WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple resource area

  1. Resource area environment/energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  2. Semantic distributed resource discovery for multiple resource providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittaras, C.; Ghijsen, M.; Wibisono, A.; Grosso, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging modus operandi among providers of cloud infrastructures is the one where they share and combine their heterogenous resources to offer end user services tailored to specific scientific and business needs. A challenge to overcome is the discovery of suitable resources among these multiple

  3. Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained by ...

  4. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of cost allocations to various functions of the multiple-purpose development and calls for giving ... An appraisal of water resource must consider surface as well as ground water supplies in terms of location, .... as such a very satisfactory method of cost allocation that would be equally applicable to all projects and.

  5. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Sacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except...

  6. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  7. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

  8. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas

  9. Resource acquisition policy: Multiple account evaluation of electricity resource alternatives [and] resource acquisition strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    British Columbia Hydro has been directed by the provincial government to develop evaluation procedures to rank electricity resource alternatives in terms of their social benefits and costs, and to acquire resources on the basis of need. The current state of development of social costing at BC Hydro is detailed along with its application to the multiple account evaluation of resources. In this evaluation, BC Hydro's corporate costs, customer cost, transfer payments to the province, direct costs incurred by provincial or regional governments or other Crown agences, direct environmental impact costs from air emissions and land/water use, community and social impact costs, and economic development impacts are taken into account. The BC Hydro resource acquisition strategy is also described as it was developed in response to provincial policy on electricity supply from independent power producers. This strategy includes a determination of need, a decision to acquire need-determined resources either by itself or from a private sector developer, and decisions to acquire resources in advance of need for reasons such as economic opportunity, long-term strategies, or load displacement. Background information is included on calculation of air emissions costs. An illustrative example is provided of the multiple account evaluation of several types of resource projects. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of cost allocations to various functions of .... approach of water resources development the most attractive and benefitial .... project plus a share of the "joint cost" which are the ... Pricing and Repayments American Water Re- sources ...

  11. Water resources of the Pittsburgh area, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noecker, Max; Greenman, D.W.; Beamer, N.H.

    1954-01-01

    The per capita use of water in the Pittsburgh area in 1951 was 2, 000 gallons per day fgpd) or twice the per capita use in Pennsylvania as a whole. An average of about 3, 040 million gallons of water was withdrawn from the streams and from the ground each day. Of this amount, nearly 190 million gallons per day (mgd), or 6 percent, was for domestic public water supply. Industry, including public utilities generating steam for electric energy, used approximately 2, 900 mgd, of which about 42 mgd was purchased from public supply sources. In spite of this tremendous demand for water, a sufficient quantity was available to satisfy the needs of the area without serious difficulty. Acid mine drainage presents the greatest single pollution problem in the Pittsburgh area at the present time (1953) because no practical means has been found for its control. The waters of several of the rivers are strongly acid for this reason. Of the three major rivers in the area, Monongahela River waters have the greatest acid concentration and Allegheny River waters the least. Untreated domestic and industrial wastes are additional sources of stream pollution in the area. Much of the water is hard and corrosive, and occasionally has objectionable color, odor, and taste. The treatment used by public water-supply systems using river water is adequate at all times for removal of water-borne causes of disease. Attention is being concentrated on improving the quality of present supplies rather than developing new supplies from upstream tributaries. Present supplies are being improved by providing treatment facilities for disposal of wastes,, by reduction of acid mine drainage discharged into the streams, and by providing storage to augment low flows. The underground water resources are vitally important to the area. The use of ground water in the Pittsburgh area has doubled in the past two decades and in 1951 more ground water was used in Allegheny County than in any other county in

  12. Optimal Foraging for Multiple Resources in Several Food Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, G.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Groen, T.A.; Knegt, de H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of resources in forage are not perfectly balanced to the needs of an animal, and food species differ in these concentrations. Under many circumstances, animals should thus forage on multiple food species to attain the maximum and most balanced intake of several resources. In this

  13. Optimal foraging for multiple resources in several food species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, G.M.; van Langevelde, F.; Groen, T.A.; de Knegt, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of resources in forage are not perfectly balanced to the needs of an animal, and food species differ in these concentrations. Under many circumstances, animals should thus forage on multiple food species to attain the maximum and most balanced intake of several resources. In this

  14. Resource Areas in the New Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Kryukov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates that today the dynamics of development and production of mineral resources in resource specializing regions may differ significantly from the canonical scheme - i.e. there is no gradual and steady depletion of natural resources within mentioned territories. The combination of several factors may again move resource regions that used to be «hopeless» to the stage of growing production. These factors are: a modern knowledge economy, an adequate resource mode (norms, rules and procedures that «master» the process of development of natural resources and developed and available infrastructure of mineral resources extraction. As an example the author considers the USA oil-producing states (Texas, Louisiana and North Dakota which showed rapid growth in production of natural gas and oil in the last few years. The author sees the accumulation of a «critical level» of economic activity (infrastructure, the number and diversity of companies in the oil and gas sector and the availability and quality of human capital as the main cause for the development of shale hydrocarbons in these states. These considerations are very important for Russia: the development of heavy oil deposits in Tatarstan, bringing into development the deposits of the Bazhenov formation in Tyumen Oblast and the future oil extraction from bituminous minerals in Yakutia will occur under the same laws (with some Russian specificity, however

  15. Water resources of the Flint area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Vanlier, K.E.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    This report describes the water resources of Genesee County, Mich., whose principal city is Flint. The sources of water available to the county are the Flint and Shiawassee Rivers and their tributaries, inland lakes, ground water, and Lake Huron. The withdrawal use of water in the county in 1958 amounted to about 45 mgd. Of this amount, 36 mgd was withdrawn from the Flint River by the Flint public water-supply system. The rest was supplied by wells. At present (1959) the Shiawassee River and its tributaries and the inland lakes are not used for water supply. Flint River water is used for domestic, industrial, and waste-dilution requirements in Flint. About 60 percent of the water supplied by the Flint public water system is used by Flint industry. At least 30 mgd of river water is needed for waste dilution in the Flint River during warm weather.Water from Holloway Reservoir, which has a storage capacity of 5,760 million gallons, is used to supplement low flows in the Flint River to meet water-supply and waste-dilution requirements. About 650 million gallons in Kearsley Reservoir, on a Flint River tributary, is held in reserve for emergency use. Based on records for the lowest flows during the period 1930-52, the Flint River system, with the two reservoirs in operation, is capable of supplying about 60 mgd at Flint, less evaporation and seepage losses. The 1958 water demands exceeded this amount. Development of additional storage in the Flint River basin is unlikely because of lack of suitable storage sites. Plans are underway to supply Flint and most of Genesee County with water from Lake Huron.The principal tributaries of the Flint River in and near Flint could furnish small supplies of water. Butternut Creek, with the largest flow of those studied, has an estimated firm yield of 0.054 mgd per sq mi for 95 percent of the time. The Shiawassee River at Byron is capable of supplying at least 29 mgd for 95 percent of the time.Floods are a serious problem in Flint

  16. Timber resource statistics for the North Coast resource area of California 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State-wide multi-resource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National...

  17. Resource Constrained Planning of Multiple Projects with Separable Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Susumu; Morita, Hiroshi; Kanawa, Takuya

    In this study we consider a resource constrained planning problem of multiple projects with separable activities. This problem provides a plan to process the activities considering a resource availability with time window. We propose a solution algorithm based on the branch and bound method to obtain the optimal solution minimizing the completion time of all projects. We develop three methods for improvement of computational efficiency, that is, to obtain initial solution with minimum slack time rule, to estimate lower bound considering both time and resource constraints and to introduce an equivalence relation for bounding operation. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated by numerical examples. Especially as the number of planning projects increases, the average computational time and the number of searched nodes are reduced.

  18. Timber resource statistics for the central coast resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Central Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Monterey, San Benito, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Ventura Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multi-resource inventory. The inventory...

  19. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided...

  20. Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy in Resource Deprived Areas: A Rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare, life threatening form of ectopic pregnancy ... cervical, resource deprived areas, difficult diagnosis, management ... drome, prior instrumentation or therapeutic abortion .... CONCLUSION.

  1. National Laboratory Planning: Developing Sustainable Biocontainment Laboratories in Limited Resource Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Kenneth B.; Adams, Martin; Stamper, Paul D.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Hewson, Roger; Buck, Charles D.; Richards, Allen L.; Hay, John

    2016-01-01

    Strategic laboratory planning in limited resource areas is essential for addressing global health security issues. Establishing a national reference laboratory, especially one with BSL-3 or -4 biocontainment facilities, requires a heavy investment of resources, a multisectoral approach, and commitments from multiple stakeholders. We make the case for donor organizations and recipient partners to develop a comprehensive laboratory operations roadmap that addresses factors such as mission and r...

  2. Alternative stable states generated by ontogenetic niche shift in the presence of multiple resource use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takefumi Nakazawa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that when juveniles and adults use different resources or habitats, alternative stable states (ASS may exist in systems coupled by an ontogenetic niche shift. However, mainly the simplest system, i.e., the one-consumer-two-resource system, has been studied previously, and little is known about the development of ASS existing in more complex systems. Here, I theoretically investigated the development of ASS caused by an ontogenetic niche shift in the presence of multiple resource use. I considered three independent scenarios; (i additional resources, (ii multiple habitats, and (iii interstage resource sharing. The model analyses illustrate that relative balance between the total resource availability in the juvenile and adult habitats is crucial for the development of ASS. This balance is determined by factors such as local habitat productivity, subsidy inputs, colonization area, and foraging mobility. Furthermore, it is also shown that interstage resource sharing generally suppresses ASS. These results suggest that the anthropogenic impacts of habitat modifications (e.g., fragmentation and destruction or interaction modifications (e.g., changes in ontogeny and foraging behavior propagate through space and may cause or prevent regime shifts in the regional community structure.

  3. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California, which include Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties. Data were collected as part...

  4. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  5. Natural resources economical activities in coastal area of Rio de la Plata: report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, V.; Garibotto, S.; Gorfinkiel, D.; Pena, C.; Resnichenko, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The integrated management of coastal zone covers multiple problems, often conflicts on the use of coastal resources that is different productive capacities, the presence of a variety of important actors a degree of relationship with the river and its surroundings, this is due to the pressures on coastal resources in a given area may be higher due to the activities that take place outside this area. Colonia, San Jose, Canelones and Maldonado are the departments of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay to which they have studied the impact on the national economy, economic characteristics of the population, business, mining, farming, tourism fores tal activities.

  6. Crane Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Crane Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in Washington County, in southwestern Idaho. Estimated hydrothermal resource temperatures for the region are 166/sup 0/C (Na-K-Ca) and 176/sup 0/C (quartz). The KGRA is situated along the west side of the north-south trending western Idaho Fault Zone. Historic seismicity data for the region identify earthquake activity within 50 km. The hot springs surface along the margin of a siliceous sinter terrace or in adjacent sediments. Approximately 75% of the KGRA is underlain by shallow, stony soils on steep slopes indicating topographic and drainage limitations to geothermal development. Species of concern include sage grouse, antelope, and mule deer. There is a high probability of finding significant prehistoric cultural resources within the proposed area of development.

  7. Using Multiple Tools to Analyze Resource Exchange in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of globalization, the function of international physical resource exchange is becoming increasingly important in economic growth through resource optimization. However, most existing ecological economy studies use physical trade balance (PTB directly or use physical imports and exports individually to analyze national material metabolization. Neither the individual analysis of physical imports and exports nor the direct analysis of PTB is capable of portraying the comprehensive contributions of a certain product to total physical trade. This study introduced an indicator, i.e., the physical contribution to the trade balance (PCB, which evolved from the traditional index of contribution to the trade balance (CB. In addition, trade balance (TB, PTB, CB, and PCB were systematically related and combined. An analysis was conducted using the four tools to obtain overall trade trends in China. This study discovered that both physical trade value and quantity exhibited different characteristics when China joined the World Trade Organization in 2002 and experienced the global economic crisis in 2009. Finally, the advantages of a supporting policy decision by applying multiple analytical tools to physical trade were discussed.

  8. Impact on healthcare resource utilization of multiple sclerosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Ruíz-Beato, Elena; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Maurino, Jorge

    2017-12-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with a high socioeconomic impact. The aim of this study was to assess healthcare resources utilization and costs in a sample of patients with MS. A retrospective, cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from 19 primary care centres in Asturias and Catalonia, Spain. Adult patients diagnosed with MS were distributed into two groups according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score: 0-3.5 (no-moderate disability) and 4-9.5 (severe disability). Healthcare (direct cost) and non-healthcare costs (work productivity losses) were analysed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for correction, p < 0.05. A multiple regression model was performed to obtain the variables associated with costs. A total of 222 patients were analyzed; mean (SD) age: 45.5 (12.5) years, 64.4% female, and 62.2% presented a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS. Median EDSS score was 2.5, with 68.5% of the patients with no to moderate disability. The mean annual cost per MS patient was €25,103. For no-moderate and severe disability, the ANCOVA-adjusted mean annual cost was €23,157 and €29,242, respectively (p = 0.013). Direct costs and MS disease-modifying therapy accounted for 39.4% and 31.7% of the total costs, respectively. The total costs were associated with number of relapses (β = 0.135, p = 0.001), time since diagnosis (β = 0.281, p = 0.023), and age (β = 0.198, p = 0.037). Multiple sclerosis imposes a substantial economic burden on the Spanish National Health System, patients and society as a whole. Costs significantly correlated with disease progression.

  9. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  10. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  11. Sharing common pool resources at the border of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-IRINA DINCA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The common pool resources are a very actual topic a pproached by both scientists and practitioners preoccupied nowadays of gradually incr easing environmental problems. Protected areas in Romania and especially in Romanian Carpath ians of national and natural park type (IUCN II and V represent areas of particular interes t in the light of the common pool resources theory imposing conservation laws on areas meeting a n increased pressure from human communities around them. The important socio-econom ic and ownership changes that Romania met in the last decades changed its previous state unique ownership into a multiple stakeholder ownership. At the same time vulnerable human communi ties located in fragile mountain areas and depending to a high extent on natural resources met an increased stress when exploiting natural resources at the border of protected areas. Consequently sharing the common pool of resources in the buffer zone of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians represents a very actual and important topic to be treated in the pre sent study.

  12. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  13. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, L.D. [Univ. of Tennessee (United States); Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  14. Historical Investigations of the Richard B. Russell Multiple Resource Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    period of this project as a contemporary c~lebration and a reiteration of an ancient folk construction, Stonehenge . Appropriately, as this document goes to...55, 56m, 59m, 64m, 65-68, 71- Stonehenge 216 72, 75-76, 79-84, 84m, 91, 94- Sutch, Richard 20 95, 100, lOlm, 102, 103, 121m, Swift, James Y. 195 126

  15. Castle Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Castle Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is part of the large Bruneau-Grand View thermal anomaly in southwestern Idaho. The KGRA is located in the driest area of Idaho and annual precipitation averages 230 mm. The potential of subsidence and slope failure is high in sediments of the Glenns Ferry Formation and Idaho Group found in the KGRA. A major concern is the potential impact of geothermal development on the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area which overlaps the KGRA. Any significant economic growth in Owyhee County may strain the ability of the limited health facilities in the county. The Idaho Archaeological survey has located 46 archaeological sites within the KGRA.

  16. 76 FR 64085 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Final Power Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, General Eligibility Criteria. The resource pool for capacity and... transmission in Kansas. Final allocation of the Post-2014 Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, is contingent...

  17. Mountain home known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Mountain Home KGRA encompasses an area of 3853 hectares (ha) at the foot of the Mount Bennett Hills in Elmore County, Idaho. The site is associated with an arid climate and high winds that generate an acute dust problem. The KGRA lies adjacent to the northwest-southeast trending fault zone that reflects the northern boundary of the western Snake River Plain graben. Data indicate that a careful analysis of the subsidence potential is needed prior to extensive geothermal development. Surface water resources are confined to several small creeks. Lands are utilized for irrigated farmlands and rangeland for livestock. There are no apparent soil limitations to geothermal development. Sage grouse and mule deer are the major species of concern. The potential of locating significant heritage resources other than the Oregon Trail or the bathhouse debris appears to be relatively slight.

  18. Walking path-planning method for multiple radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong-kuo; Li, Meng-kun; Peng, Min-jun; Xie, Chun-li; Yuan, Cheng-qian; Wang, Shuang-yu; Chao, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation environment modeling method is designed. • Path-evaluating method and segmented path-planning method are proposed. • Path-planning simulation platform for radiation environment is built. • The method avoids to be misled by minimum dose path in single area. - Abstract: Based on minimum dose path-searching method, walking path-planning method for multiple radiation areas was designed to solve minimum dose path problem in single area and find minimum dose path in the whole space in this paper. Path-planning simulation platform was built using C# programming language and DirectX engine. The simulation platform was used in simulations dealing with virtual nuclear facilities. Simulation results indicated that the walking-path planning method is effective in providing safety for people walking in nuclear facilities.

  19. Protection of groundwater resources quality and quantity in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grmela, A.

    1997-01-01

    This contribution is devoted to the problems of the impact of land subsidence from coal and other mining systems on underground and surface waters, particularly in relation to the possible influence on quality and quantity of pumped waters for public or individual supply. It determines features of permanent and time-limited changes of hydrogeological structure and effectiveness of measures for their minimization (classification of sources from the point of view of protection, delineation of protection zones for water resources, monitoring of effectiveness of measures). Case studies are presented for examples from the Czech part of Upper Silesian Basin - catchment area Doubrava-Spluchov, Karvina-Stare Mesto, Ostrava-Nove Ves, and Dubi, Darkov Spa. Attention is focused on problems of delimitation of protection zones in undermined areas in respect to the new proposal of the Appendix to Water Law. 8 refs., 2 figs

  20. Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is part of the Bruneau-Grandview thermal anomaly, the largest geothermal area in the western US. This part of Owyhee County is the driest part of Idaho. The KGRA is associated with the southern boundary fault zone of the Snake River Plain. Thermal water, produced from numerous artesian wells in the region, is supplied from two major aquifers. Ecological concerns include the threatened Astragalus mulfordiae and the numerous birds of prey nesting in the Snake River canyon northwest of the KGRA. Extensive geothermal development may strain the limited health care facilities in the county. Ethnographic information suggests that there is a high probability of prehistoric cultural materials being remnant in the Hot Spring locality.

  1. Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harpole, W Stanley; Sullivan, Lauren L; Lind, Eric M; Firn, Jennifer; Adler, Peter B; Borer, Elizabeth T; Chase, Jonathan; Fay, Philip A; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; MacDougall, Andrew S; Seabloom, Eric W; Williams, Ryan; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cadotte, Marc W; Chaneton, Enrique J; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; D'Antonio, Carla; Davies, Kendi F; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; McCulley, Rebecca L; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John W; Prober, Suzanne M; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Wragg, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Niche dimensionality provides a general theoretical explanation for biodiversity-more niches, defined by more limiting factors, allow for more ways that species can coexist. Because plant species compete for the same set of limiting resources, theory predicts that addition of a limiting resource

  2. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  3. Session: What can we learn from developed wind resource areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Erickson, Wally

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was composed of two parts intended to examine what existing science tells us about wind turbine impacts at existing wind project sites. Part one dealt with the Altamont Wind Resource area, one of the older wind projects in the US, with a paper presented by Carl Thelander titled ''Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part 1''. Questions addressed by the presenter included: how is avian habitat affected at Altamont and do birds avoid turbine sites; are birds being attracted to turbine strings; what factors contribute to direct impacts on birds by wind turbines at Altamont; how do use, behavior, avoidance and other factors affect risk to avian species, and particularly impacts those species listed as threatened, endangered, or of conservation concern, and other state listed species. The second part dealt with direct impacts to birds at new generation wind plants outside of California, examining such is sues as mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts from terrestrial wind projects, species and numbers killed per turbine rates/MW generated, impacts to listed threatened and endangered species, to USFWS Birds of Conservation Concern, and to state listed species. This session focused on newer wind project sites with a paper titled ''Bird Fatality and Risk at New Generation Wind Projects'' by Wally Erickson. Each paper was followed by a discussion/question and answer period.

  4. Measuring multiple nano-textured areas simultaneously with imaging scatterometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Skovlund; Hansen, Poul Erik; Bilenberg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    and areas with defects can be avoided. These advantages make imaging scatterometry a very effective and user-friendly characterization method and allow us to determine the homogeneity of a nano- Textured surface by performing pixel-wise analyses. In the analysis an inverse modelling approach is used, where...... measured diffraction efficiencies are compared to simulated diffraction efficiencies using a least-square fitting approach. We demonstrate an imaging scatterometry setup built into an optical microscope. The setup is capable of measuring multiple 2D gratings with pitches of 200 nm simultaneously...

  5. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Worthing, Wade [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cannon, Cody [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Mattson, Earl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Dobson, Patric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    2015-01-01

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970’s study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may need

  6. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hagemann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three and hydrological models (eight were used to systematically assess the hydrological response to climate change and project the future state of global water resources. This multi-model ensemble allows us to investigate how the hydrology models contribute to the uncertainty in projected hydrological changes compared to the climate models. Due to their systematic biases, GCM outputs cannot be used directly in hydrological impact studies, so a statistical bias correction has been applied. The results show a large spread in projected changes in water resources within the climate–hydrology modelling chain for some regions. They clearly demonstrate that climate models are not the only source of uncertainty for hydrological change, and that the spread resulting from the choice of the hydrology model is larger than the spread originating from the climate models over many areas. But there are also areas showing a robust change signal, such as at high latitudes and in some midlatitude regions, where the models agree on the sign of projected hydrological changes, indicative of higher confidence in this ensemble mean signal. In many catchments an increase of available water resources is expected but there are some severe decreases in Central and Southern Europe, the Middle East, the Mississippi River basin, southern Africa, southern China and south-eastern Australia.

  7. Water resources development in the Molai area, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The first volume of this report describes the work, carried out by the Government of Greece, with the assistance of UNDP and FAO, to assess the availability of groundwater for the irrigation of up to 6000 km in the Molai plain, located in the southern Peloponnese. The limestone reservoir of groundwater is restricted to the area 10 km 2 . Its groundwater is of rather poor quality (EC more than 2.0 mmho/cm) and it has a low head 3-7 m above sea level, which is 77-150 m below land surface. A water balance is presented which has been confirmed on a groundwater model. The fresh water of the limestone aquifer is characterised by the admixture of a variable amount of sea-water. The water of the Neogene aquifer is of much better quality. Combining the available resources, the irrigated area in the Molai plain can be tripled to cover half the net irrigable area. The economic feasibility of such a project has been studied

  8. Multitemporal burnt area mapping using Landsat 8: merging multiple burnt area indices to highlight burnt areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available gases. These, makes the study of wildfires important. The study of fires is in three phases. Firstly it is forecasting, which uses Fire Danger Index (FDI), secondly it is the mapping of active fires and thirdly, the mapping of burnt areas to access...

  9. Wind speed forecasting in the central California wind resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind speed forecasting program was implemented in the summer seasons of 1985 - 87 in the Central California Wind Resource Area (WRA). The forecasting program is designed to use either meteorological observations from the WRA and local upper air observations or upper air observations alone to predict the daily average windspeed at two locations. Forecasts are made each morning at 6 AM and are valid for a 24 hour period. Ease of use is a hallmark of the program as the daily forecast can be made using data entered into a programmable HP calculator. The forecasting program was the first step in a process to examine whether the electrical energy output of an entire wind power generation facility or defined subsections of the same facility could be predicted up to 24 hours in advance. Analysis of the results of the summer season program using standard forecast verification techniques show the program has skill over persistence and climatology.

  10. Interference-Aware Radio Resource Management for Local Area Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro CássioB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference-aware multiple access is an enabler to cost-efficient and reliable high data-rate local area wireless access. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware radio resource management scheme where receivers inform about their throughput, interference, and signal levels by means of broadcast messages tied to data reception. In the proposed scheme, the conventional scheduler is extended to interference-aware operation where individual scheduling decisions are based on estimated change in system-level performance. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in system simulations where it is compared to a conventional scheduler and a centralized scheduler (global optimum. The convergence of the proposed scheduler is analyzed and signaling overhead of an example implementation is characterized. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme enables fair and efficient wireless access in challenging interference scenarios, for example, multiple networks deployed in the same geographical area and sharing a common band.

  11. Offshore Wind Resources Assessment from Multiple Satellite Data and WRF Modeling over South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using accurate inputs of wind speed is crucial in wind resource assessment, as predicted power is proportional to the wind speed cubed. This study outlines a methodology for combining multiple ocean satellite winds and winds from WRF simulations in order to acquire the accurate reconstructed offshore winds which can be used for offshore wind resource assessment. First, wind speeds retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and Scatterometer ASCAT images were validated against in situ measurements from seven coastal meteorological stations in South China Sea (SCS. The wind roses from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS and ASCAT agree well with these observations from the corresponding in situ measurements. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based (ASCAT-based wind speed for the whole co-located samples show a standard deviation (SD of 2.09 m/s (1.83 m/s and correlation coefficient of R 0.75 (0.80. When the offshore winds (i.e., winds directed from land to sea are excluded, the comparison results for wind speeds show an improvement of SD and R, indicating that the satellite data are more credible over the open ocean. Meanwhile, the validation of satellite winds against the same co-located mast observations shows a satisfactory level of accuracy which was similar for SAR and ASCAT winds. These satellite winds are then assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF Model by WRF Data Assimilation (WRFDA system. Finally, the wind resource statistics at 100 m height based on the reconstructed winds have been achieved over the study area, which fully combines the offshore wind information from multiple satellite data and numerical model. The findings presented here may be useful in future wind resource assessment based on satellite data.

  12. Patient mix optimisation for inpatient planning with multiple resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, J.M.H.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Dellaert, N.P.; Jeunet, J.; Bekkers, J.A.; Tanfani, E.; Testi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution addresses the planning of admissions of surgical patients, requiring different resources such as beds and nursing capacity at wards, operating rooms and operating theatre personnel at an operating theatre, intensive care beds and intensive care nursing capacity at an intensive care

  13. Optimizing Emory oak woodlands for multiple resource benefits [Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlow Shipek; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Leonard F. DeBano

    2005-01-01

    The Emory oak woodlands in the southwestern United States present a diverse range of resources. People utilize these woodlands for wood products, cattle grazing, and recreational purposes. The woodlands provide a diversity of wildlife habitats for resident and migratory species. Occupying predominantly upland regions, the oak woodlands protect watersheds from excessive...

  14. Mineral resources of the Hawk Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Honey County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrin, B.D.; Conrad, J.E.; Plouff, D.; King, H.D.; Swischer, C.C.; Mayerle, R.T.; Rains, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Hawk Mountain Wildeness Study Area in south-central Oregon is underlain by Miocene age basalt, welded tuff, and interbedded sedimentary rock. The western part of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for gold. There is a low mineral resource potential for small deposits of uranium in the sedimentary rocks. This entire study area has a low potential for geothermal and oil and gas resources. There are no mineral claims or identified resources in this study area

  15. Retaining nurses in metropolitan areas: insights from senior nurse and human resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Vari M; Halter, Mary; Gale, Julia; Harris, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the views of senior nurse and human resource managers of strategies to retain hospital nurses in a metropolitan area. Against a global shortage, retaining nurses is a management imperative for the quality of hospital services. Semi-structured interviews, thematically analysed. Metropolitan areas have many health organisations in geographical proximity, offering nurses choices in employer and employment. Senior nurse and human resource managers recognised the complexity of factors influencing nurse turnover, including those that 'pulled' nurses out of their jobs to other posts and factors that 'pushed' nurses to leave. Four themes emerged in retaining nurses: strategy and leadership, including analysis of workforce and leavers' data, remuneration, the type of nursing work and career development and the immediate work environment. In contexts where multiple organisations compete for nurses, addressing retention through strategic leadership is likely to be important in paying due attention and apportioning resources to effective strategies. Aside from good human resource management practices for all, strategies tailored to different segments of the nursing workforce are likely to be important. This metropolitan study suggests attention should be paid to strategies that address remuneration, progressing nursing careers and the immediate work environment. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. National Laboratory Planning: Developing Sustainable Biocontainment Laboratories in Limited Resource Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kenneth B; Adams, Martin; Stamper, Paul D; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Hewson, Roger; Buck, Charles D; Richards, Allen L; Hay, John

    2016-01-01

    Strategic laboratory planning in limited resource areas is essential for addressing global health security issues. Establishing a national reference laboratory, especially one with BSL-3 or -4 biocontainment facilities, requires a heavy investment of resources, a multisectoral approach, and commitments from multiple stakeholders. We make the case for donor organizations and recipient partners to develop a comprehensive laboratory operations roadmap that addresses factors such as mission and roles, engaging national and political support, securing financial support, defining stakeholder involvement, fostering partnerships, and building trust. Successful development occurred with projects in African countries and in Azerbaijan, where strong leadership and a clear management framework have been key to success. A clearly identified and agreed management framework facilitate identifying the responsibility for developing laboratory capabilities and support services, including biosafety and biosecurity, quality assurance, equipment maintenance, supply chain establishment, staff certification and training, retention of human resources, and sustainable operating revenue. These capabilities and support services pose rate-limiting yet necessary challenges. Laboratory capabilities depend on mission and role, as determined by all stakeholders, and demonstrate the need for relevant metrics to monitor the success of the laboratory, including support for internal and external audits. Our analysis concludes that alternative frameworks for success exist for developing and implementing capabilities at regional and national levels in limited resource areas. Thus, achieving a balance for standardizing practices between local procedures and accepted international standards is a prerequisite for integrating new facilities into a country's existing public health infrastructure and into the overall international scientific community.

  17. Investigation of subsidence event over multiple seam mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, K.K.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the sequence of events which caused the 1987 surface subsidence and related damage to several homes in Walker County, Alabama, USA. Surface affects compared to mine maps indicated the subsidence to be mine related. However, two coal seams had been worked under this area. The upper seam, the American seam, ranged from 250 to 280 feet beneath the surface in the area in question. It was mined-out before 1955 by room-and-pillar method leaving in place narrow-long pillars to support the overburden strata, and abandoned in 1955. The lower seam, the Mary Lee seam, ranged from 650 to 700 feet beneath the surface. The Mary Lee seam had been abandoned in 1966 and subsequently became flooded. The dewatering of the Mary Lee seam workings in 1985 caused the submerged pillars to be exposed to the atmosphere. Due to multiple seam mining and the fact that workings had been inundated then dewatered, a subsurface investigation ensued to determine the sequence and ultimate cause of surface subsidence. Core sample tests with fracture analysis in conjunction with down-the-hole TV camera inspections provided necessary information to determine that the subsidence started in the lower seam and progressed through the upper coal seam to the surface. Evidence from the investigation program established that dewatering of the lower seam workings caused the marginally stable support pillars and the roof to collapse. This failure triggered additional subsidence in the upper seam which broadened the area of influence at the surface

  18. Collectives for Multiple Resource Job Scheduling Across Heterogeneous Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, K.; Lawson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Efficient management of large-scale, distributed data storage and processing systems is a major challenge for many computational applications. Many of these systems are characterized by multi-resource tasks processed across a heterogeneous network. Conventional approaches, such as load balancing, work well for centralized, single resource problems, but breakdown in the more general case. In addition, most approaches are often based on heuristics which do not directly attempt to optimize the world utility. In this paper, we propose an agent based control system using the theory of collectives. We configure the servers of our network with agents who make local job scheduling decisions. These decisions are based on local goals which are constructed to be aligned with the objective of optimizing the overall efficiency of the system. We demonstrate that multi-agent systems in which all the agents attempt to optimize the same global utility function (team game) only marginally outperform conventional load balancing. On the other hand, agents configured using collectives outperform both team games and load balancing (by up to four times for the latter), despite their distributed nature and their limited access to information.

  19. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  20. National Training Center Fort Irwin expansion area aquatic resources survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    Biologists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were requested by personnel from Fort Irwin to conduct a biological reconnaissance of the Avawatz Mountains northeast of Fort Irwin, an area for proposed expansion of the Fort. Surveys of vegetation, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic resources were conducted during 1995 to characterize the populations and habitats present with emphasis on determining the presence of any species of special concern. This report presents a description of the sites sampled, a list of the organisms found and identified, and a discussion of relative abundance. Taxonomic identifications were done to the lowest level possible commensurate with determining the status of the taxa relative to its possible listing as a threatened, endangered, or candidate species. Consultation with taxonomic experts was undertaken for the Coleoptera ahd Hemiptera. In addition to listing the macroinvertebrates found, the authors also present a discussion related to the possible presence of any threatened or endangered species or species of concern found in Sheep Creek Springs, Tin Cabin Springs, and the Amargosa River.

  1. Determining the feasibility of establishing new multiple-use marine protected areas in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Simon, Jeanne W; Paz-Lerdón, Ximena

    2013-12-01

    This paper evaluates the feasibility of establishing a multiple-use marine protected area. The methodology was applied to evaluate three proposed sites in Chile with diverse conservation needs, social stress and poverty levels, and different economic activities (small-scale fishing, heavy industry, and mining activities). We use two broad categories for the evaluation: socio-economic and political-institutional. The methodology uses a combination of secondary data with personal interviews, workshops, and focus groups with stakeholders (e.g., fishermen, unions, politicians, social organizations) from different political, social, and economic backgrounds to characterize current and potential natural and social resources and to evaluate in an ordinal scale the feasibility of establishing the protected area. The methodology allows us to correctly identify the challenges faced in each site and can be used to develop appropriate strategies for balancing economic, social, and environmental objectives. This methodology can be replicated to evaluate the feasibility of other marine or terrestrial protected areas.

  2. Mineral resource potential map of the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Oliver, Howard W.; Wagini, Alexander; Campbell, Harry W.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects indicate that the Sugaloaf Roadless Area contains subeconomic graphite and magnesian marble resources. Parts of the area have a low potential for the occurrence of additional low-grade graphite resources, but there is no potential for additional magnesian marble resources within the roadless area. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rocks are found in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area. The roadless area has no identified energy mineral resources, but parts of the area have a low to moderate potential for low-grade uranium resources. There are no identified metallic mineral resources within the area, and there is no evidence of a potential for the occurrence of such resources. No previously unknown mineral occurrence was located during this study.

  3. Managing for multiple resources under climate change: national forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Linda A; Blate, Geoffrey M; McNulty, Steven G; Millar, Constance I; Moser, Susanne; Neilson, Ronald P; Peterson, David L

    2009-12-01

    This study explores potential adaptation approaches in planning and management that the United States Forest Service might adopt to help achieve its goals and objectives in the face of climate change. Availability of information, vulnerability of ecological and socio-economic systems, and uncertainties associated with climate change, as well as the interacting non-climatic changes, influence selection of the adaptation approach. Resource assessments are opportunities to develop strategic information that could be used to identify and link adaptation strategies across planning levels. Within a National Forest, planning must incorporate the opportunity to identify vulnerabilities to climate change as well as incorporate approaches that allow management adjustments as the effects of climate change become apparent. The nature of environmental variability, the inevitability of novelty and surprise, and the range of management objectives and situations across the National Forest System implies that no single approach will fit all situations. A toolbox of management options would include practices focused on forestalling climate change effects by building resistance and resilience into current ecosystems, and on managing for change by enabling plants, animals, and ecosystems to adapt to climate change. Better and more widespread implementation of already known practices that reduce the impact of existing stressors represents an important "no regrets" strategy. These management opportunities will require agency consideration of its adaptive capacity, and ways to overcome potential barriers to these adaptation options.

  4. Using Mosix for Wide-Area Compuational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the problems with using traditional Beowulf-type distributed processing clusters is that they require an investment in dedicated computer resources. These resources are usually needed in addition to pre-existing ones such as desktop computers and file servers. Mosix is a series of modifications to the Linux kernel that creates a virtual computer, featuring automatic load balancing by migrating processes from heavily loaded nodes to less used ones. An extension of the Beowulf concept is to run a Mosixenabled Linux kernel on a large number of computer resources in an organization. This configuration would provide a very large amount of computational resources based on pre-existing equipment. The advantage of this method is that it provides much more processing power than a traditional Beowulf cluster without the added costs of dedicating resources.

  5. Mineral resource potential map of the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies within the Raywood "Flat Roadless Areas, together with an investigation of mines and prospects within the further planning area, resulted in (1) identification of nonmetallic mineral resources at a marble mine in the further planning area and (2) recognition of a small area in the recommended wilderness that has moderate potential for base-metal resources. Except for these two areas of identified and suspected resources, we did not observe indications of resource potential elsewhere in the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas.

  6. Mineral resources of the Swasey Mountain and Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Millard County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.A.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Yambrick, R.A.; Tuftin, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Swasey Mountain and the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by an east-dipping sequence of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite of Cambrian age. The Sand Pass mineralized area, immediately northwest of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area, contains numerous occurrences of jasperoid, small igneous intrusions of Tertiary age, and geochemical anomalies; the mineralized area has been explored for gold. Although no identified resources of metals are known in or near the wilderness study areas, the distribution of geologic structures and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies indicates there is a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold. An area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends south and east into the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area from the Sand Pass mineralized area. A second area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends from the southern part of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area across the western part of the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Area. Both study areas contain inferred subeconomic resources of quartzite, high-purity limestone, and sand and gravel. Both areas have moderate resource potential for high-purity limestone and dolomite. Fossils, especially trilobites, of interest to collectors are present in both areas. The potential for undiscovered resources is moderate for oil and gas and is low for geothermal energy within the study areas. There is no potential for undiscovered resources of coal.

  7. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9 Section 600.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil survey offices. The United States is divide...

  8. Resource Allocation Methodology to Support Mission Area Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parr, John

    1994-01-01

    .... The MAA program envisioned will examine, among other things, potential force structure and modernization trade-offs that are essential to the formulation of an affordable long-term plan for defense resource allocation...

  9. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs

  10. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research; Niles, W.E.; O`Farrell, J.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA)

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs.

  11. Mineral Resources of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J. Thomas; Plouff, Donald; McDonnell, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Morey (NV-060-191) and Fandango (NV-060-190) Wilderness Study Areas are located in the northern Hot Creek Range about 25 mi north of Warm Springs, Nev. At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, 46,300 acres of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas were studied. In this report, the area studied is referred to as 'the wilderness study area', or simply 'the study area'. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys were conducted by the USGS and the USBM in 1984 to appraise the identified mineral resources and to assess the mineral resource potential of the study areas. These studies indicate that there are small identified resources of zinc, lead, and silver at the Lead Pipe property in the Fandango Wilderness Study Area, several areas of high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in the Fandango study area, small areas of low and moderate potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Fandango study area, areas of moderate and high potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Morey study area, and an area of low potential for copper, molybdenum, and tin in the Morey study area. Both study areas have low resource potential for petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and geothermal energy.

  12. Optimal management of marine resources: spatial planning of multiple uses by multiple actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean space supplies mankind with a multitude of goods and services and yet it is under severe pressure of pollution and over-extraction of resources. To extract goods and services sustainably and to protect vulnerable ecosystems, we need to manage human activities in the marine domain.

  13. Dynamic Optimization for IPS2 Resource Allocation Based on Improved Fuzzy Multiple Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maokuan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study mainly focuses on resource allocation optimization for industrial product-service systems (IPS2. The development of IPS2 leads to sustainable economy by introducing cooperative mechanisms apart from commodity transaction. The randomness and fluctuation of service requests from customers lead to the volatility of IPS2 resource utilization ratio. Three basic rules for resource allocation optimization are put forward to improve system operation efficiency and cut unnecessary costs. An approach based on fuzzy multiple linear regression (FMLR is developed, which integrates the strength and concision of multiple linear regression in data fitting and factor analysis and the merit of fuzzy theory in dealing with uncertain or vague problems, which helps reduce those costs caused by unnecessary resource transfer. The iteration mechanism is introduced in the FMLR algorithm to improve forecasting accuracy. A case study of human resource allocation optimization in construction machinery industry is implemented to test and verify the proposed model.

  14. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  15. Cultural Resource Survey Report. Hildebrand Ranch Area: Proposed Chatfield Arboretum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    stabilization and attic re- pair General Purpose Shed X X Chicken Coop X X Carriage Shed X x Corrals and Fences X X Grape Arbor x Inventory of Buildings and Fact...area of about 350 acres and included the en- tire ranch except for the areas of ground occupied by buildings and parking lots. The area along Deer

  16. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, d' E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  17. Potential for extending major land resource areas into northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy S. Mann; Philip Heilman; Jeffry. Stone

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant history of cooperative efforts between Mexico and the United States on natural resource management issues. Mexico and the United States have jointly conducted research and developed range management technologies. Bringing these technologies together and improving technical communications are an ongoing process. This paper discusses a potential...

  18. Mineral resources of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Nielson, Jane E.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hazlett, Richard W.; Alminas, Henry V.; Nakata, John K.; McDonnell, John R.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 105,200 acres of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-307) were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as "the wilderness study area" or simply "the study area"; any reference to the Turtle Mountain Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The wilderness study area is in southeastern San Bernardino County, Calif. Gold, silver, copper, and lead have been mined within and adjacent to the study area. Copper-zinc-silver-gold mineral occurrences are found in the southern part and gold-silver mineral occurrences are found in the northern part of the study area; identified low- to moderate-grade gold-silver resources occur adjacent to the study area along the western boundary. Six areas in the south-central and northwestern parts of the study area have high resource potential, two broad areas have moderate resource potential, and part of the southwest corner has low resource potential for lode gold, silver, and associated copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten. Alluvium locally within one of these areas has moderate resource potential for placer gold and silver, and the entire area has low resource potential for placer gold and silver. There is low resource potential for perlite, ornamental stone (onyx marble and opal), manganese, uranium and thorium, pegmatite minerals, and oil and gas within the study area. Sand and gravel are abundant but are readily available outside the wilderness study area.

  19. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  20. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern California resource areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hiserote; Joel Moen; Charles L. Bolsinger

    1986-01-01

    This report is one of five that provide timber resource statistics for 57 of the 58 counties in California (San Francisco is excluded). This report presents statistics from a 1982-84 inventory of the timber resources of Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San...

  1. Water resources of the Cumberland area, Maryland-West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R. R.; LeFever, F. F.; Martin, R. O. R.; Otton, E. G.

    1950-01-01

    The area covered by this report consists of Garrett and Allegany Counties, the two most westernmost counties of Maryland, and Mineral County, West Virginia. The city of Cumberland, population 37,732 (1950 census), which is the economic and commercial center of the area, is on the North Branch pf the Potomac River in Allegany County.

  2. Multiple strategies for resilient livelihoods in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cash and non-cash benefits derived from livestock, as well as the wide range of secondary resources harvested from communal rangelands, make an important contribution to livelihood diversification and, hence, resilience. Rural development policy should therefore not focus narrowly on commercialisation of livestock ...

  3. Hydrogen: a new resource for the Venice industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio Mattiello

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen Park is based in Marghera, inside the Venice Municipality, where it is produced the 40% of the Italian production of hydrogen, as by-product of industrial processes. This availability gives the possibility to develop and to test new technologies based on hydrogen without the gas generation constrain. The Company deal is to coordinate the partners activities to utilize the Hydrogen resources available in Marghera. (authors)

  4. Ground-water resources of the Alma area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlier, Kenneth E.

    1963-01-01

    The Alma area consists of 30 square miles in the northwestern part of Gratiot County, Mich. It is an area of slight relief gently rolling hills and level plains and is an important agricultural center in the State.The Saginaw formation, which forms the bedrock surface in part of the area, is of relatively low permeability and yields water containing objectionable amounts of chloride. Formations below the Saginaw are tapped for brine in and near the Alma area.The consolidated rocks of the Alma area are mantled by Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are as much as 550 feet thick where preglacial valleys were eroded into the bedrock. The glacial deposits consist of till, glacial-lake deposits, and outwash. Till deposits are at the surface along the south-trending moraines that cross the area, and they underlie other types of glacial deposits at depth throughout the area. The till deposits are of low permeability and are not a source of water to wells, though locally they include small lenses of permeable sand and gravel.In the western part of the area, including much of the city of Alma, the glacial-lake deposits consist primarily of sand and are a source of small supplies of water. In the northeastern part of the area the lake deposits are predominantly clayey and of low permeability.Sand and gravel outwash yields moderate and large supplies of water within the area. Outwash is present at the surface along the West Branch of the Pine River. A more extensive deposit of outwash buried by the lake deposits is the source of most of the ground water pumped at Alma. The presence of an additional deposit of buried outwash west and southwest of the city is inferred from the glacial history of the area. Additional water supplies that may be developed from these deposits are probably adequate for anticipated population and industrial growth.Water levels have declined generally in the vicinity of the city of Alma since 1920 in response to pumping for municipal and industrial

  5. Content Area Vocabulary Videos in Multiple Contexts: A Pedagogical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C. Lorraine; Kapavik, Robin Robinson

    2015-01-01

    The authors challenged pre-service teachers to digitally define a social studies or mathematical vocabulary term in multiple contexts using a digital video camera. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. How will creating a video for instruction affect pre-service teachers' attitudes about teaching with technology, if at all?…

  6. Region 7 Significant Ecological Resource Areas (ECO_RES.SIG_REGIONS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SIG_REGIONS is a boundary layer that displays Region 7's Significant Ecological Resource Areas. This layer represents large areas within which different ecosystem...

  7. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  8. Measuring Geographic Inequalities: Dealing with Multiple Health Resources by Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhý, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available. The objective of this study is to develop a measure of the geographic inequality in the case of multiple health resources. The measure uses data envelopment analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric method of production function estimation, to transform multiple resources into a single virtual health resource. The study shows that the DEA originally developed for measuring efficiency can be used successfully to measure inequality. For the illustrative purpose, the inequality measure is calculated for the Czech Republic. The values of separate Robin Hood Indexes (RHIs) are 6.64% for physicians and 3.96% for nurses. In the next step, we use combined RHI for both health resources. Its value 5.06% takes into account that the combinations of two health resources serve regional populations. PMID:29541631

  9. Measuring Geographic Inequalities: Dealing with Multiple Health Resources by Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhý, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available. The objective of this study is to develop a measure of the geographic inequality in the case of multiple health resources. The measure uses data envelopment analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric method of production function estimation, to transform multiple resources into a single virtual health resource. The study shows that the DEA originally developed for measuring efficiency can be used successfully to measure inequality. For the illustrative purpose, the inequality measure is calculated for the Czech Republic. The values of separate Robin Hood Indexes (RHIs) are 6.64% for physicians and 3.96% for nurses. In the next step, we use combined RHI for both health resources. Its value 5.06% takes into account that the combinations of two health resources serve regional populations.

  10. GIS coupled Multiple Criteria based Decision Support for Classification of Urban Coastal Areas in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, R.; Kalbar, P.; Inamdar, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal area classification in India is a challenge for federal and state government agencies due to fragile institutional framework, unclear directions in implementation of costal regulations and violations happening at private and government level. This work is an attempt to improvise the objectivity of existing classification methods to synergies the ecological systems and socioeconomic development in coastal cities. We developed a Geographic information system coupled Multi-criteria Decision Making (GIS-MCDM) approach to classify urban coastal areas where utility functions are used to transform the costal features into quantitative membership values after assessing the sensitivity of urban coastal ecosystem. Furthermore, these membership values for costal features are applied in different weighting schemes to derive Coastal Area Index (CAI) which classifies the coastal areas in four distinct categories viz. 1) No Development Zone, 2) Highly Sensitive Zone, 3) Moderately Sensitive Zone and 4) Low Sensitive Zone based on the sensitivity of urban coastal ecosystem. Mumbai, a coastal megacity in India is used as case study for demonstration of proposed method. Finally, uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo approach to validate the sensitivity of CAI under specific multiple scenarios is carried out. Results of CAI method shows the clear demarcation of coastal areas in GIS environment based on the ecological sensitivity. CAI provides better decision support for federal and state level agencies to classify urban coastal areas according to the regional requirement of coastal resources considering resilience and sustainable development. CAI method will strengthen the existing institutional framework for decision making in classification of urban coastal areas where most effective coastal management options can be proposed.

  11. Application of multiple objective models to water resources planning and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, we have seen the birth and growth of multiple objective analysis from an idea without tools to one with useful applications. Models have been developed and applications have been researched to address the multiple purposes and objectives inherent in the development and management of water resources. A practical approach to multiple objective modelling incorporates macroeconomic-based policies and expectations in order to optimize the results from both engineering (structural) and management (non-structural) alternatives, while taking into account the economic and environmental trade-offs. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Wide-Area Publish/Subscribe Mobile Resource Discovery Based on IPv6 GeoNetworking

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Satoru; Matsuura, Satoshi; Inomata, Atsuo; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi; Sunahara, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Resource discovery is an essential function for distributed mobile applications integrated in vehicular communication systems. Key requirements of the mobile resource discovery are wide-area geographic-based discovery and scalable resource discovery not only inside a vehicular ad-hoc network but also through the Internet. While a number of resource discovery solutions have been proposed, most of them have focused on specific scale of network. Furthermore, managing a large number of mobile res...

  13. Potential natural gas hydrates resources in Indian Offshore areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sethi, A.K.; Sathe, A.V.; Ramana, M.V.

    (geophysical proxies of gas hydrates). A qualitative map prepared based on the inferred BSRs brought out a deepwater area of about 80,000 sq.km unto 3000 m isobath as favourable for gas hydrate occurrence. Methodology for reprocessing of seismic data...

  14. Offshore Wind Resource Estimation in Mediterranean Area Using SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods of m...

  15. A Case Study of Resources Management Planning with Multiple Objectives and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; David G. Silsbee; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resources management plan (RMP) every four years or less. The plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects for four years, but they are prepared with little quantitative and analytical rigor and without formal decisionmaking tools. We have previously described a multiple objective planning...

  16. Water resources of the Hartford-New Britain area, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum; Tanski, D.; Thomas, M.P.

    1964-01-01

    The Hartford-New Britain area includes the metropolitan areas of Hartford and New Britain and parts of several adjoining towns. Water used in the area is withdrawn from the principal streams and aquifers at an average rate of 463.5 mgd (million gallons per day). Sufficient water is available from these sources to meet present requirements and those for many years to come, although local shortages may develop in some areas as the result of problems of distribution and treatment. About 98 percent of all water used in 1957 was from surface sources. More than 425 mgd was required by industry, and about 23 mgd was for domestic water supply. The Farmington River upstream from Collinsville is the chief source of water for public supply in the Hartford-New Britain area, whereas the Connecticut River is the chief source of water for industry. An average of about 40 mgd is withdrawn from the upper Farmington River for public supply, and about 404 mgd is withdrawn by industry from the Connecticut River for nonconsumptive use and returned directly to the stream. The Connecticut River is the source of the largest quantity of water in the area. The flow of the stream at Thompsonville may be expected to equal or exceed about 2,000 mgd 95 percent of the time, and the flow should not be less than this amount for periods longer than 12 days. The flow below Thompsonville is increased by additions from the Scantic, Farmington, Park, and Hockanum Rivers and from numerous smaller tributary streams. The available streamflow data for the aforementioned rivers have been summarized graphically in the report. The chemical quality of water in the Connecticut River is good, except for short periods when the iron concentration is high. In addition to the removal of iron some other treatment may be necessary if water from the Connecticut River is used for special purposes. The chemical quality of the tributary streams is good, except the quality of the Park River, which is poor. Thus the

  17. Managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress--an introduction to the MARS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Daniel; Carvalho, Laurence; Argillier, Christine; Beklioglu, Meryem; Borja, Angel; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Duel, Harm; Ferreira, Teresa; Globevnik, Lidija; Hanganu, Jenica; Hellsten, Seppo; Jeppesen, Erik; Kodeš, Vit; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Nõges, Tiina; Ormerod, Steve; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Schmutz, Stefan; Venohr, Markus; Birk, Sebastian

    2015-01-15

    Water resources globally are affected by a complex mixture of stressors resulting from a range of drivers, including urban and agricultural land use, hydropower generation and climate change. Understanding how stressors interfere and impact upon ecological status and ecosystem services is essential for developing effective River Basin Management Plans and shaping future environmental policy. This paper details the nature of these problems for Europe's water resources and the need to find solutions at a range of spatial scales. In terms of the latter, we describe the aims and approaches of the EU-funded project MARS (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) and the conceptual and analytical framework that it is adopting to provide this knowledge, understanding and tools needed to address multiple stressors. MARS is operating at three scales: At the water body scale, the mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions and their impact upon water resources, ecological status and ecosystem services will be examined through multi-factorial experiments and the analysis of long time-series. At the river basin scale, modelling and empirical approaches will be adopted to characterise relationships between multiple stressors and ecological responses, functions, services and water resources. The effects of future land use and mitigation scenarios in 16 European river basins will be assessed. At the European scale, large-scale spatial analysis will be carried out to identify the relationships amongst stress intensity, ecological status and service provision, with a special focus on large transboundary rivers, lakes and fish. The project will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources by advising the 3rd River Basin Management Planning cycle, the revision of the WFD and by developing new tools for

  18. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  19. Investigation and Analysis of Crop Germplasm Resources in Coastal Areas of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong WANG; Shoujin FAN; Libin ZHANG; Hui ZHANG; Yingjie LIN; Hanfeng DING; Xiaodong ZHANG; Runfang LI; Zhan LI; Yumin MA; Yu ZHANG; Nana LI; Weijing CHEN; Zhongxue FAN

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the investigation of crop germplasm resources in coastal areas of Shandong Province, including 132 villages in 82 towns of 34 counties. The survey collected local varieties and wild resources of grain crops, economic crops, vegetables and fruit trees, and a total of 848 samples were collected, belonging to 54 species of 39 genera in 15 families. In this study, the current situation and growth and decline conditions of crop germplasm resources were investigated, and their botanical classification and utilization importance were analyzed. Furthermore, the conservation, development and utilization of crop germplasm resources in coastal areas of Shandong Province were also discussed in this paper.

  20. An Expression of Multiple Values: The Relationship Between Community, Landscape and Natural Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To aid political and institutional decision making in the sustainable use of natural resources the value of ecological, socio-cultural and economic assets has increasingly been communicated in terms of monetary units. Despite reliance upon natural resources, the impact of human activities has now reached a stage where cumulative losses are forcing society to re-appraise the evaluation process and how to better incorporate these values in to the decision-making process. This paper examines the attributes of value held by natural resources within ecological, socio-cultural and economic value domains from the perspective of a rural UK community. Here we reflect upon the continued primacy of monetary valuation of natural resource using two approaches, a scaled preference-based value typology and a place-based map measure. We demonstrate that the societal relationships which inform the evaluation of natural resources are both multi-faceted and hierarchical. Moreover, whilst aware of the utilitarian character of society’s relationship with natural resource, the societal value-for-natural-resource relationship is primarily expressed using social-ecological qualities. These results add weight to the call for a new approach towards natural resource evaluation and how these values contribute to the sustainability agenda. New methods of evaluation must adopt multiple values that extend beyond a solely economic-based commodification concern to encompass the human relationship with the resource itself. Wherein, a multi-faceted approach to attributing value to natural resource, set within an experiential framework, can provide a focal point for discussion and the decision-making process.

  1. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  2. Evaluation of Water Resource Security Based on an MIV-BP Model in a Karst Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of water resource security deserves particular attention in water resource planning and management. A typical karst area in Guizhou Province, China, was used as the research area in this paper. First, based on data from Guizhou Province for the past 10 years, the mean impact value–back propagation (MIV-BP model was used to analyze the factors influencing water resource security in the karst area. Second, 18 indices involving five aspects, water environment subsystem, social subsystem, economic subsystem, ecological subsystem, and human subsystem, were selected to establish an evaluation index of water resource security. Finally, a BP artificial neural network model was constructed to evaluate the water resource security of Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2014. The results show that water resource security in Guizhou, which was at a moderate warning level from 2005 to 2009 and a critical safety level from 2010 to 2014, has generally improved. Groundwater supply ratio, industrial water utilization rate, water use efficiency, per capita grain production, and water yield modulus were the obstacles to water resource security. Driving factors were comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste, qualifying rate of industrial wastewater, above moderate rocky desertification area ratio, water requirement per unit gross domestic product (GDP, and degree of development and utilization of groundwater. Our results provide useful suggestions on the management of water resource security in Guizhou Province and a valuable reference for water resource research.

  3. Smoke production from multiple nuclear explosions in nonurban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, R.D.; Bush, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of smoke that may be produced by wildland or rural fires as a consequence of a large-scale nuclear exchange is estimated. The calculation is based on a compilation of rural military facilities, identified from a wide variety of unclassified sources, together with data on their geographic positions, surrounding vegetation (fuel), and weather conditions. The ignition area (corrected for fuel moisture) and the amount of fire spread are used to calculate the smoke production. The results show a substantially lower estimated smoke production (from wildland fires) than in earlier nuclear winter studies. The amount varies seasonally and at its peak is less by an order of magnitude than the estimated threshold level necessary for a major attenuation of solar radiation. 32 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  4. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  5. Allocating conservation resources between areas where persistence of a species is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Madden, Eve; Chadès, Iadine; McCarthy, Michael A; Linkie, Matthew; Possingham, Hugh P

    2011-04-01

    Research on the allocation of resources to manage threatened species typically assumes that the state of the system is completely observable; for example whether a species is present or not. The majority of this research has converged on modeling problems as Markov decision processes (MDP), which give an optimal strategy driven by the current state of the system being managed. However, the presence of threatened species in an area can be uncertain. Typically, resource allocation among multiple conservation areas has been based on the biggest expected benefit (return on investment) but fails to incorporate the risk of imperfect detection. We provide the first decision-making framework for confronting the trade-off between information and return on investment, and we illustrate the approach for populations of the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) in Kerinci Seblat National Park. The problem is posed as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), which extends MDP to incorporate incomplete detection and allows decisions based on our confidence in particular states. POMDP has previously been used for making optimal management decisions for a single population of a threatened species. We extend this work by investigating two populations, enabling us to explore the importance of variation in expected return on investment between populations on how we should act. We compare the performance of optimal strategies derived assuming complete (MDP) and incomplete (POMDP) observability. We find that uncertainty about the presence of a species affects how we should act. Further, we show that assuming full knowledge of a species presence will deliver poorer strategic outcomes than if uncertainty about a species status is explicitly considered. MDP solutions perform up to 90% worse than the POMDP for highly cryptic species, and they only converge in performance when we are certain of observing the species during management: an unlikely scenario for many

  6. Ground-water resources of the El Paso area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Albert Nelson; Livingston, Penn Poore

    1945-01-01

    El Paso, Tex., and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and the industries in -that area draw their water supplies from wells, most of which are from 600 to 800 feet deep. In 1906, the estimated average pumpage there was about 1,000,000 gallons a day, and by 1935 it had increased to 15,400,000 gallons a day. The water-bearing beds, consisting of sand and gravel interbedded wire clay, tie in the deep structural trough known as the Hueco bolson, between the Organ and Franklin Mountains on the west, the Hueco, Finlay, and Malone Mountains on the east, the Tularosa Basin on the north, and the mountain ranges of Mexico on the south. From the gorge above El Paso to that beginning near Fort Quitman, about 90 miles southeast .of El Paso, the Rio Grande has eroded a flat-bottomed, steepwalled valley, 6 to 8 miles wide and 225 to 350 feet deep. No other large drainage channels have been developed on the bolson. The valley is known as the El Paso Valley, and the uneroded upland part of the bolson is called the Mesa. In the lowest parts of the El Paso Valley, the water-table is nearly at the surface. The quality of the underground water in the valley varies greatly both vertically and laterally. To a depth of about 400 to 500 feet it is in general too highly mineralized for municipal use, but between about. 500 and 900 feet good water may be obtained from several beds. In the beds between 500 and 900 feet the water level in wells is in places as. much as 20 feet lower than that in the shallow beds. Beneath the Mesa the water level .varies from about 200 feet beneath the surface, where the ground elevation is least, to about 400 feet. where it is highest. The water beneath the Mesa in general is of satisfactory quality and contains less than 500 parts per million of dissolved solids. Two cones of depression in the water table have been formed by the pumping near El Paso--one m the vicinity of the Mesa well field, the other around the Montana well field in the valley. The water

  7. Phase I Cultural Resources Survey and Archeological Inventory of the Segura Staging Area, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the results of a Phase I cultural resources survey and archeological inventory of the Segura Staging Area located on the right descending bank of Bayou Teche at approximate River Mile...

  8. Incentive Mechanism Model Design for Sharing of Information Resources in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xirong; Shan, Lingling

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the issues concerning the cross-unit sharing of information resources in rural areas, we analyze the incentive problem of the sharing of information resources in rural areas using the incentive theory method; establish corresponding incentive mechanism model (It is divided into positive incentive model and negative incentive model, and only when the two models guarantee each other and are used at the same time can they be effective). Based on this, we put forward the institu...

  9. Decision making for multiple utilization of water resources in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Pyar Ali

    1989-09-01

    The Clutha is the largest river in New Zealand. The last two decades have witnessed major conflicts centered on the utilization of the water resources of the upper Clutha river. These conflicts have by no means been finally resolved. The focus of this article is on institutional arrangements for water resource management on the Clutha, with particular reference to the decision-making processes that have culminated in the building of the high dam. It critically evaluates recent experiences and comments on future prospects for resolving resource use conflicts rationally through planning for multiple utilization in a climate of market led policies of the present government. The study demonstrates the inevitable conflicts that can arise within a public bureaucracy that combines dual responsibilities for policy making and operational functions. Hitherto, central government has been able to manipulate the water resource allocation process to its advantage because of a lack of clear separation between its two roles as a policy maker and developer. The conflicts that have manifested themselves during the last two decades over the Clutha should be seen as part of a wider public debate during the last two decades concerning resource utilization in New Zealand. The Clutha controversy was preceded by comparable concerns over the rising of the level of Lake Manapouri during the 1960s and has been followed by the debate over the “think big” resource development projects during the 1980s. The election of the fourth Labour government in 1983 has heralded a political and economic policy shift in New Zealand towards minimizing the role of public intervention in resource allocation and major structural reforms in the relative roles of central and regional government in resource management. The significance of these changes pose important implications for the future management of the Clutha.

  10. Mineral resources of the Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Yuma County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Tosdal, R.M.; Pitkin, J.A.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; Wood, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers approximately 8,855 acres immediately south of the Yuma Proving Ground. This study area contains sand and gravel, and it has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits. One small drainage basin along the southeast boundary of this study area has a moderate potential for uranium. This study area has a low potential for geothermal energy and for oil and gas resources

  11. The Agrarian Natural Resource Use in the Area of Risky Farming: Principles and Priorities for Rationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyan Vasyl A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The essence of agrarian natural resource use as an important prerequisite for agricultural production in the area of risky farming (drainage zone, irrigation zone, and mountainous areas has been disclosed. The problem points of rationalizing the agrarian natural resource use in the drainage zone have been identified in relation to the structural deformations of agricultural production. The main sectoral and institutional priorities for agrarian natural resource use in the drainage zone have been determined. The principles of agrarian natural resource use in the area of risky farming have been formulated, consisting in the restoration of traditional agricultural specialization, maintaining the environmental-economic balance, ensuring the adaptability to international environmental conventions, comprehensively countering the rural poverty, overcoming the asymmetry in information, preserving the food orientation of agricultural production, and transforming negative externalities into positive effects.

  12. Systematic method for resource rating with two applications to potential wilderness areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelker, A.H.; Wedow, H.; Oakes, E.; Scheffler, P.K.

    1979-09-01

    A versatile method was developed to rate the energy- and mineral-resource potentials of areas in which land-management and resource-development decisions must be reached with a minimum expenditure of money and time. The method surveys published and personal information on resources in the region being assessed, selects the most appropriate information, synthesizes the information into map overlays and tract descriptions, rates the potential of tracts for particular resources, rates the overall importance of each tract for resource development, and documents the ratings and their significance. Basic criteria considered by the assessment team include the favorability and certainty ratings, the overall availability of each rated resource within this country, the size of a given tract, economic factors, and the number of resources in a tract. The method was applied to two separate but roughly similar geologic regions, the Idaho-Wyoming-Utah thrust belt and the central Appalachians. Undeveloped tracts of national forestland in these regions that are being considered for possible designation under the Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) planning process were rated for their resource value. Results support earlier indications that the 63 tracts comprising the western thrust belt possess a high potential for future resource development. Nearly one-half of these tracts were rated either 3 or 4. However, the wide spread of the importance ratings between 1 and 4 suggests that some tracts or portions of tracts can be added to the National Wilderness System without compromising resource development. The 72 eastern thrust belt tracts were given lower ratings, which indicates the reduced significance of the few remaining roadless areas in this region in satisfying the nation's near-term resource needs

  13. SATISFACTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS FROM ROMANIAN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Stefanescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Organization’s human resource is often called the "most valuable asset", although it does not appear in the organization’s accounts. Organization's success depends on the way in which its members implement its objectives; therefore the satisfaction of human resources is crucial for achieving good results in the organization. In this work, we conducted an analysis of the particularities of human resource management in secondary education area and an empirical study on the satisfaction of human resources in a typical rural Romanian schools. It is imperative for Romania to adopt a strategy to improve the education system in order to include new approaches of organizational governance and human resources management so that human resources within the education system have a high degree of satisfaction from the work performed.

  14. Comparison of the Physical Education and Sports School Students' Multiple Intelligence Areas According to Demographic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Cem Sinan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the multiple intelligence areas of a group of physical education and sports students according to their demographic features. In the study, "Multiple Intelligence Scale", consisting of 27 items, whose Turkish validity and reliability study have been done by Babacan (2012) and which is originally owned…

  15. Development of Optimal Water-Resources Management Strategies for Kaidu-Kongque Watershed under Multiple Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an interval-stochastic fractile optimization (ISFO model is advanced for developing optimal water-resources management strategies under multiple uncertainties. The ISFO model can not only handle uncertainties presented in terms of probability distributions and intervals with possibility distribution boundary, but also quantify subjective information (i.e., expected system benefit preference and risk-averse attitude from different decision makers. The ISFO model is then applied to a real case of water-resources systems planning in Kaidu-kongque watershed, China, and a number of scenarios with different ecological water-allocation policies under varied p-necessity fractiles are analyzed. Results indicate that different policies for ecological water allocation can lead to varied water supplies, economic penalties, and system benefits. The solutions obtained can help decision makers identify optimized water-allocation alternatives, alleviate the water supply-demand conflict, and achieve socioeconomic and ecological sustainability, particularly when limited water resources are available for multiple competing users.

  16. A composite state method for ensemble data assimilation with multiple limited-area models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kretschmer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited-area models (LAMs allow high-resolution forecasts to be made for geographic regions of interest when resources are limited. Typically, boundary conditions for these models are provided through one-way boundary coupling from a coarser resolution global model. Here, data assimilation is considered in a situation in which a global model supplies boundary conditions to multiple LAMs. The data assimilation method presented combines information from all of the models to construct a single ‘composite state’, on which data assimilation is subsequently performed. The analysis composite state is then used to form the initial conditions of the global model and all of the LAMs for the next forecast cycle. The method is tested by using numerical experiments with simple, chaotic models. The results of the experiments show that there is a clear forecast benefit to allowing LAM states to influence one another during the analysis. In addition, adding LAM information at analysis time has a strong positive impact on global model forecast performance, even at points not covered by the LAMs.

  17. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  18. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Close, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits

  19. Evidence and opportunities for integrating landscape ecology into natural resource planning across multiple-use landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammel, E. Jamie; Carter, Sarah; Haby, Travis S.; Taylor, Jason J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing natural resource management has been a focus of landscape ecology since its inception, but numerous authors argue that landscape ecology has not yet been effective in achieving the underlying goal of planning and designing sustainable landscapes. We developed nine questions reflecting the application of fundamental research topics in landscape ecology to the landscape planning process and reviewed two recent landscape-scale plans in western North America for evidence of these concepts in plan decisions. Both plans considered multiple resources, uses, and values, including energy development, recreation, conservation, and protection of cultural and historic resources. We found that land use change and multiscale perspectives of resource uses and values were very often apparent in planning decisions. Pattern-process relationships, connectivity and fragmentation, ecosystem services, landscape history, and climate change were reflected less frequently. Landscape sustainability was considered only once in the 295 decisions reviewed, and outputs of landscape models were not referenced. We suggest six actionable opportunities for further integrating landscape ecology concepts into landscape planning efforts: 1) use landscape sustainability as an overarching goal, 2) adopt a broad ecosystem services framework, 3) explore the role of landscape history more comprehensively, 4) regularly consider and accommodate potential effects of climate change, 5) use landscape models to support plan decisions, and 6) promote a greater presence of landscape ecologists within agencies that manage large land bases and encourage active involvement in agency planning efforts. Together these actions may improve the defensibility, durability, and sustainability of landscape plan decisions.

  20. Comparison of Personal Resources in Patients Who Differently Estimate the Impact of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, Maciej; Tomczak, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Discrepancies between physicians' assessment and patients' subjective representations of the disease severity may influence physician-patient communication and management of a chronic illness, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). For these reasons, it is important to recognize factors that distinguish patients who differently estimate the impact of MS. The purpose of this study was to verify if the patients who overestimate or underestimate the impact of MS differ in their perception of personal resources from individuals presenting with a realistic appraisal of their physical condition. A total of 172 women and 92 men diagnosed with MS completed Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale, University of Washington Self Efficacy Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Treatment Beliefs Scale, Actually Received Support Scale, and Socioeconomic resources scale. Physician's assessment of health status was determined with Expanded Disability Status Scale. Linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the subsets of patients with various patterns of subjective health and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. Patients overestimating the impact of their disease presented with significantly lower levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy in MS, and body esteem; furthermore, they perceived their condition more threatening than did realists and underestimators. They also assessed anti-MS treatment worse, had less socioeconomic resources, and received less support than underestimators. Additionally, underestimators presented with significantly better perception of their disease, self, and body than did realists. Self-assessment of MS-related symptoms is associated with specific perception of personal resources in coping with the disease. These findings may facilitate communication with patients and point to new directions for future research on adaptation to MS.

  1. Using multiple metaphors and multimodalities as a semiotic resource when teaching year 2 students computational strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenhall, Paula; Sherriff, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Recent research indicates that using multimodal learning experiences can be effective in teaching mathematics. Using a social semiotic lens within a participationist framework, this paper reports on a professional learning collaboration with a primary school teacher designed to explore the use of metaphors and modalities in mathematics instruction. This video case study was conducted in a year 2 classroom over two terms, with the focus on building children's understanding of computational strategies. The findings revealed that the teacher was able to successfully plan both multimodal and multiple metaphor learning experiences that acted as semiotic resources to support the children's understanding of abstract mathematics. The study also led to implications for teaching when using multiple metaphors and multimodalities.

  2. Global assessment of onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Herran, Diego; Dai, Hancheng; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed global onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas in terms of transmission losses and costs, and visibility (landscape impact) restrictions. Including this factor decreased the economic potential considerably depending on the level of supply cost considered (at least 37% and 16% for an economic potential below 10 and 14 US cents/kWh, respectively). Its importance compared to other factors was secondary below 15 US cents/kWh. At higher costs it was secondary only to land use, and was more important than economic and technical factors. The impact of this factor was mixed across all regions of the world, given the heterogeneity of wind resources in remote and proximal areas. Regions where available resources decreased the most included the European Union, Japan, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The supply cost chosen to evaluate the economic potential and uncertainties influencing the estimation of distance to the closest urban area are critical for the assessment. Neglecting the restrictions associated with integration into energy systems and social acceptability resulted in an overestimation of global onshore wind resources. These outcomes are fundamental for global climate policies because they help to clarify the limits of wind energy resource availability. - Highlights: • Global onshore wind resources were assessed including the distance to urban areas. • We evaluate the impact of transmission losses and cost, and visibility restrictions. • The distance to urban areas' impact was considerable, depending on the supply cost. • This factor's importance was secondary to economic, land use, and technical factors. • Neglecting this factor resulted in an overestimation of global wind resources.

  3. Measuring resource inequalities. The concepts and methodology for an area-based Gini coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, A.; Jackson, T.

    2008-01-01

    Although inequalities in income and expenditure are relatively well researched, comparatively little attention has been paid, to date, to inequalities in resource use. This is clearly a shortcoming when it comes to developing informed policies for sustainable consumption and social justice. This paper describes an indicator of inequality in resource use called the AR-Gini. The AR-Gini is an area-based measure of resource inequality that estimates inequalities between neighbourhoods with regard to the consumption of specific consumer goods. It is also capable of estimating inequalities in the emissions resulting from resource use, such as carbon dioxide emissions from energy use, and solid waste arisings from material resource use. The indicator is designed to be used as a basis for broadening the discussion concerning 'food deserts' to inequalities in other types of resource use. By estimating the AR-Gini for a wide range of goods and services we aim to enhance our understanding of resource inequalities and their drivers, identify which resources have highest inequalities, and to explore trends in inequalities. The paper describes the concepts underlying the construction of the AR-Gini and its methodology. Its use is illustrated by pilot applications (specifically, men's and boys' clothing, carpets, refrigerators/freezers and clothes washer/driers). The results illustrate that different levels of inequality are associated with different commodities. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of some possible policy implications of the AR-Gini. (author)

  4. Applying voting theory in natural resource management: a case of multiple-criteria group decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Sanna; Kangas, Annika; Kangas, Jyrki

    2002-02-01

    Voting theory has a lot in common with utility theory, and especially with group decision-making. An expected-utility-maximising strategy exists in voting situations, as well as in decision-making situations. Therefore, it is natural to utilise the achievements of voting theory also in group decision-making. Most voting systems are based on a single criterion or holistic preference information on decision alternatives. However, a voting scheme called multicriteria approval is specially developed for decision-making situations with multiple criteria. This study considers the voting theory from the group decision support point of view and compares it with some other methods applied to similar purposes in natural resource management. A case study is presented, where the approval voting approach is introduced to natural resources planning and tested in a forestry group decision-making process. Applying multicriteria approval method was found to be a potential approach for handling some challenges typical for forestry group decision support. These challenges include (i) utilising ordinal information in the evaluation of decision alternatives, (ii) being readily understandable for and treating equally all the stakeholders in possession of different levels of knowledge on the subject considered, (iii) fast and cheap acquisition of preference information from several stakeholders, and (iv) dealing with multiple criteria.

  5. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  6. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  7. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste

  8. User's guide to the Geothermal Resource Areas Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Leung, K.; Yen, W.

    1981-10-01

    The National Geothermal Information Resource project at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is developing a Geothermal Resource Areas Database, called GRAD, designed to answer questions about the progress of geothermal energy development. This database will contain extensive information on geothermal energy resources for selected areas, covering development from initial exploratory surveys to plant construction and operation. The database is available for on-lie interactive query by anyone with an account number on the computer, a computer terminal with an acoustic coupler, and a telephone. This report will help in making use of the database. Some information is provided on obtaining access to the computer system being used, instructions on obtaining standard reports, and some aids to using the query language.

  9. Mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area, Archuleta and Hinsdale counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Alfred L.; Condon, Steven M.; Franczyk, Karen J.; Brown, S.Don

    1983-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area is low. No occurrences of metallic minerals, of valuable industrial rocks and minerals, or of useful concentrations of organic fuels are known in the study area. However, a noneconomic occurrence of gypsum in the Jurassic Wanakah Formation lies a few hundred feet west of the WSA boundary, is believed to extend into the WSA, and has a low resource potential. Particular attention was paid to the possible occurrence of organic fuels in the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation, of uranium and vanadium in the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone and Morrison Formation, and of coal in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone. Thin coaly beds in the Dakota have a low resource potential. Extensive sampling of stream sediments, limited sampling of rock outcrops and springs, and a number of scintillometer traverses failed to pinpoint significant anomalies that might be clues to mineral deposits.

  10. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  11. The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Scott J

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs. Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted, and the OD/HR strategies and initiatives they have planned or in place; assess how effective these structures, strategies and initiatives have been in enabling the PCTs to meet the organisational and human resources challenges they face; identify the factors, both internal to the PCT and in the wider health community, which have contributed to the success or failure of different structures, strategies and initiatives. Methods The study will be undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1 the key literature on public sector and NHS organisational development and human resources management will be reviewed, and discussions will be held with key researchers and policy makers working in this area. Stage 2 will focus on detailed case studies in six PCTs designed to examine the organisational and human resources challenges they face. Data will be collected using semi-structured interviews, group discussion, site visits, observation of key meetings and examination of local documentation. The findings from the case study PCTs will be cross checked with a Reference Group of up to 20 other PCG/Ts, and key officers working in organisational development or primary care at local, regional and national level. In Stage 3 analysis of findings from the preparatory work, the case studies and the feedback from the Reference Group will be used to identify practical lessons for PCTs, key messages for policy makers, and contributions to further theoretical development.

  12. Estimation of sub-pixel water area on Tibet plateau using multiple endmembers spectral mixture spectral analysis from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qian; Shi, Jiancheng; Xu, Yuanliu

    2011-12-01

    Water is the basic needs for human society, and the determining factor of stability of ecosystem as well. There are lots of lakes on Tibet Plateau, which will lead to flood and mudslide when the water expands sharply. At present, water area is extracted from TM or SPOT data for their high spatial resolution; however, their temporal resolution is insufficient. MODIS data have high temporal resolution and broad coverage. So it is valuable resource for detecting the change of water area. Because of its low spatial resolution, mixed-pixels are common. In this paper, four spectral libraries are built using MOD09A1 product, based on that, water body is extracted in sub-pixels utilizing Multiple Endmembers Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) using MODIS daily reflectance data MOD09GA. The unmixed result is comparing with contemporaneous TM data and it is proved that this method has high accuracy.

  13. Power system stabilizers based on distributed energy resources for damping of inter-area oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanov Predrag Č.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with inter-area power oscillations damping enhancement by distributed energy resources contained in typical micro grid. Main idea behind this work is to use distributed generation and distributed storage, such as battery energy storage to mimic conventional power system stabilizer, but with regulating active power output, rather than reactive power, as in standard power system stabilizer realization. The analysis of the small signal stability is established for four-machine, two-area system, with inverter based micro grids in each area. Dynamic simulation results are included in this work and they show that proposed controller provides additional damping effect to this test system.

  14. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  15. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jong-Hwa; Jee, Gyu-In

    2016-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multi...

  16. Multiple Intimate Partner Violence Experiences: Knowledge, Access, Utilization and Barriers to Utilization of Resources by Women of the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Huerta, Julia; Alexander, Kamila A; St Vil, Noelle M; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    This study examined knowledge, access, utilization, and barriers to use of resources among Black women exposed to multiple types of intimate partner violence in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). We analyzed quantitative survey data collected by 163 women recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the USVI. In addition we analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 11 women. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A substantial proportion of Black women with multiple types of violence experiences lacked knowledge of, did not have access to, and did not use resources. Barriers to resource use were identified at the individual, relationship, and community levels. There is need for programs to develop awareness, promote access and utilization of resources, and eliminate barriers to resource use among abused Black women.

  17. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  18. A case study of resources management planning with multiple objectives and projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David L.; Silsbee, David G.; Schmoldt, Daniel L.

    1994-09-01

    Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resources management plan (RMP) every four years or less. The plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects for four years, but they are prepared with little quantitative and analytical rigor and without formal decision-making tools. We have previously described a multiple objective planning process for inventory and monitoring programs (Schmoldt and others 1994). To test the applicability of that process for the more general needs of resources management planning, we conducted an exercise on the Olympic National Park (NP) in Washington State, USA. Eight projects were selected as typical of those considered in RMPs and five members of the Olympic NP staff used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to prioritize the eight projects with respect to their implicit management objectives. By altering management priorities for the park, three scenarios were generated. All three contained some similarities in rankings for the eight projects, as well as some differences. Mathematical allocations of money and people differed among these scenarios and differed substantially from what the actual 1990 Olympic NP RMP contains. Combining subjective priority measures with budget dollars and personnel time into an objective function creates a subjective economic metric for comparing different RMP’s. By applying this planning procedure, actual expenditures of budget and personnel in Olympic NP can agree more closely with the staff’s management objectives for the park.

  19. Primary user localisation and uplink resource allocation in orthogonal frequency division multiple access cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2015-05-21

    In cognitive radio networks, secondary users (SUs) can share spectrum with primary users (PUs) under the condition that no interference is caused to the PUs. To evaluate the interference imposed to the PUs, the cognitive systems discussed in the literature usually assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the link from a secondary transmitter to a primary receiver (interference link) is known at the secondary transmitter. However, this assumption may often be impractical in cognitive radio systems, since the PUs need to be oblivious to the presence of the SUs. The authors first discuss PU localisation and then introduce an uplink resource allocation algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based cognitive radio systems, where relative location information between primary and SUs is used instead of CSI of the interference link to estimate the interference. Numerical and simulation results show that it is indeed effective to use location information as a part of resource allocation and thus a near-optimal capacity is achieved. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2015.

  20. How Children Living in Poor Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Perceive Their Own Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Pauline; Humble, Steve; Chan, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out with 1,857 poor children from 17 schools, living in low-income areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. All children took the "Student Multiple Intelligences Profile" (SMIP) questionnaire as part of a bigger project that gathered data around concepts and beliefs of talent. This paper sets out two aims, first to…

  1. Assessment of Human’s Attitude Towards Natural Resource Conservation in Protected Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Popradit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attitude of residing people towards a protected forest area was evaluated for sustainable use of natural resources and forest conservation in the Phu Kao–PhuPhan Kham National Park in Thailand. Their economic and social conditions were assessed in three villages of Phukao, NongBua Lamphu Province. Data were collected from 348 households (66.5% heads or the representatives in the villages with the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: (i general economic and social information (ii social grouping and participation and (iii attitude toward participation in conserving natural resources and tourism management in this area. To evaluate their attitude, the collected data were divided into four categories: (i level 4 equilibrium/nature (ii level 3 warning (iii level 2 risk (iv level 1 crisis for forest conservation in the protected area. Overall, their attitude towards natural resource conservation, the social grouping and the community participation was very low. However, the attitude towards ecotourism is very high. We suggest that forest conservation will be maintained by more progress of ecotourism in this area.

  2. Mineral resource potential map of the Benton Range Roadless Area, Mono County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, James L.; McKee, Edwin D.; Rains, Richard L.; Barnes, Donald J.; Campbell, Harry W.; Denton, David K.; Iverson, Stephen R.; Jeske, Rodney E.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten-bearing rocks in the Benton Range Roadless Area occur in tactite lenses within the Paleozoic metasedimentary units that surround and are intruded by Triassic granodiorite of the Benton Range. High anomalous tungsten values were found in the southern part of the study area. Quartz-vein deposits with copper, lead, zinc, and silver may occur within the Jurassic granitic rock in the northwestern part of the area. Stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples from the northwestern part of the roadless area, reveal anomalous values in a number of elements. Some of these elements are indicative of mineral suites that form by hydrothermal alteration and are potential metallic-ore producers. Metals having anomalous values are antimony, copper, lead, molybdenum, tin, and zinc; their presence suggests the potential for deposits of the lead-zinc-silver or copper-molybdenum type. Molybdenum and lead were identified by geochemical sampling as having low to moderate potential in the roadless area. An estimated 190,000 tons (172,000 t) of subeconomic gold and silver resources are inside the roadless area at the Gold Crown, Gold Webb, and Gold Wedge mines; another 60,000 tons (54,000 t) of subeconomic gold and silver resources are just outside the area at the Tower, Gold Webb, and Gold Wedge mines (table 1). Most of the lode gold and silver deposits are in quartz veins and shear zones. Minor amounts of copper, lead, and zinc occur in some gold deposits. About 2,240 oz (70 kg) of gold, 8,450 oz (260 kg) of silver, and 4,600 lb of lead (2,090 kg) have been produced from the roadless area. In addition, 7,257 oz (226 kg) of gold and 350 oz (11 kg) silver were produced at the Tower mine, near the area.

  3. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  4. Rethinking the area of protection "natural resources" in life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Jo; Benini, Lorenzo; Mancini, Lucia; Sala, Serenella; Blengini, Gian Andrea; Ardente, Fulvio; Recchioni, Marco; Maes, Joachim; Pant, Rana; Pennington, David

    2015-05-05

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in classical life cycle assessment (LCA) aims at analyzing potential impacts of products and services typically on three so-called areas of protection (AoPs): Natural Environment, Human Health, and Natural Resources. This paper proposes an elaboration of the AoP Natural Resources. It starts with analyzing different perspectives on Natural Resources as they are somehow sandwiched in between the Natural Environment (their cradle) and the human-industrial environment (their application). Reflecting different viewpoints, five perspectives are developed with the suggestion to select three in function of classical LCA. They result in three safeguard subjects: the Asset of Natural Resources, their Provisioning Capacity, and their role in Global Functions. Whereas the Provisioning Capacity is fully in function of humans, the global functions go beyond provisioning as they include nonprovisioning functions for humans and regulating and maintenance services for the globe as a whole, following the ecosystem services framework. A fourth and fifth safeguard subject has been identified: recognizing the role Natural Resources for human welfare, either specifically as building block in supply chains of products and services as such, either with or without their functions beyond provisioning. But as these are far broader as they in principle should include characterization of mechanisms within the human industrial society, they are considered as subjects for an integrated sustainability assessment (LCSA: life cycle sustainability assessment), that is, incorporating social, economic and environmental issues.

  5. Incidence of multiple sclerosis among European Economic Area populations, 1985-2009: the framework for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the European Economic Area. Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature from 1965 onwards and integrated elements of original research, including requested or completed data by surveys authors and specific analyses. Results The review of 5323 documents yielded ten studies for age- and sex-specific analyses, and 21 studies for time-trend analysis of single data sets. After 1985, the incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged from 1.12 to 6.96 per 100,000 population, was higher in females, tripled with latitude, and doubled with study midpoint year. The north registered increasing trends from the 1960s and 1970s, with a historic drop in the Faroe Islands, and fairly stable data in the period 1980-2000; incidence rose in Italian and French populations in the period 1970-2000, in Evros (Greece) in the 1980s, and in the French West Indies in around 2000. Conclusions We conclude that the increase in multiple sclerosis incidence is only apparent, and that it is not specific to women. Monitoring of multiple sclerosis incidence might be appropriate for the European Economic Area. PMID:23758972

  6. Valuation of Forest Resources in Watershed Areas: Selected Applications in Makiling Forest Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Herminia A.; Espiritu, Nena O.

    1999-01-01

    The valuation of resources found in the watershed area is important in assessing the impacts of changes in the watershed. While the change will have positive impacts which are short-term in nature, there are long-term environmental damages associated with economic benefits. This paper gives a rational judgment on the soundness of such changes through cost and benefit analysis. The watershed approach is utilized to capture the effects that are relevant in the analysis.

  7. The NILE system architecture: fault-tolerant, wide-area access to computing and data resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, Aleta; Ogg, Michael; Rothfus, Eric

    1996-01-01

    NILE is a multi-disciplinary project building a distributed computing environment for HEP. It provides wide-area, fault-tolerant, integrated access to processing and data resources for collaborators of the CLEO experiment, though the goals and principles are applicable to many domains. NILE has three main objectives: a realistic distributed system architecture design, the design of a robust data model, and a Fast-Track implementation providing a prototype design environment which will also be used by CLEO physicists. This paper focuses on the software and wide-area system architecture design and the computing issues involved in making NILE services highly-available. (author)

  8. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Tom, J.; Neumann, N.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Bourassa, M.; Bay, K. J.; Sernka, K. J.

    2005-08-01

    The primary objective of this study at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area was to estimate and compare bird utilization, fatality rates, and the risk index among factors including bird taxonomic groups, wind turbine and reference areas, wind turbine sizes and types, and geographic locations. The key questions addressed to meet this objective include: (1) Are there any differences in the level of bird activity, called ''utilization rate'' or ''use'', with the operating wind plant and within the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (2) Are there any differences in the rate of bird fatalities (or avian fatality) within the operating wind plant or the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (3) Does bird use, fatality rates, or bird risk index vary according to the geographic location, type and size of wind turbine, and/or type of bird within the operating wind plant and surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; and (4) How do raptor fatality rates at San Gorgonio compare to other wind projects with comparable data?

  9. Piloting an email-based resource package for job seekers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorstyn, Diana; Roberts, Rachel; Murphy, Gregory; Kneebone, Ian; Migliorini, Christine; Craig, Ashley; Hutchinson, Claire; Field, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Media-based rehabilitation provides a powerful opportunity to examine vocational behaviors in the disability sector. However, this research is preliminary at best. This paper reports pilot data. Eighteen adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) accessed an email-delivered, resource-based package, Work and MS. Pre- and post-access vocational self-efficacy and identity (Job-Procurement Self Efficacy Scale, My Vocational Situation Scale- primary outcomes), life orientation and depressed mood (Life Orientation Test - revised and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 - secondary outcomes) were assessed. Pre- and post-change scores were examined with Wilcoxon signed ranks tests and Hedges g effect sizes with associated 95% confidence intervals. Reliable change analyses were additionally calculated to determine the clinical significance of individual change scores. Significant and positive effects were reported for vocational self-efficacy, identity, and optimism. Reliable change scores in one or more of these key outcomes were reported by 30% of the sample. Satisfaction with the content and delivery of the email-based intervention was also noted. Preliminary evidence suggests that Work and MS can help to promote vocational goals, interests and strengths among job seekers with a disability by providing a set of tools, information and linkages relating to vocational pursuits and career development. Replication with a randomized control design is indicated. Implications for Rehabilitation Research indicates a high unemployment rate among working-age adults with MS. A combination of disease-specific, psychological, programmatic and societal variables contribute to employment instability in this group. This pilot study demonstrates that an e-mail-based resource package, Work and MS, provides an innovative and feasible option for promoting consumer engagement with vocational services and, potentially, improving vocational outcomes. Work and MS has potential applicability to other

  10. Health care resource utilization before and after natalizumab initiation among patients with multiple sclerosis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crystal Watson,1 Christine Prosser,2 Sebastian Braun,2 Pamela B Landsman-Blumberg,3 Erika Gleissner,4 Sarah Naoshy1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Global Market Access, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Real World Evidence, Xcenda GmbH, Hanover, Germany; 3Applied Data Analytics, Xcenda LLC, Palm Harbor, FL, USA; 4Market Access, Biogen, Ismaning, Germany Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, greatly impacts the quality of life and economic status of people affected by this disease. In Germany, the total annual cost of MS is estimated at €40,000 per person with MS. Natalizumab has shown to slow MS disease progression, reduce relapses, and improve the quality of life of people with MS.Objective: To evaluate MS-related and all-cause health care resource utilization and costs among German MS patients during the 12 months before and after initiation of natalizumab in a real-world setting.Methods: The current analysis was conducted using the Health Risk Institute research database. Identified patients were aged ≥18 years with ≥1 diagnosis of MS and had initiated natalizumab therapy (index, with 12-month pre– and post–index-period data. Patients were stratified by prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT usage or no DMT usage in the pre-index period. Outcome measures included corticosteroid use and number of sick/disability days, inpatient stays, and outpatient visits. Health care costs were calculated separately for pre- and post-index periods on a per-patient basis and adjusted for inflation.Results: In a final sample of 193 natalizumab-treated patients, per-patient MS-related corticosteroid use was reduced by 62.3%, MS-related sick days by 27.6%, and inpatient costs by 78.3% from the pre- to post-index period. Furthermore, the proportion of patients with MS-related hospitalizations decreased from 49.7% to 14.0% (P<0.001; this reduction was seen for patients with and without prior DMT use

  11. Investigation of multiple visualisation techniques and dynamic queries in conjunction with direct sonification to support the browsing of audio resources

    OpenAIRE

    Brazil, Eoin

    2003-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed In this thesis, a prototype system for the browsing of audio resources was developed and an initial evaluation of this system was performed. The main contributions of this thesis are dynamic queries and multiple visualisation techniques in conjunction with direct sonification. Dynamic queries are queries that provide immediate feedback while maintaining consistency between the queries themselves and the graphical/auditory display. The multiple visualisation techniques are...

  12. Soundscape of a management and exploitation area of benthic resources in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Borie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic ecology is an emerging and poorly known field of research. Soundscape has been used to infer the behavior of several species in different environments and can serve as a reliable indicator of the habitat type and quality; also, it is believed that it is an important factor for larvae orientation in settlement areas. We used the passive acoustic method to evaluate the soundscape of a management and exploitation area of benthic resources, a rocky reef area in central Chile. It was possible to hear a continuous cracking sound during recording and underwater observations. We detected two distinct frequency bands with similar parameters during the night and day, a band between 90 and 300 Hz, which corresponded to the effects of sea waves (geophony, and a frequency band with a range of 1,500 to 2,700 Hz (biophony, with a fundamental frequency of 2,070 Hz. Both bands had similar energy (~88.0 dB re: 1V/µPa. These results show the relevant acoustic activity in the area, which may have important ecological implications for the recruitment of commercially important benthic resources.

  13. Healthcare resource use and costs of multiple sclerosis patients in Germany before and during fampridine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Prosser, Christine; Haas, Jennifer Scarlet; Lee, Andrew; Braun, Sebastian; Landsman-Blumberg, Pamela; Kempel, Angela; Gleißner, Erika; Patel, Sarita; Huang, Ming-Yi

    2017-03-27

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients often suffer from gait impairment and fampridine is indicated to medically improve walking ability in this population. Patient characteristics, healthcare resource use, and costs of MS patients on fampridine treatment for 12 months in Germany were analyzed. A retrospective claims database analysis was conducted including MS patients who initiated fampridine treatment (index date) between July 2011 and December 2013. Continuous insurance enrollment during 12 months pre- and post-index date was required, as was at least 1 additional fampridine prescription in the fourth quarter after the index date. Patient characteristics were evaluated and pre- vs post-index MS-related healthcare utilization and costs were compared. A total of 562 patients were included in this study. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 50.5 (9.8) years and 63% were female. In the treatment period, almost every patient had at least 1 MS-related outpatient visit, 24% were hospitalized due to MS, and 79% utilized MS-specific physical therapy in addition to the fampridine treatment. Total MS-related healthcare costs were significantly higher in the fampridine treatment period than in the period prior to fampridine initiation (€17,392 vs €10,960, P treatment (€1,333 vs €1,565, P treatment. While healthcare costs were higher during fampridine treatment compared to the pre-treatment period, inpatient costs were lower. Further research is necessary to better understand the fampridine influence.

  14. Designing for multiple global user populations: increasing resource allocation efficiency for greater sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadadur, G; Parkinson, M B

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify opportunities for increasing the efficiency of raw material allocation decisions for products that are simultaneously targeted at multiple user populations around the world. The values of 24 body measures at certain key percentiles were used to estimate the best-fitting anthropometric distributions for female and male adults in nine national populations, which were selected to represent the diverse target markets multinational companies must design for. These distributions were then used to synthesize body measure data for combined populations with a 1:1 female:male ratio. An anthropometric range metric (ARM) was proposed for assessing the variation of these body measures across the populations. At any percentile, ARM values were calculated as the percentage difference between the highest and lowest anthropometric values across the considered user populations. Based on their magnitudes, plots of ARM values computed between the 1st and 99 th percentiles for each body measure were grouped into low, medium, and high categories. This classification of body measures was proposed as a means of selecting the most suitable strategies for designing raw material-efficient products. The findings in this study and the contributions of subsequent work along these lines are expected to help achieve greater efficiencies in resource allocation in global product development.

  15. Mineral resource potential map of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon roadless areas, Inyo and Mono counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Blakely, Richard J.; Rains, Richard L.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects, the mineral resource potential for gold, silver, lead, zinc, tungsten, and barite of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas is judged to be low to moderate, except for one local area that has high potential for gold and tungsten resources.

  16. GIS based Hydrogeological Vulnerability Mapping of Groundwater Resources in Jerash Area-Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammouri, N [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); El-Naqa, A [Department of Water Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents groundwater vulnerability mapping for Jerash area, north Jordan generated using EPIK and DRASTIC models. These models have been implemented using GIS to delineate groundwater protection zones and to suggest a protection plan to improve groundwater quality of the major springs and wells. Most of the groundwater resources in the study area are polluted and bacteria and nitrate levels are high. Different sources of groundwater pollution have been identified. Domestic wastewater is considered as a major source of pollution. Urban runoff, fertilizers from agricultural return flows and solid waste disposal appear to be secondary sources. The most relevant vulnerability class of EPIK map is very high which accounts for about 41 % of the total area. While in the DRASTIC vulnerability map, areas with high vulnerability were only about 23 % of the total area. There is a good correlation between vulnerability maps obtained from both models with microbiological and chemical pollution evidences. There is also a good agreement between the areas classified as highly vulnerable and those that have high levels of pollution. [Spanish] El estudio de vulnerabilidad de aguas subterraneas en la region de Yerash, Jordania fue obtenido mediante las metodologias de EPIK y DRASTIC. Se uso GIS para mapear las zonas protegidas y para sugerir un plan de proteccion para mejorar la calidad del agua subterranea en los principales manantiales y pozos. Los niveles de contaminacion bacteriana y de nitratos son elevados. El efluente domestico es la fuente mas importante de contaminacion; vienen en segundo lugar la precipitacion en zonas urbanas, los fertilizantes agricolas y los desechos solidos. En el mapa de EPIK, la vulnerabilidad extrema abarca hasta 41% del area total; en cambio, en el mapa de DRASTIC las areas de alta vulnerabilidad ocupan solo un 23% del area. La correlacion de los datos de contaminacion microbiana y quimica con ambos mapas der vulnerabilidad es buena

  17. Sustainable use of endogenous touristic resources of rural areas: two portuguese case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Vareiro, Laurentina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence shows that tourism can give a real contribution to regional development and, in the case of certain remote and economic lagged territories, it is one of the best sectors to achieve this goal. This role of tourism as to do, namely, with the possibility of taking profit from the endogenous resources endowment of these territories. Meanwhile, the opportunities are not the same for each region and it is easy to understand that, considering the resources available, not every one has the choice to base its development strategy in the tourism sector. On the other hand, sustainable development depends, both, on conservation and valorisation of the resources potential and on diversification of tourism activities and products, no matter the agents or policy options are. Based on empirical research carried out in Caminha and Paredes de Coura portuguese municipalities, and in what Tourism in Rural Areas (TRA is concerned, we present in this paper a preliminary evaluation of the social and economic impacts of the tourism strategies followed. We also aim to extract some policy implications in order to better design future approaches to this issue of taking profit from resources endowment of territories. The starting point is the one of tourism based on quality, which serves the interests of local populations

  18. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz's Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz`s Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwa Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multiple receivers are integrated based on a tightly coupled approach, and erroneous measurements are detected by testing the closeness of the pseudoranges. In order to fairly compare the pseudoranges, GPS errors and terms arising due to the differences between the positions of the receivers need to be compensated. The double-difference technique is used to eliminate GPS errors in the pseudoranges, and the geometrical distance is corrected by projecting the baseline vector between pairs of receivers. In order to test and analyze the proposed algorithm, an experiment involving live data was performed. The positioning performance of the algorithm was compared with that of the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM-based integration algorithm for multiple receivers. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate position information in urban areas.

  1. MULTIPLE SELECTIONS OF ALTERNATIVES UNDER CONSTRAINTS: CASE STUDY OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN AREA OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Furková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is given over to a multicriteria evaluation approach to the issue of international comparison of research and development indicators. The policy activities in R&D (Research & Development area are significant parts of many national programs of many EU member states. There are several reasons for governments to take active role in stimulation investment in R&D. R&D are generally considered to be the main engine of long-run economic growth. Also The European Commission pays more attention to R&D activities and provides more and more resources to these activities through Community Framework Programs. We decided to exploit multi-attribute decision-making to evaluate R&D indicators of European countries. As multi-attribute decision-making method Topsis method was applied. Topis method has provided us complete ranking of the countries taking into account indicators such as patent applications, total intramural R&D expenditure, human resources in science and technology, employment in knowledge-intensive activities and business enterprise R&D expenditure. Having these results in a hand; we proceed to making multiple selections of countries under constraints. Our main goal was to suggest an optimization model for resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement, i.e. to find an optimal selection of several alternatives given a set of constraints. To make a decision concerning proper countries selection we employed optimization model inspired by Promethee V, which enables us to take into account the results of previous empirical part and, at the same time, to take into account defined constraints. Formulated binary linear programming model could be useful support decision making tool in the process of resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement.

  2. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  3. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  4. PROJECT-ORIENTED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Іванович ІВАНУСА

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Substantiated way to determine the feasibility of the location of rescue units in the conditions of rural areas. Proposed improving the existing methods of using of forces and means to extinguish fires, emergencies, etc., by involving specially trained volunteer rescue brigades, carrying out daily duty at their place of residence. To improve the interaction of rescue units involved in the reaction to emergency situations improved the system of information and communication management of forces and means. Developed the model diagram of the project environment optimal allocation of resources when creating center responding to emergencies in conditions of encirclement turbulent environment of a sphere of civil protection. Developed 3D-model and WBS-structure of the project creation of center responding to emergencies using modern energy saving technologies that will minimize the use of financial resources on the stages of the realization and exploitation of the project.

  5. Scientific information in support of water resource management of the Big River area, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Masterson, John P.; Robinson, Keith W.; Crawley, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB) is concerned that the demand for water may exceed the available public water supply in central and southern Rhode Island. Although water is often assumed to be plentiful in Rhode Island because of abundant rainfall, an adequate supply of water is not always available everywhere in the state during dry periods. Concerns that water demand may exceed supply are greatest during the summer, when lower water levels and increased drought potential combine with seasonal increases in peak water demand (Rhode Island Water Resources Board, 2012). High summer water demands are due to increases in outdoor water use, such as lawn watering and agricultural irrigation, and to increased summer population in coastal areas. Water-supply concerns are particularly acute in central and southern Rhode Island, where groundwater is the primary source of drinking water.

  6. Analysis of the potential contamination risk of groundwater resources circulating in areas with anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spizzico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The area investigated is located in the province of Brindisi (Italy. It is a generally flat area separated from the nearby carbonatic plateau of the Murgia by quite indistinct and high fault scarps. As regards the geological features, carbonatic basement rocks and post-cretaceous terrains made up of calabrian calcarenites and middle-upper Pleistocenic marine terraced deposits can be distinguished. In the examined area there are two different hydrogeological environments. The first is represented by deep groundwater, the main groundwater resource in Apulia. The second hydrogeological environment, now of lesser importance than the deep aquifer in terms of size and use, is made up of some small shallow groundwater systems situated in post-calabrian sands and located in the eastern area. During some sampling cycles carried out in the studied area, water was withdrawn from both the deep aquifer and from the shallow groundwater. For every sample, the necessary parameters were determined for the physical and chemical characterisation of two different hydrogeological environments. Moreover, some chemical parameters indicating anthropogenic activities were determined. Analysis of the aerial distribution of the measured parameters has shown some main areas subject to different conditions of contamination risk, in accordance with the hydrogeological and geological features of the investigated area. In the south-eastern part of the investigated area, the important action performed by the surface aquifer for protecting the deep groundwater from contamination of anthropogenic origin is clear. On the other hand, in the shallow groundwater, areas of nitrate and nitrite contamination have been identified, which result from the extensive use of fertilizers.

  7. Resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Melanie S.

    This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.

  8. Hydrogeothermal resources in spa areas of Serbia: Main properties and possible improvement of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokmanović Petar B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological complexity of the territory of Serbia is a world curiosity: six main geo-tectonic regions and tens sub-regions are delineated in a small area of 88,000 km2. Geologic origin and regional structure of some areas has long been the subject of discussion. Notable magmatism and associated tectonic events in the Earth's crust provided for a fairly large hydrogeothermal resource potential, which is manifested in more than 250 warm (mainly mineral springs and more than 100 hydrothermal wells. Thermal springs and wells together discharge some 5 m3/s. This potential is used in part for balneal therapy (waters differ in temperature and chemical composition in the spa areas of Serbia. The amounts of thermal water unused therapeutically or the amounts of heat energy from unused geo-thermal water may be used in almost all spas for space heating/cooling and thus increase the efficiency of the thermal water energy utilization. This also will be cost-effective, reduce emission of noxious gases, and improve the environmental-health image of the resorts. The hydrogeothermal resources are described for 29 spas with 700 l/s total discharge capacity of water temperature between 25°C and 96ºC, or an overall heat energy of 78.40 MWt. Feasibility of additional energy utilization of thermal water in spas is generally considered.

  9. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY2005 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Nimz, G J; Ramon, E C; Rose, T P; Shuller, L; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2007-01-01

    This report describes FY 2005 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E and E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN)

  10. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauano, Érico E; Silva, Jose M C; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is the world's largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs) to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%), followed by illegal fishing (27.30%) and hunting activities (18.20%). The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity.

  11. Positives and pathologies of natural resource management on private land-conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Cumming, Graeme S

    2017-06-01

    In managed natural resource systems, such as fisheries and rangelands, there is a recognized trade-off between managing for short-term benefits and managing for longer term resilience. Management actions that stabilize ecological attributes or processes can improve productivity in the supply of ecosystem goods and services in the short term but erode system resilience at longer time scales. For example, fire suppression in rangelands can increase grass biomass initially but ultimately result in an undesirable, shrub-dominated system. Analyses of this phenomenon have focused largely on how management actions influence slow-changing biophysical system attributes (such as vegetation composition). Data on the frequency of management actions that reduce natural ecological variation on 66 private land-conservation areas (PLCAs) in South Africa were used to investigate how management actions are influenced by manager decision-making approaches, a largely ignored part of the problem. The pathology of natural resource management was evident on some PLCAs: increased focus on revenue-generation in decision making resulted in an increased frequency of actions to stabilize short-term variation in large mammal populations, which led to increased revenues from ecotourism or hunting. On many PLCAs, these management actions corresponded with a reduced focus on ecological monitoring and an increase in overstocking of game (i.e., ungulate species) and stocking of extralimitals (i.e., game species outside their historical range). Positives in natural resource management also existed. Some managers monitored slower changing ecological attributes, which resulted in less-intensive management, fewer extralimital species, and lower stocking rates. Our unique, empirical investigation of monitoring-management relationships illustrates that management decisions informed by revenue monitoring versus ecological monitoring can have opposing consequences for natural resource productivity and

  12. The Effect of Cell Phone Conversation on Drivers’ Reaction Time to Audio Stimulus: Investigating the Theory of Multiple Resources and Central Resource of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Mousavi-Sadati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was aimed at investigating the theory of multiple resources and central resource of attention on secondary task performance of talking with two types of cell phone during driving. Materials & Methods: Using disposal sampling, 25 male participants were selected and their reaction to auditory stimulus in three different driving conditions (no conversation with phone, conversation with handheld phone and hands-free phone were recorded. Driving conditions have been changed from a participant to another participant in order to control the sequence of tests and participants familiarity with the test conditions. Results: the results of data analysis with descriptive statistics and Mauchly’s Test of Sphericity, One- factor repeated measures ANOVA and Paired-Samples T test showed that different driving conditions can affect the reaction time (P0.001. Phone Conversation with hands-free phone increases drivers’ simple reaction time to auditory stimulus (P<0.001. Using handheld phone does not increase drivers’ reaction time to auditory stimulus over hands-free phone (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results confirmed that the performance quality of dual tasks and multiple tasks can be predicted by Four-dimensional multiple resources model of attention and all traffic laws in connection with the handheld phone also have to be spread to the use of hands-free phone.

  13. Using Multiple Seasonal Holt-Winters Exponential Smoothing to Predict Cloud Resource Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf A. Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Elasticity is one of the key features of cloud computing that attracts many SaaS providers to minimize their services' cost. Cost is minimized by automatically provision and release computational resources depend on actual computational needs. However, delay of starting up new virtual resources can cause Service Level Agreement violation. Consequently, predicting cloud resources provisioning gains a lot of attention to scale computational resources in advance. However, most of current approac...

  14. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M.; McDonnell, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas

  15. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  16. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels

  17. Modelling multiple hospital outcomes: the impact of small area and primary care practice variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Appropriate management of care – for example, avoiding unnecessary attendances at, or admissions to, hospital emergency units when they could be handled in primary care – is an important part of health strategy. However, some variations in these outcomes could be due to genuine variations in health need. This paper proposes a new method of explaining variations in hospital utilisation across small areas and the general practices (GPs responsible for patient primary care. By controlling for the influence of true need on such variations, one may identify remaining sources of excess emergency attendances and admissions, both at area and practice level, that may be related to the quality, resourcing or organisation of care. The present paper accordingly develops a methodology that recognises the interplay between population mix factors (health need and primary care factors (e.g. referral thresholds, that allows for unobserved influences on hospitalisation usage, and that also reflects interdependence between hospital outcomes. A case study considers relativities in attendance and admission rates at a North London hospital involving 149 small areas and 53 GP practices. Results: A fixed effects model shows variations in attendances and admissions are significantly related (positively to area and practice need, and nursing home patients, and related (negatively to primary care access and distance of patient homes from the hospital. Modelling the impact of known factors alone is not sufficient to produce a satisfactory fit to the observations, and random effects at area and practice level are needed to improve fit and account for overdispersion. Conclusion: The case study finds variation in attendance and admission rates across areas and practices after controlling for need, and remaining differences between practices may be attributable to referral behaviour unrelated to need, or to staffing, resourcing, and access issues. In

  18. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  19. Native American interpretation of cultural resources in the area of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Harshbarger, C.L.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the location and interpretation of Native American cultural resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This work builds on the archaeological reconnaissance and identifications of cultural resources by the Desert Research Institute (for a summary, see Pippin and Zerga, 1983; Pippin, 1984). Interpretations provided by Native American Indian people are not intended to refute other scientific studies, such as botanical, wildlife, and archaeological studies. Rather, they provide additional hypotheses for future studies, and they provide a more complete cultural understanding of the Yucca Mountain area. Representatives of sixteen American Indian tribes identified the cultural value of these resources as part of a consultation relationship with the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding initial consultation with the sixteen tribes, in-depth interviews with tribal elders, and findings from the first on-site visit with representatives of the sixteen tribes. As additional information is collected, it will be reviewed separately. An annual report will integrate all findings. 44 refs., 58 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruill, Timothy B.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a ground-water 'mound' in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams. Pumping of the deep aquifer (rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age) by towns and industries, which developed as a result of the mining industry, has resulted in a potential for downward movement of water from the shallow aquifer. The potential is greatest in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Because of the large volume of water that may be transported from the shallow to the deep aquifer, open drill holes or casings present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. Mining

  1. A STUDY ON OPTIMISATION OF RESOURCES FOR MULTIPLE PROJECTS BY USING PRIMAVERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. K. REDDY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Resources play vital role in construction projects. The performance of construction industry depends chiefly on how best the resources are managed. Optimisation play pivotal role in resource management, but task is highly haphazard and chaotic under the influence of complexities and vastness. Management always looks for optimum utility of resources available with them. Hence, the project management has got important place especially in resource allocation and smooth functioning with allocated budget. To achieve these goals and to exercise enhance optimisation certain tools are used for resource allocation optimally. Present work illustrates resource optimisation exercises on two ongoing projects in Dubai, UAE. Resource demands of project A & B are individually levelled and observed cumulative requirement is 17475. In other option demands of projects A & B are aggregated and then together levelled, the necessary resource observed is 16490. Comparison of individually levelled and then combined option with aggregated and then levelled clearly indicates reduction in demand of resources by 5.65% in later option, which could be best considered for economy.

  2. Super-Resolution Enhancement From Multiple Overlapping Images: A Fractional Area Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Joshua A.

    With the availability of large quantities of relatively low-resolution data from several decades of space borne imaging, methods of creating an accurate, higher-resolution image from the multiple lower-resolution images (i.e. super-resolution), have been developed almost since such imagery has been around. The fractional-area super-resolution technique developed in this thesis has never before been documented. Satellite orbits, like Landsat, have a quantifiable variation, which means each image is not centered on the exact same spot more than once and the overlapping information from these multiple images may be used for super-resolution enhancement. By splitting a single initial pixel into many smaller, desired pixels, a relationship can be created between them using the ratio of the area within the initial pixel. The ideal goal for this technique is to obtain smaller pixels with exact values and no error, yielding a better potential result than those methods that yield interpolated pixel values with consequential loss of spatial resolution. A Fortran 95 program was developed to perform all calculations associated with the fractional-area super-resolution technique. The fractional areas are calculated using traditional trigonometry and coordinate geometry and Linear Algebra Package (LAPACK; Anderson et al., 1999) is used to solve for the higher-resolution pixel values. In order to demonstrate proof-of-concept, a synthetic dataset was created using the intrinsic Fortran random number generator and Adobe Illustrator CS4 (for geometry). To test the real-life application, digital pictures from a Sony DSC-S600 digital point-and-shoot camera with a tripod were taken of a large US geological map under fluorescent lighting. While the fractional-area super-resolution technique works in perfect synthetic conditions, it did not successfully produce a reasonable or consistent solution in the digital photograph enhancement test. The prohibitive amount of processing time (up to

  3. Resource use of Japanese macaques in heavy snowfall areas: implications for habitat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-07-01

    Populations of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) that inhabit the northernmost distribution of any nonhuman primates have been listed as endangered in Japan; however, macaques are widely known for being pests that cause agricultural damage. This study identified priority areas for the conservation and management of macaque habitats, by comparing the resource use of troops occupying remote mountains (montane troops) against troops inhabiting disturbed forests adjacent to settlements (rural troops). We collected species presence data across 2 years by radio-tracking two montane troops and two rural troops in the Shirakami Mountains. We developed seasonal utilization distributions by using the kernel method, and identified habitat characteristics by using ecological-niche factor analysis (ENFA). Our results indicate that environmental factors influencing the potential habitat varied widely with season in montane troops as compared with that in rural troops. ENFA results demonstrated that rural troops exhibited more biased resource use and narrower niche breadths than montane troops. Based on our findings, we propose that (1) primary broadleaf forests are the spring habitat conservation priority of montane troops; (2) the habitat unit--the product of habitat suitability index and its surface area--for montane troops is enhanced by removing old conifer plantations from the forest edge at low elevations; (3) such removal around settlements may also contribute toward removing a frontline refuge for rural troops intruding farmlands; and (4) intensive prevention measures against macaque intrusions into settlements during the bottleneck snowy season contribute toward reducing the habitat unit of rural troops.

  4. STUDENTS’ EVALUATION OF EDUCATION QUALITY IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AREA: CASE OF PRIVATE CZECH UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of education, lessons, subjects and teachers perceived by students is currently often discussed topic regarding strategic management of universities. Assessment of higher education learning outcomes represents internalization of a higher education competition. The aim of the article is to evaluate perception of education quality of lectures, subjects and teachers by university students in the area of human resource management in private Czech university and to identify main approaches to academic staff. The data were collected by quantitative survey by questionnaire data collection (n=218. Students state that subjects, lessons and teachers in the area of human resource management lessons mostly satisfied their expectations (average value between 1.09 and 1.97. The students emphasised that the staff creates positive atmosphere and gives the opportunity to express an opinion which is very important for students at the university. Research outcomes show there is a dependency between the effort of teacher, student understanding and teachers’s willingness to give students an opportunity to express an opinion. The paper is extension of conference paper presented on ERIE conference 2016.

  5. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  6. Multiple methods for multiple futures: Integrating qualitative scenario planning and quantitative simulation modeling for natural resource decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Miller, Brian W.; Rowland, Erika; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-01-01

    Scenario planning helps managers incorporate climate change into their natural resource decision making through a structured “what-if” process of identifying key uncertainties and potential impacts and responses. Although qualitative scenarios, in which ecosystem responses to climate change are derived via expert opinion, often suffice for managers to begin addressing climate change in their planning, this approach may face limits in resolving the responses of complex systems to altered climate conditions. In addition, this approach may fall short of the scientific credibility managers often require to take actions that differ from current practice. Quantitative simulation modeling of ecosystem response to climate conditions and management actions can provide this credibility, but its utility is limited unless the modeling addresses the most impactful and management-relevant uncertainties and incorporates realistic management actions. We use a case study to compare and contrast management implications derived from qualitative scenario narratives and from scenarios supported by quantitative simulations. We then describe an analytical framework that refines the case study’s integrated approach in order to improve applicability of results to management decisions. The case study illustrates the value of an integrated approach for identifying counterintuitive system dynamics, refining understanding of complex relationships, clarifying the magnitude and timing of changes, identifying and checking the validity of assumptions about resource responses to climate, and refining management directions. Our proposed analytical framework retains qualitative scenario planning as a core element because its participatory approach builds understanding for both managers and scientists, lays the groundwork to focus quantitative simulations on key system dynamics, and clarifies the challenges that subsequent decision making must address.

  7. Multiple chromosome aberrations among newborns from high level natural radiation area and normal level natural radiation area of south west coast of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soren, D.C.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Anil Kumar, V.; Koya, P.K.M.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cord blood samples were collected in heparin vials and microculture techniques employed to obtain good metaphase chromosome spreads. In cytogenetic studies on newborns cells with multiple aberrations were recorded in 57 from a total of 27285 newborns (1266972 cells). Of these 17294 newborns (964140 cells) were from High Level Natural Radiation Area (HLNRA) and 9991 newborns (302832 cells) from Normal Level Natural Radiation Area (NLNRA). Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in 38 and 19 newborns from High and Normal Level Natural Radiation Area respectively. On an average one cell with multiple aberrations was observed among 479 newborns. Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in newborns from HLNRA as well as NLNRA in both males and females. Gender difference of newborns, maternal age group and background radiation levels did not seem to have any influence in the occurrence of Multiple chromosome aberrations

  8. Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance, March 1998--December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, C. G.; Smallwood, K. S.; Rugge, L.

    2003-12-01

    It has been documented that wind turbine operations at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area kill large numbers of birds of multiple species, including raptors. We initiated a study that integrates research on bird behaviors, raptor prey availability, turbine design, inter-turbine distribution, landscape attributes, and range management practices to explain the variation in avian mortality at two levels of analysis: the turbine and the string of turbines. We found that inter-specific differences in intensities of use of airspace within close proximity did not explain the variation in mortality among species. Unique suites of attributes relate to mortality of each species, so species-specific analyses are required to understand the factors that underlie turbine-caused fatalities. We found that golden eagles are killed by turbines located in the canyons and that rock piles produced during preparation of the wind tower laydown areas related positively to eagle mortality, perhaps due to the use of these rock piles as cover by desert cottontails. Other similar relationships between fatalities and environmental factors are identified and discussed. The tasks remaining to complete the project are summarized.

  9. Framework to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyen, Luc; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2005-03-01

    We propose a framework that combines simulation optimization with Bayesian decision analysis to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas. A stochastic simulation optimization management model is employed to plan regionally distributed groundwater pumping while preserving the hydroecological balance in wetland areas. Because predictions made by an aquifer model are uncertain, groundwater supply systems operate below maximum yield. Collecting data from the groundwater system can potentially reduce predictive uncertainty and increase safe water production. The price paid for improvement in water management is the cost of collecting the additional data. Efficient data collection using Bayesian decision analysis proceeds in three stages: (1) The prior analysis determines the optimal pumping scheme and profit from water sales on the basis of known information. (2) The preposterior analysis estimates the optimal measurement locations and evaluates whether each sequential measurement will be cost-effective before it is taken. (3) The posterior analysis then revises the prior optimal pumping scheme and consequent profit, given the new information. Stochastic simulation optimization employing a multiple-realization approach is used to determine the optimal pumping scheme in each of the three stages. The cost of new data must not exceed the expected increase in benefit obtained in optimal groundwater exploitation. An example based on groundwater management practices in Florida aimed at wetland protection showed that the cost of data collection more than paid for itself by enabling a safe and reliable increase in production.

  10. Regional assessment of groundwater resources (hydrogeological map of Younggwang area, Korea vol.8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S H; Kim, Y K; Hong, Y K; Cho, M J; Lee, D W; Bae, D J; Lee, C W; Kim, H C; Kim, S J; Park, S W; Lee, P K; Yum, B W; Moon, S H; Lee, S K; Lee, S R; Park, Y S; Lim, M T; Sung, K S; Park, I H; Ham, S Y; Kim, Y J; Woo, N C [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This study is objected to characterize groundwater resources, to assess groundwater contamination, and to produce hydrogeological and related thematic maps of the study area. The study area, Younggwang County, Chonnam Province, covers the area of 460 km{sup 2}. To accomplish the objectives various studies have been carried out including general and structural geology, GIS, hydrogeology, geophysics and hydrogeochemical analysis. Geophysical explorations, dipole-dipole resistivity, Schulumberger sounding and magnetic method, were executed for investigating geologic structure and determining test borehole sites. Some test boreholes such as, Honggok, Donggan, Weolsan and Seolmae hit aquifer structures. Geophysical logging, such as gamma ray, temperature, water conductivity, electrical resistivity, self-potential were also executed for petrological differentiation and in out flow of groundwater. The recharge rate of granitic region is more than the others, which derived by the analysis of 7 low-flow measurements in 10 small watersheds in the area. The recharge rate has been estimated at 7.2%(99.3 mm/year) in the vicinity. Well inventory of the area included 197 deep wells and 43 shallow wells. In addition, 10 stream samples and one spring were surveyed for water level, water temperature, pH, EC, TDS and the concentration of dissolved oxygen(DO). Regional groundwater pollution susceptibility was analyzed using GIS technique. A standard method, `DRASTIC` developed by US EPA, was applied to evaluate groundwater pollution potential and aquifer susceptibility. Resulting DRASTIC indices ranged from 52 to 141, and the Pesticide indices from 61 to 187. Seawater intrusion phenomena in Sangsari-Hasari are considered and evaluated by well inventory and the selected borehole`s electric conductivity(EC) logging. Seawater intrusion to the vulnerable coastal alluvium aquifers is generally depleted with time. The amount of potential groundwater resources in the study area is estimated

  11. Archaeological Data Recovery in the Abiquiu Reservoir Multiple Resource Area, New Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    location probably does not represent a locus of past human activity. Iso i .... .. 2 *1 . .. . .A LA27006 (AR56) Description: The site is a small...25566 27021 27047 25378 No topo map location for site (n 3) 27001 27002 27037 118 TABLE 10 ESTIMATED AND ACTUAL FREQUENCIES OF ARTIFACT CLASSES AT

  12. Archaeological Investigations at Four Sites in the Abiquiu Multiple Resource Area New Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Malvaceae Mallow family _TOpnti&Prickly pear cactus Cvijidr~ni Cholla cactus olmniaceae Phlox family Polygonaceae Knotweed family Ranunculaceae ...of social organization and possibly information on group or family size. 5. Cultural affiliation. The cultural affiliation of those occupations...uppermost sample within the struc- ture, but is probably related to the presence of disturbance plants. Sunflowers and other members of the composite family

  13. Deep-sea genetic resources: New frontiers for science and stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden-Davies, Harriet

    2017-03-01

    The deep-sea is a large source of marine genetic resources (MGR), which have many potential uses and are a growing area of research. Much of the deep-sea lies in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), including 65% of the global ocean. MGR in ABNJ occupy a significant gap in the international legal framework. Access and benefit sharing of MGR is a key issue in the development of a new international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in ABNJ. This paper examines how this is relevant to deep-sea scientific research and identifies emerging challenges and opportunities. There is no internationally agreed definition of MGR, however, deep-sea genetic resources could incorporate any biological material including genes, proteins and natural products. Deep-sea scientific research is the key actor accessing MGR in ABNJ and sharing benefits such as data, samples and knowledge. UNCLOS provides the international legal framework for marine scientific research, international science cooperation, capacity building and marine technology transfer. Enhanced implementation could support access and benefit sharing of MGR in ABNJ. Deep-sea scientific researchers could play an important role in informing practical new governance solutions for access and benefit sharing of MGR that promote scientific research in ABNJ and support deep-sea stewardship. Advancing knowledge of deep-sea biodiversity in ABNJ, enhancing open-access to data and samples, standardisation and international marine science cooperation are significant potential opportunity areas.

  14. Temporal Sequence of Visuo-Auditory Interaction in Multiple Areas of the Guinea Pig Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masataka; Song, Wen-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies in humans and monkeys have reported that acoustic stimulation influences visual responses in the primary visual cortex (V1). Such influences can be generated in V1, either by direct auditory projections or by feedback projections from extrastriate cortices. To test these hypotheses, cortical activities were recorded using optical imaging at a high spatiotemporal resolution from multiple areas of the guinea pig visual cortex, to visual and/or acoustic stimulations. Visuo-auditory interactions were evaluated according to differences between responses evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation, and the sum of responses evoked by separate visual and auditory stimulations. Simultaneous presentation of visual and acoustic stimulations resulted in significant interactions in V1, which occurred earlier than in other visual areas. When acoustic stimulation preceded visual stimulation, significant visuo-auditory interactions were detected only in V1. These results suggest that V1 is a cortical origin of visuo-auditory interaction. PMID:23029483

  15. The underground geothermal resource about Bure is not exceptional. Answers by the ANDRA to critics made by associations on the geothermal resource in the Cigeo study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Marc-Antoine

    2013-01-01

    As some documents published by associations stated that the site chosen for Cigeo (Industrial centre for geological storage of nuclear materials and wastes) could be a geothermal resource of interest, the ANDRA herein states again that this resource is neither exceptional nor attractive in the present technological and economical conditions. In order to precisely answer to the arguments stated by the associations, it notably refers to some drillings performed in this area. It discusses drilling conditions and tests, test result interpretation, measurements, the process transparency, and the actual assessment of geothermal resources

  16. Disconnects Between Audiences, Resources, and Initiatives: Key Findings of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Gilbes, F.; Trotz, M.; McKayle, C.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Meisels, G.; Peterson, M.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership focused on defining a plan for effective education on climate change and its salient issues in coastal communities Florida and the US Caribbean territories. The approach included assessing perceptions and needs of stakeholders, evaluating the nature of available educational and information resources, and establishing a partnership that includes the public and professional organizations most relevant in planning and in addressing the resiliency of coastal communities. Information gathering activities included surveys among K-12 educators and students on climate change perceptions and current classroom activities in both Florida and the Caribbean territories; surveys of professional urban and land-use planners across Florida regarding their understanding of related in their professional practice; and conducting an inventory of relevant educational materials and information resources. Survey results showed a range of misperceptions about climate change, its causes and its likely impacts. At present, students and teachers in high and middle schools show poor understanding of climate science, and minimal time is spent in instruction on climate change in science courses in Florida and Puerto Rico schools. Also, there has to be professional development efforts and access to rich instructional content in a continuum spanning schools and professional communities including planners (which we surveyed). Architects and engineers are communities that also need to be surveyed and included in future efforts. A major obstacle to efforts at providing continuing education for planners and municipal officials is the lack of consensus on and access to regionally-specific scientific data regarding climate impacts and the relevant instructional content. It is difficult for professionals to prepare for climate change if they cannot define impacts in the Florida-Caribbean region and its coastal urban areas. Across over 1000

  17. Endoscopic facelift of the frontal and temporal areas in multiple planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogen; Ma, Haihuan; Xue, Zhiqiang; Qi, Huijie; Chen, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The detachment planes used in endoscopic facelifts play an important role in determining the results of facial rejuvenation. In this study, we introduced the use of multiple detachment planes for endoscopic facelifts of the frontal and temporal areas, and examined its outcome. This study included 47 patients (38 female, 9 male) who requested frontal and temporal facelifts from January 2009 to January 2014. The technique of dissection in multiple planes was used for all 47 patients. In this technique, the frontal dissection was first carried out in the subgaleal plane, before being changed to the subperiosteal plane about 2 cm above the eyebrow line. Temporal dissection was carried out in both the subcutaneous and subgaleal planes. After detachment, frontal and temporal fixations were achieved using nonabsorbable sutures, and the incisions were closed. During follow-up (ranging from 6-24 months after surgery), the patients were shown their pre- and postoperative images, and asked to rate their satisfaction with the procedure. Complications encountered were documented. All 47 patients had complete recovery without any serious complications. The patient satisfaction rate was 93.6%. Minor complications included dimpling at the suture site, asymmetry, overcorrection, transitory paralysis, late oedema, haematoma, infection, scarring and hair loss. These complications resolved spontaneously and were negligible after complete recovery. Dissection in multiple planes is valuable in frontal and temporal endoscopic facelifts. It may be worthwhile to introduce the use of this technique in frontal and temporal facelifts, as it may lead to improved outcomes. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  18. Strategies for resource management to improve agricultural productivity in Bariarpur Tal area of Bihar (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Upadhyaya, A.; Bhatnagar, P.R.; Gautam, U.S.; Singh, S.K.; Singh, S.R.

    2002-06-01

    Water logged Tal area is termed as the stretch of land having bowl shaped depressions inundated in monsoon season due to spill/overflow from rivers or runoff from upstream end. A team of Agricultural Scientists studied and suggested a suitable plan to the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for improving the agricultural productivity of 40,000 hectares land lying between Ghoraghat and Bariarpur and Prasando to Khand Bihari in Munger district of Bihar, which lies in eastern India. These lands remain inundated with water from July till January. Tal lands in Bariarpur suffer due to stagnation of water during monsoon period and delay in drainage thereafter. This is a late winter mono-cropped area with very low productivity. Though the fertility status of soil is good, the quantity and quality of produce is poor. The canal network is also not efficient and other parts face drought. It is expected that the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India will take up the action plan as per the recommendations of expert scientists' team to mitigate the sufferings and misery of the farmers and rural population of the area. The team of scientists had investigated in detail the genesis of the problem and suggested the appropriate management strategies to improve the agricultural production in this area upon the instruction of the Hon'ble Union Agricultural Minister Mr. Nitish Kumar. A reputed Journalist and dedicated Social Worker Mr. Dinesh brought the unbelievable misery of the rural population to the attention of the Agricultural Minister. The sufferings of the farmers of Bariarpur tal area thus cannot be mitigated without the implementation of recommendations suggested in the scientific report. It seems that a financial crunch is coming in the way for such implementation. Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources, State Government, NGOs and Social Organizations should come forward to help the rural population otherwise the ray of hope for a better living

  19. Production of a large area diffuse arc plasma with multiple cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cheng; Cui Hai-Chao; Li Wan-Wan; Liao Meng-Ran; Xia Wei-Dong; Xia Wei-Luo

    2017-01-01

    An arc channel at atmospheric pressure tends to shrink generally. In this paper, a non-transferred DC arc plasma device with multiple cathode is introduced to produce a large area arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. This device is comprised of a 42-mm diameter tubular chamber, multiple cathode which is radially inserted into the chamber, and a tungsten anode with a nozzle in its center. In argon/helium atmosphere, a large area and circumferential homogenous diffuse arc plasma, which fills the entire cross section surrounded by the cathode tips, is observed. Results show that the uniformity and stability of diffuse arc plasma are strongly related to the plasma forming gas. Based on these experimental results, an explanation to the arc diffusion is suggested. Moreover, the electron excitation temperature and electron density measured in diffuse helium plasma are much lower than those of constricted arc column, which indicates the diffuse helium plasma probably deviates from the local thermodynamic equilibrium state. Unlike the common non-transferred arc plasma devices, this device can provide a condition for axial-fed feedstock particles. The plasma device is attempted to spheroidize alumina powders by using the central axis to send the powder. Results show that the powder produced is usually a typical hollow sphere. (paper)

  20. The Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Metropolitan Area of Rome: A Capture-Recapture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcomeni, Alessio; Cortese, Antonio; Sgarlata, Eleonora; Alunni Fegatelli, Danilo; Marfia, Gerolama Alessandra; Buttari, Fabio; Mirabella, Massimiliano; De Fino, Chiara; Prosperini, Luca; Pozzilli, Carlo; Grasso, Maria Grazia; Iasevoli, Luigi; Di Battista, Giancarlo; Millefiorini, Enrico

    2018-03-02

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in central Italy. The objective of this study is to estimate MS prevalence in the metropolitan area of Rome. We used the capture-recapture method to calculate prevalence estimates in the study area. The selected prevalence day was December 31, 2015. A total of 1,007 patients, with a definite diagnosis of MS according to the revised McDonald's criteria, were considered for crude, age- and sex-specific prevalence estimation. The overall crude prevalence rate was 146.2 cases per 100,000 (95% CI 119.9-172.5). A higher prevalence rate was recorded in females (194.1, 95% CI 149.6-238.6) than in males (93.0, 95% CI 67.2-118.8) with a female to male ratio of 1.8. Age-specific prevalence peaked in the 25-34 , 35-44 and 45-54 years class; moreover, it was found to increase up to the 45-54 years age group in females and the 35-44 years age group in males, decreasing thereafter. The results confirm that the metropolitan area of Rome is a high-risk area for MS. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. An Optimal Online Resource Allocation Algorithm for Energy Harvesting Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyuan Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Body Area Networks (BANs, how to achieve energy management to extend the lifetime of the body area networks system is one of the most critical problems. In this paper, we design a body area network system powered by renewable energy, in which the sensors carried by patient with energy harvesting module can transmit data to a personal device. We do not require any a priori knowledge of the stochastic nature of energy harvesting and energy consumption. We formulate a user utility optimization problem. We use Lyapunov Optimization techniques to decompose the problem into three sub-problems, i.e., battery management, collecting rate control and transmission power allocation. We propose an online resource allocation algorithm to achieve two major goals: (1 balancing sensors’ energy harvesting and energy consumption while stabilizing the BANs system; and (2 maximizing the user utility. Performance analysis addresses required battery capacity, bounded data queue length and optimality of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results verify the optimization of algorithm.

  2. Water resources development and management: an experience in rural hilly area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, G K; Talkhande, A V; Andey, S P; Kelkar, P S

    2010-01-01

    The Himalayan region of Tehri Garhwal in India has scattered habitations in the villages with scanty, non-perennial and unsafe water resources like springs and streams. Poor environmental conditions arising from unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitary measures, unhygienic disposal of excreta, sullage and accumulation of solid wastes have resulted in poor public health. The experiences gained through water supply and sanitation studies carried out especially in this rural area have been shared in this paper so as to enable adoption of relevant practices and technologies developed by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI, India) in the affected areas. Environmental protection of the streams and springs for sustained water availability and safe drinking water supply was ensured with active public participation, training, and awareness programs. Various surface rainwater harvesting structures were constructed at suitable sites along with ferro-cement roofwater harvesting tanks in selected villages. The activities related to designing and commissioning of a small slow sand filtration unit were carried out at Chhati (Nakot) village for safe drinking water supply. Chlorination pots were demonstrated and installed in rainwater harvesting tanks for disinfection of water for drinking purpose. Water quality assessment and health survey (parasitic and hemoglobin investigation) in the affected villages were carried out before and after technological intervention. The training and awareness programs were organised for people of 23 villages in the study area covering water and sanitation related topics. The beneficiary's opinions, perceptions, apprehensions, as well as expectations reflected positive approach towards the achievement of anticipated benefits and impacts.

  3. Geophysical studies of the Crump Geyser known geothermal resource area, Oregon, in 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouff, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical studies in support of the resource appraisal of the Crump Geyser Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). This area was designated as a KGRA by the USGS, and this designation became effective on December 24, 1970. The land classification standards for a KGRA were established by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-581). Federal lands so classified required competitive leasing for the development of geothermal resources. The author presented an administrative report of USGS geophysical studies entitled 'Geophysical background of the Crump Geyser area, Oregon, KGRA' to a USGS resource committee on June 17, 1975. This report, which essentially was a description of geophysical data and a preliminary interpretation without discussion of resource appraisal, is in Appendix 1. Reduction of sheets or plates in the original administrative report to page-size figures, which are listed and appended to the back of the text in Appendix 1, did not seem to significantly degrade legibility. Bold print in the text indicates where minor changes were made. A colored page-size index and tectonic map, which also show regional geology not shown in figure 2, was substituted for original figure 1. Detailed descriptions for the geologic units referenced in the text and shown on figures 1 and 2 were separately defined by Walker and Repenning (1965) and presumably were discussed in other reports to the committee. Heavy dashed lines on figures 1 and 2 indicate the approximate KGRA boundary. One of the principal results of the geophysical studies was to obtain a gravity map (Appendix 1, fig. 10; Plouff, and Conradi, 1975, pl. 9), which reflects the fault-bounded steepness of the west edge of sediments and locates the maximum thickness of valley sediments at about 10 kilometers south of Crump Geyser. Based on the indicated regional-gravity profile and density-contrast assumptions for the two-dimensional profile, the maximum

  4. A new approach for geochemical surveys of large areas for uranium resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.; Butz, T.R.; Cagle, G.W.; Kane, V.E.; Nichols, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Grand Junction, Colorado office of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is conducting the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program to evaluate the uranium resources in the United States and Alaska. The program is designed to identify favorable areas for uranium exploration, to assess the supply of domestic resources, and to improve exploration technology. The Nuclear Division of the Union Carbide Corporation has been assigned the responsibility of conducting a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment survey of the mid-continental states in the United States. This survey covers approximately 2,500,000 km 2 (1,000,000 mi 2 ) and includes the states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa. The uranium potential of sandstones, Precambrian conglomerates, veins, granites, and phosphorites is being assessed utliizing a three-part program consisting of pilot surveys in each geological province and two phases of reconnaissance sampling of drainage basins. Samples of stream sediment, stream water, groundwater, algae, and vegetation are analyzed for uranium and some 20 additional elements. Data resulting from this program is released to private industry by ERDA as it becomes available. Analysis of results from a typical three-part survey are given. For distinctive geological regions, the pilot survey will: (1) define characteristic concentration background levels of the elements of interest, (2) identify potential uranium pathfinder elements, (3) determine relationship between stream, stream sediment and botanical samples, (4) identify any necessary modification to field sampling techniques, and (5) determine necessary sensitivities required for chemical analysis. The first reconnaissance phase average sample spacing of one station per 250 km 2 (100 mi 2 ) drainage basin is shown to delineate general boundaries of uranium provinces, and the second

  5. From struggles to resource gains in interprofessional service networks: Key findings from a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Kira, Mari

    2017-07-01

    In interprofessional service networks, employees cross professional boundaries to collaborate with colleagues and clients with expertise and values different from their own. It can be a struggle to adopt shared work practices and deal with "multivoicedness." At the same time, networks allow members to engage in meaningful service provision, gain a broader understanding of the service provided, and obtain social support. Intertwined network struggles and resource gains have received limited attention in the interprofessional care literature to date. The aim of the study was to investigate the learning potential of the co-existing struggles and resource gains. This article reports findings from two interprofessional networks. Interviews were conducted with 19 employees and thematically analysed. Three types of struggles and six types of resource gains of networking were identified. The struggles relate, first, to the assumptions of networking following similar practices to those in a home organisation; second, to the challenges of dealing with the multivoicedness of networking; and, third, to the experienced gap between the networking ideals and the reality of cooperation. At the same time, the network members experience gains in emotional resources (e.g., stronger sense of meaningfulness at work), cognitive resources (e.g., understanding the customer needs from alternative perspectives), and social resources (e.g., being able to rely on other professionals' competence). Learning potential emerged from the dynamics between coexisting struggles and resource gains.

  6. Bird Mortaility at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998--September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S.; Thelander, C. G.

    2005-09-01

    Over the past 15 years, research has shown that wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) kill many birds, including raptors, which are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, and/or state and federal Endangered Species Acts. Early research in the APWRA on avian mortality mainly attempted to identify the extent of the problem. In 1998, however, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated research to address the causal relationships between wind turbines and bird mortality. NREL funded a project by BioResource Consultants to perform this research directed at identifying and addressing the causes of mortality of various bird species from wind turbines in the APWRA.With 580 megawatts (MW) of installed wind turbine generating capacity in the APWRA, wind turbines there provide up to 1 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of emissions-free electricity annually. By identifying and implementing new methods and technologies to reduce or resolve bird mortality in the APWRA, power producers may be able to increase wind turbine electricity production at the site and apply similar mortality-reduction methods at other sites around the state and country.

  7. MEASUREMENT OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS IN RECOVERY AREAS AND OPERATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I. Gâf-Deac

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that to date, intangible assets are considered "goods" and as such, the practice of classical accounting consider intellectual capital in the same category of "goods equivalent / similar to those visible / tangible". From research that literature on measuring knowledge assets / intellectual capital, both in Romania and worldwide, is not large enough and does not provide finite significant "strong" on classifications semantic of the content and quality issues in the field. The book titled New Economy between knowledge and risk – Infomin Ed., Deva, 2010 (www.infomindeva.ro (ISBN 978-973-7646-11-8, (Ioan I. Gâf-Deac  presents systematization and classification of original models and methodologies for measuring knowledge assets, intellectual capital in socio-economic sciences, and as such, in this present article resorting to the extension applied to formalizing measurement of intangible assets in areas operation and exploitation of natural resources.

  8. Integrated Potential-field Studies in Support of Energy Resource Assessment in Frontier Areas of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. D.; Saltus, R. W.; Potter, C. J.; Stanley, R. G.; Till, A. B.

    2008-05-01

    In frontier areas of Alaska, potential-field studies play an important role in characterizing the geologic structure of sedimentary basins having potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Two such areas are the Yukon Flats basin in the east-central interior of Alaska, and the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska. The Yukon Flats basin is a potential source of hydrocarbon resources for local consumption and possible export. Knowledge of the subsurface configuration of the basin is restricted to a few seismic reflection profiles covering a limited area and one well. The seismic profiles were reprocessed and reinterpreted in preparation for an assessment of the oil and gas resources of the basin. The assessment effort required knowledge of the basin configuration away from the seismic profiles, as well as an understanding of the nature of the underlying basement. To extend the interpretation of the basin thickness across the entire area of the basin, an iterative Jachens-Moring gravity inversion was performed on gridded quasi-isostatic residual gravity anomaly data. The inversion was constrained to agree with the interpreted basement surface along the seismic profiles. In addition to the main sedimentary depocenter interpreted from the seismic data as having over 8 km of fill, the gravity inversion indicated a depocenter with over 7 km of fill in the Crooked Creek sub-basin. Results for the Crooked Creek sub-basin are consistent with magnetic and magnetotelluric modeling, but they await confirmation by drilling or seismic profiling. Whether hydrocarbon source rocks are present in the pre-Cenozoic basement beneath Yukon Flats is difficult to determine because extensive surficial deposits obscure the bedrock geology, and no deep boreholes penetrate basement. The color and texture patterns in a red-green-blue composite image consisting of reduced-to-the-pole aeromagnetic data (red), magnetic potential (blue), and

  9. 76 FR 62819 - Notice of Intent To Amend the Resource Management Plan for the San Luis Resource Area, Colorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Public Lands Center, Monte Vista, Colorado, intends to prepare a Resource Management Plan (RMP) Amendment...: [email protected] . Fax: 719-852-6250 Mail: BLM, La Jara Field Office, 15571, County Road T-5, La... at the La Jara Field Office. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information and/or to have...

  10. Evaluation of water resources around Barapukuria coal mine industrial area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howladar, M. Farhad; Deb, Pulok Kanti; Muzemder, A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe; Ahmed, Mushfique

    2014-09-01

    Water is a very important natural resource which can be utilized in renewable or non-renewable forms but before utilizing, the evaluation of the quality of this resource is crucial for a particular use. However, the problems of water quality are more severe in areas where the mining and mineral processes' industries are present. In mining processes, several classes of wastes are produced which may turn into ultimately the sources of water quality and environmental degradation. In consequences, the evaluations of water quality for livestock, drinking, irrigation purposes and environmental implications have been carried out around the Barapukuria Coal Mining Industry under different methods and techniques such as primarily the field investigation; secondly the laboratory chemical analysis and thirdly justified the suitability of the laboratory analysis with statistical representation and correlation matrix, Schoeller plot, Piper's Trilinear diagram, Expanded Durov diagram, Wilcox diagram, US salinity diagram, Doneen's chart and others. The results of all surface and ground water samples analysis show that the characteristics and concentrations of all the major physical and chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fetotal, Cl-, HCO3 -, CO3 2- and SO4 2- are varied from one sample to other but well analogous with the WHO and EQS standard limit for all purposes in the area where the abundance of the major ions is as follows: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fetotal = HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > CO3 2-. The graphical exposition of analytical data demonstrates two major hydrochemical facies for example: calcium-bicarbonate (Ca2+- HCO3 -) and magnesium-bicarbonate (Mg2+- HCO3 -) type facies which directly support the shallow recently recharged alkaline water around the industry. The calculated values for the evaluation classification of water based on TDS, Na%, EC, SAR, PI, RSC, MH, and TH replicate good to excellent use of water for livestock, drinking and

  11. The Experience of Persons With Multiple Sclerosis Using MS INFoRm: An Interactive Fatigue Management Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétrin, Julie; Akbar, Nadine; Turpin, Karen; Smyth, Penelope; Finlayson, Marcia

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to understand participants' experiences with a self-guided fatigue management resource, Multiple Sclerosis: An Interactive Fatigue Management Resource ( MS INFoRm), and the extent to which they found its contents relevant and useful to their daily lives. We recruited 35 persons with MS experiencing mild to moderate fatigue, provided them with MS INFoRm, and then conducted semistructured interviews 3 weeks and 3 months after they received the resource. Interpretive description guided the analysis process. Findings indicate that participants' experience of using MS INFoRm could be understood as a process of change, influenced by their initial reactions to the resource. They reported experiencing a shift in knowledge, expectations, and behaviors with respect to fatigue self-management. These shifts led to multiple positive outcomes, including increased levels of self-confidence and improved quality of life. These findings suggest that MS INFoRm may have a place in the continuum of fatigue management interventions for people with MS.

  12. AUTOMATIC CALCULATION OF OIL SLICK AREA FROM MULTIPLE SAR ACQUISITIONS FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osmanoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band, Envisat ASAR (C-band and Alos-PALSAR (L-band sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  13. Quantitative Analysis on the Influence Factors of the Sustainable Water Resource Management Performance in Irrigation Areas: An Empirical Research from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulin Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation and influence factors analysis are vital to the sustainable water resources management (SWRM in irrigation areas. Based on the objectives and the implementation framework of modern integrated water resources management (IWRM, this research systematically developed an index system of the performances and their influence factors ones of the SWRM in irrigation areas. Using the method of multivariate regression combined with correlation analysis, this study estimated quantitatively the effect of multiple factors on the water resources management performances of irrigation areas in the Ganzhou District of Zhangye, Gansu, China. The results are presented below. The overall performance is mainly affected by management enabling environment and management institution with the regression coefficients of 0.0117 and 0.0235, respectively. The performance of ecological sustainability is mainly influenced by local economic development level and enable environment with the regression coefficients of 0.08642 and −0.0118, respectively. The performance of water use equity is mainly influenced by information publicity, administrators’ education level and ordinary water users’ participation level with the correlation coefficients of 0.637, 0.553 and 0.433, respectively. The performance of water use economic efficiency is mainly influenced by the management institutions and instruments with the regression coefficients of −0.07844 and 0.01808, respectively. In order to improve the overall performance of SWRM in irrigation areas, it is necessary to strengthen the public participation, improve the manager’ ability and provide sufficient financial support on management organization.

  14. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  15. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  16. Design of multiple representations e-learning resources based on a contextual approach for the basic physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, F.; Muliyati, D.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to design e-learning resources with multiple representations based on a contextual approach for the Basic Physics Course. The research uses the research and development methods accordance Dick & Carey strategy. The development carried out in the digital laboratory of Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Science Faculty, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. The result of the process of product development with Dick & Carey strategy, have produced e-learning design of the Basic Physics Course is presented in multiple representations in contextual learning syntax. The appropriate of representation used in the design of learning basic physics include: concept map, video, figures, data tables of experiment results, charts of data tables, the verbal explanations, mathematical equations, problem and solutions example, and exercise. Multiple representations are presented in the form of contextual learning by stages: relating, experiencing, applying, transferring, and cooperating.

  17. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  18. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, C.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  19. Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) for the Mobile Detection Assessment Response System (MDARS) Revision A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, H

    2000-01-01

    The Mobile Detection Assessment and Response System (MDARS) program employs multiple robotic security platforms operating under the high level control of a remote host, with the direct supervision of a human operator...

  20. Geophysical survey, Paso Robles geothermal area, California, part of the resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1980-11-10

    Some general background information concerning the geology and geothermal occurrences in the Southern Coast Ranges is included, as well as the more detailed information dealing with the Paso Robles area proper. Results for two geophysical methods that have been used in the area: the ground magnetic and gravity surveys, are discussed and interpreted.

  1. Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks with multiple stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, Nao; Mougi, Akihiko

    2014-01-21

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have attracted much attention as a tool for sustainable fisheries management, restoring depleted fisheries stocks and maintaining ecosystems. However, even with total exclusion of fishing effort, depleted stocks sometimes show little or no recovery over a long time period. Here, using a mathematical model, we show that multiple stable states may hold the key to understanding the tendency for fisheries stocks to recover because of MPAs. We find that MPAs can have either a positive effect or almost no effect on the recovery of depleted fishing stocks, depending on the fish migration patterns and the fishing policies. MPAs also reinforce ecological resilience, particularly for migratory species. In contrast to previous reports, our results show that MPAs have small or sometimes negative effects on the recovery of sedentary species. Unsuitable MPA planning might result in low effectiveness or even deterioration of the existing condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Taxonomic classification of world map units in crop producing areas of Argentina and Brazil with representative US soil series and major land resource areas in which they occur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, H. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The most probable current U.S. taxonomic classification of the soils estimated to dominate world soil map units (WSM)) in selected crop producing states of Argentina and Brazil are presented. Representative U.S. soil series the units are given. The map units occurring in each state are listed with areal extent and major U.S. land resource areas in which similar soils most probably occur. Soil series sampled in LARS Technical Report 111579 and major land resource areas in which they occur with corresponding similar WSM units at the taxonomic subgroup levels are given.

  3. Study on protection and reclamation for the groundwater resources in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ig-Hwan; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Byung-Dae [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)

    1999-12-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the protection of contaminated groundwater and reclamation in the Pusan area. Groundwater Busan city is highly subjected to groundwater contamination due to its unfavorable geographical features; it is located in the estuaries of the Nakdong river, most of the urban area are composed of highlands, and the large population resides in the downhill. Heavy pumping and deterioration of groundwater are currently found to be significant compared to other major cities, resulting in shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater. The first step of the research aims at investigating hydrogeological features which includes analysis of climate and hydrologic data, investigation of geology and structural pattern, acquisition of hydrological data, inspection of wells, measurement of groundwater level, analysis of water samples, investigation of groundwater contamination, isotope analysis, and monitoring water level by automated data logger to identify seawater intrusion. The second step is to simulate the two-dimensional flow model after construction of the database. Aside from this, abandoned wells were transformed into observation wells. An effort for remedy of contaminated groundwater was made and the water quality was constantly monitored to improve the deteriorated water to the drinking water. Kriging analysis and geostatistical analysis were carried out in order to verify the effect of seawater intrusion, showing that there is no clear evidence of seawater intrusion. Instead, it is clear that groundwater in the inland district was preferentially contaminated by pollutants originated from human activities. Based on the two-dimensional flow model, only 0.021 m{sup 3} may be allocated to each person a day from public wells for emergency. In order to ensure that protection and remediation of groundwater of the Busan area are able to accomplish, well-controlled management of aquifer systems needs to be maintained and

  4. Ground-water resources of the Laura area, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Anthony, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The water system that supplies the heavily populated Dalap-Uliga-Darrit (DUD) area of Majuro atoll, Marshall Island, relies almost entirely upon airstrip catchment of rain water. Droughts cause severe water supply problems and water rationing is required, even during periods of normal rainfall. The Laura area contains a substantial lens of fresh groundwater that could be developed for export to the DUD area 30 mi to the east. Study of the groundwater resource at Laura involved a survey of existing wells, installation of monitoring wells and test holes, compilation of continuous records of rainfall and water level fluctuations, and collection of water quality data. Test hole data permitted the definition of three geohydrologic units which correlate well with similar units in Bikini and Enewetak atolls. The units consist of two layers of unconsolidated reef and lagoon sediments resting on a dense, highly permeable limestone. The potable water zone, or freshwater nucleus, of the lens is contained mostly within the unconsolidated layers, which are much less permeable than the basal limestone. Recharge to the Laura freshwater lens is estimated to be 1.8 mil gal/day, based on an average annual rainfall of 140 in. Sustainable yield is estimated to be about 400,000 gal/day. Shallow skimming wells or infiltration galleries similar to those used on Kwajalein atoll would be appropriate to develop the freshwater lens. The impact of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the salinity in developed water and in a network of monitor wells. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Comment Period for Proposed Remedy Selection Plan for Multiple Training Areas located at Joint Base Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking public comment on the EPA’s proposal indicating no further action is needed for multiple Training Areas on the Camp Edwards portion of Joint Base Cape Cod (JBCC).

  6. Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Nelson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/coliform culture plates to assess the water quality at twenty sampling sites in Kumbo, Cameroon. Culture results from treated and untreated sources were compared to modern bacterial DNA pyrosequencing methods using established bioinformatics and statistical tools. Petrifilms were reproducible between replicates and sampling dates. Additionally, cultivation on Petrifilms suggests that treatment by the Kumbo Water Authority (KWA greatly improves water quality as compared with untreated river and rainwater. The majority of sequences detected were representative of common water and soil microbes, with a minority of sequences (<40% identified as belonging to genera common in fecal matter and/or causes of human disease. Water sources had variable DNA sequence counts that correlated significantly with the culture count data and may therefore be a proxy for bacterial load. Although the KWA does not meet Western standards for water quality (less than one coliform per 100 mL, KWA piped water is safer than locally available alternative water sources such as river and rainwater. The culture-based technology described is easily transferrable to resource-limited areas and provides local water authorities with valuable microbiological safety information with potential to protect public health in developing nations.

  7. Monitoring Water Resources in Pastoral Areas of East Africa Using Satellite Data and Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, H.; Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N.; Asante, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    The nomadic pastoral communities in East Africa heavily depend on small water bodies and artificial lakes for domestic and livestock uses. The shortage of water in the region has made these water resources of great importance to them and sometimes even the reason for conflicts amongst rival communities in the region. Satellite-based data has significantly transformed the way we track and estimate hydrological processes such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. This approach has been particularly useful in remote places where conventional station-based weather networks are scarce. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data were extracted for the study region. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) data were used to extract the climatic parameters needed to calculate reference evapotranspiration. The elevation data needed to delineate the watersheds were extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with spatial resolution of 90m. The waterholes (most of which have average surface area less than a hectare) were identified using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images with a spatial resolution of 15 m. As part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) funded enhancement to a livestock early warning decision support system, a simple hydrologic water balance model was developed to estimate daily waterhole depth variations. The model was run for over 10 years from 1998 till 2008 for 10 representative waterholes in the region. Although there were no independent datasets to validate the results, the temporal patterns captured both the seasonal and inter-annual variations, depicting known drought and flood years. Future research includes the installation of staff-gauges for model calibration and validation. The simple modeling approach demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating dynamic coarse resolution datasets such as TRMM with

  8. Analysis of Multiple Genomic Sequence Alignments: A Web Resource, Online Tools, and Lessons Learned From Analysis of Mammalian SCL Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael A.; Donaldson, Ian J.; Gilbert, James; Grafham, Darren; Rogers, Jane; Green, Anthony R.; Göttgens, Berthold

    2004-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genomic sequences is becoming a standard technique for studying gene regulation. However, only a limited number of tools are currently available for the analysis of multiple genomic sequences. An extensive data set for the testing and training of such tools is provided by the SCL gene locus. Here we have expanded the data set to eight vertebrate species by sequencing the dog SCL locus and by annotating the dog and rat SCL loci. To provide a resource for the bioinformatics community, all SCL sequences and functional annotations, comprising a collation of the extensive experimental evidence pertaining to SCL regulation, have been made available via a Web server. A Web interface to new tools specifically designed for the display and analysis of multiple sequence alignments was also implemented. The unique SCL data set and new sequence comparison tools allowed us to perform a rigorous examination of the true benefits of multiple sequence comparisons. We demonstrate that multiple sequence alignments are, overall, superior to pairwise alignments for identification of mammalian regulatory regions. In the search for individual transcription factor binding sites, multiple alignments markedly increase the signal-to-noise ratio compared to pairwise alignments. PMID:14718377

  9. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

  10. Habitat prioritization across large landscapes, multiple seasons, and novel areas: an example using greater sage-grouse in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Gummer, David; Holloran, Matthew J.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Mandich, Cheryl A.; Marshall, David; McKee, Gwyn; Olson, Chad; Pratt, Aaron C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Walker, Brett L.

    2014-01-01

    Animal habitat selection is an important and expansive area of research in ecology. In particular, the study of habitat selection is critical in habitat prioritization efforts for species of conservation concern. Landscape planning for species is happening at ever-increasing extents because of the appreciation for the role of landscape-scale patterns in species persistence coupled to improved datasets for species and habitats, and the expanding and intensifying footprint of human land uses on the landscape. We present a large-scale collaborative effort to develop habitat selection models across large landscapes and multiple seasons for prioritizing habitat for a species of conservation concern. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) occur in western semi-arid landscapes in North America. Range-wide population declines of this species have been documented, and it is currently considered as “warranted but precluded” from listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. Wyoming is predicted to remain a stronghold for sage-grouse populations and contains approximately 37% of remaining birds. We compiled location data from 14 unique radiotelemetry studies (data collected 1994–2010) and habitat data from high-quality, biologically relevant, geographic information system (GIS) layers across Wyoming. We developed habitat selection models for greater sage-grouse across Wyoming for 3 distinct life stages: 1) nesting, 2) summer, and 3) winter. We developed patch and landscape models across 4 extents, producing statewide and regional (southwest, central, northeast) models for Wyoming. Habitat selection varied among regions and seasons, yet preferred habitat attributes generally matched the extensive literature on sage-grouse seasonal habitat requirements. Across seasons and regions, birds preferred areas with greater percentage sagebrush cover and avoided paved roads, agriculture, and forested areas. Birds consistently preferred

  11. Small-area distribution of multiple sclerosis incidence in western France: in search of environmental triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammas, Karima; Yaouanq, Jacqueline; Lannes, Morgane; Edan, Gilles; Viel, Jean-François

    2017-09-21

    Despite intensive research over several decades, the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood, although environmental factors are supposedly implicated. Our goal was to identify spatial clusters of MS incident cases at the small-area level to provide clues to local environmental risk factors that might cause or trigger the disease. A population-based and multi-stage study was performed in the French Brittany region to accurately ascertain the clinical onset of disease during the 2000-2004 period. The municipality of residence at the time of clinical onset was geocoded. To test for the presence of MS incidence clusters and to identify their approximate locations, we used a spatial scan statistic. We adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation, known to be strongly associated with increased MS incident rates, and scanned simultaneously for areas with either high or low rates. Sensitivity analyses (focusing on relapsing-remitting forms and/or places of residence available within the year following clinical onset) were performed. A total of 848 incident cases of MS were registered in Brittany, corresponding to a crude annual incidence rate of 5.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. The spatial scan statistic did not find a significant cluster of MS incidence in either the primary analysis (p value ≥ 0.56) or in the sensitivity analyses (p value ≥ 0.16). The findings of this study indicate that MS incidence is not markedly affected across space, suggesting that in the years preceding the first clinical expression of the disease, no environmental trigger is operative at the small-area population level in the French Brittany region.

  12. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  13. Assessing risks to multiple resources affected by wildfire and forest management using an integrated probabilistic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven P. Norman; Danny C. Lee; Sandra Jacobson; Christine Damiani

    2010-01-01

    The tradeoffs that surround forest management are inherently complex, often involving multiple temporal and spatial scales. For example, conflicts may result when fuel treatments are designed to mediate long-term fuel hazards, but activities could impair sensitive aquatic habitat or degrade wildlife habitat in the short term. This complexity makes it hard for managers...

  14. Avian risk behavior and fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, C.; Rugge, L.

    2000-05-08

    Since 1981, more than 7,000 wind turbines have been installed in the Altamont Wind Resource Area in north-central California. Currently, about 5,000 turbines are operating. Past research efforts demonstrated that wind turbines frequently kill birds, especially raptors. Little is known about the specific flight and perching behaviors by birds near wind turbines. A better understanding of these interactions may one day yield insights on how to minimize bird fatalities. This Phase 1 progress report summarizes research findings obtained at 20 study plots totaling 785 turbines of various configurations and conducted between March 1998 and February 1999. The authors examined bird use and behaviors and collected data on fatalities at the same turbines throughout the course of the surveys. They completed 745 30-minute point counts (1,702 bird observations) that quantified bird risk behaviors and bird use of the study plots. The four most frequently observed bird species were red-tailed hawks, common ravens, turkey vultures, and golden eagles. During the same period, the authors recorded 95 bird fatalities. Raptors represent 51% (n=49) of the kills found. The data indicate that the relative abundance of species observed does not predict the relative frequency of fatalities per species. Phase II of the research is underway.

  15. Avian risk behavior and fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - February 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelander, C.; Rugge, L.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1981, more than 7,000 wind turbines have been installed in the Altamont Wind Resource Area in north-central California. Currently, about 5,000 turbines are operating. Past research efforts demonstrated that wind turbines frequently kill birds, especially raptors. Little is known about the specific flight and perching behaviors by birds near wind turbines. A better understanding of these interactions may one day yield insights on how to minimize bird fatalities. This Phase 1 progress report summarizes research findings obtained at 20 study plots totaling 785 turbines of various configurations and conducted between March 1998 and February 1999. The authors examined bird use and behaviors and collected data on fatalities at the same turbines throughout the course of the surveys. They completed 745 30-minute point counts (1,702 bird observations) that quantified bird risk behaviors and bird use of the study plots. The four most frequently observed bird species were red-tailed hawks, common ravens, turkey vultures, and golden eagles. During the same period, the authors recorded 95 bird fatalities. Raptors represent 51% (n=49) of the kills found. The data indicate that the relative abundance of species observed does not predict the relative frequency of fatalities per species. Phase II of the research is underway

  16. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  17. Genomic resources for multiple species in the Drosophila ananassae species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Sarah; Seher, Thaddeus; Kopp, Artyom

    2013-01-01

    The development of genomic resources in non-model taxa is essential for understanding the genetic basis of biological diversity. Although the genomes of many Drosophila species have been sequenced, most of the phenotypic diversity in this genus remains to be explored. To facilitate the genetic analysis of interspecific and intraspecific variation, we have generated new genomic resources for seven species and subspecies in the D. ananassae species subgroup. We have generated large amounts of transcriptome sequence data for D. ercepeae, D. merina, D. bipectinata, D. malerkotliana malerkotliana, D. m. pallens, D. pseudoananassae pseudoananassae, and D. p. nigrens. de novo assembly resulted in contigs covering more than half of the predicted transcriptome and matching an average of 59% of annotated genes in the complete genome of D. ananassae. Most contigs, corresponding to an average of 49% of D. ananassae genes, contain sequence polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers. Subsets of these markers were validated by genotyping the progeny of inter- and intraspecific crosses. The ananassae subgroup is an excellent model system for examining the molecular basis of speciation and phenotypic evolution. The new genomic resources will facilitate the genetic analysis of inter- and intraspecific differences in this lineage. Transcriptome sequencing provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify molecular markers at nearly single-gene density, and is equally applicable to any non-model taxa.

  18. Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Metropolitan Area of Edirne City, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Çelik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis may vary according to the influence of the altitude of a geographical area as well as the genetic and environmental factors. This study ained to determine the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Edirne population.Material and Methods: Patients with a definite diagnosis of MS according to McDonald’s criteria, admitted to one of the three MS clinics in Edirne, were included in this two-stage study. Also the records of hospitals in İstanbul serving patients from Edirne, have been evaluated. Results: The prevalence rate of confirmed MS patients was 33.9/100000 (95% CI: 32-36 in 2003. The mean annual incidence was 3.48/100000 (95% CI: 2.90-4.00. Mean age of the patients was 36.5±9.6 years. Mean age at onset was 29.2±8.5 years. Mean duration of disease was 6.9±5.2 years. Overall, 69.2% had a relapsing-remitting course, 20.5% had a primary progressive course and 10.3% had a secondary progressive course. Mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 3.04±2.18. The prevalence and annual incidence after one year was 36.5 per 100000 (95% CI: 33.2-38.6 and 2.60 per 100000 (95% CI: 2.1-3.8, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first city-based MS prevalence study performed in Turkey. The MS prevalence in Edirne is similar to that of Greece and Bulgaria but lower than that of European countries.

  19. Analysis of Resource and Emission Impacts: An Emergy-Based Multiple Spatial Scale Framework for Urban Ecological and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the complex and multi-dimensional urban socio-economic system creates impacts on natural capital and human capital, which range from a local to a global scale. An emergy-based multiple spatial scale analysis framework and a rigorous accounting method that can quantify the values of human-made and natural capital losses were proposed in this study. With the intent of comparing the trajectory of Beijing over time, the characteristics of the interface between different scales are considered to explain the resource trade and the impacts of emissions. In addition, our improved determination of emergy analysis and acceptable management options that are in agreement with Beijing’s overall sustainability strategy were examined. The results showed that Beijing’s economy was closely correlated with the consumption of nonrenewable resources and exerted rising pressure on the environment. Of the total emergy use by the economic system, the imported nonrenewable resources from other provinces contribute the most, and the multi‑scale environmental impacts of waterborne and airborne pollution continued to increase from 1999 to 2006. Given the inputs structure, Beijing was chiefly making greater profits by shifting resources from other provinces in China and transferring the emissions outside. The results of our study should enable urban policy planners to better understand the multi-scale policy planning and development design of an urban ecological economic system.

  20. Computational modeling as a tool for water resources management: an alternative approach to problems of multiple uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydda Manolla Chaves da Hora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today in Brazil there are many cases of incompatibility regarding use of water and its availability. Due to the increase in required variety and volume, the concept of multiple uses was created, as stated by Pinheiro et al. (2007. The use of the same resource to satisfy different needs with several restrictions (qualitative and quantitative creates conflicts. Aiming to minimize these conflicts, this work was applied to the particular cases of Hydrographic Regions VI and VIII of Rio de Janeiro State, using computational modeling techniques (based on MOHID software – Water Modeling System as a tool for water resources management.

  1. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

  2. Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (RARE II), Randolph County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This map presents an analysis of the oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area in the Monongahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virginia. The area was classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  3. A multi-disciplinary approach for the integrated assessment of multiple risks in delta areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, Anna; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of climate change related risks is notoriously difficult due to the complex and uncertain combinations of hazardous events that might happen, the multiplicity of physical processes involved, the continuous changes and interactions of environmental and socio-economic systems. One important challenge lies in predicting and modelling cascades of natural and man -made hazard events which can be triggered by climate change, encompassing different spatial and temporal scales. Another regard the potentially difficult integration of environmental, social and economic disciplines in the multi-risk concept. Finally, the effective interaction between scientists and stakeholders is essential to ensure that multi-risk knowledge is translated into efficient adaptation and management strategies. The assessment is even more complex at the scale of deltaic systems which are particularly vulnerable to global environmental changes, due to the fragile equilibrium between the presence of valuable natural ecosystems and relevant economic activities. Improving our capacity to assess the combined effects of multiple hazards (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surges, reduction in sediment load, local subsidence, saltwater intrusion) is therefore essential to identify timely opportunities for adaptation. A holistic multi-risk approach is here proposed to integrate terminology, metrics and methodologies from different research fields (i.e. environmental, social and economic sciences) thus creating shared knowledge areas to advance multi risk assessment and management in delta regions. A first testing of the approach, including the application of Bayesian network analysis for the assessment of impacts of climate change on key natural systems (e.g. wetlands, protected areas, beaches) and socio-economic activities (e.g. agriculture, tourism), is applied in the Po river delta in Northern Italy. The approach is based on a bottom-up process involving local stakeholders early in different

  4. INCORPORATING MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES IN PLANNING MODELS OF LOW-RESOURCE FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Flinn, John C.; Jayasuriya, Sisira; Knight, C. Gregory

    1980-01-01

    Linear goal programming provides a means of formally incorporating the multiple goals of a household into the analysis of farming systems. Using this approach, the set of plans which come as close as possible to achieving a set of desired goals under conditions of land and cash scarcity are derived for a Filipino tenant farmer. A challenge in making LGP models empirically operational is the accurate definition of the goals of the farm household being modelled.

  5. Statistical Strategy for Inventorying and Monitoring the Ecosystem Resources of the State of Jalisco at Multiple Scales and Resolution Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin M. Reich; Hans T. Schreuder

    2006-01-01

    The sampling strategy involving both statistical and in-place inventory information is presented for the natural resources project of the Green Belt area (Centuron Verde) in the Mexican state of Jalisco. The sampling designs used were a grid based ground sample of a 90x90 m plot and a two-stage stratified sample of 30 x 30 m plots. The data collected were used to...

  6. WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

  7. Offshore Wind Resources Assessment from Multiple Satellite Data and WRF Modeling over South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Rui; Rong, Zhu; Badger, Merete

    2015-01-01

    offshore winds which can be used for offshore wind resource assessment. First, wind speeds retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Scatterometer ASCAT images were validated against in situ measurements from seven coastal meteorological stations in South China Sea (SCS). The wind roses from...... (SD) of 2.09 m/s (1.83 m/s) and correlation coefficient of R 0.75 (0.80). When the offshore winds (i.e., winds directed from land to sea) are excluded, the comparison results for wind speeds show an improvement of SD and R, indicating that the satellite data are more credible over the open ocean...

  8. Groundwater Resources Isotope Study of Eastern and Southeastern Areas of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Momani, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Since Jordan depends on the groundwater resources especially for municipal use so, water resources studies and development takes priority on the national level. For this reason the environmental isotope technique and application contributed and supported the hydrological studies as a research tool confirmed some scientific facts including natural and environmental changes of water resources. The isotope analyses has been implemented for upper and deep aquifer systems in the eastern and southeastern areas of Jordan for Hamad, Sirhan, Azraq and Jafr basins. The analyses included the stable isotopes for 18 O, Deuterium ( 2 H) and 13 C also the radioactive isotopes for Tritium ( 3 H ) and 14 C in nineties of the last century until 2002 and this indicates the following: * The origin and mechanism of the nonrenewable groundwater recharge in the deep aquifer systems of (B2/A7) Campanian and Turonian age for Hamad and Azraq basins has been defined. This refers that the groundwater recharge existed within humid, cold and wet climatologic conditions which is completely different from the present climate where the groundwater age exceeds thirty thousand years. * Also this indicates that the stable isotopic composition of the upper aquifers in Hamad and Sirhan basins in Shallala and Rijam aquifers (B5/B4) of Eocene and Paleocene age lie on the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) where the deuterium excess (d) is 10 %. Actually this water is not tritiated and the 14 C content in the groundwater is close to zero which is a strong indication of humid and wet climate where the age of the groundwater range between 20000 and exceeds 300000 years. In comparison this situation with the same aquifer in Jafr basin located in the southeastern part of Jordan, there are differences in the deuterium excess (d), Tritium and 14 C content which depends on the climatologic conditions existed during the recharge period. Also the isotopic signaure for the middle groundwater system (B2/A7) and the

  9. Downscaling remotely sensed imagery using area-to-point cokriging and multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunwei; Atkinson, Peter M.; Zhang, Jingxiong

    2015-03-01

    A cross-scale data integration method was developed and tested based on the theory of geostatistics and multiple-point geostatistics (MPG). The goal was to downscale remotely sensed images while retaining spatial structure by integrating images at different spatial resolutions. During the process of downscaling, a rich spatial correlation model in the form of a training image was incorporated to facilitate reproduction of similar local patterns in the simulated images. Area-to-point cokriging (ATPCK) was used as locally varying mean (LVM) (i.e., soft data) to deal with the change of support problem (COSP) for cross-scale integration, which MPG cannot achieve alone. Several pairs of spectral bands of remotely sensed images were tested for integration within different cross-scale case studies. The experiment shows that MPG can restore the spatial structure of the image at a fine spatial resolution given the training image and conditioning data. The super-resolution image can be predicted using the proposed method, which cannot be realised using most data integration methods. The results show that ATPCK-MPG approach can achieve greater accuracy than methods which do not account for the change of support issue.

  10. Monolithic mode locked DBR laser with multiple-bandgap MQW structure realized by selective area growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, M.; Bouayad-Amine, J.; Feeser, T.; Haisch, H.; Kuehn, E.; Lach, E.; Satzke, K.; Weber, J.; Zielinski, E. [Alcatel Telecom, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    The realization of novel monolithically integrated multiple-segment pulse laser sources in InGaAsP MQW technology is reported. The MQW layers for all functional sections of these devices, the modulator, the active (gain) and the passive waveguide, as well as the Bragg section were grown in a single selective area growth (SAG) step by LP-MOVPE on SiO{sub 2} patterned 2 inch InP substrates. Due to a properly selected pattern geometry 3 different bandgap regions with smooth interfaces are thereby formed along the laser cavity. The more than 4 mm long DBR lasers which exhibit a threshold current as low as 30 mA were mode locked by an intra-cavity electroabsorption modulator applying a sinusoidal voltage at around 10 GHz. In this way an optical pulse train with pulse widths < 13 ps (measured with a streak camera) and high extinction ratio was generated. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 close to the Fourier limit is obtained. This device is very attractive for signal generation in 40 Gb/s OTDM transmission systems at 1.55 {micro}m wavelength.

  11. Spatial transferability of habitat suitability models of Nephrops norvegicus among fished areas in the Northeast Atlantic: sufficiently stable for marine resource conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lauria

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution and habitat associations of species in relation to the environment is essential for their management and conservation. Habitat suitability models are useful in quantifying species-environment relationships and predicting species distribution patterns. Little is known, however, about the stability and performance of habitat suitability models when projected into new areas (spatial transferability and how this can inform resource management. The aims of this study were to model habitat suitability of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus in five fished areas of the Northeast Atlantic (Aran ground, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Scotland Inshore and Fladen ground, and to test for spatial transferability of habitat models among multiple regions. Nephrops burrow density was modelled using generalised additive models (GAMs with predictors selected from four environmental variables (depth, slope, sediment and rugosity. Models were evaluated and tested for spatial transferability among areas. The optimum models (lowest AICc for different areas always included depth and sediment as predictors. Burrow densities were generally greater at depth and in finer sediments, but relationships for individual areas were sometimes more complex. Aside from an inclusion of depth and sediment, the optimum models differed between fished areas. When it came to tests of spatial transferability, however, most of the models were able to predict Nephrops density in other areas. Furthermore, transferability was not dependent on use of the optimum models since competing models were also able to achieve a similar level of transferability to new areas. A degree of decoupling between model 'fitting' performance and spatial transferability supports the use of simpler models when extrapolating habitat suitability maps to different areas. Differences in the form and performance of models from different areas may supply further information on the processes

  12. Amplifying Progress toward Multiple Development Goals through Resource Recovery from Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, John T; Cusick, Roland D; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-09-19

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize that current sanitation gaps must be closed to better serve those without access to safely managed systems (Target 6.2: universal sanitation coverage) and those connected to sewers without wastewater treatment (Target 6.3: halving the proportion of untreated wastewater). Beyond mitigating environmental and health concerns, implementing resource recovery sanitation systems could simultaneously improve the availability of agricultural nutrients (SDG 2) and household energy (SDG 7). This study estimates the potential for global, regional, and country-level resource recovery to impact nutrient and household electricity use through 2030. We distinguish impacts from newly installed sanitation systems (to achieve universal coverage), newly treated wastewater systems (to halve the proportion of untreated wastewater), and existing system replacement, while also considering urban and rural disparities and spatial colocation of nutrients with agricultural needs. This work points toward country-specific strategies for deriving the greatest benefit from sanitation investments while also identifying overarching trends to guide international research efforts. Globally, potential nutrient gains are an order of magnitude larger than electricity (a small fraction of total energy), and considerable impacts are possible in the least-developed countries, six of which could double or offset all projected nutrient and electricity use through newly installed sanitation systems.

  13. Multiple Behavior Change Intervention to Improve Detection of Unmet Social Needs and Resulting Resource Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jeffrey D; Bettenhausen, Jessica L; Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Plencner, Laura; Krager, Molly; Nelson, Brooke; Donnelly, Sara; Simmons, Julia; Higinio, Valeria; Chung, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    It is critical that pediatric residents learn to effectively screen families for active and addressable social needs (ie, negative social determinants of health). We sought to determine 1) whether a brief intervention teaching residents about IHELP, a social needs screening tool, could improve resident screening, and 2) how accurately IHELP could detect needs in the inpatient setting. During an 18-month period, interns rotating on 1 of 2 otherwise identical inpatient general pediatrics teams were trained in IHELP. Interns on the other team served as the comparison group. Every admission history and physical examination (H&P) was reviewed for IHELP screening. Social work evaluations were used to establish the sensitivity and specificity of IHELP and document resources provided to families with active needs. During a 21-month postintervention period, every third H&P was reviewed to determine median duration of continued IHELP use. A total of 619 admissions met inclusion criteria. Over 80% of intervention team H&Ps documented use of IHELP. The percentage of social work consults was nearly 3 times greater on the intervention team than on the comparison team (P Social work provided resources for 78% of positively screened families. The median duration of screening use by residents after the intervention was 8.1 months (interquartile range 1-10 months). A brief intervention increased resident screening and detection of social needs, leading to important referrals to address those needs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  15. Two-Way Multiple Relays Channel: Achievable Rate Region and Optimal Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhair Al-Qudah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a communication model containing two users that exchange their information with the help of multiple parallel relay nodes. To avoid interference at these common nodes, two users are required to transmit over the different frequency bands. Based on this scenario, the achievable rate region is initially derived. Next, an optimization scheme is described to choose the best relays that can be used by each user. Then, two power allocation optimization schemes are investigated to allocate the proper average power value to each node. Finally, comparisons between these two optimization schemes are carried out through some numerical examples.

  16. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  17. The Dynamics of Social Capital and Conflict Management in Multiple Resource Regimes: A Case of the Southwestern Highlands of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal C. Sanginga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, social capital, defined as shared norms, trust, and the horizontal and vertical social networks that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutually beneficial collective action, is seen as an important asset upon which people rely to manage natural resources and resolve conflicts. This paper uses empirical data from households and community surveys and case studies, to examine the role, strengths, and limits of social capital in managing conflicts over the use and management of natural resources. We inventoried over 700 cases ranging from conflicts between multiple resource users to supra-community conflicts between local communities concerns for better livelihoods and national/international concerns for environment conservation. Results show how different types of social capital are used in preventing and managing conflicts. Endowment in certain dimensions of social capital significantly decreased the occurrence of conflicts and played a significant role in managing them. However, social capital mechanisms have some limits, and are not always effective in resolving some types of conflicts. For such conflicts, people rely on formal mechanisms for arbitration and adjudication. In many cases, these have resulted in exclusion, coercion, and violence. Results show that policies or social capital alone do not possess the resources needed to promote broad-based and sustainable conflict resolution strategies. Rather, people use a range of conflict management strategies of different types and combinations of social capital and local polices. This synergy between social capital and local policy is based on complementarity and embededness: mutually supportive relations between local government and local communities, and the nature and extent of the ties connecting people and communities and public institutions. Better understanding of how this synergy between social capital and local policy can be strengthened is crucial to minimize

  18. Ethnic Resources Utilization of Korean Immigrant Entrepreneurs in the Chicago Minority Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Chung; Hurh, Won Moo

    1985-01-01

    Korean entrepreneurs rely heavily on their ethnic resources for both business formation and operation. While such resource utilization facilitates immigrants' business entry and gives them competitive advantage in the general marketplace, the same mechanism poses the problems of entra-ethnic business competition and precarious position as a…

  19. Towards harmonizing natural resources as an area of protection in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    categories, nor do existing methods and models addressing different natural resource categories do so in a consistent way across categories. Exceptions are exergy and solar energy-related methods, which cover the widest range of resource categories. However, these methods do not link exergy consumption...

  20. Imagined Communities, Contested Watersheds: Challenges to Integrated Water Resources Management in Agricultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Cecilia; de Loe, Rob C.; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated water resources management is one of the major bottom-up alternatives that emerged during the 1980s in North America as part of the trend towards more holistic and participatory styles of environmental governance. It aims to protect surface and groundwater resources by focusing on the integrated and collaborative management of land and…

  1. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  2. Healthcare resource use and costs associated with chronic kidney disease in US private insurance patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Debajyoti; Song, Xue; Intorcia, Michele; Kent, Shia T; Shi, Nianwen

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Within a median 1.2 years after patients have an initial diagnosis with multiple myeloma, up to 61% were diagnosed with renal impairment and 50% were diagnosed with chronic kidney disease. This study estimated economic burden associated with chronic kidney disease in multiple myeloma patients in the US. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, patients ≥18 years old with ≥1 inpatient or ≥ 2 outpatient multiple myeloma diagnoses between 1 January 2008 and 31 March 2015 were identified from MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental Databases. Chronic kidney disease patients had ≥1 diagnosis of chronic kidney disease Stages 1-5 (first chronic kidney disease diagnosis date = index date) on or after the first multiple myeloma diagnosis, and were propensity score matched 1:1 to multiple myeloma patients without chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, dialysis, or other type of chronically impaired renal function. All patients had ≥six-month continuous enrollment prior to index date and were followed for ≥one month from index date until the earliest of inpatient death, end of continuous enrollment, or end of the study period (30 September 2015). The per-patient per-year healthcare resource utilization and costs were measured during follow-up. Costs were total reimbursed amount in 2016 US dollars. Results A total of 2541 multiple myeloma patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-5 and 2541 matched controls met the study criteria and were respectively 69.3 and 69.6 years, 54.5% and 55.3% men, and had 572.2 and 533.4 mean days of follow up. Compared to controls, chronic kidney disease patients had significantly (all P chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, or dialysis had $78,455 ( P chronic kidney disease in patients with multiple myeloma was estimated to be between $34,754 and $78,455 per-patient per-year. Given its substantial clinical and economic impact, preservation of renal function is important in

  3. On the possibility of the multiple inductively coupled plasma and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Lee, Yun-Seong, E-mail: leeeeys@kaist.ac.kr; Chang, Hong-Young [Low-temperature Plasma Laboratory, Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang-Hyuk [Agency of Defense Development, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-151 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In this study, we attempted to determine the possibility of multiple inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes. Experiments were performed with the one and two coils to measure plasma and electrical parameters, and a circuit simulation was performed to measure the current at each coil in the 2-coil experiment. Based on the result, we could determine the possibility of multiple ICP sources due to a direct change of impedance due to current and saturation of impedance due to the skin-depth effect. However, a helicon plasma source is difficult to adapt to the multiple sources due to the consistent change of real impedance due to mode transition and the low uniformity of the B-field confinement. As a result, it is expected that ICP can be adapted to multiple sources for large-area processes.

  4. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Siren

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an ...

  5. Regional resources buffer the impact of functional limitations on perceived autonomy in older adults with multiple illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Westland, Josh N; Wurm, Susanne; Tesch-Römer, Clemens; Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Retaining perceptions of autonomy is a key component of successful aging. Perceived autonomy refers to the capacity to make and enact self-directed decisions. These perceptions are often threatened in older adults with multiple illnesses, when functional limitations resulting from these illnesses impede the enactment of self-directed decisions. Regional resources (in Germany specifically at the level of administrative districts) might counteract these impediments of autonomy. Economically stronger districts can provide more-concrete support resources for older adults, buffering the negative effect of functional limitations on self-perceived autonomy. This study assessed participants aged over 65 with 2 or more chronic conditions. In total, N = 287 provided data (Mage = 73.3, SD = 5.07), and n = 97 were women. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was used as a proxy measure of administrative district wealth in Germany. Hierarchical multilevel regression analyses with cross-level interactions were conducted. Results suggest that the detrimental effect of functional limitations on perceived autonomy is less pronounced for participants residing in higher GDP districts. Conversely, for participants in lower GDP districts, the effect is exacerbated. This finding suggests that districts with greater financial resources might be better able to invest in supports that promote and facilitate autonomy and, thus, provide a buffer against threats to individual perceived autonomy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Distributed Factorization Computation on Multiple Volunteered Mobile Resource to Break RSA Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, I.; Hardi, S. M.; Tarigan, J. T.; Zamzami, E. M.; Sihombing, P.

    2017-01-01

    Similar to common asymmeric encryption, RSA can be cracked by usmg a series mathematical calculation. The private key used to decrypt the massage can be computed using the public key. However, finding the private key may require a massive amount of calculation. In this paper, we propose a method to perform a distributed computing to calculate RSA’s private key. The proposed method uses multiple volunteered mobile devices to contribute during the calculation process. Our objective is to demonstrate how the use of volunteered computing on mobile devices may be a feasible option to reduce the time required to break a weak RSA encryption and observe the behavior and running time of the application on mobile devices.

  7. Management of water resources in the Cantareira Water Producer System area: a look at the rural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Eduardo Chiodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy established the principles of participation, integration and decentralization, as well as new instruments for the management of water resources in Brazil. The implementation of this policy created several challenges, such as establishing effective management within the framework of rural territorial structure. The example of the Cantareira’s System in Piracicaba river watershed is conducive to the understanding of this challenge. In this scenario, we analyzed the effective implementation of principles, and of two instruments of water resource management from the perspective of farmers’ participation: the integration of water management and rural land use, and public policies for rural areas. To accomplish this, we reviewed documents and literature, and considered conclusions drawn from meetings at the Technical Chamber of Use and Water Conservation in Rural Areas (CT-Rural. We identified a lack of participation by farmers’ representatives in the CT-Rural Chamber and little concern to increase their participation in the management practices. However, the support payments for environmental services projects (PES are stimulating farmers and calling attention to the Cantareira area, in addition to promoting the integration of water resource management and rural land use. However, even though this support acknowledges the importance of the farmers, we emphasize the low priority given by the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí Watershed Committee to the rural context of the area studied.

  8. 78 FR 35957 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Central Yukon Planning Area Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAKF030.16100000.DO0000.LXSILCYK0000] Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Central Yukon Planning Area Alaska and... management. 8. The RMP will be consistent with the Bureau's H-1601-1 Land Use Planning Handbook, Appendix C...

  9. Multiple ECG Fiducial Points-Based Random Binary Sequence Generation for Securing Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guanglou; Fang, Gengfa; Shankaran, Rajan; Orgun, Mehmet A; Zhou, Jie; Qiao, Li; Saleem, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    Generating random binary sequences (BSes) is a fundamental requirement in cryptography. A BS is a sequence of N bits, and each bit has a value of 0 or 1. For securing sensors within wireless body area networks (WBANs), electrocardiogram (ECG)-based BS generation methods have been widely investigated in which interpulse intervals (IPIs) from each heartbeat cycle are processed to produce BSes. Using these IPI-based methods to generate a 128-bit BS in real time normally takes around half a minute. In order to improve the time efficiency of such methods, this paper presents an ECG multiple fiducial-points based binary sequence generation (MFBSG) algorithm. The technique of discrete wavelet transforms is employed to detect arrival time of these fiducial points, such as P, Q, R, S, and T peaks. Time intervals between them, including RR, RQ, RS, RP, and RT intervals, are then calculated based on this arrival time, and are used as ECG features to generate random BSes with low latency. According to our analysis on real ECG data, these ECG feature values exhibit the property of randomness and, thus, can be utilized to generate random BSes. Compared with the schemes that solely rely on IPIs to generate BSes, this MFBSG algorithm uses five feature values from one heart beat cycle, and can be up to five times faster than the solely IPI-based methods. So, it achieves a design goal of low latency. According to our analysis, the complexity of the algorithm is comparable to that of fast Fourier transforms. These randomly generated ECG BSes can be used as security keys for encryption or authentication in a WBAN system.

  10. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 1; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Schull, Mitchell A.; Samanta, Arindam; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multi-decade long Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from remote sensing measurements of multiple sensors is key to monitoring long-term changes in vegetation due to natural and anthropogenic influences. Challenges in developing such ESDRs include problems in remote sensing science (modeling of variability in global vegetation, scaling, atmospheric correction) and sensor hardware (differences in spatial resolution, spectral bands, calibration, and information content). In this paper, we develop a physically based approach for deriving LAI and FPAR products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data that are of comparable quality to the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products, thus realizing the objective of producing a long (multi-decadal) time series of these products. The approach is based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants which facilitates parameterization of the canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The methodology permits decoupling of the structural and radiometric components and obeys the energy conservation law. The approach is applicable to any optical sensor, however, it requires selection of sensor-specific values of configurable parameters, namely, the single scattering albedo and data uncertainty. According to the theory of spectral invariants, the single scattering albedo is a function of the spatial scale, and thus, accounts for the variation in BRF with sensor spatial resolution. Likewise, the single scattering albedo accounts for the variation in spectral BRF with sensor bandwidths. The second adjustable parameter is data uncertainty, which accounts for varying information content of the remote sensing measurements, i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, low information content), vs. spectral BRF (higher

  11. Male-biased sexual size dimorphism, resource defense polygyny, and multiple paternity in the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Cameron M; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii) exhibits resource defense polygyny and that combat led to the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Between February and March of 2011 and 2012, 26 female and 55 male L. boringii from Mount Emei UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sichuan, China, were observed throughout the breeding season. Prior to the breeding season, males grow 10-16 keratinized maxillary nuptial spines, which fall off once the season has ended. Throughout this time, males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females. In a natural setting, we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction, and nest takeover was observed on seven occasions. Males were also observed to possess injuries resulting from combat. Genetic analysis using microsatellite DNA markers revealed several cases of multiple paternity, both within nest and within clutch. This observation indicated that some alternative male reproductive strategy, such as satellite behaviour, is occurring, which may have led to the multiple paternity. Larger males were observed to mate more frequently, and in multiple nests, suggesting that females are selecting for larger males, or that larger males are more capable of defending high quality territories.

  12. Multiple uses and regulation: elements for the sustain of the water resource systems; Usos multiplos e regulacao: elementos para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas de recursos hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Lauriberto S. [Secretaria de Estado de Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Uso do Solo Metropolitano; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    1998-12-31

    National and State water resource management plans demand new patterns of relationships between water users and the society. Regarding water resources sustainability, this work appraises some aspects of the water Committee Basins policies related to multiple water uses, within the frame of the regulatory agencies proposed. (author) 4 refs.

  13. AreaAdvisor: Spatial, Real-Time Resource Intelligence, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As processing and manufacturing facilities quickly progress from barcode to radio-frequency (RFID) and similar technologies to track the movements of resources...

  14. Allocation of Recruiting Resources Across Navy Recruiting Stations and Metropolitan Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarosz, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    .... However, the allocation of these resources across the 31 Navy recruiting districts must be made based on the characteristics of each district, and recruiters must be placed in geographic locations...

  15. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  16. Resource partitioning along multiple niche axes drives functional diversity in parrotfishes on Caribbean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Thomas C; Kelley, Megan; Ruttenberg, Benjamin I; Burkepile, Deron E

    2015-12-01

    The recent loss of key consumers to exploitation and habitat degradation has significantly altered community dynamics and ecosystem function across many ecosystems worldwide. Predicting the impacts of consumer losses requires knowing the level of functional diversity that exists within a consumer assemblage. In this study, we document functional diversity among nine species of parrotfishes on Caribbean coral reefs. Parrotfishes are key herbivores that facilitate the maintenance and recovery of coral-dominated reefs by controlling algae and provisioning space for the recruitment of corals. We observed large functional differences among two genera of parrotfishes that were driven by differences in diet. Fishes in the genus Scarus targeted filamentous algal turf assemblages, crustose coralline algae, and endolithic algae and avoided macroalgae, while fishes in the genus Sparisoma preferentially targeted macroalgae. However, species with similar diets were dissimilar in other attributes, including the habitats they frequented, the types of substrate they fed from, and the spatial scale at which they foraged. These differences indicate that species that appear to be functionally redundant when looking at diet alone exhibit high levels of complementarity when we consider multiple functional traits. By identifying key functional differences among parrotfishes, we provide critical information needed to manage parrotfishes to enhance the resilience of coral-dominated reefs and reverse phase shifts on algal-dominated reefs throughout the wider Caribbean. Further, our study provides a framework for predicting the impacts of consumer losses in other species rich ecosystems.

  17. Informal Planning in Depopulating Rural Areas : A resource-based view on informal planning practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syssner, Josefina; Meijer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Planning research has increasingly recognised that planning in depopulating areas differs from planning in growth areas. Several studies have sought to identify planning theories and strategies that are capable of meeting the challenges presented by depopulating areas. However, most of these studies

  18. Quantifying offshore wind resources from satellite wind maps: Study area the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Christiansen, Merete B.

    2006-01-01

    Offshore wind resources are quantified from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and satellite scatterometer observations at local and regional scale respectively at the Horns Rev site in Denmark. The method for wind resource estimation from satellite observations interfaces with the wind atlas...... of the Horns Rev wind farm is quantified from satellite SAR images and compared with state-of-the-art wake model results with good agreement. It is a unique method using satellite observations to quantify the spatial extent of the wake behind large offshore wind farms. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....... analysis and application program (WAsP). An estimate of the wind resource at the new project site at Horns Rev is given based on satellite SAR observations. The comparison of offshore satellite scatterometer winds, global model data and in situ data shows good agreement. Furthermore, the wake effect...

  19. 76 FR 33155 - Safety Zones; Multiple Firework Displays in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children...-AA00 Safety Zones; Multiple Firework Displays in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...

  20. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2001-2002 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, T.P.; Kersting, A.B.; Harris, L.J.; Hudson, G.B.; Smith, D.K.; Williams, R.W.; Loewen, D.R.; Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Ryerson, F.J.; Pawloski, G.A.; Laue, C.A.; Moran, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains highlights of FY 2001 and 2002 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work emphasizes the Defense Programs goal of responsible management of natural resources at the NTS, while UGTA-funded work focuses on defining the extent of radionuclide contamination in NTS groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing. The report is organized on a topical basis, and contains eight chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-ANCD in support of HRMP and UGTA. Chapter 1 describes recent hot well sampling efforts at the NTS, and presents the results of chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from six near-field wells. These include the Cambric (UE-5n), Bilby (U-3cn PS No.2), Bourbon (UE-7nS), Nash (UE-2ce), Tybo/Benham (ER-20-5 No.3), and Almendro (U-19v PS No.1ds) sites. The data generated by the hot well program is vital to the development and validation of contaminant transport models at the NTS. Chapter 2 discusses the results of xenon isotope measurements of groundwater samples from the six near-field wells described in Chapter 1. This work demonstrates that fission xenon is present in the water at levels that are readily measurable and highlights the significant differences in xenon concentrations and isotopic abundances at different sites. These differences provide insight into the early cooling history of nuclear test cavities, and may assist in predicting the distribution of the source term in the near-field environment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the distribution

  1. Mapping Marine Resources Utilization Based on Seascapes Area: A Study on Gender Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaulima, Simon; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Kahfi, Syahibul; M. K Teniwut, Roberto; Dewa Ayu Raka Susanti, Ida I.; Hungan, Marselus; Rahantoknam, Meyske; Hasyim, Cawalinya; Rahakbauw, Siska D.; Renjaan, M. R.; Ngabalin, Anna M.; Ngangun, Tati A.; Pentury, Frischila; Betaubun, K. D.; Ngamel, A. K.; Ohoiwutun, E. C.

    2017-10-01

    Each section of coastal area from village area to deep sea has particular fisheries and marine activities. Therefore requirements for knowledge, skill, and risk are distinct between each scape. Based on this notion we divided seascapes based on three different area, first is village area to mangrove and coconut trees before coast area, second is area from beach to shallow water and the third is deep sea. We conducted our data collection in Kei Islands, Indonesia, with purposive sampling to target fishermen and aquaculture farmers in the coastal area. Purposes of this research are to analyze the role and the contribution of male and female on each area to formulate the best way to improve and maintain the sustainability of microenterprises and coastal community welfare; we used logistic regression to analyze the data. The result demonstrated each fisheries activity in each seascape with based on gender on each area and activity. Recommendation of this study especially for the government as empirical guidance to improve the economic welfare of the coastal community in Kei Islands and small islands area in general.

  2. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  3. Connecting multiple clouds and mixing real and virtual resources via the open source WNoDeS framework

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Italiano, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the latest developments introduced in the WNoDeS framework (http://web.infn.it/wnodes); we will in particular describe inter-cloud connectivity, support for multiple batch systems, and coexistence of virtual and real environments on a single hardware. Specific effort has been dedicated to the work needed to deploy a "multi-sites" WNoDeS installation. The goal is to give end users the possibility to submit requests for resources using cloud interfaces on several sites in a transparent way. To this extent, we will show how we have exploited already existing and deployed middleware within the framework of the IGI (Italian Grid Initiative) and EGI (European Grid Infrastructure) services. In this context, we will also describe the developments that have taken place in order to have the possibility to dynamically exploit public cloud services like Amazon EC2. The latter gives WNoDeS the capability to serve, for example, part of the user requests through external computing resources when ne...

  4. Activity matters: a web-based resource to enable people with multiple sclerosis to become more active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Blathin; Coote, Susan; Byrne, Molly

    2018-03-27

    Increasing physical activity (PA) through exercise is associated with improvements in many of the symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) such as fatigue, strength, balance, and mobility. Despite this, people with MS remain largely inactive. Interventions that are grounded in theory and that aim to change PA behavior need to be developed. The purpose of this study was to describe the development process of a web-based resource, namely, "Activity Matters," to enable people with MS to become more active. Development of the "Activity Matters" online intervention was guided by the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions and the behavior change wheel (BCW). Seven sources of data were used to inform the process and were mapped on to both the MRC and BCW frameworks. The intervention is theoretically based, and constructs including knowledge, memory, attention and decision processes, skills, social influences, environmental context and resources, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, goals, and emotions were recognized as important. "Activity Matters" is the first MS PA intervention to be developed using the theoretical approach outlined by the BCW and MRC complex interventions frameworks. The next phase of this work is to test the usability, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of "Activity Matters" among people with MS.

  5. [Fond du Lac archeological resources within the Draft Area Recommendation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danz, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Research into archaeological resources of the Fond du Lac Band within the DOE proposed high-level nuclear waste sites resulted in the discovery of four traditional ancestral sites. A number of ancestral sites that are located within other proposed repository sites were also discovered

  6. Information Technology Applications on Human Resources Management Functions in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsawafy, Qais Abdulkadum Kahalf

    2013-01-01

    The existing bond between human resources (HR) that team up in a business enterprise and the "real medium" information technology (IT) itself appears in the moment that the relationship is generated independently of the kind of enterprise and the relationship established between them. In today's competitive business world, companies who…

  7. Isotopic hydrology of Berrocal area (Toledo, Spain): I: Tritium in springs with thermonuclear resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This book the study on isotopic hydrology in El Berrocal, Toledo (Spain). The special topic was the study about the tritium of springs with thermonuclear source. The study are articulated in 3 chapter: 1.- Chemical analysis of wastes 2.- Tritium with thermonuclear source 3.- Human resources

  8. Factors that influence m-health implementations in resource constrained areas in the developing world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ouma, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available the primary healthcare levels in order to improve the delivery of services within various communities. They further provide the issues that the mhealth service providers should take into account when providing m-health solutions to the resource constrained...

  9. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-01-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse

  10. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  11. A Cultural Resources Survey of Proposed Project Areas in the Buffalo Harbor, Erie County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    continued warming was indicated - by the transition into the B-I Stage, with the decline of the spruce forests and an increase in birch and pine . Deciduous...County area in 1620 as part of the Plymouth Colony settlement. The claim was made again when the area was granted to the Duke of York in 1664. The first...Buffalo cleared the area in 1902 and removed the Sea Wall Strip of squatters, leaving the area " barren " (Symons and Quintus 1902: 256-257) . Between

  12. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  13. Water resources of the Park City area, Utah, with emphasis on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Thompson, Kendall R.; Enright, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The Park City area is a rapidly growing residential and recreational area about 30 miles east of Sal t Lake City (fig. 1). The area of study is about 140 square miles in which the principle industries are agriculture, skiing, and other recreational activities. The area once was a major lead- and silver-mining district, but no mines were active in 1984. A resumption in mining activity, however, could take place with an increase in the price of metals.The population of the Park City area is expected to increase rapidly in the near future; and the provision of an adequate water supply for the growing population, while avoiding harmful affects of development, is a major concern for local municipalities, developers, and the Utah Division of Water Rights. In addition, agricultural interests in and below the area are concerned about the effects of increased ground-water withdrawals on streamflow, which is fully appropriated by downstream users. The area also contains the proposed site for the Jordanelle dam, a part of the Bonneville unit of the central Utah Project. The damsite is near an historic mining area; and mining companies are concerned that if mining is resumed, the reservoir may create some additional dewatering problems in the mines.

  14. Understanding Racial Differences in Exposure to Violent Areas: Integrating Survey, Smartphone, and Administrative Data Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Christopher R; Calder, Catherine A; Ford, Jodi L; Boettner, Bethany; Smith, Anna L; Haynie, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that exposure to violent areas may influence youth wellbeing. We employ smartphone GPS data on youth activity spaces to examine the extent of, and potential explanations for, racial disparities in these exposures. Multilevel models of data from the Adolescent Health and Development in Context study indicate that exposures to violent areas vary significantly across days of the week and between youth who reside in the same neighborhood. African American youth are exposed to areas with substantially higher levels of violence. Residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood is significantly associated with exposure to violent areas and explains a non-trivial proportion of the racial difference in this outcome. However, neighborhood factors are incomplete explanations of the racial disparity. Characteristics of the activity locations at which youth spend time explain the residual racial disparity in exposure to violent areas. These findings highlight the importance of youth activity spaces, above and beyond their neighborhood environments.

  15. Access Point Backhaul Resource Aggregation as a Many-to-One Matching Game in Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawther Hassine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies backhaul bandwidth aggregation in the context of a wireless local area network composed of two different types of access points: those with spare backhaul capacity (which we term providers and those in shortage of it (beneficiaries; the aim is to transfer excess capacity from providers to beneficiaries. We model the system as a matching game with many-to-one setting wherein several providers can be matched to one beneficiary and adopt the so-called deferred acceptance algorithm to reach an optimal and stable solution. We consider two flavors, when the beneficiaries are limited in their resource demands and when they are not, and two scenarios, when resources are abundant and when they are scarce. Our results show that the many-to-one setting outperforms the one-to-one case in terms of overall throughput gain, resource usage, and individual beneficiaries satisfaction by up to 50%, whether resources are scarce or abundant. As of the limited versus nonlimited case, the former ensures more fair sharing of spectral resources and higher satisfaction percentage between beneficiaries.

  16. 5 CFR 591.216 - How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.216 How does OPM...

  17. Conversion of Blue Water into Green Water for Improving Utilization Ratio of Water Resources in Degraded Karst Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation deterioration and soil loss are the main causes of more precipitation leakages and surface water shortages in degraded karst areas. In order to improve the utilization of water resources in such regions, water storage engineering has been considered; however, site selection and cost associated with the special karstic geological structure have made this difficult. According to the principle of the Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum, increasing both vegetation cover and soil thickness would change water cycle process, resulting in a transformation from leaked blue water (liquid form into green water (gas or saturated water form for terrestrial plant ecosystems, thereby improving the utilization of water resources. Using the Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer model and the geographical distributed approach, this study simulated the conversion from leaked blue water (leakage into green water in the environs of Guiyang, a typical degraded karst area. The primary results were as follows: (1 Green water in the area accounted for <50% of precipitation, well below the world average of 65%; (2 Vegetation growth played an important role in converting leakage into green water; however, once it increased to 56%, its contribution to reducing leakage decreased sharply; (3 Increasing soil thickness by 20 cm converted the leakage considerably. The order of leakage reduction under different precipitation scenarios was dry year > normal year > rainy year. Thus, increased soil thickness was shown effective in improving the utilization ratio of water resources and in raising the amount of plant ecological water use; (4 The transformation of blue water into green water, which avoids constructions of hydraulic engineering, could provide an alternative solution for the improvement of the utilization of water resources in degraded karst area. Although there are inevitable uncertainties in simulation process, it has important significance for overcoming similar

  18. Water Resources Investigation. Cape Girardeau - Jackson Metropolitan Area, Missouri. Volume 4. Appendix C. Public Views and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    and Corps of Engineers response. C-21 APPUWIX C C-3 Letter Pg m. Cape Girardeau Chamber of Commerce , 27 December 1983. C-24 n. U.S. Department of the...of erosion. Sincerely, Jack F. Rasmussen, P.E. Chief, Planning D ivision APPENDIX C C-23 Cape Girardeau Chamber of Commerce EXECUTIVE OFFICE December...Girardeau Chamber of Commerce has received and studied the Water Resources and Investigation, Cape Girardeau - Jackson area dated December, 1983 and we

  19. Water-resources-related information for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District planning area, Wisconsin, 1970-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Morgan A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study is a three-phase project designed to improve the understanding of water resources in the stream corridors of the MMSD planning area by initially compiling existing data and using the compiled information to develop 3-year baseline and long-term monitoring plans. This report is one of the products of Phase I of the Corridor Study.

  20. Analysis of available wind resources and their suitability for hydrogen production in the Sacramento area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomy, O.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the technical, economic, environmental and regulatory barriers to the production of hydrogen from local wind resources in Sacramento, CA. Both central and distributed hydrogen generation are compared. The technical analysis uses 6 years of hourly wind data from Solano County to define the diurnal and seasonal wind resource. The impacts of a fluctuating power source on the electrolyzer are examined as well as the grid or hydrogen distribution and storage infrastructure constraints for implementation. An economic analysis comparing the price of hydrogen produced from the local wind resource is done with sensitivity analyses for capital and operating costs of both wind turbines and electrolyzers. In addition, the economic analysis includes considerations of increased demand for wind electricity by California utilities attempting to meet their Renewable Portfolio Standards. The environmental analysis compares the emissions reductions of CO 2 and criteria pollutants for different energy usage scenarios. These include comparing electricity and transportation emissions rates to optimize the use of wind energy and natural gas, as well as comparison of SULEV hybrid vehicles with FCV's and H 2 ICE's. Finally, an examination of the existing regulatory structure and policies that could prevent or encourage the use of wind to produce hydrogen in Sacramento is also included. (author)

  1. Smart Home Communication Technologies and Applications: Wireless Protocol Assessment for Home Area Network Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago D. P. Mendes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Home Area Networks (HAN communication technologies for smart home and domestic application integration. The work is initiated by identifying the application areas that can benefit from this integration. A broad and inclusive home communication interface is analysed utilizing as a key piece a Gateway based on machine-to-machine (M2M communications that interacts with the surrounding environment. Then, the main wireless networks are thoroughly assessed, and later, their suitability to the requirements of HAN considering the application area is analysed. Finally, a qualitative analysis is portrayed.

  2. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s.Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area.Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late summer

  3. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Histology, Neurology and Embryology, Psychiatry

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm{sup 3} , 3515 mm{sup 3} , and 4517 mm{sup 3} , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm{sup 2} in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm{sup 2} in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency.

  4. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm 3 , 3515 mm 3 , and 4517 mm 3 , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm 2 in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm 2 in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency

  5. The Analysis of a Link Between a Remote Local Area Network and Its Server Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beaver, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    ... paramount. One way to provide this support is to create a Local Area Network (LAN) in which the workstations are positioned at the deployed location while the servers are maintained at a Main Operating Base (MOB...

  6. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Wildlife Refuges in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent management...

  7. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  8. A Study on Tourism Resource Development and Institutional Guarantees for Ecological Security in the Ethnic Areas of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jie; QIN Jianxiong; CAI Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    Following several years of study , we have found that the economically less-developed region of the ethnic minority areas of western Chi-na, namely Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou, is not only an area where rich eco-cultural tourism re-sources are concentrated , but is also an area where the ecological environment is very fragile .Develo-ping local tourism resources has been regarded as an important path of poverty alleviation for the local people.However, excessive exploitation of these resources will directly threaten the local ecological security.Seen from the perspective of the relation-ship between man and nature , in recent years , the development of tourism has had an increasingly more serious impact on the environment in these western ethnic areas-for instance , the numbers of tourists in Jiuzhaigou scenic spot of Sichuan have exceeded its carrying capacity , and has caused soil erosion and water pollution; Lijiang Old Town in Yunnan is facing the problem of over-crowding;and the water in Erhai lake in Dali has been pollu-ted by cruise boats .Seen from the perspective of the relationship between man and society , we find that the protection of culture and environment in western ethnic areas is being threatened by the predatory nature of the development of tourism re-sources-for example , in the ethnic tourism villa-ges of Guizhou , there is a serious problem with the traditional ethnic culture there being vulgarized , faked, and urbanized . This has affected social harmony and stability in the area .Because Sichuan province is located in the upper Yangtze River , the ecological security in its ethnic minority areas is re-lated to the security of the Yangtze valley and even to the whole country .Hence, this article aims to explore the ecological security issues related to the natural ecological environment and the eco-cultural environment during the process of exploiting tourism resources in ethnic minority areas of Sichuan , and to do so from the perspective

  9. Inventory of uranium resources potency at Kawat area, upper Mahakam, East Kalimantan detailed prospecting stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; I Gde Sukadana; Adi Gunawan Muhammad; Suripto

    2011-01-01

    Result of the general prospecting in East Kalimantan has found several radioactivity outcrop anomalies at upper Mahakam in the acid volcanic rock area which is approximately 25 km 2 in wide. The objective of the research is to know detailed geological information and characteristic of uranium mineralization. Method of this research are detailed geological, radiometric and geochemical mapping 1:10.000 on scale. The lithology of Kawat area is composed of seven units of rock. They are black clay unit, feldspatic sandstone unit, Nyaan rhyolite unit, lower andesite unit, Kawat rhyolite unit, upper andesite unit and tuffaceous sandstone unit. Evolving fault is dextral fault and normal fault. The trending of dextral fault is west-east and southwest-northeast, meanwhile the trending of normal faults is west-east and southwest northeast. There are two period of uranium mineralization occurrences in the area, the first is connected with the eruption of Nyaan rhyolite magma and the second is connected with the eruption of Kawat rhyolite magma. Uranium mineralization occurred in the stage of hydrothermal process and including in the pneumatogenic class of volcanogenic uranium deposits. This investigation has yielded two sites of potential uranium sector are the Nyaan sector with an area of about 6 km 2 and Kawat sector with an area of about 10 km 2 . (author)

  10. The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the need for scientific support for policy decisions and in light of the decade-old perspective of a previous assessment, the USGS has completed a reassessment of the petroleum potential of the ANWR 1002 area. This was a comprehensive study by a team of USGS scientists in collaboration on technical issues (but not the assessment) with colleagues in other agencies and universities. The study incorporated all available public data and included new field and analytic work as well as the reevaluation of all previous work.Using a methodology similar to that used in previous USGS assessments in the ANWR and the NPRA, this study estimates that the total quantity of technically recoverable oil in the 1002 area is 7.7 BBO (mean value), which is distributed among 10 plays. Using a conservative estimate of 512 million barrels as a minimum commercially developable field size, then about 2.6 BBO of oil distributed in about three fields is expected to be economically recoverable in the undeformed part of the 1002 area. Using a similar estimated minimum field size, which may not be conservative considering the increased distance from infrastructure, the deformed area would be expected to have about 600 MMBO in one field.The amounts of in-place oil estimated for the 1002 area are larger than previous USGS estimates. The increase results in large part from improved resolution of reprocessed seismic data and geologic analogs provided by recent nearby oil discoveries.

  11. Using multiple resources for the driver-vehicle-interaction; Moeglichkeiten der Nutzung unterschiedlicher Ressourcen fuer die Fahrer-Fahrzeug-Interaktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollrath, M. [DLR, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrsfuehrung und Fahrzeugsteuerung; Totzke, I. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Verkehrswissenschaften

    2003-07-01

    New information systems and additional vehicle functions require the driver to engage in an interaction with the car which may distract him from driving. Following the model of multiple resources (e.g., [9]) this distraction will be strong if the visual channel is used for the information input and if a motor reaction is necessary. To avoid this interference, a driver-vehicle-interaction could use the acoustic channel and verbal reactions. As speech recognition and speech output is still problematic in the car, driver assistance systems can be introduced to assist the driver and free resources which can be used for the interaction. The paper presented here tests these two approaches in a driving simulation. Although both approaches show avoid interference to some extent, negative effects can also be demonstrated. Thus, these strategies should be well designed and tested. (orig.) [German] Informationssysteme im Fahrzeug und zusaetzliche Fahrzeugfunktionen fuehren dazu, dass der Fahrer vermehrt in eine Interaktion mit dem Fahrzeug eingebunden wird, die vom Fahren ablenken kann. Entsprechend einem Ressourcenmodell der menschlichen Aufmerksamkeit (z. B. [9]) ist diese Ablenkung dann besonders stark, wenn bei der Informationsaufnahme der visuelle Kanal genutzt wird und die Handlungsausfuehrung motorisch geschieht. Deshalb wird gefordert, die Fahrer-Fahrzeug-Interaktion ueber Sprachausgabe und Sprachkennung zu gestalten. Da dies nach wie vor technisch im Fahrzeug (Umgebungsbedingungen, Wortschatz) schwierig ist, sollen alternativ Fahrerassistenzsysteme die negativen Effekte kompensieren. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden diese beiden Ansaetze geprueft. Zwar zeigen sich fuer beide Ansaetze Teilerfolge, aber eine unkritische Anwendung kann auch negative Effekte nach sich ziehen. (orig.)

  12. Improving Outcomes and Resource Use in Multiple Sclerosis: What are the Benefits Associated With an Early Treatment Strategy With Fingolimod?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carrasco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This analysis aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of early treatment versus delayed treatment with fingolimod 0.5 mg/day in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Study Type: Economic evaluation of health technologies Local: Portugal Population: Multiple sclerosis patients (MS receiving treatment with fingolimod or interferon beta followed by fingolimod Methodology: A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed to estimate costs and health outcomes associated to two treatment strategies in MS: 1 early treatment with fingolimod -patients received treatment with 0.5 mg/day oral fingolimod continuously for 54 months; and 2 delayed treatment with fingolimod - patients received 12 months treatment with interferon beta-1a (IFN-β1a followed by an additional 42 months of treatment with fingolimod (total of 54 months. The model estimates the total number of relapses associated with the different treatment strategies, the total treatment costs and the cost per relapse avoided. Effectiveness data was derived from the annualized relapse rate of TRANSFORMS and its extension phase. Health care resource use and local clinical practice was estimated based in local experts’ opinion. The study adopted the hospital perspective and only direct medical costs were included. The analysis considered a time horizon of 54 months, and costs and outcomes were discounted at a yearly rate of 5%. Final results are presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted on key inputs to assess their impact on final incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Results: For a hypothetical cohort of 100 patient’s early treatment with fingolimod was more effective in avoiding relapses when compared to delayed treatment, less 44 relapses (64.10 relapses versus 103.35 for 100 patients after 54 months. Early treatment was associated with incremental costs (€562,165 for 100 patients after 54 months. The incremental cost

  13. The Influence of Multiple Specializations on Economic Performance in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheum Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have recently been debating how economic structure affects regional economic performance. Regional economic structure typically indicates how the industries in regions are organized. The attribute of industrial organization in regions is typically measured by how the employment in a region is distributed among various sectors. If the employment in a region is highly concentrated on a limited number of sectors, that region is industrially specialized. On the contrary, when the employment is more evenly distributed among various industries, that region is highly diversified in its industrial organization. In this context, some researchers recognized that diversity and specialization are not opposite concepts. Instead, they can coexist, for example in the form of diversified specializations. In this study, this body of literature was extended by formulating an indicator to measure the extent of multiple specializations in regional economies and by examining the effect of multiple specializations on regional economic performance. Empirical analysis showed that specializing in multiple industrial pursuits helped regions to achieve both faster and more stable economic growth.

  14. Water Resources And Geomorphologic Characteristics Of Tushka Area, West Of Lake Nasser, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elewa, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    The main geomorphologic and drainage characteristics of the Tushka area were delineated through the interpretation of Landsat TM image. The study area displays physiographic features indicative of previous wet climatic conditions. The Nubia aquifer system in the region has a wide extension in the study area and rests un conformably on the Precambrian rocks. The River Nile has its own bearing on the hydrogeological regime of the Tushka and neighbouring areas of Lake Nasser. Comparison of the available data concerning the water levels of Lake Nasser above its submerged bottom (which involves elevations ranging from 50 to 90 m. (a. s. 1.) according to the recorded data between 1964 and 1996), with the static water levels of the groundwater wells reaching the deeper horizons of the Nubia Sandstone aquifer system in the Tushka basin area, suggests that the River Nile acts mostly as an influent stream. However, in some cases, when the static water levels of some deep water-bearing horizons reaches levels above those of the bottom of the lake, water flows from the groundwater reservoirs towards the river which acts as an effluent stream. Other wells have low static water levels compared to those of the bottom of the lake, and the waters of the River Nile most probably recharge the groundwater of these deeper water-bearing horizons of the Nubian aquifer. The prepared equi potentiometric contour map confirms this conclusion as it indicates that the maximum potentiometric level is attained in the north western part of Lake Nasser (at contour 80, near Well No. 12) whereas the minimum potentiometric level is encountered in a small area around Well No. 6 (at contour 50). Hence, the groundwater flow is generally towards Lake Nasser. However, in some instances, it is also moving in an adverse direction. The hydrogeological condition of the study area was conducted based on the variation in lithology, areal extent, recharge and productivity. The study revealed that the Nubia

  15. Water value and demand for multiple uses in the rural areas of South Africa: The case of Ga-Sekororo

    OpenAIRE

    Kanyoka, P.

    2008-01-01

    The provision of free basic water for domestic uses and a more equal distribution of water for productive uses are seen as important instruments to redress inequities from the past and eradicate poverty in South Africa (SA). Although the government committed itself to providing free basic water for all, this result is still far to be reached, particularly in rural areas. Financing of multiple use water services was identified as an important ingredient to insure improved access to water for r...

  16. A modeling study of saltwater intrusion in the Andarax delta area using multiple data sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Arni Valur; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Jorreto, Sara

    context. The validity of a conceptual model is determined by different factors, where both data quantity and quality is of crucial importance. Often, when dealing with saltwater intrusion, data is limited. Therefore, using different sources (and types) of data can be beneficial and increase......In groundwater model development, construction of the conceptual model is one of the (initial and) critical aspects that determines the model reliability and applicability in terms of e.g. system (hydrogeological) understanding, groundwater quality predictions, and general use in water resources...

  17. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  18. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Atmospheric Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-15

    restrictions concerning air quality TSP increments that cannot be exceeded (see Table 2.1.1-7). The Capulin Mountain National Monument has been recommended...impacts on existing and proposed Class I areas of White Mountain, Pecos, Wheeler Peak, and Capulin Mountain, New Mexico, were reflected in higher

  19. 76 FR 45551 - Post-2014 Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, Proposed Power Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Proposed Power Allocation. SUMMARY: Western Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing... Pool Proposed Power Allocation developed under the requirements of the Power Marketing Initiative of... resulted in this Notice of Proposed Power Allocation. DATES: The comment period on this Notice of Proposed...

  20. 77 FR 21433 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... superfund cleanup remediation efforts. This RNA will prohibit activities that would disturb the seabed, such... or capped are arsenic, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, PAHs and PCBs. The metal contaminants were... installed in the designated regulated navigation area, pursuant to the remediation efforts of the U.S...

  1. Impact of war, precipitation, and water management on quantity of water resources in the Tigris/Euphrates area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mejs; Moody, Aaron

    2017-04-01

    The fast-paced conflicts in the Middle East have the potential to disrupt management and supply of water resources in the region. In this research, we use the normalized difference water index (NDWI) in order to monitor changes in the extent of various water bodies over the time span of the Landsat 4, 5, 7, and 8 satellites (1984-present). We focused on Mosul and Haditha dam lakes, located on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, respectively, each of which has experienced changes in sovereignty over the last few years of conflict. We established two areas, one land and one water, on each image, plotted the distributions of all NDWI values for each area, and used the number of standard deviations between the two distributions in order to set a dynamic NDWI threshold for each image. Using this threshold, we determined water pixels and lake surface area, and computed daily percent change in lake extent between images. Furthermore, we took account of explanatory water resource variables, such as upstream dam management (via surface extent of upstream Turkish dams), precipitation (via globally-compiled databases), evaporation (based on surface area decreases during non-rainy months), and irrigation withdrawals (based on MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices). We used these explanatory variables in order to build a general model of expected dam lake surface extent, and we looked to see if anomalies from expected surface area corresponded with periods of conflict. We found that the recent years of conflict do not appear to have had as much impact on the Mosul and Haditha dam lakes as did the conflicts related to the earlier Gulf Wars. The dam lakes have recorded an overall decrease in surface area simultaneous to increases of upstream dams. A strong seasonal signal driven by springtime Turkish snowmelt and summer evaporation is also evident.

  2. Identification of dust storm source areas in West Asia using multiple environmental datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Amiraslani, Farshad; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Na

    2015-01-01

    Sand and Dust storms are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. West Asia Region, especially Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, has been recognized as one of the most important dust source areas in the world. In this paper, a method is applied to extract SDS (Sand and Dust Storms) sources in West Asia region using thematic maps, climate and geography, HYSPLIT model and satellite images. Out of 50 dust storms happened during 2000-2013 and collected in form of MODIS images, 27 events were incorporated as demonstrations of the simulated trajectories by HYSPLIT model. Besides, a dataset of the newly released Landsat images was used as base-map for the interpretation of SDS source regions. As a result, six main clusters were recognized as dust source areas. Of which, 3 clusters situated in Tigris-Euphrates plain were identified as severe SDS sources (including 70% dust storms in this research). Another cluster in Sistan plain is also a potential source area. This approach also confirmed six main paths causing dust storms. These paths are driven by the climate system including Siberian and Polar anticyclones, monsoon from Indian Subcontinent and depression from north of Africa. The identification of SDS source areas and paths will improve our understandings on the mechanisms and impacts of dust storms on socio-economy and environment of the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Land Resource Management as the Ground for Mining Area Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovitskiy, Aleksander; Brel, Olga; Nikulin, Nikolai; Nastavko, Ekaterina; Meser, Tatayna

    2017-11-01

    It is established that the problem of sustainable development of Kuzbass cities is their being tied to a single production and income from other sources is not considered. Therefore, their economy is underdeveloped, depends entirely on one city-forming enterprise (singleindustry city), which causes response to the slightest changes in the economic situation. In Kuzbass, all cities, except Kemerovo, are monodependent, including Kiselevsk, which economy mainly consists of coal mining enterprises. In the circumstances, there is a need to develop a set of measures for management the urban land, primarily aimed at ensuring the sustainable development of Kiselevsk city. The development of principles and management mechanism of the urban territory land fund determines its effectiveness. Establishing the dependence of rational use of land resources and sustainable development characterizes a new level of information interaction between sciences (land management and economy). Practical use of this theory is to overcome the mono-urban development of mining cities, taking into account effective subsoil management.

  4. Large area strain analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy across multiple images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J. M.; Raju, S. V.; Saxena, S.; Dumpala, S.; Broderick, S.; Rajan, K.; Kumar, A.; Sinnott, S.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we apply revolving scanning transmission electron microscopy to measure lattice strain across a sample using a single reference area. To do so, we remove image distortion introduced by sample drift, which usually restricts strain analysis to a single image. Overcoming this challenge, we show that it is possible to use strain reference areas elsewhere in the sample, thereby enabling reliable strain mapping across large areas. As a prototypical example, we determine the strain present within the microstructure of a Ni-based superalloy directly from atom column positions as well as geometric phase analysis. While maintaining atomic resolution, we quantify strain within nanoscale regions and demonstrate that large, unit-cell level strain fluctuations are present within the intermetallic phase

  5. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models...... or logistic regression models.Results: Serum selenium concentration was found to be significantly, negatively associated with thyroid volume (P=0.006), and a low selenium status significantly increased the risk for thyroid enlargement (P=0.007). Furthermore, low serum selenium status had a tendency...

  6. Development of method for evaluating estimated inundation area by using river flood analysis based on multiple flood scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-12-01

    Non-structural mitigation measures such as flood hazard map based on estimated inundation area have been more important because heavy rains exceeding the design rainfall frequently occur in recent years. However, conventional method may lead to an underestimation of the area because assumed locations of dike breach in river flood analysis are limited to the cases exceeding the high-water level. The objective of this study is to consider the uncertainty of estimated inundation area with difference of the location of dike breach in river flood analysis. This study proposed multiple flood scenarios which can set automatically multiple locations of dike breach in river flood analysis. The major premise of adopting this method is not to be able to predict the location of dike breach correctly. The proposed method utilized interval of dike breach which is distance of dike breaches placed next to each other. That is, multiple locations of dike breach were set every interval of dike breach. The 2D shallow water equations was adopted as the governing equation of river flood analysis, and the leap-frog scheme with staggered grid was used. The river flood analysis was verified by applying for the 2015 Kinugawa river flooding, and the proposed multiple flood scenarios was applied for the Akutagawa river in Takatsuki city. As the result of computation in the Akutagawa river, a comparison with each computed maximum inundation depth of dike breaches placed next to each other proved that the proposed method enabled to prevent underestimation of estimated inundation area. Further, the analyses on spatial distribution of inundation class and maximum inundation depth in each of the measurement points also proved that the optimum interval of dike breach which can evaluate the maximum inundation area using the minimum assumed locations of dike breach. In brief, this study found the optimum interval of dike breach in the Akutagawa river, which enabled estimated maximum inundation area

  7. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resource area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, John E.; Price, Don

    1981-01-01

    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1,000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Perron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. Probable peak discharges (100-year flood) for the ephemeral streams draining North Horn Mountain are estimated to range from 200 to 380 cubic feet per second.The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Annual sediment yield in most of the area ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 acre-foot per square mile but locally is as high as 1.0 acre-foot per square mile. Most of the sediment is eroded during cloudbursts.Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. The principal source of recharge is precipitation that probably moves to aquifers along faults, joints, or fractures. This movement is apparently quite rapid. The dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the North Horn Mountain area range from less than 500 to about 1,000 milligrams per liter.Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor "effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than U percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to

  8. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Resource communication: Variability in estimated runoff in a forested area based on different cartographic data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fragoso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The goal of this study is to analyse variations in curve number (CN values produced by different cartographic data sources in a forested watershed, and determine which of them best fit with measured runoff volumes. Area of study: A forested watershed located in western Spain. Material and methods: Four digital cartographic data sources were used to determine the runoff CN in the watershed. Main results: None of the cartographic sources provided all the information necessary to determine properly the CN values. Our proposed methodology, focused on the tree canopy cover, improves the achieved results. Research highlights: The estimation of the CN value in forested areas should be attained as a function of tree canopy cover and new calibrated tables should be implemented in a local scale.

  10. A GIS based watershed information system for water resources management and planning in semi-arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabiras, John; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Kokkinos, Kostantinos; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Vasiliades, Lampros; Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of this work is the development of an Information System which could be used by stakeholders for the purposes of water management as well as for planning and strategic decision-making in semi-arid areas. An integrated modeling system has been developed and applied to evaluate the sustainability of water resources management strategies in Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The modeling system, developed in the framework of "HYDROMENTOR" research project, is based on a GIS modelling approach which uses remote sensing data and includes coupled models for the simulation of surface water and groundwater resources, the operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and the estimation of water demands at several spatial scales. Lake Karla basin was the region where the system was tested but the methodology may be the basis for future analysis elsewhere. Τwo (2) base and three (3) management scenarios were investigated. In total, eight (8) water management scenarios were evaluated: i) Base scenario without operation of the reservoir and the designed Lake Karla district irrigation network (actual situation) • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation ii) Base scenario including the operation of the reservoir and the Lake Karla district irrigation network • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation The results show that, under the existing water resources management, the water deficit of Lake Karla watershed is very large. However, the operation of the reservoir and the cooperative Lake Karla district irrigation network coupled with water demand management measures, like reduction of water distribution system losses and alteration of irrigation methods, could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area. Acknowledgements: This study

  11. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    B17 Current Employment in the Buffalo Labor Area B-20 B18 Agricultural Earnings Projected Agricultural Earnings to 2030 B-21 B19 Agricultural Output...Orleans County. The political subdivisions of the watershed, in addition to clima - tological and hydrologic stations, are shown on Plate BI. Economic...York. Its highway network, large supply of skilled labor , access to raw materials, ample electric power, and ready access to markets in the northeast

  12. Geologic study for evaluation of geothermal resources in northern Tohoku area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Hirofumi

    1986-10-01

    Similar geothermal signs are widely distributed not only in the neighborhood of the Hakkoda volcano but all over the Hakkoda area. In this report, the area is defined as the Hakkoda regional volcanic field. Part of the geothermal signs are closely related with the Hakkoda volcano. But for the many others, relations with specific volcanos remained unknown. Surveys and investigations carried out in the present work clarified that there exists a group of volcanos that correspond well to these geothermal signs. They are referred to as the Yunosawa caldera, Ikarigaseki caldera and Okiura caldera. Thus, with the Hakkoda caldera and Towada caldera, which have already been known, there are five calderas in the Hakkoda area. The basic structure is characterized by a combination of horst/graben structures bounded by reversed faults, and depressed zones resulting from the formation of calderas. The volcanos were generated in the Pliocene or succeeding epochs. Observations have shown that the geothermal sources, reservoir layer structures and geothermal flows are basically governed by these calderas. (10 figs, 3 tabs, 14 refs)

  13. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid volume, as well as the association between serum selenium concentration and risk for an enlarged thyroid gland in an area with mild iodine deficiency before and after iodine fortification was introduced...

  14. Multiple Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Richard J.; Graymer, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    With the exception of Los Angeles, perhaps no urban area in the United States is more at risk from landsliding, triggered by either precipitation or earthquake, than the San Francisco Bay region of northern California. By January each year, seasonal winter storms usually bring moisture levels of San Francisco Bay region hillsides to the point of saturation, after which additional heavy rainfall may induce landslides of various types and levels of severity. In addition, movement at any time along one of several active faults in the area may generate an earthquake large enough to trigger landslides. The danger to life and property rises each year as local populations continue to expand and more hillsides are graded for development of residential housing and its supporting infrastructure. The chapters in the text consist of: *Introduction by Russell W. Graymer *Chapter 1 Rainfall Thresholds for Landslide Activity, San Francisco Bay Region, Northern California by Raymond C. Wilson *Chapter 2 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 3 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 4 Landslide Hazard Modeled for the Cities of Oakland, Piedmont, and Berkeley, Northern California, from a M=7.1 Scenario Earthquake on the Hayward Fault Zone by Scott B. Miles and David K. Keefer *Chapter 5 Synthesis of Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike The plates consist of: *Plate 1 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike, Russell W. Graymer, Sebastian Roberts, Naomi B. Kalman, and Steven Sobieszczyk *Plate 2 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven

  15. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  16. Coherence of land surface layout as intangible environmental resource (Vooremaa landscape protection area, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Karasov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vooremaa Landscape Protection Area provides a specimen of native Estonian agricultural lands, alternating with picturesque moraine lakes. The overall visual environment within this area was basically changed by glacial agents and, hereafter, by cultural activities, such as crop farming. Topography consists of about 100 drumlins (some of them are cultivated, as well as depressions, filled with lakes and covered by forests and grasslands. A rich combination of the mentioned factors determined the study area selection. There was accepted, that the harmony, or pleasing organization of distinguishable units of visual environment (with no attention to their colours or textures, but regarding their geographical meaning only, depends on the system effect: the more complexity of the overall system exceeds the algebraic sum of the complexity of its components, the more its organization does. In this way, some developments of information theory could be applied to the analysis of visual environment (from top view, similarly to the analysis of the text (considering units of land relief, land cover, and land cover relief, or a land surface in total, as the symbols of some alphabet, and their diversity within the floating circle – as words, consisting of the symbols. Since mentioned notions of organization and harmony are frequently implied in the concept of landscape coherence, the latter term was used as a fixed and well-known one in the landscape and environmental aesthetics. Hartley’s formula was used to compute the coherence of the land surface layout and the respective regionalization within the study area and surroundings. The effectiveness of the proposed method for representation of visual harmony was non-rigorously verified with transect of Google Street View panoramic photo series, while everyone is welcomed to use the Google Street View to compare the presented results with his own conclusions. There was found, that the proposed index

  17. Low cost, low tech SNP genotyping tools for resource-limited areas: Plague in Madagascar as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cedar L; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Colman, Rebecca E; Busch, Joseph; Hornstra-O'Neill, Heidie; Keim, Paul S; Wagner, David M; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Birdsell, Dawn N

    2017-12-01

    Genetic analysis of pathogenic organisms is a useful tool for linking human cases together and/or to potential environmental sources. The resulting data can also provide information on evolutionary patterns within a targeted species and phenotypic traits. However, the instruments often used to generate genotyping data, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), can be expensive and sometimes require advanced technologies to implement. This places many genotyping tools out of reach for laboratories that do not specialize in genetic studies and/or lack the requisite financial and technological resources. To address this issue, we developed a low cost and low tech genotyping system, termed agarose-MAMA, which combines traditional PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis to target phylogenetically informative SNPs. To demonstrate the utility of this approach for generating genotype data in a resource-constrained area (Madagascar), we designed an agarose-MAMA system targeting previously characterized SNPs within Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. We then used this system to genetically type pathogenic strains of Y. pestis in a Malagasy laboratory not specialized in genetic studies, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar (IPM). We conducted rigorous assay performance validations to assess potential variation introduced by differing research facilities, reagents, and personnel and found no difference in SNP genotyping results. These agarose-MAMA PCR assays are currently employed as an investigative tool at IPM, providing Malagasy researchers a means to improve the value of their plague epidemiological investigations by linking outbreaks to potential sources through genetic characterization of isolates and to improve understanding of disease ecology that may contribute to a long-term control effort. The success of our study demonstrates that the SNP-based genotyping capacity of laboratories in developing countries can be expanded with manageable financial cost for

  18. Ecological Footprint of Biological Resource Consumption in a Typical Area of the Green for Grain Project in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the implementation of the Green for Grain Project in 2000 in Guyuan, China, the decrease in cultivated land and subsequent increase in forest and grassland pose substantial challenges for the supply of biological products. Whether the current biologically productive land-use patterns in Guyuan satisfy the biological product requirements for local people is an urgent problem. In this study, the ecological footprints of biological resource consumption in Guyuan were calculated and analyzed based on the ‘City Hectare’ Ecological Footprint (EF Method. The EFs of different types of biological resource products consumed from different types of biologically productive land were then analyzed. In addition, the EFs of various biological resource products before and after the implementation of the Green for Grain Project (1998 and 2012 were assessed. The actual EF and bio-capacity (BC were compared, and differences in the EF and BC for different types of biologically productive lands before and after the project were analyzed. The results showed that the EF of Guyuan’s biological resource products was 0.65866 ha/cap, with an EF outflow and EF inflow of 0.2280 ha/cap and 0.0951 ha/cap, respectively. The per capita EF of Guyuan significantly decreased after the project, as did the ecological deficit. Whereas the cultivated land showed a deficit, grasslands were characterized by ecological surplus. The total EF of living resource consumption in Guyuan was 810,941 ha, and the total BC was 768,065 ha. In additional to current biological production areas, approximately 42,876 ha will be needed to satisfy the demands of Guyuan’s people. Cultivated land is the main type of biologically productive land that is needed.

  19. Modeling uncertainty in coal resource assessments, with an application to a central area of the Gillette coal field, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Luppens, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Standards for the public disclosure of mineral resources and reserves do not require the use of any specific methodology when it comes to estimating the reliability of the resources. Unbeknownst to most intended recipients of resource appraisals, such freedom commonly results in subjective opinions or estimations based on suboptimal approaches, such as use of distance methods. This report presents the results of a study of the third of three coal deposits in which drilling density has been increased one order of magnitude in three stages. Applying geostatistical simulation, the densest dataset was used to check the results obtained by modeling the sparser drillings. We have come up with two summary displays of results based on the same simulations, which individually and combined provide a better assessment of uncertainty than traditional qualitative resource classifications: (a) a display of cell 90 percent confidence interval versus cumulative cell tonnage, and (b) a histogram of total resources. The first graph allows classification of data into any number of bins with dividers to be decided by the assessor on the basis of a discriminating variable that is statistically accepted as a measure of uncertainty, thereby improving the quality and flexibility of the modeling. The second display expands the scope of the modeling by providing a quantitative measure of uncertainty for total tonnage, which is a fundamental concern for stockholders, geologists, and decision makers. Our approach allows us to correctly model uncertainty issues not possible to predict with distance methods, such as (a) different levels of uncertainty for individual beds with the same pattern and density of drill holes, (b) different local degrees of reduction of uncertainty with drilling densification reflecting fluctuation in the complexity of the geology, (c) average reduction in uncertainty at a disproportionately lesser rate than the reduction in area per drill hole, (d) the proportional

  20. Projecting water resources changes in potential large-scale agricultural investment areas of the Kafue River Basin in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Trainor, A. M.; Baker, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impacts regional water availability through the spatial and temporal redistribution of available water resources. This study focuses on understanding possible response of water resources to climate change in regions where potentials for large-scale agricultural investments are planned in the upper and middle Kafue River Basin in Zambia. We used historical and projected precipitation and temperature to assess changes in water yield, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. Some of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model outputs for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios project a temperature warming range from 1.8 - 5.7 °C over the region from 2020 to 2095. Precipitation projection patterns vary monthly but tend toward drier dry seasons with a slight increase in precipitation during the rainy season as compared to the historical time series. The best five calibrated parameter sets generated for the historical record (1965 - 2005) were applied for two future periods, 2020 - 2060 and 2055 - 2095, to project water yield change. Simulations projected that the 90th percentile water yield would be exceeded across most of the study area by up to 800% under the medium-low (RCP4.5) CO2 emission scenario, whereas the high (RCP8.5) CO2 emission scenario resulted in a more spatially varied pattern mixed with increasing (up to 500%) and decreasing (up to -54%) trends. The 10th percentile water yield indicated spatially varied pattern across the basin, increasing by as much as 500% though decreasing in some areas by 66%, with the greatest decreases during the dry season under RCP8.5. Overall, available water resources in the study area are projected to trend toward increased floods (i.e. water yields far exceeding 90th percentile) as well as increasing drought (i.e. water yield far below 10th percentile) vulnerability. Because surface water is a primary source for agriculture

  1. Establishing a baseline of estuarine submerged aquatic vegetation resources across salinity zones within coastal areas of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Eva R.; DeMarco, Kristin; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are dynamic and productive areas that are vulnerable to effects of global climate change. Despite their potentially limited spatial extent, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds function in coastal ecosystems as foundation species, and perform important ecological services. However, limited understanding of the factors controlling SAV distribution and abundance across multiple salinity zones (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) in the northern Gulf of Mexico restricts the ability of models to accurately predict resource availability. We sampled 384 potential coastal SAV sites across the northern Gulf of Mexico in 2013 and 2014, and examined community and species-specific SAV distribution and biomass in relation to year, salinity, turbidity, and water depth. After two years of sampling, 14 species of SAV were documented, with three species (coontail [Ceratophyllum demersum], Eurasian watermilfoil [Myriophyllum spicatum], and widgeon grass [Ruppia maritima]) accounting for 54% of above-ground biomass collected. Salinity and water depth were dominant drivers of species assemblages but had little effect on SAV biomass. Predicted changes in salinity and water depths along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast will likely alter SAV production and species assemblages, shifting to more saline and depth-tolerant assemblages, which in turn may affect habitat and food resources for associated faunal species.

  2. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  3. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR, a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1 in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  4. USING THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE USE OF GEO-RESOURCES IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oswald MARINONI; Andreas HOPPE

    2006-01-01

    Sand and gravel are important raw materials which are needed for many civil engineering projects.Due to economic reasons, sand and gravelpits are frequently located in the periphery of metropolitan areas which are often subject to competing land-use interests. As a contribution to land-use conflict solving, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Two AHP preference matrix scenario constellations are evaluated and their results are used to create a land-use conflict map.

  5. Hydrological assessment of freshwater resource areas in the Zambezi River Basin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available characterisation of the degree of regulation of the river system, followed by an assessment of high water yielding areas (water towers), groundwater recharge and base flow index. To understand the environmental patterns and processes that occur in the river... to hydrogeology, IAH Publ. 8, Verlag Heinz Heisse. Xu, Y. and Beekman, H.E. (Eds). 2003. Groundwater recharge estimation in southern Africa. UNESCO IHP Series No. 64. UNESCO Paris. Figure 1: The Zambezi River Basin and its 13 sub basins Figure 3: High water...

  6. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    DOE's Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ''roadmap'' format

  7. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

  8. [Overload in the informal caregivers of patients with multiple comorbidities in an urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Tello, Margarita; Casado-Mejía, Rosa; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Ruiz-Arias, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was, to determine the profile of the family caregiver of patients with multiple pathologies, identify factors associated with overload, and construct predictive models using items from the Caregiver Strain Index (CSI). A cross-sectional study of caregivers of patients with multiple comorbidities who attended an urban health centre. Data were collected from health records and questionnaires (Barthel index, Pfeiffer index, and CSI). Statistical analysis was performed using measures of central tendency and dispersion, and by building multivariate models with binary logistic regression with the CSI items as predictors (program R version 2.14.0). The sample included 67 caregivers, with a mean age of 64.69 years (standard deviation=12.71, median 62 years), of whom 74.6% were women, 35.8% were wives, and 32.8% were daughters. The level of dependence of the patients cared for was total/severe in 77.6%, and moderate in 12% (Barthel), and 47.8% had some level of cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer). A CSI equal or greater than 7 was seen in 47.8% of caregivers, identifying life problems in more than 40% of them such as, restriction of social life, physical exertion, discomfort with change, bad behaviour, personal and family emotional changes, and sleep disturbances. Item 4 of the CSI, analysing the social restriction, was the one that showed a greater significance in the predictive multivariate model. Item 12 (economic burden) was the most significant with age in patients with cognitive impairment. Women tend to take the role of caregiver at an earlier age than men in the urban environment studied, and items from CSI showed that items 4 (social restrictions) and 12 (economic burden) have more significance in the predictive models constructed with Binary Logistic Regression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Data report: Jean Lake Area, Nevada. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents the results of detailed sampling of soils, rocks, and dry lake bed material from the area of Jean Dry Lake in southern Nevada. The study area is in the Kingman 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle of the National Topographic Map Series. Samples were collected from 1000 sites. The target density of sampling was 16 sites per square mile in the lake bed and four sites per square mile for soil samples. Neutron activation analyses are presented for uranium and 16 other elements. Scintillometer readings are reported for each site. Analytical data and scintillometer measurements are presented in tables. Statistical summaries and a brief description of the results are given. Data from the sites (on microfiche in pocket) include; (1) elemental analyses (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, and V); and (2) scintillometer readings. To make the data available for public use without further delay, this report is being issued without the normal technical and copy editing

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment pilot survey of Llano area, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, C.E.; Kane, V.E.; Minkin, S.C.; Cagle, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    A pilot geochemical survey of the Llano, Texas, area was conducted during February and March 1976. The purpose of this work was to prepare for a subsequent reconnaissance geochemical survey of uranium in Central Texas. Stream sediment, stream water, well water, and plant ash from five geologic areas were analyzed in the laboratory for approximately 25 parameters. Examples of anomalous values in stream sediment and stream water indicate the usefulness of both sample types in identifying anomalies at a regional reconnaissance-scale station spacing of approximately 5 km (3 mi). Groundwater samples, which generally best indicate the geochemistry of formations at depth in a survey of this type, represent another important tool in detecting uranium mineralization. Anomalies in San Saba County are associated with the Marble Falls-Smithwich Formations and the Strawn Series (Pennsylvanian), the Houy Formation (Devonian and lower Mississippian), and the Hickory Sandstone Member of the Riley Formation (Cambrian). In Burnet County anomalous values are due to the influence of the Valley Spring Formation (Precambrian); and in Blanco County anomalies are found associated with the Riley Formation

  11. A Hierarchical Approach for Measuring the Consistency of Water Areas between Multiple Representations of Tile Maps with Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilang Shen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In geographic information systems, the reliability of querying, analysing, or reasoning results depends on the data quality. One central criterion of data quality is consistency, and identifying inconsistencies is crucial for maintaining the integrity of spatial data from multiple sources or at multiple resolutions. In traditional methods of consistency assessment, vector data are used as the primary experimental data. In this manuscript, we describe the use of a new type of raster data, tile maps, to access the consistency of information from multiscale representations of the water bodies that make up drainage systems. We describe a hierarchical methodology to determine the spatial consistency of tile-map datasets that display water areas in a raster format. Three characteristic indices, the degree of global feature consistency, the degree of local feature consistency, and the degree of overlap, are proposed to measure the consistency of multiscale representations of water areas. The perceptual hash algorithm and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT descriptor are applied to extract and measure the global and local features of water areas. By performing combined calculations using these three characteristic indices, the degrees of consistency of multiscale representations of water areas can be divided into five grades: exactly consistent, highly consistent, moderately consistent, less consistent, and inconsistent. For evaluation purposes, the proposed method is applied to several test areas from the Tiandi map of China. In addition, we identify key technologies that are related to the process of extracting water areas from a tile map. The accuracy of the consistency assessment method is evaluated, and our experimental results confirm that the proposed methodology is efficient and accurate.

  12. Treatment patterns and health care resource utilization associated with dalfampridine extended release in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective claims database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amy Guo,1 Michael Grabner,2 Swetha Rao Palli,2 Jessica Elder,1 Matthew Sidovar,1 Peter Aupperle,1 Stephen Krieger3 1Acorda Therapeutics Inc., Ardsley, New York, NY, USA; 2HealthCore Inc., Wilmington, DE, USA; 3Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for MS, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: Although previous studies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of dalfampridine extended release (D-ER tablets in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, there are limited real-world data on D-ER utilization and associated outcomes in patients with MS. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment patterns, budget impact, and health care resource utilization (HRU associated with D-ER use in a real-world setting. Methods: A retrospective claims database analysis was conducted using the HealthCore Integrated Research DatabaseSM. Adherence (measured by medication possession ratio, or [MPR] and persistence (measured by days between initial D-ER claim and discontinuation or end of follow-up were evaluated over 1-year follow-up. Budget impact was calculated as cost per member per month (PMPM over the available follow-up period. D-ER and control cohorts were propensity-score matched on baseline demographics, comorbidities, and MS-related resource utilization to compare walking-impairment-related HRU over follow-up. Results: Of the 2,138 MS patients identified, 1,200 were not treated with D-ER (control and 938 were treated with D-ER. Patients were aged 51 years on average and 74% female. Approximately 82.6% of D-ER patients were adherent (MPR >80%. The estimated budget impact range of D-ER was $0.014–$0.026 PMPM. Propensity-score-matched D-ER and controls yielded 479 patients in each cohort. Postmatching comparison showed that the D-ER cohort was associated with fewer physician (21.5% vs 62.4%, P<0.0001 and other outpatient visits (22.8% vs 51.4%, P<0.0001 over the 12-month follow-up. Changes in HRU from follow

  13. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, K.F.

    1982-08-01

    A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO 3 , NH 3 , SO 4 , and PO 4 . The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation

  15. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  16. Adaptation to the degradation of natural resources in the semiarid area of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gonzalez Barrios

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrology and soil research in the semiarid zone of Mexico highlight an erosion process that is worsened by climate and land use changes. Scientific results have inspired a successful adaptation program with an environmental and socioeconomic scope. The Hydrological Environmental Services Programm.e (PSAH, in Spanish pays local workers to build soil and water conservation infrastructure in areas with the potential to provide hydrological environmental services. The programme’s results are still under assessment, but some qualitative results may be already identified: soil and water retention, plant cover recovery, permanence of local people in their comm.unities, and social welfare, among others. The PSAH as a strategy should be echoed in other places of Mexico in order to replicate their benefits on the physical and human environments of the semiarid zone.

  17. Reducing microscopy-based malaria misdiagnosis in a low-resource area of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lisa K; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Manyama, Mange

    2013-01-01

    Misdiagnosis of malaria is a major problem in Africa leading not only to incorrect individual level treatment, but potentially the acceleration of the spread of drug resistance in low-transmission areas. In this paper we report on the outcomes of a simple intervention that utilized a social entrepreneurship approach (SEA) to reduce misdiagnosis associated with hospital-based microscopy of malaria in a low-transmission area of rural Tanzania. A pre-post assessment was conducted on patients presenting to the hospital outpatient department with malaria and non-malaria like symptoms in January 2009 (pre-intervention) and June 2009 (post-intervention). All participants were asked a health seeking behavior questionnaire and blood samples were taken for local and quality control microscopy. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine magnitude of misdiagnosis with local microscopy pre- versus- post intervention. Local microscopy pre-intervention specificity was 29.5% (95% CI = 21.6% - 38.4%) whereas the post intervention specificity was 68.6% (95% CI = 60.2% - 76.2%). Both pre and post intervention sensitivity were difficult to determine due to an unexpected low number of true positive cases. The proportion of participants misdiagnosed pre-intervention was 70.2% (95%CI = 61.3%-78.0%) as compared to 30.6% (95%CI = 23.2%-38.8%) post-intervention. This resulted in a 39.6% reduction in misdiagnosis of malaria at the local hospital. The magnitude of misdiagnosis for the pre-intervention participants was 5.3 (95%CI = 3.1-9.3) that of the post-intervention participants. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that a simple intervention can meaningfully reduce the magnitude of microscopy-based misdiagnosis of malaria for those individuals seeking treatment for uncomplicated malaria. We anticipate that this intervention will facilitate a valuable and sustainable change in malaria diagnosis at the local hospital.

  18. Soil resources, land cover changes and rural areas: towards a spatial mismatch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Agostino; Salvati, Luca; Sabbi, Alberto; Colantoni, Andrea

    2014-04-15

    The present study analyzes the impact of long-term urban expansion on soil depletion in Emilia-Romagna, an agricultural-specialized region of northern Italy. Using settlement density maps at three points in time (1945, 1971 and 2001) dense and diffused urbanization trends were assessed and correlated with soil quality. Non-urbanized land decreased from 11.8% in 1945 to 6.3% in 2001. Urbanization dynamics between 1945 and 1971 reflect the increase of dense settlements around pre-existing urban centers. To the contrary, a discontinuous, low- and medium-density urban expansion along the road network and in the most fertile lowland areas was observed between 1971 and 2001. Overall, urbanization consumed soils with progressively higher quality. However, a diverging trend was observed in the two investigated time intervals: soil with high quality was occupied by compact and dense settlements during 1945-1971 and by discontinuous, medium- and low-density settlements during 1971-2001. These findings document the polarization in areas with low and high soil capital and may reflect disparities in agricultural production and increasing environmental degradation. Moreover, the analysis shows a diverging trend between land and soil consumption patterns suggesting that the edification of pervious land is an unreliable indicator of soil quality depletion. Taken together, the results of this study illustrate the (increasing) spatial mismatch between agricultural land and high-quality soils as a consequence of urbanization-driven landscape transformations and may inform measures to contain soil depletion driven by economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. GIS-based identification of areas that have resource potential for critical minerals in six selected groups of deposit types in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Jones, James V.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    2016-11-16

    Alaska has considerable potential for undiscovered mineral resources. This report evaluates potential for undiscovered critical minerals in Alaska. Critical minerals are those for which the United States imports more than half of its total supply and which are largely derived from nations that cannot be considered reliable trading partners. In this report, estimated resource potential and certainty for the state of Alaska are analyzed and mapped for the following six selected mineral deposit groups that may contain one or more critical minerals: (1) rare earth elements-thorium-yttrium-niobium(-uranium-zirconium) [REE-Th-Y-Nb(-U-Zr)] deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic igneous intrusive rocks; (2) placer and paleoplacer gold (Au) deposits that in some places might also produce platinum group elements (PGE), chromium (Cr), tin (Sn), tungsten (W), silver (Ag), or titanium (Ti); (3) platinum group elements(-cobalt-chromium-nickel-titanium-vanadium) [PGE(-Co-Cr-Ni-Ti-V)] deposits associated with mafic to ultramafic intrusive rocks; (4) carbonate-hosted copper(-cobalt-silver-germanium-gallium) [Cu(-Co-Ag-Ge-Ga)] deposits; (5) sandstone-hosted uranium(-vanadium-copper) [U(-V-Cu)] deposits; and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum(-tantalum-indium-fluorspar) [Sn-W-Mo(-Ta-In-fluorspar)] deposits associated with specialized granites.This study used a data-driven, geographic information system (GIS)-implemented method to identify areas that have mineral resource potential in Alaska. This method systematically and simultaneously analyzes geoscience data from multiple geospatially referenced datasets and uses individual subwatersheds (12-digit hydrologic units) as the spatial unit of classification. The final map output uses a red, yellow, green, and gray color scheme to portray estimated relative potential (High, Medium, Low, Unknown) for each of the six groups of mineral deposit types, and it indicates the relative certainty (High, Medium, Low) of that estimate for

  20. The PRONUCLEAR role (1976-1986 in the human resource training for the nuclear area in Brazil: science history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedecke, Winston Gomes

    2006-01-01

    In 1975, an agreement between the governments of Brazil and West-Germany was signed for the construction of nuclear power plants in Brazil as well as the extraction, processing and enrichment of uranium. As the result of the first oil crisis and facing the perspective of a continuous world energy crisis, the Brazilian government decided to turn to nuclear power as an alternative supply for the country's energy needs. However, serious limitations were present regarding the transfer of nuclear technology for a third world country. This paper analyzes some aspects of the process involved in the creation of the specialized human resources during the extent of the agreement between Brazil and West Germany. Since its inception, the agreement received harsh criticism from the Brazilian nuclear physics and related fields scientific communities. Because the planning and implementation of the agreement took place during a period of military dictatorship, the decisions relating to the agreement were never debated between the policy makers and the scientific community. Not surprisingly, the agreement received plenty of criticism that ranged from the actual need for nuclear power to technical feasibility and suspicious of possible military uses and even the very policies created to prepare human resources to work in the nuclear area. One of the most important tools of these policies was the Programa de Recursos Humanos para o Setor Nuclear - PRONUCLEAR (Nuclear Sector Human Resources Program), implemented in 1976 and gradually deactivated starting in 1983. (author)

  1. Strategic area : energy and petroleum - resources and environment : annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Energy is needed to provide for essential human needs like food, housing, clothing, transportation, health and recreation - in short what is needed to live a good life on this planet. By the end of this century, emission of greenhouse gases needs to be curbed. At the same time around 6 billion new citizens may join in at the global dinner table. How to produce sufficient amounts of clean energy for a future peaceful and sustainable society is today's largest challenge. There will be a great demand for new knowledge, new technology and new solutions. This is a global challenge which will involve a lot of people in many countries. NTNU, together with SINTEF, wants to play an active and productive role to supply the necessary scientific input to the global transformation processes needed to achieve a sustainable future. The overall goal is to develop new knowledge and educate the people who can turn that knowledge into clean energy solutions. A successful transition to clean and sustainable energy systems will depend on global innovation processes. Although the solutions that will be implemented will reflect local resources and conditions, they will emerge from the application of a mixture of key technologies with which NTNU and SINTEF are actively working: 1. Efficient and sustainable generation, transport and end-user utilization of energy, including oil and gas. 2. Carbon dioxide capture and storage. 3. Renewable energy. Probably, electricity and hydrogen will be the main energy carriers of the future, together with biofuels and biomass. Yet, it is important to propose - within the same time frame - a variety of possible technological solutions to allow for social choices and local concerns. Norway may be considered an 'energy country'. Thus, NTNU and SINTEF have established substantial energy related activity. Today, more than 750 scientists are involved in the efforts to create a cleaner future. This 'family' includes 170 professors and

  2. Multiple-level stakeholder engagement in malaria clinical trials: addressing the challenges of conducting clinical research in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtove, George; Kimani, Joshua; Kisinza, William; Makenga, Geofrey; Mangesho, Peter; Duparc, Stephan; Nakalembe, Miriam; Phiri, Kamija S; Orrico, Russell; Rojo, Ricardo; Vandenbroucke, Pol

    2018-03-22

    Multinational clinical trials are logistically complex and require close coordination between various stakeholders. They must comply with global clinical standards and are accountable to multiple regulatory and ethical bodies. In resource-limited settings, it is challenging to understand how to apply global clinical standards to international, national, and local factors in clinical trials, making multiple-level stakeholder engagement an important element in the successful conduct of these clinical trials. During the planning and implementation of a large multinational clinical trial for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in resource-limited areas of sub-Saharan Africa, we encountered numerous challenges, which required implementation of a range of engagement measures to ensure compliance with global clinical and regulatory standards. These challenges included coordination with ongoing global malaria efforts, heterogeneity in national regulatory structures, sub-optimal healthcare infrastructure, local practices and beliefs, and perspectives that view healthcare providers with undue trust or suspicion. In addition to engagement with international bodies, such as the World Health Organization, the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium, the Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, in order to address the challenges just described, Pfizer Inc. and Medicines for Malaria Venture (the "Sponsoring Entities" for these studies) and investigators liaised with national- and district-level stakeholders such as health ministers and regional/local community health workers. Community engagement measures undertaken by investigators included local meetings with community leaders to explain the research aims and answer questions and concerns voiced by the community. The investigators also engaged with family members of prospective trial participants in order to be sensitive to local practices and beliefs. Engagement

  3. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coefficient of variation for use in crop area classification across multiple climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelen, Tracy; Siqueira, Paul

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the coefficient of variation (CV) is introduced as a unitless statistical measurement for the classification of croplands using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. As a measurement of change, the CV is able to capture changing backscatter responses caused by cycles of planting, growing, and harvesting, and thus is able to differentiate these areas from a more static forest or urban area. Pixels with CV values above a given threshold are classified as crops, and below the threshold are non-crops. This paper uses cross-polarized L-band SAR data from the ALOS PALSAR satellite to classify eleven regions across the United States, covering a wide range of major crops and climates. Two separate sets of classification were done, with the first targeting the optimum classification thresholds for each dataset, and the second using a generalized threshold for all datasets to simulate a large-scale operationalized situation. Overall accuracies for the first phase of classification ranged from 66%-81%, and 62%-84% for the second phase. Visual inspection of the results shows numerous possibilities for improving the classifications while still using the same classification method, including increasing the number and temporal frequency of input images in order to better capture phenological events and mitigate the effects of major precipitation events, as well as more accurate ground truth data. These improvements would make the CV method a viable tool for monitoring agriculture throughout the year on a global scale.

  5. Opportunities and improvisations: a pediatric surgeon's suggestions for successful short-term surgical volunteer work in resource-poor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Donald

    2010-05-01

    There is a paucity of trained pediatric surgeons in resource-poor areas, and many children never receive care for debilitating problems that could readily be managed by surgeons with proper training, supplies, and instrumentation. This article, written from the perspective of a surgeon who has been both the recipient of and the provider of volunteer surgical services, is intended to encourage surgeons in technologically advanced locations to volunteer in underserved areas and to assist them in the implementation of such endeavors. Concepts are presented with an emphasis on pediatric surgery, but most are relevant for volunteers in all surgical specialties. Volunteer paradigms include, but are not limited to, the "surgical brigade" model, where a large group of health care professionals take all needed equipment and supplies for the duration of their stint, and the "minimalist" model, where a single volunteer works with local personnel using locally available equipment. For a successful volunteer endeavor the host needs to have a perceived need for the volunteer's services, and the volunteer must be flexible in adapting to meet overwhelming needs with limited resources. It is suggested that appropriate technology, such as the inexpensive anal stimulator presented herein, should be employed whenever possible. With proper planning, realistic expectations, and a cooperative and helpful attitude, volunteer trips can be rewarding experiences for both volunteers and host physicians and lead to lasting relationships that improve children's lives globally.

  6. Application of computer graphics to generate coal resources of the Cache coal bed, Recluse geologic model area, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G.B.; Crowley, S.S.; Carey, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low-sulfur subbituminous coal resources have been calculated, using both manual and computer methods, for the Cache coal bed in the Recluse Model Area, which covers the White Tail Butte, Pitch Draw, Recluse, and Homestead Draw SW 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Campbell County, Wyoming. Approximately 275 coal thickness measurements obtained from drill hole data are evenly distributed throughout the area. The Cache coal and associated beds are in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. The depth from the surface to the Cache bed ranges from 269 to 1,257 feet. The thickness of the coal is as much as 31 feet, but in places the Cache coal bed is absent. Comparisons between hand-drawn and computer-generated isopach maps show minimal differences. Total coal resources calculated by computer show the bed to contain 2,316 million short tons or about 6.7 percent more than the hand-calculated figure of 2,160 million short tons.

  7. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in Paso Robles, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campion, L.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-eight geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted, and a geologic map and cross sections were compiled. Detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The geological and geophysical work delineated the basement highs and trough-like depressions that can exercise control on the occurrence of the thermal waters. The Rinconada fault was also evident. Cross sections drawn from oil well logs show the sediments conforming against these basement highs and filling the depressions. It is along the locations where the sediments meet the basement highs that three natural warm springs in the area occur. Deep circulation of meteoric waters along faults seems to be a reasonable source for the warm water. The Santa Margarita, Pancho Rico, and Paso Robles Formations would be the first permeable zones that abut the faults through which water would enter. Temperatures and interpretation of well logs indicate the warmest aquifer at the base of the Paso Robles Formation. Warm water may be entering higher up in the section, but mixing with water from cooler zones seems to be evident. Geothermometry indicates reservoir temperatures could be as high as 91/sup 0/C (196/sup 0/F).

  8. Imaging method of minute injured area at achilles tendon from multiple MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokui, Takahiro; Imura, Masataka; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu; Oguchi, Makoto; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Tabata, Yoshito; Ishigaki, Rikuta

    2011-01-01

    Ruptures of Achilles tendon frequently occur while doing sports. Since two-thirds of the people who suffered from the rupture of Achilles tendon feel the pain at Achilles tendon before rupture, to detect the predictor of the rupture is possible. Achilles tendon is soft tissue consisting of unidirectionally-aligned collagen fibers. Therefore, ordinary MRI scanner, ultrasonic instrument or X-ray scanner cannot acquire medical images of Achilles tendon. However, because MR signal intensity changes according to the angle between static magnetic field direction and fiber orientation, MR device can detect strong signal when the angle is 55 deg. In this research, the authors propose the imaging method to detect injured area at Achilles tendon. The method calculates and visualizes the value representing fiber tropism from the matching between MR signal intensity and the model of signal intensity of angle dependence. (author)

  9. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Siren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.

  10. Management of water resources to control groundwater levels in the southern area of the western Nile delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sobeih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was initiated with the objective of simulating and predicting the effect of future development on the groundwater flow and levels. This supports applications for future planning and wise management of water resources. The study area extends south of El Nubariya canal including Sadat City area and its vicinities in the western Nile delta region. A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW has been employed to simulate flow and get the budget of groundwater in the study area. The model showed that about 28,101,041 m3/day of surface water is infiltrated to groundwater dominantly from canals and excess irrigation water. About the same quantity (28,101,052 m3/day, is discharged from groundwater through production wells, open drains and through some reaches of canals. Three development scenarios were simulated to give predictions of the impact of future increasing recharge, construction of new canal and new open drains, and also increased pumping on the groundwater levels in the study area.

  11. Wild mushroom--an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuhwa, Donatha D

    2013-07-10

    This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20-30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400-900 annually. This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood.

  12. Predisposition Factors of Students’ Choice in Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources (AFNR Courses (Luzon Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. ROMEO C. CLEMENTE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is an inquiry into the motivational, personality, and extrinsic variables as factors affecting students’ predisposition in their career choice for agriculture, fisheries and forestry. It features empirical facts generally reflective of the recent conditions of public and private Higher Education Institutions (as NUCAFs, PIAs and PIFs identified by NAFES-CHED and DA of Luzon, Philippines vis-à-vis problems and reasons of continuous decline in the subscription of Filipino students for AFNR courses. Subsumed in the notable findings for Luzon area (i.e., most enrollees and their parents are marginalized; most mothers who are mere housekeepers heavily influence children’s disposition; most professional AFNR parents and enrollees’ siblings who are now AFNR professionals poorly influence them to take the same course; scholarship grants or free tuition fee as a prime way out to finish college education; personal ideal expectation of students for the government to provide promising local employment; common social motive to participate in addressing problems on food security for the continuously increasing population; economic motive to shorter waiting time for employment; SUCs feel obliged to expand curriculum offering to non-AFNR courses to survive institutional fiscal constraints; dearth of educationally qualified faculty and administrators; campaign for the AFNR curriculum programs as effective strategy to improve enrolment rate; low passing rate in AFNR board examinations due to low participation rate, expensive requirements of review, generic contents of examination, and deficiency on the quality and quantity of facilities/equipment and library holdings in most AFNR State Colleges/Universities served as framework of reference for the formulation of proposed education policy reforms/measures and advocacy interventions designed to spur interest in AFNR courses.

  13. Synthesizing monochromatic 3-D images by multiple-exposure rainbow holography with vertical area-partition approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟宏琛; 王明伟; 刘福民; 母国光

    2002-01-01

    We report for the first time the theoretical analysis and experimental results of a white-light reconstructed monochromatic 3-D image synthesizing tomograms by multiple rainbow holo-graphy with vertical-area partition (VAP) approach. The theoretical and experimental results show that 3-D monochromatic image can be synthesized by recording the master hologram by VAP ap-proach without any distortions either in gray scale or in geometrical position. A 3-D monochromatic image synthesized from a series of medical tomograms is presented in this paper for the first time.

  14. The Performance of Forestry Human Resources in Licensing Forest Utilization, The Lease of Forest Area, and The Release of Forest Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtjahjawilasa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance assesment includes the quantity and quality measurements of individual or group works within organization in carrying out duties and functions. It is based on norms, standard operational procedure (SOP, and specified criteria in an organization. Factors affecting quality and quantity of individual performance in an organization are skills, experience, ability, competence, willingness, energy, technology, leadership, compensation, clarity of purpose, and security. This study aims to identify and analyze the performance of forestry human resources (HR related to licensing forest utilization, releasing forest area, and leasing forest area. The results of the study are: (1 the performance of forestry HR in licensing forest utilization was relatively still poor; (2 the structure (rules, norms, cultural cognitive of forestry HR was unclear and is not well developed; and (3 the culture of learning organization, including personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning, and system thinking is still insufficient and needs to be developed at the ministerial, provincial, and district/city levels. Some suggestions for improving the performance of forestry HR are: (1 establishing an appraisal team/task force of forestry HR performance; (2 developing commitment for high quality service at the bureaucratic elites and their highest level networks; and (3 considering the development of one stop licensing supported by online system to promote transparency and public accountability.

  15. Assessing the risk of nitrogen deposition to natural resources in the Four Corners area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne; Floyd-Hanna, Lisa; Crews, Tim; Herring, Jack; Hanna, Dave; Miller, Mark E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Roybal, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in the western U.S. is on the rise and is already dramatically affecting terrestrial ecosystems. For example, N deposition has repeatedly been shown to lower air and water quality, increase greenhouse gas emissions, alter plant community composition, and significantly modify fire regimes. Accordingly, the effects of N deposition represent one of our largest environmental challenges and make difficult the National Park Service’s (NPS) important mission to “preserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife… unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations”. Due to increased population growth and energy development (e.g., natural gas wells), the Four Corners region has become a notable ‘hotspot’ for N deposition. However, our understanding of how increased N deposition will affect these unique ecosystems, as well as how much deposition is actually occurring, remains notably poor. Here we used a multi-disciplinary approach to gathering information in an effort to help NPS safeguard the Four Corners national parks, both now and into the future. We applied modeling, field, and laboratory techniques to clarify current N deposition gradients and to help elucidate the ecosystem consequences of N deposition to the national parks of the Four Corners area. Our results suggest that NOx deposition does indeed represent a significant source of N to Mesa Verde National Park and, as expected, N deposition significantly affects coupled biogeochemical cycling (N, carbon, and phosphorus) of these landscapes. We also found some surprising results. For example, perhaps due to the low nutrient availability in these (and other) dryland ecosystems, although most other research suggests that adding N reduces N fixation rates, N additions did not consistently reduce natural N inputs via biological N2 fixation at our dryland sites. While the timeline of this pilot project is too brief to elucidate all the potential insight from

  16. Hydropedological model of vertisol formation along the Gulf Coast Prairie land resource area of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Driese

    2009-11-01

    the definition of hydric as one criterion for the identification of Federally-protected wetlands. However, there is a considerable disjunct between protracted periods of saturation and limited periods of reduction in these soils. Based on the distribution of redoximorphic features in the study area, regional water table data, and recent electrical resistivity data from a nearby upland Vertisol, non-Darcian bypass flow is the principle mechanism governing the flux of water through deep cracks where water first accumulates and then persists in microlow bowls at depths of 1 to 2 m.

  17. Hydropedological model of vertisol formation along the Gulf Coast Prairie land resource area of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, L. C.; Driese, S. G.

    2009-11-01

    hydric as one criterion for the identification of Federally-protected wetlands. However, there is a considerable disjunct between protracted periods of saturation and limited periods of reduction in these soils. Based on the distribution of redoximorphic features in the study area, regional water table data, and recent electrical resistivity data from a nearby upland Vertisol, non-Darcian bypass flow is the principle mechanism governing the flux of water through deep cracks where water first accumulates and then persists in microlow bowls at depths of 1 to 2 m.

  18. Autonomous management of a recursive area hierarchy for large scale wireless sensor networks using multiple parents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan Vee [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Delgado-Frias, Jose [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Large scale wireless sensor networks have been proposed for applications ranging from anomaly detection in an environment to vehicle tracking. Many of these applications require the networks to be distributed across a large geographic area while supporting three to five year network lifetimes. In order to support these requirements large scale wireless sensor networks of duty-cycled devices need a method of efficient and effective autonomous configuration/maintenance. This method should gracefully handle the synchronization tasks duty-cycled networks. Further, an effective configuration solution needs to recognize that in-network data aggregation and analysis presents significant benefits to wireless sensor network and should configure the network in a way such that said higher level functions benefit from the logically imposed structure. NOA, the proposed configuration and maintenance protocol, provides a multi-parent hierarchical logical structure for the network that reduces the synchronization workload. It also provides higher level functions with significant inherent benefits such as but not limited to: removing network divisions that are created by single-parent hierarchies, guarantees for when data will be compared in the hierarchy, and redundancies for communication as well as in-network data aggregation/analysis/storage.

  19. Low cost, low tech SNP genotyping tools for resource-limited areas: Plague in Madagascar as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar L Mitchell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of pathogenic organisms is a useful tool for linking human cases together and/or to potential environmental sources. The resulting data can also provide information on evolutionary patterns within a targeted species and phenotypic traits. However, the instruments often used to generate genotyping data, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, can be expensive and sometimes require advanced technologies to implement. This places many genotyping tools out of reach for laboratories that do not specialize in genetic studies and/or lack the requisite financial and technological resources. To address this issue, we developed a low cost and low tech genotyping system, termed agarose-MAMA, which combines traditional PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis to target phylogenetically informative SNPs.To demonstrate the utility of this approach for generating genotype data in a resource-constrained area (Madagascar, we designed an agarose-MAMA system targeting previously characterized SNPs within Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. We then used this system to genetically type pathogenic strains of Y. pestis in a Malagasy laboratory not specialized in genetic studies, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar (IPM. We conducted rigorous assay performance validations to assess potential variation introduced by differing research facilities, reagents, and personnel and found no difference in SNP genotyping results. These agarose-MAMA PCR assays are currently employed as an investigative tool at IPM, providing Malagasy researchers a means to improve the value of their plague epidemiological investigations by linking outbreaks to potential sources through genetic characterization of isolates and to improve understanding of disease ecology that may contribute to a long-term control effort.The success of our study demonstrates that the SNP-based genotyping capacity of laboratories in developing countries can be expanded with manageable

  20. An Interference-Aware Traffic-Priority-Based Link Scheduling Algorithm for Interference Mitigation in Multiple Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien T. T. Le

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wireless body area networks (WBANs are effectively used for health monitoring services. However, in cases where WBANs are densely deployed, interference among WBANs can cause serious degradation of network performance and reliability. Inter-WBAN interference can be reduced by scheduling the communication links of interfering WBANs. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware traffic-priority-based link scheduling (ITLS algorithm to overcome inter-WBAN interference in densely deployed WBANs. First, we model a network with multiple WBANs as an interference graph where node-level interference and traffic priority are taken into account. Second, we formulate link scheduling for multiple WBANs as an optimization model where the objective is to maximize the throughput of the entire network while ensuring the traffic priority of sensor nodes. Finally, we propose the ITLS algorithm for multiple WBANs on the basis of the optimization model. High spatial reuse is also achieved in the proposed ITLS algorithm. The proposed ITLS achieves high spatial reuse while considering traffic priority, packet length, and the number of interfered sensor nodes. Our simulation results show that the proposed ITLS significantly increases spatial reuse and network throughput with lower delay by mitigating inter-WBAN interference.

  1. Resources of the Civilians Living in the Area of the Armed Conflict in the Context of Personality Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadinskaya E.N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of an empirical study of the features of the adaptation resources of the population living under the conditions of the armed conflict. The study involved 723 people of both genders living in the immediate area of the armed conflict, their age ranging from 17 to 75 years old. It is empirically shown that the respondents of the first group (areas of low-intensity shelling are generally characterized by high activity, cheerfulness, calmness, healthy optimism, they are active and satisfied with life; these indicators are more pronounced in women aged 19-35 years. It is established that in the first group almost half of the respondents show a high level of neuropsychic resistance; a higher level of it being observed in men. It has been determined that the respondents of the second group (areas of intensive shelling are characterized by displays of irritability, anxiety, and also depression, despair. They are characterized by fast fatigue, low working capacity, lethargy, reduced energy potential and emotional stability, moral normalization. This group of people shows an average neuropsychic resistance, there are signs of stress and mental disadaptation (mainly in women aged 35-60 and older, they are less satisfied with life on the whole than the respondents of the first group, and they also give a lower estimate of their personal success. Most pronounced these indicators were in women 19-35 years old and in men 35-60 years old. It is also established that the subjects of both groups reveal a high level of personal adaptation potential, as evidenced by their rapid adaptation to the new reality conditions. The most adaptive in the first and second groups are young people aged 17-19, and also women aged 19-35. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: long-term residence in the area of the armed conflict, especially in the areas of intense shelling, significantly affects the adaptation capacity of a person

  2. Multiple causes of an unexpected malaria outbreak in a high-transmission area in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteman, Thomas; Rafalimanantsoa, Solofoniaina A; Razafimandimby, Harimahefa; Rasamimanana, Heriniaina H; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin; Ratsimbasoa, Arsene; Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Elissa, Nohal; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Finlay, Alyssa; Rogier, Christophe; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona

    2016-02-02

    The malaria burden in Madagascar dropped down last decade, largely due to scale-up of control measures. Nevertheless, a significant rise of malaria cases occurred in 2011-2012 in two regions of the rainy South-Eastern Madagascar, where malaria is considered as mesoendemic and the population is supposed to be protected by its acquired immunity against Plasmodium. A multidisciplinary investigation was conducted in order to identify the causes of the outbreak. In March 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 randomly selected clusters, involving the rapid diagnostic testing of all ≥6 month-old members of households and a questionnaire about socio-demographic data and exposure to malaria control interventions. Changes in environmental conditions were evaluated by qualitative interview of local authorities, climatic conditions were evaluated by remote-sensing, and stock outs of malaria supplies in health facilities were evaluated by quantitative means. Two long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were sampled in each cluster in order to evaluate their condition and the remanence of their insecticidal activity. The entomological investigation also encompassed the collection Anopheles vectors in two sites, and the measure of their sensitivity to deltamethrin. The cross-sectional survey included 1615 members of 440 households. The mean Plasmodium infection rate was 25.6 % and the mean bed net use on the day before survey was 71.1 %. The prevalence of Plasmodium infections was higher in 6-14 year-old children (odds ratio (OR) 7.73 [95 % CI 3.58-16.68]), in rural areas (OR 6.25 [4.46-8.76]), in poorest socio-economic tercile (OR 1.54 [1.13-2.08]), and it was lower in individuals sleeping regularly under the bed net (OR 0.51 [0.32-0.82]). Stock outs of anti-malarial drugs in the last 6 months have been reported in two third of health facilities. Rainfalls were increased as compared with the three previous rainy seasons. Vectors collected were sensitive to

  3. Object-Based Change Detection in Urban Areas from High Spatial Resolution Images Based on Multiple Features and Ensemble Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of change detection in urban areas using bi-temporal high-resolution remote sensing images, a novel object-based change detection scheme combining multiple features and ensemble learning is proposed in this paper. Image segmentation is conducted to determine the objects in bi-temporal images separately. Subsequently, three kinds of object features, i.e., spectral, shape and texture, are extracted. Using the image differencing process, a difference image is generated and used as the input for nonlinear supervised classifiers, including k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, extreme learning machine and random forest. Finally, the results of multiple classifiers are integrated using an ensemble rule called weighted voting to generate the final change detection result. Experimental results of two pairs of real high-resolution remote sensing datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the traditional methods in terms of overall accuracy and generates change detection maps with a higher number of homogeneous regions in urban areas. Moreover, the influences of segmentation scale and the feature selection strategy on the change detection performance are also analyzed and discussed.

  4. Competing use of organic resources, village-level interactions between farm types and climate variability in a communal area of NE Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Dury, J.; Tittonell, P.A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Herrero, M.; Zingore, S.; Mapfumo, P.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    In communal areas of NE Zimbabwe, feed resources are collectively managed, with herds grazing on grasslands during the rainy season and mainly on crop residues during the dry season, which creates interactions between farmers and competition for organic resources. Addition of crop residues or animal

  5. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that are expected to occur at high penetration levels of intermittent resources, including wind generation resources, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent System Operator...

  6. An Integrated and Optimal Joint Scheduling of Energy Resources to Feed Electrical, Thermal and Potable Water Demands in Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghaffarpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous spread of distributed energy resources (DERs such as combined heating and power (CHP, diesel generators, boilers and renewable energy sources provide an effective solution to energy related problems to serve the power and heat demands with minimum cost. Moreover, the DERs may play a significant role for supplying power and heat in rural areas, where grid electricity is not available. Also, some dry areas may face water scarcity and salinity problems. So, one important solution is the use of DERs to drive desalination units in order to solve water scarcity and salinity problems. In this study, the optimal scheduling of DERs and reverse osmosis (RO desalination unit that feed the required electric, thermal and potable water demands are determined. The present paper describes the operation constraints and cost function of components of the system in detail. Operation constraints of generation units as well as feasible region of operation CHP in dual dependency characteristic are taken into account. To confirm the performance of the proposed model the approach is tested on a realistic remote area over a 24-h period. The results show that the economical scheduling of DERs and desalination units can be obtained using proposed methodology by implementing the proposed formulation.

  7. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Neher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  8. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  9. Map-based repowering and reorganization of a wind resource area to minimize burrowing owl and other bird fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S. [Research Ecologist, 3108 Finch Street, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Neher, L. [Gis Specialist, Neher Consulting, 7241 34th Street, North Highlands, CA 95660 (United States); Bell, D. A. [East Bay Regional Park District, 2950 Peralta Oaks Court, Oakland, CA 94605-0381 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 x 10 m{sup 2} grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California's 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard. (author)

  10. Large-scale assessment of benthic communities across multiple marine protected areas using an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Renata; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Ayroza, Camila Rezende; Jordan, Alan; Figueira, Will F; Byrne, Maria; Malcolm, Hamish A; Williams, Stefan B; Steinberg, Peter D

    2018-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are designed to reduce threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning from anthropogenic activities. Assessment of MPAs effectiveness requires synchronous sampling of protected and non-protected areas at multiple spatial and temporal scales. We used an autonomous underwater vehicle to map benthic communities in replicate 'no-take' and 'general-use' (fishing allowed) zones within three MPAs along 7o of latitude. We recorded 92 taxa and 38 morpho-groups across three large MPAs. We found that important habitat-forming biota (e.g. massive sponges) were more prevalent and abundant in no-take zones, while short ephemeral algae were more abundant in general-use zones, suggesting potential short-term effects of zoning (5-10 years). Yet, short-term effects of zoning were not detected at the community level (community structure or composition), while community structure varied significantly among MPAs. We conclude that by allowing rapid, simultaneous assessments at multiple spatial scales, autonomous underwater vehicles are useful to document changes in marine communities and identify adequate scales to manage them. This study advanced knowledge of marine benthic communities and their conservation in three ways. First, we quantified benthic biodiversity and abundance, generating the first baseline of these benthic communities against which the effectiveness of three large MPAs can be assessed. Second, we identified the taxonomic resolution necessary to assess both short and long-term effects of MPAs, concluding that coarse taxonomic resolution is sufficient given that analyses of community structure at different taxonomic levels were generally consistent. Yet, observed differences were taxa-specific and may have not been evident using our broader taxonomic classifications, a classification of mid to high taxonomic resolution may be necessary to determine zoning effects on key taxa. Third, we provide an example of statistical analyses and

  11. Forest resource use pattern in Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary and its fringe areas (a case study from Western Himalaya, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Zubair A.; Bhat, Jahangeer A.; Bhatt, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The rural population of Himalaya has been strongly dependent on the forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The present study, carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), explored forest resource-use patterns to understand rural peoples' dependency on the adjacent forests. A total of six forests were selected and the seven dependent villages were surveyed for the study of forest resource use patterns in relation to their socioeconomic status. Average fuelwood and fodder consumption were found to be 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively which was higher than the earlier reported values. Average fuelwood consumption by temporary dhaba (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (52.5 kg/dhaba/day) is much higher than the permanent villagers. Average cultivated land per family was less than 1 ha (0.56 ha). Inaccessibility of the area and deprived socio-economic status of the locals are largely responsible for the total dependency of the local inhabitants on nearby forests for fuelwood, fodder and other life supporting demands. Extensive farming of fuelwood trees on less used, barren land and establishment of fodder banks could be the alternative to bridge the gap between the demand and supply. Active participation of local people is mandatory for the conservation of these forests. - Highlights: • We studied energy consumption at different altitudes in Western Himalaya of India. • On an average, fuelwood and fodder consumption is 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively. • Maximum fuelwood (3.24 kg/capita/day) at higher and fodder consumption (1800 kg/household/day) at middle altitudes was recorded. • Dhabas (roadside refreshment establishments) consume much more fuelwood as compared to the permanent villagers (P<0.000, t-test). • Fuelwood consumption showed significant negative relationship with LPG (−0.87) and kerosene oil (−0.89)

  12. Assessment of Sustainable Use of Coastal Resources of Regional Waters Conservation Area Biak Numfor Regency, Papua Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaman Sutaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to exploit fish resources optimally, continuous and sustainable is an urgent demand for the greatest prosperity of the people, especially to improve the welfare of fishermen and fish farmers. The level of sustainable use of coastal resources in water conservation is very important, so that the utilization does not exceed the carrying capacity of the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of sustainable use of coastal resources Biak Numfor, associated with the utilization of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism. The study was conducted in June to December 2015 and October to November 2016. The primary data obtained by interview and direct discussion through Focus Group Disscution (FGD with fishermen community, tourist and tourist entrepreneurs as well as related officials in the Office of Fisheries and Marine Affairs, and Tourism Office of Biak Numfor Regency. Methods of data analysis approach sustainability analysis conducted by the method of MDS (Multi-Dimensional Scaling with the help of software Rapfish. Based on the survey results revealed that the value of fisheries ordinated to achieve 57.66%, 44.80% aquaculture, and tourism 46.25%. With these achievements ordinated value, it can be concluded that the use of sustainable capture fisheries are still classified by the lever sustainability attributes include; the type of fishing gear, vessel types used and the catch per unit effort (CPUE. Meanwhile the relatively less sustainable aquaculture with the sustainability lever attributes include; cultivation technology, the number of business units with different types and species of fish. For tourism utilization is still considered less sustainable with levers sustainability attributes include the number of tourists, the type and number of amenities and facilities and infrastructure   Keywords: Sustainability, utilization, waters conservation area (KKPD, MDS-Rapfish

  13. Land use effects on quality and quantity aspects of water resources in headwater areas of the Jaguari River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zuccari, M. L.; Ferracini, V. L.; Cruz, P. P. N. D.; Green, T. R.; Costa, C. F. G. D.; Reis, L. D. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the context of the recent drought conditions in southeastern Brazil, EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) in partnership with two Brazilian universities (USP/CENA and UNIFAL) planned a research project, called BaCaJa, to understand the hydrobiogeochemistry processes that occur in small catchments (management of water resources in this region. Sampling stations were established on rivers and streams ranging from one to five order channels as well as selected small catchments to conduct studies on overland flow, soil solution, soil quality, aquatic biota and pesticide dynamic. The research team is huge and their goals are specific, diverse and complementary, being summed up as: characterize land use, topography and soils; evaluate erosive potential in agriculture areas; measure soil carbon and nitrogen contents; characterize hydrogeochemistry fluxes; apply hydrological modeling and simulate different land use and management scenarios; monitor possible pesticides contamination; and survey macro invertebrates as indicators of water quality. Based on a synthesis of the results, the project team intends to point out the environmental impacts and contribute recommendations of management for the focused region to conserve water resources in terms of quality and quantity.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure report: Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells, Correction Action Unit 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation of the activities conducted during the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Spring Quadrangle (USGS, 1986), Township 10 South, Range 53 East, Nye County, Nevada. This report discusses the Bitcutter Shop Inside Injection Well (CAU 90-A) closure-in-place and the Bitcutter Shop Outside Injection Well (CAU 90-B) and Postshot Containment Shop Injection Well (CAU 90-C) clean closures. This Closure Report provides background information about the unit, the results of the characterization activities and actions conducted to determine the closure design. It also provides a discussion of the drainage analysis, preliminary closure activities, final closure activities, waste management activities, and the Post-Closure Care requirements

  15. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Groundwater in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on groundwater during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17,1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its notice of intent (Fed. Regis. 575433) of February 14,1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report were collected for the geothermal resource subzones in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to groundwater in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Groundwater quality inside and outside the lower east rift zone (LERZ) of Kilauea is compared with that of meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal fluid. The degree of mixing between meteoric water, sea water, and geothermal water in and adjacent to the LERZ also is discussed. Finally, groundwater pathways and use in the Puna District are discussed. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey publications and open-file reports.

  16. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Groundwater in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on groundwater during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the withdrawing its notice of intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report were collected for the geothermal resource subzones in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to groundwater in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii. Groundwater quality in and adjacent to Kilauea`s east rift zone (KERZ), is compared with that of meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal fluid. Two segments of KERZ lie within the Puna District. These segments are the middle east rift zone (KERZ) and lower east rift zone (LERZ). The degree of mixing between meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal water in and adjacent to the also is discussed.

  17. Natural resources as an area of protection in LCA - outcomes of the discussion by the working group on resources within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, T.; Fantke, Peter; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    , water, land/soil, biotic resources like wild plants and animals). Definitions and categorizations of natural resources differ and there is no agreement on what methods should be considered midpoint or endpoint methods because there is no agreement (at midpoint and endpoint) on what impact should...

  18. Managing water resources using isotope hydrology. One of the five key areas to sustainable development where progress is possible with the resources and technologies at our disposal today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA supports the use of isotope hydrology to improve knowledge of water resources. Each year the IAEA allocated nearly US $3 million to its water resource programme. The Agency has also invested about US $30 million in 150 projects in 60 countries to improve water management using isotope hydrology and, in the progress, has trained hundreds of young scientists

  19. A population study of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource area. Second-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Since January 1994, the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz, has been conducting a field investigation of the ecology of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The 190 km{sup 2} facility lies just east of San Francisco Bay in California and contains about 6,500 wind turbines. Grassland and oak savanna habitats surrounding the WRA support a substantial resident population of golden eagles. Each year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service receivers reports from the wind industry of about 30 golden eagle casualties occurring at the WRA, and it is probable that many more carcasses go unnoticed. Over 90 percent of the casualties are attributed to collisions with wind turbines. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of turbine-related mortality on the golden eagle population of the area. Assessing the impact of the WRA kills on the population requires quantification of both survival and reproduction. To estimate survival rates of both territorial and non-territorial golden eagles, we tagged 179 individuals with radio-telemetry transmitters expected to function for about four years and equipped with mortality sensors. Population segments represented in the tagged sample include 79 juveniles, 45 subadults, 17n floaters (non-territorial adults), and 38 breeders. Effective sample sizes in the older segments increase as younger eagles mature or become territorial. Since the beginning of the study, we have conducted weekly roll-call surveys by airplane to locate the tagged eagles in relation to the WRA and to monitor their survival. The surveyed area extends from the Oakland Hills southeast through the Diablo Mountain Range to San Luis Reservoir about 75 km southeast of the WRA. The surveys show that breeding eagles rarely enter the WRA while the non-territorial eagles tend to move about freely throughout the study area and often visit the WRA.

  20. Natural resource management in a protected area of the Indian Himalayas: a modeling approach for anthropogenic interactions on ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2009-06-01

    The concept of ecosystem conservation as a broad theme came into existence during the 1970s under the Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Indian Government followed this approach and chose the method to segregate the landscape for conservation of the ecosystem as well as for the development of the local economy and its people. We have examined the effect of this policy and concurrently developed a theoretical modeling approach to understand how human behavior is changing under shifting political, socioeconomic and environmental conditions. A specific focus has been on how the landscape is changing in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region where about 10% of the total geographical area is converted into protected landscape for conservation of biodiversity. For local people living in the Himalayan mountains in India, agriculture is the main land use activity and is strongly linked to the forests in providing sustainability. There are several branches in the rural ecosystems where the local people's economy was centered. These include agriculture, animal husbandry, medicinal and aromatic plants cultivation, forest resource collection, tourism and other occupations. The greatest proportion of the population was engaged in the agriculture sector, whose contribution is high in the rural economy (61%); followed by animal husbandry (19%), forest resource collection for economic gain (18%), and medicinal and aromatic plants cultivation (1.5%). However, three decades ago the animal husbandry branch of the rural ecosystem was contributing the maximum share towards rural household income (40%) followed by tourism (35.2%), and lastly agriculture (14%). The desire of farmers to secure the optimum output from agricultural land use has resulted in an increase for resource collection from the forests. The people's perception (n = 1,648) regarding overall changes occurring in the region was

  1. Ranking contributing areas of salt and selenium in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, using multiple linear regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Joshua I.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigating the effects of salt and selenium on water quality in the Grand Valley and lower Gunnison River Basin in western Colorado is a major concern for land managers. Previous modeling indicated means to improve the models by including more detailed geospatial data and a more rigorous method for developing the models. After evaluating all possible combinations of geospatial variables, four multiple linear regression models resulted that could estimate irrigation-season salt yield, nonirrigation-season salt yield, irrigation-season selenium yield, and nonirrigation-season selenium yield. The adjusted r-squared and the residual standard error (in units of log-transformed yield) of the models were, respectively, 0.87 and 2.03 for the irrigation-season salt model, 0.90 and 1.25 for the nonirrigation-season salt model, 0.85 and 2.94 for the irrigation-season selenium model, and 0.93 and 1.75 for the nonirrigation-season selenium model. The four models were used to estimate yields and loads from contributing areas corresponding to 12-digit hydrologic unit codes in the lower Gunnison River Basin study area. Each of the 175 contributing areas was ranked according to its estimated mean seasonal yield of salt and selenium.

  2. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  3. The Alaska Area Specimen Bank: a tribal-federal partnership to maintain and manage a resource for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Alan J; Hennessy, Thomas; Bulkow, Lisa; Smith, H Sally

    2013-01-01

    Banked biospecimens from a defined population are a valuable resource that can be used to assess early markers for illness or to determine the prevalence of a disease to aid the development of intervention strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. The Alaska Area Specimen Bank (AASB) currently contains 266,353 residual biologic specimens (serum, plasma, whole blood, tissue, bacterial cultures) from 83,841 persons who participated in research studies, public health investigations and clinical testing conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service and Alaska Native tribal health organisations dating back to 1961. The majority (95.7%) are serum specimens, 77% were collected between 1981 and 1994 and 85% were collected from Alaska Native people. Oversight of the specimen bank is provided by a working group with representation from tribal, state and federal health organisations, the Alaska Area IRB and a specimen bank committee which ensures the specimens are used in accordance with policies and procedures developed by the working group.

  4. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predatory Bird Research Group Long Marine Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial re-occupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of sub-adults as members of breeding pairs

  5. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. G.; Jackman, R. E.; Hunt, T. L.; Driscoll, D. E.; Culp, L.

    1999-07-20

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial reoccupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of subadults as members of breeding pairs.

  6. Management strategies of marine food resources under multiple stressors with particular reference of the Yellow Sea large marine ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisheng TANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study two main management strategies are discussed: one is to develop resource conservation-based capture fisheries, and the other is to develop environmentally friendly aquaculture. During the resource recovery period, the development of environmentally friendly aquaculture should be encouraged, especially in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, which is adaptive, efficient and sustainable. For future development and better understanding the ecosystem, it is necessary to further strengthen basic research.

  7. Utilized Resources of Hope, Orientation, and Inspiration in Life of Persons with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Association with Life Satisfaction, Adaptive Coping Strategies, and Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Anne-Gritli; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-08-01

    In a cross-sectional survey among 213 patients with multiple sclerosis, we intended to analyze their resources of hope, orientation, and inspiration in life, and how these resources are related to health-associated variables, adaptive coping strategies, and life satisfaction. Resources were categorized as Faith (10 %), Family (22 %), Other sources (16 %), and No answer (53 %). These non-respondents were predominantly neither religious nor spiritual (70 % R-S-). Although R-S- persons are a heterogeneous group with varying existential interest, they did not significantly differ from their spiritual/religious counterparts with respect to physical and mental health or life satisfaction, but for an adaptive Reappraisal strategy and Gratitude/Awe.

  8. Adverse impacts of pasture abandonment in Himalayan protected areas: Testing the efficiency of a Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2007-01-01

    The high elevational areas in the Himalayas of India are dominated by forests and alpine pastures. There are many protected areas in the region, including Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and Valley of Flowers (VOF) where natural resource management plan (NRMP) has been implemented for the conservation of biodiversity. This has affected the traditional animal husbandry system, as well as the vegetation dynamics of alpine pastures. An integrated approach to studying the impact of NRMP in the region has been applied by us. First, a survey was conducted regarding livestock management, data pertaining the livestock husbandry, the role of animal husbandry in economics of rural household, and socioeconomics. Second, field based study on phytosociology of some important alpine herbs was done to enumerate the density and species richness in different land mark of the region. Thereafter, satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to develop a land cover map of the area and to note changes in the landscape over time after implementation of NRMP. From an economic point of view the implementation of such plan is a setback to the rural economy. However, the ecological perspective of such models is a threat to the diversity of alpine pastures. The invasion of bushes/thorny bushes/shrubs and weeds with their luxuriant growth is changing the vegetation index and dynamics. Consequently, the diversity of herbs in alpine pastures of the Himalayan Mountains is in jeopardy. Overall, the situation is leading to landscape change in the region. This study is helpful for generating useful outcomes and strategies considering the question or debate 'is grazing good or bad for pasture ecosystems in the Himalayas?'

  9. PRIORITY AREAS FOR FOREST CONSERVATION, AIMING AT THE MAINTENANCE OF WATER RESOURCES, THROUGH THE MULTICRITERIA EVALUATION1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A M Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Replacing the original land cover by other land uses, especially when it is associated with inadequate management practices, can cause changes in runoff and rainwater infiltration. This can result in above normal levels of soil erosion and sediment-carrying to the rivers and streams. The original land cover conservation in the watersheds is, therefore, essential for the maintenance of its water resources. In this context, the main objective of this study was to prioritize areas for forest conservation in two watersheds, aiming at maintaining the water availability, in terms of quantity and quality, for the public supply. The watersheds were selected considering their regional importance and because they are similar in terms of land use / land cover. The study was developed in the Multicriteria Evaluation (MCE context, which permits the integration of different landscape characteristics (i.e. factors, in order to obtain a solution for the decision-making process. The following criteria were selected by considering the expert's opinions: slope, flow accumulation, aspect, and land use / land cover. Their relative importance (i.e. factor weight was defined through the Pairwise Comparison Method. The criteria maps units were normalized by a common scale and then aggregated through an MCE method named Weighted Linear Combination (WLC. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the criteria contribution on the final map. The watershed 1 was classified in approximately 14% of its area as very high priority; 27% as high; 19% as medium; 21% as low; and 18% as very low. The watershed 2 obtained, respectively, 17%; 29%; 17%; 21%; e 17%. We conclude that the WLC method supports the definition of priority areas for forest conservation in the watersheds, in order to have an appropriate design of actions for forest conservation.

  10. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

    2012-03-27

    This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection

  11. Interactions of water with energy and materials in urban areas and agriculture. IWRM. Integrated water resources management. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steusloff, Hartwig (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The current rationale, range and significance of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) are subject to increasing dimensionality, such as systemic conflicts between water users, increasing regulatory influences, and the growing energy requirements for providing the appropriate water resources. The competition between urban and agricultural consumers for water is dealt with as are regulatory, technological and socio-economic aspects of IWRM. The conference proceedings of IWRM Karlsruhe 2012 impart knowledge and relate practical experience in three key areas of IWRM: 1. Challenges for Future Cities and Efficient Agricultural Production Satisfying the growing demand for fresh water for a growing population as well as for agriculture bears the risk of aggravating the conflict between economic and ecological needs. Providing a reliable and secure supply of water for our future cities requires appropriate technical infrastructure systems coupled with environmentally optimized management. In this context it is essential to have greater awareness of the relationship of water and energy and of the overall water usage including the re-use of water 2. Competing Water Uses Water must be shared between domestic/municipal, industrial, agricultural, and hydropower users as well as between regions. This competition is intensified by the vulnerability of supply and sanitation systems to increasing climate extremes and to terrorism. 3. Regulatory and Policy Framework Using water is associated with a great number of externalities. For this reason a proper legislative and regulatory framework is prerequisite for proper management of the water supply, sewerage and storm-water services as well as water usage, all of which are essential for public health, economic development and environmental protection.

  12. MULTIPLE BIOMARKER RESPONSE IN THE MUSSEL, PERNA PERNA TO ASSESS THE MARINE QUALITY IN THE BIG CASABLANCA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAILA EL JOURMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the marine environment quality in the Big Casablanca area. A number of biochemical markers were measured in the brown mussel, Perna perna, sampled from four sampling sites characterized by a different degree of contamination and human impacts. As biochemical indices; Catalase (CAT, Glutathione S-transferase (GST, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, as well as Malondialdehyde (MDA and Metallothioneine (MT were evaluated in whole soft tissues of mussels collected from the selected sites. The biomarkers showed statistically significant differences at the polluted sites when compared to the control ones. Our data indicated that CAT and GST activity, MDA and MT concentration in whole mussel bodies, are a higher and significant (p < 0.05 in mussels collected at polluted sites when compared to specimen sampled from control ones. In contrary the response of AChE activity was significantly (p<0.05 inhibited in mussels from polluted sites when compared to control values. The multiple biomarker responses obtained for October 2010 and 2011, clearly demonstrate the potential presence of different contaminants in Site1 and Site2 reflecting the intensity of pollution in these areas.

  13. Soil organic carbon distribution in Mediterranean areas under a climate change scenario via multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Obregón-Romero, Rafael

    2017-08-15

    Over time, the interest on soil studies has increased due to its role in carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO 2 rates. In many studies, independent variables were related to soil organic carbon (SOC) alone, however, the contribution degree of each variable with the experimentally determined SOC content were not considered. In this study, samples from 612 soil profiles were obtained in a natural protected (Red Natura 2000) of Sierra Morena (Mediterranean area, South Spain), considering only the topsoil 0-25cm, for better comparison between results. 24 independent variables were used to define it relationship with SOC content. Subsequently, using a multiple linear regression analysis, the effects of these variables on the SOC correlation was considered. Finally, the best parameters determined with the regression analysis were used in a climatic change scenario. The model indicated that SOC in a future scenario of climate change depends on average temperature of coldest quarter (41.9%), average temperature of warmest quarter (34.5%), annual precipitation (22.2%) and annual average temperature (1.3%). When the current and future situations were compared, the SOC content in the study area was reduced a 35.4%, and a trend towards migration to higher latitude and altitude was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ozone impact minimization through coordinated scheduling of turnaround operations from multiple olefin plants in an ozone nonattainment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sijie; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Turnaround operations (start-up and shutdown) are critical operations in olefin plants, which emit large quantities of VOCs, NOx and CO. The emission has great potentials to impact the ozone level in ozone nonattainment areas. This study demonstrates a novel practice to minimize the ozone impact through coordinated scheduling of turnaround operations from multiple olefin plants located in Houston, Texas, an ozone nonattainment area. The study considered two olefin plants scheduled to conduct turnaround operations: one start-up and one shutdown, simultaneously on the same day within a five-hour window. Through dynamic simulations of the turnaround operations using ASPEN Plus Dynamics and air quality simulations using CAMx, the study predicts the ozone impact from the combined effect of the two turnaround operations under different starting-time scenarios. The simulations predict that the ozone impact from planned turnaround operations ranges from a maximum of 11.4 ppb to a minimum of 1.4 ppb. Hence, a reduction of up to 10.0 ppb can be achieved on a single day based on the selected two simulation days. This study demonstrates a cost-effective and environmentally benign ozone control practice for relevant stakeholders, including environmental agencies, regional plant operators, and local communities.

  15. Interrelationships Between Job Resources, Vigor, Exercise Habit, and Serum Lipids in Japanese Employees: a Multiple Group Path Analysis Using Medical Checkup Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Inoue, Akiomi; Sakurai, Kenji; Ui, Akiko; Nakata, Akinori

    2016-08-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major risk factors for dyslipidemia and coronary heart disease. Job resources have been identified as determinants of employees' vigor and physical activity habits. Our first purpose was to comprehensively analyze the series of relationships of job resources, through vigor and exercise habit (i.e., one aspect of physical activity), to serum lipid levels in a sample of Japanese employees in a manufacturing company. Our second purpose was to investigate sex differences in these relationships using a multiple-group path analysis. Data were collected from 4543 employees (men = 4018, women = 525) during a medical checkup conducted in February and March 2012. Job resources (job control, skill utilization, suitable jobs, and meaningfulness of work), vigor, exercise habit, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured cross-sectionally. Job resources and vigor were positively associated with exercise habit in both sexes. Exercise habit was inversely associated with triglyceride (-0.03 in men and -0.01 in women, ps jobs and meaningfulness of work. Higher levels of job resources were associated with greater vigor, leading to exercise habit, which in turn, improved serum lipid levels. Longitudinal studies are required to demonstrate causality.

  16. Summary of regional geology, petroleum potential, resource assessment and environmental considerations for oil and gas lease sale area No. 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Paull, Charles K.; Grow, John A.; Ball, Mahlon M.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Powers, Richard B.; Khan, Abdul S.; Popenoe, Peter; Robb, James M.; Dillon, William P.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes our general knowledge of the petroleum potential, as well as problems and hazards associated with development of petroleum resources in the area proposed for nominations for lease sale number 56. This area includes the U.S. eastern continental margin from the North Carolina-Virginia border south to approximately Cape Canaveral, Florida and from three miles from shore, seaward to include the upper Continental Slope and inner Blake Plateau. The area for possible sales is shown in figure 1; major physiographic features of the region are shown in figure 2.No wells have been drilled for petroleum within this proposed lease area and no significant commercial production has been obtained onshore in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. The COST GE-1 stratigraphic test well, drilled on the Continental Shelf off Jacksonville, Fla. (fig- 1), reached basement at 3,300 m. The bottom third of the section consists of dominantly continental rocks that are typically poor sources of petroleum (Scholle, 1979) and the rocks that contain organic carbon adequate for generation of petroleum at the well are seen in seismic profiles always at shallow subbottom depths, so they probably have not reached thermal maturity. However, seismic profiles indicate that the sedimentary deposits thicken markedly in a seaward direction where more of the section was deposited under marine conditions; therefore, commercial accumulations of petroleum offshore are more likely.Several potential sources of environmental hazard exist. Among the most important are hurricanes, the Gulf Stream, and earthquakes. The potential danger from high wind, waves, storm surges, and storm-driven currents associated with hurricanes is obvious. Evidence for significant bottom scour by the Gulf Stream is abundant; such scour is a threat to the stability of bottom-mounted structures. The fast-flowing water also will hamper floating drill rigs and control of drill strings. A major earthquake of about magnitude

  17. An Evaluation of Population Density Mapping and Built up Area Estimates in Sri Lanka Using Multiple Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, R.; Soundararajan, V.; Newhouse, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this study we examine how well multiple population density and built up estimates that utilize satellite data compare in Sri Lanka. The population relationship is examined at the Gram Niladhari (GN) level, the lowest administrative unit in Sri Lanka from the 2011 census. For this study we have two spatial domains, the whole country and a 3,500km2 sub-sample, for which we have complete high spatial resolution imagery coverage. For both the entire country and the sub-sample we examine how consistent are the existing publicly available measures of population constructed from satellite imagery at predicting population density? For just the sub-sample we examine how well do a suite of values derived from high spatial resolution satellite imagery predict population density and how does our built up area estimate compare to other publicly available estimates. Population measures were obtained from the Sri Lankan census, and were downloaded from Facebook, WorldPoP, GPW, and Landscan. Percentage built-up area at the GN level was calculated from three sources: Facebook, Global Urban Footprint (GUF), and the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL). For the sub-sample we have derived a variety of indicators from the high spatial resolution imagery. Using deep learning convolutional neural networks, an object oriented, and a non-overlapping block, spatial feature approach. Variables calculated include: cars, shadows (a proxy for building height), built up area, and buildings, roof types, roads, type of agriculture, NDVI, Pantex, and Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and others. Results indicate that population estimates are accurate at the higher, DS Division level but not necessarily at the GN level. Estimates from Facebook correlated well with census population (GN correlation of 0.91) but measures from GPW and WorldPop are more weakly correlated (0.64 and 0.34). Estimates of built-up area appear to be reliable. In the 32 DSD-subsample, Facebook's built- up area measure

  18. Water resources of southeastern Florida, with special reference to geology and ground water of the Miami area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Garald G.; Ferguson, G.E.; Love, S.K.

    1955-01-01

    The circulation of water, in any form, from the surface of the earth to the atmosphere and back again is called the hydrologic cycle. A comprehensive study of the water resources of any area must, therefore, include data on the climate of the area. The humid subtropical climate of southeast Florida is characterized by relatively high temperatures, alternating semi-annual wet and dry season, and usually light put persistent winds. The recurrence of drought in an area having relatively large rainfall such as southeastern Florida indicates that the agencies that remove water are especially effective. Two of the most important of the agencies associated with climate are evaporation and transpiration, or 'evapotranspiraton'. Evaporation losses from permanent water areas are believed to average between 40 and 45 inches per year. Over land areas indirect methods much be used to determine losses by evapotranspiration; necessarily, there values are not precise. Because of their importance in the occurrence and movement of both surface and ground waters, detailed studies were made of the geology and geomorphology of southern Florida. As a result of widespread crustal movements, southern Florida emerged from the sea in later Pliocene time and probably was slightly tilted to the west. At the beginning of the Pleistocene the continent emerged still farther as a result of the lowering of sea level attending the first widespread glaciation. During this epoch, south Florida may have stood several hundred feet above sea level. During the interglacial ages the sea repeatedly flooded southern Florida. The marine members of the Fort Thompson formation in the Lake Okeechobee-Everglades depression and the Calossahatchee River Valley apparently are the deposits of the interglacial invasions by the sea. The fresh-water marls, sands, and organic deposits of the Fort Thompson formation appear to have accumulated during glacial ages when seas level was low and the area was a land surface

  19. Spatial Statistical and Modeling Strategy for Inventorying and Monitoring Ecosystem Resources at Multiple Scales and Resolution Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin M. Reich; C. Aguirre-Bravo; M.S. Williams

    2006-01-01

    A statistical strategy for spatial estimation and modeling of natural and environmental resource variables and indicators is presented. This strategy is part of an inventory and monitoring pilot study that is being carried out in the Mexican states of Jalisco and Colima. Fine spatial resolution estimates of key variables and indicators are outputs that will allow the...

  20. The human resource management contribute six sigma program: multiple-case study in companies situated in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline T. M. Corrêa Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The world is going through rapid changes and the companies seek alternatives to improve its products and processes and maintain their competitiveness. One alternative is the implementation of programs of quality management that combine human’s and technical’s factors. Six Sigma has gained evidence on the last years because aggregate tools and methodology. However, all quality program factors need management. The main goal of this paper is classify what assignments of Human Resource Management can contribute to reduction of the difficulties that can be encountered on implementation and maintenance of Six Sigma program in companies that was situated in the Rio Grande do Sul. For carry this work was necessary contact companies of the Rio Grande do Sul that use this program and was applied one questionnaire to classify the contribution of the Human Resource Management for the success of Six Sigma. The statistical tools, contents analyze, tables of relationship and qualitative analysis were applied for analysis. It’s evidence in this research the existence of potentials difficulties of Six Sigma listed in the literature and the influence that some assignments of Human Resource Management can be for solve this difficulties. The result of the research indicate that the participative and compromised leadership and the clear and objective communication of program are the assignments of Human Resource Management among the studied that more contribute for reduction of the difficulties of Six Sigma in the companies of this research.

  1. Load Frequency Control of Two-Area Network using Renewable Energy Resources and Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhafiz Bin SALIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected system, the frequency and tie-line power interchange are very susceptible with the diversification of power load demand. Literally, in a multi-area power system, the load frequency control (LFC is substantially aimed to minimise the deviations of these parameters relatively. Knowingly, the power production from renewable energy resources could offer promising solutions despite their intermittency (i.e. photovoltaic/wind generation, hence in this context, a battery energy storage system (BESS is proposed to delineate dynamic response along with grid—connection. This study has proposed LFC with BESS control method to suppress frequency deviations for a power system and being compared with photovoltaic (PV approach. The effectiveness was verified using newly developed AGC30 model of Japanese Power System and was modelled using MATLAB Simulink. Furthermore, an analysis of the tie-line power oscillations also are carried out and comparison analysis demonstrates further the reliability of the proposed model and control methods.

  2. Deliberative democracy and co-management of natural resources: The case of Funäsdalen snowmobile regulation area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karin Elise Zachrisson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to deepen the understanding of how co-management and deliberative democracy relate to one another. Deliberation is an understudied aspect of common-pool resource theory that could be developed by a closer connection to deliberative democratic theory. Co-management studies may also provide needed empirical insights to deliberative democratic theory. A framework is developed to analyze to what degree co-management arrangements incorporate deliberative elements. To test its usefulness, a case study of a co-management process in Sweden is analyzed. In Funäsdalsfjällen, a conflict-ridden situation caused by snowmobiles ended in agreement and the establishment of a municipal regulation area. Central and regional authorities initially failed to resolve the conflict, but when the municipality started working directly with the relevant interest groups, agreement was reached. Deliberative elements are shown central to the success, and it is concluded that co-management and deliberative democratic approaches indeed do cross-fertilize one another.

  3. A Multiple-Iterated Dual Control Model for Groundwater Exploitation and Water Level Based on the Optimal Allocation Model of Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiu Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate environmental and ecological impacts resulting from groundwater overexploitation, we developed a multiple-iterated dual control model consisting of four modules for groundwater exploitation and water level. First, a water resources allocation model integrating calculation module of groundwater allowable withdrawal was built to predict future groundwater recharge and discharge. Then, the results were input into groundwater numerical model to simulate water levels. Groundwater exploitation was continuously optimized using the critical groundwater level as the feedback, and a groundwater multiple-iterated technique was applied to the feedback process. The proposed model was successfully applied to a typical region in Shenyang in northeast China. Results showed the groundwater numerical model was verified in simulating water levels, with a mean absolute error of 0.44 m, an average relative error of 1.33%, and a root-mean-square error of 0.46 m. The groundwater exploitation reduced from 290.33 million m3 to 116.76 million m3 and the average water level recovered from 34.27 m to 34.72 m in planning year. Finally, we proposed the strategies for water resources management in which the water levels should be controlled within the critical groundwater level. The developed model provides a promising approach for water resources allocation and sustainable groundwater management, especially for those regions with overexploited groundwater.

  4. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    QMRAcatch, a tool to simulate microbial water quality including infection risk assessment, was previously developed and successfully tested at a Danube river site (Schijven et al. 2015). In the tool concentrations of target faecal microorganisms and viruses (TMVs) are computed at a point of interest (PI) along the main river and the floodplain river at daily intervals for a one year period. Even though faecal microbial pathogen concentrations in water resources are usually below the sample limit of detection, this does not ensure, that the water quality complies with a certain required health based target. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the predictability of relevant human pathogenic viruses, i.e. enterovirus and norovirus, in the studied river/floodplain area. This was done by following an innovative calibration strategy based on human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker data which were determined following the HF183 TaqMan assay (Green et al. 2011). The MST marker is strongly associated with human faeces and communal sewage, occurring there in numbers by several magnitudes higher than for human enteric pathogens (Mayer et al 2015). The calibrated tool was then evaluated with measured enterovirus concentrations at the PI and in the floodplain river. In the simulation tool the discharges of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered with point discharges along a 200 km reach of the Danube river. The MST marker and target virus concentrations at the PI at a certain day were computed based on the concentrations of the previous day, plus the wastewater concentrations times the WWTP discharge divided by the river discharge. A ratio of the river width was also considered, over which the MST marker and virus particles have fully mixed with river water. In the tool, the excrements from recreational visitors frequenting the floodplain area every day were assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the area. A binomial distributed

  5. Confidentiality Protection of User Data and Adaptive Resource Allocation for Managing Multiple Workflow Performance in Service-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, two interrelated problems of service-based systems (SBS) are addressed: protecting users' data confidentiality from service providers, and managing performance of multiple workflows in SBS. Current SBSs pose serious limitations to protecting users' data confidentiality. Since users' sensitive data is sent in…

  6. Identification of suitable areas for the occurrence of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that may produce a considerable impact on the economy in affected countries. In the last decades, the geographic distribution of RVF virus has increased including most of the countries in Africa, Arabia Saudi and Yemen. This situation has raised the concerns regarding its potential introduction in the European Union (EU) countries where the high number of susceptible species and competent vectors may contribute to the spread of the disease and challenge its rapid control. Thus, the identification of the areas and time periods with highest suitability for RVF outbreak occurrence would be useful for improving the early detection and rapid response of the disease into free countries. The objective of this study was to identify suitable areas for the occurrence of RVF outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision making model based on weighted linear combination of factors in geographical information systems (GIS). To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first comprehensive GIS-based framework that provides risk maps for RVF suitability in an EU country. Spanish zones with the highest suitability for RVF were concentrated in the regions of Extremadura, south-western Castile and Leon, eastern Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, Basque Country, northern-central and southern region of Andalusia and in the Balearic Islands. October and May were the most suitable months for RVF outbreak occurrence. Methods and results presented here may be useful to target risk-based surveillance strategies and to more cost-effectively control potential RVFV incursions into Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  8. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  9. A Study of Mars Dust Environment Simulation at NASA Johnson Space Center Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liang Albert

    1999-01-01

    The dust environment on Mars is planned to be simulated in a 20 foot thermal-vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center, Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility in Houston, Texas. This vacuum chamber will be used to perform tests and study the interactions between the dust in Martian air and ISPP hardware. This project is to research, theorize, quantify, and document the Mars dust/wind environment needed for the 20 foot simulation chamber. This simulation work is to support the safety, endurance, and cost reduction of the hardware for the future missions. The Martian dust environment conditions is discussed. Two issues of Martian dust, (1) Dust Contamination related hazards, and (2) Dust Charging caused electrical hazards, are of our interest. The different methods of dust particles measurement are given. The design trade off and feasibility were studied. A glass bell jar system is used to evaluate various concepts for the Mars dust/wind environment simulation. It was observed that the external dust source injection is the best method to introduce the dust into the simulation system. The dust concentration of 30 Mg/M3 should be employed for preparing for the worst possible Martian atmosphere condition in the future. Two approaches thermal-panel shroud for the hardware conditioning are discussed. It is suggested the wind tunnel approach be used to study the dust charging characteristics then to be apply to the close-system cyclone approach. For the operation cost reduction purpose, a dehumidified ambient air could be used to replace the expensive CO2 mixture for some tests.

  10. Edaiila area of interest non-renewable resource assessment (phase 1) Great Bear Lake area, Northwest Territories Parts of NTS 86 K, 86 L, 86 M, 86 N and 96 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, J.S.; Jackson, J.E.; O' Neil, C.E. [AMEC Americas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Earth and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    The Edaiila study area of interest is located in the Deline District of the Sahtu Settlement area in the Northwest Territories. It lies in the Proterozoic Bear geologic province of the Canadian Shield. The area is currently covered by prospecting claims and is likely undergoing exploration for uranium, precious metals, base metals and diamonds. This document presented a Phase 1 non-renewable resource assessment (NRA) of the area that was completed as part of the Northwest Territories Protect Area Strategy (PAS). It presented compiled historical information, provided a preliminary resource assessment and made recommendations for further Phase 2 studies. This region is within the continuous permafrost zone and is characterized by a high subarctic climate. The study area straddles the tree line and contains vegetation typical of taiga and tundra regions. The bedrock covering the flat to gently rolling topography is covered by undulating glacial drift, raised beaches and outwash deposits. About 25 per cent of the area is covered by wetlands. The Bear province is subdivided into two major domains, the Wopmay orogen and the Coppermine homocline. In the eastern portion of the study area, basement rocks are part of the Great Bear magmatic zone and are locally exposed in the Fault River area. Although basement rocks in the western portion of the study area are not exposed, they are assumed to be composed of the Hottah terrane. 86 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs., 4 appendices.

  11. Decision support system for optimally managing water resources to meet multiple objectives in the Savannah River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Managers of large river basins face conflicting demands for water resources such as wildlife habitat, water supply, wastewater assimilative capacity, flood control, hydroelectricity, and recreation. The Savannah River Basin, for example, has experienced three major droughts since 2000 that resulted in record low water levels in its reservoirs, impacting dependent economies for years. The Savannah River estuary contains two municipal water intakes and the ecologically sensitive freshwater tidal marshes of the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. The Port of Savannah is the fourth busiest in the United States, and modifications to the harbor to expand ship traffic since the 1970s have caused saltwater to migrate upstream, reducing the freshwater marsh’s acreage more than 50 percent. A planned deepening of the harbor includes flow-alteration features to minimize further migration of salinity, whose effectiveness will only be known after all construction is completed.One of the challenges of large basin management is the optimization of water use through ongoing regional economic development, droughts, and climate change. This paper describes a model of the Savannah River Basin designed to continuously optimize regulated flow to meet prioritized objectives set by resource managers and stakeholders. The model was developed from historical data using machine learning, making it more accurate and adaptable to changing conditions than traditional models. The model is coupled to an optimization routine that computes the daily flow needed to most efficiently meet the water-resource management objectives. The model and optimization routine are packaged in a decision support system that makes it easy for managers and stakeholders to use. Simulation results show that flow can be regulated to substantially reduce salinity intrusions in the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, while conserving more water in the reservoirs. A method for using the model to assess the effectiveness of

  12. An Inventory and Evaluation of Architectural and Engineering Resources of the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-25

    coordinated multidisciplinary study of both the architectural and engineering resources of the National Area. Both research b1 orientation and...South Fork just north of Rugby , and traveled through the site where Jamestown, Tennessee, now stands. A third trail, the Chickamauga Path, left the...Thomas Hughes (1881), the founder of the English colony of Rugby , Tennessee, described his neighbors in the Big South Fork area as mostly poor men

  13. The Effect of Environmental Regulation on Employment in Resource-Based Areas of China-An Empirical Research Based on the Mediating Effect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenbin; Wang, Hui; Ying, Huihui

    2017-12-19

    While environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious, many countries are adopting policies to control pollution. At the same time, the environmental regulation will inevitably affect economic and social development, especially employment growth. The environmental regulation will not only affect the scale of employment directly, but it will also have indirect effects by stimulating upgrades in the industrial structure and in technological innovation. This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation on employment, using a mediating model based on the data from five typical resource-based provinces in China from 2000 to 2015. The estimation is performed based on the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. The results show that the implementation of environmental regulation in resource-based areas has both a direct effect and a mediating effect on employment. These findings provide policy implications for these resource-based areas to promote the coordinating development between the environment and employment.

  14. Multiple Drivers of Local (Non- Compliance in Community-Based Marine Resource Management: Case Studies from the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne R. Rohe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes of marine conservation and related management interventions depend to a large extent on people's compliance with these rule systems. In the South Pacific, community-based marine resource management (CBMRM has gained wide recognition as a strategy for the sustainable management of marine resources. In current practice, CBMRM initiatives often build upon customary forms of marine governance, integrating scientific advice and management principles in collaboration with external partners. However, diverse socio-economic developments as well as limited legal mandates can challenge these approaches. Compliance with and effective (legally-backed enforcement of local management strategies constitute a growing challenge for communities—often resulting in considerable impact on the success or failure of CBMRM. Marine management arrangements are highly dynamic over time, and similarly compliance with rule systems tends to change depending on context. Understanding the factors contributing to (non- compliance in a given setting is key to the design and function of adaptive management approaches. Yet, few empirical studies have looked in depth into the dynamics around local (non- compliance with local marine tenure rules under the transforming management arrangements. Using two case studies from Solomon Islands and Fiji, we investigate what drives local (non- compliance with CBMRM and what hinders or supports its effective enforcement. The case studies reveal that non-compliance is mainly driven by: (1 diminishing perceived legitimacy of local rules and rule-makers; (2 increased incentives to break rules due to market access and/ or lack of alternative income; and (3 relatively weak enforcement of local rules (i.e., low perceptions of risk from sanctions for rule-breaking. These drivers do not stand alone but can act together and add up to impair effective management. We further analyze how enforcement of CBMRM is challenged through a range of

  15. Foreign Language Folio. A Guide to Cultural Resources and Field Trip Opportunities in the San Francisco Bay Area for Teachers and Students of Foreign Languages, 1983-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.

    A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…

  16. Long-lasting novelty-induced neuronal reverberation during slow-wave sleep in multiple forebrain areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidarta Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of experience-dependent brain reactivation during both slow-wave (SW and rapid eye-movement (REM sleep led to the notion that the consolidation of recently acquired memory traces requires neural replay during sleep. To date, however, several observations continue to undermine this hypothesis. To address some of these objections, we investigated the effects of a transient novel experience on the long-term evolution of ongoing neuronal activity in the rat forebrain. We observed that spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal ensemble activity originally produced by the tactile exploration of novel objects recurred for up to 48 h in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, putamen, and thalamus. This novelty-induced recurrence was characterized by low but significant correlations values. Nearly identical results were found for neuronal activity sampled when animals were moving between objects without touching them. In contrast, negligible recurrence was observed for neuronal patterns obtained when animals explored a familiar environment. While the reverberation of past patterns of neuronal activity was strongest during SW sleep, waking was correlated with a decrease of neuronal reverberation. REM sleep showed more variable results across animals. In contrast with data from hippocampal place cells, we found no evidence of time compression or expansion of neuronal reverberation in any of the sampled forebrain areas. Our results indicate that persistent experience-dependent neuronal reverberation is a general property of multiple forebrain structures. It does not consist of an exact replay of previous activity, but instead it defines a mild and consistent bias towards salient neural ensemble firing patterns. These results are compatible with a slow and progressive process of memory consolidation, reflecting novelty-related neuronal ensemble relationships that seem to be context- rather than stimulus-specific. Based on our current and previous results

  17. Individual mediodorsal thalamic neurons project to multiple areas of the rat prefrontal cortex: A single neuron-tracing study using virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Eriko; Pan, Shixiu; Furuta, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro R; Iwai, Haruki; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Ohno, Sachi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Goto, Tetsuya; Hioki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has an important role in a variety of cognitive and executive processes, and is generally defined by its reciprocal connections with the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD). The rat MD is mainly subdivided into three segments, the medial (MDm), central (MDc), and lateral (MDl) divisions, on the basis of the cytoarchitecture and chemoarchitecture. The MD segments are known to topographically project to multiple prefrontal areas at the population level: the MDm mainly to the prelimbic, infralimbic, and agranular insular areas; the MDc to the orbital and agranular insular areas; and the MDl to the prelimbic and anterior cingulate areas. However, it is unknown whether individual MD neurons project to single or multiple prefrontal cortical areas. In the present study, we visualized individual MD neurons with Sindbis virus vectors, and reconstructed whole structures of MD neurons. While the main cortical projection targets of MDm, MDc, and MDl neurons were generally consistent with those of previous results, it was found that individual MD neurons sent their axon fibers to multiple prefrontal areas, and displayed various projection patterns in the target areas. Furthermore, the axons of single MD neurons were not homogeneously spread, but were rather distributed to form patchy axon arbors approximately 1 mm in diameter. The multiple-area projections and patchy axon arbors of single MD neurons might be able to coactivate cortical neuron groups in distant prefrontal areas simultaneously. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity of the projection patterns is likely, to recruit the different sets of cortical neurons, and thus contributes to a variety of prefrontal functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:166-185, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. WASTE OF LOCAL RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT – AN ATTEMPT OF THE PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to explore the real problem of wasting local resources, which is in opposition to the principles of sustainable development, understood as avoiding waste of any resources. The article highlights the key manifestations of this problem and its implication for rural development. Some actions realised in the world are also mentioned – their implementation contributes to the prevention of this phenomenon.

  19. Sustainable and resource-conserving utilization of global land areas and biomass; Globale Landflaechen und Biomasse nachhaltig und ressourcenschonend nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jering, Almut; Klatt, Anne; Seven, Jan; Ehlers, Knut; Guenther, Jens; Ostermeier, Andreas; Moench, Lars

    2012-10-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the state of the art of biomass based land use as well as on existing and future global development trends. An ecologically compatible and socially equitable utilization of resources as well as priorities in the production and utilization of biomass are described in order to achieve their goals. Approaches to action, measures and policy recommendations are presented with respect to the development of a globally sustainable, resource-conserving utilization of land.

  20. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future

  1. A leader-follower-interactive method for regional water resources management with considering multiple water demands and eco-environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the mathematical formulation and implementations of a synergistic optimization framework based on an understanding of water availability and reliability together with the characteristics of multiple water demands. This framework simultaneously integrates a set of leader-followers-interactive objectives established by different decision makers during the synergistic optimization. The upper-level model (leader's one) determines the optimal pollutants discharge to satisfy the environmental target. The lower-level model (follower's one) accepts the dispatch requirement from the upper-level one and dominates the optimal water-allocation strategy to maximize economic benefits representing the regional authority. The complicated bi-level model significantly improves upon the conventional programming methods through the mutual influence and restriction between the upper- and lower-level decision processes, particularly when limited water resources are available for multiple completing users. To solve the problem, a bi-level interactive solution algorithm based on satisfactory degree is introduced into the decision-making process for measuring to what extent the constraints are met and the objective reaches its optima. The capabilities of the proposed model are illustrated through a real-world case study of water resources management system in the district of Fengtai located in Beijing, China. Feasible decisions in association with water resources allocation, wastewater emission and pollutants discharge would be sequentially generated for balancing the objectives subject to the given water-related constraints, which can enable Stakeholders to grasp the inherent conflicts and trade-offs between the environmental and economic interests. The performance of the developed bi-level model is enhanced by comparing with single-level models. Moreover, in consideration of the uncertainty in water demand and availability, sensitivity analysis and policy analysis are

  2. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  3. Revision and partial analysis of the information of Forestall Reserves, Districts of Integrated Handling of renewable natural resources and special handling areas, declared in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Martinez, Ingrid Vanesa

    2002-01-01

    A revision and a partial analysis is made of the information of Forestall Reserves, Districts of Integrated Handling of renewable natural resources and Areas of Special Handling in Colombia whose main purpose is the conservation and the sustainable handling of the natural resources for the maintenance of the goods and services, derived of the forest, however, these areas are under constant intervention that which has caused the subtraction of considerable regions of the forestall reserves. With this revision and analysis it is looked for to support to the General Address of Ecosystems of the Environment Ministry, with the purpose of impelling the process of consolidation of an upgraded of information system that it guides the classification, handling and administration of these Areas

  4. The value of a polar bear: evaluating the role of a multiple-use resource in the Nunavut mixed economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsley, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a common pool resource that contributes to both the subsistence and monetary aspects of the Nunavut mixed economy through its use as food, the sale of hides in the fur trade, and sport hunt outfitting. Sport hunting is more financially profitable than subsistence hunting; however, the proportion of the polar bear quota devoted to the sport hunt has become relatively stable at approximately 20% across Nunavut. This ratio suggests local Inuit organizations are not using a neoclassical economic model based on profit maximization. This paper examines local-level hunting organizations and their institutions (as sets of rules) governing the sport and Inuit subsistence hunts from both formalist and substantivist economic perspectives. It concludes that profit maximization is used within the sport hunting sphere, which fits a neoclassical model of economic rationality. A second and parallel system, better viewed through the substantivist perspective, demonstrates that the communities focus on longer-term goals to maintain and reproduce the socio-economic system of the subsistence economy, which is predicated on maintaining social, human-environment, and human-polar bear relations.

  5. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara); Prospeccion de recursos hidricos subterraneos en el area de Zug (Tiris, Sahara Occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, B.; Villarroya, F.; Rebollo, L. F.; Olaiz, A.; Lopez, J.

    2015-07-01

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  6. Study on resources and environmental data integration towards data warehouse construction covering trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Song, J.; Gao, M.; Zhu, L.

    2014-02-01

    The trans-boundary area between Northern China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia of Russia is a continuous geographical area located in north eastern Asia. Many common issues in this region need to be addressed based on a uniform resources and environmental data warehouse. Based on the practice of joint scientific expedition, the paper presented a data integration solution including 3 steps, i.e., data collection standards and specifications making, data reorganization and process, data warehouse design and development. A series of data collection standards and specifications were drawn up firstly covering more than 10 domains. According to the uniform standard, 20 resources and environmental survey databases in regional scale, and 11 in-situ observation databases were reorganized and integrated. North East Asia Resources and Environmental Data Warehouse was designed, which included 4 layers, i.e., resources layer, core business logic layer, internet interoperation layer, and web portal layer. The data warehouse prototype was developed and deployed initially. All the integrated data in this area can be accessed online.

  7. Study on resources and environmental data integration towards data warehouse construction covering trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Song, J; Gao, M; Zhu, L

    2014-01-01

    The trans-boundary area between Northern China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia of Russia is a continuous geographical area located in north eastern Asia. Many common issues in this region need to be addressed based on a uniform resources and environmental data warehouse. Based on the practice of joint scientific expedition, the paper presented a data integration solution including 3 steps, i.e., data collection standards and specifications making, data reorganization and process, data warehouse design and development. A series of data collection standards and specifications were drawn up firstly covering more than 10 domains. According to the uniform standard, 20 resources and environmental survey databases in regional scale, and 11 in-situ observation databases were reorganized and integrated. North East Asia Resources and Environmental Data Warehouse was designed, which included 4 layers, i.e., resources layer, core business logic layer, internet interoperation layer, and web portal layer. The data warehouse prototype was developed and deployed initially. All the integrated data in this area can be accessed online

  8. Multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas: the case of Greater Mapungubwe straddling parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinthumule Ndidzulafhi Innocent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs have recently emerged as the 21st century approach to managing protected areas in southern Africa. Unlike national parks and other protected areas that place emphasis only on the protection of plant and animal species within their borders, transfrontier conservation areas promote conservation beyond the borders of protected areas. Consequently, this mega-conservation initiative encourage multiple land-use practices with the purpose of improving rural livelihoods whilst promoting biodiversity conservation. Thus, land parcels under different forms of tenure are brought together into a common nature conservation project. This study argues that the integration of various land-use practices within one area benefits conservation goals at the expense of local communities and irrigation farmers. To substantiate this argument, the study draws on fieldwork material collected in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area spanning parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study concludes that multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas is only promoted by wildlife managers to gain access to extra land.

  9. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  10. Quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatio-temporal change of water resources to secure the amount of water available. Large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes uncertainty and additive effect of the environmental impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of megaprojects in both construction and operation phases has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis, we identified the influencing factors and established the diagnostic index system. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to simulate and predict ecological and environmental responses of the water resource area in a changing environment. The emphasis of impact evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment below the dam sites. In the end, an overall evaluation of the comprehensive influence of the project was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects: the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water extraction. The impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

  11. Quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Li, H. H.; Wang, G.; Qin, T. L.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatio-temporal change of water resources to secure the amount of water available. Large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes uncertainty and additive effect of the environmental impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of megaprojects in both construction and operation phases has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis, we identified the influencing factors and established the diagnostic index system. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to simulate and predict ecological and environmental responses of the water resource area in a changing environment. The emphasis of impact evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment below the dam sites. In the end, an overall evaluation of the comprehensive influence of the project was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects: the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water extraction. The impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

  12. SD simulation study on degraded farmland policy on farming-pastoral area under the constrains of water resources-Taking Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D. P.; Zhao, B.; Li, T. S.; Zhu, J. W.; Yu, M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources are the primary factor in restricting the sustainable development of farming-pastoral regions. To support the sustainable development of water resources, whether or not the land uses patterns of farming-pastoral areas is a reasonably important issue. This paper takes Tongliao city as example for the purpose of sustainably developing the farming-pastoral area in the north. Several scientific preductions and evaluations were conducted to study the farming-pastoral landuse pattern, which is the key problem that effects sustainable development of farming-pastoral areas. The paper then proposes that 1:7 landuse pattern is suitable for the sustainable development of farming-pastotal area. Based on the analysis of the research findings on sustainable development of farming-pastoral area, the paper established a suitability evaluation indicators system of degraded farmland policies in Tongliao city, and used an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method to determine the weight to run system dynamic (SD) model. The simulation results were then obtained on social economic ecological development in Tongliao city under different degraded farmland policies, and used the comprehensive evaluation model to optimize the results. It is concluded that stabilizing the policy of degraded farmland policy is the preferential policy in Tongliao, which provides useful theoretical research for the sustainable development of farming-pastoral area.

  13. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLORE00000 L63500000.DO0000.LXSS021H0000.HAG11-0203] Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy...

  14. Psychological distress of parents in conflict areas: the mediating role of war atrocities, normative stressors and family resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2017-04-01

    Despite the ongoing controversy regarding which types of stressors or resources contribute to psychological distress, there has been little research examining the relationship between war trauma, normative stressors, family resources for management and psychopathology. This study investigated the differences between mothers and fathers in psychological distress, normative stressors and war atrocities experienced, and family's resources for management. It was hypothesized that a combination of risk variables and protective variables would be predictive of psychological distress in parents. Questionnaires were used with 205 Palestinian parents from Gaza Strip. Mothers had more psychiatric disorders than did fathers. Although, mothers and fathers were exposed to comparable levels of normative stressors, mothers concerns about intrafamily strains, and family legal violations were greater than they were for fathers. Results revealed that fathers possess a larger repertoire of resources for management when compared to mothers reflected in esteem and communication, mastery and health, extended family social support and financial well-being. However, mastery and health seem to buffer the effect of war traumas and normative stressors on neuroticism in both parents. The different patterns of predictor-outcome relations have practical as well as theoretical implications.

  15. A Cultural Resources Inventory and Historical Evaluation of the Smoky Atmospheric Nuclear Test, Areas 8, 9, and 10, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); King, Maureen L. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Beck, Colleen M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Falvey, Lauren W. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Menocal, Tatianna M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report presents the results of a National Historic Preservation Act Section 106 cultural resources inventory and historical evaluation of the 1957 Smoky atmospheric test location on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) was tasked to conduct a cultural resources study of the Smoky test area as a result of a proposed undertaking by the Department of Energy Environmental Management. This undertaking involves investigating Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 for potential contaminants of concern as delineated in a Corrective Action Investigation Plan. CAU 550 is an area that spatially overlaps portions of the Smoky test location. Smoky, T-2c, was a 44 kt atmospheric nuclear test detonated at 5:30 am on August 31, 1957, on top of a 213.4 m (700 ft) 200 ton tower (T-2c) in Area 8 of the NNSS. Smoky was a weapons related test of the Plumbbob series (number 19) and part of the Department of Defense Exercise Desert Rock VII and VIII. The cultural resources effort involved the development of a historic context based on archival documents and engineering records, the inventory of the cultural resources in the Smoky test area and an associated military trench location in Areas 9 and 10, and an evaluation of the National Register eligibility of the cultural resources. The inventory of the Smoky test area resulted in the identification of structures, features, and artifacts related to the physical development of the test location and the post-test remains. The Smoky test area was designated historic district D104 and coincides with a historic archaeological site recorded as 26NY14794 and the military trenches designed for troop observation, site 26NY14795. Sites 26NY14794 and 26NY14795 are spatially discrete with the trenches located 4.3 km (2.7 mi) southeast of the Smoky ground zero. As a result, historic district D104 is discontiguous and in total it covers 151.4 hectares (374 acres). The Smoky test location, recorded as historic

  16. Faith as a Resource in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Is Associated with a Positive Interpretation of Illness and Experience of Gratitude/Awe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional anonymous survey with standardized questionnaires was to investigate which resources to cope were used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. We focussed on patients' conviction that their faith might be a strong hold in difficult times and on their engagement in different forms of spirituality. Consecutively 213 German patients (75% women; mean age 43 ± 11 years were enrolled. Fifty-five percent regarded themselves as neither religious nor spiritual (R−S−, while 31% describe themselves as religious. For 29%, faith was a strong hold in difficult times. This resource was neither related to patients' EDSS scores, and life affections, fatigue, negative mood states, life satisfaction nor to Positive attitudes. Instead it was moderately associated with a Reappraisal strategy (i.e., and positive interpretation of illness and experience of gratitude/awe. Compared to spiritual/religious patients, R−S− individuals had significantly (P<.0001 lower Reappraisal scores and lower engagement in specific forms of spiritual practices. The ability to reflect on what is essential in life, to appreciate and value life, and also the conviction that illness may have meaning and could be regarded as a chance for development was low in R−S− individuals which either may have no specific interest or are less willing to reflect these issues.

  17. Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources.

  18. New indices for home nursing care resource disparities in rural and urban areas, based on geocoding and geographic distance barriers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyang-Woei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-10-08

    Aging in place is the crucial object of long-term care policy worldwide. Approximately 15.6-19.4% of people aged 15 or above live with a disability, and 15.3% of them have moderate or severe disabilities. The allocation of home nursing care services is therefore an important issue. Service providers in Taiwan vary substantially across regions, and between rural and urban areas. There are no appropriate indices for describing the capacity of providers that it is due to the distances from care recipients. This study therefore aimed to describe and compare distance barriers for home nursing care providers using indices of the "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance". This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012 and 2013 using geocoding and a geographic information system to identify the distance from the providers' locations to participants' homes in urban (Taipei City) and rural (Hualien County) areas in Taiwan. Data were collected in-person by professionals in Taiwanese hospitals using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The indices were calculated using regression curves, and the first inflection points were determined as the points on the curves where the first and second derivatives equaled 0. There were 5627 participants from urban areas and 956 from rural areas. In urban areas, the profit willing distance was 550-600 m, and we were unable to identify them in rural areas. This demonstrates that providers may need to supply services even when there is little profit. The tolerance limited distance were 1600-1650 m in urban areas and 1950-2000 m in rural areas. In rural areas, 33.3% of those living inside the tolerance limited distance and there was no provider within this distance, but this figure fell to just 13.9% in urban areas. There were strong disparities between urban and rural areas in home nursing care resource allocation. Our new "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance" are

  19. Construction area expansion in relation to economic-demographic development and land resource in the Pearl River Delta of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zhijia; Huang, Heqing; Werners, Saskia E.; Yan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1979, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China has experienced rapid socioeconomic development along with a fast expansion of construction area. Affected by both natural and human factors, a complex interdependency is found among the regional changes in construction area, GDP and population. A

  20. A pilot mixed-methods evaluation of MS INFoRm: a self-directed fatigue management resource for individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Nadine; Turpin, Karen; Petrin, Julie; Smyth, Penny; Finlayson, Marcia

    2018-06-01

    Fatigue management interventions for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often feature structured programmes requiring repeated, in-person attendance that is not possible for all individuals. We sought to determine whether MS INFoRm, a self-directed fatigue management resource for individuals with MS, was worth further, more rigorous evaluation. Our indicators of worthiness were actual use of the resource by participants over 3 months, reductions in fatigue impact and increases in self-efficacy, and participant reports of changes in fatigue management knowledge and behaviours. This was a single-group, mixed-methods, before-after pilot study in individuals with MS reporting mild to moderate fatigue. Thirty-five participants were provided with MS INFoRm by a USB flash drive to use at home for 3 months, on their own volition. Twenty-three participants completed all standardized questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and study process measures. Participants reported actively using MS INFoRm over the 3-month study period (median total time spent using MS INFoRm=315 min) as well as significantly lower overall fatigue impact (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale: t=2.6, P=0.01), increased knowledge of MS fatigue (z=-2.8, P=0.01) and greater confidence in managing MS fatigue (z=-3.3, P=0.001). Individuals with significant reductions in fatigue impact also reported behavioural changes including tracking fatigue, better communication with others, greater awareness, improved quality of life and being more proactive. This study provides evidence that further rigorous evaluation of MS INFoRm, a self-directed resource for managing fatigue, is worth pursuing.

  1. Guidelines of the Development and the Supporting Learning Resources by the Community Participatory of Case Study for the Schools Under Secondary Education Service Area Office 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisan Payungwong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed 1 to study the components of guidelines of the development and the supporting learning resources by the community participatory of case study for the schools under Secondary Education Service Area Office 24 and 2 to investigate guidelines of guidelines of the development and the supporting learning resources by the community participatory of case study for the schools under Secondary Education Service Area Office 24. This research was conducted into two phases. The first phase was investigated the components and indicators of guidelines of the development and the supporting learning resources by the community participatory of case study for the schools under Secondary Education Service Area Office 24. The samples group were five respondents to provide the information by an assessment form. The second phase was conducted to find out the guidelines of development and supporting learning resources by community participatory of case study which included four steps. The first step was the focus group of case study schools with best practice. The samples were fourteen key informants from 2 schools. There were school directors, deputy director of academic administration, head of learning, village leaders, wisdom villagers and religious leaders. The data were collected by using focus group discussion form. The second step was draft the develop management guideline of academic administration. The sample group were 7 professionals. The data were collected by using the evaluation from of propriety/feasibility/utility of the develop management guideline of academic administration. The data were analyzed in average ( and standard deviation (S.D.. The third step was group discussion for evaluated the applying of the develop management guideline of academic administration. The samples group were 14 key informants from 2 schools. There were school directors, deputy director of academic administration, head of learning, village leaders

  2. Assessment of Natural Resource Potential of a Territory for Planning of Investment Development and Construction in Suburban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Usoltceva Marina; Volkova Yulia; Radchenko Artyom; Guseva Inna; Makarova Tatiana; Garmanov Vitaly; Wenkel Karl-Otto

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the types of assessment and assessment process of the natural environment. A review of judgments about the ecological and geo-ecological assessment of the environment by known academics, environmentalists, physical geographers, geobotanists is made here. In this paper the method of the environmental assessment of natural resource potential within the North-West region of Russia is proposed. Authors divide this method into blocks, which are described in the paper. A produce...

  3. Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

    2009-10-01

    Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system.

  4. Location On Natural Valuable Areas As A Condition For The Development Of Enterprises Based On The Use Of Natural Resources – The Lublin Voivodeship (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwolińska-Ligaj Magdalena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify opportunities and constraints of the development of companies whose business is based on the exploitation of natural resources resulting from their location in areas of natural value. The study area consisted of 40 municipalities. Five companies were selected for the study in each municipality. The study used the method of diagnostic survey using a questionnaire interview. The results obtained give rise to a finding that economic activity based on the use of local natural resources, taking into account the need to protect the natural environment, is a legitimate direction and an opportunity for the development of local economies of areas of natural value. However, given the limitations of economic activities in natural valuable areas, it requires support, mainly with information and finance. The most important limitations of economic activities in natural valuable areas include the lack of preferential financial instruments, difficulties of the investment process and the lack of financial compensation for profits lost due to the location.

  5. Multiple and Single Green Area Measurements and Classification Using Phantom Images in Comparison with Derived Experimental Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaid, N. A. M.

    2017-11-01

    In many circumstances, it is difficult for humans to reach some areas, due to its topography, personal safety, or security regulations in the country. Governments and persons need to calculate those areas and classify the green parts for reclamation to benefit from it.To solve this problem, this research proposes to use a phantom air plane to capture a digital image for the targeted area, then use a segmentation algorithm to separate the green space and calculate it's area. It was necessary to deal with two problems. The first is the variable elevation at which an image was taken, which leads to a change in the physical area of each pixel. To overcome this problem a fourth degree polynomial was fit to some experimental data. The second problem was the existence of different unconnected pieces of green areas in a single image, but we might be interested only in one of them. To solve this problem, the probability of classifying the targeted area as green was increased, while the probability of other untargeted sections was decreased by the inclusion of parts of it as non-green. A practical law was also devised to measure the target area in the digital image for comparison purposes with practical measurements and the polynomial fit.

  6. Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at a High-Priority Area on the Utah Testing and Training Range–South (UTTR–S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

    2012-04-01

    beneath the graben in areas with temperatures as high as 140 C (284 F). In conclusion, all of the field data collected during 2011 and documented in the Appendices of this report indicate that there is reasonable potential for a viable geothermal resource along faults that bound the Wendover graben. Prospects for a system capable of binary electrical generation are especially good, and the possibility of a flash steam system is also within reason. The next steps should focus on securing the necessary funding for detailed geophysical surveys and for drilling a set of temperature gradient wells to further evaluate the resource, and to focus deep exploration efforts in the most promising areas.

  7. A System Method for the Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Mountain Watershed Areas: The Case of the "Giffre" Watershed (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnay, Bérengère

    2011-07-01

    In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management ( IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions.

  8. Assessing resources for implementing a community directed intervention (CDI) strategy in delivering multiple health interventions in urban poor communities in Southwestern Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Jegede, Ayodele S; Falade, Catherine O; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2013-10-24

    Many simple, affordable and effective disease control measures have had limited impact due to poor access especially by the poorer populations (urban and rural) and inadequate community participation. A proven strategy to address the problem of access to health interventions is the Community Directed Interventions (CDI) approach, which has been used successfully in rural areas. This study was carried out to assess resources for the use of a CDI strategy in delivering health interventions in poorly-served urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. A formative study was carried out in eight urban poor communities in the Ibadan metropolis in the Oyo State. Qualitative methods comprising 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members and 73 key informant interviews (KIIs) with community leaders, programme managers, community-based organisations (CBOs), non-government organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders at federal, state and local government levels were used to collect data to determine prevalent diseases and healthcare delivery services, as well as to explore the potential resources for a CDI strategy. All interviews were audio recorded. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Malaria, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea and measles were found to be prevalent in children, while hypertension and diabetes topped the list of diseases among adults. Healthcare was financed mainly by out-of-pocket expenses. Cost and location were identified as hindrances to utilisation of health facilities; informal cooperatives (esusu) were available to support those who could not pay for care. Immunisation, nutrition, reproductive health, tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy, environmental health, malaria and HIV/AIDs control programmes were the ongoing interventions. Delivery strategies included house-to-house, home-based treatment, health education and campaigns. Community participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of development projects was

  9. RSW-MCFP: A Resource-Oriented Solid Waste Management System for a Mixed Rural-Urban Area through Monte Carlo Simulation-Based Fuzzy Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of global population and economy continually increases the waste volumes and consequently creates challenges to handle and dispose solid wastes. It becomes more challenging in mixed rural-urban areas (i.e., areas of mixed land use for rural and urban purposes where both agricultural waste (e.g., manure and municipal solid waste are generated. The efficiency and confidence of decisions in current management practices significantly rely on the accurate information and subjective judgments, which are usually compromised by uncertainties. This study proposed a resource-oriented solid waste management system for mixed rural-urban areas. The system is featured by a novel Monte Carlo simulation-based fuzzy programming approach. The developed system was tested by a real-world case with consideration of various resource-oriented treatment technologies and the associated uncertainties. The modeling results indicated that the community-based bio-coal and household-based CH4 facilities were necessary and would become predominant in the waste management system. The 95% confidence intervals of waste loadings to the CH4 and bio-coal facilities were 387, 450 and 178, 215 tonne/day (mixed flow, respectively. In general, the developed system has high capability in supporting solid waste management for mixed rural-urban areas in a cost-efficient and sustainable manner under uncertainty.

  10. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  11. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  12. Onshore-offshore wind energy resource evaluation based on synergetic use of multiple satellite data and meteorological stations in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianglin; Duan, Yuewei; Liu, Yongxue; Jin, Song; Sun, Chao

    2018-05-01

    The demand for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy is increasing as traditional sources of energy such as oil, coal, and natural gas, can no longer satisfy growing global energy demands. Among renewable energies, wind energy is the most prominent due to its low, manageable impacts on the local environment. Based on meteorological data from 2006 to 2014 and multi-source satellite data (i.e., Advanced Scatterometer, Quick Scatterometer, and Windsat) from 1999 to 2015, an assessment of the onshore and offshore wind energy potential in Jiangsu Province was performed by calculating the average wind speed, average wind direction, wind power density, and annual energy production (AEP). Results show that Jiangsu has abundant wind energy resources, which increase from inland to coastal areas. In onshore areas, wind power density is predominantly less than 200 W/m2, while in offshore areas, wind power density is concentrates in the range of 328-500 W/m2. Onshore areas comprise more than 13,573.24 km2, mainly located in eastern coastal regions with good wind farm potential. The total wind power capacity in onshore areas could be as much as 2.06 x 105 GWh. Meanwhile, offshore wind power generation in Jiangsu Province is calculated to reach 2 x 106 GWh, which is approximately four times the electricity demand of the entire Jiangsu Province. This study validates the effective application of Advanced Scatterometer, Quick Scatterometer, and Windsat data to coastal wind energy monitoring in Jiangsu. Moreover, the methodology used in this study can be effectively applied to other similar coastal zones.

  13. Summary of Natural Resources that Potentially Influence Human Intrusion at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    In 1993, Raytheon Services Nevada completed a review of natural resource literature and other sources to identify potentially exploitable resources and potential future land uses near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, that could lead to future inadvertent human intrusion and subsequent release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. National Security Technologies, LLC, revised the original limited-distribution document to conform to current editorial standards and U.S. Department of Energy requirements for public release. The researchers examined the potential for future development of sand, gravel, mineral, petroleum, water resources, and rural land uses, such as agriculture, grazing, and hunting. The study was part of the performance assessment for Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes. Sand and gravel are not considered exploitable site resources because the materials are common throughout the area and the quality at the Area 5 RWMS is not ideal for typical commercial uses. Site information also indicates a very low mineral potential for the area. None of the 23 mining districts in southern Nye County report occurrences of economic mineral deposits in unconsolidated alluvium. The potential for oil and natural gas is low for southern Nye County. No occurrences of coal, tar sand, or oil shale on the NTS are reported in available literature. Several potential future uses of water were considered. Agricultural irrigation is impractical due to poor soils and existing water supply regulations. Use of water for geothermal energy development is unlikely because temperatures are too low for typical commercial applications using current technology. Human consumption of water has the most potential for cause of intrusion. The economics of future water needs may create a demand for the development of deep carbonate aquifers in the region. However, the Area 5 RWMS is not an optimal location for

  14. Hydrogeology of the Old Faithful area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and its relevance to natural resources and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Foley, Duncan; Fournier, Robert O.; Heasler, Henry P.; Hinckley, Bern; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Susong, David D.

    2014-01-01

    A panel of leading experts (The Old Faithful Science Review Panel) was convened by Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to review and summarize the geological and hydrological understanding that can inform National Park Service management of the Upper Geyser Basin area. We give an overview of present geological and hydrological knowledge of the Old Faithful hydrothermal (hot water) system and related thermal areas in the Upper Geyser Basin. We prioritize avenues for improving our understanding of key knowledge gaps that limit informed decision-making regarding human use in this fragile natural landscape. Lastly, we offer guidelines to minimize impacts to the hydrothermal system that could be used to aid decisions by park management.

  15. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplow, William J. [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States); Warren, Ian [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States)

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  16. Water resources in the Klein Karoo: the challenge of sustainable development in a water-scarce area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (1), 33–42. 39. Booysen J. and Rowswell D.I. (1983). The drought problem in the Karoo areas. Proc. Grassl. Soc. S. Afr. 18, 40–45. 40. du Pisani L.G., Fouche H.J. and Venter J.C. (1998). Assessing rangeland drought in South Africa. Agric. Syst. 57...

  17. The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area seagrasses: Managing this iconic Australian ecosystem resource for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Robert G.; Rasheed, Michael A.; McKenzie, Len J.; Grech, Alana; York, Paul H.; Sheaves, Marcus; McKenna, Skye; Bryant, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA) includes one of the world's largest areas of seagrass (35,000 km2) encompassing approximately 20% of the world's species. Mapping and monitoring programs sponsored by the Australian and Queensland Governments and Queensland Port Authorities have tracked a worrying decrease in abundance and area since 2007. This decline has almost certainly been the result of a series of severe tropical storms and associated floods exacerbating existing human induced stressors. A complex variety of marine and terrestrial management actions and plans have been implemented to protect seagrass and other habitats in the GBRWHA. For seagrasses, these actions are inadequate. They provide an impression of effective protection of seagrasses; reduce the sense of urgency needed to trigger action; and waste the valuable and limited supply of "conservation capital". There is a management focus on ports, driven by public concerns about high profile development projects, which exaggerates the importance of these relatively concentrated impacts in comparison to the total range of threats and stressors. For effective management of seagrass at the scale of the GBRWHA, more emphasis needs to be placed on the connectivity between seagrass meadow health, watersheds, and all terrestrial urban and agricultural development associated with human populations. The cumulative impacts to seagrass from coastal and marine processes in the GBRWHA are not evenly distributed, with a mosaic of high and low vulnerability areas. This provides an opportunity to make choices for future coastal development plans that minimise stress on seagrass meadows.

  18. 75 FR 78988 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Allocation Procedures and Call for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is publishing this... customers and for other appropriate purposes as determined by Western. These allocation procedures and call for applications, in conjunction with the Loveland Area Projects (LAP) Final Post-1989 Marketing Plan...

  19. REPAiR: REsource Management in Peri-urban AReas: Going Beyond Urban Metabolism : D 5.1: PULLs Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, M; Amenta, Libera; Attademo, Anna; Cerreta, Maria; Formato, E.; Remoy, Hilde; van der Leer, J.G.G.; Varju, Viktor; Arciniegas, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    REPAiR will provide local and regional authorities with an innovative transdisciplinary open source Geodesign Decision Support Environment (GDSE) developed and implemented in Living Labs (LLs) context, in six metropolitan areas namely Naples, Ghent, Hamburg, Pécs, Łódź and Amsterdam. LLs are

  20. A statistical approach to rank multiple priorities in Environmental Epidemiology: an example from high-risk areas in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Catelan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In Environmental Epidemiology, long lists of relative risk estimates from exposed populations are compared to a reference to scrutinize the dataset for extremes. Here, inference on disease profiles for given areas, or for fixed disease population signatures, are of interest and summaries can be obtained averaging over areas or diseases. We have developed a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate posterior rank distributions and we show how to produce league tables of ranks with credibility intervals useful to address the above mentioned inferential problems. Applying the procedure to a real dataset from the report “Environment and Health in Sardinia (Italy” we selected 18 areas characterized by high environmental pressure for industrial, mining or military activities investigated for 29 causes of deaths among male residents. Ranking diseases highlighted the increased burdens of neoplastic (cancerous, and non-neoplastic respiratory diseases in the heavily polluted area of Portoscuso. The averaged ranks by disease over areas showed lung cancer among the three highest positions.

  1. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area; Period of Performance: October 2, 1996--May 27, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Neumann, N.; Tom, J.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Bourassa, M.; Bay, K. J.; Sernka, K. J.

    2004-09-01

    Observations of dead raptors at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area triggered concerns on the parts of regulatory agencies, environmental/conservation groups, wildlife resource agencies, and wind and electric utility industries about possible impacts to birds from wind energy development. Bird fatality rates observed at most wind projects are not currently considered significant to individual bird species populations. Although many bird species have observed fatalities, raptors have received the most attention. The primary objective of this study was to estimate and compare bird utilization, fatality rates, and collision risk indices among factors such as bird taxonomic groups, turbine types, and turbine locations within the operating wind plant in the Tehachapi Pass WRA, in south-central California between October 1996 and May 1998.

  2. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of groundwater resources in Deep Creek Valley and adjacent areas, Juab and Tooele Counties, Utah, and Elko and White Pine Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.

    2015-09-18

    The water resources of Deep Creek Valley were assessed during 2012–13 with an emphasis on better understanding the groundwater flow system and groundwater budget. Surface-water resources are limited in Deep Creek Valley and are generally used for agriculture. Groundwater is the predominant water source for most other uses and to supplement irrigation. Most groundwater withdrawal in Deep Creek Valley occurs from the unconsolidated basin-fill deposits, in which conditions are generally unconfined near the mountain front and confined in the lower-altitude parts of the valley. Productive aquifers are also present in fractured bedrock that occurs along the valley margins and beneath the basin-fill deposits. The consolidated-rock and basin-fill aquifers are hydraulically connected in many areas with much of the recharge occurring in the consolidated-rock mountain blocks and most of the discharge occurring from the lower-altitude basin-fill deposits.

  3. GEOMORPHOSITES AS A VALUABLE RESOURCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN A DEPRIVED AREA. THE CASE STUDY OF ANINA KARSTIC REGION (BANAT MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurențiu ARTUGYAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphosites are those landforms that in time, have acquired, a certain value, naming here scientific, cultural, aesthetic, ecological and/or economic. In many papers geomorphosites were associated with natural, relief-related tourist attractions. Those two notions, geomorphosite and natural tourist attraction are not synonymous, because a geomorphosite presents many features that give value to that landform. A geomorphosite is more than just topographic feature and that is the reason for which not all natural attractions are considered geomorphosite. Anina karstic region is synonymous with Anina Mining Area. This area was defined by Vasile Sencu (1977 as the area that is surrounded Anina town and it may be exploited by mining activities. The studied area presents many landforms specific for karst terrains. These features belong to the exokarst (sinkholes, poljies, karrens, gorges, karstic springs, but also to the endokarst (caves, shafts. The area is located in the largest and most compact area of carbonate rocks in Romania, in a typical structural area, Reșiţa-Moldova Nouă Synclinorium. Anina karstic region is an area with many socio-economical problems: poverty, unemployment and depopulation. Many landforms belonging to karst topography may be considered as geomorphosites due to their value (natural, economic, cultural. We believe that if some of these geomorphosites will be included in the touristic objectives, those landforms may generate a social-economic progress in this region, which nowadays is a deprived area. The aim of this paper is to point out that karstic geomorphosites in a deprived are may be a valuable resource.

  4. The effects of ex-situ oil shale mining on groundwater resources in Siwaqa area, southern Jordan, using DRASTIC index and hydrochemical water assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharifa Hind Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy resources in addition to water resources are the most limited resources in Jordan, being one of the fourth poorest countries in water resources, and limitation of surface water resources put huge pressure on groundwater which is the main resource there. High expenses and the increasing prices of oil over all worlds increase the feasibility to mining the oil shale that exists in southern Jordan area, Siwaqa. This study took place to clarify the possible effects of mining and energy production activities on the water resources in that area. Groundwater vulnerability mapping was done for many areas all over the country, including this part. The initiative of this work is to determine the vulnerability under the conditions of removing the bedrock of the oil shale which is described as a con ning layer. Results that are obtained by this work conclude that the oil shale area becomes highly vulnerable to the human activities because of the existing geological structures while it is small and medium vulnerable in the elds in which there are no geological structures. In addition to the structural features and adding the possibility of the oil shale mining from the outcropped areas which will decrease the depth to water table and hence will affect the vulnerability values.  Efectos en las fuentes de agua subterránea de la minería ex situ de esquistos bituminosos, en el área de Siwaqa, al sur de Jordania, a través del índice DRASTIC y la evaluación hidroquímica del agua  Resumen Las fuentes de energía y agua son las más limitadas en Jordania, uno de los cuatro países más pobres en recursos hídricos; además, las limitadas fuentes super ciales hacen de las aguas subterráneas las más importantes. Las ganancias y el precio del petróleo, por su parte, incrementan la viabilidad de la minería de esquistos bituminosos en el sur de Jordania, en la región de Siwaqa. Este estudio se realiza con el  n de establecer los

  5. Thermal and mineral resource exploitation in Angaco department, province of San Juan, Argentina, as therapeutic and recreational resort area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.; Martinez Iillanes, S.; Luccato, M; Herrera, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the development of the Guayaupa thermal and mineral spring water intended as therapeutic and recreational resort area is presented. This area is located on the western piedmont of the Pie de Palo range, Department of Angaco, province of San Juan. From the analysis of the information related to geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, location, accessibility and climate aspects and also to the processing of the Landsat Tms satellite images to evaluate the geomorphologic and flora features an ordered diagnosis of the organization internal reality and its relation with the environment (FODA analysis) is presented. Internal strengths and weaknesses and the external factors that generate both opportunities and/or hazards were identified to define strategy guidelines that meet the legal and environmental standards in force. Results obtained from the strategic planning process conclude the availability and convenience of the project.(author)

  6. Game theory and marine protected areas: th