ±10.7%, ±8.6%, and ±35.4% by the proposed multiple-pump-beam-size method, which is much improved than ±15.9%, ±29.1%, and >±50% by the conventional frequency-scan method. The transport parameters determined by the proposed multiple-pump-beam-size PCR method are in good agreement with that obtained by a steady-state PCR imaging technique.

  15. Determination of spallation neutron flux through spectral adjustment techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, M.A., E-mail: mosbym@lanl.gov; Engle, J.W.; Jackman, K.R.; Nortier, F.M.; Birnbaum, E.R.

    2016-08-15

    The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) creates medical isotopes using a proton beam impinged on a target stack. Spallation neutrons are created in the interaction of the beam with target. The use of these spallation neutrons to produce additional radionuclides has been proposed. However, the energy distribution and magnitude of the flux is not well understood. A modified SAND-II spectral adjustment routine has been used with radioactivation foils to determine the differential neutron fluence for these spallation neutrons during a standard IPF production run.

  16. Determination of spallation neutron flux through spectral adjustment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, M. A.; Engle, J. W.; Jackman, K. R.; Nortier, F. M.; Birnbaum, E. R.

    2016-08-01

    The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) creates medical isotopes using a proton beam impinged on a target stack. Spallation neutrons are created in the interaction of the beam with target. The use of these spallation neutrons to produce additional radionuclides has been proposed. However, the energy distribution and magnitude of the flux is not well understood. A modified SAND-II spectral adjustment routine has been used with radioactivation foils to determine the differential neutron fluence for these spallation neutrons during a standard IPF production run.

  17. Sex Determination in Ostrich (Struthio camelus Using PCR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alipanah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The important of ostrich breeding have been increased in the Iran as other country around the world. Lack of sexual dimorphism in many species of birds including Ostrich (Struthio camelus, making it difficult to differentiate between males and females, especially in young birds. This can be problematic for breeding programs. Blood samples from randomly chicks in the first days were collected and then DNA was extracted from blood. For sex typing used PCR by OSFES primer that produced a 423 fragment. Our results shown that sex determination using PCR method for chicks in the first days is useful, easy and inexpensive.

  18. A Multiple Criteria Decision Modelling approach to selection of estimation techniques for fitting extreme floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckstein, L.; Bobée, B.; Ashkar, F.

    1991-09-01

    The problem of fitting a probability distribution, here log-Pearson Type III distribution, to extreme floods is considered from the point of view of two numerical and three non-numerical criteria. The six techniques of fitting considered include classical techniques (maximum likelihood, moments of logarithms of flows) and new methods such as mixed moments and the generalized method of moments developed by two of the co-authors. The latter method consists of fitting the distribution using moments of different order, in particular the SAM method (Sundry Averages Method) uses the moments of order 0 (geometric mean), 1 (arithmetic mean), -1 (harmonic mean) and leads to a smaller variance of the parameters. The criteria used to select the method of parameter estimation are: - the two statistical criteria of mean square error and bias; - the two computational criteria of program availability and ease of use; - the user-related criterion of acceptability. These criteria are transformed into value functions or fuzzy set membership functions and then three Multiple Criteria Decision Modelling (MCDM) techniques, namely, composite programming, ELECTRE, and MCQA, are applied to rank the estimation techniques.

  19. The new technique of using the epigastric arteries in renal transplantation with multiple renal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Amirzargar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common anatomic variant seen in the donor kidneys for renal transplantation is multiple renal arteries (MRA, which can cause an increased risk of complications. We describe the long-term outcomes of 16 years of experience in 76 kidney transplantations with MRAs. In a new reconstruction technique, we remove arterial clamps after anastomosing the donor to the recipient′s main renal vessels, which cause backflow from accessory arteries to prevent thrombosis. By this technique, we reduce the ischemic times as well as the operating times. Both in live or cadaver donor kidneys, lower polar arteries were anastomosed to the inferior epigastric artery and upper polar arteries were anastomosed to the superior epigastric arteries. Injection of Papaverine and ablation of sympathic nerves of these arteries dilate and prevent them from post-operative spasm. Follow-up DTPA renal scan in all patients showed good perfusion and function of the transplanted kidney, except two cases of polar arterial thrombosis. Mean creatinine levels during at least two years of follow-up remained acceptable. Patient and graft survival were excellent. No cases of ATN, hypertension, rejection and urologic complications were found. In conclusion, this technique can be safely and successfully utilized for renal transplantation with kidneys having MRAs, and may be associated with a lower complication rate and better graft function compared with the existing techniques.

  20. 75 FR 69591 - Medicaid Program; Withdrawal of Determination of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug Definition, and Upper Limits for Multiple Source....502 ``Definitions'' was intended to apply to both AMP and best price calculations. While the... Determination of Best Price (Sec. 447.505). Therefore, we see no need to withdraw the definition of bona fide...

  1. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  2. Technique for Determining Bridge Displacement Response Using MEMS Accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Hidehiko; Kimura, Kentaro; Miki, Chitoshi

    2016-02-19

    In bridge maintenance, particularly with regard to fatigue damage in steel bridges, it is important to determine the displacement response of the entire bridge under a live load as well as that of each member. Knowing the displacement response enables the identification of dynamic deformations that can cause stresses and ultimately lead to damage and thus also allows the undertaking of appropriate countermeasures. In theory, the displacement response can be calculated from the double integration of the measured acceleration. However, data measured by an accelerometer include measurement errors caused by the limitations of the analog-to-digital conversion process and sensor noise. These errors distort the double integration results. Furthermore, as bridges in service are constantly vibrating because of passing vehicles, estimating the boundary conditions for the numerical integration is difficult. To address these problems, this paper proposes a method for determining the displacement of a bridge in service from its acceleration based on its free vibration. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine different accelerometers. Based on the results of these measurements, the proposed method was found to be highly accurate in comparison with the reference displacement obtained using a contact displacement gauge.

  3. Technique for Determining Bridge Displacement Response Using MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Sekiya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In bridge maintenance, particularly with regard to fatigue damage in steel bridges, it is important to determine the displacement response of the entire bridge under a live load as well as that of each member. Knowing the displacement response enables the identification of dynamic deformations that can cause stresses and ultimately lead to damage and thus also allows the undertaking of appropriate countermeasures. In theory, the displacement response can be calculated from the double integration of the measured acceleration. However, data measured by an accelerometer include measurement errors caused by the limitations of the analog-to-digital conversion process and sensor noise. These errors distort the double integration results. Furthermore, as bridges in service are constantly vibrating because of passing vehicles, estimating the boundary conditions for the numerical integration is difficult. To address these problems, this paper proposes a method for determining the displacement of a bridge in service from its acceleration based on its free vibration. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine different accelerometers. Based on the results of these measurements, the proposed method was found to be highly accurate in comparison with the reference displacement obtained using a contact displacement gauge.

  4. The Optimum Design Methodology of Low-Phase-Noise LC-VCO Using Multiple-Divide Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shoichi; Murakami, Rui; Okada, Kenichi; Matsuzawa, Akira

    The multiple-divide technique, using the multi-ratio frequency divider, has a possibility to improve FoM of VCO. This paper proposes a design optimization of LC-VCO using the multiple-divide technique. In the simulated results using 90-nm CMOS model parameters, the optimum frequency range, achieving better than -187.0dBc/Hz of FoM, can be extended from 6.5-12.5GHz to 1.5-12.5GHz. The proposed multiple-divide technique can provide a lower phase-noise, lower power consumption, smaller layout area of LC-VCO.

  5. An Improved Frequency Domain Technique for Determining Soil Water Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu-Rui; MA Dao-Kun; LIN Jian-Hui; P. SCHULZE LAMMERS; L. DAMEROW

    2005-01-01

    For many years a soil water content sensor with low cost, reliability and sufficient accuracy has been desirable. Thus,an improved measurement method based on the frequency domain (FD) principle for determining soil water content was considered. Unlike other measurement principles, a new measurable index, η, which was independent of the output impedance and the amplitude of the oscillator while relying on the electrical impedance of a multi-pin probe, was proposed. Moreover, a model for processing the impedance of the multi-pin soil probe was developed, and several important electrical parameters for establishing their operating ranges applicable to this probe were evaluated. In order to confirm the theoretical analysis, an experiment was conducted with a 4-pin probe. Using the developed model, the relationship between the proposed indexηand soil volumetric water content was shown to be linear (R2 = 0.9921). Thus, as the measurable index, ηseemed satisfactory.

  6. Satellite techniques for determining the geopotential of sea surface elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, V. L.

    1986-01-01

    Spaceborne altimetry with measurement accuracies of a few centimeters which has the potential to determine sea surface elevations necessary to compute accurate three-dimensional geostrophic currents from traditional hydrographic observation is discussed. The limitation in this approach is the uncertainties in knowledge of the global and ocean geopotentials which produce satellite and height uncertainties about an order of magnitude larger than the goal of about 10 cm. The quantitative effects of geopotential uncertainties on processing altimetry data are described. Potential near term improvements, not requiring additional spacecraft, are discussed. Even though there is substantial improvements at the longer wavelengths, the oceanographic goal will be achieved. The geopotential research mission (GRM) is described which should produce geopotential models that are capable of defining the ocean geoid to 10 cm and near-earth satellite position. The state of the art and the potential of spaceborne gravimetry is described as an alternative approach to improve our knowledge of the geopotential.

  7. A Performance Study of Data Mining Techniques: Multiple Linear Regression vs. Factor Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Taneja, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    The growing volume of data usually creates an interesting challenge for the need of data analysis tools that discover regularities in these data. Data mining has emerged as disciplines that contribute tools for data analysis, discovery of hidden knowledge, and autonomous decision making in many application domains. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of two data mining techniques viz., factor analysis and multiple linear regression for different sample sizes on three unique sets of data. The performance of the two data mining techniques is compared on following parameters like mean square error (MSE), R-square, R-Square adjusted, condition number, root mean square error(RMSE), number of variables included in the prediction model, modified coefficient of efficiency, F-value, and test of normality. These parameters have been computed using various data mining tools like SPSS, XLstat, Stata, and MS-Excel. It is seen that for all the given dataset, factor analysis outperform multiple linear re...

  8. Photoelectrode Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Nanosolar Cells Using Multiple Spray Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spray coating technique for fabricating nanoporous film of photoelectrode in dye-sensitized nanosolar cells (DSSCs. Spray coating can quickly fabricate nanoporous film of the photoelectrode with lower cost, which can further help the DSSCs to be commercialized in the future. This paper analyzed photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs using spray coated photoelectrode in comparison with the photoelectrode made with the doctor blade method. Spray coating can easily control transmittance of the photoelectrode through the multiple spray coating process. This work mainly used a dispersant with help of ultrasonic oscillation to prepare the required nano-TiO2 solution and then sprayed it on the ITO glasses. In this work, a motor-operated conveyor belt was built to transport the ITO glasses automatically for multiple spray coating and drying alternately. Experiments used transmittance of the photoelectrode as a fabrication parameter to analyze photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. The influencing factors of the photoelectrode transmittance during fabrication are the spray flow rate, the spray distance, and the moving speed of the conveyor belt. The results show that DSSC with the photoelectrode transmittance of ca. 68.0 ± 1.5% and coated by the spray coating technique has the best photoelectric conversion efficiency in this work.

  9. Bit Error Rate Performance Analysis on Modulation Techniques of Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

    CERN Document Server

    Masud, M A; Rahman, M A

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of 21st century there has been a dramatic shift in the market dynamics of telecommunication services. The transmission from base station to mobile or downlink transmission using M-ary Quadrature Amplitude modulation (QAM) and Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation schemes are considered in Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) system. We have done the performance analysis of these modulation techniques when the system is subjected to Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and multipath Rayleigh fading are considered in the channel. The research has been performed by using MATLAB 7.6 for simulation and evaluation of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal-To-Noise Ratio (SNR) for W-CDMA system models. It is shows that the analysis of Quadrature phases shift key and 16-ary Quadrature Amplitude modulations which are being used in wideband code division multiple access system, Therefore, the system could go for more suitable modulation technique to suit the channel quality, thus we can d...

  10. New experimental technique to determine coal self-ignition duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhai ZHANG; Guang XI

    2008-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was adopted to simulate the relationship between self-ignition duration and sulfur content, ash content, oxygen con-sumption rate, carbon monoxide as well as carbon dioxide generation rate of coal at different temperatures of self heating process. The data from spontaneous combustion experiments were used for ANN training to obtain the connection strength between nerve cells. An oil-bath pro-grammed temperature experiment device was designed and the experimental condition and the size of the test tube were determined for testing the oxygen consumption and the gases generation rate of coal during self-heating process. The sulfur content, the ash content and the data from the oil-bath experiment were taken as ANN inputs to calculate the experiment self-ignition duration of coal. Compared with spontaneous combustion experiment, less than 1% of coal sample and 10% of time are required with an error of less than 3 days to test self-ignition duration of coal.

  11. Multiple replica repulsion technique for efficient conformational sampling of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevanets, Anatoly; Wodak, Shoshana J

    2011-08-17

    Here, we propose a technique for sampling complex molecular systems with many degrees of freedom. The technique, termed "multiple replica repulsion" (MRR), does not suffer from poor scaling with the number of degrees of freedom associated with common replica exchange procedures and does not require sampling at high temperatures. The algorithm involves creation of multiple copies (replicas) of the system, which interact with one another through a repulsive potential that can be applied to the system as a whole or to portions of it. The proposed scheme prevents oversampling of the most populated states and provides accurate descriptions of conformational perturbations typically associated with sampling ground-state energy wells. The performance of MRR is illustrated for three systems of increasing complexity. A two-dimensional toy potential surface is used to probe the sampling efficiency as a function of key parameters of the procedure. MRR simulations of the Met-enkephalin pentapeptide, and the 76-residue protein ubiquitin, performed in presence of explicit water molecules and totaling 32 ns each, investigate the ability of MRR to characterize the conformational landscape of the peptide, and the protein native basin, respectively. Results obtained for the enkephalin peptide reflect more closely the extensive conformational flexibility of this peptide than previously reported simulations. Those obtained for ubiquitin show that conformational ensembles sampled by MRR largely encompass structural fluctuations relevant to biological recognition, which occur on the microsecond timescale, or are observed in crystal structures of ubiquitin complexes with other proteins. MRR thus emerges as a very promising simple and versatile technique for modeling the structural plasticity of complex biological systems. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple Small Diameter Drillings Increase Femoral Neck Stability Compared with Single Large Diameter Femoral Head Core Decompression Technique for Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip J; Mannava, Sandeep; Seyler, Thorsten M; Plate, Johannes F; Van Sikes, Charles; Stitzel, Joel D; Lang, Jason E

    2016-10-26

    Femoral head core decompression is an efficacious joint-preserving procedure for treatment of early stage avascular necrosis. However, postoperative fractures have been described which may be related to the decompression technique used. Femoral head decompressions were performed on 12 matched human cadaveric femora comparing large 8mm single bore versus multiple 3mm small drilling techniques. Ultimate failure strength of the femora was tested using a servo-hydraulic material testing system. Ultimate load to failure was compared between the different decompression techniques using two paired ANCOVA linear regression models. Prior to biomechanical testing and after the intervention, volumetric bone mineral density was determined using quantitative computed tomography to account for variation between cadaveric samples and to assess the amount of bone disruption by the core decompression. Core decompression, using the small diameter bore and multiple drilling technique, withstood significantly greater load prior to failure compared with the single large bore technique after adjustment for bone mineral density (pcore decompression techniques. When considering core decompression for the treatment of early stage avascular necrosis, the multiple small bore technique removed less bone volume, thereby potentially leading to higher load to failure.

  13. Multiple regression technique for Pth degree polynominals with and without linear cross products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple regression technique was developed by which the nonlinear behavior of specified independent variables can be related to a given dependent variable. The polynomial expression can be of Pth degree and can incorporate N independent variables. Two cases are treated such that mathematical models can be studied both with and without linear cross products. The resulting surface fits can be used to summarize trends for a given phenomenon and provide a mathematical relationship for subsequent analysis. To implement this technique, separate computer programs were developed for the case without linear cross products and for the case incorporating such cross products which evaluate the various constants in the model regression equation. In addition, the significance of the estimated regression equation is considered and the standard deviation, the F statistic, the maximum absolute percent error, and the average of the absolute values of the percent of error evaluated. The computer programs and their manner of utilization are described. Sample problems are included to illustrate the use and capability of the technique which show the output formats and typical plots comparing computer results to each set of input data.

  14. Multiple sectioning and perforation techniques for TEM sub-surface studies. [4 MeV Ni/sup +2/ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. H.; Rowcliffe, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for preparing multiple electron transparent regions at several depth levels below the surface of a metal disk specimen are described. These techniques are relatively rapid and find application in many areas involving surface studies. Examples are shown of multiple thin areas produced at intervals of approximately 200 nm below the original surface of a stainless steel bombarded with 4 MeV Ni/sup +2/ ions for void swelling studies.

  15. Improving predictive mapping of deep-water habitats: Considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Katleen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Roberts, J. Murray; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2016-07-01

    In the deep sea, biological data are often sparse; hence models capturing relationships between observed fauna and environmental variables (acquired via acoustic mapping techniques) are often used to produce full coverage species assemblage maps. Many statistical modelling techniques are being developed, but there remains a need to determine the most appropriate mapping techniques. Predictive habitat modelling approaches (redundancy analysis, maximum entropy and random forest) were applied to a heterogeneous section of seabed on Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, for which landscape indices describing the spatial arrangement of habitat patches were calculated. The predictive maps were based on remotely operated vehicle (ROV) imagery transects high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) sidescan backscatter maps. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy indicated similar performances for the three models tested, but performance varied by species assemblage, with the transitional species assemblage showing the weakest predictive performances. Spatial predictions of habitat suitability differed between statistical approaches, but niche similarity metrics showed redundancy analysis and random forest predictions to be most similar. As one statistical technique could not be found to outperform the others when all assemblages were considered, ensemble mapping techniques, where the outputs of many models are combined, were applied. They showed higher accuracy than any single model. Different statistical approaches for predictive habitat modelling possess varied strengths and weaknesses and by examining the outputs of a range of modelling techniques and their differences, more robust predictions, with better described variation and areas of uncertainties, can be achieved. As improvements to prediction outputs can be achieved without additional costly data collection, ensemble mapping approaches have clear value for spatial management.

  16. Security of public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Kai [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: kaiwang@seu.edu.cn; Pei Wenjiang [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zou Liuhua [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cheung Yiuming [Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); He Zhenya [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2006-12-25

    Recently, a new public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems has been proposed [B. Ranjan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 098702]. This scheme employs m-chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. Security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP){sup m}, where N, P are the size of the key and the computational complexity of the linear functions respectively. In this Letter, the fundamental weakness of the cryptosystem is pointed out and a successful attack is described. Given the public keys and the initial vector, one can calculate the secret key based on Parseval's theorem. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the attacker can access to the secret key without difficulty. The lack of security discourages the use of such algorithm for practical applications.

  17. High-contrast active cavitation imaging technique based on multiple bubble wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shukuan; Xu, Shanshan; Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a unique method that combines the ultrafast active cavitation imaging technique with multiple bubble wavelet transform (MBWT) for improving cavitation detection contrast was presented. The bubble wavelet was constructed by the modified Keller-Miksis equation that considered the mutual effect among bubbles. A three-dimensional spatial model was applied to simulate the spatial distribution of multiple bubbles. The effects of four parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cavitation images were evaluated, including the following: initial radii of bubbles, scale factor in the wavelet transform, number of bubbles, and the minimum inter-bubble distance. And the other two spatial models and cavitation bubble size distributions were introduced in the MBWT method. The results suggested that in the free-field experiments, the averaged SNR of images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 7.16 ± 0.09 dB and 3.14 ± 0.14 dB compared with the values of images acquired by the B-mode and single bubble wavelet transform (SBWT) methods. In addition, in the tissue experiments, the averaged cavitation-to-tissue ratio of cavitation images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 4.69 ± 0.25 dB and 1.74± 0.29 dB compared with that of images acquired by B-mode and SBWT methods.

  18. An Improved Clutter Suppression Method for Weather Radars Using Multiple Pulse Repetition Time Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an improved clutter suppression method for the multiple pulse repetition time (PRT technique based on simulated radar data. The suppression method is constructed using maximum likelihood methodology in time domain and is called parametric time domain method (PTDM. The procedure relies on the assumption that precipitation and clutter signal spectra follow a Gaussian functional form. The multiple interleaved pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs that are used in this work are set to four PRFs (952, 833, 667, and 513 Hz. Based on radar simulation, it is shown that the new method can provide accurate retrieval of Doppler velocity even in the case of strong clutter contamination. The obtained velocity is nearly unbiased for all the range of Nyquist velocity interval. Also, the performance of the method is illustrated on simulated radar data for plan position indicator (PPI scan. Compared with staggered 2-PRT transmission schemes with PTDM, the proposed method presents better estimation accuracy under certain clutter situations.

  19. Multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering simulations using 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A C; Rogge, Matthew D; Miller, Corey A; Hinders, Mark K

    2012-02-01

    We have implemented three-dimensional (3D) elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations to model Lamb wave scattering for two flaw-types in an aircraft-grade aluminum plate, a rounded rectangle flat-bottom hole and a disbond of the same shape. The plate thickness and flaws explored in this work include frequency-thickness regions where several Lamb wave modes exist and sometimes overlap in phase and/or group velocity. For the case of the flat-bottom hole the depth was incrementally increased to explore progressive changes in multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering due to the damage. The flat-bottom hole simulation results have been compared to experimental data and are shown to provide key insight for this well-defined experimental case by explaining unexpected results in experimental waveforms. For the rounded rectangle disbond flaw, which would be difficult to implement experimentally, we found that Lamb wave behavior differed significantly from the flat-bottom hole flaw. Most of the literature in this field is restricted to low frequency-thickness regions due to difficulties in interpreting data when multiple modes exist. We found that benchmarked 3D EFIT simulations can yield an understanding of scattering behavior for these higher frequency-thickness regions and in cases that would be difficult to set up experimentally. Additionally, our results show that 2D simulations would not have been sufficient for modeling the complicated scattering that occurred.

  20. Optical techniques for tracking multiple myeloma engraftment, growth, and response to therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Judith M.; Carlson, Alicia L.; Pitsillides, Costas; Thompson, Brian; Wu, Juwell; Spencer, Joel A.; Kohler, John M. J.; Azab, Abdelkareem; Moreau, Anne-Sophie; Rodig, Scott J.; Kung, Andrew L.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Lin, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematological malignancy, initiates from a single site and spreads via circulation to multiple sites in the bone marrow (BM). Methods to track MM cells both in the BM and circulation would be useful for developing new therapeutic strategies to target MM cell spread. We describe the use of complementary optical techniques to track human MM cells expressing both bioluminescent and fluorescent reporters in a mouse xenograft model. Long-term tumor growth and response to therapy are monitored using bioluminescence imaging (BLI), while numbers of circulating tumor cells are detected by in-vivo flow cytometry. Intravital microscopy is used to detect early seeding of MM cells to the BM, as well as residual cancer cells that remain in the BM after the bulk of the tumor is eradicated following drug treatment. Thus, intravital microscopy provides a powerful, albeit invasive, means to study cellular processes in vivo at the very early stage of the disease process and at the very late stage of therapeutic intervention when the tumor burden is too small to be detected by other imaging methods.

  1. PHEA-PLA biocompatible nanoparticles by technique of solvent evaporation from multiple emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Gennara; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Sardo, Carla; Lamberti, Gaetano; Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa

    2015-11-30

    Nanocarriers of amphiphilic polymeric materials represent versatile delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs. In this work the technique of solvent evaporation from multiple emulsions was applied to produce nanovectors based on new amphiphilic copolymer, the α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide-polylactic acid (PHEA-PLA), purposely synthesized to be used in the controlled release of active molecules poorly soluble in water. To this aim an amphiphilic derivative of PHEA, a hydrophilic polymer, was synthesized by derivatization of the polymeric backbone with hydrophobic grafts of polylactic acid (PLA). The achieved copolymer was thus used to produce nanoparticles loaded with α tocopherol (vitamin E) adopted as lipophilic model molecule. Applying a protocol based on solvent evaporation from multiple emulsions assisted by ultrasonic energy and optimizing the emulsification process (solvent selection/separation stages), PHEA-PLA nanostructured particles with total α tocopherol entrapment efficiency (100%), were obtained. The drug release is expected to take place in lower times with respect to PLA due to the presence of the hydrophilic PHEA, therefore the produced nanoparticles can be used for semi-long term release drug delivery systems.

  2. Precise Orbit Determination for LEO Spacecraft Using GNSS Tracking Data from Multiple Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Da; Bertiger, William; Desai, Shailen; Haines, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To support various applications, certain Earth-orbiting spacecrafts (e.g., SRTM, COSMIC) use multiple GNSS antennas to provide tracking data for precise orbit determination (POD). POD using GNSS tracking data from multiple antennas poses some special technical issues compared to the typical single-antenna approach. In this paper, we investigate some of these issues using both real and simulated data. Recommendations are provided for POD with multiple GNSS antennas and for antenna configuration design. The observability of satellite position with multiple antennas data is compared against single antenna case. The impact of differential clock (line biases) and line-of-sight (up, along-track, and cross-track) on kinematic and reduced-dynamic POD is evaluated. The accuracy of monitoring the stability of the spacecraft structure by simultaneously performing POD of the spacecraft and relative positioning of the multiple antennas is also investigated.

  3. DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil. The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008 was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.

  4. Analysis of a distributed algorithm to determine multiple routes with path diversity in ad hoc networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, Dipak (University of California, Davis, CA); Mueller, Stephen Ng

    2005-04-01

    With multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a source can establish multiple routes to a destination for routing data. In MANETs, mulitpath routing can be used to provide route resilience, smaller end-to-end delay, and better load balancing. However, when the multiple paths are close together, transmissions of different paths may interfere with each other, causing degradation in performance. Besides interference, the physical diversity of paths also improves fault tolerance. We present a purely distributed multipath protocol based on the AODV-Multipath (AODVM) protocol called AODVM with Path Diversity (AODVM/PD) that finds multiple paths with a desired degree of correlation between paths specified as an input parameter to the algorithm. We demonstrate through detailed simulation analysis that multiple paths with low degree of correlation determined by AODVM/PD provides both smaller end-to-end delay than AODVM in networks with low mobility and better route resilience in the presence of correlated node failures.

  5. Determination of Salinity in Fluid Inclusions with Laser Raman Spectroscopy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to outline the laser Raman spectroscopy technique for determination of salinity in the aqueous phase in fluid inclusions. The skewing parameters of the Raman profiles of the calibration solutions determined were used to derive a calibration curve for the estimation of the equivalent mass fraction NaCl in aqueous solutions. This technique was also verified in the analysis of the natural fluid inclusions from Tongshankou porphyry Cu (Mo) deposit, Hubei Province, China. Although the analyses on the natural fluid inclusions are limited, an acceptable agreement has been reached on the salinities, for most fluid inclusions, determined by the Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry techniques, indicating the reliability of the Raman technique for determination of salinity in fluid inclusion studies.

  6. Determination for multiple mycotoxins in agricultural products using HPLC-MS/MS via a multiple antibody immunoaffinity column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2016-05-15

    Mycotoxins usually found in agricultural products such as peanut, corn, and wheat, are a serious threat to human health and their detection requires multiplexed and sensitive analysis methods. Herein, a simultaneous determination for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A, zearalanone and T-2 toxin was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in a single run via a home-made multiple immunoaffinity column. Four monoclonal antibodies were produced in our lab against aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalanone and T-2 toxin, respectively, then combined as a pool and bound to Sepharose-4B for affinity chromatography. Seven mycotoxins were effectively extracted from the agricultural product samples by using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80:19:1, v/v/v) Then, the extraction was cleanup by multiple immunoaffinity column. This method demonstrated a considerable linear range of 0.30-25, 0.12-20, 0.30-20, 0.12-20, 0.60-30, 0.30-25, and 1.2-40μgkg(-1)and lower limits of detection at 0.1, 0.04, 0.1, 0.04, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.4μgkg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, ZEN and T-2, respectively, in comparison with previously reported methods, as well as excellent recoveries. The mIAC capacity for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, ZEN, and T-2 were 187, 181, 153, 151, 105, 130, 88ng, respectively. It was found that all of the 7 mycotoxins were present in 90 agricultural product samples. The proposed method meets the requirements for rapid sample preparation and highly sensitive identification of multiple mycotoxins in agricultural product and food safety. This method provides a promising alternative with high throughput and high sensitivity for rapid analysis of seven mycotoxins in the monitoring of food safety.

  7. Comparison of techniques for determination of soluble sugars used in feed for ruminant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Camila dos Reis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate different techniques for determination of soluble sugars (fraction CA in foods used for ruminant nutrition. Feed analyzed were: sugar-cane, bermuda grass, corn meal and soybean meal. Dry matter (DM, ash, ether extract (EE and crude protein (CP were determined to make possible the calculation of total carbohydrates concentration in the samples. The soluble carbohydrate fraction were determined in 15 repetitions of each sample by two different analytical techniques. One technique based on soluble carbohydrates extraction and its quantification by spectrophotometry after chelation of the sugar with anthrone; and another one that uses phenol as the chelating agent. The experiment were conducted in a completely randomized design and the data submitted to the two-factor factorial analysis of variance (? = 0.05, with the different feeds and the two techniques as factors. There was no statistical difference between techniques, but the effect of the feed and the interaction feed x technique were significant. So, a new analysis of variance was conducted to test the difference between techniques in each feed separately. Only soybean meal did not show statistical difference between the water soluble sugars determined by the two techniques.

  8. TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE MULTICOMPONENT GEOPHONE ORIENTATION ON A SEISMIC LINE

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Technique for determining the multicomponent geophone orientation on a seismic line is considered in the report. This technique allowed correcting the components orientation. Methodical and instrumental imperfections of field measurements were also detected in the course of research. Taking these into account may allow avoiding the errors in further data processing.

  9. Activated mechanisms in proteins: a multiple-temperature activation-relaxation technique study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Rachid; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2001-03-01

    The low-temperature dynamics of proteins is controlled by a complex activated dynamics taking place over long time-scales compared with the period of thermal oscillations. In view of the range of relevant time scales, the numerical study of these processes remains a challenge and numerous methods have been introduced to address this problem. We introduce here a mixture of two algorithms, the activation-relaxation technique (ART)^1,2 coupled with the parallel tempering method, and use it to study the structure of the energy landscape around the native state of a 38-residue polypeptide. While ART samples rapidly the local energy landscape, the parallel tempering, which sets up exchanges of configuration between simultaneous runs at multiple temperatures, generates a very efficient sampling of energy basins separated by high barriers^(3). Results show the nature of the barriers and local minima surrounding the native state of this 38-residue peptide, modeled with off-lattice OPEP-like interactions^4. (1) G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, PRL 77, 4358 (1996) (2) N. Mousseau and G.T. Barkema, PRE 57, 2419 (1998) (3) E. Marinari and G. Parisi, Europhys. Lett., 19 (6), 451 (1992) (4) Ph. Derreumaux, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2301 (1999); PRB 85, 206 (2000)

  10. Combination of various data analysis techniques for efficient track reconstruction in very high multiplicity events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siklér, Ferenc

    2017-08-01

    A novel combination of established data analysis techniques for reconstructing charged-particles in high energy collisions is proposed. It uses all information available in a collision event while keeping competing choices open as long as possible. Suitable track candidates are selected by transforming measured hits to a binned, three- or four-dimensional, track parameter space. It is accomplished by the use of templates taking advantage of the translational and rotational symmetries of the detectors. Track candidates and their corresponding hits, the nodes, form a usually highly connected network, a bipartite graph, where we allow for multiple hit to track assignments, edges. In order to get a manageable problem, the graph is cut into very many minigraphs by removing a few of its vulnerable components, edges and nodes. Finally the hits are distributed among the track candidates by exploring a deterministic decision tree. A depth-limited search is performed maximizing the number of hits on tracks, and minimizing the sum of track-fit χ2. Simplified but realistic models of LHC silicon trackers including the relevant physics processes are used to test and study the performance (efficiency, purity, timing) of the proposed method in the case of single or many simultaneous proton-proton collisions (high pileup), and for single heavy-ion collisions at the highest available energies.

  11. Robust complementary technique with multiple-patterning for sub-10 nm node device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Kenichi; Yamauchi, Shohei; Natori, Sakurako; Hara, Arisa; Yamato, Masatoshi; Yaegashi, Hidetami

    2014-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the leading candidate for sub-20nm half-pitch (hp) patterning solution, but the development of a high-output light source is still in progress thereby delaying the adoption of EUV for mass production. The evolution of 193nm immersion lithography-an exposure technology currently used in the mass production of all advanced devices-must therefore be extended, and to this end, self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) processes have come to be used to achieve further down scaling. To date, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of self-aligned double patterning (SADP) and self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) as innovative processes and have reported on world-first scaling results at SPIE on several occasions. However, for critical layers in FinFET devices that presume a 1D cell design, there is also a need not just for the scaling of grating patterns but also for line-cutting techniques (grating and cutting). Under the theme of existing- technology extension to sub-10nm logic nodes, this paper presents the potential solutions of sub-10nm hp resolution by self-aligned octuple patterning (SAOP) and discusses the limits of shrink technology in cutting patterns.

  12. Struggles in prescribing : determinants of psychotropic drug use in multiple clinical settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis were to establish the prevalence of psychotropic drug use as well as possible determinants associated with its use in multiple clinical settings: psychiatric admission wards, an intensive care unit and two settings for the intellectually disabled. In this

  13. Determinants of iron accumulation in deep grey matter of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropele, Stefan; Kilsdonk, Iris D; Wattjes, Mike P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron accumulation in deep grey matter (GM) structures is a consistent finding in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study focused on the identification of independent determinants of iron accumulation using R2* mapping. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven MS patients and 81 healthy...

  14. Struggles in prescribing : determinants of psychotropic drug use in multiple clinical settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis were to establish the prevalence of psychotropic drug use as well as possible determinants associated with its use in multiple clinical settings: psychiatric admission wards, an intensive care unit and two settings for the intellectually disabled. In this thesis,

  15. Applications of Matrices Multiplication to Determinant and Rotations formulas in $\\setR^n$

    CERN Document Server

    Goldvard, Alex

    2010-01-01

    This note deals with two topics of linear algebra. We give a simple and short proof of the multiplicative property of the determinant and provide a constructive formula for rotations. The derivation of the rotation matrix relies on simple matrix calculations and thus can be presented in an elementary linear algebra course. We also classify all invariant subspaces of equiangular rotations in 4D.

  16. A sectional-splinting technique for impressing multiple implant units by eliminating the use of an open tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakant C. Deogade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of root form implant dentistry by P-I Branemark in the early 1980′s, so many technical advances have been put forward by several authors. However, the open tray impression technique is still performed for impressing multiple implant fixtures as it was first described in the original Branemark procedure manual. The most critical aspect for a successful implant-supported restoration is the passive and an accurate fit of superstructures to avoid preload and loading stresses. Splinting impression technique in multiple implants has gained popularity. Auto-polymerizing acrylic resin is among the most routinely practiced splinting material for multiple implant units. However, unfortunately, it exhibits shrinkage, which makes an impression quite inaccurate. This case report presents the solution to minimize the shrinkage of resin by utilizing sectional-splinting technique as advocated in the previous implant literature.

  17. Feasibility on using composite gel-alanine dosimetry on the validation of a multiple brain metastasis radiosurgery VMAT technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, J. F.; Neves-Junior, W. F. P.; Silveira, M. A.; Ramos, P. A. M. M.; Haddad, C. M. K.; Baffa, O.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an end-to-end test using a composite Gel-Alanine phantom, in order to validate 3-dimensionally the dose distribution delivered by a single isocenter VMAT technique on the simultaneous treatment of multiple brain metastases. The results obtained with the gel and alanine dosimeters are consistent with the expected by the treatment planning system, showing the potential of this multidosimetric approach and validating dosimetrically the multiple brain metastases treatment using VMAT.

  18. Treatment of Multiple Adjacent Miller Class III Gingival Recessions with a Modified Tunnel Technique: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Duygu; Demirel, Korkud; Aksu, Seden; Basegmez, Cansu

    2015-01-01

    Modified coronally advanced tunnel (MCAT) technique with connective tissue graft (CTG) was used in treating multiple adjacent Miller Class III gingival recessions in nine patients. Clinical evaluations were recorded at baseline and 12 months after surgery. The results showed that 50% of complete root coverage and 78% of mean root coverage were attained 1 year after surgery and interdental space fill was 73% at 12 months. The study demonstrated that CTG using the MCAT technique may be an efficient way to treat multiple adjacent Miller Class III gingival recessions, especially when aiming for interdental space fill. Success, however, seems to be related to the amount of tissue present initially.

  19. Multiple-Event Location Using the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S C; Johannesson, G; Hanley, W

    2005-07-13

    The goal of next-generation seismic location is to ascertain a consistent set of event locations and travel-time corrections through simultaneous analysis of all relevant data. Towards that end, we are developing a new multiple-event location algorithm that utilizes the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for solving large, non-linear event inverse problems. Unlike most inverse methods, the MCMC approach produces a suite of solutions, each of which is consistent with seismic and other observations, as well as prior estimates of data and model uncertainties. In the MCMC multiple-event locator (MCMCloc), the model uncertainties consist of prior estimates on the accuracy of each input event location, travel-time prediction uncertainties, phase measurement uncertainties, and assessments of phase identification. The prior uncertainty estimates include correlations between travel-time predictions, correlations between measurement errors, and the probability of misidentifying one phase for another (or bogus picks). The implementation of prior constraints on location accuracy allows the direct utilization of ground-truth events in the location algorithm. This is a significant improvement over most other multiple-event locators (GMEL is an exception), for which location accuracy is achieved through post-processing comparisons with ground-truth information. Like the double-difference algorithm, the implementation of a correlation structure for travel-time predictions allows MCMCloc to operate over arbitrarily large geographic areas. MCMCloc can accommodate non-Gaussian and multi-modal pick distributions, which can enhance application to poorly recorded events. Further, MCMCloc allows for ambiguous determination of phase assignments, and the solution includes the probability that phases are properly assigned. The probabilities that phase assignments are correct are propagated to the estimates of all other model parameters. Posteriori estimates of event locations, path

  20. Automated urinalysis technique determines concentration of creatine and creatinine by colorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Continuous urinalysis technique is useful in the study of muscle wastage in primates. Creatinine concentration in urine is determined in an aliquot mixture by a color reaction. Creatine is determined in a second aliquot by converting it to creatinine and measuring the difference in color intensity between the two aliquots.

  1. Sex as a determinant of relapse incidence and progressive course of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalincik, Tomas; Vivek, Vino; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'maison, Francois; Hupperts, Raymond; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Iuliano, Gerardo; Alroughani, Raed; Van Pesch, Vincent; Amato, Maria Pia; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Fernandez-Bolanos, Ricardo; Fiol, Marcela; Spitaleri, Daniele La; Cristiano, Edgardo; Gray, Orla; Cabrera-Gomez, Jose Antonio; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Herbert, Joseph; Vucic, Steve; Needham, Merilee; Petkovska-Boskova, Tatjana; Sirbu, Carmen-Adella; Duquette, Pierre; Girard, Marc; Grammond, Pierre; Boz, Cavit; Giuliani, Giorgio; Rio, Maria Edite; Barnett, Michael; Flechter, Shlomo; Moore, Fraser; Singhal, Bhim; Bacile, Elizabeth Alejandra; Saladino, Maria Laura; Shaw, Cameron; Skromne, Eli; Poehlau, Dieter; Vella, Norbert; Spelman, Timothy; Liew, Danny; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate sex differences in the incidence of multiple sclerosis relapses; assess the relationship between sex and primary progressive disease course; and compare effects of age and disease duration on relapse incidence. Annualized relapse rates were calculated using the MSBase registry. Patients with incomplete data or zero relapses in any given year was double that of the patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Patient age was a more important determinant of decline in relapse incidence than disease duration (P < 10(-12)). Females are predisposed to higher relapse activity than males. However, this difference does not explain the markedly lower female-to-male sex ratio in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Decline in relapse activity over time is more closely related to patient age than disease duration.

  2. The serological recognition of the human MLC determinants using a modified cytotoxicity technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rood, J J; van Leeuwen, A; Keuning, J J; van Oud Alblas, A B

    1975-04-01

    A new approach which presumably recognizes MLC determinants (or at least structures closely linked to MLC and different from the FOUR, AJ and LA series determinants) by serology is described. As the test can be performed within 10 h it could be used to match cadaveric kidney donors for these MLC determinants. Perhaps even more important is the fact that the antibodies detected by this technique could be used to study the immunochemistry of a class of determinants differing from the well known SD determinants.

  3. Model-independent determination of the carrier multiplication time constant in CdSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Marco

    2009-11-21

    The experimental determination of the carrier multiplication (CM) time constant is complicated by the fact that this process occurs within the initial few hundreds of femtoseconds after excitation and, in transient-absorption experiments, cannot be separated from the buildup time of the 1p-state population. This work provides an accurate theoretical determination of the electron relaxation lifetime during the last stage of the p-state buildup, in CdSe nanocrystals, in the presence of a single photogenerated hole (no CM) and of a hole plus an additional electron-hole pair (following CM). From the invariance of the 1p buildup time observed experimentally for excitations above and below the CM threshold producing hot carriers with the same average per-exciton excess energy, and the calculated corresponding variations in the electron decay time in the two cases, an estimate is obtained for the carrier multiplication time constant. Unlike previous estimates reported in the literature so far, this result is model-independent, i.e., is obtained without making any assumption on the nature of the mechanism governing carrier multiplication. It is then compared with the time constant calculated, as a function of the excitation energy, assuming an impact-ionization-like process for carrier multiplication (DCM). The two results are in good agreement and show that carrier multiplication can occur on timescales of the order of tens of femtoseconds at energies close to the observed onset. These findings, which are compatible with the fastest lifetime estimated experimentally, confirm the suitability of the impact-ionization model to explain carrier multiplication in CdSe nanocrystals.

  4. A novel study of Copy Number Variations in Hirschsprung disease using the Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antiñolo Guillermo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hirschsprung disease (HSCR is a congenital malformation of the hindgut produced by a disruption in neural crest cell migration during embryonic development. HSCR has a complex genetic etiology and mutations in several genes, mainly the RET proto-oncogene, have been related to the disease. There is a clear predominance of missense/nonsense mutations in these genes whereas copy number variations (CNVs have been seldom described, probably due to the limitations of conventional techniques usually employed for mutational analysis. Methods In this study we have aimed to analyze the presence of CNVs in some HSCR genes (RET, EDN3, GDNF and ZFHX1B using the Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA approach. Results Two alterations in the MLPA profiles of RET and EDN3 were detected, but a detailed inspection showed that the decrease in the corresponding dosages were due to point mutations affecting the hybridization probes regions. Conclusion Our results indicate that CNVs of the gene coding regions analyzed here are not a common molecular cause of Hirschsprung disease. However, further studies are required to determine the presence of CNVs affecting non-coding regulatory regions, as well as other candidate genes.

  5. Determination of cell survival after irradiation via clonogenic assay versus multiple MTT Assay - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buch Karl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For studying proliferation and determination of survival of cancer cells after irradiation, the multiple MTT assay, based on the reduction of a yellow water soluble tetrazolium salt to a purple water insoluble formazan dye by living cells was modified from a single-point towards a proliferation assay. This assay can be performed with a large number of samples in short time using multi-well-plates, assays can be performed semi-automatically with a microplate reader. Survival, the calculated parameter in this assay, is determined mathematically. Exponential growth in both control and irradiated groups was proven as the underlying basis of the applicability of the multiple MTT assay. The equivalence to a clonogenic survival assay with its disadvantages such as time consumption was proven in two setups including plating of cells before and after irradiation. Three cell lines (A 549, LN 229 and F 98 were included in the experiment to study its principal and general applicability.

  6. Multiple Signal Classification for Determining Direction of Arrival of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Acronym Definition SNR signal to noise ratio SST signal subspace transformation SVD singular value decomposition xii MULTIPLE SIGNAL CLASSIFICATION FOR... SVD ) to elevate spectral resolution and decrease required computation time [17] . Simulation results show that MTM outperforms conventional energy...noise, how to determine the null space (noise subspace) of Rxx, how to accurately obtain the signal power spectra and prior knowledge of the source

  7. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules using a multiple overlapping shot technique in a 3-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhase, Konstantin David; Korkusuz, Yücel; Gröner, Daniel; Erbelding, Christian; Happel, Christian; Luboldt, Wolfgang; Grünwald, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the decrease of benign thyroid nodules after bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in a 3-month follow-up using a multiple overlapping shot technique ('MOST'). Methods A total of 18 patients with 20 symptomatic benign thyroid nodules (17 cold nodules, 3 hyperfunctioning nodules) were treated in one single session by bipolar RFA. Bipolar ablation was performed using MOST. The nodule volumes were measured prior to ablation and 3 months after the procedure using ultrasound. The population consisted of either solid (>80% solid tissue within the volume of interest), complex, or cystic nodules (thermoablative technique to treat benign thyroid nodules. Combined with the multiple overlapping shot technique it allows sufficient ablation.

  8. A Dynamic Range Expansion Technique for CMOS Image Sensors with Dual Charge Storage in a Pixel and Multiple Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji; Itoh, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic range expansion technique for CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple sampling technique is presented. Each pixel contains a photodiode and a storage diode which is connected to the photodiode via a separation gate. The sensitivity of the signal charge in the storage diode can be controlled either by a separation gate which limits the charge to flow into the storage diode or by controlling the accumulation time in the storage diode. The operation of the sensitivity control with separation gate techniques is simulated and it is found that a blocking layer to the storage diode plays an important role for high controllability of sensitivity of the storage diode. A prototype chip for testing multiple short time accumulations is fabricated and measured. PMID:27879802

  9. A Dynamic Range Expansion Technique for CMOS Image Sensors with Dual Charge Storage in a Pixel and Multiple Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Itoh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic range expansion technique for CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple sampling technique is presented. Each pixel contains a photodiode and a storage diode which is connected to the photodiode via a separation gate. The sensitivity of the signal charge in the storage diode can be controlled either by a separation gate which limits the charge to flow into the storage diode or by controlling the accumulation time in the storage diode. The operation of the sensitivity control with separation gate techniques is simulated and it is found that a blocking layer to the storage diode plays an important role for high controllability of sensitivity of the storage diode. A prototype chip for testing multiple short time accumulations is fabricated and measured.

  10. System identification via sparse multiple kernel-based regularization using sequential convex optimization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Tianshi; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Ljung, Lennart;

    2014-01-01

    Model estimation and structure detection with short data records are two issues that receive increasing interests in System Identification. In this paper, a multiple kernel-based regularization method is proposed to handle those issues. Multiple kernels are conic combinations of fixed kernels...

  11. Assessment of air quality in Haora River basin using fuzzy multiple-attribute decision making techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit Pratap; Chakrabarti, Sumanta; Kumar, Sumit; Singh, Anjaney

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with assessment of air quality in Haora River basin using two techniques. Initially, air quality indices were evaluated using a modified EPA method. The indices were also evaluated using a fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) method. The results obtained from the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method were compared to that obtained from the modified EPA method. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology proposed herein, a case study has been presented. Air samples have been collected at 10 sampling sites located along Haora River. Six important air pollutants, namely, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM10, and lead, were monitored continuously, and air quality maps were generated on the GIS platform. Comparison of the methodologies has clearly highlighted superiority and robustness of the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method in determining air quality indices under study. It has effectively addressed the inherent uncertainties involved in the evaluation, modeling, and interpretation of sampling data, which was beyond the scope of the traditional weighted approaches employed otherwise. The FCA method is robust and prepares a credible platform of air quality evaluation and identification, in face of the uncertainties that remain eclipsed in the traditional approaches like the modified EPA method. The insights gained through the present study are believed to be of pivotal significance in guiding the development and implementation of effective environmental remedial action plans in the study area.

  12. Multiple MR Imaging Techniques in the Diagnosis and Assessment of Resectability in Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONGYu; KONGXiangquan; XUHaibo; LIUDingxi; YANGFan; XIONGYin; YUQun; FENGZhenjun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of multiple MR imaging techniques in the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and the assessment of resectbility of the lesion. Methods: MR imaging was performed in 18 pa-tients with surgically and/or pathologically proven pancreatic carcinoma. GRE T1WI, TSE T2WI, GRE T1WI with fat suppression, delayed enhancement GRE T1WI, MRCP and 3D DCE MRA were used in MR scanning. Tumor involvement of the celiac trunk and its main branches, superior mesenteric artery,the portal, splenic and superior mesenteric veins were prospectively graded on a 0-4 scale based on cir-cumferential contiguity of tumor to vessel. Results: On GRE T1WI and TSE T2WI all the lesions showed slightly hypointense and hyperintense, respectively; On GRE T1WI with fat suppression, all the tumors obviously appeared hypointense; On delayed enhancement GRE T1WI, the lesions displayed irregularly circular enhancement in 14 patients and well-distributed enhancement in 4 patients. MRCP showed exten-sive bile and main pancreatic duct dilatation with typical "double-duct" sign in 8 patients. On 3D DCE MRA, we thought it was unresectable with more than half circumferential involvement of tumor to vessel,so that the portal, splenic and superior mesenteric veins were involved with 56% (10/18), 39% (7/18)and 67% (12/18), respectively. The celiac trunk and its main branches and superior mesenteric arteries were involved with 22% (4/18) and 17% (3/18), respectively. The pancreatic lesions in 2 cases could be completely resected in the evaluation of MR imaging, which was fitted to the findings of operation by pan-creatoduodenectomy. The pancreatic lesions in other 2 cases were partly, resected because there was tumor extension to superior mesenteric vein and/or artery. The tumors in the remaining 14 patients were too large and involved peripancreatic vessels or there were stomach or liver metastases, so these patients were only treated by choledochojejunostomy and gastrojejunstomy. Conclusion

  13. Combined acquisition technique (CAT for neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis at low specific absorption rates (SAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Biller

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT of turbo-spin-echo (TSE and echo-planar-imaging (EPI with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. RESULTS: Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen's kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82. CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (p<0.001. Mean SAR differences between TSE and CAT were 29.0 (± 5.7 % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (± 21.9 % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations. Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. CONCLUSION: T2-/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning.

  14. An overview of the sources of error in sound power determination using the intensity technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the most important sources of error in sound power determination with the sound intensity technique is presented. It is concluded that the method is convenient, accurate and reliable provided that a few simple rules are observed. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.......An overview of the most important sources of error in sound power determination with the sound intensity technique is presented. It is concluded that the method is convenient, accurate and reliable provided that a few simple rules are observed. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  15. Comparison of three techniques for the determination of uranium and thorium in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R.J.; Reid, D.L.; Stuckless, J.S.; Welke, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    U and Th concentrations have been determined in a series of selected whole-rock samples, using three different techniques: neutron activation analysis (INAA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID). The INAA technique yields U and Th data that are comparable with those obtained by ID over the entire concentration range studied. XRF only provides data with comparable precision at relatively high concentrations (> 10 ppm) but has the advantage of being able to determine other useful elements such as Rb, Sr, Pb and K. The choice between INAA and XRF therefore depends on the concentration levels anticipated, together with the overall requirements for the particular study. ?? 1980.

  16. A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR MULTIPLE FAULTS AND THEIR LOCATIONS DETECTION AND START ELECTRODE SELECTION IN MICROFLUIDIC DIGITAL BIOCHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUKTA MAJUMDER

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A device, that is used for biomedical operation or safety-critical applications like point-of-care health assessment, massive parallel DNA analysis, automated drug discovery, air-quality monitoring and food-safety testing, must have the attributes like reliability, dependability and correctness. As the biochips are used for these purposes; therefore, these devices must be fault free all the time. Naturally before using these chips, they must be well tested. We are proposing a novel technique that can detect multiple faults, locate the fault positions within the biochip, as well as calculate the traversal time if the biochip is fault free. The proposed technique also highlights a new idea how to select the appropriate base node or pseudo source (start electrode. The main idea of the proposed technique is to form multiple loops with the neighboring electrode arrays and then test each loop by traversing test droplet to check whether there is any fault. If a fault is detected then the proposed technique also locates it by backtracking the test droplet. In case, no fault is detected, the biochip is fault free then the proposed technique also calculates the time to traverse the chip. The result suggests that the proposed technique is efficient and shows significant improvement to calculate fault-free biochip traversal time over existing method.

  17. Combined left and right ventricular volume determination by radionuclide angiocardiography using double bolus and equilibrium technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Stubgaard, M; Møgelvang, J;

    1990-01-01

    by indicator dilution. The radionuclide technique comprised four steps: (1) a first-pass study of right ventricle; (2) a bolus study of left ventricle; (3) an equilibrium study of left ventricle; (4) determination of the distribution volume of red blood cells. Absolute volumes of left ventricle were determined......Eighteen patients with ischaemic heart disease were studied. Left and right ventricular volumes including cardiac output (forward flow) were determined by radionuclide angiocardiography using a double bolus and equilibrium technique. As reference, cardiac output was simultaneously measured...... from steps 2 + 3 + 4. Absolute volumes of right ventricle were calculated from stroke volume and right ventricular ejection fraction (EF) which in turn was determined from step 1 by creating composite systolic and composite diastolic images. There was an acceptable agreement between stroke volume...

  18. Accuracy improvement techniques in Precise Point Positioning method using multiple GNSS constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileios Psychas, Dimitrios; Delikaraoglou, Demitris

    2016-04-01

    The future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), including modernized GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou, offer three or more signal carriers for civilian use and much more redundant observables. The additional frequencies can significantly improve the capabilities of the traditional geodetic techniques based on GPS signals at two frequencies, especially with regard to the availability, accuracy, interoperability and integrity of high-precision GNSS applications. Furthermore, highly redundant measurements can allow for robust simultaneous estimation of static or mobile user states including more parameters such as real-time tropospheric biases and more reliable ambiguity resolution estimates. This paper presents an investigation and analysis of accuracy improvement techniques in the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method using signals from the fully operational (GPS and GLONASS), as well as the emerging (Galileo and BeiDou) GNSS systems. The main aim was to determine the improvement in both the positioning accuracy achieved and the time convergence it takes to achieve geodetic-level (10 cm or less) accuracy. To this end, freely available observation data from the recent Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service, as well as the open source program RTKLIB were used. Following a brief background of the PPP technique and the scope of MGEX, the paper outlines the various observational scenarios that were used in order to test various data processing aspects of PPP solutions with multi-frequency, multi-constellation GNSS systems. Results from the processing of multi-GNSS observation data from selected permanent MGEX stations are presented and useful conclusions and recommendations for further research are drawn. As shown, data fusion from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems is becoming increasingly significant nowadays resulting in a position accuracy increase (mostly in the less favorable East direction) and a large reduction of convergence

  19. Genetic variants are major determinants of CSF antibody levels in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goris, An; Pauwels, Ine; Gustavsen, Marte W

    2015-01-01

    Immunological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis include the production of antibodies in the central nervous system, expressed as presence of oligoclonal bands and/or an increased immunoglobulin G index-the level of immunoglobulin G in the cerebrospinal fluid compared to serum. However, the underlyi...... in the cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis, including 6950 patients. We confirm that genetic factors underlie these antibody levels and identify both the major histocompatibility complex and immunoglobulin heavy chain region as major determinants....... differences between oligoclonal band-positive and -negative patients with multiple sclerosis and reasons for variability in immunoglobulin G index are not known. To identify genetic factors influencing the variation in the antibody levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis, we have performed...... of being oligoclonal band positive and 7.75% of the variation in immunoglobulin G index. Both traits are associated with clinical features of disease such as female gender, age at onset and severity. This is the largest study population so far investigated for the genetic influence on antibody levels...

  20. Summary of preliminary contaminant impacts investigations in the Clinch River Basin, Virginia, using multiple bioassessment techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992 multiple investigations were performed to collect preliminary information to direct future studies aimed at characterizing contaminant problems in the Clinch...

  1. A Novel Randomized Search Technique for Multiple Mobile Robot Paths Planning In Repetitive Dynamic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Behravesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Presented article is studying the issue of path navigating for numerous robots. Our presented approach is based on both priority and the robust method for path finding in repetitive dynamic. Presented model can be generally implementable and useable: We do not assume any restriction regarding the quantity of levels of freedom for robots, and robots of diverse kinds can be applied at the same time. We proposed a random method and hill-climbing technique in the area based on precedence plans, which is used to determine a solution to a given trajectory planning problem and to make less the extent of total track. Our method plans trajectories for particular robots in the setting-time scope. Therefore, in order to specifying the interval of constant objects similar to other robots and the extent of the tracks which is traversed. For measuring the hazard for robots to conflict with each other it applied a method based on probability of the movements of robots. This algorithm applied to real robots with successful results. The proposed method performed and judged on both real robots and in simulation. We performed sequence of100tests with 8 robots for comparing with coordination method and current performances are effective. However, maximizing the performance is still possible. These performances estimations performed on Windows operating system and 3GHz Intel Pentium IV with and compiles with GCC 3.4. We used our PCGA robot for all experiments.  For a large environment of 19×15m2where we accomplished 40tests, our model is competent to plan high-quality paths in a severely short time (less than a second. Moreover, this article utilized lookup tables to keep expenses the formerly navigated robots made, increasing the number of robots don’t expand computation time.

  2. Biomechanical and energetic determinants of technique selection in classical cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Zamparo, Paola; Schena, Federico

    2013-12-01

    Classical cross-country skiing can be performed using three main techniques: diagonal stride (DS), double poling (DP), and double poling with kick (DK). Similar to other forms of human and animal gait, it is currently unclear whether technique selection occurs to minimize metabolic cost or to keep some mechanical factors below a given threshold. The aim of this study was to find the determinants of technique selection. Ten male athletes roller skied on a treadmill at different slopes (from 0° to 7° at 10km/h) and speeds (from 6 to 18km/h at 2°). The technique preferred by skiers was gathered for every proposed condition. Biomechanical parameters and metabolic cost were then measured for each condition and technique. Skiers preferred DP for skiing on the flat and they transitioned to DK and then to DS with increasing slope steepness, when increasing speed all skiers preferred DP. Data suggested that selections mainly occur to remain below a threshold of poling force. Second, critically low values of leg thrust time may limit the use of leg-based techniques at high speeds. A small role has been identified for the metabolic cost of locomotion, which determined the selection of DP for flat skiing.

  3. Residual stress determination of rail tread using a laser ultrasonic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Qibo

    2015-05-01

    A non-destructive method for measuring the residual stress on rail tread that uses a laser-generated ultrasonic technique is proposed. The residual stress distribution of different parts on both the new rail and used rail were examined. The surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are excited by a scanning line laser and detected by a laser ultrasonic detection system. A digital correlation method was used for calculating the changes in velocity of SAWs, which reflects the stress distribution. A wavelet de-noising technique and a least square fit were used for signal processing to improve the measurement accuracy. The effects of ultrasonic propagation distance and surface roughness on the determination of residual stress were analyzed and simulated. Results from the study demonstrate that the stress distribution results are accordant with the practical situation, and the laser-generated SAWs technique is a promising tool for the determination of residual stress in the railway inspection and other industrial testing fields.

  4. Determination of Complex-Valued Parametric Model Coefficients Using Artificial Neural Network Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aibinu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for determining the coefficients of a complex-valued autoregressive (CAR and complex-valued autoregressive moving average (CARMA model coefficients using complex-valued neural network (CVNN technique is discussed in this paper. The CAR and complex-valued moving average (CMA coefficients which constitute a CARMA model are computed simultaneously from the adaptive weights and coefficients of the linear activation functions in a two-layered CVNN. The performance of the proposed technique has been evaluated using simulated complex-valued data (CVD with three different types of activation functions. The results show that the proposed method can accurately determine the model coefficients provided that the network is properly trained. Furthermore, application of the developed CVNN-based technique for MRI K-space reconstruction results in images with improve resolution.

  5. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a washed rumen technique as an alternative approach for determining fasting HP in cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) were adapted to a cubed alfalfa-based diet (1.5xNEm) for 10 d. After which steers were placed into individual hea...

  6. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  7. A note on determination of the diffuse-field sensitivity of microphones using the reciprocity technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    angles of incidence but also on the accuracy of the frequency response at normal incidence. By contrast, this paper is concerned with determining the absolute diffuse-field response of a microphone using the reciprocity technique. To examine this possibility, a reciprocity calibration setup is used...

  8. A Case of Problematic Diffusion: The Use of Sex Determination Techniques in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rashmi

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of model shifts in diffusion research focuses on the growth in the use of sex determination techniques in India and their consequences relating to gender and power. Topics addressed include development, underdevelopment, and modernization; the adoption of innovations; and meanings of innovations within particular social systems.…

  9. Analytical and laser scanning techniques to determine shape properties of mineral aggregates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available using a laser-based scanning technique to determine the form of aggregates used in construction of pavements in South Africa. A three-dimensional (3-D) laser scanning system was used to scan aggregate materials from different sources, and the data were...

  10. Rumen escape protein in concentrate ingredients determined with the nylon bag and enzymatic techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Kamman, A.A.; Gelder, A.H. van; Hindle, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for 26 concentrate feed ingredients using the nylon bag technique and in vitro using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation was observed between percentage

  11. A stable and accurate relaxation technique using multiple penalty terms in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenander, Hannes; Nordström, Jan

    2017-09-01

    A new method for data relaxation based on weak imposition of external data is introduced. The technique is simple, easy to implement, and the resulting numerical scheme is unconditionally stable. Numerical experiments show that the error growth naturally present in long term simulations can be prevented by using the new technique.

  12. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here.

  13. Computational determination of absorbed dose distributions from multiple volumetric gamma ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanyu; Inanc, Feyzi

    2002-05-01

    Determination of absorbed dose distributions is very important in brachytherapy procedures. The typical computation involves superposition of absorbed dose distributions from a single seed to compute the combined absorbed dose distribution formed by multiple seeds. This approach does not account for the shadow effect caused by the metallic nature of volumetric radioactive seeds. Since this shadow effect will cause deviations from the targeted dose distribution, it may have important implications on the success of the procedures. We demonstrated accuracy of our deterministic algorithms for isotropic point sources in the past. We will show that we now have the capability of computing absorbed dose distributions from multiple volumetric seeds and demonstrate that our results are quite close to the results published in the literature.

  14. ENVIRONMENT INDEPENDENT DIRECTIONAL GESTURE RECOGNITION TECHNIQUE FOR ROBOTS USING MULTIPLE DATA FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Abishek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A technique is presented here for directional gesture recognition by robots. The usual technique employed now is using camera vision and image processing. One major disadvantage with that is the environmental constrain. The machine vision system has a lot of lighting constrains. It is therefore only possible to use that technique in a conditioned environment, where the lighting is compatible with camera system used. The technique presented here is designed to work in any environment. It does not employ machine vision. It utilizes a set of sensors fixed on the hands of a human to identify the direction in which the hand is pointing. This technique uses cylindrical coordinate system to precisely find the direction. A programmed computing block in the robot identifies the direction accurately within the given range.

  15. Individual and social determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamian Arsham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral risk factors are known to co-occur among youth, and to increase risks of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality later in life. However, little is known about determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors, particularly among youth. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and carried out without a sound theoretical framework. Methods Using longitudinal data (n = 1135 from Cycle 4 (2000-2001, Cycle 5 (2002-2003 and Cycle 6 (2004-2005 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, a nationally representative sample of Canadian children who are followed biennially, the present study examines the influence of a set of conceptually-related individual/social distal variables (variables situated at an intermediate distance from behaviors, and individual/social ultimate variables (variables situated at an utmost distance from behaviors on the rate of occurrence of multiple behavioral risk factors (physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and high body mass index in a sample of children aged 10-11 years at baseline. Multiple behavioral risk factors were assessed using a multiple risk factor score. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.1, and SUDAAN, version 9.01. Results Multivariate longitudinal Poisson models showed that social distal variables including parental/peer smoking and peer drinking (Log-likelihood ratio (LLR = 187.86, degrees of freedom (DF = 8, p p p p = .05 contributed minimally to the rate of co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors. Conclusions The results suggest targeting individual/social distal variables in prevention programs of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth.

  16. Multiple-image encryption by space multiplexing based on compressive sensing and the double-random phase-encoding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepan, B; Quan, C; Wang, Y; Tay, C J

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, a new multiple-image encryption and decryption technique that utilizes the compressive sensing (CS) concept along with a double-random phase encryption (DRPE) has been proposed. The space multiplexing method is employed for integrating multiple-image data. The method, which results in a nonlinear encryption system, is able to overcome the vulnerability of classical DRPE. The CS technique and space multiplexing are able to provide additional key space in the proposed method. A numerical experiment of the proposed method is implemented and the results show that the proposed method has good accuracy and is more robust than classical DRPE. The proposed system is also employed against chosen-plaintext attacks and it is found that the inclusion of compressive sensing enhances robustness against the attacks.

  17. Evaluation of the accuracy of different transfer impression techniques for multiple implants

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio César Brigolini de Faria; Laís Regiane Silva-Concílio; Ana Christina Claro Neves; Milton Edson Miranda; Marcelo Lucchesi Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three implant transfer impression techniques. Four groups (n = 5) were defined, according to the technique: TC - tapered copings without splint; SC - square copings without splint; SCS - square copings splinted with dental floss and acrylic resin, and CG (control group) - master model with four external hexagonal implants and a superstructure. Individual trays and polyether were used for the impression. All casts were checked for their fit...

  18. Neutron Multiplicity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Neutron multiplicity measurements are widely used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM). When combined with isotopic composition information, neutron multiplicity analysis can be used to estimate the spontaneous fission rate and leakage multiplication of SNM. When combined with isotopic information, the total mass of fissile material can also be determined. This presentation provides an overview of this technique.

  19. Determining the Number of Signals in MUSIC Algorithm by CFAR Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAGuangrong; LIUXingzhao

    2004-01-01

    A new algorithm based on the CFAR detection technique is proposed to estimate the number of signals in MUSIC method. This algorithm is described in detail and analyzed theoretically in signal detection aspect. Based on the theoretical analysis and Gaussianity test, it is pointed out that the eigenvalues of estimated white noise covariance matrix are Gaussian, and the number of signals in MUSIC algorithm can be determined by an asymptotic CFAR technique. Monte Carlo experiments show that it is efficient. Contrasted to the Minimum description length (MDL) and Akaike information criterion (AIC) algorithms, it is flexible and can describe the detection performance exactly via the false alarm rate.

  20. A Markov chain technique for determining the acquisition behavior of a digital tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    An iterative procedure is presented for determining the acquisition behavior of discrete or digital implementations of a tracking loop. The technique is based on the theory of Markov chains and provides the cumulative probability of acquisition in the loop as a function of time in the presence of noise and a given set of initial condition probabilities. A digital second-order tracking loop to be used in the Viking command receiver for continuous tracking of the command subcarrier phase was analyzed using this technique, and the results agree closely with experimental data.

  1. A review of analytical techniques for determination of oxicams, nimesulide and nabumetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, Małgorzata; Krzek, Jan

    2009-01-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the group most often used in human health care, since they are available without prescription for treatment of fever and minor pain. The present review submitted the use of various analytical techniques for the determination of oxicams, nimesulide and nabumetone. This review covers the time period from 1990 to 2008 during which over 200 analytical methods including all types of chromatographic, spectrophotometric and voltammetric techniques were reported. Presented application concerns analysis of chosen NSAIDs from pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples.

  2. Techniques for determining propulsion system forces for accurate high speed vehicle drag measurements in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to evaluate current methods of predicting the performance of large, supersonic airplanes, the drag of the XB-70 airplane was measured accurately in flight at Mach numbers from 0.75 to 2.5. This paper describes the techniques used to determine engine net thrust and the drag forces charged to the propulsion system that were required for the in-flight drag measurements. The accuracy of the measurements and the application of the measurement techniques to aircraft with different propulsion systems are discussed. Examples of results obtained for the XB-70 airplane are presented.

  3. Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, "Eyegrade," a system for automatic grading of multiple…

  4. Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, "Eyegrade," a system for automatic grading of multiple…

  5. Comparison of techniques to determine intermittency of riometer auroral absorption at South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, E. M.; Stepanova, M.; Foppiano, A. J.

    2008-05-01

    It is well known that auroral radio wave absorption, as measured by riometers, consists of periods of relative quiescence which are interrupted by short bursts of activity. Such patterns in activity are observed in systems ranging from the stock market to turbulence, i.e. they exhibit intermittency. In the case of the auroral absorption it has also been found that intermittency strongly depends on the magnetic local time, being largest in the nighttime sector. This can be interpreted as indicating that the precipitating particles responsible of the absorption exhibit intermittency, especially near the substorm eye, where the level of turbulence increases. Here, different techniques to determine intermittency of auroral absorption measured by a riometer at South Pole (-90°S) are compared. The techniques are (i) the standard Castings formulation, (ii) the Local Intermittency Measure, (iii) the superstatistic, and (iv) the non-extensive statistics. It is shown that results obtained using the superstatistic and non-extensive statistic techniques confirm previously published results for auroral absorption at South Pole using the Castings and the Local Intermittency Measure techniques. Furthermore, a preliminary comparison between techniques indicates technique differences seem to be more related to the conceptual approach of each one rather than to the numerical results given by them.

  6. A comparison of reflectance and transmittance near-infrared spectroscopic techniques in determining drug content in intact tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, S S; Forbess, R A; Ebube, N K; Chen, Y; Rubinovitz, R L; Kemper, M S; Reier, G E; Wheatley, T A; Shukla, A J

    2001-01-01

    Drug contents of intact tablets were determined using non-destructive near infrared (NIR) reflectance and transmittance spectroscopic techniques. Tablets were compressed from blends of Avicel PH-101 and 0.5% w/w magnesium stearate with varying concentrations of anhydrous theophylline (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40% w/w). Ten tablets from each drug content batch were randomly selected for spectral analysis. Both reflectance and transmittance NIR spectra were obtained from these intact tablets. Actual drug contents of the tablets were then ascertained using a UV-spectrophotometer at 268 nm. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models at 1116 nm and partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were generated from the second derivative spectral data of the tablets in order to predict drug contents of intact tablets. Both the reflectance and the transmittance techniques were able to predict the drug contents in intact tablets over a wide range. However, a comparison of the results of the study indicated that the lowest percent errors of prediction were provided by the PLS calibration models generated from spectral data obtained using the transmittance technique.

  7. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, S.; Allan, J.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Williams, B. J.; Paglione, M.; Facchini, M. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Gietl, J. K.; Coe, H.; Giulianelli, L.; Gobbi, G. P.; Lanconelli, C.; Carbone, C.; Worsnop, D.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Elste, T.; Gilge, S.; Zhang, Y.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2014-11-01

    The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterised by a less dense urbanisation. We present here the results obtained at a background site in the Po Valley, Italy, in summer 2009. For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art spectrometric techniques were used in parallel: aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), two aerosol mass spectrometers (high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer - HR-ToF-AMS and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer - SP-AMS), thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG), chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS) and (offline) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that, under high-pressure conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black carbon (BC), secondary semivolatile compounds such as ammonium nitrate and amines and a class of monocarboxylic acids which correspond to the AMS cooking organic aerosol (COA) already identified in urban areas. In daytime, the entrainment of aged air masses in the mixing layer is responsible for the accumulation of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and also for the recycling of non-volatile primary species such as black carbon. According to organic aerosol source apportionment, anthropogenic aerosols accumulating in the lower layers overnight accounted for 38% of organic aerosol mass on average, another 21% was accounted for by aerosols recirculated in

  8. Rapid determination of moisture content in paper materials by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-04-22

    This paper describes a new method for the rapid determination of the moisture content in paper materials. The method is based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) at a temperature above the boiling point of water, from which an integrated water loss from the tested sample due to evaporation can be measured and from which the moisture content in the sample can be determined. The results show that the new method has a good precision (with the relative standard deviation <0.96%), high sensitivity (the limit of quantitation=0.005%) and good accuracy (the relative differences <1.4%). Therefore, the method is quite suitable for many uses in research and industrial applications.

  9. Analysis of classical time-trial performance and technique-specific physiological determinants in elite female cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Sandbakk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP and diagonal (DIA techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r=0.98 and flat (r=0.91 sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p<0.05. Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p<0.001. Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r=0.66-0.78, with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p<0.05. Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power.

  10. Multiple gcd-closed sets and determinants of matrices associated with arithmetic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Siao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Let f be an arithmetic function and S = {x1, …, xn} be a set of n distinct positive integers. By (f(xi, xj (resp. (f[xi, xj] we denote the n × n matrix having f evaluated at the greatest common divisor (xi, xj (resp. the least common multiple [xi, xj] of x, and xj as its (i, j-entry, respectively. The set S is said to be gcd closed if (xi, xj ∈ S for 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n. In this paper, we give formulas for the determinants of the matrices (f(xi, xj and (f[xi, xj] if S consists of multiple coprime gcd-closed sets (i.e., S equals the union of S1, …, Sk with k ≥ 1 being an integer and S1, …, Sk being gcd-closed sets such that (lcm(Si, lcm(Sj = 1 for all 1 ≤ i ≠ j ≤ k. This extends the Bourque-Ligh, Hong’s and the Hong-Loewy formulas obtained in 1993, 2002 and 2011, respectively. It also generalizes the famous Smith’s determinant.

  11. Instability-Enhanced Collisional Friction Determines the Bohm Criterion in Multiple-Ion-Species Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, S. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D.

    2009-11-01

    Ion-ion streaming instabilities are excited in the presheath region of plasmas with multiple ion species if the ions are much colder than the electrons. Streaming instabilities onset when the relative fluid flow between ion species exceeds a critical speed, δVc, of order the ion thermal speeds. Using a generalized Lenard-Balescu theory that accounts for instability-enhanced collective responses [1], one is able to show the instabilities rapidly enhance the collisional friction between ion species far beyond the contribution from Coulomb collisions alone. This strong frictional force determines the relative fluid speed between species. When this condition is combined with the Bohm criterion generalized for multiple ion species, the fluid speed of each ion species is determined at the sheath edge. For each species, this speed differs from the common ``system'' sound speed by a factor that depends on the species concentrations, masses and δVc.[4pt] [1] S.D. Baalrud, J.D. Callen, and C.C. Hegna, Phys. Plasmas 15, 092111 (2008).

  12. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Decesari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterized by a less dense urbanization. We present here the results obtained in San Pietro Capofiume, which is located in a sparsely inhabited sector of the Po Valley, Italy. The experiment was carried out in summer 2009 in the framework of the EUCAARI project ("European Integrated Project on Aerosol, Cloud Climate Aerosol Interaction". For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art techniques were used in parallel: (1 on-line TSI aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS, (2 on-line Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS, (3 soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS, (4 on-line high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer-thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (HR-ToFMS-TAG, (5 off-line twelve-hour resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR spectroscopy, and (6 chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS for the analysis of gas-phase precursors of secondary aerosol. Data from each aerosol spectroscopic method were analysed individually following ad-hoc tools (i.e. PMF for AMS, Art-2a for ATOFMS. The results obtained from each techniques are herein presented and compared. This allows us to clearly link the modifications in aerosol chemical composition to transitions in air mass origin and meteorological regimes. Under stagnant conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black

  13. Medicaid program; withdrawal of determination of average manufacturer prices, multiple source drug definition, and upper limits for multiple source drugs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This final rule withdraws two provisions from the "Medicaid Program; Prescription Drugs'' final rule (referred to hereafter as "AMP final rule") published in the July 17, 2007 Federal Register. The provisions we are withdrawing are as follows: The determination of average manufacturer price, and the Federal upper limits for multiple source drugs. We are also withdrawing the definition of "multiple source drug" as it was revised in the ``Medicaid Program; Multiple Source Drug Definition'' final rule published in the October 7, 2008 Federal Register.

  14. All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical - wireless transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Chiuchiarelli, A; Presi, M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency.......We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency....

  15. Real-time spatial frequency domain imaging by single snapshot multiple frequency demodulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zili; Lin, Weihao; Chen, Xinlin; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, Min

    2017-02-01

    We have presented a novel Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation (SSMD) method enabling single snapshot wide field imaging of optical properties of turbid media in the Spatial Frequency Domain. SSMD makes use of the orthogonality of harmonic functions and extracts the modulation transfer function (MTF) at multiple modulation frequencies and of arbitrary orientations and amplitudes simultaneously from a single structured-illuminated image at once. SSMD not only increases significantly the data acquisition speed and reduces motion artifacts but also exhibits excellent noise suppression in imaging as well. The performance of SSMD-SFDI is demonstrated with experiments on both tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo for recovering optical properties. SSMD is ideal in the implementation of a real-time spatial frequency domain imaging platform, which will open up SFDI for vast applications in, for example, mapping the optical properties of a dynamic turbid medium or monitoring fast temporal evolutions.

  16. NIRS and MIRS technique for the determination of protein and fat content in milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Feng, Shuijuan; He, Chao; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    It is very important to detect the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and non-destructively. Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared(MIR) spectroscopy techniques have been compared and evaluated for the determination of the protein and fat content in milk powder with the use of Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM). LS-SVM models have been developed by using both NIR and MIR spectra. Both methods have shown good correlations between infrared transmission values and two nutrition contents. MIRS provided better prediction performance over NIRS. It is concluded that infrared spectroscopy technique can quantify of the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and nondestructively. The process is simple and easy to operate than chemistry methods. The results can be beneficial for designing a simple and non-destructive instrument with MIRS or NIRS spectral sensor for the determination of the protein fat content in milk powder.

  17. A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadil Abukhalifeh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vapex (vapor extraction of heavy oil and bitumen is a promising recovery technology because it consumes low energy, and is very environmentally-friendly. The dispersion of solvents into heavy oil and bitumen is a crucial transport property governing Vapex. The accurate determination of solvent dispersion in Vapex is essential to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery as well to optimize the field operations. In this work, a novel technique is developed to experimentally determine the concentration-dependent dispersion coefficient of a solvent in Vapex process. The principles of variational calculus are utilized in conjunction with a mass transfer model of the experimental Vapex process. A computational algorithm is developed to optimally compute solvent dispersion as a function of its concentration in heavy oil. The developed technique is applied to Vapex utilizing propane as a solvent. The results show that dispersion of propane is a unimodal function of its concentration in bitumen.

  18. Sequential determination of trace 4-aminoazobenzene in multiple textiles based on nanoarrayed functionalized polystyrene substrate by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhao, Cheng; Li, Gongke

    2016-07-01

    Achieving reproducible signals is a key point to improve the analytical precision and accuracy of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique and further expand the application scope of SERS for on-site and rapid analysis of real sample with complex matrice. In this work, a novel Au@hydroxyl-functionalized polystyrene (Au@PS-OH) substrate was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization and chemical assembly method, which possessed promised potential for the rapid and sequential analysis of multisamples coupling with SERS technique. Au@PS-OH substrate with regular nanoarrayed morphology possessed excellent anti-agglomeration capability even for testing solutions with strong basicity or acidity, mechanic and chemical stability due to the large amount of Au nanoparticles homogeneously and stably fixed on substrate surface. Moreover, excellent hydrophobicity of Au@PS-OH substrate could keep testing droplets of multiple samples stable and uniform spherical shape with similar contact angles to substrate, which guaranteed the reproducible SERS light paths and SERS signals during real sequential analysis. Then, an Au@PS-OH based SERS analytical method was developed and practically applied for the sequential determination of trace 4-aminoazobenzene in various textiles. It was satisfactory that the contents of trace 4-aminoazobenzene in black woolen, green woolen and yellow fiber cloth could be actually found and calculated to be 106.4, 120.9 and 140.8mg/kg with good recoveries of 76.0-118.9% and relative standard deviations of 1.6-5.1%. It is expected that this SERS method is suitable for on-site and rapid analysis of multiple samples in a short period.

  19. Computational techniques for determining printability of real defects in EUV mask pilot line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Li, Ying; Peng, Daniel; Chen, Dongxue; Hu, Peter; Corcoran, Noel; Son, Donghwan; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram

    2014-04-01

    With EUV lithography on the ITRS roadmap for sub-2X half-pitch patterning, it has become increasingly essential to ramp up efforts in being able to manufacture defect-free reticles or at least ones with minimal defects initially. For this purpose, much of the focus in recent years has been in finding ways to adequately detect, characterize, and reduce defects on both EUV blanks and patterned masks. For detection purposes, the current high-resolution DUV or e-beam inspection platforms are being extended to inspect EUV blanks and patterned masks but being non-actinic, make it very challenging to assess the real impact of the detected defects on EUV plane. Even with the realization of the EUV beta AIMS™ aerial-image based metrology in 2014-2015, the exact nature of each critical defect needs to be determined in order to be able to come up with an appropriate repair strategy. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of computational techniques to non-actinic supplemental metrology data collected on EUV mask defects to effectively determine the nature and also predict printability of these defects. The fundamental EUV simulation engine used in this approach is the EUV Defect Printability Simulator (DPS), which uses simulation and modeling methods designed specifically for the individual EUV mask components, and achieves runtimes several orders of magnitude faster than rigorous FDTD and RCWA methods while maintaining adequate accuracy. The EUV DPS simulator is then coupled with supplemental inspection and metrology measurements of real defects to effectively predict wafer printability of these defects. Several sources of such supplementary data are explored here, and may sometimes be dependent on the actual nature of defect. These sources include AFM height-profile data, SEM top-down images, and 193nm high-NA inspection images of single or multiple focus plane capture. From each of these supplemental data sources, the mask pattern and defect information is first

  20. Microextraction Techniques Used in the Procedures for Determining Organomercury and Organotin Compounds in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Rutkowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to human activities, the concentrations of organometallic compounds in all parts of the environment have increased in recent decades. The toxicity and some biochemical properties of mercury and tin present in the environment depend on the concentration and chemical form of these two elements. The ever-increasing demand for determining compounds at very low concentration levels in samples with complex matrices requires the elimination of interfering substances, the reduction of the final extract volume, and analyte enrichment in order to employ a detection technique, which is characterised by high sensitivity at low limits of quantification. On the other hand, in accordance with current trends, the analytical procedures should aim at the miniaturisation and simplification of the sample preparation step. In the near future, more importance will be given to the fulfilment of the requirements of Green Chemistry and Green Analytical Chemistry in order to reduce the intensity of anthropogenic activities related to analytical laboratories. In this case, one can consider the use of solvent-free/solvent-less techniques for sample preparation and microextraction techniques, because the use of the latter leads to lowering the quantity of reagents used (including solvents due to the reduction of the scale of analysis. This paper presents an overview of microextraction techniques (SPME and LPME used in the procedures for determining different chemical forms of mercury and tin.

  1. A technique to determine the electromagnetic properties of soil using moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus J. Coetzee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate electromagnetic ground constants are required for applications such as modelling of ground wave propagation of radio signals and antennas above a real, imperfect earth and for use in geological surveys and agricultural applications. A simple method to determine the ground parameters (conductivity and relative dielectric constant for any radio frequency is outlined here. The method has been verified over the 2-30-MHz frequency range but should be applicable up to several GHz. First, a low cost, commercial soil moisture meter using time domain reflectometry techniques is used to determine the soil moisture percentage. Then previously published universal soil models implemented on a programmable calculator or a PC are used to calculate the required constants at the frequency of interest according to the measured moisture percentage. The results obtained by this method compare favourably with those obtained by the input impedance of a low horizontal dipole technique. The received signal strength of a ground wave, HF transmission also compares favourably with that predicted by GRWave using ground constants calculated by the soil moisture technique. This method offers significant advantages in terms of simplicity, speed and cost when compared with current techniques.

  2. Height Determination Techniques for the Next National Height System of Finland- A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, T.; Saaranen, V.; Kaartinen, H.; Poutanen, M.; Kukko, A.; Nyberg, S.

    2014-11-01

    Precise levelling is known for its accuracy and reliability in height determination, but the process itself is slow, laborious and expensive. FGI has started a project to develop methods for height determination that could decrease the creation time of national height systems without losing the required accuracy. In this pilot project, we studied precise levelling and alternative techniques: MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) levelling, which included static GPS (Global Positioning System) and VRS (Virtual Reference Station) measurements.We compared the techniques in a field test, where the height difference of two known benchmarks were measured. All of the height differences were within 16 mm from each other, where the results from the precise levelling and the GPS levelling differed from 0.5-1.0 mm. Results from the MLS measurements were more than 5.0 mm off from the others and the average of the VRS measurements was 10.0 mm off. The uncertainties are compatible with the results, since the largest RMS values were calculated from the MLS and the VRS measurements.This research highlighted the differences of the techniques, but none of them is yet to be abandoned. The study should be expanded into a larger scale to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the techniques.

  3. Hight Determination Techniques for the Next National Height System of Finland- A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, T.; Saaranen, V.; Kaartinen, H.; Poutanen, M.; Kukko, A.; Nyberg, S.

    2014-11-01

    Precise levelling is known for its accuracy and reliability in height determination, but the process itself is slow, laborious and expensive. FGI has started a project to develop methods for height determination that could decrease the creation time of national height systems without losing the required accuracy. In this pilot project, we studied precise levelling and alternative techniques: MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) levelling, which included static GPS (Global Positioning System) and VRS (Virtual Reference Station) measurements. We compared the techniques in a field test, where the height difference of two known benchmarks were measured. All of the height differences were within 16 mm from each other, where the results from the precise levelling and the GPS levelling differed from 0.5-1.0 mm. Results from the MLS measurements were more than 5.0 mm off from the others and the average of the VRS measurements was 10.0 mm off. The uncertainties are compatible with the results, since the largest RMS values were calculated from the MLS and the VRS measurements. This research highlighted the differences of the techniques, but none of them is yet to be abandoned. The study should be expanded into a larger scale to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the techniques.

  4. A new technique for determining Substorm Onsets and Phases from Indices of the Electrojet (SOPHIE)

    CERN Document Server

    Forsyth, C; Coxon, J C; Freeman, M P; Jackman, C M; Gjerloev, J; Fazakerley, A N

    2016-01-01

    We present a new quantitative technique that determines the times and durations of substorm expansion and recovery phases and possible growth phases based on percentiles of the rate of change of auroral electrojet indices. By being able to prescribe different percentile values, we can determine the onset and duration of substorm phases for smaller or larger variations of the auroral index or indeed any auroral zone ground-based magnetometer data. We apply this technique to the SuperMAG AL (SML) index and compare our expansion phase onset times with previous lists of substorm onsets. We find that more than 50% of events in previous lists occur within 20 min of our identified onsets. We also present a comparison of superposed epoch analyses of SML based on our onsets identified by our technique and existing onset lists and find that the general characteristics of the substorm bay are comparable. By prescribing user-defined thresholds, this automated, quantitative technique represents an improvement over any vis...

  5. Determination of cadmium and lead in human biological samples by spectrometric techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo; de Carvalho, Anaildes Lago

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of human biological samples, such as blood, urine, nails, and hair, is generally used for the verification of human exposure to toxic metals. In this review, various spectrometric methods for the determination of cadmium and lead in biological samples are discussed and compared. Several spectrometric techniques are presented and discussed with respect to various characteristics such as sensitivity, selectivity, and cost. Special attention is drawn to the procedures for digestion prior to the determination of cadmium and lead in hair, nails, blood, and urine.

  6. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  7. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jailsong@ufba.br; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  8. DETERMINATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN MAIZE OIL USING UV-VIS SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Kahrıman, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Inthis study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of chemometric techniques onthe detection of some fatty acids in crude maize oil by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Inthe study, oleic acid, linoleic acid, total polyunsaturated fatty acids andtotal polyunsaturated fatty acids were determined on the oil samples of 50different maize genotypes. The absorbance values ​​(190-320 nm) of the same oilsamples were recorded using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Prediction models wereconstructed according to Partia...

  9. A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex

    OpenAIRE

    Hadil Abukhalifeh; Ali Lohi; Simant Ranjan Upreti

    2009-01-01

    Vapex (vapor extraction of heavy oil and bitumen) is a promising recovery technology because it consumes low energy, and is very environmentally-friendly. The dispersion of solvents into heavy oil and bitumen is a crucial transport property governing Vapex. The accurate determination of solvent dispersion in Vapex is essential to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery as well to optimize the field operations. In this work, a novel technique is developed to experimentall...

  10. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shanmei; Gan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG) algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with auto scale(AS), the partial l...

  11. Neutron/gamma dose separation by the multiple-ion-chamber technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many mixed n/..gamma.. dosimetry systems rely on two dosimeters, one composed of a tissue-equivalent material and the other made from a non-hydrogenous material. The paired chamber technique works well in fields of neutron radiation nearly identical in spectral composition to that in which the dosimeters were calibrated. However, this technique is drastically compromised in phantom due to the degradation of the neutron spectrum. The three-dosimeter technique allows for the fall-off in neutron sensitivity of the two non-hydrogenous dosimeters. Precise and physically meaningful results were obtained with this technique with a D-T source in air and in phantom and with simultaneous D-T neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma ray irradiation in air. The MORSE-CG coupled n/..gamma.. three-dimensional Monte Carlo code was employed to calculate neutron and gamma doses in a water phantom. Gamma doses calculated in phantom with this code were generally lower than corresponding ion chamber measurements. This can be explained by the departure of irradiation conditions from ideal narrow-beam geometry. 97 references.

  12. A New Robust Audio Signal Steganography Based On Multiple Chaotic Algorithms With Edge Detection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Arab Avval

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel robust blind steganography scheme for embedding audio signal into edge of color image based on a chaotic map and LSB method,which is different from some existing works. In this paper, we employed the LSB substitution technique ...

  13. The pouch and tunnel technique for management of multiple gingival recession defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sneha; Dhage, Aditi; Gundannavar, Gayatri

    2014-01-01

    The desire for improved esthetics has increased tremendously over the years. Periodontal plastic surgery deals with regenerative procedures designed to restore form, function and enhance esthetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunnel technique as root coverage procedure. Three patients corresponding to a total of 8 sites participated in the study. Maxillary teeth with miller's class I gingival recession were included in the study. All the sites were treated using subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunneling technique. Patients were followed up for a period of 6 months and 1 year. All the treated teeth showed 100% root coverage at the end of 6 months and 1 year. Gingival recession is a common occurrence and its prevalence increases with age. It can lead to clinical problems, diminished cosmetic appeal and hence esthetic concern. There are various techniques for root coverage. Subepithelial connective tissue graft has shown the best predictability (95%) of root coverage in Millers class I & II cases. This technique preserves the intermediate papilla, accelerates the initial wound healing & also applies less traction. Due to minimal trauma at the recipient site, this procedure may be advantageous in treatment of recession as compared to other treatment modalities.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of six graph based semi-automatic liver tumor segmentation techniques using multiple sets of reference segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zihua; Deng, Xiang; Chefd'hotel, Christophe; Grady, Leo; Fei, Jun; Zheng, Dong; Chen, Ning; Xu, Xiaodong

    2011-03-01

    Graph based semi-automatic tumor segmentation techniques have demonstrated great potential in efficiently measuring tumor size from CT images. Comprehensive and quantitative validation is essential to ensure the efficacy of graph based tumor segmentation techniques in clinical applications. In this paper, we present a quantitative validation study of six graph based 3D semi-automatic tumor segmentation techniques using multiple sets of expert segmentation. The six segmentation techniques are Random Walk (RW), Watershed based Random Walk (WRW), LazySnapping (LS), GraphCut (GHC), GrabCut (GBC), and GrowCut (GWC) algorithms. The validation was conducted using clinical CT data of 29 liver tumors and four sets of expert segmentation. The performance of the six algorithms was evaluated using accuracy and reproducibility. The accuracy was quantified using Normalized Probabilistic Rand Index (NPRI), which takes into account of the variation of multiple expert segmentations. The reproducibility was evaluated by the change of the NPRI from 10 different sets of user initializations. Our results from the accuracy test demonstrated that RW (0.63) showed the highest NPRI value, compared to WRW (0.61), GWC (0.60), GHC (0.58), LS (0.57), GBC (0.27). The results from the reproducibility test indicated that GBC is more sensitive to user initialization than the other five algorithms. Compared to previous tumor segmentation validation studies using one set of reference segmentation, our evaluation methods use multiple sets of expert segmentation to address the inter or intra rater variability issue in ground truth annotation, and provide quantitative assessment for comparing different segmentation algorithms.

  15. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardes, Raysa C.; Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, Hamilton S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: rc.nardes@gmail.com, E-mail: ramonziosp@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: francissanches@gmail.com, E-mail: hamiltongamafilho@hotmail.com, E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  16. Detecting multiple outliers in linear functional relationship model for circular variables using clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nurkhairany Amyra; Zubairi, Yong Zulina; Hussin, Abdul Ghapor

    2017-05-01

    Outlier detection has been used extensively in data analysis to detect anomalous observation in data and has important application in fraud detection and robust analysis. In this paper, we propose a method in detecting multiple outliers for circular variables in linear functional relationship model. Using the residual values of the Caires and Wyatt model, we applied the hierarchical clustering procedure. With the use of tree diagram, we illustrate the graphical approach of the detection of outlier. A simulation study is done to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. Also, an illustration to a real data set is given to show its practical applicability.

  17. Choppers to optimise the repetition rate multiplication technique on a direct geometry neutron chopper spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickery, Anette; Deen, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of repetition rate multiplication (RRM) on direct geometry neutron spectrometers has been established and is the common mode of operation on a growing number of instruments. However, the chopper configurations are not ideally optimised for RRM with a resultant 100 fold flu...... in time resolution probed for a single European Spallation Source (ESS) period, which is ideal to probe complex relaxational behaviour. These two chopper configurations have been simulated for the Versatile Optimal Resolution direct geometry spectrometer, VOR, that will be built at ESS....

  18. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creating a larger incision adds many of the drawbacks of open laparotomy and should be avoided whenever possible. In this article, we present a new technique of combining the repair of an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia with a duodenal tumor resection in order to extract the specimen through the inguinal hernia orifice. PMID:26703927

  19. The use of artificial intelligence techniques to improve the multiple payload integration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Dannie E.; Widgren, Brian K.

    1992-01-01

    A maximum return of science and products with a minimum expenditure of time and resources is a major goal of mission payload integration. A critical component then, in successful mission payload integration is the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements from the principal investigator and payload element developer teams. One effort to use artificial intelligence techniques to improve the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements within the payload integration process is described.

  20. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creatin...

  1. A Novel Architecture for Adaptive Traffic Control in Network on Chip using Code Division Multiple Access Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh. Dehghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Network on chip has emerged as a long-term and effective method in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip communications in order to overcome the bottleneck in bus based communication architectures. Efficiency and performance of network on chip is so dependent on the architecture and structure of the network. In this paper a new structure and architecture for adaptive traffic control in network on chip using Code Division Multiple Access technique is presented. To solve the problem of synchronous access to bus based interconnection the code division multiple access technique was applied. In the presented structure that is based upon mesh topology and simple routing method we attempted to increase the exchanged data bandwidth rate among different cores. Also an attempt has been made to increase the performance by isolating the target address transfer path from data transfer path. The main goal of this paper is presenting a new structure to improve energy consumption, area and maximum frequency in network on chip systems using information coding and decoding techniques. The presented structure is simulated using Xilinx ISE software and the results show effectiveness of this architecture.

  2. Application of simulation techniques for estimating duration of multiple sclerosis derived from prevalence-formed cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, V A; Visscher, B R; Detels, R; Valdiviezo, N L; Malmgren, R M; Dudley, J P

    1984-03-01

    Comparisons of the average duration of multiple sclerosis derived from a prevalence survey of cases alive in 1970 in a low-risk area (Los Angeles County, California) and a high-risk area (King and Pierce Counties, Washington) suggest that patients in the high-risk area had a longer duration of disease than patients in the low-risk area. Because this finding was unexpected and because the underlying population of these two areas has been increasing at different rates, two simulation models were developed to estimate the duration of multiple sclerosis from a prevalence survey, taking into account the effects of changes in the population over time. Comparison of the durations derived from the two simulation studies suggested that underestimation of true backward recurrence time from the simulation studies was similar for the two study areas. Thus, the observed differences in duration between the two areas probably reflect the course of disease rather than differences in rate of growth of the two populations. These studies demonstrate the usefulness of simulation studies in estimating disease duration from cohorts derived from prevalence surveys of non-stable populations.

  3. Scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time: Comparison with the hydrogen breath technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; Buddoura, W.; Winchenbach, K.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-04-01

    The hydrogen breath test was used as a standard against which a scintigraphic method for determination of small intestinal transit time was evaluated and compared. A total of 19 male volunteers ranging in age from 23 to 28 yr participated in the study. The subjects ingested an isosmotic lactulose solution containing /sup 99m/technetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Sn) and then remained supine under a large field of view gamma-camera that interfaced with a computer system. Data were visually analyzed and then quantified to determine gastric emptying and small intestinal transit time. The small intestinal transit time ranged from 31 to 139 min with the scintigraphic method and 30 to 190 min with the hydrogen breath test (r . 0.77). The mean small intestinal transit time for 20 individual determinations with the scintigraphic method, 73.0 +/- 6.5 min (mean +/- SEM), was similar to the results from the hydrogen breath test technique, 75.1 +/- 8.3 min. Thirteen volunteers underwent two studies with the scintigraphic method separated by intervals ranging from 2 days to 8 wk. Individual variations in small intestinal transit time were significantly correlated with individual variations in gastric emptying (p less than 0.05). We conclude that the scintigraphic method allows accurate determination of gastrocecal time and is a noninvasive technique which may be a useful clinical test for small intestinal transit time as well as for providing information on the pathophysiology and pharmacology of intestinal motility.

  4. Security and reliability analysis of diversity combining techniques in SIMO mixed RF/FSO with multiple users

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of different diversity combining techniques on the security and reliability analysis of a single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) mixed radio frequency (RF)/free space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic multiuser scheduling. In this model, the user of the best channel among multiple users communicates with a multiple antennas relay node over an RF link, and then, the relay node employs amplify-and-forward (AF) protocol in retransmitting the user data to the destination over an FSO link. Moreover, the authorized transmission is assumed to be attacked by a single passive RF eavesdropper equipped with multiple antennas. Therefore, the system security reliability trade-off analysis is investigated. Closed-form expressions for the system outage probability and the system intercept probability are derived. Then, the newly derived expressions are simplified to their asymptotic formulas at the high signal-to-noise- ratio (SNR) region. Numerical results are presented to validate the achieved exact and asymptotic results and to illustrate the impact of various system parameters on the system performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  5. Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

  6. On the potential of multivariate techniques for the determination of multidimensional efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Viaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Differential measurements of particle collisions or decays can provide stringent constraints on physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. In particular, the distributions of the kinematical and angular variables that characterise heavy me- son multibody decays are non trivial and can sign the underlying interaction physics. In the era of high luminosity opened by the advent of the Large Hadron Collider and of Flavor Factories, differential measurements are less and less dominated by statistical precision and require a precise determination of efficiencies that depend simultaneously on several variables and do not factorise in these variables. This docu- ment is a reflection on the potential of multivariate techniques for the determination of such multidimensional efficiencies. We carried out two case studies that show that multilayer perceptron neural networks can determine and correct for the distortions introduced by reconstruction and selection criteria in the multidimensional phase space of t...

  7. Using the Coefficient of Determination "R"[superscript 2] to Test the Significance of Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinino, Roberto C.; Reis, Edna A.; Bessegato, Lupercio F.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the use of the coefficient of determination as a statistic for hypothesis testing in multiple linear regression based on distributions acquired by beta sampling. (Contains 3 figures.)

  8. Using the Coefficient of Determination "R"[superscript 2] to Test the Significance of Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinino, Roberto C.; Reis, Edna A.; Bessegato, Lupercio F.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the use of the coefficient of determination as a statistic for hypothesis testing in multiple linear regression based on distributions acquired by beta sampling. (Contains 3 figures.)

  9. Determining the Gruneisen coefficient for liquids using the PAZ-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantiste, Olivier A.

    Measurement of Gruneisen coefficient is utterly important in developing efficient molecular photoacoustic (PA) contrast agents. It is one of the two parameters that describes how efficient a molecule is in transforming optical energy into sound, the other being absorption coefficient. Using the PAZ-scan technique, the Gruneisen coefficient was obtained for various samples and the values are compared with standard techniques. In a PAZ-scan, the sample is translated through the path of a focused laser beam in small steps while the generated PA signal is recorded. The incident intensity is optimum at the focal point and decreases gradually on either side of the focus. As such, the absorption and the PA signal varies according to the sample properties. Therefore at positions away from the focal point, the incident intensities are weak and the PA signal varies linearly with intensity. A plot of the PA signal versus the intensity is used to obtain the Gruneisen coefficient. Using this technique, the Gruneisen coefficients for crystal violet in two different solvents, food coloring dyes that are dissolved in water were determined. Results show that the linear part of the PAZ-scan can be used to determine the Gruneisen coefficient for liquids.

  10. [Harvesting technique of chimeric multiple paddles fibular flap for wide oromandibular defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, J-P; Qassemyar, Q; Assouly, N; Temam, S; Kolb, F

    2016-08-01

    Carcinological head and neck reconstruction still remains a challenge due to the volume and varied tissues needed. Large and wide oromandibular defects require, not just the bone but also soft tissues for the pelvilingual reconstruction and therefore, a second free flap may become necessary in addition to a fibular flap. The option of an unique chimeric flap based on the fibular artery and its branches is less known whereas it offers the advantage of a unique flap with bone, muscle and multiple skin paddles, independent of each other. The aim of this technical note is to present step by step the surgical procedure of this chimeric flap and share this method that avoids a second free flap.

  11. Adaptive Double Threshold with Multiple Energy Detection Technique in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Avila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Radio (CR network is a system which lends help at the time of scarcity in spectrum. One of the process by which CR senses the spectrum is energy detection method with a fixed single threshold. When energy levels fall below the threshold, secondary user is permitted to use the spectrum of the primary user. It is shown by simulation results that having two levels of threshold i.e., double threshold improves performance by giving importance to one of the major aspects of CR, reducing the confliction of the primary and the secondary user. For enhanced performance under noise conditions, dynamic allocation or adaptive threshold is employed with the two levels of threshold. The system is made better by the use of multiple energy detectors on the reception end.

  12. Nail bed expansion: A new technique for correction of multiple isolated congenital micronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ghaffarpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital micronychia may involve big toes or may involve other nails. The etiology of micronychia is not clear but amniotic bands, teratogens (drugs, alcohol, Nail Patella Syndrome etc. A 44-year-old woman with multiple isolated congenital micronychia over her hands and feet was selected. The major affected nails were thumbs and Index fingers. Surgical method were done step by step: Anesthesia of the area, extraction of short nail, elevation of nail bed, longitudinal nail bed incisions, suturing the lateral nail bed to the nail wall, covering the nail bed by a splint of plastic suction tube, bandage with gauze Vaseline. Finally, we hypnotized that in congenital micronychia, the main pathology is in nail bed; through this theory by nail bed expansion better outcomes are coming.

  13. Transformation of nitrogen dioxide into ozone and prediction of ozone concentrations using multiple linear regression techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Nurul Adyani; Ramli, Nor Azam; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri; Yusof, Noor Faizah Fitri M D; Sansuddin, Nurulilyana; Al Madhoun, Wesam Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Analysis and forecasting of air quality parameters are important topics of atmospheric and environmental research today due to the health impact caused by air pollution. This study examines transformation of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) into ozone (O(3)) at urban environment using time series plot. Data on the concentration of environmental pollutants and meteorological variables were employed to predict the concentration of O(3) in the atmosphere. Possibility of employing multiple linear regression models as a tool for prediction of O(3) concentration was tested. Results indicated that the presence of NO(2) and sunshine influence the concentration of O(3) in Malaysia. The influence of the previous hour ozone on the next hour concentrations was also demonstrated.

  14. Genetic variants are major determinants of CSF antibody levels in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, An; Pauwels, Ine; Gustavsen, Marte W; van Son, Brechtje; Hilven, Kelly; Bos, Steffan D; Celius, Elisabeth Gulowsen; Berg-Hansen, Pål; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Barizzone, Nadia; Leone, Maurizio A; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Sorosina, Melissa; Liberatore, Giuseppe; Kockum, Ingrid; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Bedri, Sahl Khalid; Hemmer, Bernhard; Buck, Dorothea; Berthele, Achim; Knier, Benjamin; Biberacher, Viola; van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian; Bang Oturai, Annette; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Sellebjerg, Finn; Jensen, Poul Erik H; Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Pérez-Boza, Jennifer; Malhotra, Sunny; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Broadley, Simon; Slee, Mark; Taylor, Bruce; Kermode, Allan G; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Sawcer, Stephen J; Andreassen, Bettina Kullle; Dubois, Bénédicte; Harbo, Hanne F

    2015-03-01

    as female gender, age at onset and severity. This is the largest study population so far investigated for the genetic influence on antibody levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis, including 6950 patients. We confirm that genetic factors underlie these antibody levels and identify both the major histocompatibility complex and immunoglobulin heavy chain region as major determinants.

  15. Determining the diet of larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus using high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O'Rorke

    Full Text Available The Western Australian rock lobster fishery has been both a highly productive and sustainable fishery. However, a recent dramatic and unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment threatens this sustainability. Our lack of knowledge of key processes in lobster larval ecology, such as their position in the food web, limits our ability to determine what underpins this decline. The present study uses a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach on DNA obtained from the hepatopancreas of larvae to discover significant prey items. Two short regions of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified under the presence of lobster specific PNA to prevent lobster amplification and to improve prey amplification. In the resulting sequences either little prey was recovered, indicating that the larval gut was empty, or there was a high number of reads originating from multiple zooplankton taxa. The most abundant reads included colonial Radiolaria, Thaliacea, Actinopterygii, Hydrozoa and Sagittoidea, which supports the hypothesis that the larvae feed on multiple groups of mostly transparent gelatinous zooplankton. This hypothesis has prevailed as it has been tentatively inferred from the physiology of larvae, captive feeding trials and co-occurrence in situ. However, these prey have not been observed in the larval gut as traditional microscopic techniques cannot discern between transparent and gelatinous prey items in the gut. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of gut DNA has enabled us to classify these otherwise undetectable prey. The dominance of the colonial radiolarians among the gut contents is intriguing in that this group has been historically difficult to quantify in the water column, which may explain why they have not been connected to larval diet previously. Our results indicate that a PCR based technique is a very successful approach to identify the most abundant taxa in the natural diet of lobster larvae.

  16. Determining the diet of larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus) using high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rorke, Richard; Lavery, Shane; Chow, Seinen; Takeyama, Haruko; Tsai, Peter; Beckley, Lynnath E; Thompson, Peter A; Waite, Anya M; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    The Western Australian rock lobster fishery has been both a highly productive and sustainable fishery. However, a recent dramatic and unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment threatens this sustainability. Our lack of knowledge of key processes in lobster larval ecology, such as their position in the food web, limits our ability to determine what underpins this decline. The present study uses a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach on DNA obtained from the hepatopancreas of larvae to discover significant prey items. Two short regions of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified under the presence of lobster specific PNA to prevent lobster amplification and to improve prey amplification. In the resulting sequences either little prey was recovered, indicating that the larval gut was empty, or there was a high number of reads originating from multiple zooplankton taxa. The most abundant reads included colonial Radiolaria, Thaliacea, Actinopterygii, Hydrozoa and Sagittoidea, which supports the hypothesis that the larvae feed on multiple groups of mostly transparent gelatinous zooplankton. This hypothesis has prevailed as it has been tentatively inferred from the physiology of larvae, captive feeding trials and co-occurrence in situ. However, these prey have not been observed in the larval gut as traditional microscopic techniques cannot discern between transparent and gelatinous prey items in the gut. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of gut DNA has enabled us to classify these otherwise undetectable prey. The dominance of the colonial radiolarians among the gut contents is intriguing in that this group has been historically difficult to quantify in the water column, which may explain why they have not been connected to larval diet previously. Our results indicate that a PCR based technique is a very successful approach to identify the most abundant taxa in the natural diet of lobster larvae.

  17. Evaluation of the accuracy of different transfer impression techniques for multiple implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Júlio César Brigolini de; Silva-Concílio, Laís Regiane; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Miranda, Milton Edson; Teixeira, Marcelo Lucchesi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three implant transfer impression techniques. Four groups (n = 5) were defined, according to the technique: TC - tapered copings without splint; SC - square copings without splint; SCS - square copings splinted with dental floss and acrylic resin, and CG (control group) - master model with four external hexagonal implants and a superstructure. Individual trays and polyether were used for the impression. All casts were checked for their fit into the master superstructure; for this, all four screws were placed in the implants. Digital photos were taken and images were analyzed using UTHSCSA ImageTool software. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's t test (p < 0.05). The means and standard deviation were (µm): CG = 2.03 ± 0.00, TC = 14.74 ± 3.41, SC = 12.08 ± 2.56, and SCS = 6.51 ± 0.09. The control group was found to be statistically different from the TC and SC groups. Within the limitations of this study, all groups presented clinically acceptable standard gap values, and the SCS group showed no statistical difference in relation to the CG (control group), demonstrating more accuracy and fidelity to transfer implants.

  18. Evaluation of the accuracy of different transfer impression techniques for multiple implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Brigolini de Faria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three implant transfer impression techniques. Four groups (n = 5 were defined, according to the technique: TC - tapered copings without splint; SC - square copings without splint; SCS - square copings splinted with dental floss and acrylic resin, and CG (control group - master model with four external hexagonal implants and a superstructure. Individual trays and polyether were used for the impression. All casts were checked for their fit into the master superstructure; for this, all four screws were placed in the implants. Digital photos were taken and images were analyzed using UTHSCSA ImageTool software. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance and Student’s t test (p < 0.05. The means and standard deviation were (µm: CG = 2.03 ± 0.00, TC = 14.74 ± 3.41, SC = 12.08 ± 2.56, and SCS = 6.51 ± 0.09. The control group was found to be statistically different from the TC and SC groups. Within the limitations of this study, all groups presented clinically acceptable standard gap values, and the SCS group showed no statistical difference in relation to the CG (control group, demonstrating more accuracy and fidelity to transfer implants.

  19. The behavior of multiple independent managers and ecological traits interact to determine prevalence of weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Shaun R; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2013-04-01

    Management of damaging invasive plants is often undertaken by multiple decision makers, each managing only a small part of the invader's population. As weeds can move between properties and re-infest eradicated sites from unmanaged sources, the dynamics of multiple decision makers plays a significant role in weed prevalence and invasion risk at the landscape scale. We used a spatially explicit agent-based simulation to determine how individual agent behavior, in concert with weed population ecology, determined weed prevalence. We compared two invasive grass species that differ in ecology, control methods, and costs: Nassella trichotoma (serrated tussock) and Eragrostis curvula (African love grass). The way decision makers reacted to the benefit of management had a large effect on the extent of a weed. If benefits of weed control outweighed the costs, and either net benefit was very large or all agents were very sensitive to net benefits, then agents tended to act synchronously, reducing the pool of infested agents available to spread the weed. As N. trichotoma was more damaging than E. curvula and had more effective control methods, agents chose to manage it more often, which resulted in lower prevalence of N. trichotoma. A relatively low number of agents who were intrinsically less motivated to control weeds led to increased prevalence of both species. This was particularly apparent when long-distance dispersal meant each infested agent increased the invasion risk for a large portion of the landscape. In this case, a small proportion of land mangers reluctant to control, regardless of costs and benefits, could lead to the whole landscape being infested, even when local control stopped new infestations. Social pressure was important, but only if it was independent of weed prevalence, suggesting that early access to information, and incentives to act on that information, may be crucial in stopping a weed from infesting large areas. The response of our model to both

  20. A Review of the State-of-the-Art on Combining Multiple NDT Techniques in Terms of Precise Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Khaira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present industrial scenario demands optimum quality, feasible processing time and enhanced machine availability to cope-up with continuously increasing customer expectations. To achieve this target, it is mandatory to ensure the optimum performance and higher availability of machinery. Therefore, the present work begins with, review of the research work of different researchers, which includes the applied combinations from year 2000-2016 proceed with discussion on the parameters being checked before making combination of NDT and finally, covers the maintenance performance parameters for quantifying improvement in performance after combining NDT. The result indicates that very few researches uses combination of NDT’s, in areas like aeronautical, compressors etc., and most of the works done in composites to be tested without using any decision making technique.  The researchers and practitioners can use the outcome of this work as a guideline for combining multiple NDT technique to achieve precise fault prediction and forecasting of upcoming failures.

  1. Cloud detection in all-sky images via multi-scale neighborhood features and multiple supervised learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Cloud detection is important for providing necessary information such as cloud cover in many applications. Existing cloud detection methods include red-to-blue ratio thresholding and other classification-based techniques. In this paper, we propose to perform cloud detection using supervised learning techniques with multi-resolution features. One of the major contributions of this work is that the features are extracted from local image patches with different sizes to include local structure and multi-resolution information. The cloud models are learned through the training process. We consider classifiers including random forest, support vector machine, and Bayesian classifier. To take advantage of the clues provided by multiple classifiers and various levels of patch sizes, we employ a voting scheme to combine the results to further increase the detection accuracy. In the experiments, we have shown that the proposed method can distinguish cloud and non-cloud pixels more accurately compared with existing works.

  2. A technique using a nonlinear helicopter model for determining trims and derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Downing, D. R.; Rood, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is described for determining the trims and quasi-static derivatives of a flight vehicle for use in a linear perturbation model; both the coupled and uncoupled forms of the linear perturbation model are included. Since this technique requires a nonlinear vehicle model, detailed equations with constants and nonlinear functions for the CH-47B tandem rotor helicopter are presented. Tables of trims and derivatives are included for airspeeds between -40 and 160 knots and rates of descent between + or - 10.16 m/sec (+ or - 200 ft/min). As a verification, the calculated and referenced values of comparable trims, derivatives, and linear model poles are shown to have acceptable agreement.

  3. A Review of Electroanalytical Techniques for Determination of Anti-HIV Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Bozal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV was discovered as the then tentative aetiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, exactly 25 anti-HIV compounds have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs: zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, lamivudine, abacavir, stavudine, and emtricitabine, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs: tenofovir, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs: efavirenz, nevirapine, delavirdine, and etravirine, protease inhibitors (PIs: ritonavir, indinavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, fosamprenavir, atazanavir, tipranavir and darunavir, fusion inhibitors (FIs: enfuvirtide, coreceptor inhibitors (CRIs: maraviroc, and integrase inhibitors (INIs: raltegravir. The present paper submitted the use of various electroanalytical techniques for the determination of anti-HIV drugs. This paper covers the time period from 1990 to 2010 including voltammetric techniques that were reported. Presented application concerns analysis of anti-HIV drugs from pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples.

  4. Test of the notch technique for determining the radial sensitivity of the optical model potential

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei; Jia, Hui-ming; Xu, Xin-Xing; Ma, Nan-Ru; Sun, Li-Jie; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Li, Zu-Hua; Wang, Dong-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Detailed investigations on the notch technique are performed on the ideal data generated by the optical model potential parameters extracted from the 16O+208Pb system at the laboratory energy of 129.5 MeV, to study the sensitivities of this technique on the model parameters as well as the experimental data. It is found that, for the perturbation parameters, a sufficient large reduced fraction and an appropriate small perturbation width are necessary to determine the accurate radial sensitivity; while for the potential parameters, almost no dependence was observed. For the experimental measurements, the number of data points has little influence for the heavy target system, and the relative inner information of the nuclear potential can be derived when the measurement extended to a lower cross section.

  5. A Hyphenated Technique based on High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography for Determining Neutral Sphingolipids: A Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Domínguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyphenated HPTLC has been used to analyze several neutral sphingolipids acting as lysosomal storage disease (LSD biomarkers. Automated multiple development (AMD provides separation of lipid peaks, which are detected and quantified using fluorescence detection by intensity changes (FDIC after primuline post-impregnation. A final online transfer to a mass spectrometer by means of an elution-based interface allows their identification using electrospray ionization (ESI and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI.Given that the increases in fluorescent emission detected by FDIC are produced by non-specific, electrostatic interactions between the primuline and hydrocarbon chains in the ceramide backbones of sphingolipids, it is a non-destructive detection technique, allowing the precise location and transfer of biomarker peaks to a mass spectrometer using an elution interface. By using primuline as a fluorophore, the technique is also compatible with ESI-APCI and does not interfere with the MS of sphingolipids. APCI provides useful and complementary structural information to the ESI for sphingolipid identification. Moreover, FDIC emission can be used for quantitative purposes. Results include the determination of sphingomyelin (SM in human-plasma samples (RSD < 6% by means of a standard addition method with non-linear calibration, and the identification of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 in the plasma of a Fabry patient. Only one HPTLC plate is needed to perform the analysis.

  6. Presence and significant determinants of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Borghi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and to identify clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in MS. METHODS: 303 patients with MS and 279 healthy controls were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N; measures of pre-morbid verbal competence and neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. RESULTS: Patients and healthy controls were matched for age, gender, education and pre-morbid verbal Intelligence Quotient. Patients presenting with cognitive impairment were 108/303 (35.6%. In the overall group of participants, the significant predictors of the most sensitive BRB-N scores were: presence of MS, age, education, and Vocabulary. The significant predictors when considering MS patients only were: course of MS, age, education, vocabulary, and depression. Using logistic regression analyses, significant determinants of the presence of cognitive impairment in relapsing-remitting MS patients were: duration of illness (OR = 1.053, 95% CI = 1.010-1.097, p = 0.015, Expanded Disability Status Scale score (OR = 1.247, 95% CI = 1.024-1.517, p = 0.028, and vocabulary (OR = 0.960, 95% CI = 0.936-0.984, p = 0.001, while in the smaller group of progressive MS patients these predictors did not play a significant role in determining the cognitive outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our results corroborate the evidence about the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with MS. Furthermore, our findings identify significant clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in a large sample of MS patients for the first time. Implications for further research and clinical practice were discussed.

  7. Determination of steroid hormones in biological and environmental samples using green microextraction techniques: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufartová, Jana; Mahugo-Santana, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan; Nováková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2011-10-17

    Residues of steroid hormones have become a cause for concern because they can affect the biological activity of non-target organisms. Steroid hormones are a potential risk for wildlife and humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Their determination requires extraction and clean-up steps, prior to detection, to reach low concentration levels. In recent years, a great effort has been made to develop new analytical methodologies, such as microextraction techniques, that reduce environmental pollution. Researchers have modified old methods to incorporate procedures that use less-hazardous chemicals or that use smaller amounts of them. They are able to do direct analysis using miniaturised equipment and reduced amounts of solvents and wastes. These accomplishments are the main objectives of green analytical chemistry. In this overview, we focus on microextraction techniques for the determination of steroid hormones in biological (e.g., human urine, human serum, fish, shrimp and prawn tissue and milk) and environmental (e.g., wastewaters, surface waters, tap waters, river waters, sewage sludges, marine sediments and river sediments) samples. We comment on the most recent applications in sorptive-microextraction modes, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and microextraction in packed sorbent (MEPS). We also describe liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) approaches reported in the literature that are applied to the determination of steroid hormones.

  8. The validation of the Z-Scan technique for the determination of plasma glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sarah I.; Silva, Elaine A. O.; Costa, Simone S.; Sonego, Denise R. N.; Hallack, Maira L.; Coppini, Ornela L.; Rowies, Fernanda; Azzalis, Ligia A.; Junqueira, Virginia B. C.; Pereira, Edimar C.; Rocha, Katya C.; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Glucose is the main energy source for the human body. The concentration of blood glucose is regulated by several hormones including both antagonists: insulin and glucagon. The quantification of glucose in the blood is used for diagnosing metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, such as diabetes, idiopathic hypoglycemia and pancreatic diseases. Currently, the methodology used for this determination is the enzymatic colorimetric with spectrophotometric. This study aimed to validate the use of measurements of nonlinear optical properties of plasma glucose via the Z-Scan technique. For this we used samples of calibrator patterns that simulate commercial samples of patients (ELITech ©). Besides calibrators, serum glucose levels within acceptable reference values (normal control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) and also overestimated (pathological control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) were used in the methodology proposal. Calibrator dilutions were performed and determined by the Z-Scan technique for the preparation of calibration curve. In conclusion, Z-Scan method can be used to determinate glucose levels in biological samples with enzymatic colorimetric reaction and also to apply the same quality control parameters used in biochemistry clinical.

  9. ATR technique, an appropriate method for determining the degree of conversion in dental giomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejmerean, Cristina; Prodan, Doina; Vlassa, Mihaela; Streza, Mihaela; Buruiana, Tinca; Colceriu, Loredana; Prejmerean, Vasile; Cuc, Stanca; Moldovan, Marioara

    2016-12-01

    Dental light-curing giomers were developed to combine the favourable properties of diacrylic resin composites (DRCs) and glass-ionomer cements (GICs) in a single material and to eliminate their inherent drawbacks. Giomers are characterized by their aesthetic appearance, high mechanical properties, adhesion to dental tissues as well as fluoride release and recharge abilities. The qualities of the giomers are greatly influenced by the level of conversion of the component resins. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most largely used techniques for the determination of the degree of conversion in resin-based dental materials. However different results were obtained due to the performances of the used methods. The present work presents the determination of conversion degree in a series of dental copolymers and their corresponding giomers using transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and an attenuated total reflection technique (ATR) technique, respectively, the main aim being the study of the influence of the materials composition and of the light curing modes upon the achieved conversion in the cured giomers. Beautifil II commercial giomer was used as a control. A halogen lamp and a diode-blue LED lamp were used for the curing of the materials. The results showed that the composition of the resins greatly influenced the conversion. The highest conversions (up to 79%) were obtained in the case of the experimental giomers which contained the experimental Bis-GMA urethane analogue, followed by the Beautifil II giomer (61%) and experimental giomers based on commercial Bis-GMA (up to 50%), respectively. The resins light-cured by using the diode-blue LED lamp presented slightly higher conversions than the resins cured by halogen lamp. The study demonstrates the possibility to evaluate easily and reproducibly the conversion in light-curing composite materials with complex chemical composition and structure, particularly in the case of giomers by using the

  10. MRI techniques and cognitive impairment in the early phase of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivadinov, R.; De Masi, R.; Nasuelli, D.; Monti Bragadin, L.; Cazzato, G.; Zorzon, M. [Neurological Clinic, Cattinara Hospital, Trieste (Italy); Ukmar, M.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Grop, A. [Dept. of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science, University of Trieste (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    Correlation studies between various conventional and non-conventional MRI parameters and cognitive impairment in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) are lacking, although it is known that a number of patients with early MS have mild cognitive impairment. Our aim was to explore whether this cognitive impairment is dependent on the extent and severity of the burden of disease, diffuse microscopic brain damage or both. We studied 63 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, duration of disease 1-10 years and Expanded disability status scale scores {<=} 5.0. Mean age was 35.4 years, mean duration of disease 5.8 years and median EDSS score 1.5. Neuropsychological performance, psychological function, neurological impairment and disability were assessed. The patients also underwent MRI, including magnetisation-transfer (MT) studies. We quantified the lesion load on T2- and T1-weighted images, the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). No significant difference was found between lesion loads in patients with and without cognitive impairment. In 15 patients (23.8 %) with overall cognitive impairment, median BPF and average NABT MTR were significantly lower than those in patients without cognitive impairment (0.868 vs 0.892, P = 0.02 and 28.3 vs 29.7 P = 0.046, respectively). Multiple regression analysis models demonstrated that the only variables independently correlated with cognitive impairment were: BPF (R = 0.89, P = 0.001) and average NABT MTR (R = 0.76, P = 0.012). Our findings support the hypothesis that, cognitive decline in patients with MS, a low disability score and short duration of disease is directly associated with the extent and severity of diffuse brain damage. The loss of brain parenchyma did not correlate with the severity of microscopic damage in the NABT, indicating that the two processes could be distinct in the early stages of the disease. (orig.)

  11. Design criteria for a multiple input land use system. [digital image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Bryant, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A design is presented that proposes the use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remote sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set, and that images taken of thematic maps or from remote sensing platforms can be converted to a raster scan. A major advantage of the raster format is that x, y coordinates are implicitly recognized by their position in the scan, and z values can be treated as Boolean layers in a three-dimensional data space. Such a system permits the rapid incorporation of data sets, rapid comparison of data sets, and adaptation to variable scales by resampling the raster scans.

  12. Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Magnussen, Björn; Lademann, Juergen; Köcher, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive measurement of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin is one of the important tasks to investigate the skin physiology in vivo. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy are the most frequently used non-invasive techniques in dermatology and skin physiology. In the present study, an improved method based on multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy (MSRRS) was introduced. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the ‘gold standard’ resonance Raman spectroscopy method and showed strong correlations for the total carotenoid concentration (R  =  0.83) as well as for lycopene (R  =  0.80). The measurement stability was confirmed to be better than 10% within the total temperature range from 5 °C to  +  30 °C and pressure contact between the skin and the MSRRS sensor from 800 Pa to 18 000 Pa. In addition, blood samples taken from the subjects were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations. The MSRRS sensor was calibrated on the blood carotenoid concentrations resulting in being able to predict with a correlation of R  =  0.79. On the basis of blood carotenoids it could be demonstrated that the MSRRS cutaneous measurements are not influenced by Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI. The MSRRS sensor is commercially available under the brand name biozoom.

  13. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  14. Assessment of measurement techniques to determine the interfacial properties of bilayer dental ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunmana, Chuchai

    The clinical success of all-ceramic dental restorations depends on the quality of interfacial bonding between ceramic layers. In addition, the residual stress in the structure that developed during ceramic processing is one of the important factors that contributes to the quality of the bond. Because all-ceramic restorations are usually fabricated as bilayer or trilayer structures and failures of all-ceramic restorations have been frequently reported as chipping or delamination of the veneer layers, the interfacial quality of bilayer dental ceramic restorations was investigated. However, most of the published bond test data reflect strength values that are inversely related to cross-sectional areas and failure locations are frequently disregarded or bond strength values are misinterpreted. In addition, residual tensile stresses that develop in the structures because of thermal expansion/contraction mismatches may also adversely affect interfacial fracture resistance. The first objective of this study was to determine the interfacial toughness of bonded bilayer ceramics using two different approaches. The results indicate that the short-bar chevron-notch test and a controlled-flaw microtensile test can induce interfacial failure that represents true bonding quality. The second objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that residual stresses estimated from an indentation technique are not significantly different from residual stresses that are calculated based on fractography and flexural strength. The indentation technique may be useful as a simplified method to determine residual stresses in bilayer dental ceramics. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no significant difference in mean residual stresses determined from the two techniques. Because of relationship between residual stresses and apparent interfacial toughness, estimates of residual stresses can now be estimated more rapidly by measuring the apparent interfacial toughness of

  15. Modern imaging techniques in patients with multiple myeloma; Moderne Bildgebungsverfahren beim Multiplen Myelom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannas, Peter; Adam, G.; Derlin, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kroeger, N. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Stammzelltransplantation

    2013-01-15

    Imaging studies are essential for both diagnosis and initial staging of multiple myeloma, as well as for differentiation from other monoclonal plasma cell diseases. Apart from conventional radiography, a variety of newer imaging modalities including whole-body low-dose-CT, whole-body MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT may be used for detection of osseous and extraosseous myeloma manifestations. Despite of known limitations such as limited sensitivity and specificity and the inability to detect extraosseous lesions, conventional radiography still remains the gold standard for staging newly diagnosed myeloma, partly due to its wide availability and low costs. Whole-body low-dose CT is increasingly used due to its higher sensitivity for the detection of osseous lesions and its ability to diagnose extraosseous lesions, and is replacing conventional radiography at selected centres. The highest sensitivity for both detection of bone marrow disease and extraosseous lesions can be achieved with whole-body MRI or 18F-FDG PET/CT. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration may be visualized by whole-body MRI with high sensitivity. Whole-body MRI is at least recommended in all patients with normal conventional radiography and in all patients with an apparently solitary plasmacytoma of bone. To obtain the most precise readings, optimized examination protocols and dedicated radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians familiar with the complex and variable morphologies of myeloma lesions are required. (orig.)

  16. High-definition projection screen based on multiple light scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromasa; Okumura, Takamitsu; Tagaya, Akihiro; Higuchi, Eizaburo; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2004-05-01

    A novel rear projection screen (Blue Ocean screen, Nitto Jyushi Kogyo, Co., Ltd.) has been developed. Blue Ocean screen is a single polymer plate requiring no lens element. The projected image is formed on the screen surface by the multiple light scattering. An image light is multiply scattered and is converted into homogeneous light distribution efficiently due to the internal particles of micron order dispersed in the acrylic polymer matrix. An ambient light is reduced by the dye molecules doped in the polymer and the anti-reflective coating on the screen surface. The condition of the particles and the concentration of the dye molecules have been optimized by the ray tracing simulation program based on Mie scattering theory using a Monte Carlo method. The screen containing the particles of optimum condition exhibits the wide viewing angle, the well-controlled color balance, and the high sharpness level at the same time. The contrast level of the projected image in ambient light is improved by controlling the concentration of the dye molecules. This paper describes the optimization obtained theoretically and experimentally, and demonstrates the advantage of Blue Ocean screen.

  17. Multiple regression method to determine aerosol optical depth in atmospheric column in Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Zubir Matjafri, M.; Holben, B.

    2014-02-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET data has a very fine resolution but air pollution index (API), visibility and relative humidity from the ground truth measurements are coarse. To obtain the local AOD in the atmosphere, the relationship between these three parameters was determined using multiple regression analysis. The data of southwest monsoon period (August to September, 2012) taken in Penang, Malaysia, was used to establish a quantitative relationship in which the AOD is modeled as a function of API, relative humidity, and visibility. The highest correlated model was used to predict AOD values during southwest monsoon period. When aerosol is not uniformly distributed in the atmosphere then the predicted AOD can be highly deviated from the measured values. Therefore these deviated data can be removed by comparing between the predicted AOD values and the actual AERONET data which help to investigate whether the non uniform source of the aerosol is from the ground surface or from higher altitude level. This model can accurately predict AOD if only the aerosol is uniformly distributed in the atmosphere. However, further study is needed to determine this model is suitable to use for AOD predicting not only in Penang, but also other state in Malaysia or even global.

  18. An approximate approach to sample size determination in bioequivalence testing with multiple pharmacokinetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chen-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Liu, Jen-Pei

    2014-08-30

    The approval of generic drugs requires the evidence of average bioequivalence (ABE) on both the area under the concentration-time curve and the peak concentration Cmax . The bioequivalence (BE) hypothesis can be decomposed into the non-inferiority (NI) and non-superiority (NS) hypothesis. Most of regulatory agencies employ the two one-sided tests (TOST) procedure to test ABE between two formulations. As it is based on the intersection-union principle, the TOST procedure is conservative in terms of the type I error rate. However, the type II error rate is the sum of the type II error rates with respect to each null hypothesis of NI and NS hypotheses. When the difference in population means between two treatments is not 0, no close-form solution for the sample size for the BE hypothesis is available. Current methods provide the sample sizes with either insufficient power or unnecessarily excessive power. We suggest an approximate method for sample size determination, which can also provide the type II rate for each of NI and NS hypotheses. In addition, the proposed method is flexible to allow extension from one pharmacokinetic (PK) response to determination of the sample size required for multiple PK responses. We report the results of a numerical study. An R code is provided to calculate the sample size for BE testing based on the proposed methods.

  19. In vivo and in vitro techniques to determine the biological activity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for determination of the biological activity of food allergens comprise both determination of the allergenic potency, i.e. the capability to elicit an allergic reaction in an already sensitized individual, and the allergenic potential, i.e. the risk for sensitizing a hitherto non-allergic......Methods for determination of the biological activity of food allergens comprise both determination of the allergenic potency, i.e. the capability to elicit an allergic reaction in an already sensitized individual, and the allergenic potential, i.e. the risk for sensitizing a hitherto non......-allergic individual. Several methods are discussed for determination of potency including the double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge, skin testing, in vitro effector cell assays such as basophil histamine release, and IgE-based techniques such as RAST and RAST inhibition. No reliable methods have yet been...... developed which can predict the allergenic potential of a food or a food allergen. The progress in the areas of stability studies and animal models for food allergy are discussed....

  20. Determinants for Effective Application of Software in Computer Assisted Auditing Techniques (CAATs)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to get an over all picture of the general objectives and awareness of auditors for the adoption of CAATs and the current level of involvement of auditors in the application of CAATs in the audit process, which software and techniques they use and the possible causes for non use or less efficient use of CAATs. Once the determinant factors are identified, their implications for audit firms and to employees in the auditing profession are also discussed. The auditin...

  1. A Simple Technique for Determining the pH of Whole Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technique has been developed to determine the pH of whole cigarette smoke. In this technique, whole smoke from ten cigarettes was trapped in 300 mL water containing 1% (w/v sodium chloride and the pH was determined on the resulting aqueous suspension of cigarette smoke. Two impingers with an extra coarse porosity fritted disc were used to dispense the smoke in the aqueous trapping medium. Cigarettes were smoked on a 20-port Borgwaldt RM 20/CS smoking machine using modified FTC (Federal Trade Commission conditions. The puff volume was adjusted to take a 35 mL puff as measured through the cigarette and the collection traps. This new technique accounts for the contributions to smoke pH from both the vapor phase and the particulate phase of smoke. The repeatability of this new technique was determined on eighteen replicates of a commercially available non-menthol, filter cigarette. Each measurement was done on a different day to check for a possible drift in pH with time. The mean pH value for the chosen sample was found to be 4.97 with a standard deviation of 0.07 pH units. The smoke pH values for over 150 commercially available cigarette brands with a variety of “tar” levels were determined. The smoke pH values had a range from 4.6 to 5.5, with an average of 4.79 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.10 pH units. An experimental flue cured cigarette had a smoke pH of around 5.0, while an experimental Burley cigarette had a smoke pH of 5.4. No correlation between smoke pH and “tar” or total particulate matter (TPM and between pH and nicotine levels was found. The purpose of the present study was to develop a practical, relatively simple laboratory method to measure the pH of a water solution of whole smoke, and was not intended to reflect, or have direct relevance for any biochemical or biological phenomena such as inhalability of smoke, flavor perception, nicotine ab-sorption, etc.”

  2. Heuristic Optimization Techniques for Determining Optimal Reserve Structure of Power Generating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Goel, Lalit; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    the required level of supply reliability to its customers. In previous research, Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been used to solve most reliability optimization problems. However, the GA is not very computationally efficient in some cases. In this chapter a new heuristic optimization technique—the particle swarm...... optimization has been used to determine the optimal reserve structure for power generating systems, which can greatly improve the computational efficiency. The computational efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method have been compared with those of the GA technique in the illustrative example....

  3. A wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with dual charge storage in a pixel and a multiple sampling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a dynamic range expansion technique of CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple exposures. Each pixel contains two photodiodes, PD1 and PD2 whose sensitivity can be set independently by the accumulation time. The difference of charge accumulation time in both photodiode can be manipulated to expand the dynamic range of the sensor. It allows flexible control of the dynamic range since the accumulation time in PD2 is adjustable. The multiple exposure technique used in the sensor reduces the motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image when capturing fast-moving objects. It also reduces the signal-to-nose ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signals in the synthesized wide dynamic range image. A wide dynamic range camera with 320x240 pixels image sensor has been tested. It is found that the sampling of 4 times for the short accumulation time signals is sufficient for the reduction of motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image, and the signal-to-noise ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signal is improved by 6 dB using 4 short-time exposures.

  4. Combining Multiple Electrode Arrays for Two-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Imaging Using the Unsupervised Classification Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, K. S.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Abdullah, K.

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the use of k-means clustering, an unsupervised image classification technique, to help interpret subsurface targets. The k-means algorithm is employed to combine and classify the two-dimensional (2D) inverse resistivity models obtained from three different electrode arrays. The algorithm is initialized through the selection of the number of clusters, number of iterations and other parameters such as stopping criteria. Automatically, it seeks to find groups of closely related resistivity values that belong to the same cluster and are more similar to each other than resistivity values belonging to other clusters. The approach is applied to both synthetic and field data. The 2D postinversions of the resistivity data were preprocessed by resampling and interpolating to the same coordinate. Following the preprocessing, the three images are combined into a single classified image. All the image preprocessing, manipulation and analysis are performed using the PCI Geomatics software package. The results of the clustering and classification are presented as classified images. An assessment of the performance of the individual and combined images for the synthetic models is carried out using an error matrix, mean absolute error and mean absolute percent error. The estimated errors show that images obtained from maximum values of the reconstructed resistivity for the different models give the best representation of the true models. Additionally, the overall accuracy and kappa values show good agreement between the combined classified images and true models. Depending on the model, the overall accuracy ranges from 86 to 99 %, while the kappa coefficient is in the range of 54-98 %. Classified images with kappa coefficients greater than 0.8 show strong agreement, while images with kappa coefficients greater than 0.5 but less than 0.8 give moderate agreement. For the field data, the k-mean classifier produces images that incorporate structural features of

  5. Quantifying Uncertainty in Flood Inundation Mapping Using Streamflow Ensembles and Multiple Hydraulic Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Zarzar, C.; Gomez, M.; Siddique, R.; Smith, V.; Mejia, A.; Demir, I.

    2016-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) provides a platform for operationalize nationwide flood inundation forecasting and mapping. The ability to model flood inundation on a national scale will provide invaluable information to decision makers and local emergency officials. Often, forecast products use deterministic model output to provide a visual representation of a single inundation scenario, which is subject to uncertainty from various sources. While this provides a straightforward representation of the potential inundation, the inherent uncertainty associated with the model output should be considered to optimize this tool for decision making support. The goal of this study is to produce ensembles of future flood inundation conditions (i.e. extent, depth, and velocity) to spatially quantify and visually assess uncertainties associated with the predicted flood inundation maps. The setting for this study is located in a highly urbanized watershed along the Darby Creek in Pennsylvania. A forecasting framework coupling the NWM with multiple hydraulic models was developed to produce a suite ensembles of future flood inundation predictions. Time lagged ensembles from the NWM short range forecasts were used to account for uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecasts. The forecasts from the NWM were input to iRIC and HEC-RAS two-dimensional software packages, from which water extent, depth, and flow velocity were output. Quantifying the agreement between output ensembles for each forecast grid provided the uncertainty metrics for predicted flood water inundation extent, depth, and flow velocity. For visualization, a series of flood maps that display flood extent, water depth, and flow velocity along with the underlying uncertainty associated with each of the forecasted variables were produced. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to incorporate and visualize model uncertainties in flood inundation maps in order to identify the high flood risk zones.

  6. Rapid Satellite-to-Site Visibility Determination Based on Self-Adaptive Interpolation Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Chao; Sun, Xiucong

    2016-01-01

    Rapid satellite-to-site visibility determination is of great significance to coverage analysis of satellite constellations as well as onboard mission planning of autonomous spacecraft. This paper presents a novel self-adaptive Hermite interpolation technique for rapid satellite-to-site visibility determination. Piecewise cubic curves are utilized to approximate the waveform of the visibility function versus time. The fourth-order derivative is used to control the approximation error and to optimize the time step for interpolation. The rise and set times are analytically obtained from the roots of cubic polynomials. To further increase the computational speed, an interval shrinking strategy is adopted via investigating the geometric relationship between the ground viewing cone and the orbit trajectory. Simulation results show a 98% decrease in computation time over the brute force method. The method is suitable for all orbital types and analytical orbit propagators.

  7. Comparison of techniques for the determination of conversion during suspension polymerization reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of conversion during suspension polymerization reactions is not an easy task due to the heterogeneity of the reaction medium and the tendency of particles to agglomerate rapidly when stirring is stopped. Usually, bulk polymerization in ampoules is employed to study the kinetics of suspension polymerization reactions. In this work, a comparison of different techniques for the determination of conversion during suspension polymerization reactions is presented. Results showed a good agreement between the conversion obtained by gravimetry during styrene suspension polymerization and on-line conversion monitoring data using fiber-optic based Raman Spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the polymerization rate of styrene bulk polymerization carried out in ampoules was higher than the real reaction rate of styrene suspension polymerization due to slightly higher reaction temperatures. Simulation results using the experimental temperature data in a mathematical model confirmed these results.

  8. Square Wave Voltammetry: An Alternative Technique to Determinate Piroxicam Release Profiles from Nanostructured Lipid Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otarola, Jessica; Garrido, Mariano; Correa, N Mariano; Molina, Patricia G

    2016-08-04

    A new, simple, and fast electrochemical (EC) method has been developed to determine the release profile of piroxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, loaded in a drug delivery system based on nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). For the first time, the samples were analyzed by using square wave voltammetry, a sensitive EC technique. The piroxicam EC responses allow us to propose a model that explains the experimental results and to subsequently determine the amount of drug loaded into the NLCs formulation as a function of time. In vitro drug release studies showed prolonged drug release (up to 5 days), releasing 60 % of the incorporated drug. The proposed method is a promising and stable alternative for the study of different drug delivery systems.

  9. Novel approaches to determining residual stresses by ultramicroindentation techniques: Application to sandblasted austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frutos, E. [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain)] [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Multigner, M. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L., E-mail: jlg@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This research addresses the determination of residual stresses in sandblasted austenitic steel by ultramicroindentation techniques using a sharp indenter, of which the sensitivity to residual stress effects is said to be inferior to that of spherical ones. The introduction of an angular correction in the model of Wang et al. which relates variations in the maximum load to the presence of residual stresses is proposed. Similarly, the contribution to the hardness of grain size refinement and work hardening, developed as a consequence of the severe plastic deformation during blasting, is determined in order to avoid overestimation of the residual stresses. Measurements were performed on polished cross sections along a length of several microns, thus obtaining a profile of the residual stresses. Results show good agreement with those obtained by synchrotron radiation on the same specimens, which validates the method and demonstrates that microindentation using sharp indenters may be sensitive to the residual stress effect.

  10. Validation of patient determined disease steps (PDDS) scale scores in persons with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) is a promising patient-reported outcome (PRO) of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, there is limited evidence regarding the validity of PDDS scores, despite its sound conceptual development and broad inclusion in MS research. This study examined the validity of the PDDS based on (1) the association with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and (2) the pattern of associations between PDDS and EDSS scores with Functional System (FS) scores as well as ambulatory and other outcomes. Methods 96 persons with MS provided demographic/clinical information, completed the PDDS and other PROs including the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), and underwent a neurological examination for generating FS and EDSS scores. Participants completed assessments of cognition, ambulation including the 6-minute walk (6 MW), and wore an accelerometer during waking hours over seven days. Results There was a strong correlation between EDSS and PDDS scores (ρ = .783). PDDS and EDSS scores were strongly correlated with Pyramidal (ρ = .578 &ρ = .647, respectively) and Cerebellar (ρ = .501 &ρ = .528, respectively) FS scores as well as 6 MW distance (ρ = .704 &ρ = .805, respectively), MSWS-12 scores (ρ = .801 &ρ = .729, respectively), and accelerometer steps/day (ρ = -.740 &ρ = -.717, respectively). Conclusion This study provides novel evidence supporting the PDDS as valid PRO of disability in MS. PMID:23617555

  11. Recent advances in mycotoxin determination in food and feed by hyphenated chromatographic techniques/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Stefano; Dall'asta, Chiara; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal toxins produced by molds, which occur universally in food and feed derivatives, and are produced under certain environmental conditions in the field before harvest, post-harvest, during storage, processing, and feeding. Mycotoxin contamination is one of the most relevant and worrisome problem concerning food and feed safety because it can cause a variety of toxic acute and chronic effects in human and animals. In this review we report the use of mass spectrometry in connection with chromatographic techniques for mycotoxin determination by considering separately the most diffuse class of mycotoxins: patulin, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and fumonisins. Although the selectivity of mass spectrometry is unchallenged if compared to common GC and LC detection methods, accuracy, precision, and sensitivity may be extremely variable concerning the different mycotoxins, matrices, and instruments. The sensitivity issue may be a real problem in the case of LC/MS, where the response can be very different for the different ionization techniques (ESI, APCI, APPI). Therefore, when other detection methods (such as fluorescence or UV absorbance) can be used for the quantitative determination, LC/MS appears to be only an outstanding confirmatory technique. In contrast, when the toxins are not volatile and do not bear suitable chromophores or fluorophores, LC/MS appears to be the unique method to perform quantitative and qualitative analyses without requiring any derivatization procedure. The problem of exact quantitative determination in GC/MS and LC/MS methods is particularly important for mycotoxin determination in food, given the high variability of the matrices, and can be solved only by the use of isotopically labeled internal standards or by the use of ionization interfaces able to lower matrix effects and ion suppressions. When the problems linked to inconstant ionization and matrix effects will be solved, only MS detectors will

  12. Network Threat Characterization in Multiple Intrusion Perspectives using Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Oriola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For effective security incidence response on the network, a reputable approach must be in place at bothprotected and unprotected region of the network. This is because compromise in the demilitarized zonecould be precursor to threat inside the network. The improved complexity of attacks in present times andvulnerability of system are motivations for this work. Past and present approaches to intrusion detectionand prevention have neglected victim and attacker properties despite the fact that for intrusion to occur,an overt act by an attacker and a manifestation, observable by the intended victim, which results fromthat act are required. Therefore, this paper presents a threat characterization model for attacks from thevictim and the attacker perspective of intrusion using data mining technique. The data mining techniquecombines Frequent Temporal Sequence Association Mining and Fuzzy Logic. Apriori Association Miningalgorithm was used to mine temporal rule patterns from alert sequences while Fuzzy Control System wasused to rate exploits. The results of the experiment show that accurate threat characterization in multipleintrusion perspectives could be actualized using Fuzzy Association Mining. Also, the results proved thatsequence of exploits could be used to rate threat and are motivated by victim properties and attackerobjectives.

  13. Electromechanical actuators affected by multiple failures: Prognostic method based on spectral analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, D.; Vedova, M. D. L. Dalla; Ferro, C.; Maggiore, P.

    2017-06-01

    The proposal of prognostic algorithms able to identify precursors of incipient failures of primary flight command electromechanical actuators (EMA) is beneficial for the anticipation of the incoming failure: an early and correct interpretation of the failure degradation pattern, in fact, can trig an early alert of the maintenance crew, who can properly schedule the servomechanism replacement. An innovative prognostic model-based approach, able to recognize the EMA progressive degradations before his anomalous behaviors become critical, is proposed: the Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) of the considered incipient failures is performed analyzing proper system operational parameters, able to put in evidence the corresponding degradation path, by means of a numerical algorithm based on spectral analysis techniques. Subsequently, these operational parameters will be correlated with the actual EMA health condition by means of failure maps created by a reference monitoring model-based algorithm. In this work, the proposed method has been tested in case of EMA affected by combined progressive failures: in particular, partial stator single phase turn to turn short-circuit and rotor static eccentricity are considered. In order to evaluate the prognostic method, a numerical test-bench has been conceived. Results show that the method exhibit adequate robustness and a high degree of confidence in the ability to early identify an eventual malfunctioning, minimizing the risk of fake alarms or unannounced failures.

  14. The capillary adhesion technique: a versatile method for determining the liquid adhesion force and sample stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gandyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel, practical technique for the concerted, simultaneous determination of both the adhesion force of a small structure or structural unit (e.g., an individual filament, hair, micromechanical component or microsensor to a liquid and its elastic properties. The method involves the creation and development of a liquid meniscus upon touching a liquid surface with the structure, and the subsequent disruption of this liquid meniscus upon removal. The evaluation of the meniscus shape immediately before snap-off of the meniscus allows the quantitative determination of the liquid adhesion force. Concurrently, by measuring and evaluating the deformation of the structure under investigation, its elastic properties can be determined. The sensitivity of the method is remarkably high, practically limited by the resolution of the camera capturing the process. Adhesion forces down to 10 µN and spring constants up to 2 N/m were measured. Three exemplary applications of this method are demonstrated: (1 determination of the water adhesion force and the elasticity of individual hairs (trichomes of the floating fern Salvinia molesta. (2 The investigation of human head hairs both with and without functional surface coatings (a topic of high relevance in the field of hair cosmetics was performed. The method also resulted in the measurement of an elastic modulus (Young’s modulus for individual hairs of 3.0 × 105 N/cm2, which is within the typical range known for human hair. (3 Finally, the accuracy and validity of the capillary adhesion technique was proven by examining calibrated atomic force microscopy cantilevers, reproducing the spring constants calibrated using other methods.

  15. Determination of Beeswax Hydrocarbons by Gas Chromatography with a Mass Detector (GC -MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a method of hydrocarbon (alkanes, alkenes, dienes identification and quantitative determination of linear saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes in beeswax using gas chromatography with a mass detector technique (GC -MS . Beeswax hydrocarbons were isolated using a solid-phase extraction (SPE technique with neutral aluminum oxide (Alumina - N, 1000 mg, 6 mL, then were separated on a non-polar gas chromatography column ZB-5HT INFERNO (20 m×0.18 mm×0.18 μm. Qquantitative analysis of n-alkanes was conducted by the method of internal standard with squalane used as the internal standard. The basic parameters of validation (linearity and working range, limit of determination, repeatability and reproducibility, recovery were determined. For all of the identified compounds, satisfactory (≥0.997 coefficients of correlation in the working ranges of the method (from 0.005 to 5.0 g/100 g were obtained. The elaborated method was characterized by satisfactory repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. The average coefficients of variation for the total n-alkanes did not exceed 2% under conditions of repeatability or 4% under conditions of reproducibility. The recovery for individual n-alkanes was above 94%; for their total content, it was 100.5%. In beeswax originating from Apis mellifera, n-alkanes containing from 20 to 35 carbon atoms in their molecules were determined. The total content of these alkanes was between 9.08 g and 10.86 g/100 g (on average, 9.81 g/100 g. Additionally, apart from the saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons and dienes were identified.

  16. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy techniques for size determination of polyurethane nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giehl Zanetti-Ramos, Betina [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)], E-mail: betinagzramos@pq.cnpq.br; Beddin Fritzen-Garcia, Mauricia [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil); Schweitzer de Oliveira, Cristian; Avelino Pasa, Andre [Laboratorio de Filmes Finos e Superficie, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [Grupo de Estudos em Materiais Polimericos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borsali, Redouane [Centre de Recherche sur les Macromolecules Vegetales CERMAV/CNRS, 38041 - Grenoble (France); Creczynski-Pasa, Tania Beatriz [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)

    2009-03-01

    Nanoparticles have applications in various industrial fields principally in drug delivery. Nowadays, there are several processes for manufacturing colloidal polymeric systems and methods of preparation as well as of characterization. In this work, Dynamic Light Scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy techniques were used to characterize polyurethane nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by miniemulsion technique. The lipophilic monomers, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and natural triol, were emulsified in water containing surfactant. In some formulations the poly(ethylene glycol) was used as co-monomer to obtain the hydrophilic and pegylated nanoparticles. Polyurethane nanoparticles observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) were spherical with diameter around 209 nm for nanoparticles prepared without PEG. From AFM imaging two populations of nanoparticles were observed in the formulation prepared with PEG (218 and 127 nm) while dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements showed a monodisperse size distribution around 250 nm of diameters for both formulations. The polydispersity index of the formulations and the experimental procedures could influence the particle size determination with these techniques.

  17. Assessment of REPLI-g Multiple Displacement Whole Genome Amplification (WGA) Techniques for Metagenomic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsanuddin, Sofia; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Gandara, Jorge; Hakyemezoğlu, Mustafa; Bezdan, Daniela; Minot, Samuel; Greenfield, Nick; Mason, Christopher E

    2017-04-01

    Amplification of minute quantities of DNA is a fundamental challenge in low-biomass metagenomic and microbiome studies because of potential biases in coverage, guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and altered species abundances. Whole genome amplification (WGA), although widely used, is notorious for introducing artifact sequences, either by amplifying laboratory contaminants or by nonrandom amplification of a sample's DNA. In this study, we investigate the effect of REPLI-g multiple displacement amplification (MDA; Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) on sequencing data quality and species abundance detection in 8 paired metagenomic samples and 1 titrated, mixed control sample. We extracted and sequenced genomic DNA (gDNA) from 8 environmental samples and compared the quality of the sequencing data for the MDA and their corresponding non-MDA samples. The degree of REPLI-g MDA bias was evaluated by sequence metrics, species composition, and cross-validating observed species abundance and species diversity estimates using the One Codex and MetaPhlAn taxonomic classification tools. Here, we provide evidence of the overall efficacy of REPLI-g MDA on retaining sequencing data quality and species abundance measurements while providing increased yields of high-fidelity DNA. We find that species abundance estimates are largely consistent across samples, even with REPLI-g amplification, as demonstrated by the Spearman's rank order coefficient (R(2) > 0.8). However, REPLI-g MDA often produced fewer classified reads at the species, genera, and family level, resulting in decreased species diversity. We also observed some areas with the PCR "jackpot effect," with varying input DNA values for the Metagenomics Research Group (MGRG) controls at specific genomic loci. We visualize this effect in whole genome coverage plots and with sequence composition analyses and note these caveats of the MDA method. Despite overall concordance of species abundance between the amplified and unamplified samples

  18. Assessment of REPLI-g Multiple Displacement Whole Genome Amplification (WGA) Techniques for Metagenomic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsanuddin, Sofia; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Gandara, Jorge; Hakyemezoğlu, Mustafa; Bezdan, Daniela; Minot, Samuel; Greenfield, Nick; Mason, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    Amplification of minute quantities of DNA is a fundamental challenge in low-biomass metagenomic and microbiome studies because of potential biases in coverage, guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and altered species abundances. Whole genome amplification (WGA), although widely used, is notorious for introducing artifact sequences, either by amplifying laboratory contaminants or by nonrandom amplification of a sample’s DNA. In this study, we investigate the effect of REPLI-g multiple displacement amplification (MDA; Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) on sequencing data quality and species abundance detection in 8 paired metagenomic samples and 1 titrated, mixed control sample. We extracted and sequenced genomic DNA (gDNA) from 8 environmental samples and compared the quality of the sequencing data for the MDA and their corresponding non-MDA samples. The degree of REPLI-g MDA bias was evaluated by sequence metrics, species composition, and cross-validating observed species abundance and species diversity estimates using the One Codex and MetaPhlAn taxonomic classification tools. Here, we provide evidence of the overall efficacy of REPLI-g MDA on retaining sequencing data quality and species abundance measurements while providing increased yields of high-fidelity DNA. We find that species abundance estimates are largely consistent across samples, even with REPLI-g amplification, as demonstrated by the Spearman’s rank order coefficient (R2 > 0.8). However, REPLI-g MDA often produced fewer classified reads at the species, genera, and family level, resulting in decreased species diversity. We also observed some areas with the PCR “jackpot effect,” with varying input DNA values for the Metagenomics Research Group (MGRG) controls at specific genomic loci. We visualize this effect in whole genome coverage plots and with sequence composition analyses and note these caveats of the MDA method. Despite overall concordance of species abundance between the amplified and unamplified

  19. Determining Engineering Properties of the Shallow Lunar Subsurface using Seismic Surface Wave Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeluru, P. M.; Baker, G. S.

    2008-12-01

    The geology of Earth's moon has previously been examined via telescopic observations, orbiting spacecraft readings, lunar sample analysis, and also from some geophysical data. Previous researchers have examined layering of the moon and models exist explaining the velocity variations in the mantle and core. However, no studies (or datasets) currently exist regarding the engineering properties of the shallow (civil engineering works, as they characterize the mechanical behavior of geotechnical materials under various types of loading. Therefore, understanding the physical and engineering properties within the upper 30 m of the lunar subsurface will be critical for lunar exploration if deployment of large structures, large-scale excavation, and/or landing of large spacecraft on the surface is desired. Advances in near-surface geophysical techniques, such as Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW), has greatly increased our ability to map subsurface variations in physical properties. The MASW method involves deployment of multiple seismometers to acquire 1-D or 2-D shear wave velocity profiles that can be directly related to various engineering properties. The advantage of this technique over drilling boreholes or any other geophysical technique is that it is less intensive, non-invasive, more cost- effective, and more robust because strong surface-wave records are almost guaranteed. In addition, data processing and analysis is fairly straightforward, and the MASW method allows for analysis of a large area of interest as compared to drilling boreholes. A new scheme using randomly distributed geophones (likely deployed from a mortar-type device) instead of a conventional linear array will be presented. A random array is necessary for lunar exploration because of the logistical constraints involved in deploying a linear or circular array robotically or by astronaut. Initial results indicate that robust dispersion curves (and thus subsurface models of engineering

  20. Electroacoustic isoelectric point determinations of bauxite refinery residues: different neutralization techniques and minor mineral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago S S; Clark, Malcolm W; Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thorogood, Gordon J

    2012-08-14

    Bauxite refinery residue (BRR) is a highly caustic, iron hydroxide-rich byproduct from alumina production. Some chemical treatments of BRR reduce soluble alkalinity and lower residue pH (to values IEP) determination difficult. Consequently, the IEP of a BRR and five MBRR derivatives (sulfuric acid-, carbon dioxide-, seawater-, a hybrid neutralization, i.e, partial CO(2) neutralization followed by seawater, and an activated-seawater-neutralized MBRR) were determined using electroacoustic techniques. Residues showed three significantly different groups of IEPs (p IEPs were not significantly different from BRR (pH 6.6-6.9). However, neutralizations generating neoformational minerals (alkalinity precipitation) significantly increased the IEP to pH 8.1, whereas activation (a removal of some primary mineralogy) significantly lowered the IEP to pH 6.2. Moreover, surface charging curves show that surfaces remain in the ±30 mV surface charge instability range, which provides an explanation as to why MBRRs remove trace metals and oxyanions over a broad pH range, often simultaneously. Importantly, this work shows that minor mineral components in complex mineral systems may have a disproportionate effect on the observable bulk IEP. Furthermore, this work shows the appropriateness of electroacoustic techniques in investigating samples with significant soluble mineral components (e.g., ANC).

  1. Determination of the Phase Centers of Millimeter-Wave Horn Antennas Using a Holographic Interference Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Ian; Murphy, J. Anthony; McCarthy, Darragh; Gradziel, Marcin; Mahon, Ronan; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Trappe, Neil

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss how a holographic interference technique can be applied in the experimental determination of the phase centers of non-standard horn antennas in the millimeter-waveband. The phase center is the point inside the horn from which the radiation appears to emanate when viewed from the far-field, and knowing its location is necessary for optimizing coupling efficiencies to quasi-optical systems. For non-standard horn designs, and other feed structures, the phase center may be difficult to reliably predict by simulation, in which case, before committing to antenna manufacture, there is a requirement for it to be determined experimentally. Although the phase center can be recovered by direct phase measurement of the far-field beam pattern, this usually involves expensive instrumentation such as a vector network analyzer for millimeter wave horn antennas. In this paper, we describe one inexpensive alternative, which is based on measuring the interference pattern in intensity between the radiation from the horn of interest and a reference beam derived from the same coherent source in an off-axis holography setup. The accuracy of the approach is improved by comparison with the interference pattern of a well-understood standard horn (such as a corrugated conical horn) in the same experimental setup. We present an example of the technique applied to a profiled smooth-walled horn antenna, which has been especially designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments.

  2. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  3. A heuristic ranking approach on capacity benefit margin determination using Pareto-based evolutionary programming technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Murtadha; Abd Rahman, Nurulazmi; Musirin, Ismail; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Rajabi-Ghahnavieh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel multiobjective approach for capacity benefit margin (CBM) assessment taking into account tie-line reliability of interconnected systems. CBM is the imperative information utilized as a reference by the load-serving entities (LSE) to estimate a certain margin of transfer capability so that a reliable access to generation through interconnected system could be attained. A new Pareto-based evolutionary programming (EP) technique is used to perform a simultaneous determination of CBM for all areas of the interconnected system. The selection of CBM at the Pareto optimal front is proposed to be performed by referring to a heuristic ranking index that takes into account system loss of load expectation (LOLE) in various conditions. Eventually, the power transfer based available transfer capability (ATC) is determined by considering the firm and nonfirm transfers of CBM. A comprehensive set of numerical studies are conducted on the modified IEEE-RTS79 and the performance of the proposed method is numerically investigated in detail. The main advantage of the proposed technique is in terms of flexibility offered to an independent system operator in selecting an appropriate solution of CBM simultaneously for all areas.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL MINERALIZATION OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been proposed for rapid and easy evaluation of a indicator of quality and properties of natural water - soluble salt content (mineralization. The method of quartz crystal microbalance is employed at load of the mass-sensitive resonator electrode (BAW-type with investigated water. The degree of correlation between the various indicators related to the contents of salts and insoluble compounds and the level of mineralization obtained by the standard method (gravimetry has been studied. A procedure for salt weighing by single sensor at unilateral load with small sample of natural water has been developed. The optimal conditions for measurement is established using the design of experiment by model 23 . The possibilities of quartz crystal microbalance for determination of non-volatile compounds in the water are described. The calibration of piezosensor is produced by standard solution NaCl (c = 1.000 g / dm3 at optimal conditions of experiment. The adequacy and accuracy of proposed technique is assessed by the correlation between the results of quartz crystal microbalance and conductometry. The correlation between indicators of mineralization established by quartz crystal microbalance and gravimetry is found. It has been obtained an equation that can be used to calculate the standard indicator of the mineralization by the results of a quartz crystal microbalance using single sensor. The approaches to enhance the analytical capabilities of the developed technique for water with low and high mineralization are proposed. The metrological characteristics of quartz crystal microbalance of insoluble compounds in natural water are estimated. A new technique of determination of the mass concentration of the dry residue in water with a conductivity of 0.2 mS or above has been developed, which can be used for rapid analysis of the water at nonlaboratory conditions and in the laboratory for rapid obtaining the information about a sample.

  5. Establishment of a Pcr Technique for Determination of Htlv-1 Infection in Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rastin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HTLV-1 , the first known human retrovirus belongs to oncovirus subfamily of retroviruses. The major characteristic of HTLV-1 is its highly restricted geographic prevalence. Northern part of Khorasan is an endemic region of HTLV-1 infection. Epidemiological studies can help in designing preventive programs for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was the establishment of a PCR technique for determination of HTLV-1 infection in paraffin-embedded tissues. Methods: In this experimental laboratory study for establishment of a technique, PCR was initially optimized using Beta-actin primers on various formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from liver, spleen, skin and lymph nodes. The optimized concentration of Mgcl2 was 2mm, primer was 8 pmol. Optimized concentration of DNA was different according to the kind of tissue. HTLV-1 infection was determined by applying tax, pol, env and LTR primers on 50 paraffin-embedded lymph node tissues . The reporoducibility of this technique was shown for skin and lymph node tissues infected with HTLV-1. Resuls: In 50 lymph node tissues, one case with pathologic diagnosis of NHL was positive with all 5 sets of primers (tax, Pol, env and LTR primers and the other case was positive with only two sets of tax primers but was negative with pol, env and LTR primers. The prevalence of infection was 2% among lymph node specimens. (1 of 50 specimens and if the second case is considered, the prevalence would be 4%. Conclusion: Comparison of the results of this study with another study on blood specimens (seroprevalence2.3% was not statistically significant thus confirming the results of one another. (P=0.883

  6. Mathematical determination of cell population doubling times for multiple cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukste, Liene; Basse, Britta; Baguley, Bruce C; Wall, David J N

    2012-10-01

    Cell cycle times are vital parameters in cancer research, and short cell cycle times are often related to poor survival of cancer patients. A method for experimental estimation of cell cycle times, or doubling times of cultured cancer cell populations, based on addition of paclitaxel (an inhibitor of cell division) has been proposed in literature. We use a mathematical model to investigate relationships between essential parameters of the cell division cycle following inhibition of cell division. The reduction in the number of cells engaged in DNA replication reaches a plateau as the concentration of paclitaxel is increased; this can be determined experimentally. From our model we have derived a plateau log reduction formula for proliferating cells and established that there are linear relationships between the plateau log reduction values and the reciprocal of doubling times (i.e. growth rates of the populations). We have therefore provided theoretical justification of an important experimental technique to determine cell doubling times. Furthermore, we have applied Monte Carlo experiments to justify the suggested linear relationships used to estimate doubling time from 5-day cell culture assays. We show that our results are applicable to cancer cell populations with cell loss present.

  7. Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high

  8. Application of Taguchi technique coupled with grey relational analysis for multiple performance characteristics optimization of EDM parameters on ST 42 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Lusi, Nuraini

    2016-04-01

    The optimization technique of machining parameters considering multiple performance characteristics of non conventional machining EDM process using Taguchi method combined with grey relational analysis (GRA) is presented in this study. ST 42 steel was chosen as material work piece and graphite as electrode during this experiment. Performance characteristics such as material removal rate and overcut are selected to evaluated the effect of machining parameters. Current, pulse on time, pulse off time and discharging time/ Z down were selected as machining parameters. The experiments was conducted by varying that machining parameters in three different levels. Based on the Taguchi quality design concept, a L27 orthogonal array table was chosen for the experiments. By using the combination of GRA and Taguchi, the optimization of complicated multiple performance characteristics was transformed into the optimization of a single response performance index. Optimal levels of machining parameters were identified by using Grey Relational Analysis method. The statistical application of analysis of variance was used to determine the relatively significant machining parameters. The result of confirmation test indicted that the determined optimal combination of machining parameters effectively improve the performance characteristics of the machining EDM process on ST 42 steel.

  9. Improving Conductivity Image Quality Using Block Matrix-based Multiple Regularization (BMMR Technique in EIT: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Block Matrix based Multiple Regularization (BMMR technique is proposed for improving conductivity image quality in EIT. The response matrix (JTJ has been partitioned into several sub-block matrices and the highest eigenvalue of each sub-block matrices has been chosen as regularization parameter for the nodes contained by that sub-block. Simulated boundary data are generated for circular domain with circular inhomogeneity and the conductivity images are reconstructed in a Model Based Iterative Image Reconstruction (MoBIIR algorithm. Conductivity images are reconstructed with BMMR technique and the results are compared with the Single-step Tikhonov Regularization (STR and modified Levenberg-Marquardt Regularization (LMR methods. It is observed that the BMMR technique reduces the projection error and solution error and improves the conductivity reconstruction in EIT. Result show that the BMMR method also improves the image contrast and inhomogeneity conductivity profile and hence the reconstructed image quality is enhanced. ;doi:10.5617/jeb.170 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 33-47, 2011

  10. Variable weight Khazani-Syed code using hybrid fixed-dynamic technique for optical code division multiple access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah

    2016-10-01

    Future Internet consists of a wide spectrum of applications with different bit rates and quality of service (QoS) requirements. Prioritizing the services is essential to ensure that the delivery of information is at its best. Existing technologies have demonstrated how service differentiation techniques can be implemented in optical networks using data link and network layer operations. However, a physical layer approach can further improve system performance at a prescribed received signal quality by applying control at the bit level. This paper proposes a coding algorithm to support optical domain service differentiation using spectral amplitude coding techniques within an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) scenario. A particular user or service has a varying weight applied to obtain the desired signal quality. The properties of the new code are compared with other OCDMA codes proposed for service differentiation. In addition, a mathematical model is developed for performance evaluation of the proposed code using two different detection techniques, namely direct decoding and complementary subtraction.

  11. Traffic Regulation on Wireless 802.11 Networks Using Multiple Queue Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanal, Radhika J.; Patil, G. A.

    2010-11-01

    WLAN technologies are becoming increasingly popular and are platform for many future applications. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) is an excellent solution for the broadband wireless networking. This paper presents a simple approach to enhance the performance of real time (RT) and non-real time (NRT) services over the 802.11 WLAN by using some special queues. This requires the system to first identify the type of service and then use the appropriate scheduling algorithm. The admission control algorithm is used first to determine the admission of particular station. Deficit round robin algorithm is used to set the priorities to RT and NRT packets in order to increase the QoS of WLAN. So we can combine both these algorithms by implementing them one after another. The proposed scheme can improve Voice/Data/Video services through simple software upgrades by reducing the delay, jitter and increasing the throughput. Through simulation, we show that the proposed scheme can give better QoS than existing schemes.

  12. Assessment of multiple geophysical techniques for the characterization of municipal waste deposit sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaël, Dumont; Tanguy, Robert; Nicolas, Marck; Frédéric, Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we tested the ability of geophysical methods to characterize a large technical landfill installed in a former sand quarry. The geophysical surveys specifically aimed at delimitating the deposit site horizontal extension, at estimating its thickness and at characterizing the waste material composition (the moisture content in the present case). The site delimitation was conducted with electromagnetic (in-phase and out-of-phase) and magnetic (vertical gradient and total field) methods that clearly showed the transition between the waste deposit and the host formation. Regarding waste deposit thickness evaluation, electrical resistivity tomography appeared inefficient on this particularly thick deposit site. Thus, we propose a combination of horizontal to vertical noise spectral ratio (HVNSR) and multichannel analysis of the surface waves (MASW), which successfully determined the approximate waste deposit thickness in our test landfill. However, ERT appeared to be an appropriate tool to characterize the moisture content of the waste, which is of prior information for the organic waste biodegradation process. The global multi-scale and multi-method geophysical survey offers precious information for site rehabilitation studies, water content mitigation processes for enhanced biodegradation or landfill mining operation planning.

  13. Determination of the optimal method for the field-in-field technique in breast tangential radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hayashi, Shinya; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2014-07-01

    Several studies have reported the usefulness of the field-in-field (FIF) technique in breast radiotherapy. However, the methods for the FIF technique used in these studies vary. These methods were classified into three categories. We simulated a radiotherapy plan with each method and analyzed the outcomes. In the first method, a pair of subfields was added to each main field: the single pair of subfields method (SSM). In the second method, three pairs of subfields were added to each main field: the multiple pairs of subfields method (MSM). In the third method, subfields were alternately added: the alternate subfields method (ASM). A total of 51 patients were enrolled in this study. The maximum dose to the planning target volume (PTV) (Dmax) and the volumes of the PTV receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V100%) were calculated. The thickness of the breast between the chest wall and skin surface was measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to the median. In the overall series, the average V100% with ASM (60.3%) was significantly higher than with SSM (52.6%) and MSM (48.7%). In the thin breast group as well, the average V100% with ASM (57.3%) and SSM (54.2%) was significantly higher than that with MSM (43.3%). In the thick breast group, the average V100% with ASM (63.4%) was significantly higher than that with SSM (51.0%) and MSM (54.4%). ASM resulted in better dose distribution, regardless of the breast size. Moreover, planning for ASM required a relatively short time. ASM was considered the most preferred method.

  14. Determining the quality of life of depressed patients in Singapore through a multiple mediation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Hui; Tang, Catherine; Ng, Winnie W N; Ho, Cyrus S H; Ho, Roger C M

    2015-12-01

    Quality of Life (QOL) is reported to be lower for patients with depression than the general population. This study aims to investigate the mediational effects of protective resource factors (PSFs), such as depressive symptom management ability, self-efficacy, social support and problem-focused coping act, in the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and QOL. It is hypothesized that these PSFs have different mediating strengths. Self-report questionnaires which aimed to determine the influences of these PSFs through a multiple mediation framework were completed by 80 depressed adult outpatients from the National University Hospital of Singapore. PSFs have different influence on mental and physical QOL. Depressive symptom management ability is the most important PSF mediating both domains and better problem-focused coping abilities demonstrate improvement in the physical domain of QOL. Self-efficacy and social support are shown to be non-significant mediators. The results suggest for future effective interventions to focus primarily on improving depression patients' symptom management ability and problem-focused coping skills to raise their life quality. Furthermore, findings from this study have implications on the future investigation of QOL as a unitary construct.

  15. Multiple QTL Determine Dorsal Abdominal Scale Patterns in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akio; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro; Higa, Yukiko; Severson, David W

    2016-09-01

    The mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) originated in Sub-Saharan Africa as a dark form sylvan species (A. aegypti formosus). Evolution of A. aegypti aegypti type form as a human commensal facilitated its colonization of most semitropical and tropical areas. We investigated the genetic basis for abdominal white scale presence that represents the diagnostic for sylvan A. aegypti formosus (scales absent), from type form (scales present) and A. aegypti queenslandensis form (dense scaling). We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 3 criteria for scale patterns among 192 F1 intercross progeny from matings between a queenslandensis type and an aegypti type form. Results identified 3 QTL determining scale patterns and indicated that classification criteria impact robustness of QTL LOD support. Dark- and light-colored forms exist in sympatry, but vary in multiple phenotypic characteristics, including preferences for vertebrate host, oviposition container, house-entering behavior, and dengue vector competence. Markers associated with 2 QTL regions reflected major reductions in recombination frequencies compared with the standard type form linkage map, suggestive of inversion polymorphisms associated with observed linkage disequilibrium between type-specific characteristics. Understanding the genic basis for differences in A. aegypti forms could inform efforts to develop new mosquito and arboviral disease control strategies. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Multiple regression as a preventive tool for determining the risk of Legionella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine the interrelationship between health & hygiene conditions for prevention of legionellosis, the compositionof materials used in water distribution systems, the water origin and Legionella pneumophila risk. Material and methods. Include adescriptive study and multiple regression analysis on a sample of golf course sprinkler irrigation systems (n=31 pertaining to hotelslocated on the Costa del Sol (Malaga, Spain. The study was carried out in 2009. Results. Presented a significant lineal relation, withall the independent variables contributing significantly (p<0.05 to the model’s fit. The relationship between water type and the risk ofLegionella, as well as the material composition and the latter, is lineal and positive. In contrast, the relationship between health-hygieneconditions and Legionella risk is lineal and negative. Conclusion. The characterization of Legionella pneumophila concentration, asdefined by the risk in water and through use of the predictive method, can contribute to the consideration of new influence variables inthe development of the agent, resulting in improved control and prevention of the disease.

  17. Multiple components are integrated to determine leaf complexity in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Jianghua; Weng, Lin; Li, Xin; Cao, Xianglin; Hu, Xiaohe; Luo, Da; Yang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Transcription factors and phytohormones have been reported to play crucial roles to regulate leaf complexity among plant species. Using the compound-leafed species Lotus japonicus, a model legume plant with five visible leaflets, we characterized four independent mutants with reduced leaf complexity, proliferating floral meristem (pfm), proliferating floral organ-2 (pfo-2), fused leaflets1 (ful1) and umbrella leaflets (uml), which were further identified as loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis orthologs LEAFY (LFY), UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 2 (CUC2) and PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1), respectively. Comparing the leaf development of wild-type and mutants by a scanning electron microscopy approach, leaflet initiation and/or dissection were found to be affected in these mutants. Expression and phenotype analysis indicated that PFM/LjLFY and PFO/LjUFO determined the basipetal leaflet initiation manner in L. japonicus. Genetic analysis of ful1 and uml mutants and their double mutants revealed that the CUC2-like gene and auxin pathway also participated in leaflet dissection in L. japonicus, and their functions might influence cytokinin biogenesis directly or indirectly. Our results here suggest that multiple genes were interplayed and played conserved functions in controlling leaf complexity during compound leaf development in L. japonicus.

  18. A review of cooperative and uncooperative spacecraft pose determination techniques for close-proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2017-08-01

    The capability of an active spacecraft to accurately estimate its relative position and attitude (pose) with respect to an active/inactive, artificial/natural space object (target) orbiting in close-proximity is required to carry out various activities like formation flying, on-orbit servicing, active debris removal, and space exploration. According to the specific mission scenario, the pose determination task involves both theoretical and technological challenges related to the search for the most suitable algorithmic solution and sensor architecture, respectively. As regards the latter aspect, electro-optical sensors represent the best option as their use is compatible with mass and power limitation of micro and small satellites, and their measurements can be processed to estimate all the pose parameters. Overall, the degree of complexity of the challenges related to pose determination largely varies depending on the nature of the targets, which may be actively/passively cooperative, uncooperative but known, or uncooperative and unknown space objects. In this respect, while cooperative pose determination has been successfully demonstrated in orbit, the uncooperative case is still under study by universities, research centers, space agencies and private companies. However, in both the cases, the demand for space applications involving relative navigation maneuvers, also in close-proximity, for which pose determination capabilities are mandatory, is significantly increasing. In this framework, a review of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms developed in the last decades for cooperative and uncooperative pose determination by processing data provided by electro-optical sensors is herein presented. Specifically, their main advantages and drawbacks in terms of achieved performance, computational complexity, and sensitivity to variability of pose and target geometry, are highlighted.

  19. Multiple MTS Assay as the Alternative Method to Determine Survival Fraction of the Irradiated HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab-Bafrani, Zahra; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abbasian, Mahdi; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin

    2016-01-01

    A multiple colorimetric assay has been introduced to evaluate the proliferation and determination of survival fraction (SF) of irradiated cells. The estimation of SF based on the cell-growth curve information is the major advantage of this assay. In this study, the utility of multiple-MTS assay for the SF estimation of irradiated HT-29 colon cancer cells, which were plated before irradiation, was evaluated. The SF of HT-29 colon cancer cells under irradiation with 9 MV photon was estimated using multiple-MTS assay and colony assay. Finally, the correlation between two assays was evaluated. Results showed that there are no significant differences between the SF obtained by two assays at different radiation doses (P > 0.05), and the survival curves have quite similar trends. In conclusion, multiple MTS-assay can be a reliable method to determine the SF of irradiated colon cancer cells that plated before irradiation.

  20. On the Decay Ratio Determination in BWR Stability Analysis by Auto-Correlation Function Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behringer, K.; Hennig, D

    2002-11-01

    A novel auto-correlation function (ACF) method has been investigated for determining the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio in BWR stability analyses. The neutron signals are band-pass filtered to separate the oscillation peak in the power spectral density (PSD) from background. Two linear second-order oscillation models are considered. These models, corrected for signal filtering and including a background term under the peak in the PSD, are then least-squares fitted to the ACF of the previously filtered neutron signal, in order to determine the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio. Our method uses fast Fourier transform techniques with signal segmentation for filtering and ACF estimation. Gliding 'short-term' ACF estimates on a record allow the evaluation of uncertainties. Numerical results are given which have been obtained from neutron data of the recent Forsmark I and Forsmark II NEA benchmark project. Our results are compared with those obtained by other participants in the benchmark project. The present PSI report is an extended version of the publication K. Behringer, D. Hennig 'A novel auto-correlation function method for the determination of the decay ratio in BWR stability studies' (Behringer, Hennig, 2002)

  1. Sex determination of Pohnpei Micronesian kingfishers using morphological and molecular genetic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Lopes, I.F.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation-oriented studies of Micronesian Kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus) have been hindered by a lack of basic natural history information, despite the status of the Guam subspecies (T. c. cinnamominus) as one of the most endangered species in the world. We used tissue samples and morphometric measures from museum specimens and wild-captured Pohnpei Micronesian Kingfishers (T. c. reichenbachii) to develop methods for sex determination. We present a modified molecular protocol and a discriminant function that yields the probability that a particular individual is male or female. Our results revealed that females were significantly larger than males, and the discriminant function correctly predicted sex in 73% (30/41) of the individuals. The sex of 86% (18/21) of individuals was correctly assigned when a moderate reliability threshold was set. Sex determination using molecular genetic techniques was more reliable than methods based on morphology. Our results will facilitate recovery efforts for the critically endangered Guam Micronesian Kingfisher and provide a basis for sex determination in the 11 other endangered congeners in the Pacific Basin.

  2. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  3. Determination of Ca/P molar ratio in hydroxyapatite (HA) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F., E-mail: mascapin@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a mineral composed of calcium phosphate employed for endodontics, restorative dentistry and other applications in orthopedics and prosthesis. Additionally, this biomaterial is an inexpensive but efficient adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals and other unwanted species of contaminated liquid effluents. This is especially interesting when low-cost effective remediation is required. A Ca / P molar ratio of 1.667 is consistent with the theoretical Ca / P ratio for calcium hydroxyapatite with a compositional formula of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, which properties are well discussed in the literature. The aim of this work was to implement and validate a methodology for simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in the hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as providing the Ca / P molar ratio. To accomplish these achievements, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) was applied. This is a non-destructive technique that requires no chemical treatment, enabling fast chemical analysis in a wide variety of samples, with no hazardous waste being generated as a result of the process of determination. A standard reference material from NIST (SRM 1400 – Bone Ash) was used to validate the methodology for the determination of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, strontium and the Ca / P ratio in HA samples by WDXRF. The Z-score test was applied as a statistical tool and showed that the calculated values were of less than 1.8 for all the measured analytes. (author)

  4. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, V., E-mail: vhernandezmasgrau@gmail.com; Abella, R. [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Tarragona 43204 (Spain); Calvo, J. F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Quirón, Barcelona 08023 (Spain); Jurado-Bruggemann, D. [Department of Medical Physics, Institut Català d’Oncologia, Girona 17007 (Spain); Sancho, I. [Department of Medical Physics, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08908 (Spain); Carrasco, P. [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona 08041 (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. Methods: The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100 000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Results: Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Conclusions: Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended.

  5. Concept of a new technique for the combined determination of dielectric and density virial coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenz, Christian; Gaiser, Christof; Richter, Markus

    2017-02-01

    For the combined determination of dielectric and density virial coefficients, a new measurement concept based on dielectric-constant gas thermometry (DCGT) has been elaborated. The developed apparatus design allows conventional DCGT measurements as well as gas expansion experiments to enable a distinction between density and dielectric virial coefficients. The new technique presented in this technical design note offers an independent method to obtain experimental data, which are highly desirable for the improvement of thermodynamic property models for pure gases and gas mixtures. Identification of commercial equipment and materials in this paper does not imply recommendation or endorsement by PTB, nor does it imply that the equipment and materials identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

  6. Speciation and distribution of copper in a mining soil using multiple synchrotron-based bulk and microscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Liu, Jin; Dynes, James J; Peak, Derek; Regier, Tom; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Shenhai; Shi, Jiyan; Tse, John S

    2014-02-01

    Molecular-level understanding of soil Cu speciation and distribution assists in management of Cu contamination in mining sites. In this study, one soil sample, collected from a mining site contaminated since 1950s, was characterized complementarily by multiple synchrotron-based bulk and spatially resolved techniques for the speciation and distribution of Cu as well as other related elements (Fe, Ca, Mn, K, Al, and Si). Bulk X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that soil Cu was predominantly associated with Fe oxides instead of soil organic matter. This agreed with the closest association of Cu to Fe by microscopic X-ray fluorescence (U-XRF) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) nanoanalysis, along with the non-occurrence of photoreduction of soil Cu(II) by quick Cu L3,2-edge XANES spectroscopy (Q-XANES) which often occurs when Cu organic complexes are present. Furthermore, bulk-EXAFS and STXM-coupled Fe L3,2-edge nano-XANES analysis revealed soil Cu adsorbed primarily to Fe(III) oxides by inner-sphere complexation. Additionally, Cu K-edge μ-XANES, L3,2-edge bulk-XANES, and successive Q-XANES results identified the presence of Cu2S rather than radiation-damage artifacts dominant in certain microsites of the mining soil. This study demonstrates the great benefits in use of multiple combined synchrotron-based techniques for comprehensive understanding of Cu speciation in heterogeneous soil matrix, which facilitates our prediction of Cu reactivity and environmental fate in the mining site.

  7. Optical techniques for determination of the state of cure of epoxy resin based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, W. C.; Thursby, G.; Johnstone, W.; Culshaw, B.

    1993-03-01

    Determination of the state of cure of epoxy resin based systems is of considerable interest to manufacturers of large carbon fiber reinforced plastic and glass reinforced plastic structures. Optical methods designed to indicate the cure state have been developed using a loss mechanism which is a function of the refractive index of the curing system. Such techniques are however subject to corruption from losses arising from other influences and consequently are limited in their measurement resolution. In this paper, two techniques which are able to provide a high degree of accuracy of measurement of refractive index are investigated as a means of performing cure measurements. The methods investigated involve the interaction of the evanescent field of a side polished optical fiber with an overlay waveguide or a surface plasmon. Coupling between the fiber and the overlay waveguide (or plasmon) is strongly influenced by the refractive index of the bulk superstrate above the overlay (in this case the curing resin system). Both sensing schemes are self referencing and are not influenced by loss.

  8. A heuristic technique to determine corrective control actions for reactive power flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, Angel L.; Martinez, Jose L.; Riquelme, Jesus; Romero, Esther [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents a sensitivity-based heuristic tool designed to help the system operator in the reactive power flow control problem. The objective of the proposed technique is to determine control actions to ensure that reactive power flows in transmission-subtransmission boundary transformers remain within specified limits, satisfying the new regulatory constraints imposed in most of deregulated markets. With this new constraint the utilities want to guarantee that the utility is able to satisfy its own reactive power requirements, avoiding reactive power flows through long distances in order to reduce the well known disadvantages that reactive power circulation has in the system. A 5-bus tutorial system is used to present the proposed algorithm. The results of the application of the proposed technique to the IEEE 118 buses system and to a regional subtransmission network of the South of Spain are reported and analyzed. In this last actual case, the aim is to maintain reactive power flows in transmission/distribution transformers between those limits set by the Spanish Regulation. A comparison between the proposed tool and a conventional OPF is discussed. (author)

  9. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  10. An improvement of calcium determination technique in the shell of molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Soído

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexometric method is usually applied to quantitative calcium determination in different materials; however the application of this method to calcium determination in molluscs shells infers significant interferences to the results. The snail Bradybaena similaris, a terrestrial gastropod, was used as experimental model to the improvement of this method. The shells were calcinated and dissolved in nitric acid, the hydrogen peroxide was also used to clarify the medium after the acid addition. The calcination procedure and the use of nitric acid reduced the significantly the interferences, allowing a major degree of destruction of the organic substances of the shell. The improvement of the calcium determination technique usually employed showed calcium content of 874.24 ± 56.617 mg of CaCO3/g of ash in comparison to the conventional technique that allowed the determination of 607.79 ± 67.751 mg of CaCO3/g of shell, wet weight.O método complexométrico é geralmente utilizado para determinação quantitativa de cálcio em diferentes materiais; contudo a aplicação deste método à determinação de cálcio em conchas de moluscos infere significativas interferências aos resultados obtidos. O molusco Bradybaena similaris, um gastrópode terrestre, foi utilizado como modelo para aperfeiçoar este método. As conchas foram calcinadas e dissolvidas em ácido nítrico, o peróxido de hidrogênio também foi empregado para clarificar o meio após a adição do ácido. O processo de calcinação e o uso do ácido nítrico reduziram significativamente as interferências, permitindo um maior grau de destruição das substâncias orgânicas da concha. O aperfeiçoamento da técnica para determinação de cálcio empregado resultou em uma quantidade maior de cálcio igual a 874.24 ± 56.617 mg de CaCO3/g de cinzas em comparação com a técnica convencional que permitiu a determinação de 607.79 ± 67.751 mg de CaCO3/g de concha, peso fresco.

  11. More basic approach to the analysis of multiple specimen R-curves for determination of J/sub c/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, K.W.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    Multiple specimen J-R curves were developed for groups of 1T compact specimens with different a/W values and depth of side grooving. The purpose of this investigation was to determine J/sub c/ (J at onset of crack extension) for each group. Judicious selection of points on the load versus load-line deflection record at which to unload and heat tint specimens permitted direct observation of approximate onset of crack extension. It was found that the present recommended procedure for determining J/sub c/ from multiple specimen R-curves, which is being considered for standardization, consistently yielded nonconservative J/sub c/ values. A more basic approach to analyzing multiple specimen R-curves is presented, applied, and discussed. This analysis determined J/sub c/ values that closely corresponded to actual observed onset of crack extension.

  12. Techniques and tactics used in determining the structure of the trimeric ebolavirus glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Hessell, Ann J.; Burton, Dennis R. [Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Saphire, Erica Ollmann, E-mail: erica@scripps.edu [Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Here, the techniques, tactics and strategies used to overcome a series of technical roadblocks in crystallization and phasing of the trimeric ebolavirus glycoprotein are described. The trimeric membrane-anchored ebolavirus envelope glycoprotein (GP) is responsible for viral attachment, fusion and entry. Knowledge of its structure is important both for understanding ebolavirus entry and for the development of medical interventions. Crystal structures of viral glycoproteins, especially those in their metastable prefusion oligomeric states, can be difficult to achieve given the challenges in production, purification, crystallization and diffraction that are inherent in the heavily glycosylated flexible nature of these types of proteins. The crystal structure of ebolavirus GP in its trimeric prefusion conformation in complex with a human antibody derived from a survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak has now been determined [Lee et al. (2008 ▶), Nature (London), 454, 177–182]. Here, the techniques, tactics and strategies used to overcome a series of technical roadblocks in crystallization and phasing are described. Glycoproteins were produced in human embryonic kidney 293T cells, which allowed rapid screening of constructs and expression of protein in milligram quantities. Complexes of GP with an antibody fragment (Fab) promoted crystallization and a series of deglycosylation strategies, including sugar mutants, enzymatic deglycosylation, insect-cell expression and glycan anabolic pathway inhibitors, were attempted to improve the weakly diffracting glycoprotein crystals. The signal-to-noise ratio of the search model for molecular replacement was improved by determining the structure of the uncomplexed Fab. Phase combination with Fab model phases and a selenium anomalous signal, followed by NCS-averaged density modification, resulted in a clear interpretable electron-density map. Model building was assisted by the use of B-value-sharpened electron-density maps and the

  13. Comparison of spectroscopic techniques for the determination of Kjeldahl and ammoniacal nitrogen content of farmyard manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemsley, E K; Tapp, H S; Scarlett, A J; Miles, S J; Hammond, R; Wilson, R H

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of determining the nitrogen content of farmyard manure using infrared spectroscopy was investigated. Fifteen samples each of cattle, pig, and turkey manure were analyzed by three infrared techniques: Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR), using attenuated total reflection (ATR); near-infrared reflectance (NIR-R); and near-infrared optothermal photoacoustic (NIR-OT). The near-infrared measurements were made at wavelengths determined respectively by four (NIR-OT) and five (NIR-R) band-pass filters. The total nitrogen (using the Kjeldahl method) and volatile (ammoniacal) nitrogen contents of all samples were measured by wet chemistry. Internally cross-validated (ICV) partial least-squares (PLS) regression was then used to obtain calibrations for the nitrogen content. The data sets obtained by each technique were treated separately. Within these sets, data from each manure type were treated both separately and combined: the best predictive ability was obtained by combining data from all three manure types. From the combined data set, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients for the ICV-predicted versus actual Kjeldahl nitrogen content were, respectively, 6772 mg/kg dry wt, 0.862 (MIR); 9434 mg/kg dry wt, 0.771 (NIR-OT); and 8943 mg/kg dry wt, 0.865 (NIR-R). For the ammoniacal nitrogen content, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients were 3869 mg/kg dry wt, 0.899 (MIR); 6079 mg/kg dry wt, 0.820 (NIR-OT); and 3498 mg/kg dry wt, 0.961 (NIR-R).

  14. Determination of melting point of vegetable oils and fats by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassu, Renata Tieko

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Melting point of fats is used to characterize oils and fats and is related to their physical properties, such as hardness and thermal behaviour. The present work shows the utilization of DSC technique on the determination of melting point of fats. In a comparison with softening point (AOCS method Cc 3-25, DSC values were higher than those obtained by AOCS method. It has occurred due to the fact that values obtained by DSC technique were taken when the fat had melted completely. DSC was also useful for determining melting point of liquid oils, such as soybean and cottonseed ones.

    El punto de fusión de grasas es usado para caracterizar aceites y grasas, y está relacionado con sus propiedades físicas, tales como dureza y comportamiento térmico. El presente trabajo muestra la utilización de la técnica de Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC en la determinación del punto de fusión de grasas. En comparación con el punto de ablandamiento (AOCS método Cc 3-25, los valores de DSC fueron más altos que los obtenidos por los métodos de AOCS. Esto ha ocurrido debido al hecho que los valores obtenidos por la técnica de DSC fueron tomados cuando la grasa había fundido completamente. DSC fue también útil para determinar puntos de fusión de aceites líquidos, tales como los de soya y algodón.

  15. Atomic absorption techniques for determining vanadium and nickel in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grizzle, P.L.; Wilson, C.A.; Ferrero, E.P.; Coleman, H.J.

    1977-05-01

    Four different techniques for sample preparation were evaluated for determining vanadium and nickel in crude oils by atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy: (1) The flame-analyzed dilution method which consists of direct-flame AA analysis after diluting the sample with a suitable organic solvent; (2) the flame-analyzed, wet-ashing method in which the sample is combusted and the residue is then dissolved before flame analysis; (3) the flameless, dilution method which involves flameless AA analysis of the sample following dilution with a suitable organic solvent; and (4) the direct, flameless method in which the crude oil or residue is directly analyzed by flameless AA. The flame-analyzed dilution method yielded erratic and inaccurate analytical results for samples of crude oils as well as for a residual sample containing standard amounts of vanadium and nickel; hence, it is unsatisfactory for oil-identification. Similarly, the direct, flameless method is unsatisfactory owing to the small concentration range available for analysis (less than approximately 15 ppM). Both the flame-analyzed, wet-ashing and flameless-dilution methods yield reliable and reproducible (better than 10%) quantitative data for nickel and vanadium in crude oils and crude oil residues. Results demonstrate that the error associated with the loss of volatile metal containing compounds upon wet-ashing is within the reproducibility of the technique. Although wet-ashing may be slightly more reproducible, the flameless-dilution method is much simpler and faster and is recommended as the better of the two procedures for routine determinations of trace metals for oil identification.

  16. Optimization of techniques for multiple platform testing in small, precious samples such as human chorionic villus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Margareta D; Akhlaghpour, Marzieh; Lee, Bora; Barlow, Gillian M; Xu, Ning; Wang, Erica T; Mackey, Aaron J; Farber, Charles R; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-der I; Goodarzi, Mark O; Guller, Seth; Williams, John

    2016-11-01

    Multiple testing to understand global changes in gene expression based on genetic and epigenetic modifications is evolving. Chorionic villi, obtained for prenatal testing, is limited, but can be used to understand ongoing human pregnancies. However, optimal storage, processing and utilization of CVS for multiple platform testing have not been established. Leftover CVS samples were flash-frozen or preserved in RNAlater. Modifications to standard isolation kits were performed to isolate quality DNA and RNA from samples as small as 2-5 mg. RNAlater samples had significantly higher RNA yields and quality and were successfully used in microarray and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). RNA-seq libraries generated using 200 versus 800-ng RNA showed similar biological coefficients of variation. RNAlater samples had lower DNA yields and quality, which improved by heating the elution buffer to 70 °C. Purification of DNA was not necessary for bisulfite-conversion and genome-wide methylation profiling. CVS cells were propagated and continue to express genes found in freshly isolated chorionic villi. CVS samples preserved in RNAlater are superior. Our optimized techniques provide specimens for genetic, epigenetic and gene expression studies from a single small sample which can be used to develop diagnostics and treatments using a systems biology approach in the prenatal period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A Multi-form Multiple Choice Editor Exam Tool Based on HTML Website and Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rjoub

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The educators argue that in the post modern world changes in the nature of work, globalization, the information revaluation and today's social challenges will all impact on educational priorities and thus will require a new mode of assessment. Approach: The objectives of this study were to: (1 Present a novel software package tool to create multiple choice and true/false exam forms. (2 Provide exams key solutions automatically (3 Meet special instructors' needs by allowing to easily incorporating multimedia elements into the exam questions, as well as the word processor editing functions and (4 Save both instructors time and money. Results: The multiform exam can be created randomly from question database or manually with shuffled answers for each question. The tool was built based on website and HTML interface using the multimedia applications, two different languages English/Arabic inserted to be used on the same time, efficient Artificial Intelligence techniques and Algorithms are used. The tool had been designed, implemented and tested by experienced instructors, with the result that efficiency, accountability and saving time improved. Conclusion/Recommendations: The transform from paper to electronic resulted in greatly enhanced user satisfaction. Editor exam tool can be used via internet without the need to download and install it to users machine, it’s a time saving system when multiple versions of random exams are required. This should highly motivated, instructors and teachers to utilize technology and IT to enhance exams and performance.

  18. Exploring clustering in alpha-conjugate nuclei using the thick target inverse kinematic technique for multiple alpha emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbui, M.; Hagel, K.; Gauthier, J.; Wuenschel, S.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Zheng, H.; Giuliani, G.; Rapisarda, G.; Kim, E.-J.; Liu, X.; Natowitz, J. B.; Desouza, R. T.; Hudan, S.; Fang, D.

    2015-10-01

    Searching for alpha cluster states analogous to the 12C Hoyle state in heavier alpha-conjugate nuclei can provide tests of the existence of alpha condensates in nuclear matter. Such states are predicted for 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg, etc. at excitation energies slightly above the decay threshold. The Thick Target Inverse Kinematics (TTIK) technique can be successfully used to study the breakup of excited self-conjugate nuclei into many alpha particles. The reaction 20Ne + α at 11 and 13 AMeV was studied at Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. Here the TTIK method was used to study both single α-particle emission and multiple α-particle decays. Due to the limited statistics, only events with alpha multiplicity up to three were analyzed. The analysis of the three α-particle emission data allowed the identification of the Hoyle state and other 12C excited states decaying into three alpha particles. The results will be shown and compared with other data available in the literature. Another experiment is planned in August 2015 to study the system 28Si + α at 15 AMeV. Preliminary results will be shown. Supported by the U.S. DOE and the Robert A. Welch Foundation, Grant No. A0330.

  19. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations.

  20. Determination of nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) by using a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccon, Pierpaolo; Leis, Albrecht [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, 8010 Graz (Austria); Marca, Alina; Kaiser, Jan; Campisi, Laura [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich (United Kingdom); Boettcher, Michael E.; Escher, Peter [Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Geochemistry and Isotope Geochemistry Group, D-18119 Rostock (Germany); Savarino, Joel; Erbland, Joseph [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE) UMR 5183 (France); Eisenhauer, Anton [GEOMAR, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Ozean Forschung Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1-3, 24148 Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Due to increased pollution by nitrate from intensive agricultural and other anthropogenic activities the Marano lagoon (northeast Italy) and part of its catchment area have been investigated, applying a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques. Thus, to identify and characterize the potential multiple-sources of nitrate pollution the isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O), boron (δ{sup 11}B), water (δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O), and sulphate (δ{sup 34}S and δ{sup 18}O), as well as the chemical composition of different water types have been determined. In the monitoring program water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater upwelling line, groundwater, sewage, and open sea on a quarterly interval from 2009 to 2010 have been collected and analyzed. Coupling isotopic and hydrochemical results indicate that the nitrate load in the lagoon was not only derived from agriculture activities but also from other sources such as urban wastewaters, in situ nitrification, and atmospheric deposition. However, none of the samples showed the isotopic characteristics of synthetic fertilizers. (authors)

  1. Analysis of acrylamide in food products by microchip electrophoresis with on-line multiple-preconcentration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minglei; Chen, Wujuan; Wang, Guan; He, Pingang; Wang, Qingjiang

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, a microchip electrophoresis method based on on-line multiple-preconcentration techniques combining field-amplified sample stacking and reversed-field stacking was developed for highly efficient analysis of acrylamide in food products. The related mechanism as well as important parameters governing separation and preconcentration have been investigated in order to obtain maximum resolution and sensitivity. The best separation was achieved using a 100mM borate solution at pH 9.3 as running buffer, and a sensitivity enhancement factor of 432 was obtained using this concentration method under optimal conditions. The detection limit of acrylamide was 1ng/mL, which was comparable to those previously obtained using CE methods with on-line preconcentration techniques and was 41-700 times lower than those previously reported CE methods without concentration process. The proposed method also gave satisfactory and reliable results in the analysis of acrylamide in potato chips and French fries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adipose tissue metabolism in humans determined by vein catheterization and microdialysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    A technique for catheterization of a vein draining abdominal subcutaneous tissue and a microdialysis technique that allows measurements of intercellular water concentrations in adipose tissue in humans have recently been described. In the present study, we compare the two techniques during an ora...... assumptions on which calculations of venous concentrations from microdialysis data are based. Advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are discussed....

  3. Comparison of various techniques for the extraction and determination of antioxidants in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerová, Petra; Adam, Martin; Bajer, Tomáš; Ventura, Karel

    2014-04-01

    The following extraction techniques have been used for extracting antioxidants (apigenin, coumarin, esculetin, umbelliferone, bergapten, quercetin, rutin, scopoletin and xanthotoxin) from plant material: supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonic extraction in ultrasonic bath, and by means of ultrasonic probe. The analytical method based on HPLC-UV detection for the determination of selected antioxidants was developed. For all extracts the antioxidant capacity based on the reduction of free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was also determined. Comparing all results the ultrasonic probe method using 0.75 g of sample extracted by 50 mL of acetonitrile in water (30%, v/v) for 25 min at room temperature and with amplitude at 60% (equal to 90 W) without pulsation was evaluated as the best tool. The most significant indicator demonstrating this statement is the antioxidant capacity expressed as gallic acid equivalent where the ultrasonic probe method showed the best results in 10 of 16 samples. Also the operability of ultrasonic probe extraction method compared to other tested methods is more favorable.

  4. Spectrochemical determination of thorium in monazite by the powder-d.c. arc technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, C.V.; Murata, K.J.

    1954-01-01

    Thorium in monazite is determined by a d.c. carbon-arc technique using zirconium as the internal standard. The analytical curve for Th II 2870.413 A??/Zr II 2844-579 A?? is established by means of synthetic standards containing graduated amounts of thoria and 0.500 per cent zirconia in pegmatite base (60 parts quartz, 40 parts microchne, and 1 part ferric oxide). Monazite samples are diluted 14-fold with pegmatite base that contains 0.538 per cent ZrO2, so that the zirconia content of the resulting mixture is also 0.500 per cent. In addition, both the standards and the diluted monazites are mixed with one-half their weight of powdered graphite. Approximately 25 mg of the prepared samples are arced to completion at 15.5 to 17.5 amperes. With the 14-fold dilution employed, the accurate range of the method is 3 to 20 per cent thoria in the original monazite. The coefficient of variation for a single determination is 4 per cent at the 7 per cent thoria level. Tests with synthetic unknowns and chemically analyzed monazites show a maximum error of ??10 per cent of the thoria content. If niobium is substituted for zirconium as the internal standard, there is a loss of precision. Platinum as the internal standard gives results of good precision but introduces a marked sensitivity to matrix effects. ?? 1954.

  5. The advantages, and challenges, in using multiple techniques in the estimation of surface water-groundwater fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafield, M.; Cook, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    When estimating surface water-groundwater fluxes, the use of complimentary techniques helps to fill in uncertainties in any individual method, and to potentially gain a better understanding of spatial and temporal variability in a system. It can also be a way of preventing the loss of data during infrequent and unpredictable flow events. For example, much of arid Australia relies on groundwater, which is recharged by streamflow through ephemeral streams during flood events. Three recent surface water/groundwater investigations from arid Australian systems provide good examples of how using multiple field and analysis techniques can help to more fully characterize surface water-groundwater fluxes, but can also result in conflicting values over varying spatial and temporal scales. In the Pilbara region of Western Australia, combining streambed radon measurements, vertical heat transport modeling, and a tracer test helped constrain very low streambed residence times, which are on the order of minutes. Spatial and temporal variability between the methods yielded hyporheic exchange estimates between 10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.2 x 10-2 m2 s-1. In South Australia, three-dimensional heat transport modeling captured heterogeneity within 20 square meters of streambed, identifying areas of sandy soil (flux rates of up to 3 m d-1) and clay (flux rates too slow to be accurately characterized). Streamflow front modeling showed similar flux rates, but averaged over 100 m long stream segments for a 1.6 km reach. Finally, in central Australia, several methods are used to decipher whether any of the flow down a highly ephemeral river contributes to regional groundwater recharge, showing that evaporation and evapotranspiration likely accounts for all of the infiltration into the perched aquifer. Lessons learned from these examples demonstrate the influences of the spatial and temporal variability between techniques on estimated fluxes.

  6. Application of new spectrofluorometric techniques for determination of atorvastatin and ezetimibe in combined tablet dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Miriam F; Magdy, N

    2015-01-01

    Two accurate, reliable, and highly sensitive spectrofluorometric methods were developed for simultaneous determination of the binary mixture of Atorvastatin and Ezetimibe without prior separation steps. The first method is based on double scan synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. Each of Atorvastatin and Ezetimibe can be determined independent of the other when scanned at Δλ=100 nm and 40 nm, respectively. The relative fluorescence intensity-concentration plots at two wavelengths, 272 (Δλ=100 nm) and 266 nm (Δλ=40 nm) were rectilinear over the range of 0.4-8 µg/mL (for Atorvastatin) and 0.6-8 µg/mL (for Ezetimibe), respectively. The second method is based on the technique of simultaneous equations (Vierodt's method), in which two equations are solved simultaneously after using a single excitation wavelength of 273 nm and λEm1=380 nm of Atorvastatin and λEm2=301 nm of Ezetimibe. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships were found between the relative fluorescence intensity and the concentrations of the investigated drugs in the range of 0.4-8 µg/mL (for Atorvastatin) 0.6-8 µg/mL (for Ezetimibe). The different experimental parameters affecting the fluorescence intensities of the two drugs were carefully studied and optimized. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of the investigated drugs in pure form, dosage form and in synthetic mixtures with good recovery and the results obtained were favorably compared to those obtained with a reference method.

  7. Simultaneous determination of urea and melamine in milk powder by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjie; Dong, Wenbin; Bao, Hongliang; Fang, Yue; Fan, Cheng

    2017-04-15

    This paper proposed a nonlinear chemical fingerprint method for simultaneous determination of urea and melamine in milk powder using "H(+)+Ce(4+)+BrO3(-)+malonic acid" as reaction system. A multiple linear relationship was obtained between the adulterants content in milk powder and inductive time of corresponding mixed milk powder. System analysis model established with classical least squares (CLS) method was then used to calculate the content of urea and melamine in milk powder. The method was successfully applied to milk powder samples and had good recoveries in the range of 99.17-100.25%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 0.60-4.12%. The limits of detection for urea and melamine were 0.33μg·g(-1) and 0.05μg·g(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification were 1.11μg·g(-1) and 0.18μg·g(-1), respectively. The results indicated that the new method was feasible and had the advantages of low cost, simple operation and without pretreatment of samples.

  8. Integration of XAS and NMR techniques for the structure determination of metalloproteins. Examples from the study of copper transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Mangani, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique for protein structure determination in solution. However, when dealing with metalloproteins, NMR methods are unable to directly determine the structure of the metal site and its coordination geometry. The capability of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to provide the structure of a metal ion bound to a protein is then perfectly suited to complement the process of the structure determination. This aspect is particularly relevant in structural genomic projects where high throughput of structural results is the main goal. The synergism of the two techniques has been exploited in the structure determination of bacterial copper transport proteins.

  9. Xinjiang Nonferrous Group Determined Development Thinking and Launched Multiple Copper Lead & Zinc Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>At present, Xinjiang Nonferrous Group is working vigorously to promote public listing and financing work by following the develop-ment thinking of "Three main businesses, three blocks, and multiple shares".

  10. TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF SURFACE FRACTAL DIMENSION AND MORPHOLOGY OF MESOPOROUS TITANIA USING DYNAMIC FLOW ADSORPTION AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2010-01-01

    A technique to determine the surface fractal dimension of mesoporous TiO­2 using a dynamic flow adsorption instrument is described. Fractal dimension is an additional technique to characterize surface morphology. Surface fractal dimension, a quantitative measurement of surface ruggedness, can be determined by adsorbing a homologous series of adsorbates onto an adsorbent sample of mesoporous TiO­2. Titania wet gel prepared by hydrolysis of Ti-alkoxide was immersed in the flow of supercritical ...

  11. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  12. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  13. Porosity of UHPFRC exposed to high temperatures determined by different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korecký, Tomáš; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Fořt, Jan; Čítek, David; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-07-01

    The pore system characterization of an Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) exposed to the elevated temperatures is presented in the paper. The porosity and pore size distribution of building materials are of the particular importance because of their clear effect on durability and service life of structural elements and buildings. Material characteristics as mechanical, thermal and hygric properties are strongly dependent on pore system. For porosity measurement, several techniques having specific advantages or disadvantages with respect to the pore size are available. In building materials research, usage of Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) with range of the detected pores up to 100 µm is the most common. Nevertheless, in practical measurements, the differences between the porosity values determined by helium pycnometry and MIP are usually observed. It can be attributed to the presence of pores bigger than 100 µm. Based on the literature analysis it is evident that the porosity increases with the amount of fibres used since fibres application reduces workability of fresh mixture and thus cause heterogeneities and microcavities in material microstructure and interfacial transition zone between fibres, aggregates and cement paste. Therefore, the Optical Porosimetry (OP) based on an image analysis is presented in the paper as a suitable supplemental method for classification number, size and shape of bigger pores. At first, porosity is investigated on samples without temperature loading. Then, on samples which are exposed to the temperatures of 400, 800, and 1000 °C respectively. Pores size distribution is studied using mercury intrusion porosimeters Pascal 140 and 440. Images are captured by an optical microscope with an attached digital camera. The obtained results show necessity to apply the combined technique for the assessment of the porosity value.

  14. Use of electrophoretic techniques in determining the composition of seed storage proteins in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, J E; Bewley, J D

    1988-11-01

    Holoprotein molecular weights and polypeptide composition can be determined for complex mixtures of oligomeric proteins using two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques. The variety of two-dimensional analyses presented here is a reflection of the general usefulness of each method for the identification and characterization of the different classes of seed storage proteins in alfalfa. These techniques can be applied to studies of storage proteins in other seeds as well as non-seed storage proteins. The major seed storage proteins in alfalfa are medicagin (a legumin-like globulin), alfin (a vicilin-like globulin) and a family of lower molecular weight albumins (LMW1-3). These comprise 30%, 10%, and 20%, respectively, of the total extractable protein from cotyledons of mature seeds. Alfin is a heterogeneous oligomeric protein (Mr approximately 150,000) composed of polypeptides ranging in size from Mr 14,000 to 50,000 (alpha 1-alpha 6; 50,000, 38,000, 32,000, 20,000, 16,000 and 14,000, respectively). Medicagin is also a high molecular weight oligomeric protein, but requires high concentrations of salt for solubilisation. It is comprised of a family of individually distinct subunits, each composed of an acidic polypeptide (A1-A9; Mr 49,000 to 39,000) linked via disulphide bond(s) to a basic polypeptide (B1, B2, B3; Mr 24,000, 23,000 and 20,000, respectively). This pairing is highly specific and two families are recognizable on the basis of the B polypeptide (B3 or B1/B2). Subunits (Mr approximately 50,000-65,000) are assembled as trimers (8S) or larger oligomers (12S-15S) in mature seeds. The lower molecular weight albumins (LMW1-3) are acidic (pI less than 6), and consist of sets of disulphide-bonded polypeptides (Mr 15,000 and 11,000).

  15. Determination of spent nuclear fuel assembly multiplication with the differential die-away self-interrogation instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Alexis C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Henzl, Vladimir; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Belian, Anthony P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel method for determining the multiplication of a spent nuclear fuel assembly with a Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) instrument. The signal, which is primarily created by thermal neutrons, is measured with four {sup 3}He detector banks surrounding a spent fuel assembly. The Rossi-alpha distribution (RAD) at early times reflects coincident events from single fissions as well as fission chains. Because of this fact, the early time domain contains information about both the fissile material and spontaneous fission material in the assembly being measured. A single exponential function fit to the early time domain of the RAD has a die-away time proportional to the spent fuel assembly (SFA) multiplication. This correlation was tested by simulating assay of 44 different SFAs with the DDSI instrument. The SFA multiplication was determined with a variance of 0.7%.

  16. Dried blood spots as a sampling technique for the quantitative determination of guanfacine in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Henion, Jack; Abbott, Richard; Wang, Phillip

    2011-11-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) technology was evaluated for the quantitative determination of guanfacine in human blood in clinical studies. A very sensitive DBS assay has been developed using HPLC coupled with an AB Sciex 5500 QTRAP® (Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, ON, Canada) MS system (LC-MS/MS) with a linear calibration range of 0.05 to 25 ng/ml. High-resolution MS using an Exactive Orbitrap® (ThermoFisher, LLC., CA, USA) was compared with the QTRAP using extracted exact mass ion current profiles for guanfacine and its stable-isotope-incorporated internal standard. The sample preparation employed liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether of 5 mm punched DBS card disks, followed by reversed-phase HPLC separation coupled with either MS/MS or high-resolution MS. Routine experiments were performed to establish the robustness of the DBS assay, including precision, accuracy, linearity, selectivity, sensitivity and long-term stability of up to 76 days. In addition, several factors that potentially affect quantitation were investigated, including blood volume for DBS spotting, punch size and punch location. A sensitive research assay with a LLOQ of 0.05 ng/ml was developed and subjected to several components of a method validation common to a regulated bioanalysis procedure employing DBS. This method development and partial validation study determined that spot volume, punch size or punch location do not affect assay accuracy and precision. The DBS approach was successfully applied to a clinical study (a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to assess the effect of varying multiple oral doses of guanfacine on the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, safety, and tolerability profiles in healthy adult subjects). The pharmacokinetic profiles for 12 volunteers generated from the DBS assay and from a previously validated plasma assay were compared and were found to be comparable. DBS incurred samples collected from finger prick blood and

  17. The use of multiple respiratory inhalers requiring different inhalation techniques has an adverse effect on COPD outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosnic-Anticevich S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich,1 Henry Chrystyn,2 Richard W Costello,3,4 Myrna B Dolovich,5 Monica J Fletcher,6 Federico Lavorini,7 Roberto Rodríguez-Roisin,8 Dermot Ryan,9,10 Simon Wan Yau Ming,2 David B Price2,11 1Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute Pte Ltd, Singapore; 3RCSI Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons, 4RCSI Education & Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont, Dublin, Ireland; 5Department of Medicine, Respirology, McMaster University, ON, Canada; 6Education for Health, Warwick, UK; 7Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 8Respiratory Institute, Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 9Optimum Patient Care, Cambridge, 10Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, 11Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK Background: Patients with COPD may be prescribed multiple inhalers as part of their treatment regimen, which require different inhalation techniques. Previous literature has shown that the effectiveness of inhaled treatment can be adversely affected by incorrect inhaler technique. Prescribing a range of device types could worsen this problem, leading to poorer outcomes in COPD patients, but the impact is not yet known. Aims: To compare clinical outcomes of COPD patients who use devices requiring similar inhalation technique with those who use devices with mixed techniques. Methods: A matched cohort design was used, with 2 years of data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database. Matching variables were established from a baseline year of follow-up data, and two cohorts were formed: a “similar-devices cohort” and a “mixed-devices cohort”. COPD-related events were recorded during an outcome year of follow-up. The primary outcome measure was an

  18. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  19. The influence of sighing respirations on infant lung function measured using multiple breath washout gas mixing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcevic, Damjan; Carlin, John B; King, Louise; Hall, Graham L; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Sly, Peter D; Vuillermin, Peter; Ranganathan, Sarath

    2015-04-01

    There is substantial interest in studying lung function in infants, to better understand the early life origins of chronic lung diseases such as asthma. Multiple breath washout (MBW) is a technique for measuring lung function that has been adapted for use in infants. Respiratory sighs occur frequently in young infants during natural sleep, and in accordance with current MBW guidelines, result in exclusion of data from a substantial proportion of testing cycles. We assessed how sighs during MBW influenced the measurements obtained using data from 767 tests conducted on 246 infants (50% male; mean age 43 days) as part of a large cohort study. Sighs occurred in 119 (15%) tests. Sighs during the main part of the wash-in phase (before the last 5 breaths) were not associated with differences in standard MBW measurements compared with tests without sighs. In contrast, sighs that occurred during the washout were associated with a small but discernible increase in magnitude and variability. For example, the mean lung clearance index increased by 0.36 (95% CI: 0.11-0.62) and variance increased by a multiplicative factor of 2 (95% CI: 1.6-2.5). The results suggest it is reasonable to include MBW data from testing cycles where a sigh occurs during the wash-in phase, but not during washout, of MBW. By recovering data that would otherwise have been excluded, we estimate a boost of about 10% to the final number of acceptable tests and 6% to the number of individuals successfully tested.

  20. Nondestructive Determination Method of Fruit Quantity Detection Based on Vis/NIR Spectroscopy Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyue; He, Yong; Garcla Pereira, Annia; Hernandez Gomez, Antihus

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between Vis/NIR spectral and the major physiological properties of tomato-soluble solids content (SSC), acidity (pH) and fruit firmness. A total of 200 tomatoes were hand harvested and analyzed the spectra features using spectrophotometer. Principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to develop the prediction models. The models for SSC (r= 0.90) of standard error of prediction (SEP) 0.19 Brix with three factors; pH r= 0.83) of SEP 0.09 with four factors; compression force(r= 0.81) of SEP 16.017N with six factors, and puncture force (r= 0.83) of SEP 1.18N with three factors, showed the excellent prediction performance. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had significantly greater accuracy in determining SSC. It was concluded that it is possible to assess the quality characteristics of tomato.

  1. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE, ultrasound (UE, agitation (AE, and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respectively. The combined-extractions: HHPE-UE and HHPE-AE, were carried out for 5 min and 15 min, respectively. The highest values found were total phenolic 129.1 mg GAE/100 g FW, antioxidant capacity by DPPH 20.6 mM TE/100 g FW, and voltammetry 141.0 mM TE/100 g FW for HHPE-UE method in free compound extraction. Regarding vitamin C content, its highest value was found by HHPE-UE (74 mg/100 g FW a combined extraction method. The phenolic compounds rutin and p-coumaric acid were found in all the extracts, both in free and bound forms, respectively. Besides, the combined techniques improved the extraction of bioactive compounds.

  2. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Campbell, Kate M.; Fox, Patricia M.; Singer, David M.; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E.; Barger, John R.; Kent, Douglas B.; Davis, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  3. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L; Campbell, Kate M; Fox, Patricia M; Singer, David M; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E; Bargar, John R; Kent, Douglas B; Davis, James A

    2013-08-20

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  4. Determination of sulphur and copper depth distribution in patina layers using nuclear reaction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalliabakos, G.; Kossionides, S.; Misailides, P.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Vlastou, R. E-mail: vlastou@central.ntua.gr

    2000-10-01

    A method for Cu and S profiling in patina layers was developed by applying a combination of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The copper profiling was performed by using the 1327 keV {gamma}-ray deexciting the third excited state to the ground state of {sup 63}Cu produced by the reaction {sup 63}Cu(p,p{sup '}{gamma}){sup 63}Cu. For the determination of sulphur the 2230 keV {gamma}-ray was used deexciting the first excited state to the ground state of {sup 32}S formed through the reaction {sup 32}S(p,p{sup '}{gamma}){sup 32}S, which exhibits three sharp resonances at projectile energies 3.094, 3.195 and 3.379 MeV. The relevant cross-sections were measured in the energy range between 3.0 and 3.7 MeV in steps of 20 keV at 125 deg. to the incident proton beam direction. The technique was tested using artificially produced and natural copper patina layers. Supporting information on the depth distribution of the constituent elements of the patina samples was obtained by p-RBS (E{sub p}: 1.5 MeV, {theta}: 160 deg.)

  5. Determining the thermophysical properties of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles by the photoacoustic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.A.El-Brolossy; O.Saber; S.S.Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of undoped and Al-doped (1-10 at.%) ZnO nanoparticles prepared using the solvent thermal method are determined by measuring both thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity of a pressed powder compact of the prepared nanoparticles by using the laser-induced photoacoustic technique.The impact of Al doping versus the microstructure of the samples on such thermal parameters has been investigated.The results reveal an obvious enhancement in the specific heat capacity when decreasing the particle size,while the effect of Al doping on the specific heat capacity is minor.The measured thermal conductivities are about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the bulk ZnO due to several nested reducing heat transfer mechanisms.The results also show that Al doping significantly influences the thermal resistance.Using a simple thermal impedance model,the added thermal resistance due to Al dopant has been estimated.

  6. Determining nutrients degradation kinetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum straw using nylon bag technique in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Straw a by-product from grain legume crops is produced in large quantities in Iran. Straw is constant component of ruminant diets on small holder farms; however, there is little information about its nutritive value. Accordingly experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP degradability of chickpea straw using nylon bags (in situ technique. Replicated samples were incubated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours in three rumen canulated Ghezel rams with 50±3 kg body weight. Dry matter (DM, CP, ether extract (EE, OM, crude fiber (CF and nitrogen free extract (NFE content of chickpea straws were 92.2, 6.1, 5.5, 92.0, 34.3 and 46.2%, respectively. The soluble fraction (a of the OM and CP of chickpea straw was 17.5 and 40.8% and potential degradability (a+b of OM and CP was 56.7 and 72.0%, respectively. Effective degradability at different passage rates (2, 5 and 8% per hours for OM was 51.0 44.9 and 40.7% and for CP were 68.4, 64.3 and 61.3%, respectively. In conclusion, based on chemical composition and degradation characteristics, chickpea straw could have moderate nutritive value for ruminants.

  7. Application of bioassay technique to determine onduty herbicide resistance in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, F. A. A.; Ismail, B. S.; Bajrai, F. S. M.

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the resistance of OnDuty herbicide in paddy soil with different concentrations by using a broadleaf plant, Brassica juncea. The herbicide was used in the Clearfield® Production System that was adopted in Malaysia to overcome problems mainly caused by weedy rice. Evaluation of herbicide half-life was based on bioassay technique with different concentrations, i.e 0% (control), 50% (half dose), 100% (recommended dose) and 200% (double dose). The study was done in three replicates and followed the Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD). Results showed that there was a correlation between the amount of herbicide doses and degradation period. The highest half-life value was shown by root inhibition in the double dose concentration of 33 days half-life, followed by the recommended dose with 23 days half-life. Meanwhile, the half dose treatment indicated a half-life value of 17 days for root and 11 days for shoot. Therefore, application of herbicides should follow the recommended dose as the degradation period will not be too long, hence providing maximum effectiveness of the herbicide to overcome weed infestation problems.

  8. Application of Monte Carlo Technique for Determining Maneuvering Loads from Statistical Information on Airplane Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Harold A.; Mayer, John P.; Huston, Wilber B.

    1961-01-01

    Results of a statistical analysis of horizontal-tail loads on a fighter airplane are presented. The data were obtained from a number of operational training missions with flight at altitudes up to about 50,000 feet and at Mach numbers up to 1.22. The analysis was performed to determine the feasibility of calculating horizontal-tail load from data on the flight conditions and airplane motions. In the analysis the calculated loads are compared with the measured loads for the different types of missions performed. The loads were calculated by two methods: a direct approach and a Monte Carlo technique. The procedures used and some of the problems associated with the data analysis are discussed. frequencies of occurrence of tail loads of given magnitudes are derived from statistical information on the flight quantities. In the direct method, a time history of tail load is calculated from time-history measurements of the flight quantities. The Monte Carlo method could be useful for extending loads information for design of prospective airplanes . For the Monte Carlo method, the The results indicate that the accuracy of loads, regardless of the method used for calculation, is largely dependent on the knowledge of the pertinent airplane aerodynamic characteristics and center-of-gravity location. In addition, reliable Monte Carlo results require an adequate sample of statistical data and a knowledge of the more important statistical dependencies between the various flight conditions and airplane motions.

  9. Automatic weight determination in nonlinear model predictive control of wind turbines using swarm optimization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Elham; Mahdizadeh, Amin

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automatic tuning of weighting coefficients for the nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) of wind turbines. The choice of weighting coefficients in NMPC is critical due to their explicit impact on efficiency of the wind turbine control. Classically, these weights are selected based on intuitive understanding of the system dynamics and control objectives. The empirical methods, however, may not yield optimal solutions especially when the number of parameters to be tuned and the nonlinearity of the system increase. In this paper, the problem of determining weighting coefficients for the cost function of the NMPC controller is formulated as a two-level optimization process in which the upper- level PSO-based optimization computes the weighting coefficients for the lower-level NMPC controller which generates control signals for the wind turbine. The proposed method is implemented to tune the weighting coefficients of a NMPC controller which drives the NREL 5-MW wind turbine. The results are compared with similar simulations for a manually tuned NMPC controller. Comparison verify the improved performance of the controller for weights computed with the PSO-based technique.

  10. Determination of lift and drag characteristics of Space Shuttle Orbiter using maximum likelihood estimation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the technique and results of maximum likelihood estimation used to determine lift and drag characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Maximum likelihood estimation uses measurable parameters to estimate nonmeasurable parameters. The nonmeasurable parameters for this case are elements of a nonlinear, dynamic model of the orbiter. The estimated parameters are used to evaluate a cost function that computes the differences between the measured and estimated longitudinal parameters. The case presented is a dynamic analysis. This places less restriction on pitching motion and can provide additional information about the orbiter such as lift and drag characteristics at conditions other than trim, instrument biases, and pitching moment characteristics. In addition, an output of the analysis is an estimate of the values for the individual components of lift and drag that contribute to the total lift and drag. The results show that maximum likelihood estimation is a useful tool for analysis of Space Shuttle Orbiter performance and is also applicable to parameter analysis of other types of aircraft.

  11. The Immersive Virtual Reality Experience: A Typology of Users Revealed Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis Combined with Cluster Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Pedro J; Morais, Diogo; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Saraiva, Tomaz

    2016-03-01

    Immersive virtual reality is thought to be advantageous by leading to higher levels of presence. However, and despite users getting actively involved in immersive three-dimensional virtual environments that incorporate sound and motion, there are individual factors, such as age, video game knowledge, and the predisposition to immersion, that may be associated with the quality of virtual reality experience. Moreover, one particular concern for users engaged in immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) is the possibility of side effects, such as cybersickness. The literature suggests that at least 60% of virtual reality users report having felt symptoms of cybersickness, which reduces the quality of the virtual reality experience. The aim of this study was thus to profile the right user to be involved in a VRE through head-mounted display. To examine which user characteristics are associated with the most effective virtual reality experience (lower cybersickness), a multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique was performed. Results revealed three distinct profiles, showing that the PC gamer profile is more associated with higher levels of virtual reality effectiveness, that is, higher predisposition to be immersed and reduced cybersickness symptoms in the VRE than console gamer and nongamer. These findings can be a useful orientation in clinical practice and future research as they help identify which users are more predisposed to benefit from immersive VREs.

  12. Locating non-volcanic tremor along the San Andreas Fault using a multiple array source imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, T.; Haberland, C.H.; Fuis, G.S.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Shelly, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been observed at several subduction zones and at the San Andreas Fault (SAF). Tremor locations are commonly derived by cross-correlating envelope-transformed seismic traces in combination with source-scanning techniques. Recently, they have also been located by using relative relocations with master events, that is low-frequency earthquakes that are part of the tremor; locations are derived by conventional traveltime-based methods. Here we present a method to locate the sources of NVT using an imaging approach for multiple array data. The performance of the method is checked with synthetic tests and the relocation of earthquakes. We also applied the method to tremor occurring near Cholame, California. A set of small-aperture arrays (i.e. an array consisting of arrays) installed around Cholame provided the data set for this study. We observed several tremor episodes and located tremor sources in the vicinity of SAF. During individual tremor episodes, we observed a systematic change of source location, indicating rapid migration of the tremor source along SAF. ?? 2010 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2010 RAS.

  13. Rehabilitation of motor function after stroke: a multiple systematic review focused on techniques to stimulate upper extremity recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M Hatem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients’ mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed.At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation.

  14. In-depth discrimination of aerosol types using multiple clustering techniques over four locations in Indo-Gangetic plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Bibi, Samina

    2016-11-01

    Discrimination of aerosol types is essential over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) because several aerosol types originate from different sources having different atmospheric impacts. In this paper, we analyzed a seasonal discrimination of aerosol types by multiple clustering techniques using AERosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) datasets for the period 2007-2013 over Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur and Kanpur. We discriminated the aerosols into three major types; dust, biomass burning and urban/industrial. The discrimination was carried out by analyzing different aerosol optical properties such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Angstrom Exponent (AE), Extinction Angstrom Exponent (EAE), Abortion Angstrom Exponent (AAE), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and Real Refractive Index (RRI) and their interrelationship to investigate the dominant aerosol types and to examine the variation in their seasonal distribution. The results revealed that during summer and pre-monsoon, dust aerosols were dominant while during winter and post-monsoon prevailing aerosols were biomass burning and urban industrial, and the mixed type of aerosols were present in all seasons. These types of aerosol discriminated from AERONET were in good agreement with CALIPSO (the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) measurement.

  15. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Samar M.; Saussez, Geoffroy; della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:27679565

  16. A C*-based Extended Multiple Linear Regression Method to Determine Decadal Changes in Anthropogenic CO2 in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Dominic; Gruber, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Major progress has been made by the international community (e.g., GO-SHIP, IOCCP, IMBER/SOLAS carbon working groups) in recent years by collecting and providing homogenized datasets for carbon and other biogeochemical variables in the surface ocean (SOCAT) and interior ocean (GLODAPv2). Together with previous efforts, this has enabled the community to develop methods to assess changes in the ocean carbon cycle through time. Of particular interest is the determination of the decadal change in the anthropogenic CO2 inventory solely based on in-situ measurements from at least two time periods in the interior ocean. However, all such methods face the difficulty of a scarce dataset in both space and time, making the use of appropriate interpolation techniques in time and space a crucial element of any method. Here we present a new method based on the parameter C*, whose variations reflect the total change in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) driven by the exchange of CO2 across the air-sea interface. We apply the extended Multiple Linear Regression method (Friis et al., 2005) on C* in order (1) to calculate the change in anthropogenic CO2 from the original DIC/C* measurements, and (2) to interpolate the result onto a spatial grid using other biogeochemical variables (T,S,AOU, etc.). These calculations are made on isopycnal slabs across whole ocean basins. In combination with the transient steady state assumption (Tanhua et al., 2007) providing a temporal correction factor, we address the spatial and temporal interpolation challenges. Using synthetic data from a hindcast simulation with a global ocean biogeochemistry model (NCAR-CCSM with BEC), we tested the method for robustness and accuracy in determining ΔCant. We will present data-based results for all ocean basins, with the most recent estimate of an global uptake of 32±6 Pg C between 1994 and 2007, indicating an uptake rate 2.5±0.5 Pg C yr-1 for this time period. These results are compared with regional and

  17. Repeated stool sampling and use of multiple techniques enhance the sensitivity of helminth diagnosis: a cross-sectional survey in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayasone, Somphou; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are common in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We investigated the accuracy of the Kato-Katz (KK) technique in relation to varying stool sampling efforts, and determined the effect of the concurrent use of a quantitative formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) for helminth diagnosis and appraisal of concomitant infections. The study was carried out between March and May 2006 in Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. Overall, 485 individuals aged ≥6 months who provided three stool samples were included in the final analysis. All stool samples were subjected to the KK technique. Additionally, one stool sample per individual was processed by FECT. Diagnosis was done under a light microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. Analysis of three stool samples with KK plus a single FECT was considered as diagnostic 'gold' standard and resulted in prevalence estimates of hookworm, Opisthorchis viverrini, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mekongi infection of 77.9%, 65.0%, 33.4%, 26.2% and 24.3%, respectively. As expected, a single KK and a single FECT missed a considerable number of infections. While our diagnostic 'gold' standard produced similar results than those obtained by a mathematical model for most helminth infections, the 'true' prevalence predicted by the model for S. mekongi (28.1%) was somewhat higher than after multiple KK plus a single FECT (24.3%). In the current setting, triplicate KK plus a single FECT diagnosed helminth infections with high sensitivity. Hence, such a diagnostic approach might be utilised for generating high-quality baseline data, assessing anthelminthic drug efficacy and rigorous monitoring of community interventions.

  18. Investigating the Role of Multiple Intelligences in Determining Vocabulary Learning Strategies for L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, Mahsa; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    This study, first, examined whether there was any relationship between Iranian L2 learners' vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs), on the one hand, and their multiple intelligences (MI) types, on the other hand. In so doing, it explored the extent to which MI would predict L2 learners' VLSs. To these ends, 40 L2 learners from Isfahan University of…

  19. Position and mass determination of multiple particles using cantilever based mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren; Schmid, Silvan; Amiot, Fabien;

    2010-01-01

    of several added particles to the resonant frequencies of a cantilever, and an identification procedure valid for particles with different masses is proposed. The identification procedure is tested by calculating positions and mass of multiple microparticles with similar mass positioned on individual...

  20. Information Scent Determines Attention Allocation and Link Selection among Multiple Information Patches on a Webpage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Marilyn Hughes

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience to develop a preliminary similarity-choice theory of how people allocate attention among information patches on webpages while completing search tasks in complex informational websites. Study 1 applied stepwise multiple regression to a large dataset and showed that success rate…

  1. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis…

  2. Information Scent Determines Attention Allocation and Link Selection among Multiple Information Patches on a Webpage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Marilyn Hughes

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience to develop a preliminary similarity-choice theory of how people allocate attention among information patches on webpages while completing search tasks in complex informational websites. Study 1 applied stepwise multiple regression to a large dataset and showed that success rate…

  3. A new technique for thick source alpha counting determination of U and Th

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, C T

    2000-01-01

    A new technique for the calculation of U and Th concentration is presented based on the alpha particle spectrum taken from a thick sample by using a silicon detector. Four approaches to the analysis of the experimental data are presented, one being an improvement on the known pairs technique. By the proposed technique it is possible to calculate the concentrations of certain daughter nuclides in the two series, or the sum of the activity concentrations of others. This allows the detection of secular disequilibrium in our samples. This technique also has the advantage of being more accurate and provides the opportunity to cross-check the results derived from the different approaches.

  4. Associations of trunk fat depots with insulin resistance, β cell function and glycaemia--a multiple technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule-Rao, Anjali; Joglekar, Charudatta; Patkar, Deepak; Chinchwadkar, Manoj; Bhat, Dattatreya; Lubree, Himangi; Rege, Sonali; Uradey, Bhagyashree; Yajnik, Chittaranjan; Yudkin, John

    2013-01-01

    Central (truncal) adiposity is associated strongly with insulin resistance and diabetes. There are very few reports comparing methods of trunk fat measurement in their ability to predict glycaemia and insulin resistance. We report a comparative analysis of different trunk fat measurements in predicting glycaemia and insulin resistance in middle aged Indian men. Trunk fat measurements were performed using anthropometry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT) on 128 men. Additional measurements were taken to characterise insulin resistance (Matsuda index) and beta cell function (Insulinogenic Index), glycaemia (fasting and 120 min glucose concentrations). Using residual approach we compared the ability of different trunk fat measurement techniques to predict insulin resistance, beta cell function and glycaemia. There was a strong association between trunk fat measures from each technique with glycaemia and insulin resistance indices but not with the Insulinogenic Index. Insulin resistance and glycaemia, were best predicted using anthropometric measurements, notably by waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Neither MRI measures of trunk or visceral fat nor DXA trunk fat added significantly. CT liver density contributed to some extent to predict insulin resistance and 120 min glucose after anthropometric measurements. Our results suggest that, in Indian men, anthropometric measurements are good predictors of glycaemia and insulin resistance. Other complex measurements such as MRI, DXA and CT make only a small addition to the prediction. This finding supports the application of anthropometry for determining trunk fat in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  5. Determination of ocean tide loading displacements in Hong Kong using GPS technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ocean tide loading (OTL) displacements of eight principal constituents at 12 sites in Hong Kong were determined using more than eight years of continuous GPS observations. Parameters of the OTL displacements were estimated using daily GPS solutions obtained with precise point positioning (PPP) technique. The results were compared with predictions from seven latest global ocean tide models. Gravity measurements of OTL in Hong Kong were also used to validate the GPS results. The study shows that the results from both the GPS and gravity measurements agree best with the GOT4.7 and NAO99b models, when the K1 and K2 constituents are excluded. The agreements between the GPS and the model estimates are generally at sub-millimeter level in both the horizontal and vertical directions, except for S2, K2 and K1 constituents that have relatively larger errors. After removing the systematic biases between the GPS and the model estimates, the misfits of M2, S2, N2, O1, P1 and Q1 at all sites are within 0.5 and 1.0 mm in the horizontal and the vertical directions, respectively, whereas K1 and K2 show relatively larger misfits of up to 2.3 mm. Both the GPS and the gravity S2 estimates have large biases with unknown reasons when compared with the modeled values, which needs to be further investigated. The study demonstrates that GPS is capable of estimating the OTL displacements with the same accuracy as the model predictions, especially for coastal areas.

  6. Theoretical and practical limitations of the acetylene inhibition technique to determine total denitrification losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Felber

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The loss of N2 from intensively managed agro-ecosystems is an important part of the N budget. Flux monitoring of N2 emissions at the field scale, e.g., by eddy correlation or aerodynamic gradient method, is impossible due to the large atmospheric N2 background (78%. The acetylene (C2H2 inhibition technique (AIT is a rather simple and frequently used, albeit imperfect, method to determine N2 losses from intact soil cores. In principle, AIT allows an estimation of total denitrification at high temporal resolution and on small spatial scales, with limited workload and costs involved. To investigate its potential and limitations, a laboratory system with two different detection systems (photoacoustic IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography is presented, which allowed simultaneous measurements of up to 7 intact soil cores in air-tight glass tubes in a temperature controlled cabinet (adjusted to field conditions with automated C2H2 injection. A survey of total denitrification losses (N2 + N2O over 1.5 yr in soil cores from an intensively managed, cut grassland system in central Switzerland supports previous reports on severe limitations of the AIT, which precluded reliable estimates of total denitrification losses. Further, the unavoidable sampling and transfer of soil samples to the laboratory causes unpredictable deviations from the denitrification activity in the field.

  7. An assessment of contemporary atomic spectroscopic techniques for the determination of lead in blood and urine matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Patrick J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Verostek, Mary Frances

    2001-09-01

    The preparation and validation of a number of clinical reference materials for the determination of lead in blood and urine is described. Four candidate blood lead reference materials (Lots, 047-050), and four candidate urine lead reference materials (Lots, 034, 035, 037 and 038), containing physiologically-bound lead at clinically relevant concentrations, were circulated to up to 21 selected laboratories specializing in this analysis. Results from two interlaboratory studies were used to establish certified values and uncertainty estimates for these reference materials. These data also provided an assessment of current laboratory techniques for the measurement of lead in blood and urine. For the blood lead measurements, four laboratories used electrothermal atomization AAS, three used anodic stripping voltammetry and one used both ETAAS and ICP-MS. For the urine lead measurements, 11 laboratories used ETAAS (most with Zeeman background correction) and 10 used ICP-MS. Certified blood lead concentrations, ±S.D., ranged from 5.9±0.4 μg/dl (0.28±0.02 μmol/l) to 76.0±2.2 μg/dl (3.67±0.11 μmol/l) and urine lead concentrations ranged from 98±5 μg/l (0.47±0.02 μmol/l) to 641±36 μg/l (3.09±0.17 μmol/l). The highest concentration blood lead material was subjected to multiple analyses using ETAAS over an extended time period. The data indicate that more stringent internal quality control practices are necessary to improve long-term precision. While the certification of blood lead materials was accomplished in a manner consistent with established practices, the urine lead materials proved more troublesome, particularly at concentrations above 600 μg/l (2.90 μmol/l).

  8. Determining the Suitability of Two Different Statistical Techniques in Shallow Landslide (Debris Flow Initiation Susceptibility Assessment in the Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ninu Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Information Value (InfoVal and the Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR methods based on bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis have been applied for shallow landslide initiation susceptibility assessment in a selected subwatershed in the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, to determine the suitability of geographical information systems (GIS assisted statistical landslide susceptibility assessment methods in the data constrained regions. The different landslide conditioning terrain variables considered in the analysis are geomorphology, land use/land cover, soil thickness, slope, aspect, relative relief, plan curvature, profile curvature, drainage density, the distance from drainages, lineament density and distance from lineaments. Landslide Susceptibility Index (LSI maps were produced by integrating the weighted themes and divided into five landslide susceptibility zones (LSZ by correlating the LSI with general terrain conditions. The predictive performances of the models were evaluated through success and prediction rate curves. The area under success rate curves (AUC for InfoVal and MLR generated susceptibility maps shows 84.11% and 68.65%, respectively. The prediction rate curves show good to moderate correlation between the distribution of the validation group of landslides and LSZ maps with AUC values of 0.648 and 0.826 respectively for MLR and InfoVal produced LSZ maps. Considering the best fit and suitability of the models in the study area by quantitative prediction accuracy, LSZ map produced by the InfoVal technique shows higher accuracy, i.e. 82.60%, than the MLR model and is more realistic while compared in the field and is considered as the best suited model for the assessment of landslide susceptibility in areas similar to the study area. The LSZ map produced for the area can be utilised for regional planning and assessment process, by incorporating the generalised rainfall conditions in the area. DOI

  9. Extended Diffie-Hellman Technique to Generate Multiple Shared Keys at a Time with Reduced KEOs and its Polynomial Time Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistala V.E.S. Murthy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently Biswas[1] extended Diffie-Hellman technique to generate multiple two-person-shared keys by exchange of two public keys. In this paper, we further generalize the Diffie-Hellman technique to generate multiple two-person-shared keys by exchange of any number of public keys and study its Polynomial Time Complexity, Security etc. Also, an upper bound for the number of shared keys in terms of the number of exchanged keys and for a given number of shared keys, the minimum required number of keys to be exchanged, were arrived at. Lastly, a comparative study between the proposed technique and the Diffie-Hellman technique repeated m-times is made.

  10. An in vitro technique for the rapid determination of drug entry into breast milk.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    1. A simple in vitro technique that predicts drug transfer into breast milk is described. 2. Drugs of differing physical and chemical characteristics were tested. 3. The technique provides an experimental system for studying plasma to milk transfer with changing milk composition. 4. A mechanism proposing a role of milk proteins in controlling drug entry into milk is discussed.

  11. Biases on initial mass function determinations. II. Real multiple systems and chance superpositions

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz

    2008-01-01

    When calculating IMFs for young clusters, one has to take into account that (a) most massive stars are born in multiple systems (b) most IMFs are derived from data that cannot resolve such systems, and (c) multiple chance superpositions between members are expected to happen if the cluster is too distant. In this article I use numerical experiments to model the consequences of those phenomena on the observed color-magnitude diagrams and the IMFs derived from them. Real multiple systems affect the observed or apparent massive-star MF slope little but can create a significant population of apparently ultramassive stars. Chance superpositions produce only small biases when the number of superimposed stars is low but, once a certain number threshold is reached, they can affect both the observed slope and the apparent stellar upper mass limit. I apply those experiments to two well known massive young clusters in the Local Group, NGC 3603 and R136. In both cases I show that the observed population of stars with mas...

  12. Multiple point scattering to determine the effective wavenumber and effective material properties of an inhomogeneous slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, William J.; Abrahams, I. David

    2010-11-01

    In this article we attempt to clarify various notions regarding multiple point scattering. We consider several predictions for the effective material properties of an inhomogeneous slab region which can be derived from classical multiple scattering theories. In particular we are interested in the point scattering limit when wavelengths λ0 ≫ l ∼ a where l is the characteristic length-scale of the distance between inclusions and a is the characteristic length-scale of inclusions. In this limit we are able to derive effective properties which are physically valid for any volume fraction φ, except in the sound-soft scatterer case where there is a condition on the size of φ. We shall confine attention to random distributions of inclusions and employ the Quasi-Crystalline Approximation to yield results. In particular we discuss the different scenarios of acoustics and antiplane elasticity and stress the reciprocity between these two problems which means that they can be solved simultaneously. We make various statements regarding the efficacy of the various multiple scattering theories in the prediction of effective material properties in the quasi-static limit.

  13. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere Using Two Complementary Analysis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Durana, N; Navazo, M; García, J A; Ilardia, J L

    1999-08-01

    During a preliminary field campaign of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements carried out in an urban area, two complementary analysis techniques were applied to establish the technical and scientific bases for a strategy to monitor and control VOCs and photochemical oxidants in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Integrated sampling was conducted using Tenax sorbent tubes and laboratory analysis by gas chromatography, and grab sampling and in situ analysis also were conducted using a portable gas chromatograph. With the first technique, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons appeared as the compounds with the higher mean concentrations. The second technique allowed the systematic analysis of eight chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Results of comparing both techniques, as well as the additional information obtained with the second technique, are included.

  14. A new technique to determine fusion barrier heights using proximity potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new technique to calculate fusion barrier heights of any fixed target reaction series. We calculate the barrier heights for the fusion reactions of 119Sn and 197Au targets using this technique. This technique is simple and very useful for estimating the fusion barrier heights for those reactions for which empirical values are not available. A formula is derived by performing theoretical calculations using different versions of proximity potential. Using this formula, we can predict the barrier height for the fusion reaction of any projectile with 119Sn or 197Au target using the empirical barrier height for the fusion reaction of same projectile with 62Ni target. In order to check the accuracy of this technique, the fusion parameters calculated by this new technique are compared with the fusion parameters calculated by using parameterized formulae presented in a systematic study conducted by using double folding model.

  15. Use of modified lip repositioning technique associated with esthetic crown lengthening for treatment of excessive gingival display: A case report of multiple etiologies

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gingival display during smile can result in compromised esthetics. This study aims to report a case of excessive gingival display with multiple etiologies treated by means of modified lip repositioning technique associated with esthetic crown lengthening. A 23-year-old female patient, with 5-mm gingival display during smile caused by altered passive eruption and hypermobility of the upper lip, underwent the modified lip repositioning technique associated with gingivectomy followed b...

  16. Understanding the determinants of exercise intentions in multiple myeloma cancer survivors: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W; Courneya, Kerry S; Vallance, Jeffrey K H; Ladha, Aliya B; Mant, Michael J; Belch, Andrew R; Reiman, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic, medical, and social cognitive determinants of exercise intentions in a population-based sample of multiple myeloma cancer survivors. Using a cross-sectional survey, 70 multiple myeloma cancer survivors completed a questionnaire that assessed their medical and demographic characteristics, past exercise behavior, and social cognitive exercise beliefs using the theory of planned behavior. Seventy participants provided valuable data. Descriptive statistics indicated that participants had quite positive instrumental attitude, intentions, and subjective norms and moderate levels of perceived behavioral control and affective attitudes for exercise. Forced entry multiple regression showed that the theory of planned behavior explained 43% of the variance in exercise intentions. Instrumental attitude and perceived behavioral control were both independent predictors of exercise intentions. No demographic or medical variable moderated the association between the theory of planned behavior constructs and exercise intentions. The results of the present investigation support the growing body of evidence confirming the utility of the theory of planned behavior to understand the salient determinants of exercise in cancer survivors. Knowledge gained from this study provides important information to oncology practitioners who are responsible for delivering supportive care interventions, including exercise, to patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma.

  17. Hybrid approach combining multiple characterization techniques and simulations for microstructural analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinbas, Firat C.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Kariuki, Nancy; De Andrade, Vincent; Fongalland, Dash; Smith, Linda; Sharman, Jonathan; Ferreira, Paulo; Rasouli, Somaye; Myers, Deborah J.

    2017-03-01

    The cost and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells strongly depend on the cathode electrode due to usage of expensive platinum (Pt) group metal catalyst and sluggish reaction kinetics. Development of low Pt content high performance cathodes requires comprehensive understanding of the electrode microstructure. In this study, a new approach is presented to characterize the detailed cathode electrode microstructure from nm to μm length scales by combining information from different experimental techniques. In this context, nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) is performed to extract the secondary pore space of the electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is employed to determine primary C particle and Pt particle size distributions. X-ray scattering, with its ability to provide size distributions of orders of magnitude more particles than TEM, is used to confirm the TEM-determined size distributions. The number of primary pores that cannot be resolved by nano-CT is approximated using mercury intrusion porosimetry. An algorithm is developed to incorporate all these experimental data in one geometric representation. Upon validation of pore size distribution against gas adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry data, reconstructed ionomer size distribution is reported. In addition, transport related characteristics and effective properties are computed by performing simulations on the hybrid microstructure.

  18. Simultaneous determination of multiple (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in food samples by a one-step fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Tiejun; Wang, Zhanhui; Eremin, Sergei A; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Suxia

    2013-10-02

    This paper describes a rapid one-step fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for the simultaneous determination of multiple (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics (FQs) in food samples. Several fluorescent tracers were synthesized and evaluated in the FPIA method based on a broad-specificity of monoclonal antibodies toward FQs. The heterogeneous tracer, SAR-5-FAM, was considered as the optimal choice to prepare the immunocomplex single reagent, which allows a rapid and sensitive displacement reaction by addition of analytes. Optimized single-reagent FPIA exhibited broad cross-reactivities in the range of 7.8-172.2% with 16 FQs tested and was capable of determining most FQs at the level of maximum residue limits. Recoveries for spiked milk and chicken muscle samples were from 77.8 to 116%, with relative standard deviation lower than 17.4%. Therefore, this method could be applicable in routine screening analysis of multiple FQ residues in food samples.

  19. Genome-Wide Screening of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients Using Array-CGH Technique: A Czech Multicenter Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Smetana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs play a key role in multiple myeloma (MM pathogenesis and have important prognostic significance for MM patients. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH provides a powerful tool for genome-wide classification of CNAs and thus should be implemented into MM routine diagnostics. We demonstrate the possibility of effective utilization of oligonucleotide-based aCGH in 91 MM patients. Chromosomal aberrations associated with effect on the prognosis of MM were initially evaluated by I-FISH and were found in 93.4% (85/91. Incidence of hyperdiploidy was 49.5% (45/91; del(13(q14 was detected in 57.1% (52/91; gain(1(q21 occurred in 58.2% (53/91; del(17(p13 was observed in 15.4% (14/91; and t(4;14(p16;q32 was found in 18.6% (16/86. Genome-wide screening using Agilent 44K aCGH microarrays revealed copy number alterations in 100% (91/91. Most common deletions were found at 13q (58.9%, 1p (39.6%, and 8p (31.1%, whereas gain of whole 1q was the most often duplicated region (50.6%. Furthermore, frequent homozygous deletions of genes playing important role in myeloma biology such as TRAF3, BIRC1/BIRC2, RB1, or CDKN2C were observed. Taken together, we demonstrated the utilization of aCGH technique in clinical diagnostics as powerful tool for identification of unbalanced genomic abnormalities with prognostic significance for MM patients.

  20. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, Maria Loredana; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cobzac, Simona Codruta, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: {alpha} and {beta}-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  1. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  2. Reliability of Electrochemical Techniques for Determining Corrosion Rates on Carbon Steel in Sulfide Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hemmingsen, T.; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    2007-01-01

    accelerates corrosion rates, but this effect may not be detected if rates are already overestimated. It is concluded that electrochemical techniques can be used for corrosion reate monitoring in some H2S media, but care must be taken in the choice of scan ratre; it is important to realize when direct......Effects of film formation on carbon steel in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) media may corrupt corrosion rate monitoring by electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical data from H2S solutions, biological sulfide media, and natural sulfide containing geothermal water have been collected, and the process...... techniques like electrical resistance or mass loss should be used instead....

  3. Determination of confinement efficiency in tokamaks based on current independent flux loops technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    In this contribution we presented a current independent approximation of the combination of poloidal beta and internal inductance (confinement efficiency) only based on poloidal flux loops measurement in IR-T1 tokamak. The main advantage of this technique is that it based only on the one diagnostic (only flux loops and not need to plasma current measurement). Based on this method, two flux loops were designed, constructed, and installed on outer surface of the IR-T1 tokamak chamber and then the Shafranov parameter was measured from them. Also the result of this technique was compared with conventional magnetic probes technique and found in good agreement with each other.

  4. Application of the Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter to Initial Orbit Determination of a Break-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelecy, Tom; Shoemaker, Michael; Jah, Moriba

    2013-08-01

    A break-up in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is simulated for 10 objects having area-to-mass ratios (AMR's) ranging from 0.1-10.0 m2/kg. The Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter (CAR-MHF) is applied to determining and characterizing the orbit and atmospheric drag parameters (CdA/m) simultaneously for each of the 10 objects with no a priori orbit or drag information. The results indicate that CAR-MHF shows promise for accurate, unambiguous and autonomous determination of the orbit and drag states.

  5. A Simple Technique to Determine Interface Slip of Stud Connected SCC Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasankar J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple technique is proposed to compute interface slip of stud connected steel-concrete composite (SCC girders based on the results of a flexure test. The technique makes use of relative longitudinal displacement of the concrete slab and steel beam to calculate the interface slip. In the flexure test of a SCC girder, a cost-effective instrumentation arrangement consisting of mechanical dial gauges is used to measure the relative longitudinal displacement. Responses measured from experiments on SCC girders conducted by the authors are used for numerical implementation and validation of the technique. Alternatively, interface slip is also evaluated by applying an analytical model which is based on first principles of mechanics. The values of interface slip computed by using the proposed technique are found to have close correlation with those of the analytical model. The effect of edge restraint on slip due to friction between steel and concrete is also studied

  6. Determination of Kinetic Parameters for Thermal Decomposition of Phenolic Ablative Materials by Multiple Heating Rate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    the ratio method to analyze thermogravimetric data obtained for a urethane polymer. Baer, Hedges, Seader , Jayakar, and Wojcik6 heated samples of...reinforced polymers at heating rates up to 4200°C/min. The data were correlated by a numerical technique developed by Burningham and Seader .7 Friedman...Decomposition Through Thermogravimetric Analysis," Thermochimica Acta, No, 1, (1970), pp. 147-158. 6. A. D. Baer, J. H. Hedges, J. D. Seader , K. M. Jayakar

  7. Review of procedures involving separation and preconcentration for the determination of cadmium using spectrometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil)]. E-mail: slcf@ufba.br; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Korn, Maria das Gracas A. [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Pereira, Madson de G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra Campus 1-Cabula, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 41195-001 (Brazil); Lemos, Valfredo A. [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, Campus de Jequie, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, Bahia 45200-190 (Brazil); Santos, Walter N.L. dos [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra Campus 1-Cabula, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 41195-001 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Frederico de Medeiros [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Empresa Baiana de Desenvolvimento Agricola S.A., Avenida Dorival Caymmi 15649, Itapoan, Salvador, Bahia 41635-150 (Brazil); Souza, Anderson S. [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saude, Campus AnisioTeixeira, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia 45055-090 (Brazil); Ferreira, Hadla S. [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Silva, Erik G.P. da [Instituto de Quimica, Campus Universitario Ondina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil)

    2007-07-16

    Spectrometric techniques for the analysis of trace cadmium have developed rapidly due to the increasing need for accurate measurements at extremely low levels of this element in diverse matrices. This review covers separation and preconcentration procedures, such as electrochemical deposition, precipitation, coprecipitation, solid phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and cloud point extraction (CPE), and consider the features of the their application with several spectrometric techniques.

  8. Evaluation of single and multiple Doppler lidar techniques to measure complex flow during the XPIA field campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choukulkar, Aditya; Brewer, W. Alan; Sandberg, Scott P.; Weickmann, Ann; Bonin, Timothy A.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Lundquist, Julie K.; Delgado, Ruben; Iungo, G. Valerio; Ashton, Ryan; Debnath, Mithu; Bianco, Laura; Wilczak, James M.; Oncley, Steven; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate three-dimensional information of wind flow fields can be an important tool in not only visualizing complex flow but also understanding the underlying physical processes and improving flow modeling. However, a thorough analysis of the measurement uncertainties is required to properly interpret results. The XPIA (eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment) field campaign conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, CO, from 2 March to 31 May 2015 brought together a large suite of in situ and remote sensing measurement platforms to evaluate complex flow measurement strategies.

    In this paper, measurement uncertainties for different single and multi-Doppler strategies using simple scan geometries (conical, vertical plane and staring) are investigated. The tradeoffs (such as time–space resolution vs. spatial coverage) among the different measurement techniques are evaluated using co-located measurements made near the BAO tower. Sensitivity of the single-/multi-Doppler measurement uncertainties to averaging period are investigated using the sonic anemometers installed on the BAO tower as the standard reference. Finally, the radiometer measurements are used to partition the measurement periods as a function of atmospheric stability to determine their effect on measurement uncertainty.

    It was found that with an increase in spatial coverage and measurement complexity, the uncertainty in the wind measurement also increased. For multi-Doppler techniques, the increase in uncertainty for temporally uncoordinated measurements is possibly due to requiring additional assumptions of stationarity along with horizontal homogeneity and less representative line-of-sight velocity statistics. It was also found that wind speed measurement uncertainty was lower during stable conditions compared to unstable conditions.

  9. Evaluation of single and multiple Doppler lidar techniques to measure complex flow during the XPIA field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukulkar, Aditya; Brewer, W. Alan; Sandberg, Scott P.; Weickmann, Ann; Bonin, Timothy A.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Lundquist, Julie K.; Delgado, Ruben; Valerio Iungo, G.; Ashton, Ryan; Debnath, Mithu; Bianco, Laura; Wilczak, James M.; Oncley, Steven; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate three-dimensional information of wind flow fields can be an important tool in not only visualizing complex flow but also understanding the underlying physical processes and improving flow modeling. However, a thorough analysis of the measurement uncertainties is required to properly interpret results. The XPIA (eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment) field campaign conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, CO, from 2 March to 31 May 2015 brought together a large suite of in situ and remote sensing measurement platforms to evaluate complex flow measurement strategies. In this paper, measurement uncertainties for different single and multi-Doppler strategies using simple scan geometries (conical, vertical plane and staring) are investigated. The tradeoffs (such as time-space resolution vs. spatial coverage) among the different measurement techniques are evaluated using co-located measurements made near the BAO tower. Sensitivity of the single-/multi-Doppler measurement uncertainties to averaging period are investigated using the sonic anemometers installed on the BAO tower as the standard reference. Finally, the radiometer measurements are used to partition the measurement periods as a function of atmospheric stability to determine their effect on measurement uncertainty. It was found that with an increase in spatial coverage and measurement complexity, the uncertainty in the wind measurement also increased. For multi-Doppler techniques, the increase in uncertainty for temporally uncoordinated measurements is possibly due to requiring additional assumptions of stationarity along with horizontal homogeneity and less representative line-of-sight velocity statistics. It was also found that wind speed measurement uncertainty was lower during stable conditions compared to unstable conditions.

  10. Fabrication and Determination of Refractive Index Profile of the Planar Waveguides by Wedge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.; M.; R.; Sadat; Hosseini; A.; Darudi

    2003-01-01

    Several planar waveguides have been fabricated. The waveguides have been polished for determination of their refractive index profiles (RIP) by wedge method. The RIP determined by inserting the sample in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and applying fringe analysis methods.

  11. Fabrication and Determination of Refractive Index Profile of the Planar Waveguides by Wedge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. M. R. Sadat Hosseini; A. Darudi

    2003-01-01

    Several planar waveguides have been fabricated. The waveguides have been polished for determination of their refractiveindex profiles (RIP) by wedge method. The RIP determined by inserting the sample in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer andapplying fringe analysis methods.

  12. How multiplicity determines entropy and the derivation of the maximum entropy principle for complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan; Gell-Mann, Murray

    2014-05-13

    The maximum entropy principle (MEP) is a method for obtaining the most likely distribution functions of observables from statistical systems by maximizing entropy under constraints. The MEP has found hundreds of applications in ergodic and Markovian systems in statistical mechanics, information theory, and statistics. For several decades there has been an ongoing controversy over whether the notion of the maximum entropy principle can be extended in a meaningful way to nonextensive, nonergodic, and complex statistical systems and processes. In this paper we start by reviewing how Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is related to multiplicities of independent random processes. We then show how the relaxation of independence naturally leads to the most general entropies that are compatible with the first three Shannon-Khinchin axioms, the (c,d)-entropies. We demonstrate that the MEP is a perfectly consistent concept for nonergodic and complex statistical systems if their relative entropy can be factored into a generalized multiplicity and a constraint term. The problem of finding such a factorization reduces to finding an appropriate representation of relative entropy in a linear basis. In a particular example we show that path-dependent random processes with memory naturally require specific generalized entropies. The example is to our knowledge the first exact derivation of a generalized entropy from the microscopic properties of a path-dependent random process.

  13. Combining multiple measurement and isotope techniques to help target erosion hot-spots in the Great Barrier Reef catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Rebecca; Croke, Jacky; Bainbridge, Zoe; Wilkinson, Scott; Hancock, Gary; Austin, Jen; Kuhnert, Petra

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable evidence that the amount of sediment reaching the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, has increased since agricultural development commenced in the 1870's. This is having deleterious effects on freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, understanding the primary source and processes driving the increased sediment delivery has been challenging due to the large size and hydrogeomorphic diversity of adjacent catchments. This paper presents the results from several projects that employed a diverse range of measurement techniques all aimed at understanding the spatial and temporal changes in sediment yield from the 130,000 km2 Burdekin catchment, Australia. Cosmogenic nuclides (10Be) were combined with contemporary sediment flux monitoring to help identify high risk sub-catchments that have anthropogenically accelerated erosion. Within the sub-catchments, fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 7Pb and 7Be) were uses to determine the dominant erosion process (surface vs sub-surface erosion). Long term monitoring of improved grazing land management (using nested flumes and gauges), were used to evaluate the effectiveness of land management changes on sediment yields at paddock and catchment scales over 10 years. The results suggest that the Bowen and Upper Burdekin sub-catchments are the dominant anthropogenic source of sediment to the GBR having an accelerated erosion factor of 7.47 (± 3.71) and 3.64 (± 0.5), respectively. Within these sub-catchments, most of the fine sediment is coming from vertical channel walls (50%) or horizontal sub-surface soils (~42%). Remediating these catchments and reducing sediment delivery is likely to take greater than 10 years, and will require a range of approaches including pasture and rangeland management, as well as targeted erosion control in highly gullied landscapes. Together, these data sets help elucidate the often complex sediment delivery processes to the GBR. This helps policy and management determine where to

  14. Error and Bias in Determining Exposure Potential of Children at School Locations Using Proximity-Based GIS Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbergen, Paul A.; Green, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The widespread availability of powerful tools in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software has made address geocoding a widely employed technique in spatial epidemiologic studies. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the positional error in geocoding on the analysis of exposure to traffic-related air pollution of children at school locations. Methods For a case study of Orange County, Florida, we determined the positional error of geoco...

  15. Theoretical and simulation analysis of a novel multiple-input multiple-output scheme over multimode fiber links with dual restricted launch techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanquan; Chi, Nan; Li, Rongling; Fang, Wuliang; Zhang, Junwen; Tao, Li; Shao, Yufeng

    2012-06-01

    Different launching methods over multimode fiber (MMF) are reviewed and compared under various aspects such as coupling coefficient, mode power distribution, and bit error rate performance. Among these, center launch and ring launch are elaborated and chosen as the inputs of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scheme for center launch exciting limited lower-order modes while ring launch exciting limited higher ones. Furthermore, we discuss the theoretical background and give a new wide-band MMF MIMO mathematical model. This paper also proposes a novel MMF MIMO system combining the dual restricted launches together with multi-segments receiving. The simulated results indicate that an aggregate data rate of 20 Gb/s over 800-m graded index-multimode fiber can be achieved by using this newly established MIMO scheme.

  16. How multiplicity determines entropy and the derivation of the maximum entropy principle for complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hanel, Rudolf; Gell-Mann, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The maximum entropy principle (MEP) is a method for obtaining the most likely distribution functions of observables from statistical systems, by maximizing entropy under constraints. The MEP has found hundreds of applications in ergodic and Markovian systems in statistical mechanics, information theory, and statistics. For several decades there exists an ongoing controversy whether the notion of the maximum entropy principle can be extended in a meaningful way to non-extensive, non-ergodic, and complex statistical systems and processes. In this paper we start by reviewing how Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is related to multiplicities of independent random processes. We then show how the relaxation of independence naturally leads to the most general entropies that are compatible with the first three Shannon-Khinchin axioms, the (c,d)-entropies. We demonstrate that the MEP is a perfectly consistent concept for non-ergodic and complex statistical systems if their relative entropy can be factored into a general...

  17. Determining the feasibility of establishing new multiple-use marine protected areas in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Simon, Jeanne W; Paz-Lerdón, Ximena

    2013-12-01

    This paper evaluates the feasibility of establishing a multiple-use marine protected area. The methodology was applied to evaluate three proposed sites in Chile with diverse conservation needs, social stress and poverty levels, and different economic activities (small-scale fishing, heavy industry, and mining activities). We use two broad categories for the evaluation: socio-economic and political-institutional. The methodology uses a combination of secondary data with personal interviews, workshops, and focus groups with stakeholders (e.g., fishermen, unions, politicians, social organizations) from different political, social, and economic backgrounds to characterize current and potential natural and social resources and to evaluate in an ordinal scale the feasibility of establishing the protected area. The methodology allows us to correctly identify the challenges faced in each site and can be used to develop appropriate strategies for balancing economic, social, and environmental objectives. This methodology can be replicated to evaluate the feasibility of other marine or terrestrial protected areas.

  18. A noninvasive, direct real-time PCR method for sex determination in multiple avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Jessica L.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Chen, Yu; Jenko, Kathryn; Sprague, Daniel T.; Henry, Paula F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to determine the sex of birds are well established and have seen few modifications since they were first introduced in the 1990s. Although these methods allowed for sex determination in species that were previously difficult to analyse, they were not conducive to high-throughput analysis because of the laboriousness of DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis. We developed a high-throughput real-time PCR-based method for analysis of sex in birds, which uses noninvasive sample collection and avoids DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis.

  19. A noninvasive, direct real-time PCR method for sex determination in multiple avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Jessica L; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Chen, Yu; Jenko, Kathryn; Sprague, Daniel T; Henry, Paula F P

    2011-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to determine the sex of birds are well established and have seen few modifications since they were first introduced in the 1990s. Although these methods allowed for sex determination in species that were previously difficult to analyse, they were not conducive to high-throughput analysis because of the laboriousness of DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis. We developed a high-throughput real-time PCR-based method for analysis of sex in birds, which uses noninvasive sample collection and avoids DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis.

  20. Z-scan: A simple technique for determination of third-order optical nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vijender, E-mail: chahal-gju@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Science, N.C. College of Engineering, Israna, Panipat-132107, Haryana (India); Aghamkar, Praveen, E-mail: p-aghamkar@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa-125055, Haryana (India)

    2015-08-28

    Z-scan is a simple experimental technique to measure intensity dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of third-order nonlinear optical materials. This technique is used to measure the sign and magnitude of both real and imaginary part of the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of nonlinear optical materials. In this paper, we investigate third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ag-polymer composite film by using single beam z-scan technique with Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser (λ=532 nm) at 5 ns pulse. The values of nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of permethylazine were found to be 9.64 × 10{sup −7} cm/W, 8.55 × 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2}/W and 5.48 × 10{sup −10} esu, respectively.

  1. Comparison of various extraction techniques for isolation and determination of isoflavonoids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomás; Adam, Martin; Galla, Lubomír; Ventura, Karel

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the following extraction techniques have been used for extracting isoflavonoids from the species Matricaria recutita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Agrimonia eupatoria L.: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized fluid extraction, matrix solid phase dispersion, ultrasonic extraction in an ultrasonic bath (USE) and by means of an ultrasonic homogeniser (HOM), extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus (SOX), and solid phase extraction. Experimental optimization of all techniques has been carried out using a soybean flour. Subsequent analyses of the extracts were carried out by liquid chromatography with UV detection. The maximum yields of daidzein and genistein were obtained by extraction with the SOX, USE, and HOM techniques. The maximum yields of apigenin and biochanin A from herb samples were obtained by SFE.

  2. Quality evaluation of semen oroxyli based on the determination of multiple components with a single reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yangyang; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Lixin; Guo, Jian; Liu, Hongliang; Zhang, Jianyong; Yang, Bin; Huang, Luqi

    2013-01-01

    The determination of multiple components is considered to be one of the key methods to control the quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), because the clinical efficacy of TCM is derived from the synergistic action of multi-components. When simultaneously determining multi-components in TCM with multiple reference standards (MRS), the limited availability and high expense of various reference standards is a major obstacle. Currently, a practical method determining multi-components with a single reference standard (SRS) is needed to solve the problem, in which the contents of those components without reference standards can be calculated using relative conversion factor. In the present paper, both MRS and SRS methods were established for the simultaneous quantitative determination of seven bioactive flavonoids in Muhudie (MHD), the seed of Oroxylum indicum L., a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for centuries. Forty samples were assayed and data obtained from the two methods were compared, and no statistically significant difference was observed by a T-test (P > 0.05), thus, the SRS method can be applied for quality analysis of MHD. At the same time, a certain correlation was discovered between the contents of the bioactive components and the morphological character of MHD.

  3. Characterization of Urban Landscape Using Super-Resolution UAS Data, Multiple Textural Scales and Data-Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Blundell, B.

    2015-12-01

    Characterization of urban environments is a high priority for the U.S. Army as battlespaces have transitioned from the predominantly open spaces of the 20th century to urban areas where soldiers have reduced situational awareness due to the diversity and density of their surroundings. Creating high-resolution urban terrain geospatial information will improve mission planning and soldier effectiveness. In this effort, super-resolution true-color imagery was collected with an Altivan NOVA unmanned aerial system over the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville, Indiana on September 16, 2014. Multispectral texture analysis using different algorithms was conducted for urban surface characterization at a variety of scales. Training samples extracted from the true-color and texture images. These data were processed using a variety of meta-algorithms with a decision tree classifier to create a high-resolution urban features map. In addition to improving accuracy over traditional image classification methods, this technique allowed the determination of the most significant textural scales in creating urban terrain maps for tactical exploitation.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Binding Constants for Multiple Carbohydrate Hosts in Complex Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Beeren, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    to determine binding constants for all other detectable and resolvable hosts. With the use of high-resolution 1H−13C HSQC experiments, complexes of amphiphiles with more than 10 different maltooligosaccharides can be resolved. Hereby, the binding capabilities of a set of structurally related hosts can...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.15 - Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... should be aware of. The following are some of those risks: The future value of land is uncertain and... expense. If the land is not served by a central sewage system and/or water system, you should contact the local authorities to determine whether a permit will be given for an on-site sewage disposal system...

  6. Capacity Titration Technique for Determining the Solid Diffusion Coefficient of Intercalary Species within Insertion-host Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Cun TANG; Tian Duo LI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the capacity titration technique (CT technique) was developed on basis of the RPG (ratio of potentio-charge capacity to galvano-charge capacity) method to continuously determine the solid diffusion coefficient D of the intercalary species within insertion-host materials with a small voltage region. The linear equations of D vs. q (value of ratio of the potentio-charge capacity to the galvano-charge capacity) were given in different range of q. By the CT technique,the Li+ solid diffusion coefficients D within LiMn2O4 at different voltages were determined. The results showed that the values of D varied from 3.447× 10-9 cm2/s to 7.60× 10-11cm2/s in the voltage range of charge from 3.3V to 4.3V as a function of voltage with "W" shape.

  7. Kinetic analysis of IgM monoclonal antibodies for determination of dengue sample concentration using SPR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Peyman; Wei, Qin; Jie, Zhang; Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2016-08-17

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing is recently emerging as a valuable technique for measuring the binding constants, association and dissociation rate constants, and stoichimetry for a binding interaction kinetics in a number of emerging biological areas. This technique can be applied to the study of immune system diseases in order to contribute to improved understanding and evaluation of binding parameters for a variety of interactions between antigens and antibodies biochemically and clinically. Since the binding constants determination of an anti-protein dengue antibody (Ab) to a protein dengue antigen (Ag) is mostly complicated, the SPR technique aids a determination of binding parameters directly for a variety of particular dengue Ag_Ab interactions in the real-time. The study highlights the doctrine of real-time dengue Ag_Ab interaction kinetics as well as to determine the binding parameters that is performed with SPR technique. In addition, this article presents a precise prediction as a reference curve for determination of dengue sample concentration.

  8. Right sided double inferior vena cava with obstructed retrocaval ureter: Managed with single incision multiple port laparoscopic technique using "Santosh Postgraduate Institute tacking ureteric fixation technique".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Shivanshu; Garg, Nitin

    2015-04-01

    Right double inferior vena cava with obstructed retrocaval ureter is an extremely rare anomaly with only a few reported cases in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing ureteric repair by use of a single-incision laparoscopic technique. In addition, this report addresses the underlying surgical challenges of this repair and provides a brief review of the embryology of this anomaly. The "Santosh Postgraduate Institute ureteric tacking fixation technique" provides ease of end-to-end uretero-ureteric anastomosis in a single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

  9. Standard Test Method for Determining Thermal Neutron Reaction Rates and Thermal Neutron Fluence Rates by Radioactivation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this test method is to define a general procedure for determining an unknown thermal-neutron fluence rate by neutron activation techniques. It is not practicable to describe completely a technique applicable to the large number of experimental situations that require the measurement of a thermal-neutron fluence rate. Therefore, this method is presented so that the user may adapt to his particular situation the fundamental procedures of the following techniques. 1.1.1 Radiometric counting technique using pure cobalt, pure gold, pure indium, cobalt-aluminum, alloy, gold-aluminum alloy, or indium-aluminum alloy. 1.1.2 Standard comparison technique using pure gold, or gold-aluminum alloy, and 1.1.3 Secondary standard comparison techniques using pure indium, indium-aluminum alloy, pure dysprosium, or dysprosium-aluminum alloy. 1.2 The techniques presented are limited to measurements at room temperatures. However, special problems when making thermal-neutron fluence rate measurements in high-...

  10. The use of multilevel sampling techniques for determining shallow aquifer nitrate profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, Manuela; De Luca, Domenico Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Nitrate is a worldwide pollutant in aquifers. Shallow aquifer nitrate concentrations generally display vertical stratification, with a maximum concentration immediately below the water level. The concentration then gradually decreases with depth. Different techniques can be used to highlight this stratification. The paper aims at comparing the advantages and limitations of three open hole multilevel sampling techniques (packer system, dialysis membrane samplers and bailer), chosen on the base of a literary review, to highlight a nitrate vertical stratification under the assumption of (sub)horizontal flow in the aquifer. The sampling systems were employed at three different times of the year in a shallow aquifer piezometer in northern Italy. The optimal purge time, equilibration time and water volume losses during the time in the piezometer were evaluated. Multilevel techniques highlighted a similar vertical nitrate stratification, present throughout the year. Indeed, nitrate concentrations generally decreased with depth downwards, but with significantly different levels in the sampling campaigns. Moreover, the sampling techniques produced different degrees of accuracy. More specifically, the dialysis membrane samplers provided the most accurate hydrochemical profile of the shallow aquifer and they appear to be necessary when the objective is to detect the discontinuities in the nitrate profile. Bailer and packer system showed the same nitrate profile with little differences of concentration. However, the bailer resulted much more easier to use.

  11. Adipose tissue metabolism in humans determined by vein catheterization and microdialysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    glucose load. In addition a technique using microdialysis for measurement of tissue oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions is described. Microdialysis and vein catheterization were performed in the same region on the abdomen, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe...

  12. Using crosscorrelation techniques to determine the impulse response of linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallabetta, Michael J.; Li, Harry W.; Demuth, Howard B.

    1993-01-01

    A crosscorrelation method of measuring the impulse response of linear systems is presented. The technique, implementation, and limitations of this method are discussed. A simple system is designed and built using discrete components and the impulse response of a linear circuit is measured. Theoretical and software simulation results are presented.

  13. Determination of physical and chemical stability in pressurised metered dose inhalers: potential new techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Traini, Daniela; Boyd, Ben J; Gaisford, Simon; Young, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are subject to rigorous physical and chemical stability tests during formulation. Due to the time and cost associated with product development studies, there is a need for online techniques to fast screen new formulations in terms of physical and chemical (physico-chemical) stability. The problem with achieving this is that pMDIs are by their definition, pressurised, making the direct observation of physico-chemical properties in situ difficult. This review highlights the characterisation tools that can enhance the product development process for pMDIs. Techniques investigated include: laser diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, isothermal ampoule calorimetry, titration calorimetry and gas perfusion calorimetry. The operational principles behind each technique are discussed and complemented with examples from the literature. Laser diffraction is well placed to analyse real-time physical stability as a function of particle size; however, its use is restricted to suspension pMDIs. Raman spectroscopy can be potentially used to attain both suspension and solution pMDI spectra in real time; however, the majority of experiments are ex-valve chemical composition mapping. Calorimetry is an effective technique in capturing both chemical and physical degradations of APIs in real time but requires redevelopment to withstand pressure for the purposes of pMDI screening.

  14. Reliability of Electrochemical Techniques for Determining Corrosion Rates on Carbon Steel in Sulfide Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hemmingsen, T.; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    2007-01-01

    if the biofilm in combination with ferrous sulfide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 with electrochemical techniques - both by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemicel impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Oxygen entering the system...

  15. Determine Conjugate Points of an Aerial Photograph Stereopairs using Seperate Channel Mean Value Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Hernandi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the development of digital photogrammetric system, automatic image matching process play an important role. The automatic image matching is used in finding the conjugate points of an aerial photograph stereopair automatically. This matching technique gives quite significant contribution especially in the development of 3D photogrammetry in an attempt to get the exact and precise topographic information during the stereo restitution. There are two image matching methods that have been so far developed, i.e. the area based system for gray level environment and the feature based system for natural feature environment. This re¬search is trying to implement the area based matching with normalized cross correlation technique to get the correlation coefficient between the spectral value of the left image and its pair on the right. Based on the previous researches, the use of color image could increase the quality of match-ing. One of the color image matching technique is known as Separate Channel Mean Value. In order to be able to see the performance of the technique, a number of sampling areas with various different characteristics have been chosen, i.e. the heterogeneous, homogeneous, texture, shadow, and contrast. The result shows the highest similarity measure is obtained on heterogeneous sample area at size of all reference and search image, i.e. (11 pixels x 11 pixels and (23 pixels x 23 pixels. In these area the correlation coefficient reached more than 0.7 and the highest percentage of similarity measure is obtained. The average of total similarity measure of conjugate images in the sampling image area only reach about 41.43 % of success. Therefore, this technique has a weakness and some treatment to overcome the problems is still needed.

  16. Determination of {sup 129}I in simulated radioactive wastes using distillation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ke Chon; Song, Byung Cheol; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyu Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    It is clarified in the radioactive waste transfer regulation that the concentration of radioactive waste for the major radio nuclide has to be examined when radioactive waste is guided to the radioactive waste stores. In case of the low level radioactive waste sample, the analytical results of radioactive waste concentration frequently show a value lower than minimum detectable activity (MDA). Since the MDA value basically depends on the amount of a sample, background value, measurement time, counting efficiency, and etc, it would be necessary to increase a sample amount with a intention of minimizing MDA. In order to measure a concentration of {sup 129}I in low and medium level radioactive waste, {sup 129}I was collected by using a distillation technique after leaching the simulated radioactive waste sample with a non-volatile acid. The recovery of {sup 129}I measured was compared with that measured with column elution technique which is a conventional method using an anion-exchange resin. The recovery of inactive iodide by using the distillation method and column elution were found as 86.5 {+-} 0.9% and 87.3 {+-}2.7%, respectively. The recovery and MDA value calculated for distillation technique when 100 g of extracted solution of {sup 129}I was taken,were found to be 84.6 {+-} 1.6% and 1.2 X 10{sup -4} Bq/g, respectively. Consequently, the proposed technique with simplified process lowered the MDA value more than 10 times compared to the column elution technique that has a disadvantage of limited sampling amount.

  17. Multiple Forms of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Animals: Structural Determinants and Physiological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunik, Victoria; Artiukhov, Artem; Aleshin, Vasily; Mkrtchyan, Garik

    2016-12-14

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) of animal cells is usually considered to be a mitochondrial enzyme. However, this enzyme has recently been reported to be also present in nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. These extramitochondrial localizations are associated with moonlighting functions of GDH, which include acting as a serine protease or an ATP-dependent tubulin-binding protein. Here, we review the published data on kinetics and localization of multiple forms of animal GDH taking into account the splice variants, post-translational modifications and GDH isoenzymes, found in humans and apes. The kinetic properties of human GLUD1 and GLUD2 isoenzymes are shown to be similar to those published for GDH1 and GDH2 from bovine brain. Increased functional diversity and specific regulation of GDH isoforms due to alternative splicing and post-translational modifications are also considered. In particular, these structural differences may affect the well-known regulation of GDH by nucleotides which is related to recent identification of thiamine derivatives as novel GDH modulators. The thiamine-dependent regulation of GDH is in good agreement with the fact that the non-coenzyme forms of thiamine, i.e., thiamine triphosphate and its adenylated form are generated in response to amino acid and carbon starvation.

  18. Multiple Forms of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Animals: Structural Determinants and Physiological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Bunik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH of animal cells is usually considered to be a mitochondrial enzyme. However, this enzyme has recently been reported to be also present in nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. These extramitochondrial localizations are associated with moonlighting functions of GDH, which include acting as a serine protease or an ATP-dependent tubulin-binding protein. Here, we review the published data on kinetics and localization of multiple forms of animal GDH taking into account the splice variants, post-translational modifications and GDH isoenzymes, found in humans and apes. The kinetic properties of human GLUD1 and GLUD2 isoenzymes are shown to be similar to those published for GDH1 and GDH2 from bovine brain. Increased functional diversity and specific regulation of GDH isoforms due to alternative splicing and post-translational modifications are also considered. In particular, these structural differences may affect the well-known regulation of GDH by nucleotides which is related to recent identification of thiamine derivatives as novel GDH modulators. The thiamine-dependent regulation of GDH is in good agreement with the fact that the non-coenzyme forms of thiamine, i.e., thiamine triphosphate and its adenylated form are generated in response to amino acid and carbon starvation.

  19. Determination of useful ranges of mixing conditions for glycerin Fatty Acid ester by multiple regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimoto, Takeaki; Iwao, Yasunori; Hattori, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of the effects of the triglycerin full behenate (TR-FB) concentration and the mixing time on lubrication and tablet properties were analyzed under a two-factor central composite design, and compared with those of magnesium stearate (Mg-St). Various amounts of lubricant (0.07-3.0%) were added to granules and mixed for 1-30 min. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the effect of the mixing conditions on each physicochemical property. The mixing conditions did not significantly affect the lubrication properties of TR-FB. For tablet properties, tensile strength decreased and disintegration time increased when the lubricant concentration and the mixing time were increased for Mg-St. The direct interaction of the Mg-St concentration and the mixing time had a significant negative effect on the disintegration time. In contrast, any mixing conditions of TR-FB did not affect the tablet properties. In addition, the range of mixing conditions which satisfied the lubrication and tablet property criteria was broader for TR-FB than that for Mg-St, suggesting that TR-FB allows tablets with high quality attributes to be produced consistently. Therefore, TR-FB is a potential lubricant alternative to Mg-St.

  20. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanny; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predictors: child sex, partner support reported by the caregiver, disorganized infant-parent attachment at 15 months, child anger proneness at 28 months, and one of the two parent-child interaction factors observed at 28 months, namely negative parent-child interactions. The other, i.e., a lack of effective guidance, predicted externalizing problems only in highly anger-prone children. Furthermore, mediated pathways of influence were found for the parent-child interaction at 15 months (via disorganized attachment) and parental ego-resiliency (via negative parent-child interaction at 28 months). PMID:17243016

  1. Multiple myeloma cells' capacity to decompose H2O2 determines lenalidomide sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Sinto; Zhu, Yuan X; Braggio, Esteban; Shi, Chang-Xin; Panchabhai, Sonali C; Van Wier, Scott A; Ahmann, Greg J; Chesi, Marta; Bergsagel, P Leif; Stewart, A Keith; Fonseca, Rafael

    2017-02-23

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiDs) with clinical efficacy in multiple myeloma (MM) and other late B-cell neoplasms. Although cereblon (CRBN) is an essential requirement for IMiD action, the complete molecular and biochemical mechanisms responsible for lenalidomide-mediated sensitivity or resistance remain unknown. Here, we report that IMiDs work primarily via inhibition of peroxidase-mediated intracellular H2O2 decomposition in MM cells. MM cells with lower H2O2-decomposition capacity were more vulnerable to lenalidomide-induced H2O2 accumulation and associated cytotoxicity. CRBN-dependent degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 was a consequence of H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. Lenalidomide increased intracellular H2O2 levels by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in cells expressing CRBN, causing accumulation of immunoglobulin light-chain dimers, significantly increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress and inducing cytotoxicity by activation of BH3-only protein Bim in MM. Other direct inhibitors of TrxR and thioredoxin (Trx) caused similar cytotoxicity, but in a CRBN-independent fashion. Our findings could help identify patients most likely to benefit from IMiDs and suggest direct TrxR or Trx inhibitors for MM therapy.

  2. Research on Innovating, Applying Multiple Paths Routing Technique Based on Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm for Routing Messages in Service - Oriented Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET (short for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network consists of a set of mobile network nodes, network configuration changes very fast. In content based routing, data is transferred from source node to request nodes is not based on destination addresses. Therefore, it is very flexible and reliable, because source node does not need to know destination nodes. If We can find multiple paths that satisfies bandwidth requirement, split the original message into multiple smaller messages to transmit concurrently on these paths. On destination nodes, combine separated messages into the original message. Hence it can utilize better network resources, causes data transfer rate to be higher, load balancing, failover. Service Oriented Routing is inherited from the model of content based routing (CBR, combined with several advanced techniques such as Multicast, multiple path routing, Genetic algorithm to increase the data rate, and data encryption to ensure information security. Fuzzy logic is a logical field study evaluating the accuracy of the results based on the approximation of the components involved, make decisions based on many factors relative accuracy based on experimental or mathematical proof. This article presents some techniques to support multiple path routing from one network node to a set of nodes with guaranteed quality of service. By using these techniques can decrease the network load, congestion, use network resources efficiently.

  3. THE DETERMINATION OF ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS AND SOLID DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS OF MANNITOL AND SORBITOL BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOYechun; XIHongxia; 等

    1999-01-01

    The parameter identification model is proposed for determining the linear adsorption isotherms and the solid diffusion coefficients by using adsorption chromatorgaphy.Axial dispersion coefficients is firstly determined by pulse-respond experiment technique with an inert substance as tracer,then the elution curves of chromatography separating the isomer mannitol and sorbitol are determined by the chromatographic measuring technique,and pinally the adsorption isotherms and the solid diffusion coefficients of mannitol and sorbitol on Ca2+ resins are estimated by using this model.The results show that the axial dispersion coefficients increase with fluid velocity increasing,The adsorption equilibrium constants decrease with temperature rising;and the solid diffusion coefficients increase with temperature rising.The theoretical elution curves are good agreement with the experimental elution curves of the liquid adsorption chromatography separating the mannitol and the sorbitol.The model provides a simple and reliable procedure to estimate the kinetic and thermodynamic parmeters of the adsorption.

  4. Evaluation of accuracy of casts of multiple internal connection implant prosthesis obtained from different impression materials and techniques: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Malesh; Garg, Pooja; Prithviraj, D R

    2014-04-01

    Movement of impression copings inside the impression material using a direct (open tray) impression technique during clinical and laboratory phases may cause inaccuracy in transferring the 3-dimensional spatial orientation of implants intraorally to the cast. Consequently, the prosthesis may require corrective procedures. This in vitro study evaluated the accuracy of 3 different impression techniques using polyether and vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material to obtain a precise cast for multiple internal connection implants. A reference acrylic resin model with 4 internal connection implants was fabricated. Impressions of the reference model were made using 3 different techniques and 2 different impression materials. The study consisted of 24 specimens divided into 6 groups of 4 each. Impressions were poured with ADA type IV stone (Kalrock, Kalabhai Karson Pvt Ltd, Mumbai, India). All casts were evaluated for the positional accuracy (mm) of the implant replica heads using a profile projector. These measurements were compared to the measurements calculated on the reference resin model, which served as a control. Data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison procedures to evaluate group means. The results revealed significant difference for anterior implant distance between the 2 impression materials (P techniques (P technique. For posterior implants, the results suggested no significant difference between the 2 impression materials (P ≥ .05). Although results were not statistically significant, the polyether impression material showed the lowest mean variation as compared to the VPS impression material. However, there was a significant difference among the 3 different techniques (P techniques, the lowest mean variation between 2 posterior implants was found in the splinted technique. Casts obtained from impression techniques using square impression copings splinted together with autopolymerizing acrylic

  5. A discrete choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injection devices in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingler, S L; Swinburn, P; Ali, S; Perard, R; Lloyd, A J

    2013-08-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is usually managed with disease modifying drugs (DMDs), most commonly administered via self-injection. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence that different treatment-related attributes have for MS patients on their choice of MS DMD device. By establishing the relative importance of these characteristics for patients it should be possible to better understand the acceptability of a given device and to optimize the development of future devices. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed on the basis of a review of published literature. Attributes identified for inclusion in the survey were: ease of use; comfort of use; presence of additional functions, needle visibility; practicality and efficacy. Choice sets were presented as pairs of hypothetical treatments based upon a fractional factorial design. One-hundred device-using MS patients completed the survey online. Analysis was conducted using a mixed-logit approach. Analysis of the DCE data revealed that all attributes significantly predicted treatment choice. Efficacy exhibited the largest effect on treatment selection and this provided context for understanding the magnitude of impact for the other attributes. Reducing the discomfort associated with device use and eliminating the necessity for assembly or drug reconstitution were highly valued. The addition of reminder and time-stamping functions, improved needlestick injury prevention, and reduction in device size were secondary concerns but still deemed desirable. Efficacy is of primary importance to MS patients, but characteristics of drug delivery devices can play an important role in treatment decision-making. Not all device characteristics could be included, and results are based upon 100 participants only. Findings suggest there is significant potential value in developing self-injection devices that are not only efficacious but also convenient and comfortable to use. Reducing barriers

  6. Monte Carlo Simulation of X-rays Multiple Refractive Scattering from Fine Structure Objects imaged with the DEI Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Khromova, A N; Arfelli, F; Menk, R H; Besch, H J; Plothow-Besch, H; 10.1109/NSSMIC.2004.1466758

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a novel 3D Monte Carlo photon transport program for simulation of multiple refractive scattering based on the refractive properties of X-rays in highly scattering media, like lung tissue. Multiple scattering reduces not only the quality of the image, but contains also information on the internal structure of the object. This information can be exploited utilizing image modalities such as Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI). To study the effect of multiple scattering a Monte Carlo program was developed that simulates multiple refractive scattering of X-ray photons on monodisperse PMMA (poly-methyl-methacrylate) microspheres representing alveoli in lung tissue. Eventually, the results of the Monte Carlo program were compared to the measurements taken at the SYRMEP beamline at Elettra (Trieste, Italy) on special phantoms showing a good agreement between both data.

  7. A new technique for collection, concentration and determination of gaseous tropospheric formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Edahl, Robert A.

    This article describes an improved technique for making in situ measurements of gaseous tropospheric formaldehyde (CH 2O). The new technique is based on nebulization/reflux principles that have proved very effective in quantitatively scrubbing water soluble trace gases (e.g. CH 2O) into aqueous mediums, which are subsequently analyzed. Atmospheric formaldehyde extractions and analyses have been performed with the nebulization/reflux concentrator using an acidified dinitrophenylhydrazine solution that indicate that quantitative analysis of CH 2O at global background levels (˜ 0.1 ppbv) is feasible with 20-min extractions. Analysis of CH 2O, once concentrated, is accomplished using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet photometric detection. The CH 2O-hydrazone derivative, produced by the reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in H 2SO 4 acidified aqueous solution, is detected as CH 2O.

  8. Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Tankiewicz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are among the most dangerous environmental pollutants because of their stability, mobility and long-term effects on living organisms. Their presence in the environment is a particular danger. It is therefore crucial to monitor pesticide residues using all available analytical methods. The analysis of environmental samples for the presence of pesticides is very difficult: the processes involved in sample preparation are labor-intensive and time-consuming. To date, it has been standard practice to use large quantities of organic solvents in the sample preparation process; but as these solvents are themselves hazardous, solvent-less and solvent-minimized techniques are becoming popular. The application of Green Chemistry principles to sample preparation is primarily leading to the miniaturization of procedures and the use of solvent-less techniques, and these are discussed in the paper.

  9. Integrated search technique for parameter determination of SVM for speech recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teena Mittal; R K Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) has a good application prospect for speech recognition problems;still optimum parameter selection is a vital issue for it. To improve the learning ability of SVM, a method for searching the optimal parameters based on integration of predator prey optimization (PPO) and Hooke-Jeeves method has been proposed. In PPO technique, population consists of prey and predator particles. The prey particles search the optimum solution and predator always attacks the global best prey particle. The solution obtained by PPO is further improved by applying Hooke-Jeeves method. Proposed method is applied to recognize isolated words in a Hindi speech database and also to recognize words in a benchmark database TI-20 in clean and noisy environment. A recognition rate of 81.5% for Hindi database and 92.2% for TI-20 database has been achieved using proposed technique.

  10. Review of some recent techniques of age determination of blow flies having forensic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Bala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomology can aid death investigation by using predictable developmental changes to estimate the age of flies associated with a body. Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stages to estimate blowfly age, and from those, a Postmortem Interval. Calliphorids are very interesting in forensic sciences from an applied point of view, because they provide relevant evidence for estimating the Postmortem Interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precision, particularly in the older developmental stages, so there is a need of some alternative aging methods. The range of techniques available for age grading of adult insects is reviewed, with particular emphasis on species of medical importance. The techniques described include pteridine fluorescence analysis, internal morphological analysis, cuticular hydrocarbon analysis, gene expression analysis, cuticular banding pattern analysis, volatile organic compounds analysis released by larvae and pupae.

  11. Analysis of pricing techniques in determining a fair and reasonable price

    OpenAIRE

    Redman, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to idenfity the principal techniques used by firms in pricing products for sale to the Government and to examine and analyze the conditions contributing to a firm's pricing strategy. A review of writings in marketing, acquisition, and Micro Economics provided the background information necessary to examine how the theories of pricing and profit work together with recent Federal acquisition reforms to influ...

  12. Determination of multiple human arsenic metabolites employing high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Szabina; Liu, Guangliang; Matulis, Shannon; Boise, Lawrence H.; Cai, Yong

    2016-01-01

    During the metabolism of different arsenic-containing compounds in human, a variety of metabolites are produced with significantly varying toxicities. Currently available analytical methods can only detect a limited number of human metabolites in biological samples during one run due to their diverse characteristics. In addition, co-elution of species is often unnoticeable with most detection techniques leading to inaccurate metabolic profiles and assessment of toxicity. A high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed that can identify thirteen common arsenic metabolites possibly present in human with special attention dedicated to thiolated or thiol conjugated arsenicals. The thirteen species included in this study are arsenite (AsIII), arsino-glutathione (As(GS)3), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), monomethylarsino-glutathione (MMAIII(GS)2), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII (from DMAIIII)), S-(dimethylarsinic)cysteine (DMAIII(Cys)), dimethylarsino-glutathione (DMAIII(GS)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTAV), dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTAV), dimethylarsinothioyl glutathione (DMMTAV(GS)). The developed method was applied for the analysis of cancer cells that were incubated with Darinaparsin (DMAIII(GS)), a novel chemotherapeutic agent for refractory malignancies, and the arsenic metabolic profile obtained was compared to results using a previously developed method. This method provides a useful analytical tool which is much needed in unequivocally identifying the arsenicals formed during the metabolism of environmental arsenic exposure or therapeutic arsenic administration. PMID:26708625

  13. Biological application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique for determination of trace elements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Elshaimaa M; Imam, Hisham; Hassan, Mouyed A; Elnaby, Salah H

    2013-12-15

    Analysis of trace elements in mammalian hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during growth. Using LIBS technique, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Pb and Zn were detected in a single strand of horse hair. The results obtained through LIBS technique on hair samples were compared with the traditional technique (AAS) on digested acidified solution of the same samples. The effects of the experimental parameters on the emission lines were studied and the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in produced plasma was investigated. The transient plasma condition was verified at specific time region (1500-2000 ns) in the plasma evolution corresponding to its dynamic expanding characteristic. The relative mass concentrations of Fe and Zn were calculated by setting the concentration of C as the calibration. The information obtained from the trace elements' spectra of horse hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a biomarker. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of a quantitative parameter to evaluate swimming technique based on the maximal tethered swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncin, Rafael; Mezêncio, Bruno; Ferreira, Jacielle Carolina; Rodrigues, Sara Andrade; Huebner, Rudolf; Serrão, Julio Cerca; Szmuchrowski, Leszek

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a new force parameter, associated with swimmers' technique and performance. Twelve swimmers performed five repetitions of 25 m sprint crawl and a tethered swimming test with maximal effort. The parameters calculated were: the mean swimming velocity for crawl sprint, the mean propulsive force of the tethered swimming test as well as an oscillation parameter calculated from force fluctuation. The oscillation parameter evaluates the force variation around the mean force during the tethered test as a measure of swimming technique. Two parameters showed significant correlations with swimming velocity: the mean force during the tethered swimming (r = 0.85) and the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation (r = 0.86). However, the intercept coefficient was significantly different from zero only for the mean force, suggesting that although the correlation coefficient of the parameters was similar, part of the mean velocity magnitude that was not associated with the mean force was associated with the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation. Thus, force fluctuation during tethered swimming can be used as a quantitative index of swimmers' technique.

  15. Is personality profile a relevant determinant of fatigue in multiple sclerosis ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eSchreiber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The origin and pathophysiological background of MS-associated fatigue is poorly understood. There is no unifying concept of its nature and its determinants to date. This paper reviews possible influences of factors determining personality profile on mental fatigue in MS. Likewise, the role of psychological factors and their interaction with personality to promote fatigue is discussed. Current data suggests that fatigue, especially in early MS states, may be influenced by vulnerable personality traits and personality-associated features. Among them are depressive disease coping, avoidance behavior and inhibition, irritability, less extraversion, neuroticism, disturbed reward responsiveness and somatization behavior. However, among the validated personality factors no genuine influences that are independent of depression have been documented. From a psychological perspective, depressiveness, anxiety and perhaps somatization may be relevant mediators of fatigue. Interesting to note that in early MS a psychiatric diagnosis is significantly more likely than on a later stage of the disease and that fatigue and motivation might share neural circuits. It is hypothesized that psychological factors promote fatigue in MS by psychological distress and sustained neuro-endocrine and neurovegetative stress response. Despite there are limitations of data as discussed in the paper, personality research might help to disentangle specific promoting factors of fatigue in MS. Further research efforts are warranted since they might open ways to early psychological intervention of MS-associated fatigue. This is all the more important since medication is insufficient until now.

  16. Multiple determinants of transfer of evaluative function after conditioning with free-operant schedules of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil; McHugh, Louise

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the four present experiments was to explore how different schedules of reinforcement influence schedule-induced behavior, their impact on evaluative ratings given to conditioned stimuli associated with each schedule through evaluative conditioning, and the transfer of these evaluations through derived stimulus networks. Experiment 1 compared two contrasting response reinforcement rules (variable ratio [VR], variable interval [VI]). Experiment 2 varied the response to reinforcement rule between two schedules but equated the outcome to response rate (differential reinforcement of high rate [DRH] vs. VR). Experiment 3 compared molar and molecular aspects of contingencies of reinforcement (tandem VIVR vs. tandem VRVI). Finally, Experiment 4 employed schedules that induced low rates of responding to determine whether, under these circumstances, responses were more sensitive to the molecular aspects of a schedule (differential reinforcement of low rate [DRL] vs. VI). The findings suggest that the transfer of evaluative functions is determined mainly by differences in response rate between the schedules and the molar aspects of the schedules. However, when neither schedule was based on a strong response reinforcement rule, the transfer of evaluative judgments came under the control of the molecular aspects of the schedule.

  17. MULTIPLE IONIZATION PROCESS STUDIED WITH COINCIDENCE TECHNIQUE BETWEEN SLOW RECOIL ION AND PROJECTILE ION IN 42 MeV Arq+—Ar COLLISIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Tonuma; T.Matsuo; 等

    1990-01-01

    Slow Ar recoil ion Production cross sections by 42 MeV Ar1+(q=4-14) projectiles were measured using a projectile ion-recoilion coincidence technique in order to provide information on mechanisms of multiple ionization of target atome through pure ionization as well as of that accompaied simultaneously with multiple electron loss or capture of projectiles.The present results suggest that inner-shell electron processes caused through electron transfer into projectiles and also electron ionization by projectiles play a key role in the production of multiply charged recoil ions.

  18. Determinants of stigma in a cohort of hellenic patients suffering from multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostouli, Maria; Katsavos, Serafeim; Artemiadis, Artemios; Zacharis, Markos; Argyrou, Paraskevi; Theotoka, Ilia; Christidi, Fotini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Liappas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from several neurologic disorders may bear the “stigma” of their disease, being disqualified from full social acceptance. Although stigma is considered to be present in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the factors that influence its levels are ambiguous. Aim of our study was to examine, for the first time in the literature, the basic determinants of stigma in a Hellenic MS-patients cohort, as well as how stigma affects their Quality-of-Life (QoL) profiles. Methods Three ...

  19. Note: Accurate determination of thickness of multiple layers of thin film deposited on a piezoelectric quartz crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    Modern day piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalances for thin film deposition control are based on Z-match equation, which is mathematically valid for deposition of a single material on a given quartz crystal. When multiple layers are deposited, thickness and deposition rate errors accumulate due to mismatch of acoustic impedance of different materials. Here we present a novel method, based on the acoustic transfer matrix formalism, for accurate determination of thickness of an arbitrary number of layers of dissimilar materials deposited on a quartz crystal. Laboratory data show excellent accuracy of the method compared to conventional Z-match equation.

  20. One-Shot Determination of Residual Dipolar Couplings: Application to the Structural Discrimination of Small Molecules Containing Multiple Stereocenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañar, Laura; Garcia, Manuela; Hellemann, Erich; Nolis, Pau; Gil, Roberto R; Parella, Teodor

    2016-11-18

    A novel approach for the fast and efficient structural discrimination of molecules containing multiple stereochemical centers is described. A robust J-resolved HSQC experiment affording highly resolved (1)JCH/(1)TCH splittings along the indirect dimension and homodecoupled (1)H signals in the detected dimension is proposed. The experiment enables in situ distinction of both isotropic and anisotropic components of molecules dissolved in compressed PMMA gels, allowing a rapid and direct one-shot determination of accurate residual dipolar coupling constants from a single NMR spectrum.

  1. Determinants of stigma in a cohort of hellenic patients suffering from multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostouli, Maria; Katsavos, Serafeim; Artemiadis, Artemios; Zacharis, Markos; Argyrou, Paraskevi; Theotoka, Ilia; Christidi, Fotini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Liappas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from several neurologic disorders may bear the “stigma” of their disease, being disqualified from full social acceptance. Although stigma is considered to be present in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the factors that influence its levels are ambiguous. Aim of our study was to examine, for the first time in the literature, the basic determinants of stigma in a Hellenic MS-patients cohort, as well as how stigma affects their Quality-of-Life (QoL) profiles. Methods Three ...

  2. Genetic determinants of in vivo fitness and diet responsiveness in multiple human gut Bacteroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; McNulty, Nathan P.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Khoroshkin, Matvei S.; Griffin, Nicholas W.; Cheng, Jiye; Latreille, Phil; Kerstetter, Randall A.; Terrapon, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Osterman, Andrei L.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Libraries of tens of thousands of transposon mutants generated from each of four human gut Bacteroides strains, two representing the same species, were introduced simultaneously into gnotobiotic mice together with 11 other wild-type strains to generate a 15-member artificial human gut microbiota. Mice received one of two distinct diets monotonously, or both in ordered sequence. Quantifying the abundance of mutants in different diet contexts allowed gene-level characterization of fitness determinants, niche, stability and resilience, and yielded a prebiotic (arabinoxylan) that allowed targeted manipulation of the community. The approach described is generalizable and should be useful for defining mechanisms critical for sustaining and/or approaches for deliberately reconfiguring the highly adaptive and durable relationship between the human gut microbiota and host in ways that promote wellness. PMID:26430127

  3. Genetic determinants of in vivo fitness and diet responsiveness in multiple human gut Bacteroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; McNulty, Nathan P; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Khoroshkin, Matvei S; Griffin, Nicholas W; Cheng, Jiye; Latreille, Phil; Kerstetter, Randall A; Terrapon, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Osterman, Andrei L; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2015-10-02

    Libraries of tens of thousands of transposon mutants generated from each of four human gut Bacteroides strains, two representing the same species, were introduced simultaneously into gnotobiotic mice together with 11 other wild-type strains to generate a 15-member artificial human gut microbiota. Mice received one of two distinct diets monotonously, or both in different ordered sequences. Quantifying the abundance of mutants in different diet contexts allowed gene-level characterization of fitness determinants, niche, stability, and resilience and yielded a prebiotic (arabinoxylan) that allowed targeted manipulation of the community. The approach described is generalizable and should be useful for defining mechanisms critical for sustaining and/or approaches for deliberately reconfiguring the highly adaptive and durable relationship between the human gut microbiota and host in ways that promote wellness. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. In-situ determination of dispersion and resolving power in simultaneous multiple-angle XUV spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zastrau, U; Hilbert, V; Foerster, E [Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik (IOQ), Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Brown, C; Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Doeppner, T; Glenzer, S H [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Post Office Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Dziarzhytski, S; Harmand, M; Laarmann, T; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Schulz, M; Tavella, F [HASYLAB, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Goede, S; Meiwes-Broer, K-H; Skruszewicz, S [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Hochhaus, D; Neumayer, P [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Lee, H J, E-mail: ulf.zastrau@uni-jena.de [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We report on the simultaneous determination of non-linear dispersion functions and resolving power of three flat-field XUV grating spectrometers. A moderate-intense short-pulse infrared laser is focused onto technical aluminum which is commonly present as part of the experimental setup. In the XUV wavelength range of 10-19 nm, the spectrometers are calibrated using Al-Mg plasma emission lines. This cross-calibration is performed in-situ in the very same setup as the actual main experiment. The results are in excellent agreement with ray-tracing simulations. We show that our method allows for precise relative and absolute calibration of three different XUV spectrometers.

  5. Initial Clinical Experience in Multiple Myeloma Staging by Means of Whole-Body Resonance Techniques; Experiencia clinical inicial en la estadificacion del mieloma multiple mediante tecnicas de resonancia de todo el cuerpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J. I.; Concepcion, L.; Alonso, S.; Sanchez, B.; Manzi, F. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante. Alicante (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) exploratory technique equivalent to serial bone X-ray, and to compare their precision in the staging of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Multiple acquisition T1-weights TSE and STIR sequences in the coronal plane were performed. Ten healthy volunteers and 11 multiple myeloma diagnosed patients were included. The visualization of bony structures was particularly noted,with special attention given to those which would normally be included in a serial bone X-ray. In the case of the patients, a comparison was made between diagnostic capacities of the MR sequences. MR highlighters significantly more (p<0.05) bony elements than did the serial bone X-ray. This was greatly due to a sequential displacement of the scanner bed, allowing for field-of-views which were minimally from head to third proximal of the leg. Magnetic resonance detected a significantly higher number (p<0.05) of lesions. It was, in turn, capable of revealing greater lesion extensions, even to the point of implying staging classification changes in 18% of the patients. The utilization of whole-body MR techniques in multiple myeloma patients is feasible and clinically beneficial. MR is both more sensitive and more specific than serial bone X-ray for evaluation of bony lesions in MM. It is currently serving as a valid alternative in a growing numbers of patients. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. Experimental techniques to determine salt formation and deposition in supercritical water oxidation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.P.C.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.

    1994-08-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for destroying aqueous organic waste. Feed material, containing organic waste at concentrations typically less than 10 wt % in water, is pressurized and heated to conditions above water`s critical point where the ability of water to dissolve hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals is greatly enhanced. An oxidizer, is then added to the feed. Given adequate residence time and reaction temperature, the SCWO process rapidly produces innocuous combustion products. Organic carbon and nitrogen in the feed emerge as CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}; metals, heteroatoms, and halides appear in the effluent as inorganic salts and acids. The oxidation of organic material containing heteroatoms, such as sulfur or phosphorous, forms acid anions. In the presence of metal ions, salts are formed and precipitate out of the supercritical fluid. In a tubular configured reactor, these salts agglomerate, adhere to the reactor wall, and eventually interfere by causing a flow restriction in the reactor leading to an increase in pressure. This rapid precipitation is due to an extreme drop in salt solubility that occurs as the feed stream becomes supercritical. To design a system that can accommodate the formation of these salts, it is important to understand the deposition process quantitatively. A phenomenological model is developed in this paper to predict the time that reactor pressure begins to rise as a function of the fluid axial temperature profile and effective solubility curve. The experimental techniques used to generate effective solubility curves for one salt of interest, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, are described, and data is generated for comparison. Good correlation between the model and experiment is shown. An operational technique is also discussed that allows the deposited salt to be redissolved in a single phase and removed from the affected portion of the reactor. This technique is demonstrated experimentally.

  7. Determination of critical length scales for corrosion processes using microelectroanalytical techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Wall, Frederick Douglas

    2004-03-01

    A key factor in our ability to produce and predict the stability of metal-based macro- to nano-scale structures and devices is a fundamental understanding of the localized nature of corrosion. Corrosion processes where physical dimensions become critical in the degradation process include localized corrosion initiation in passivated metals, microgalvanic interactions in metal alloys, and localized corrosion in structurally complex materials like nanocrystalline metal films under atmospheric and inundated conditions. This project focuses on two areas of corrosion science where a fundamental understanding of processes occurring at critical dimensions is not currently available. Sandia will study the critical length scales necessary for passive film breakdown in the inundated aluminum (Al) system and the chemical processes and transport in ultra-thin water films relevant to the atmospheric corrosion of nanocrystalline tungsten (W) films. Techniques are required that provide spatial information without significantly perturbing or masking the underlying relationships. Al passive film breakdown is governed by the relationship between area of the film sampled and its defect structure. We will combine low current measurements with microelectrodes to study the size scale required to observe a single initiation event and record electrochemical breakdown events. The resulting quantitative measure of stability will be correlated with metal grain size, secondary phase size and distribution to understand which metal properties control stability at the macro- and nano-scale. Mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion on W are dependent on the physical dimensions and continuity of adsorbed water layers as well as the chemical reactions that take place in this layer. We will combine electrochemical and scanning probe microscopic techniques to monitor the chemistry and resulting material transport in these thin surface layers. A description of the length scales responsible for driving the

  8. Fluorescence Discrimination and Determination Technique for Phytoplankton Composition by Coif2 Wavelet Packet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yali; SU Rongguo; SHI Xiaoyong; WANG Xiulin; ZHU Chenjian; SUN Yan

    2013-01-01

    An in vivo fluorescence discrimination technique for phytoplankton population was developed by using Wavelet packet transform,cluster analysis and non-negative least squares.The technique was used to analyze water samples from different sea regions.For simulative mixtures,when dominant species account for 60%,70%,80%,90% at the division level,the correct discrimination ratios (CDRs) are 83.0%,99.1%,99.7% and 99.9% with the relative contents of 58.5%,68.4%,77.7% and 86.3%,respectively; when the algae dominance are 60%,70%,80%,90%,100% at the genus level,the CDRs are 86.1%,94.9%,95.2%,96.8% and 96.7%,respectively.For laboratory mixtures,the CDRs are 88.1% and 78.4% at the division and genus level,respectively.For field samples,the CDRs were 91.7% and 80% at the division and genus level,respectively (mesocosm experiments),and the CDRs were 100% and 66.7% at the division and genus level,respectively (Jiaozhou Bay).The fluorometric technique was used to estimate the phytoplankton community composition and relative abundance of different classes for the April 2010 cruise in the Yellow Sea with the results agreeing with those in published papers by other authors.

  9. Experimental verification of a computational technique for determining ground reactions in human bipedal stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audu, Musa L; Kirsch, Robert F; Triolo, Ronald J

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical model of human standing that enables us to study the mechanisms of posture and balance simultaneously in various directions in space. Since the two feet are on the ground, the system defines a kinematically closed-chain which has redundancy problems that cannot be resolved using the laws of mechanics alone. We have developed a computational (optimization) technique that avoids the problems with the closed-chain formulation thus giving users of such models the ability to make predictions of joint moments, and potentially, muscle activations using more sophisticated musculoskeletal models. This paper describes the experimental verification of the computational technique that is used to estimate the ground reaction vector acting on an unconstrained foot while the other foot is attached to the ground, thus allowing human bipedal standing to be analyzed as an open-chain system. The computational approach was verified in terms of its ability to predict lower extremity joint moments derived from inverse dynamic simulations performed on data acquired from four able-bodied volunteers standing in various postures on force platforms. Sensitivity analyses performed with model simulations indicated which ground reaction force (GRF) and center of pressure (COP) components were most critical for providing better estimates of the joint moments. Overall, the joint moments predicted by the optimization approach are strongly correlated with the joint moments computed using the experimentally measured GRF and COP (0.78 unity slope (experimental=computational results) for postures of the four subjects examined. These results indicate that this model-based technique can be relied upon to predict reasonable and consistent estimates of the joint moments using the predicted GRF and COP for most standing postures.

  10. Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques to analyze the determinants attributes in housing prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Núñez Tabale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The econometric approach to obtain the value of a property began with hedonic modelling, which were based on a set of property attributes, internal or external, associated to each particular dwelling. The final sale value can be estimated, and also the marginal prices of each exogenous explanatory variable. A good alternative to the hedonic approach is based on several Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANN, these tend to be more precise. Both methodologies are compared, and a case study is developed using data from Seville, the larger town in the South of Spain.

  11. Organic solvents-free technique for determining sulfadimethoxine and its metabolites in chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Naoto

    2007-11-16

    A quick and cost-effective technique of sample preparation followed by a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography under "organic solvent-free" (=100% aqueous) conditions for the simultaneous quantifying of sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and its metabolites, 6-hydroxy SDM (6-OH) and N(4)-acetyl SDM (N(4)-Ac), in chicken muscle is presented. Analysis by HPLC with photo-diode array detector was performed using a short C1 column with an isocratic 0.04 mol/l citric acid mobile phase. The method was validated by the analyses of spiked chicken muscle samples, resulting recoveries (> or =84%; relative standard deviations organic solvents were used at all.

  12. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  13. Remote-Sensing Technique for Determination of the Volume Absorption Coefficient of Turbid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Michael; Arnone, Robert A.; Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Terrie, Gregory E.; Ladner, Sherwin D.; Wood, Christoper G.

    1998-07-01

    We use remote-sensing reflectance from particulate R rs to determine the volume absorption coefficient a of turbid water in the 400 700-nm spectral region. The calculated and measured values of a ( ) show good agreement for 0 . 5 a 10 (m 1 ). To determine R rs from a particulate, we needed to make corrections for remote-sensing reflectance owing to surface roughness S rs . We determined the average spectral distribution of S rs from the difference in total remote-sensing reflectance measured with and without polarization. The spectral shape of S rs showed an excellent fit to theoretical formulas for glare based on Rayleigh and aerosol scattering from the atmosphere.

  14. Determination of the non-recrystallization temperature (TNR) in multiple microalloyed steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsher, Caryn Nicole

    Rolling mill metallurgists must be able to easily and accurately determine critical temperatures such as the non-recrystallization temperature (T NR) to properly plan rolling schedules for desired properties. Microalloyed steels have small additions of alloying elements such as V, Ti, and Nb, to improve mechanical properties through grain size control and precipitation strengthening. The value of TNR is based on both alloying elements and deformation parameters. To easily predict TNR, equations have been developed and utilized in the literature and industry. However, each equation has certain limitations which constrain its applicability. This study was completed using ten laboratory grade low-carbon microalloyed steels designed to meet the API X-70 specification with varying amounts of V, Nb, and Ti. Double-hit deformation tests were conducted on a Gleeble® 3500 system in the standard pocket-jaw configuration at the Colorado School of Mines to determine experimental values of TNR. Double-hit deformation tests involve cylindrical specimens in an axisymmetric compression test. The test method requires six steps: 1) reheat to ensure most precipitates dissolve back into solution, 2) cool to deformation temperature, 3) compress with given strain and strain rate, 4) hold for interpass time, 5) deform specimen again holding everything else constant, and 6) measure the percent recrystallized or percent fractional softening. The TNR is the temperature where fractional softening is equal to 20 %. Niobium plays the largest role in influencing TNR. Complex niobium-vanadium-carbonitride precipitates are believed to play a significant role increasing TNR in the Hi-V alloy The experimental values of TNR were compared with predicted values of TNR from four equations in the literature. The Bai 2011 equation was the most reliable of the existing empirical formulas considered, while the commonly used Boratto equation was not accurate in predicting the TNR for the alloys in this

  15. English language learners with reading-related LD: linking data from multiple sources to make eligibility determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Cheryl Y; Ortiz, Alba A; Robertson, Phyllis M; Kushner, Millicent I

    2006-01-01

    Results are reported for an exploratory study of eligibility decisions made for 21 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities (LD) and no secondary disabilities who received special education support in reading. Eligibility determinations by an expert panel resulted in decisions that differed significantly from those of school multidisciplinary teams. The panel agreed that some students appeared to have reading-related LD (n = 5) but also identified students that they believed had disabilities, but not necessarily reading-related LD (n = 6). Another group of students (n = 10) had learning problems that the panel believed could be attributed to factors other than LD or for whom substantive additional data would be required to validate eligibility. Issues associated with referral, assessment, and eligibility determinations for ELLs are discussed, and recommendations for improving practice are offered, with an emphasis on the importance of linking data from multiple sources when deciding whether ELLs qualify for special education.

  16. Quantitative determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in milk by multiple dynamic headspace extraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Brancaleoni, Enzo; Frattoni, Massimiliano; Fedele, Vincenzo; Claps, Salvatore; Signorelli, Federica

    2004-01-01

    A method for the accurate determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in milk samples has been developed and tested. It combines multiple dynamic headspace extraction with GC-MS. Absolute amounts of VOC in the liquid phase are obtained by determining the first order kinetic dependence of the stepwise extraction of the analytes and internal standards from the liquid matrix. Compounds released from milk were collected on a train of traps filled with different solid sorbents to cover all components having a number of carbon atoms ranging from 4 to 15. They were analysed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of VOC from the collecting traps. Quantification of VOC in milk was performed using deuterated compounds as internal standards. The method was used to follow seasonal variations of monoterpenes in goat milk and to detect the impact of air pollution on the quality of milk.

  17. Hybrid sentiment analysis utilizing multiple indicators to determine temporal shifts of opinion in OSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joshua S.; Hall, Robert T.; Fields, Jeremy; White, Holly M.

    2016-05-01

    Utilization of traditional sentiment analysis for predicting the outcome of an event on a social network depends on: precise understanding of what topics relate to the event, selective elimination of trends that don't fit, and in most cases, expert knowledge of major players of the event. Sentiment analysis has traditionally taken one of two approaches to derive a quantitative value from qualitative text. These approaches include the bag of words model", and the usage of "NLP" to attempt a real understanding of the text. Each of these methods yield very similar accuracy results with the exception of some special use cases. To do so, however, they both impose a large computational burden on the analytic system. Newer approaches have this same problem. No matter what approach is used, SA typically caps out around 80% in accuracy. However, accuracy is the result of both polarity and degree of polarity, nothing else. In this paper we present a method for hybridizing traditional SA methods to better determine shifts in opinion over time within social networks. This hybridization process involves augmenting traditional SA measurements with contextual understanding, and knowledge about writers' demographics. Our goal is to not only to improve accuracy, but to do so with minimal impact to computation requirements.

  18. Determination of silica coating efficiency on metal particles using multiple digestion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Topham, Nathan; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2011-10-15

    Nano-sized metal particles, including both elemental and oxidized metals, have received significant interest due to their biotoxicity and presence in a wide range of industrial systems. A novel silica technology has been recently explored to minimize the biotoxicity of metal particles by encapsulating them with an amorphous silica shell. In this study, a method to determine silica coating efficiency on metal particles was developed. Metal particles with silica coating were generated using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process with a silica precursor tetramethylsilane (TMS) added to the shielding gas. Microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were employed to solubilize the metal content in the particles and analyze the concentration, respectively. Three acid mixtures were tested to acquire the appropriate digestion method targeting at metals and silica coating. Metal recovery efficiencies of different digestion methods were compared through analysis of spiked samples. HNO(3)/HF mixture was found to be a more aggressive digestion method for metal particles with silica coating. Aqua regia was able to effectively dissolve metal particles not trapped in the silica shell. Silica coating efficiencies were thus calculated based on the measured concentrations following digestion by HNO(3)/HF mixture and aqua regia. The results showed 14-39% of welding fume particles were encapsulated in silica coating under various conditions. This newly developed method could also be used to examine the silica coverage on particles of silica shell/metal core structure in other nanotechnology areas.

  19. Determining fragmentation dynamics through a study of neutron multiplicity at the NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Sharon; Christ, Peter; Mazza, Maria; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In nuclear fragmentation reactions the number of neutrons and the excitation energy of the final fragment are related to the excitation energies of prefragments, which are produced in the reaction target but not directly observed. The MoNA Collaboration designed and performed an experiment to measure the number of neutrons in coincidence with charged projectile fragments to determine the excitation mechanisms of specific prefragments. All prior MoNA experimental campaigns concentrated on neutrons emitted from discrete levels in near dripline nuclei and treated any evaporation neutrons as an underlying background. This experiment capitalizes on those evaporation neutrons, focusing on sodium, neon and fluorine reaction products. For the experiment a 32Mg secondary beam with energy 86 MeV/u was incident on a Be reaction target. This target is upstream from the Sweeper, a superconducting dipole steering magnet with a bending angle of 43° and a vertical gap that permits forward-focused neutrons to get to the MoNA, the Modular Neutron Array. The rigidity of the Sweeper was varied during this experiment to increase the detection range. Analysis of the neutron-neutron hit distribution in coincidence with each sodium, neon, or fluorine charged fragment will be presented. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation Award 1613429 and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Award 52007540.

  20. Coronal magnetic field and the plasma beta determined from radio and multiple satellite observations

    CERN Document Server

    Iwai, Kazumasa; Nozawa, Satoshi; Takahashi, Takuya; Sawada, Shinpei; Kitagawa, Jun; Miyawaki, Shun; Kashiwagi, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    We derived the coronal magnetic field, plasma density, and temperature from the observation of polarization and intensity of radio thermal free-free emission using the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations. We observed a post-flare loop on the west limb 11 April 2013. The line-of-sight magnetic field was derived from the circularly polarized free-free emission observed by NoRH. The emission measure and temperature were derived from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The derived temperature was used to estimate the emission measure from the NoRH radio free-free emission observations. The derived density from NoRH was larger than that determined using AIA, which can be explained by the fact that the low temperature plasma is not within the temperature coverage of the AIA filters used in this study. We also discuss the other observation of the post-flare loops by the EUV Imager onboard the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (...

  1. Multiple Determinants of Anuran Richness and Occurrence in an Agricultural Region in South-Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Vitor H. M.; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C.

    2014-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, studies that identify factors driving species richness and occupancy are important because they can guide farmers to use conservation practices that minimize species loss. In this context, anurans are threatened by habitat loss because they depend on the characteristics of both local water bodies and adjacent landscapes. We used a model selection approach to evaluate the influence of local and landscape variables in determining anuran species richness and occurrence in 40 freshwater bodies in a heavily deforested region of semideciduous Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Our aim was to develop recommendations for conservation of anuran communities in rural areas. Pond hydroperiod and area were the most important variables for explaining anuran species richness and occupancy, with greatest species richness being found in water bodies with intermediate hydroperiod and area. Other important variables that reflected individual species occupancies were the number of vegetation types and pond isolation. In addition, recent studies evidenced that water bodies near forest fragments have higher anuran abundance or diversity. In conclusion, we suggest the maintenance of semi-permanent ponds, isolated from large rivers or reservoirs and near forest fragments, as an effective strategy to conserve anuran fauna in agricultural landscapes of southeastern Brazil. Brazilian government requires the maintenance of forests as legal reserve in each farm, and farmers need to maintain ponds as drinking water for cattle or crop irrigation. For this reason, the guidelines suggested in the present study can be easily adopted, without additional costs to rural productivity.

  2. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Raquel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, P.O. Box 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Todolí, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, P.O. Box 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Lienemann, Charles-Philippe [IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rond-point de l' échangeur de Solaize, BP 3, F-69360 Solaize (France); Mermet, Jean-Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2013-10-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decomposition. The first one is the most widely employed due to its simplicity. Once the sample has been prepared, an organic matrix is usually present. The performance of the sample introduction system (i.e., nebulizer and spray chamber) depends strongly upon the nature and properties of the solution finally obtained. Many different devices have been assayed and the obtained results are shown. Additionally, samples can be introduced into the plasma by using an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device or a laser ablation system (LA). The recent results published in the literature showing the feasibility, advantages and drawbacks of latter alternatives are also described. Therefore, the main goal of the review is the discussion of the different approaches developed for the analysis of crude oil and its derivates by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques. - Highlights: • Analysis of petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques is revisited. • Fundamental studies are included together with reports dealing with applications. • Conventional and non-conventional sample introduction methods are considered. • Sample preparation methods are critically compared and described.

  3. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong D. Tran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.

  4. Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Zine, Sandeep Prabhakar; Chaskar, Pratip Kashinath; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves’ ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin. PMID:25002804

  5. Comparative determination of methyl mercury in whole blood samples using GC-ICP-MS and GC-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, J; Hoppe, H W; Mosel, F; Rettenmeier, A W; Hirner, A V

    2009-08-15

    Two methods for the determination of methyl mercury (MeHg) in whole blood samples based on different mass spectrometric detection techniques are compared. The methods were employed in two studies in which the internal exposure of a group of mercury-exposed workers to total mercury and MeHg was investigated. Blood samples of these workers were analysed for MeHg independently from each other in two laboratories using similar extraction procedures but different detection techniques, viz. coupled GC-EI-MS/ICP-MS and GC-MS using D(3)-MeHg as internal standard. MeHg was detected in all blood samples in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 9.0 microg/L. Though different detection techniques were employed, the results obtained by the two laboratories were in relatively good agreement.

  6. A method for determining the analytical form of a radionuclide depth distribution using multiple gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Steven Clifford, E-mail: sdewey001@gmail.com [United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Environmental Health Division, Health Physics Branch, Radiation Analysis Laboratories, 2350 Gillingham Drive, Brooks City-Base, TX 78235 (United States); Whetstone, Zachary David, E-mail: zacwhets@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Kearfott, Kimberlee Jane, E-mail: kearfott@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    When characterizing environmental radioactivity, whether in the soil or within concrete building structures undergoing remediation or decommissioning, it is highly desirable to know the radionuclide depth distribution. This is typically modeled using continuous analytical expressions, whose forms are believed to best represent the true source distributions. In situ gamma ray spectroscopic measurements are combined with these models to fully describe the source. Currently, the choice of analytical expressions is based upon prior experimental core sampling results at similar locations, any known site history, or radionuclide transport models. This paper presents a method, employing multiple in situ measurements at a single site, for determining the analytical form that best represents the true depth distribution present. The measurements can be made using a variety of geometries, each of which has a different sensitivity variation with source spatial distribution. Using non-linear least squares numerical optimization methods, the results can be fit to a collection of analytical models and the parameters of each model determined. The analytical expression that results in the fit with the lowest residual is selected as the most accurate representation. A cursory examination is made of the effects of measurement errors on the method. - Highlights: > A new method for determining radionuclide distribution as a function of depth is presented. > Multiple measurements are used, with enough measurements to determine the unknowns in analytical functions that might describe the distribution. > The measurements must be as independent as possible, which is achieved through special collimation of the detector. > Although the effects of measurements errors may be significant on the results, an improvement over other methods is anticipated.

  7. Determinants of stigma in a cohort of hellenic patients suffering from multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostouli, Maria; Katsavos, Serafeim; Artemiadis, Artemios; Zacharis, Markos; Argyrou, Paraskevi; Theotoka, Ilia; Christidi, Fotini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Liappas, Ioannis

    2016-07-13

    Patients suffering from several neurologic disorders may bear the "stigma" of their disease, being disqualified from full social acceptance. Although stigma is considered to be present in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the factors that influence its levels are ambiguous. Aim of our study was to examine, for the first time in the literature, the basic determinants of stigma in a Hellenic MS-patients cohort, as well as how stigma affects their Quality-of-Life (QoL) profiles. Three hundred forty two patients were recruited in this study. Data collected concerned sociodemographic and disease-related variables, mental illness assessment, Multiple-Sclerosis-QoL-54 (MSQoL-54) and Stigma-Scale-for-Chronic-Illness-24 (SSCI-24) questionnaires. Potential determinants were evaluated with univariate statistical analyses for their contribution to total, internalized (inner-self derived) and externalized (society derived) stigma. Important findings were further evaluated on hierarchical regression models. Disability levels were found to be the most powerful predictor in all stigma categories, followed by the presence of mental illness. Working and caregiving status were also ascertained as determinants of internalized stigma. Stigma levels displayed strong negative correlation with all composites of MSQoL-54. Stigma is present in the social environment of MS patients and was confirmed as a barrier (according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health), with detrimental effects on their QoL levels and functioning performances. Disability and mental illness were shown as the principal determinants of stigma, while financial characteristics were not as equally involved. Further validation of these results in other MS populations may provide safer conclusions, towards more efficacious patient-centered care outcomes.

  8. Reduction of Under-Determined Linear Systems by Sparce Block Matrix Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Damkilde, Lars

    1996-01-01

    -determined equilibrium equation restrictions in an LP-problem. A significant reduction of computer time spent on solving the LP-problem is achieved if the equilib rium equations are reduced before going into the optimization procedure. Experience has shown that for some structures one must apply full pivoting to ensure...

  9. Simultaneous diffuse reflectance infrared determination of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin using multivariate calibration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Ferrão, Marco Flores; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of clavulanic acid (CA) and amoxicillin (AMO) in commercial tablets was developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and multivariate calibration. Twenty-five samples (10 commercial and 15 synthetic) were used as a calibration set and 15 samples (10 commercial and 5 synthetic) were used for a prediction set. Calibration models were developed using partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS), and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms. The best algorithm for CA determination was siPLS model with spectra divided in 30 intervals and combinations of 2 intervals. This model showed a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 5.1 mg g(-1). For AMO determination, the best siPLS model was obtained with spectra divided in 10 intervals and combinations of 4 intervals. This model showed a RMSEP of 22.3 mg g(-1). The proposed method was considered as a suitable for the simultaneous determination of CA and AMO in commercial pharmaceuticals products.

  10. Techniques for Determining the Geographic Location of IP Addresses in ISP Topology Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiang; Bin-Xing Fang; Ming-Zeng Hu; Xiang Cui

    2005-01-01

    A brief survey on the state-of-the-art research of determining geographic location of IP addresses is presented.The problem of determining the geographic location of routers in Internet Service Provider (ISP) topology measurement is discussed when there is inadequate information such as domain names that could be used. Nine empirical inference rules are provided, and they are respectively (1) rule of mutual inference, (2) rule of locality, (3) rule of ping-pong assignment,(4) rule of bounding from both sides, (5) rule of preferential exit deny, (6) rule of unreachable/timeout, (7) rule of relay hop assignment, (8) rule of following majority, and (9) rule of validity checking based on interface-finding. In totally 2,563discovered router interfaces of a national ISP topology, only 6.4% of them can be located by their corresponding domain names. In contrast, after exercising these nine empirical inference rules, 38% of them have been located. Two methods have mainly been employed to evaluate the effectiveness of these inference rules. One is to compare the measured topology graph with the graph published by the corresponding ISP. The other is to contact the administrator of the corresponding ISP for the verification of IP address locations of some key routers. The conformity between the locations inferred by the rules and those determined by domain names as well as those determined by whois information is also examined. Experimental results show that these empirical inference rules play an important role in determining the geographic location of routers in ISP topology measurement.

  11. The comparison of techniques and methods for L-ascorbic acid determination in the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Biljana R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential vitamin for human nutrition; with the L-ascorbic acid (AA being the active form of vitamin C. Hence, determination of the L-ascorbic acid in the natural and processed foods is very important. In the past, plenty of methods based on the reversible redox reaction of AA oxidation/DHA reduction were developed. Because of L-ascorbic acid instability in aqueous solutions, it is useful to analyze various types of extraction. The aim of this study is to compare three different methods and three different extractants for the L-ascorbic acid determination. Fruits (kiwi, lemon, orange, and grapefruit were purchased from a local market. The L-ascorbic acid in these four samples was determined by the three different methods: the AOAC, the HPLC method with three different types of extractions, and the colorimetric method using ascorbate-oxidase. For the HPLC measurements, one part of the fruits was extracted with distilled water, the second with potassium hydrogen phosphate, and the third with 3% meta-phosphoric acid (MPA in 8% acetic acid. The HPLC measurements of each sample were repeated three times, the AOAC titration was repeated five times, and in the calorimetric method three measurements were performed. The results were statistically evaluated related to sample basis. Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant difference between the results for all three methods of extraction for all samples, except for the grapefruit sample where no significant difference was observed between the results obtained after the buffer extraction (E2 and the metaphosphoric acid in acetic acid extraction (E3. Discriminative analysis for the HPLC determinations proves that there is a clear difference and defined border between the samples in relation to the methods of extraction during the HPLC determination.

  12. Collisonal Friction Enhanced by Two-Stream Instabilities Determines the Bohm Criterion in Plasmas With Multiple Ion Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, S. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D.

    2009-10-01

    Ion-ion streaming instabilities are excited in the presheath region of plasmas with multiple ion species if the ions are much colder than the electrons. Streaming instabilities onset when the relative fluid flow between ion species exceeds a critical speed, δVc, of order the ion thermal speeds. Using a generalized Lenard-Balescu theory that accounts for instability-enhanced collective responses [1], one is able to show the instabilities rapidly (within a few Debye lengths) enhance the collisional friction between ion species far beyond the contribution from Coulomb collisions alone. This strong frictional force determines the relative fluid speed between species. When this condition is combined with the Bohm criterion generalized for multiple ion species, the fluid speed of each ion species is determined at the sheath edge. For each species, this speed differs from the common ``system'' sound speed by a factor that depends on the species concentration and δVc.[4pt] [1] S.D. Baalrud, J.D. Callen, and C.C. Hegna, Phys. Plasmas 15, 092111 (2008).

  13. Determining long-term (decadal) deep drainage rate using multiple tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Bing C; de Jong, Eeltje

    2007-01-01

    The deep drainage rate is a critical hydrological parameter in understanding contamination mechanisms of soil and groundwater. Little research has been conducted on the temporal variations in deep drainage rate during the last century. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term deep drainage rate on a cultivated loamy soil in the Canadian Prairies. Three tracers were used: KCl applied in 1971, fallout tritium in 1963, and NO3* released during the initial cultivation of the field (1923). Two soil cores to a depth of 3.6 m were taken along a flat portion of the field, and soil Cl(-), 3H, and NO3* concentrations were measured as a function of depth. An additional four cores were taken for soil water content measurements between 2000 and 2003. Distinct peaks in the depth distribution of these three tracers were located at 1.27 m for Cl(-), 1.31 m for 3H, and 1.52 m for NO3*, 32, 40, and 80 yr after the application of Cl(-), 3H, and NO3*, respectively. The average deep drainage rates, calculated as the product of the estimated tracer velocity and volumetric soil water content below the active root zone, were 2.0 mm yr(-1) from the Cl(-) tracer, 2.2 mm yr(-1) from 3H, and 2.5 mm yr(-1) from the NO3* tracer. Therefore, there was little temporal variability in the groundwater recharge over the eight decades that the field has been cultivated. The recharge rates are less than 1% of the mean annual precipitation (333 mm).

  14. Multiple interaction types determine the impact of ant predation of caterpillars in a forest community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert E; Farkas, Timothy E; Lichter-Marck, Isaac; Johnson, Emily R; Singer, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Direct and indirect effects of predators are highly variable in complex communities, and understanding the sources of this variation is a research priority in community ecology. Recent evidence indicates that herbivore community structure is a primary determinant of predation strength and its cascading impacts on plants. In this study, we use variation in herbivore community structure among plant species to experimentally test two hypotheses in a temperate forest food web. First, variation in the strength of predator effects, such as ant predation of caterpillars, is predicted to be density dependent, exhibiting stronger effects when prey abundance is high (density-dependent predation hypothesis). Second, mutualistic interactions between ants and sap-feeding herbivores are expected to increase the abundance of predatory ants, strengthening predation effects on herbivores with cascading effects on host plants (keystone mutualism hypothesis). Using a large-scale predator exclusion experiment across eight dominant tree species, we tracked changes in insect density on 862 plants across two years, recording 2,322 ants, 1,062 sap-feeders, 5,322 caterpillars, and quantifying herbivory on 199, 338 leaves. In this experiment, density-dependent predation did not explain variation in the direct or indirect effects of ants on caterpillars and herbivory. In partial support of the keystone mutualism hypothesis, sap-feeders strengthened top-down effects of ants on caterpillars under some conditions. However, stronger ant predation of caterpillars did not lead to measurable trophic cascades on trees occupied by sap-feeders. Instead, the presence of sap-feeders was associated with increased per capita feeding damage by caterpillars, and this bottom-up effect attenuated the indirect effects of ants on host plants. These findings demonstrate that examining the multi-trophic impacts of mutualisms and predation in the context of the broader community can reveal patterns otherwise

  15. Facile and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Technique for the Determination of Carbofuran in its Formulations, Water and Grain Samples with Substituted Anilines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Harikishna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are described for the determination of carbofuran in its formulations, in water and grain samples by the diazotization coupling spectrophotometric technique, using substituted anilines such as 4-bromoaniline, 4-methylaniline and 4-aminobenzaldehyde as the coupling agents. The orange red colour formed with 4-bromoaniline shows maximum absorption at 478 nm, yellow colour obtained with 4-methylaniline have maximum absorption at 465 nm whereas a red colour derivative formed with 4-aminobenzaldehyde shows λmax at 472 nm. The methods could be successfully applied for the determination of carbofuran in its formulations, water and grain samples.

  16. A technique for evaluating the influence of spatial sampling on the determination of global mean total columnar ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for providing a means of evaluating the influence of spatial sampling on the determination of global mean total columnar ozone. A finite number of coefficients in the expansion are determined, and the truncated part of the expansion is shown to contribute an error to the estimate, which depends strongly on the spatial sampling and is relatively insensitive to data noise. First and second order statistics are derived for each term in a spherical harmonic expansion which represents the ozone field, and the statistics are used to estimate systematic and random errors in the estimates of total ozone.

  17. Determination of Mercury in an Assortment of Dietary Supplements Using an Inexpensive Combustion Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Keith E.; Levine, Michael A.; Weber, Frank X.; Hu, Ye; Perlmutter, Jason; Grohse, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of mercury in forty, commercially available dietary supplements, were determined using a new, inexpensive analysis technique. The method involves thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and detection of mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry with an analysis time of approximately six minutes per sample. The primary cost savings from this approach is that labor-intensive sample digestion is not required prior to analysis, further automating the analytical procedure. As a res...

  18. A simple technique based on a single optical trap for the determination of bacterial swimming pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio A Martínez

    Full Text Available Bacterial motility is associated to a wide range of biological processes and it plays a key role in the virulence of many pathogens. Here we describe a method to distinguish the dynamic properties of bacteria by analyzing the statistical functions derived from the trajectories of a bacterium trapped by a single optical beam. The approach is based on the model of the rotation of a solid optically trapped sphere. The technique is easily implemented in a biological laboratory, since with only a small number of optical and electronic components a simple biological microscope can be converted into the required analyzer. To illustrate the functionality of this method, we probed several Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants that differed from the wild-type with respect to their swimming patterns. In a further application, the motility dynamics of the S. Typhimurium cheV mutant were characterized.

  19. On the Equivalence of Experimental B(E2) Values Determined by Various Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, M; Singh, B

    2016-01-01

    We establish the equivalence of the various techniques for measuring B(E2) values using a statistical analysis. Data used in this work come from the re- cent compilation by B. Pritychenko et al., At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 107 (2016). We consider only those nuclei for which the B(E2) values were measured by at least two different methods, with each method being independently performed at least twice. Our results indicate that most prevalent methods of measuring B(E2) values are equivalent, with some weak evidence that Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM) measurements may differ from Coulomb excitation (CE) and nuclear resonance fuorescence (NRF) measurements. However, such an evidence appears to arise from discrepant DSAM measurements of the lifetimes for 60Ni and some Sn nuclei rather than a systematic deviation in the method itself.

  20. RADIOACTIVE OR NATURAL TRACER。TECHNIQUES FOR LEAK DETERMINING OF DAM ABUTMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建生; 杜国平; 等

    1995-01-01

    Infiltration and localization of preferential infiltration zones at the dam abutment are measured using radioactive tracer tests of flow in boreholes,meanwhile interconnection between boreholes and the energing water points is analysed.The theory and practice of radioactive tracer synthetic detective method are described to give methods and calculation formulae used under the condition of stable flow in single well to measure permeability coefficient and hydrostatic heads.Major single hole techniques including measurement for seepage line,velocity,rate of seepage flow and relationship of recharge of groundwater in aquifers are introduced briefly.The possibilities offered by natureal tracers are analysed,uincluding electric-conduct,pH-value and temperature of water as well as stable isotopes(D,18O) and tritium.Furthermore,the sensibilities of this theory and methods were confirmed by detecting seepage flow field of Xinanjiang Dam.