WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple design points

  1. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, David; Beerens, Koen; Sebestova, Eva; Bendl, Jaroslav; Khare, Sagar; Chaloupkova, Radka; Prokop, Zbynek; Brezovsky, Jan; Baker, David; Damborsky, Jiri

    2015-11-01

    There is great interest in increasing proteins' stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt's reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (ΔTm = 24°C and 21°C) by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  2. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bednar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in increasing proteins' stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt's reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (ΔTm = 24°C and 21°C by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  3. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  4. Turning points in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems

  5. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  6. Supporting Multiple Pointing Devices in Microsoft Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a Microsoft Windows driver including APIs supporting multiple pointing devices is presented. Microsoft Windows does not natively support multiple pointing devices controlling independent cursors, and a number of solutions to this have been implemented by us and...... and others. Here we motivate and describe a general solution, and how user applications can use it by means of a framework. The device driver and the supporting APIs will be made available free of charge. Interested parties can contact the author for more information....

  7. EBTR design-point selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure used to select the design point for the ELMO Bumpy Torus Reactor (EBTR) study is described. The models used in each phase of the selection process are described, with an emphasis placed on the parametric design curves produced by each model. The tradeoffs related to burn physics, stability/equilibrium, electron-ring physics, and magnetics design are discussed. The resulting design point indicates a plasma with a 35-m major radius and a 1-m minor radium operating at an average core-plasma beta of 0.17, which at approx. 30 keV produces an average neutron wall loading of 1.4 MW/m 2 while maintaining key magnet (< 10 T) and total power (less than or equal to 4000 MWt) constraints

  8. Evaluation of multiple emission point facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miltenberger, R.P.; Hull, A.P.; Strachan, S.; Tichler, J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1970, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) assumed responsibility for the environmental aspect of the state's regulatory program for by-product, source, and special nuclear material. The major objective of this study was to provide consultation to NYSDEC and the US NRC to assist NYSDEC in determining if broad-based licensed facilities with multiple emission points were in compliance with NYCRR Part 380. Under this contract, BNL would evaluate a multiple emission point facility, identified by NYSDEC, as a case study. The review would be a nonbinding evaluation of the facility to determine likely dispersion characteristics, compliance with specified release limits, and implementation of the ALARA philosophy regarding effluent release practices. From the data collected, guidance as to areas of future investigation and the impact of new federal regulations were to be developed. Reported here is the case study for the University of Rochester, Strong Memorial Medical Center and Riverside Campus

  9. Preferred design of transfer points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firstbrook, J

    1983-06-01

    The paper reports the results of a study carried out at MRDE on the performance of transfer points. These sites still require a considerable deployment of manpower. The investigations were divided into 3 main sections: mineral handling; chute design; belt cleaning and spillage conveying. In order to achieve a sufficient level of reliability of a transfer system, it is considered that the coal size should not be greater than 250 mm. Different designs of gravity transfer chute were studied and 3 basic designs emerged as being effective : dump chute, curved site entry, and asymmetric side entry. Selection is dependent on conveyor sizes, speeds, and mineral throughput. Individual belt cleaners are not sufficient to clean belts carrying typical run-of-mine material: two cleaners followed by a set of squeeze rollers are recommended. Several designs of spillage conveyor were investigated; at the present time the electro/hydraulic type appears to be the most satisfactory.

  10. Beginning SharePoint Designer 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Windischman, Woodrow W; Rehmani, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Web designers, developers, and IT professionals how to use the new version of SharePoint Designer. Covering both the design and business applications of SharePoint Designer, this complete Wrox guide brings readers thoroughly up to speed on how to use SharePoint Designer in an enterprise. You'll learn to create and modify web pages, use CSS editing tools to modify themes, use Data View to create interactivity with SharePoint and other data, and much more. Coverage includes integration points with Visual Studio, Visio, and InfoPath.: Shows web designers, developers, and IT professionals

  11. Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelling...

  12. Eta Carinae: Viewed from Multiple Vantage Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    The central source of Eta Carinae and its ejecta is a massive binary system buried within a massive interacting wind structure which envelops the two stars. However the hot, less massive companion blows a small cavity in the very massive primary wind, plus ionizes a portion of the massive wind just beyond the wind-wind boundary. We gain insight on this complex structure by examining the spatially-resolved Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra of the central source (0.1") with the wind structure which extends out to nearly an arcsecond (2300AU) and the wind-blown boundaries, plus the ejecta of the Little Homunculus. Moreover, the spatially resolved Very Large Telescope/UltraViolet Echelle Spectrograph (VLT/UVES) stellar spectrum (one arcsecond) and spatially sampled spectra across the foreground lobe of the Homunculus provide us vantage points from different angles relative to line of sight. Examples of wind line profiles of Fe II, and the.highly excited [Fe III], [Ne III], [Ar III] and [S III)], plus other lines will be presented.

  13. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Tripled Fixed Point in Ordered Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laishram Shanjit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present some triple fixed point theorems in partially ordered multiplicative metric spaces depended on another function. Our results generalise the results of [6] and [5].

  15. Multi-lane detection based on multiple vanishing points detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanxiang; Nie, Yiming; Dai, Bin; Wu, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Lane detection plays a significant role in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for intelligent vehicles. In this paper we present a multi-lane detection method based on multiple vanishing points detection. A new multi-lane model assumes that a single lane, which has two approximately parallel boundaries, may not parallel to others on road plane. Non-parallel lanes associate with different vanishing points. A biological plausibility model is used to detect multiple vanishing points and fit lane model. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect both parallel lanes and non-parallel lanes.

  16. Dynamics and mission design near libration points

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, G; Simo, C; Masdemont, J

    2001-01-01

    This book studies several problems related to the analysis of planned or possible spacecraft missions. It is divided into four chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the computation of quasiperiodic solutions for the motion of a spacecraft near the equilateral points of the Earth-Moon system. The second chapter gives a complete description of the orbits near the collinear point, L 1 , between the Earth and the Sun in the restricted three-body problem (RTBP) model. In the third chapter, methods are developed to compute the nominal orbit and to design and test the control strategy for the qua

  17. Pilot points method for conditioning multiple-point statistical facies simulation on flow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Jafarpour, Behnam

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new pilot points method for conditioning discrete multiple-point statistical (MPS) facies simulation on dynamic flow data. While conditioning MPS simulation on static hard data is straightforward, their calibration against nonlinear flow data is nontrivial. The proposed method generates conditional models from a conceptual model of geologic connectivity, known as a training image (TI), by strategically placing and estimating pilot points. To place pilot points, a score map is generated based on three sources of information: (i) the uncertainty in facies distribution, (ii) the model response sensitivity information, and (iii) the observed flow data. Once the pilot points are placed, the facies values at these points are inferred from production data and then are used, along with available hard data at well locations, to simulate a new set of conditional facies realizations. While facies estimation at the pilot points can be performed using different inversion algorithms, in this study the ensemble smoother (ES) is adopted to update permeability maps from production data, which are then used to statistically infer facies types at the pilot point locations. The developed method combines the information in the flow data and the TI by using the former to infer facies values at selected locations away from the wells and the latter to ensure consistent facies structure and connectivity where away from measurement locations. Several numerical experiments are used to evaluate the performance of the developed method and to discuss its important properties.

  18. Parallel point-multiplication architecture using combined group operations for high-speed cryptographic applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Selim Hossain

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel parallel architecture for fast hardware implementation of elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM, which is the key operation of an elliptic curve cryptography processor. The point multiplication over binary fields is synthesized on both FPGA and ASIC technology by designing fast elliptic curve group operations in Jacobian projective coordinates. A novel combined point doubling and point addition (PDPA architecture is proposed for group operations to achieve high speed and low hardware requirements for ECPM. It has been implemented over the binary field which is recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. The proposed ECPM supports two Koblitz and random curves for the key sizes 233 and 163 bits. For group operations, a finite-field arithmetic operation, e.g. multiplication, is designed on a polynomial basis. The delay of a 233-bit point multiplication is only 3.05 and 3.56 μs, in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, for Koblitz and random curves, respectively, and 0.81 μs in an ASIC 65-nm technology, which are the fastest hardware implementation results reported in the literature to date. In addition, a 163-bit point multiplication is also implemented in FPGA and ASIC for fair comparison which takes around 0.33 and 0.46 μs, respectively. The area-time product of the proposed point multiplication is very low compared to similar designs. The performance ([Formula: see text] and Area × Time × Energy (ATE product of the proposed design are far better than the most significant studies found in the literature.

  19. Mirrored pyramidal wells for simultaneous multiple vantage point microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, K T; Reiserer, R S; Markov, D A; Ges, I A; Wright, C; Janetopoulos, C; Wikswo, J P

    2008-10-01

    We report a novel method for obtaining simultaneous images from multiple vantage points of a microscopic specimen using size-matched microscopic mirrors created from anisotropically etched silicon. The resulting pyramidal wells enable bright-field and fluorescent side-view images, and when combined with z-sectioning, provide additional information for 3D reconstructions of the specimen. We have demonstrated the 3D localization and tracking over time of the centrosome of a live Dictyostelium discoideum. The simultaneous acquisition of images from multiple perspectives also provides a five-fold increase in the theoretical collection efficiency of emitted photons, a property which may be useful for low-light imaging modalities such as bioluminescence, or low abundance surface-marker labelling.

  20. Multiple contacts with diversion at the point of arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Sharon; Wix, Stuart; Haque, M Sayeed; Humphreys, Martin

    2003-04-01

    A diversion at the point of arrest (DAPA) scheme was set up in five police stations in South Birmingham in 1992. In a study of all referrals made over a four-year period a sub group of multiple contact individuals was identified. During that time four hundred and ninety-two contacts were recorded in total, of which 130 were made by 58 individuals. The latter group was generally no different from the single contact group but did have a tendency to be younger. This research highlights the need for a re-evaluation of service provision and associated education of police officers and relevant mental health care professionals.

  1. Multiple point statistical simulation using uncertain (soft) conditional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Vu, Le Thanh; Mosegaard, Klaus; Cordua, Knud Skou

    2018-05-01

    Geostatistical simulation methods have been used to quantify spatial variability of reservoir models since the 80s. In the last two decades, state of the art simulation methods have changed from being based on covariance-based 2-point statistics to multiple-point statistics (MPS), that allow simulation of more realistic Earth-structures. In addition, increasing amounts of geo-information (geophysical, geological, etc.) from multiple sources are being collected. This pose the problem of integration of these different sources of information, such that decisions related to reservoir models can be taken on an as informed base as possible. In principle, though difficult in practice, this can be achieved using computationally expensive Monte Carlo methods. Here we investigate the use of sequential simulation based MPS simulation methods conditional to uncertain (soft) data, as a computational efficient alternative. First, it is demonstrated that current implementations of sequential simulation based on MPS (e.g. SNESIM, ENESIM and Direct Sampling) do not account properly for uncertain conditional information, due to a combination of using only co-located information, and a random simulation path. Then, we suggest two approaches that better account for the available uncertain information. The first make use of a preferential simulation path, where more informed model parameters are visited preferentially to less informed ones. The second approach involves using non co-located uncertain information. For different types of available data, these approaches are demonstrated to produce simulation results similar to those obtained by the general Monte Carlo based approach. These methods allow MPS simulation to condition properly to uncertain (soft) data, and hence provides a computationally attractive approach for integration of information about a reservoir model.

  2. Multiplicative point process as a model of trading activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-11-01

    Signals consisting of a sequence of pulses show that inherent origin of the 1/ f noise is a Brownian fluctuation of the average interevent time between subsequent pulses of the pulse sequence. In this paper, we generalize the model of interevent time to reproduce a variety of self-affine time series exhibiting power spectral density S( f) scaling as a power of the frequency f. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law correlations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the signal intensity. We introduce a stochastic multiplicative model for the time intervals between point events and analyze the statistical properties of the signal analytically and numerically. Such model system exhibits power-law spectral density S( f)∼1/ fβ for various values of β, including β= {1}/{2}, 1 and {3}/{2}. Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained. The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity. The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades. A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics.

  3. Dynamics and mission design near libration points

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, G; Llibre, J; Martínez, R

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the restricted three-body problem has triangular equilibrium points. These points are linearly stable for values of the mass parameter, µ , below Routh's critical value, µ 1 . It is also known that in the spatial case they are nonlinearly stable, not for all the initial conditions in a neighborhood of the equilibrium points L 4 , L 5 but for a set of relatively large measures. This follows from the celebrated Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem. In fact there are neighborhoods of computable size for which one obtains "practical stability" in the sense that the massless partic

  4. Dynamics and mission design near libration points

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, G; Jorba, A; Masdemont, J

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this book is to explain, analyze and compute the kinds of motions that appear in an extended vicinity of the geometrically defined equilateral points of the Earth-Moon system, as a source of possible nominal orbits for future space missions. The methodology developed here is not specific to astrodynamics problems. The techniques are developed in such a way that they can be used to study problems that can be modeled by dynamical systems. Contents: Global Stability Zones Around the Triangular Libration Points; The Normal Form Around L 5 in the Three-dimensional RTBP; Normal Form of th

  5. Dynamics and mission design near libration points

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, G; Simo, C; Martínez, R

    2001-01-01

    In this book the problem of station keeping is studied for orbits near libration points in the solar system. The main focus is on orbits near halo ones in the (Earth+Moon)-Sun system. Taking as starting point the restricted three-body problem, the motion in the full solar system is considered as a perturbation of this simplified model. All the study is done with enough generality to allow easy application to other primary-secondary systems as a simple extension of the analytical and numerical computations. Contents: Bibliographical Survey; Halo Orbits. Analytical and Numerical Study; The Neigh

  6. Photonic crystals possessing multiple Weyl points and the experimental observation of robust surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Meng; Chan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Weyl points, as monopoles of Berry curvature in momentum space, have captured much attention recently in various branches of physics. Realizing topological materials that exhibit such nodal points is challenging and indeed, Weyl points have been found experimentally in transition metal arsenide and phosphide and gyroid photonic crystal whose structure is complex. If realizing even the simplest type of single Weyl nodes with a topological charge of 1 is difficult, then making a real crystal carrying higher topological charges may seem more challenging. Here we design, and fabricate using planar fabrication technology, a photonic crystal possessing single Weyl points (including type-II nodes) and multiple Weyl points with topological charges of 2 and 3. We characterize this photonic crystal and find nontrivial 2D bulk band gaps for a fixed kz and the associated surface modes. The robustness of these surface states against kz-preserving scattering is experimentally observed for the first time. PMID:27703140

  7. Designing a Secure Point-of-Sale System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Pedersen, Allan; Hedegaard, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described.......This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described....

  8. Free Material Design with Multiple Load Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together with a prac......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...... with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation...... a more physical interpretation of the material constraint....

  9. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  10. Downscaling remotely sensed imagery using area-to-point cokriging and multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunwei; Atkinson, Peter M.; Zhang, Jingxiong

    2015-03-01

    A cross-scale data integration method was developed and tested based on the theory of geostatistics and multiple-point geostatistics (MPG). The goal was to downscale remotely sensed images while retaining spatial structure by integrating images at different spatial resolutions. During the process of downscaling, a rich spatial correlation model in the form of a training image was incorporated to facilitate reproduction of similar local patterns in the simulated images. Area-to-point cokriging (ATPCK) was used as locally varying mean (LVM) (i.e., soft data) to deal with the change of support problem (COSP) for cross-scale integration, which MPG cannot achieve alone. Several pairs of spectral bands of remotely sensed images were tested for integration within different cross-scale case studies. The experiment shows that MPG can restore the spatial structure of the image at a fine spatial resolution given the training image and conditioning data. The super-resolution image can be predicted using the proposed method, which cannot be realised using most data integration methods. The results show that ATPCK-MPG approach can achieve greater accuracy than methods which do not account for the change of support issue.

  11. Some points of advanced alarm system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.

    1977-01-01

    A description of some of the more relevant questions relating to advanced alarm systems for nuclear power plant installations. The development of such alarm systems embodies three main tasks: development of formal alarm handling methods, design of alarm patterns, development of alarm analysis systems. The major aspects of these tests are dealt with and the close relation between the alarm analysis and the plant disturbance analysis procedure is emphasized. (author)

  12. Design point selection for an ignited ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, W.R.; Mizoguchi, T.; Perkins, J.; Putvinskij, S.; Flanagan, C.

    1989-01-01

    The parameter choice for the ITER design is dominated by the need to achieve ignition. Different energy confinement time scalings extrapolate to different device parameters, and the final design chosen must have a reasonable chance of success under the presently favoured scalings. This study investigates the device performance over the plasma current - aspect ratio design space, using sets of simplified equations and more detailed parametric analysis codes, with a view to clarifying the acceptable parameter region. Alterations to the initial assumptions of plasma elongation, plasma safety factor and peak toroidal field, and the effect of limiting the wall load, are also investigated. The study concludes that a device with aspect ratio around 3 and plasma current about 20 MA would be an appropriate choice. Under the assumptions of the study such a device would have a major radius of about 5.8m and would require the attainment of enhancement factors around 1.5 over L-mode scaling. (author). 6 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Program computes single-point failures in critical system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the designs of critical systems that will either prove the design is free of single-point failures or detect each member of the population of single-point failures inherent in a system design. This program should find application in the checkout of redundant circuits and digital systems.

  14. Preliminary A ampersand PCT multiple detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Camp, D.C.; Decman, D.J.; Johansson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation, multi-detector active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand PCT) scanner will be optimized for speed and accuracy. At the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) we have demonstrated the trade-offs between different A ampersand PCT design parameters that affect the speed and quality of the assay results. These fundamental parameters govern the optimum system design. Although the multi-detector scanner design has priority put on speed to increase waste drum throughput, higher speed should not compromise assay accuracy. One way to increase the speed of the A ampersand PCT technology is to use multiple detectors. This yields a linear speedup by a factor approximately equal to the number of detectors used without a compromise in system accuracy. There are many different design scenarios that can be developed using multiple detectors. Here we describe four different scenarios and discuss the trade-offs between them. Also, some considerations are given in this design description for the implementation of a multiple detector technology in a field- deployable mobile trailer system

  15. Pressure Points in Reading Comprehension: A Quantile Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how selected pressure points or areas of vulnerability are related to individual differences in reading comprehension and whether the importance of these pressure points varies as a function of the level of children's reading comprehension. A sample of 245 third-grade children were given an assessment battery…

  16. Point spread function engineering for iris recognition system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Amit; Neifeld, Mark A

    2010-04-01

    Undersampling in the detector array degrades the performance of iris-recognition imaging systems. We find that an undersampling of 8 x 8 reduces the iris-recognition performance by nearly a factor of 4 (on CASIA iris database), as measured by the false rejection ratio (FRR) metric. We employ optical point spread function (PSF) engineering via a Zernike phase mask in conjunction with multiple subpixel shifted image measurements (frames) to mitigate the effect of undersampling. A task-specific optimization framework is used to engineer the optical PSF and optimize the postprocessing parameters to minimize the FRR. The optimized Zernike phase enhanced lens (ZPEL) imager design with one frame yields an improvement of nearly 33% relative to a thin observation module by bounded optics (TOMBO) imager with one frame. With four frames the optimized ZPEL imager achieves a FRR equal to that of the conventional imager without undersampling. Further, the ZPEL imager design using 16 frames yields a FRR that is actually 15% lower than that obtained with the conventional imager without undersampling.

  17. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Laboratory; Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Laboratory; Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Laboratory; Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Laboratory; Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Laboratory; Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Laboratory; Kumar, Akansha [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-04-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200 MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technological readiness level, licensing approach and costs.

  18. Performance analysis of commercial multiple-input-multiple-output access point in distributed antenna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuting; Aighobahi, Anthony E; Gomes, Nathan J; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-03-23

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the throughput of IEEE 802.11n 2x2 multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) signals in a radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna system (DAS) with different fiber lengths and power imbalance. Both a MIMO-supported access point (AP) and a spatial-diversity-supported AP were separately employed in the experiments. Throughput measurements were carried out with wireless users at different locations in a typical office environment. For the different fiber length effect, the results indicate that MIMO signals can maintain high throughput when the fiber length difference between the two remote antenna units (RAUs) is under 100 m and falls quickly when the length difference is greater. For the spatial diversity signals, high throughput can be maintained even when the difference is 150 m. On the other hand, the separation of the MIMO antennas allows additional freedom in placing the antennas in strategic locations for overall improved system performance, although it may also lead to received power imbalance problems. The results show that the throughput performance drops in specific positions when the received power imbalance is above around 13 dB. Hence, there is a trade-off between the extent of the wireless coverage for moderate bit-rates and the area over which peak bit-rates can be achieved.

  19. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.B.; Barnard, J.J.; Brown, T.; Callahan, D.A.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Pemberton, S.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Sabbi, G.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant

  20. A 34-meter VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) point design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwill, T. D.; Berg, D. E.; Dodd, H. M.; Rumsey, M. A.; Sutherland, H. J.; Veers, P. S.

    The Wind Energy Division at Sandia National Laboratories recently completed a point design based on the 34-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) Test Bed. The 34-m Test Bed research machine incorporates several innovations that improve Darrieus technology, including increased energy production, over previous machines. The point design differs minimally from the Test Bed; but by removing research-related items, its estimated cost is substantially reduced. The point design is a first step towards a Test-Bed-based commercial machine that would be competitive with conventional sources of power in the mid-1990s.

  1. Design of Xen Hybrid Multiple Police Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Lin, Renhao; Zhu, Xianwei

    2017-10-01

    Virtualization Technology has attracted more and more attention. As a popular open-source virtualization tools, XEN is used more and more frequently. Xsm, XEN security model, has also been widespread concern. The safety status classification has not been established in the XSM, and it uses the virtual machine as a managed object to make Dom0 a unique administrative domain that does not meet the minimum privilege. According to these questions, we design a Hybrid multiple police model named SV_HMPMD that organically integrates multiple single security policy models include DTE,RBAC,BLP. It can fullfill the requirement of confidentiality and integrity for security model and use different particle size to different domain. In order to improve BLP’s practicability, the model introduce multi-level security labels. In order to divide the privilege in detail, we combine DTE with RBAC. In order to oversize privilege, we limit the privilege of domain0.

  2. A MOSUM procedure for the estimation of multiple random change points

    OpenAIRE

    Eichinger, Birte; Kirch, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we investigate statistical properties of change point estimators based on moving sum statistics. We extend results for testing in a classical situation with multiple deterministic change points by allowing for random exogenous change points that arise in Hidden Markov or regime switching models among others. To this end, we consider a multiple mean change model with possible time series errors and prove that the number and location of change points are estimated consistently by ...

  3. Use of multiple water surface flow constructed wetlands for non-point source water pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Yan; Chu, Zhaosheng; He, Yan; Huang, Minsheng

    2018-05-02

    Multiple free water surface flow constructed wetlands (multi-FWS CWs) are a variety of conventional water treatment plants for the interception of pollutants. This review encapsulated the characteristics and applications in the field of ecological non-point source water pollution control technology. The roles of in-series design and operation parameters (hydraulic residence time, hydraulic load rate, water depth and aspect ratio, composition of influent, and plant species) for performance intensification were also analyzed, which were crucial to achieve sustainable and effective contaminants removal, especially the retention of nutrient. The mechanism study of design and operation parameters for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was also highlighted. Conducive perspectives for further research on optimizing its design/operation parameters and advanced technologies of ecological restoration were illustrated to possibly interpret the functions of multi-FWS CWs.

  4. Multiple Monte Carlo Testing with Applications in Spatial Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrkvička, Tomáš; Myllymäki, Mari; Hahn, Ute

    with a function as the test statistic, 3) several Monte Carlo tests with functions as test statistics. The rank test has correct (global) type I error in each case and it is accompanied with a p-value and with a graphical interpretation which shows which subtest or which distances of the used test function......(s) lead to the rejection at the prescribed significance level of the test. Examples of null hypothesis from point process and random set statistics are used to demonstrate the strength of the rank envelope test. The examples include goodness-of-fit test with several test functions, goodness-of-fit test...

  5. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  6. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  7. Accuracy Constraint Determination in Fixed-Point System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serizel R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of digital signal processing applications are specified and designed with floatingpoint arithmetic but are finally implemented using fixed-point architectures. Thus, the design flow requires a floating-point to fixed-point conversion stage which optimizes the implementation cost under execution time and accuracy constraints. This accuracy constraint is linked to the application performances and the determination of this constraint is one of the key issues of the conversion process. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the accuracy constraint from the application performance. The fixed-point system is modeled with an infinite precision version of the system and a single noise source located at the system output. Then, an iterative approach for optimizing the fixed-point specification under the application performance constraint is defined and detailed. Finally the efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by experiments on an MP3 encoder.

  8. MULTIPLE ACCESS POINTS WITHIN THE ONLINE CLASSROOM: WHERE STUDENTS LOOK FOR INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John STEELE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of information placement within the confines of the online classroom architecture. Also reviewed was the impact of other variables such as course design, teaching presence and student patterns in looking for information. The sample population included students from a major online university in their first year course sequence. Students were tasked with completing a survey at the end of the course, indicating their preference for accessing information within the online classroom. The qualitative data indicated that student preference is to receive information from multiple access points and sources within the online classroom architecture. Students also expressed a desire to have information delivered through the usage of technology such as email and text messaging. In addition to receiving information from multiple sources, the qualitative data indicated students were satisfied overall, with the current ways in which they received and accessed information within the online classroom setting. Major findings suggest that instructors teaching within the online classroom should have multiple data access points within the classroom architecture. Furthermore, instructors should use a variety of communication venues to enhance the ability for students to access and receive information pertinent to the course.

  9. Effective communication at the point of multiple sclerosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    As a consequence of the current shortened diagnostic workup, people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are rapidly confronted with a disease of uncertain prognosis that requires complex treatment decisions. This paper reviews studies that have assessed the experiences of PwMS in the peri-diagnostic period and have evaluated the efficacy of interventions providing information at this critical moment. The studies found that the emotional burden on PwMS at diagnosis was high, and emphasised the need for careful monitoring and management of mood symptoms (chiefly anxiety). Information provision did not affect anxiety symptoms but improved patients' knowledge of their condition, the achievement of 'informed choice', and satisfaction with the diagnosis communication. It is vital to develop and implement information and decision aids for PwMS, but this is resource intensive, and international collaboration may be a way forward. The use of patient self-assessed outcome measures that appraise the quality of diagnosis communication is also important to allow health services to understand and meet the needs and preferences of PwMS.

  10. Oil-points - Designers means to evaluate sustainability of concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    1998-01-01

    Designers have an essential influence on product design and are therefore one target group for environmental evaluation methods. This implies, that such evaluation methods have to meet designers requirements. Evaluation of sustainability of products is often done using formal Life Cycle Assessment....... This is investigated by means of three case studies where environmental impact is estimated using the EDIP method, the Eco-indicator 95 method, and the Oil Point method proposed by the authors. It is found that the results obtained using Oil Points are in acceptable conformity with the results obtained with more...

  11. Professional SharePoint 2010 Branding and User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drisgill, Randy; Sanford, Jacob J; Stubbs, Paul; Riemann, Larry

    2010-01-01

    A must have guide for creating engaging and usable SharePoint 2010 brandingWith SharePoint 2010, Microsoft has provided a more robust environment for creating collaboration and content management sites that rival any of the popular websites on the internet. Creating a branded SharePoint site involves understanding both traditional web design techniques as well as topics that are typically reserved for developers. This book bridges that gap by not only providing expert guidance for creating beautiful public facing and internal intranet sites but it also addresses the needs of those readers that

  12. Multiple-membrane multiple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yushan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2017-05-02

    A redox flow battery is provided. The redox flow battery involves multiple-membrane (at least one cation exchange membrane and at least one anion exchange membrane), multiple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and at least one electrolyte disposed between the two membranes) as the basic characteristic, such as a double-membrane, triple electrolyte (DMTE) configuration or a triple-membrane, quadruple electrolyte (TMQE) configuration. The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte.

  13. Conceptual design of multiple parallel switching controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugolini, D.; Yoshikawa, S.; Ozawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design and the development of a preliminary model of a multiple parallel switching (MPS) controller. The introduction of several advanced controllers has widened and improved the control capability of nonlinear dynamical systems. However, it is not possible to uniquely define a controller that always outperforms the others, and, in many situations, the controller providing the best control action depends on the operating conditions and on the intrinsic properties and behavior of the controlled dynamical system. The desire to combine the control action of several controllers with the purpose to continuously attain the best control action has motivated the development of the MPS controller. The MPS controller consists of a number of single controllers acting in parallel and of an artificial intelligence (AI) based selecting mechanism. The AI selecting mechanism analyzes the output of each controller and implements the one providing the best control performance. An inherent property of the MPS controller is the possibility to discard unreliable controllers while still being able to perform the control action. To demonstrate the feasibility and the capability of the MPS controller the simulation of the on-line operation control of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) evaporator is presented. (author)

  14. Error analysis of dimensionless scaling experiments with multiple points using linear regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guercan, Oe.D.; Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Bourdelle, C.

    2010-01-01

    A general method of error estimation in the case of multiple point dimensionless scaling experiments, using linear regression and standard error propagation, is proposed. The method reduces to the previous result of Cordey (2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 052001) in the case of a two-point scan. On the other hand, if the points follow a linear trend, it explains how the estimated error decreases as more points are added to the scan. Based on the analytical expression that is derived, it is argued that for a low number of points, adding points to the ends of the scanned range, rather than the middle, results in a smaller error estimate. (letter)

  15. History Matching Through a Smooth Formulation of Multiple-Point Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Zunino, Andrea; Lange, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    and the mismatch with multiple-point statistics. As a result, in the framework of the Bayesian approach, such a solution belongs to a high posterior region. The methodology, while applicable to any inverse problem with a training-image-based prior, is especially beneficial for problems which require expensive......We propose a smooth formulation of multiple-point statistics that enables us to solve inverse problems using gradient-based optimization techniques. We introduce a differentiable function that quantifies the mismatch between multiple-point statistics of a training image and of a given model. We...... show that, by minimizing this function, any continuous image can be gradually transformed into an image that honors the multiple-point statistics of the discrete training image. The solution to an inverse problem is then found by minimizing the sum of two mismatches: the mismatch with data...

  16. Estimation of Multiple Point Sources for Linear Fractional Order Systems Using Modulating Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an estimation algorithm for the characterization of multiple point inputs for linear fractional order systems. First, using polynomial modulating functions method and a suitable change of variables the problem of estimating

  17. On the design of a radix-10 online floating-point multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlhenny, Robert D.; Ercegovac, Milos D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes an approach to design and implement a radix-10 online floating-point multiplier. An online approach is considered because it offers computational flexibility not available with conventional arithmetic. The design was coded in VHDL and compiled, synthesized, and mapped onto a Virtex 5 FPGA to measure cost in terms of LUTs (look-up-tables) as well as the cycle time and total latency. The routing delay which was not optimized is the major component in the cycle time. For a rough estimate of the cost/latency characteristics, our design was compared to a standard radix-2 floating-point multiplier of equivalent precision. The results demonstrate that even an unoptimized radix-10 online design is an attractive implementation alternative for FPGA floating-point multiplication.

  18. Optimal Design of Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Arithmetic Units for Scientific Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pongyupinpanich, Surapong

    2012-01-01

    The challenge in designing a floating-point arithmetic co-processor/processor for scientific and engineering applications is to improve the performance, efficiency, and computational accuracy of the arithmetic unit. The arithmetic unit should efficiently support several mathematical functions corresponding to scientific and engineering computation demands. Moreover, the computations should be performed as fast as possible with a high degree of accuracy. Thus, this thesis proposes algorithm, d...

  19. A superlinear interior points algorithm for engineering design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, J.; Asquier, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present a quasi-Newton interior points algorithm for nonlinear constrained optimization. It is based on a general approach consisting of the iterative solution in the primal and dual spaces of the equalities in Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. This is done in such a way to have primal and dual feasibility at each iteration, which ensures satisfaction of those optimality conditions at the limit points. This approach is very strong and efficient, since at each iteration it only requires the solution of two linear systems with the same matrix, instead of quadratic programming subproblems. It is also particularly appropriate for engineering design optimization inasmuch at each iteration a feasible design is obtained. The present algorithm uses a quasi-Newton approximation of the second derivative of the Lagrangian function in order to have superlinear asymptotic convergence. We discuss theoretical aspects of the algorithm and its computer implementation.

  20. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of “C programming language” are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate.

  1. A Common Probe Design for Multiple Planetary Destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H. H.; Allen, G. A., Jr.; Alunni, A. I.; Amato, M. J.; Atkinson, D. H.; Bienstock, B. J.; Cruz, J. R.; Dillman, R. A.; Cianciolo, A. D.; Elliott, J. O.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric probes have been successfully flown to planets and moons in the solar system to conduct in situ measurements. They include the Pioneer Venus multi-probes, the Galileo Jupiter probe, and Huygens probe. Probe mission concepts to five destinations, including Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, have all utilized similar-shaped aeroshells and concept of operations, namely a 45-degree sphere cone shape with high density heatshield material and parachute system for extracting the descent vehicle from the aeroshell. Each concept designed its probe to meet specific mission requirements and to optimize mass, volume, and cost. At the 2017 International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW), NASA Headquarters postulated that a common aeroshell design could be used successfully for multiple destinations and missions. This "common probe"� design could even be assembled with multiple copies, properly stored, and made available for future NASA missions, potentially realizing savings in cost and schedule and reducing the risk of losing technologies and skills difficult to sustain over decades. Thus the NASA Planetary Science Division funded a study to investigate whether a common probe design could meet most, if not all, mission needs to the five planetary destinations with extreme entry environments. The Common Probe study involved four NASA Centers and addressed these issues, including constraints and inefficiencies that occur in specifying a common design. Study methodology: First, a notional payload of instruments for each destination was defined based on priority measurements from the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Steep and shallow entry flight path angles (EFPA) were defined for each planet based on qualification and operational g-load limits for current, state-of-the-art instruments. Interplanetary trajectories were then identified for a bounding range of EFPA. Next, 3-degrees-of-freedom simulations for entry trajectories were run using the entry state

  2. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Rational Type Cocyclic Mappings in Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point result of mappings satisfying a generalized rational contractive condition in the setup of multiplicative metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of pair of rational contractive types mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a multiplicative metric space are also obtained. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature.

  3. A novel design of submicron thin film point contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.

    1986-01-01

    A thin film point contact design applicable to SIS-, SNS-, and microbridge-type Josephson junctions is presented, which offers potentially advanced junction characteristics (low capacitance, low stray inductance, increased quasi-particle resistance). The design philosophy is based on the fact that a point contact results if two planes having a common symmetry axis but oriented perpendicular to each other are brought into contact with each other. For the case of thin films, instead of two-dimensional planes, the cross section of the resulting ''point''-contact is defined by the thicknesses of the two thin films. Film thicknesses can be controlled much more precisely than lateral dimensions created by lithography. Hence, submicron junction geometries can be achieved using only conventional fabrication techniques. Following this idea, Josephson weak links of the ultrashort microbridge-type have been fabricated by an all-Nb technique having a 0.3-μm X 0.2-μm cross section with a R /SUB q/ I /SUB c/ product (R /SUB q/ = quasiparticle resistance, I /SUB c/ = critical current) of more than 20 mV

  4. Improving the Pattern Reproducibility of Multiple-Point-Based Prior Models Using Frequency Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Some multiple-point-based sampling algorithms, such as the snesim algorithm, rely on sequential simulation. The conditional probability distributions that are used for the simulation are based on statistics of multiple-point data events obtained from a training image. During the simulation, data...... events with zero probability in the training image statistics may occur. This is handled by pruning the set of conditioning data until an event with non-zero probability is found. The resulting probability distribution sampled by such algorithms is a pruned mixture model. The pruning strategy leads...... to a probability distribution that lacks some of the information provided by the multiple-point statistics from the training image, which reduces the reproducibility of the training image patterns in the outcome realizations. When pruned mixture models are used as prior models for inverse problems, local re...

  5. A feature point identification method for positron emission particle tracking with multiple tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Cody, E-mail: cwiggin2@vols.utk.edu [University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1408 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Santos, Roque [University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Department of Nuclear Engineering (United States); Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Departamento de Ciencias Nucleares (Ecuador); Ruggles, Arthur [University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Department of Nuclear Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-21

    A novel detection algorithm for Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) with multiple tracers based on optical feature point identification (FPI) methods is presented. This new method, the FPI method, is compared to a previous multiple PEPT method via analyses of experimental and simulated data. The FPI method outperforms the older method in cases of large particle numbers and fine time resolution. Simulated data show the FPI method to be capable of identifying 100 particles at 0.5 mm average spatial error. Detection error is seen to vary with the inverse square root of the number of lines of response (LORs) used for detection and increases as particle separation decreases. - Highlights: • A new approach to positron emission particle tracking is presented. • Using optical feature point identification analogs, multiple particle tracking is achieved. • Method is compared to previous multiple particle method. • Accuracy and applicability of method is explored.

  6. Reduction of bias in neutron multiplicity assay using a weighted point model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, W. H. (William H.); Krick, M. S. (Merlyn S.); Mayo, D. R. (Douglas R.)

    2004-01-01

    Accurate assay of most common plutonium samples was the development goal for the nondestructive assay technique of neutron multiplicity counting. Over the past 20 years the technique has been proven for relatively pure oxides and small metal items. Unfortunately, the technique results in large biases when assaying large metal items. Limiting assumptions, such as unifoh multiplication, in the point model used to derive the multiplicity equations causes these biases for large dense items. A weighted point model has been developed to overcome some of the limitations in the standard point model. Weighting factors are detemiined from Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNPX code. Monte Carlo calculations give the dependence of the weighting factors on sample mass and geometry, and simulated assays using Monte Carlo give the theoretical accuracy of the weighted-point-model assay. Measured multiplicity data evaluated with both the standard and weighted point models are compared to reference values to give the experimental accuracy of the assay. Initial results show significant promise for the weighted point model in reducing or eliminating biases in the neutron multiplicity assay of metal items. The negative biases observed in the assay of plutonium metal samples are caused by variations in the neutron multiplication for neutrons originating in various locations in the sample. The bias depends on the mass and shape of the sample and depends on the amount and energy distribution of the ({alpha},n) neutrons in the sample. When the standard point model is used, this variable-multiplication bias overestimates the multiplication and alpha values of the sample, and underestimates the plutonium mass. The weighted point model potentially can provide assay accuracy of {approx}2% (1 {sigma}) for cylindrical plutonium metal samples < 4 kg with {alpha} < 1 without knowing the exact shape of the samples, provided that the ({alpha},n) source is uniformly distributed throughout the

  7. Method of Fusion Diagnosis for Dam Service Status Based on Joint Distribution Function of Multiple Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxiang Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods of diagnosing dam service status are always suitable for single measuring point. These methods also reflect the local status of dams without merging multisource data effectively, which is not suitable for diagnosing overall service. This study proposes a new method involving multiple points to diagnose dam service status based on joint distribution function. The function, including monitoring data of multiple points, can be established with t-copula function. Therefore, the possibility, which is an important fusing value in different measuring combinations, can be calculated, and the corresponding diagnosing criterion is established with typical small probability theory. Engineering case study indicates that the fusion diagnosis method can be conducted in real time and the abnormal point can be detected, thereby providing a new early warning method for engineering safety.

  8. A Switching Anti-windup Design Using Multiple Lyapunov Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, L.; Lin, Z.; Chen, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a switching anti-windup design, which aims to enlarge the domain of attraction of the closed-loop system. Multiple anti-windup gains along with an index function that orchestrates the switching among these anti-windup gains are designed based on the min function of multiple

  9. Determination of shell correction energies at saddle point using pre-scission neutron multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golda, K.S.; Saxena, A.; Mittal, V.K.; Mahata, K.; Sugathan, P.; Jhingan, A.; Singh, V.; Sandal, R.; Goyal, S.; Gehlot, J.; Dhal, A.; Behera, B.R.; Bhowmik, R.K.; Kailas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Pre-scission neutron multiplicities have been measured for 12 C + 194, 198 Pt systems at matching excitation energies at near Coulomb barrier region. Statistical model analysis with a modified fission barrier and level density prescription have been carried out to fit the measured pre-scission neutron multiplicities and the available evaporation residue and fission cross sections simultaneously to constrain statistical model parameters. Simultaneous fitting of the pre-scission neutron multiplicities and cross section data requires shell correction at the saddle point

  10. Design of a Ku band miniature multiple beam klystron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ayan Kumar, E-mail: ayan.bandyopadhyay@gmail.com; Pal, Debasish; Kant, Deepender [Microwave Tubes Division, CSIR-CEERI, Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Saini, Anil; Saha, Sukalyan; Joshi, Lalit Mohan

    2016-03-09

    The design of a miniature multiple beam klystron (MBK) working in the Ku-band frequency range is presented in this article. Starting from the main design parameters, design of the electron gun, the input and output couplers and radio frequency section (RF-section) are presented. The design methodology using state of the art commercial electromagnetic design tools, analytical formulae as well as noncommercial design tools are briefly presented in this article.

  11. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of Multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complex casting machine has been designed to perform the following techniques: gravity casting, stir casting, squeeze casting, vacuum casting, compocasting and thixoforming. All these casting techniques have been integrated into this complex casting machine as different units which work with the help of automation.

  12. Production System Design for Multiple Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Christensen, Irene

    Production systems enabling both cost efficiency and flexibility in terms of high product variation are explored. The study follows an explorative longitudinal field study approach. The database consists of three large global corporations, each consisting of several companies producing household ......-outs, worker skills, integration of distribution channels, after sales service and degree of servitization. Three production system design principles called VXY emerge....

  13. Design Methodology for Multiple Microcomputer Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    multimicro design knowledge is true both in industry and in university environments. In the industrial environment, it reduces productivity and increases...Real-Time Processor Problems," Proc. of ELECTRO-81 Tercer Seminario de Ingenieria Electronica, Nov. 9-13, 1981. 14 1981 "D Flip/Flop Substracts

  14. Multiple ECG Fiducial Points-Based Random Binary Sequence Generation for Securing Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guanglou; Fang, Gengfa; Shankaran, Rajan; Orgun, Mehmet A; Zhou, Jie; Qiao, Li; Saleem, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    Generating random binary sequences (BSes) is a fundamental requirement in cryptography. A BS is a sequence of N bits, and each bit has a value of 0 or 1. For securing sensors within wireless body area networks (WBANs), electrocardiogram (ECG)-based BS generation methods have been widely investigated in which interpulse intervals (IPIs) from each heartbeat cycle are processed to produce BSes. Using these IPI-based methods to generate a 128-bit BS in real time normally takes around half a minute. In order to improve the time efficiency of such methods, this paper presents an ECG multiple fiducial-points based binary sequence generation (MFBSG) algorithm. The technique of discrete wavelet transforms is employed to detect arrival time of these fiducial points, such as P, Q, R, S, and T peaks. Time intervals between them, including RR, RQ, RS, RP, and RT intervals, are then calculated based on this arrival time, and are used as ECG features to generate random BSes with low latency. According to our analysis on real ECG data, these ECG feature values exhibit the property of randomness and, thus, can be utilized to generate random BSes. Compared with the schemes that solely rely on IPIs to generate BSes, this MFBSG algorithm uses five feature values from one heart beat cycle, and can be up to five times faster than the solely IPI-based methods. So, it achieves a design goal of low latency. According to our analysis, the complexity of the algorithm is comparable to that of fast Fourier transforms. These randomly generated ECG BSes can be used as security keys for encryption or authentication in a WBAN system.

  15. 77 FR 34211 - Modification of Multiple Compulsory Reporting Points; Continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0130; Airspace Docket No. 12-AWA-2] RIN 2120-AA66 Modification of Multiple Compulsory Reporting Points; Continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final...

  16. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-04-16

    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  17. A Point Kinetics Model for Estimating Neutron Multiplication of Bare Uranium Metal in Tagged Neutron Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweardy, Matthew C.; McConchie, Seth; Hayward, Jason P.

    2017-01-01

    An extension of the point kinetics model is developed in this paper to describe the neutron multiplicity response of a bare uranium object under interrogation by an associated particle imaging deuterium-tritium (D-T) measurement system. This extended model is used to estimate the total neutron multiplication of the uranium. Both MCNPX-PoliMi simulations and data from active interrogation measurements of highly enriched and depleted uranium geometries are used to evaluate the potential of this method and to identify the sources of systematic error. The detection efficiency correction for measured coincidence response is identified as a large source of systematic error. If the detection process is not considered, results suggest that the method can estimate total multiplication to within 13% of the simulated value. Values for multiplicity constants in the point kinetics equations are sensitive to enrichment due to (n, xn) interactions by D-T neutrons and can introduce another significant source of systematic bias. This can theoretically be corrected if isotopic composition is known a priori. Finally, the spatial dependence of multiplication is also suspected of introducing further systematic bias for high multiplication uranium objects.

  18. A Point Kinetics Model for Estimating Neutron Multiplication of Bare Uranium Metal in Tagged Neutron Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweardy, Matthew C.; McConchie, Seth; Hayward, Jason P.

    2017-07-01

    An extension of the point kinetics model is developed to describe the neutron multiplicity response of a bare uranium object under interrogation by an associated particle imaging deuterium-tritium (D-T) measurement system. This extended model is used to estimate the total neutron multiplication of the uranium. Both MCNPX-PoliMi simulations and data from active interrogation measurements of highly enriched and depleted uranium geometries are used to evaluate the potential of this method and to identify the sources of systematic error. The detection efficiency correction for measured coincidence response is identified as a large source of systematic error. If the detection process is not considered, results suggest that the method can estimate total multiplication to within 13% of the simulated value. Values for multiplicity constants in the point kinetics equations are sensitive to enrichment due to (n, xn) interactions by D-T neutrons and can introduce another significant source of systematic bias. This can theoretically be corrected if isotopic composition is known a priori. The spatial dependence of multiplication is also suspected of introducing further systematic bias for high multiplication uranium objects.

  19. Simultaneous colour visualizations of multiple ALS point cloud attributes for land cover and vegetation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Schroiff, Anke; Otepka, Johannes; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    LIDAR point clouds hold valuable information for land cover and vegetation analysis, not only in the spatial distribution of the points but also in their various attributes. However, LIDAR point clouds are rarely used for visual interpretation, since for most users, the point cloud is difficult to interpret compared to passive optical imagery. Meanwhile, point cloud viewing software is available allowing interactive 3D interpretation, but typically only one attribute at a time. This results in a large number of points with the same colour, crowding the scene and often obscuring detail. We developed a scheme for mapping information from multiple LIDAR point attributes to the Red, Green, and Blue channels of a widely used LIDAR data format, which are otherwise mostly used to add information from imagery to create "photorealistic" point clouds. The possible combinations of parameters are therefore represented in a wide range of colours, but relative differences in individual parameter values of points can be well understood. The visualization was implemented in OPALS software, using a simple and robust batch script, and is viewer independent since the information is stored in the point cloud data file itself. In our case, the following colour channel assignment delivered best results: Echo amplitude in the Red, echo width in the Green and normalized height above a Digital Terrain Model in the Blue channel. With correct parameter scaling (but completely without point classification), points belonging to asphalt and bare soil are dark red, low grassland and crop vegetation are bright red to yellow, shrubs and low trees are green and high trees are blue. Depending on roof material and DTM quality, buildings are shown from red through purple to dark blue. Erroneously high or low points, or points with incorrect amplitude or echo width usually have colours contrasting from terrain or vegetation. This allows efficient visual interpretation of the point cloud in planar

  20. design, construction and performance evaluation of multiple casting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    time taken for solidification, plays an important role in the casting. There should not ... Keywords: Design, Construction, Multiple casting machine, Compo Casting operation. 1. Introduction .... metal and pathway channel pipe with heater is used.

  1. Design of an omnidirectional single-point photodetector for large-scale spatial coordinate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Mao, Chensheng; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    In high precision and large-scale coordinate measurement, one commonly used approach to determine the coordinate of a target point is utilizing the spatial trigonometric relationships between multiple laser transmitter stations and the target point. A light receiving device at the target point is the key element in large-scale coordinate measurement systems. To ensure high-resolution and highly sensitive spatial coordinate measurement, a high-performance and miniaturized omnidirectional single-point photodetector (OSPD) is greatly desired. We report one design of OSPD using an aspheric lens, which achieves an enhanced reception angle of -5 deg to 45 deg in vertical and 360 deg in horizontal. As the heart of our OSPD, the aspheric lens is designed in a geometric model and optimized by LightTools Software, which enables the reflection of a wide-angle incident light beam into the single-point photodiode. The performance of home-made OSPD is characterized with working distances from 1 to 13 m and further analyzed utilizing developed a geometric model. The experimental and analytic results verify that our device is highly suitable for large-scale coordinate metrology. The developed device also holds great potential in various applications such as omnidirectional vision sensor, indoor global positioning system, and optical wireless communication systems.

  2. The Modular Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.; Celata, C.M.; Chao, L.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, C.S.; Eylon, S.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.; Peterson, P.F.; Reginato, L.; Rose, D.; Roy, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    We report on an ongoing study on modular Heavy Ion Fusion drivers. The modular driver is characterized by 10 to 20 nearly identical induction linacs, each carrying a single high current beam. In this scheme, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) can be one of the full size induction linacs. Hence, this approach offers significant advantages in terms of driver development path. For beam transport, these modules use solenoids which are capable of carrying high line charge densities, even at low energies. A new injector concept allows compression of the beam to high line densities right at the source. The final drift compression is performed in a plasma, in which the large repulsive space charge effects are neutralized. Finally, the beam is transversely compressed onto the target, using either external solenoids or current-carrying channels (in the Assisted Pinch Mode of beam propagation). We will report on progress towards a self-consistent point design from injector to target. Considerations of driver architecture, chamber environment as well as the methodology for meeting target requirements of spot size, pulse shape and symmetry will also be described. Finally, some near-term experiments to address the key scientific issues will be discussed

  3. The Modular Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Celata, C.M.; Chao, L.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, C.S.; Eylon, S.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.; Peterson, P.F.; Reginato, L.; Rose, D.; Roy, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an ongoing study on modular Heavy Ion Fusion drivers. The modular driver is characterized by tens (∼ 20) nearly identical induction linacs, each carrying a single high current beam. In this scheme, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) can be one of the full size induction linacs. Hence, this approach offers significant advantages in terms of driver development path. For beam transport, these modules use solenoids which are capable of carrying high line charge densities, even at low energies. A new injector concept allows compression of the beam to high line densities right at the source. The final drift compression is performed in a plasma, in which the large repulsive space charge effects are neutralized. Finally, the beam is transversely compressed onto the target, using either external solenoids or current-carrying channels (in the Assisted Pinch Mode of beam propagation). We will report on progress towards a self-consistent point design from injector to target. Considerations of driver architecture, chamber environment as well as the methodology for meeting target requirements of spot size, pulse shape and symmetry will also be described. Finally, some near-term experiments to address the key scientific issues will be discussed

  4. A Numerical Study on the Excitation of Guided Waves in Rectangular Plates Using Multiple Point Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Duan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic guided waves are widely used to inspect and monitor the structural integrity of plates and plate-like structures, such as ship hulls and large storage-tank floors. Recently, ultrasonic guided waves have also been used to remove ice and fouling from ship hulls, wind-turbine blades and aeroplane wings. In these applications, the strength of the sound source must be high for scanning a large area, or to break the bond between ice, fouling and plate substrate. More than one transducer may be used to achieve maximum sound power output. However, multiple sources can interact with each other, and form a sound field in the structure with local constructive and destructive regions. Destructive regions are weak regions and shall be avoided. When multiple transducers are used it is important that they are arranged in a particular way so that the desired wave modes can be excited to cover the whole structure. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for generating particular wave mode patterns in finite-width rectangular plates whose length is assumed to be infinitely long with respect to its width and thickness. The wave modes have displacements in both width and thickness directions, and are thus different from the classical Lamb-type wave modes. A two-dimensional semi-analytical finite element (SAFE method was used to study dispersion characteristics and mode shapes in the plate up to ultrasonic frequencies. The modal analysis provided information on the generation of modes suitable for a particular application. The number of point sources and direction of loading for the excitation of a few representative modes was investigated. Based on the SAFE analysis, a standard finite element modelling package, Abaqus, was used to excite the designed modes in a three-dimensional plate. The generated wave patterns in Abaqus were then compared with mode shapes predicted in the SAFE model. Good agreement was observed between the

  5. NEWTONIAN IMPERIALIST COMPETITVE APPROACH TO OPTIMIZING OBSERVATION OF MULTIPLE TARGET POINTS IN MULTISENSOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afghan-Toloee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of specifying the minimum number of sensors to deploy in a certain area to face multiple targets has been generally studied in the literatures. In this paper, we are arguing the multi-sensors deployment problem (MDP. The Multi-sensor placement problem can be clarified as minimizing the cost required to cover the multi target points in the area. We propose a more feasible method for the multi-sensor placement problem. Our method makes provision the high coverage of grid based placements while minimizing the cost as discovered in perimeter placement techniques. The NICA algorithm as improved ICA (Imperialist Competitive Algorithm is used to decrease the performance time to explore an enough solution compared to other meta-heuristic schemes such as GA, PSO and ICA. A three dimensional area is used for clarify the multiple target and placement points, making provision x, y, and z computations in the observation algorithm. A structure of model for the multi-sensor placement problem is proposed: The problem is constructed as an optimization problem with the objective to minimize the cost while covering all multiple target points upon a given probability of observation tolerance.

  6. Variogram based and Multiple - Point Statistical simulation of shallow aquifer structures in the Upper Salzach valley, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrisevits, Carmen; Marschallinger, Robert

    2014-05-01

    /erosional processes and geometric shapes of hydrofacies can be integrated. The Training Image can be constructed with object based Training Image generators which offer predefined geometric shapes for modeling sediment facies associations. Training Images can also be constructed in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) system. Non-uniform rational B-Splines are implemented in CAD systems and enable to generate even more realistic geometric shapes of sediment bodies than by means of object based training image generators. Multiple Point Statistics Simulation aims to produce local patterns from the Training Image and conditionally anchor them to the investigation data. Regarding geometric shapes and lateral extensions of derived sediment structures, the Multiple Point Statistics simulations yielded the most sensible hydrofacies models while reproducing input data proportions.

  7. Design of Multiple Bolted Connections for Laminated Veneer Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjen Yeh; Douglas Rammer; Jeff Linville

    2014-01-01

    The design of multiple bolted connections in accordance with Appendix E of the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS) has incorporated provisions for evaluating localized member failure modes of row and group tear-out when the connections are closely spaced. Originally based on structural glued laminated timber (glulam) members made with all L1...

  8. Point-to-point radio link variation at E-band and its effect on antenna design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Rawi, A.; Dubok, A.; Herben, M.H.A.J.; Smolders, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Radio propagation will strongly influence the design of the antenna and front-end components of E-band point-to-point communication systems. Based on the ITU rain model, the rain attenuation is estimated in a statistical sense and it is concluded that for backhaul links of 1–10 km, antennas with a

  9. Teach Graphic Design Basics with PowerPoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Spotts, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    While PowerPoint is generally regarded as simply software for creating slide presentations, it includes often overlooked--but powerful--drawing tools. Because it is part of the Microsoft Office package, PowerPoint comes preloaded on many computers and thus is already available in many classrooms. Since most computers are not preloaded with good…

  10. Methods of fast, multiple-point in vivo T1 determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Spigarelli, M.; Fencil, L.E.; Yeung, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of rapid, multiple-point determination of T1 in vivo have been evaluated with a phantom consisting of vials of gel in different Mn + + concentrations. The first method was an inversion-recovery- on-the-fly technique, and the second method used a variable- tip-angle (α) progressive saturation with two sub- sequences of different repetition times. In the first method, 1/T1 was evaluated by an exponential fit. In the second method, 1/T1 was obtained iteratively with a linear fit and then readjusted together with α to a model equation until self-consistency was reached

  11. Coexistence of different vacua in the effective quantum field theory and multiple point principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovik, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    According to the multiple point principle our Universe in on the coexistence curve of two or more phases of the quantum vacuum. The coexistence of different quantum vacua can be regulated by the exchange of the global fermionic charges between the vacua. If the coexistence is regulated by the baryonic charge, all the coexisting vacua exhibit the baryonic asymmetry. Due to the exchange of the baryonic charge between the vacuum and matter which occurs above the electroweak transition, the baryonic asymmetry of the vacuum induces the baryonic asymmetry of matter in our Standard-Model phase of the quantum vacuum [ru

  12. Robust set-point regulation for ecological models with multiple management goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiver, Chris; Mueller, Markus; Hodgson, Dave; Townley, Stuart

    2016-05-01

    Population managers will often have to deal with problems of meeting multiple goals, for example, keeping at specific levels both the total population and population abundances in given stage-classes of a stratified population. In control engineering, such set-point regulation problems are commonly tackled using multi-input, multi-output proportional and integral (PI) feedback controllers. Building on our recent results for population management with single goals, we develop a PI control approach in a context of multi-objective population management. We show that robust set-point regulation is achieved by using a modified PI controller with saturation and anti-windup elements, both described in the paper, and illustrate the theory with examples. Our results apply more generally to linear control systems with positive state variables, including a class of infinite-dimensional systems, and thus have broader appeal.

  13. Estimation of Multiple Point Sources for Linear Fractional Order Systems Using Modulating Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-06-28

    This paper proposes an estimation algorithm for the characterization of multiple point inputs for linear fractional order systems. First, using polynomial modulating functions method and a suitable change of variables the problem of estimating the locations and the amplitudes of a multi-pointwise input is decoupled into two algebraic systems of equations. The first system is nonlinear and solves for the time locations iteratively, whereas the second system is linear and solves for the input’s amplitudes. Second, closed form formulas for both the time location and the amplitude are provided in the particular case of single point input. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed technique in both noise-free and noisy cases. The joint estimation of pointwise input and fractional differentiation orders is also presented. Furthermore, a discussion on the performance of the proposed algorithm is provided.

  14. Multiple-valued logic design based on the multiple-peak BiCMOS-NDR circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jow Gan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different multiple-valued logic (MVL designs using the multiple-peak negative-differential-resistance (NDR circuits are investigated. The basic NDR element, which is made of several Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOS and SiGe-based heterojunction-bipolar-transistor (HBT devices, can be implemented by using a standard BiCMOS process. These MVL circuits are designed based on the triggering-pulse control, saw-tooth input signal, and peak-control methods, respectively. However, there are some transient states existing between the multiple stable levels for the first two methods. These states might affect the circuit function in practical application. As a result, our proposed peak-control method for the MVL design can be used to overcome these transient states.

  15. Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Graham D; Williams, Robert J; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Steel, M J; Withford, Michael J

    2010-09-13

    The point-by-point technique of fabricating fibre-Bragg gratings using an ultrafast laser enables complete control of the position of each index modification that comprises the grating. By tailoring the local phase, amplitude and spacing of the grating's refractive index modulations it is possible to create gratings with complex transmission and reflection spectra. We report a series of grating structures that were realized by exploiting these flexibilities. Such structures include gratings with controlled bandwidth, and amplitude- and phase-modulated sampled (or superstructured) gratings. A model based on coupled-mode theory provides important insights into the manufacture of such gratings. Our approach offers a quick and easy method of producing complex, non-uniform grating structures in both fibres and other mono-mode waveguiding structures.

  16. The Challenges of Designing Digital Services for Multiple Mobile Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazawneh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    on a multiple case study of three mobile application development firms from Sweden, Denmark and Norway, we synthesize the digital service design taxonomy to understand the challenges faced by third-party developers. Our study identifies a set of challenges in four different levels: user level, platform level...... to tap into and join the digital ecosystem. However, while there is an emerging literature on designing digital services, little empirical evidence exists about challenges faced by third-party developers while designing digital services, and in particular for multiple mobile platforms. Drawing......The value of digital services is increasingly recognized by owners of digital platforms. These services have central role in building and sustaining the business of the digital platform. In order to sustain the design of digital services, owners of digital platforms encourage third-party developers...

  17. Key points for the design of Mox facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducroux, R.; Gaiffe, L.; Dumond, S.; Cret, L.

    1998-01-01

    The design of a MOX fuel fabrication facility involves specific technical difficulties: - Process aspects: for example, its is necessary to meet the stringent requirements on the end products, while handling large quantities of powders and pellets; - Safety aspects: for example, containment of radioactive materials requires to use gloveboxes, to design process equipment so as to limit dispersion to the gloveboxes and to use systems for dust collection. - Technological aspects: for example, it is necessary to take into account maintenance early in the design, in order to lower the operation costs and lower the dose to the personnel. - Quality control and information systems: for example, it is necessary to be able to trace all the different products (powder lots, pellets, rods, assemblies). The design methods and organization set-up by COGEMA enables to master these technical difficulties during the different design steps and to obtain a MOX fabrication facility at the best performance versus cost compromise. These design methods rely mainly on: - taking into account all the different above mentioned constraints from the very beginning of the design process (by using the know-how resulting from experience feed-back, and also specific design tools developed by COGEMA and SGN); - launching a technical development and testing program at the beginning of the project and incorporating its results in the course of the design. (author)

  18. Bridges between multiple-point geostatistics and texture synthesis: Review and guidelines for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Multiple-Point Simulations (MPS) is a family of geostatistical tools that has received a lot of attention in recent years for the characterization of spatial phenomena in geosciences. It relies on the definition of training images to represent a given type of spatial variability, or texture. We show that the algorithmic tools used are similar in many ways to techniques developed in computer graphics, where there is a need to generate large amounts of realistic textures for applications such as video games and animated movies. Similarly to MPS, these texture synthesis methods use training images, or exemplars, to generate realistic-looking graphical textures. Both domains of multiple-point geostatistics and example-based texture synthesis present similarities in their historic development and share similar concepts. These disciplines have however remained separated, and as a result significant algorithmic innovations in each discipline have not been universally adopted. Texture synthesis algorithms present drastically increased computational efficiency, patterns reproduction and user control. At the same time, MPS developed ways to condition models to spatial data and to produce 3D stochastic realizations, which have not been thoroughly investigated in the field of texture synthesis. In this paper we review the possible links between these disciplines and show the potential and limitations of using concepts and approaches from texture synthesis in MPS. We also provide guidelines on how recent developments could benefit both fields of research, and what challenges remain open.

  19. A Comparison of Combustion Dynamics for Multiple 7-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, K. M.; Hicks, Y. R.

    2017-01-01

    The combustion dynamics of multiple 7-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustor configurations are compared. LDI is a fuel-lean combustor concept for aero gas turbine engines in which multiple small fuel-air mixers replace one traditionally-sized fuel-air mixer. This 7-point LDI configuration has a circular cross section, with a center (pilot) fuel-air mixer surrounded by six outer (main) fuel-air mixers. Each fuel-air mixer consists of an axial air swirler followed by a converging-diverging venturi. A simplex fuel injector is inserted through the center of the air swirler, with the fuel injector tip located near the venturi throat. All 7 fuel-air mixers are identical except for the swirler blade angle, which varies with the configuration. Testing was done in a 5-atm flame tube with inlet air temperatures from 600 to 800 F and equivalence ratios from 0.4 to 0.7. Combustion dynamics were measured using a cooled PCB pressure transducer flush-mounted in the wall of the combustor test section.

  20. Designing multiple ligands - medicinal chemistry strategies and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphy, Richard; Rankovic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely recognised over the recent years that parallel modulation of multiple biological targets can be beneficial for treatment of diseases with complex etiologies such as cancer asthma, and psychiatric disease. In this article, current strategies for the generation of ligands with a specific multi-target profile (designed multiple ligands or DMLs) are described and a number of illustrative example are given. Designing multiple ligands is frequently a challenging endeavour for medicinal chemists, with the need to appropriately balance affinity for 2 or more targets whilst obtaining physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties that are consistent with the administration of an oral drug. Given that the properties of DMLs are influenced to a large extent by the proteomic superfamily to which the targets belong and the lead generation strategy that is pursued, an early assessment of the feasibility of any given DML project is essential.

  1. Design and development of multiple sample counting setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, D.P.; Murali, S.; Babu, D.A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The analysis of active samples on regular basis for ambient air activity and floor contamination from radio chemical lab accounts for major chunk of the operational activity in Health Physicist's responsibility. The requirement for daily air sample analysis on immediate counting and delayed counting from various labs in addition to samples of smear swipe check of lab led to the urge for development of system that could cater multiple sample analysis in a time programmed manner on a single sample loading. A multiple alpha/beta counting system for counting was designed and fabricated. It has arrangements for loading 10 samples in slots in order, get counted in a time programmed manner with results displayed and records maintained in PC. The paper describes the design and development of multiple sample counting setup presently in use at the facility has resulted in reduction of man-hour consumption in counting and recording of the results

  2. Optimization of the NIF ignition point design hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, D A; Hinkel, D E; Berger, R L; Divol, L; Dixit, S N; Edwards, M J; Haan, S W; Jones, O S; Lindl, J D; Meezan, N B; Michel, P A; Pollaine, S M; Suter, L J; Town, R P J; Bradley, P A

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the start of NIF ignition experiments, we have designed a porfolio of targets that span the temperature range that is consistent with initial NIF operations: 300 eV, 285 eV, and 270 eV. Because these targets are quite complicated, we have developed a plan for choosing the optimum hohlraum for the first ignition attempt that is based on this portfolio of designs coupled with early NIF experiements using 96 beams. These early experiments will measure the laser plasma instabilities of the candidate designs and will demonstrate our ability to tune symmetry in these designs. These experimental results, coupled with the theory and simulations that went into the designs, will allow us to choose the optimal hohlraum for the first NIF ignition attempt

  3. Optimization of the NIF ignition point design hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berger, R. L.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Lindl, J. D.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P. A.; Pollaine, S. M.; Suter, L. J.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, P. A.

    2008-05-01

    In preparation for the start of NIF ignition experiments, we have designed a porfolio of targets that span the temperature range that is consistent with initial NIF operations: 300 eV, 285 eV, and 270 eV. Because these targets are quite complicated, we have developed a plan for choosing the optimum hohlraum for the first ignition attempt that is based on this portfolio of designs coupled with early NIF experiements using 96 beams. These early experiments will measure the laser plasma instabilities of the candidate designs and will demonstrate our ability to tune symmetry in these designs. These experimental results, coupled with the theory and simulations that went into the designs, will allow us to choose the optimal hohlraum for the first NIF ignition attempt.

  4. Improving multiple-point-based a priori models for inverse problems by combining Sequential Simulation with the Frequency Matching Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Lange, Katrine

    In order to move beyond simplified covariance based a priori models, which are typically used for inverse problems, more complex multiple-point-based a priori models have to be considered. By means of marginal probability distributions ‘learned’ from a training image, sequential simulation has...... proven to be an efficient way of obtaining multiple realizations that honor the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. The frequency matching method provides an alternative way of formulating multiple-point-based a priori models. In this strategy the pattern frequency distributions (i.......e. marginals) of the training image and a subsurface model are matched in order to obtain a solution with the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. Sequential Gibbs sampling is a simulation strategy that provides an efficient way of applying sequential simulation based algorithms as a priori...

  5. Design of Farthest-Point Masks for Image Halftoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramponi G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper, we briefly presented a new halftoning algorithm called farthest-point halftoning. In the present paper, this method is analyzed in detail, and a novel dispersion measure is defined to improve the simplicity and flexibility of the result. This new stochastic screen algorithm is loosely based on Kang's dispersed-dot ordered dither halftone array construction technique used as part of his microcluster halftoning method. Our new halftoning algorithm uses pixelwise measures of dispersion based on one proposed by Kang which is here modified to be more effective. In addition, our method exploits the concept of farthest-point sampling (FPS, introduced as a progressive irregular sampling method by Eldar et al. but uses a more efficient implementation of FPS in the construction of the dot profiles. The technique we propose is compared to other state-of-the-art dither-based halftoning methods in both qualitative and quantitative manners.

  6. Design and Implementation of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz S. Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available  The power supplied by any solar array depends upon the environmental conditions as weather conditions (temperature and radiation intensity and the incident angle of the radiant source. The work aims to study the maximum power tracking schemes that used to compare the system performance without and with different types of controllers. The maximum power points of the solar panel under test studied and compared with two controller's types.  The first controller is the proportional- integral - derivative controller type and the second is the perturbation and observation algorithm controller. The associated converter system is a microcontroller based type, whereas the results studied and compared of greatest power point of the Photovoltaic panels under the different two controllers. The experimental tests results compared with simulation results to verify accurate performance.

  7. Point spread function due to multiple scattering of light in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pękala, J.; Wilczyński, H.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric scattering of light has a significant influence on the results of optical observations of air showers. It causes attenuation of direct light from the shower, but also contributes a delayed signal to the observed light. The scattering of light therefore should be accounted for, both in simulations of air shower detection and reconstruction of observed events. In this work a Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering of light has been used to determine the contribution of the scattered light in observations of a point source of light. Results of the simulations and a parameterization of the angular distribution of the scattered light contribution to the observed signal (the point spread function) are presented. -- Author-Highlights: •Analysis of atmospheric scattering of light from an isotropic point source. •Different geometries and atmospheric conditions were investigated. •A parameterization of scattered light distribution has been developed. •The parameterization allows one to easily account for the light scattering in air. •The results will be useful in analyses of observations of extensive air shower

  8. Automated platform for designing multiple robot work cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, N. S.; Rahman, M. A. A.; Rahman, A. A. Abdul; Kamsani, S. H.; Bali Mohamad, B. M.; Mohamad, E.; Zaini, Z. A.; Rahman, M. F. Ab; Mohamad Hatta, M. N. H.

    2017-06-01

    Designing the multiple robot work cells is very knowledge-intensive, intricate, and time-consuming process. This paper elaborates the development process of a computer-aided design program for generating the multiple robot work cells which offer a user-friendly interface. The primary purpose of this work is to provide a fast and easy platform for less cost and human involvement with minimum trial and errors adjustments. The automated platform is constructed based on the variant-shaped configuration concept with its mathematical model. A robot work cell layout, system components, and construction procedure of the automated platform are discussed in this paper where integration of these items will be able to automatically provide the optimum robot work cell design according to the information set by the user. This system is implemented on top of CATIA V5 software and utilises its Part Design, Assembly Design, and Macro tool. The current outcomes of this work provide a basis for future investigation in developing a flexible configuration system for the multiple robot work cells.

  9. Assimilation of concentration measurements for retrieving multiple point releases in atmosphere: A least-squares approach to inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rani, Raj

    2015-10-01

    The study addresses the identification of multiple point sources, emitting the same tracer, from their limited set of merged concentration measurements. The identification, here, refers to the estimation of locations and strengths of a known number of simultaneous point releases. The source-receptor relationship is described in the framework of adjoint modelling by using an analytical Gaussian dispersion model. A least-squares minimization framework, free from an initialization of the release parameters (locations and strengths), is presented to estimate the release parameters. This utilizes the distributed source information observable from the given monitoring design and number of measurements. The technique leads to an exact retrieval of the true release parameters when measurements are noise free and exactly described by the dispersion model. The inversion algorithm is evaluated using the real data from multiple (two, three and four) releases conducted during Fusion Field Trials in September 2007 at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. The release locations are retrieved, on average, within 25-45 m of the true sources with the distance from retrieved to true source ranging from 0 to 130 m. The release strengths are also estimated within a factor of three to the true release rates. The average deviations in retrieval of source locations are observed relatively large in two release trials in comparison to three and four release trials.

  10. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  11. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  12. The shooting method and multiple solutions of two/multi-point BVPs of second-order ODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Kam Kwong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, there has been growing interest in the study of multiple solutions of two- and multi-point boundary value problems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations as fixed points of a cone mapping. Undeniably many good results have emerged. The purpose of this paper is to point out that, in the special case of second-order equations, the shooting method can be an effective tool, sometimes yielding better results than those obtainable via fixed point techniques.

  13. Adaptive Waveform Design for Cognitive Radar in Multiple Targets Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of cognitive radar (CR waveform optimization design for target detection and estimation in multiple extended targets situations is investigated. This problem is analyzed in signal-dependent interference, as well as additive channel noise for extended targets with unknown target impulse response (TIR. To address this problem, an improved algorithm is employed for target detection by maximizing the detection probability of the received echo on the promise of ensuring the TIR estimation precision. In this algorithm, an additional weight vector is introduced to achieve a trade-off among different targets. Both the estimate of TIR and transmit waveform can be updated at each step based on the previous step. Under the same constraint on waveform energy and bandwidth, the information theoretical approach is also considered. In addition, the relationship between the waveforms that are designed based on the two criteria is discussed. Unlike most existing works that only consider single target with temporally correlated characteristics, waveform design for multiple extended targets is considered in this method. Simulation results demonstrate that compared with linear frequency modulated (LFM signal, waveforms designed based on maximum detection probability and maximum mutual information (MI criteria can make radar echoes contain more multiple-target information and improve radar performance as a result.

  14. Multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of building refurbishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Raslanas, S. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2005-07-01

    In order to design and realize an efficient building refurbishment, it is necessary to carry out an exhaustive investigation of all solutions that form it. The efficiency level of the considered building's refurbishment depends on a great many of factors, including: cost of refurbishment, annual fuel economy after refurbishment, tentative pay-back time, harmfulness to health of the materials used, aesthetics, maintenance properties, functionality, comfort, sound insulation and longevity, etc. Solutions of an alternative character allow for a more rational and realistic assessment of economic, ecological, legislative, climatic, social and political conditions, traditions and for better the satisfaction of customer requirements. They also enable one to cut down on refurbishment costs. In carrying out the multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of a building refurbishment much data was processed and evaluated. Feasible alternatives could be as many as 100,000. How to perform a multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of alternate alternatives based on the enormous amount of information became the problem. Method of multivariant design and multiple criteria of a building refurbishment's analysis were developed by the authors to solve the above problems. In order to demonstrate the developed method, a practical example is presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Evidence-based point-of-care tests and device designs for disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T Keith; Mecozzi, Daniel M; Sumner, Stephanie; Kost, Gerald J

    2010-01-01

    To define pathogen tests and device specifications needed for emerging point-of-care (POC) technologies used in disasters. Surveys included multiple-choice and ranking questions. Multiple-choice questions were analyzed with the chi2 test for goodness-of-fit and the binomial distribution test. Rankings were scored and compared using analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Disaster care experts on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Disaster Medicine and the Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, and the readers of the POC Journal. Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus were top-ranked pathogens for testing in disaster settings. Respondents felt that disaster response teams should be equipped with pandemic infectious disease tests for novel 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza (disaster care, p disaster settings, respondents preferred self-contained test cassettes (disaster care, p disaster care, p disaster care scenarios, in which Vibrio cholera, methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli ranked the highest. POC testing should incorporate setting-specific design criteria such as safe disposable cassettes and direct blood sampling at the site of care.

  16. Multiple-point statistical prediction on fracture networks at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.Y; Zhang, C.Y.; Liu, Q.S.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    In many underground nuclear waste repository systems, such as at Yucca Mountain, water flow rate and amount of water seepage into the waste emplacement drifts are mainly determined by hydrological properties of fracture network in the surrounding rock mass. Natural fracture network system is not easy to describe, especially with respect to its connectivity which is critically important for simulating the water flow field. In this paper, we introduced a new method for fracture network description and prediction, termed multi-point-statistics (MPS). The process of the MPS method is to record multiple-point statistics concerning the connectivity patterns of a fracture network from a known fracture map, and to reproduce multiple-scale training fracture patterns in a stochastic manner, implicitly and directly. It is applied to fracture data to study flow field behavior at the Yucca Mountain waste repository system. First, the MPS method is used to create a fracture network with an original fracture training image from Yucca Mountain dataset. After we adopt a harmonic and arithmetic average method to upscale the permeability to a coarse grid, THM simulation is carried out to study near-field water flow in the surrounding waste emplacement drifts. Our study shows that connectivity or patterns of fracture networks can be grasped and reconstructed by MPS methods. In theory, it will lead to better prediction of fracture system characteristics and flow behavior. Meanwhile, we can obtain variance from flow field, which gives us a way to quantify model uncertainty even in complicated coupled THM simulations. It indicates that MPS can potentially characterize and reconstruct natural fracture networks in a fractured rock mass with advantages of quantifying connectivity of fracture system and its simulation uncertainty simultaneously.

  17. Harnessing Multiple Internal Reflections to Design Highly Absorptive Acoustic Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Cummer, Steven A.

    2018-05-01

    The rapid development of metasurfaces has enabled numerous intriguing applications with acoustically thin sheets. Here we report the theory and experimental realization of a nonresonant sound-absorbing strategy using metasurfaces by harnessing multiple internal reflections. We theoretically and numerically show that the higher-order diffraction of thin gradient-index metasurfaces is tied to multiple internal reflections inside the unit cells. Highly absorbing acoustic metasurfaces can be realized by enforcing multiple internal reflections together with a small amount of loss. A reflective gradient-index acoustic metasurface is designed based on the theory, and we further experimentally verify the performance using a three-dimensional printed prototype. Measurements show over 99% energy absorption at the peak frequency and a 95% energy absorption bandwidth of around 600 Hz. The proposed mechanism provides an alternative route for sound absorption without the necessity of high absorption of the individual unit cells.

  18. NorthPoint Courtesy Services Development and Design Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cox

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As we address the topic of games on games, we turned our focus towards first-person shooters (FPS, one of the most popular genres of computer game at the moment. Contemporary FPS games populate the genre continuum from realistic (Rainbow Six Siege, ARMA, Insurgency to fantastic (Halo, Bioshock, Destiny. However, no matter the setting or context, a constant of the FPS genre is the horde of nameless non-player characters (NPCs that make up the waves of grunts and cannon fodder for the player character to enact their will against through the affordances provided by the designers. This melding of player will and designer limitations, in the vast majority of instances, results in NPCs being shot and killed with some form of weaponry, thus allowing the player to progress through the game.

  19. Mobile point-of-care monitors and diagnostic device design

    CERN Document Server

    Karlen, Walter

    2014-01-01

    PrefaceEditorsContributorsSensors and SystemsInterfacing Diagnostics with Consumer ElectronicsPakorn Preechaburana, Anke Suska, and Daniel FilippiniLab on a CellphoneAhmet F. Coskun, Hongying Zhu, Onur Mudanyali, and Aydogan OzcanThe Phone OximeterChristian Leth PetersenCurrent Technology and Advances in Transepidermal Water Loss SensorsPietro Salvo, Bernardo Melai, Nicola Calisi, and Fabio Di FrancescoPortable High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging System Design and Hardware Considerations

  20. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce; Broderick, Kris

    2006-01-01

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  1. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [Marine Sciences Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Luyendyk, Bruce [Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Broderick, Kris [Exxon/Mobil Exploration Company, 13401 N. Freeway, Houston, TX 77060 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  2. Systems near a critical point under multiplicative noise and the concept of effective potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, V. E.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents a general approach to and elucidates the main features of the effective potential, friction, and diffusion exerted by systems near a critical point due to nonlinear influence of noise. The model is that of a general many-dimensional system of coupled nonlinear oscillators of finite damping under frequently alternating influences, multiplicative or additive, and arbitrary form of the power spectrum, provided the time scales of the system's drift due to noise are large compared to the scales of unperturbed relaxation behavior. The conventional statistical approach and the widespread deterministic effective potential concept use the assumptions about a small parameter which are particular cases of the considered. We show close correspondence between the asymptotic methods of these approaches and base the analysis on this. The results include an analytical treatment of the system's long-time behavior as a function of the noise covering all the range of its table- and bell-shaped spectra, from the monochromatic limit to white noise. The trend is considered both in the coordinate momentum and in the coordinate system's space. Particular attention is paid to the stabilization behavior forced by multiplicative noise. An intermittency, in a broad area of the control parameter space, is shown to be an intrinsic feature of these phenomena.

  3. Multiple types of motives don't multiply the motivation of West Point cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesniewski, Amy; Schwartz, Barry; Cong, Xiangyu; Kane, Michael; Omar, Audrey; Kolditz, Thomas

    2014-07-29

    Although people often assume that multiple motives for doing something will be more powerful and effective than a single motive, research suggests that different types of motives for the same action sometimes compete. More specifically, research suggests that instrumental motives, which are extrinsic to the activities at hand, can weaken internal motives, which are intrinsic to the activities at hand. We tested whether holding both instrumental and internal motives yields negative outcomes in a field context in which various motives occur naturally and long-term educational and career outcomes are at stake. We assessed the impact of the motives of over 10,000 West Point cadets over the period of a decade on whether they would become commissioned officers, extend their officer service beyond the minimum required period, and be selected for early career promotions. For each outcome, motivation internal to military service itself predicted positive outcomes; a relationship that was negatively affected when instrumental motives were also in evidence. These results suggest that holding multiple motives damages persistence and performance in educational and occupational contexts over long periods of time.

  4. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.

    2012-01-01

    the gratings make the point-by-point grating writing technique very interesting and would appear to be able to fill this technological gap. On the other end this technique is hardly applicable for microstructured fibers because of the writing beam being scattered by the air-holes. We report on the design...... and because they allow to tune the guiding parameters by modifying the microstructure. Now a days the only technique used to write gratings in such fibers is the phase mask technique with UV light illumination. Despite the good results that have been obtained, a limited flexibility on the grating design...... and the very long times required for the writing of FBGs raise some questions about the possibility of exporting POF FBGs and the sensors based on them from the laboratory bench to the mass production market. The possibility of arbitrary design of fiber Bragg gratings and the very short time required to write...

  5. Some remarks on the design of HIF current multiplication rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, K.H.

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of heavy ion fusion drivers has now reached a state, where the overall approach has become fairly clear. One design features an RF linac plus current and beam multiplication rings. The present remarks concern the assignment of multiturn injection, beam storage and bunching to an optimized number of rings and transport lines, as well as some criteria for their designs. The main parameter constraints are discussed, showing how they can be met, although there is little flexibility at the present stage of understanding and technology. A shortened version of this report is scheduled for presentation at the ''INS International Symposium on Heavy Ion Accelerators and Their Application to Inertial Fusion'' Tokyo, January 23-27 1984. (author)

  6. Multiple spacecraft configuration designs for coordinated flight missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumenti, Federico; Theil, Stephan

    2018-06-01

    Coordinated flight allows the replacement of a single monolithic spacecraft with multiple smaller ones, based on the principle of distributed systems. According to the mission objectives and to ensure a safe relative motion, constraints on the relative distances need to be satisfied. Initially, differential perturbations are limited by proper orbit design. Then, the induced differential drifts can be properly handled through corrective maneuvers. In this work, several designs are surveyed, defining the initial configuration of a group of spacecraft while counteracting the differential perturbations. For each of the investigated designs, focus is placed upon the number of deployable spacecraft and on the possibility to ensure safe relative motion through station keeping of the initial configuration, with particular attention to the required Δ V budget and the constraints violations.

  7. Screening of point mutations by multiple SSCP analysis in the dystrophin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasa, A.; Baiget, M.; Gallano, P. [Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked neuromuscular disorder. The population frequency of DMD is one in approximately 3500 boys, of which one third is thought to be a new mutant. The DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning over 2,3 Mb in band Xp21.2; 79 exons are transcribed into a 14 Kb mRNA coding for a protein of 427 kD which has been named dystrophin. It has been shown that about 65% of affected boys have a gene deletion with a wide variation in localization and size. The remaining affected individuals who have no detectable deletions or duplications would probably carry more subtle mutations that are difficult to detect. These mutations occur in several different exons and seem to be unique to single patients. Their identification represents a formidable goal because of the large size and complexity of the dystrophin gene. SSCP is a very efficient method for the detection of point mutations if the parameters that affect the separation of the strands are optimized for a particular DNA fragment. The multiple SSCP allows the simultaneous study of several exons, and implies the use of different conditions because no single set of conditions will be optimal for all fragments. Seventy-eight DMD patients with no deletion or duplication in the dystrophin gene were selected for the multiple SSCP analysis. Genomic DNA from these patients was amplified using the primers described for the diagnosis procedure (muscle promoter and exons 3, 8, 12, 16, 17, 19, 32, 45, 48 and 51). We have observed different mobility shifts in bands corresponding to exons 8, 12, 43 and 51. In exons 17 and 45, altered electrophoretic patterns were found in different samples identifying polymorphisms already described.

  8. Association of a novel point mutation in MSH2 gene with familial multiple primary cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple primary cancers (MPC have been identified as two or more cancers without any subordinate relationship that occur either simultaneously or metachronously in the same or different organs of an individual. Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that increases the risk of many types of cancers. Lynch syndrome patients who suffer more than two cancers can also be considered as MPC; patients of this kind provide unique resources to learn how genetic mutation causes MPC in different tissues. Methods We performed a whole genome sequencing on blood cells and two tumor samples of a Lynch syndrome patient who was diagnosed with five primary cancers. The mutational landscape of the tumors, including somatic point mutations and copy number alternations, was characterized. We also compared Lynch syndrome with sporadic cancers and proposed a model to illustrate the mutational process by which Lynch syndrome progresses to MPC. Results We revealed a novel pathologic mutation on the MSH2 gene (G504 splicing that associates with Lynch syndrome. Systematical comparison of the mutation landscape revealed that multiple cancers in the proband were evolutionarily independent. Integrative analysis showed that truncating mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes were significantly enriched in the patient. A mutation progress model that included germline mutations of MMR genes, double hits of MMR system, mutations in tissue-specific driver genes, and rapid accumulation of additional passenger mutations was proposed to illustrate how MPC occurs in Lynch syndrome patients. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that both germline and somatic alterations are driving forces of carcinogenesis, which may resolve the carcinogenic theory of Lynch syndrome.

  9. LDPC decoder with a limited-precision FPGA-based floating-point multiplication coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Raymond; O'Sullivan, Michael; Waheed, Khurram

    2007-09-01

    Implementing the sum-product algorithm, in an FPGA with an embedded processor, invites us to consider a tradeoff between computational precision and computational speed. The algorithm, known outside of the signal processing community as Pearl's belief propagation, is used for iterative soft-decision decoding of LDPC codes. We determined the feasibility of a coprocessor that will perform product computations. Our FPGA-based coprocessor (design) performs computer algebra with significantly less precision than the standard (e.g. integer, floating-point) operations of general purpose processors. Using synthesis, targeting a 3,168 LUT Xilinx FPGA, we show that key components of a decoder are feasible and that the full single-precision decoder could be constructed using a larger part. Soft-decision decoding by the iterative belief propagation algorithm is impacted both positively and negatively by a reduction in the precision of the computation. Reducing precision reduces the coding gain, but the limited-precision computation can operate faster. A proposed solution offers custom logic to perform computations with less precision, yet uses the floating-point format to interface with the software. Simulation results show the achievable coding gain. Synthesis results help theorize the the full capacity and performance of an FPGA-based coprocessor.

  10. Optimizing the diagnostic power with gastric emptying scintigraphy at multiple time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy (GES at intervals over 4 hours after a standardized radio-labeled meal is commonly regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing gastroparesis. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the best time point and the best combination of multiple time points for diagnosing gastroparesis with repeated GES measures, and 2 to contrast and cross-validate Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, a rank based Distribution Free (DF approach, and the Classification And Regression Tree (CART model. Methods A total of 320 patients with GES measures at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hour (h after a standard meal using a standardized method were retrospectively collected. Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve and the rate of false classification through jackknife cross-validation were used for model comparison. Results Due to strong correlation and an abnormality in data distribution, no substantial improvement in diagnostic power was found with the best linear combination by LDA approach even with data transformation. With DF method, the linear combination of 4-h and 3-h increased the Area Under the Curve (AUC and decreased the number of false classifications (0.87; 15.0% over individual time points (0.83, 0.82; 15.6%, 25.3%, for 4-h and 3-h, respectively at a higher sensitivity level (sensitivity = 0.9. The CART model using 4 hourly GES measurements along with patient's age was the most accurate diagnostic tool (AUC = 0.88, false classification = 13.8%. Patients having a 4-h gastric retention value >10% were 5 times more likely to have gastroparesis (179/207 = 86.5% than those with ≤10% (18/113 = 15.9%. Conclusions With a mixed group of patients either referred with suspected gastroparesis or investigated for other reasons, the CART model is more robust than the LDA and DF approaches, capable of accommodating covariate effects and can be generalized for cross institutional applications, but

  11. The emergence of designed multiple ligands for neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Youdim, Moussa B H; Carroll, Richard T; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases has seen a constant increase in the global population, and is likely to be the result of extended life expectancy brought about by better health care. Despite this increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, there has been a dearth in the introduction of new disease-modifying therapies that are approved to prevent or delay the onset of these diseases, or reverse the degenerative processes in brain. Mounting evidence in the peer-reviewed literature shows that the etiopathology of these diseases is extremely complex and heterogeneous, resulting in significant comorbidity and therefore unlikely to be mitigated by any drug acting on a single pathway or target. A recent trend in drug design and discovery is the rational design or serendipitous discovery of novel drug entities with the ability to address multiple drug targets that form part of the complex pathophysiology of a particular disease state. In this review we discuss the rationale for developing such multifunctional drugs (also called designed multiple ligands or DMLs), and why these drug candidates seem to offer better outcomes in many cases compared to single-targeted drugs in pre-clinical studies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Examples are drawn from the literature of drug candidates that have already reached the market, some unsuccessful attempts, and others that are still in the drug development pipeline. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Quantifying natural delta variability using a multiple-point geostatistics prior uncertainty model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Céline; Fernandes, Anjali M.; Paola, Chris; Caers, Jef

    2016-10-01

    We address the question of quantifying uncertainty associated with autogenic pattern variability in a channelized transport system by means of a modern geostatistical method. This question has considerable relevance for practical subsurface applications as well, particularly those related to uncertainty quantification relying on Bayesian approaches. Specifically, we show how the autogenic variability in a laboratory experiment can be represented and reproduced by a multiple-point geostatistical prior uncertainty model. The latter geostatistical method requires selection of a limited set of training images from which a possibly infinite set of geostatistical model realizations, mimicking the training image patterns, can be generated. To that end, we investigate two methods to determine how many training images and what training images should be provided to reproduce natural autogenic variability. The first method relies on distance-based clustering of overhead snapshots of the experiment; the second method relies on a rate of change quantification by means of a computer vision algorithm termed the demon algorithm. We show quantitatively that with either training image selection method, we can statistically reproduce the natural variability of the delta formed in the experiment. In addition, we study the nature of the patterns represented in the set of training images as a representation of the "eigenpatterns" of the natural system. The eigenpattern in the training image sets display patterns consistent with previous physical interpretations of the fundamental modes of this type of delta system: a highly channelized, incisional mode; a poorly channelized, depositional mode; and an intermediate mode between the two.

  13. Accelerating simulation for the multiple-point statistics algorithm using vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chen; Pan, Zhibin; Liang, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Multiple-point statistics (MPS) is a prominent algorithm to simulate categorical variables based on a sequential simulation procedure. Assuming training images (TIs) as prior conceptual models, MPS extracts patterns from TIs using a template and records their occurrences in a database. However, complex patterns increase the size of the database and require considerable time to retrieve the desired elements. In order to speed up simulation and improve simulation quality over state-of-the-art MPS methods, we propose an accelerating simulation for MPS using vector quantization (VQ), called VQ-MPS. First, a variable representation is presented to make categorical variables applicable for vector quantization. Second, we adopt a tree-structured VQ to compress the database so that stationary simulations are realized. Finally, a transformed template and classified VQ are used to address nonstationarity. A two-dimensional (2D) stationary channelized reservoir image is used to validate the proposed VQ-MPS. In comparison with several existing MPS programs, our method exhibits significantly better performance in terms of computational time, pattern reproductions, and spatial uncertainty. Further demonstrations consist of a 2D four facies simulation, two 2D nonstationary channel simulations, and a three-dimensional (3D) rock simulation. The results reveal that our proposed method is also capable of solving multifacies, nonstationarity, and 3D simulations based on 2D TIs.

  14. Zero-Point Energy Constraint for Unimolecular Dissociation Reactions. Giving Trajectories Multiple Chances To Dissociate Correctly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Amit K; Hase, William L

    2016-01-28

    A zero-point energy (ZPE) constraint model is proposed for classical trajectory simulations of unimolecular decomposition and applied to CH4* → H + CH3 decomposition. With this model trajectories are not allowed to dissociate unless they have ZPE in the CH3 product. If not, they are returned to the CH4* region of phase space and, if necessary, given additional opportunities to dissociate with ZPE. The lifetime for dissociation of an individual trajectory is the time it takes to dissociate with ZPE in CH3, including multiple possible returns to CH4*. With this ZPE constraint the dissociation of CH4* is exponential in time as expected for intrinsic RRKM dynamics and the resulting rate constant is in good agreement with the harmonic quantum value of RRKM theory. In contrast, a model that discards trajectories without ZPE in the reaction products gives a CH4* → H + CH3 rate constant that agrees with the classical and not quantum RRKM value. The rate constant for the purely classical simulation indicates that anharmonicity may be important and the rate constant from the ZPE constrained classical trajectory simulation may not represent the complete anharmonicity of the RRKM quantum dynamics. The ZPE constraint model proposed here is compared with previous models for restricting ZPE flow in intramolecular dynamics, and connecting product and reactant/product quantum energy levels in chemical dynamics simulations.

  15. LSHSIM: A Locality Sensitive Hashing based method for multiple-point geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Pedro; Laber, Eduardo; Lopes, Hélio; Mesejo, Daniel; Pavanelli, Lucas; Jardim, João; Thiesen, Francisco; Pujol, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    Reservoir modeling is a very important task that permits the representation of a geological region of interest, so as to generate a considerable number of possible scenarios. Since its inception, many methodologies have been proposed and, in the last two decades, multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) has been the dominant one. This methodology is strongly based on the concept of training image (TI) and the use of its characteristics, which are called patterns. In this paper, we propose a new MPS method that combines the application of a technique called Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), which permits to accelerate the search for patterns similar to a target one, with a Run-Length Encoding (RLE) compression technique that speeds up the calculation of the Hamming similarity. Experiments with both categorical and continuous images show that LSHSIM is computationally efficient and produce good quality realizations. In particular, for categorical data, the results suggest that LSHSIM is faster than MS-CCSIM, one of the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. A location-based multiple point statistics method: modelling the reservoir with non-stationary characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yanshu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a location-based multiple point statistics method is developed to model a non-stationary reservoir. The proposed method characterizes the relationship between the sedimentary pattern and the deposit location using the relative central position distance function, which alleviates the requirement that the training image and the simulated grids have the same dimension. The weights in every direction of the distance function can be changed to characterize the reservoir heterogeneity in various directions. The local integral replacements of data events, structured random path, distance tolerance and multi-grid strategy are applied to reproduce the sedimentary patterns and obtain a more realistic result. This method is compared with the traditional Snesim method using a synthesized 3-D training image of Poyang Lake and a reservoir model of Shengli Oilfield in China. The results indicate that the new method can reproduce the non-stationary characteristics better than the traditional method and is more suitable for simulation of delta-front deposits. These results show that the new method is a powerful tool for modelling a reservoir with non-stationary characteristics.

  17. Forces, surface finish and friction characteristics in surface engineered single- and multiple-point cutting edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Gillibrand, D.; Bradbury, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced surface engineering technologies (physical and chemical vapour deposition) have been successfully applied to high speed steel and carbide cutting tools, and the potential benefits in terms of both performance and longer tool life, are now well established. Although major achievements have been reported by many manufacturers and users, there are a number of applications where surface engineering has been unsuccessful. Considerable attention has been given to the film characteristics and the variables associated with its properties; however, very little attention has been directed towards the benefits to the tool user. In order to apply surface engineering technology effectively to cutting tools, the coater needs to have accurate information relating to cutting conditions, i.e. cutting forces, stress and temperature etc. The present paper describes results obtained with single- and multiple-point cutting tools with examples of failures, which should help the surface coater to appreciate the significance of the cutting conditions, and in particular the magnitude of the forces and stresses present during cutting processes. These results will assist the development of a systems approach to cutting tool technology and surface engineering with a view to developing an improved product. (orig.)

  18. Minimum weight design of composite laminates for multiple loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikanov, A.A.; Soni, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    A new design method of constructing optimum weight composite laminates for multiple loads is proposed in this paper. A netting analysis approach is used to develop an optimization procedure. Three ply orientations permit development of optimum laminate design without using stress-strain relations. It is proved that stresses in minimum weight laminate reach allowable values in each ply with given load. The optimum ply thickness is defined at maximum value among tensile and compressive loads. Two examples are given to obtain optimum ply orientations, thicknesses and materials. For comparison purposes, calculations of stresses are done in orthotropic material using classical lamination theory. Based upon these calculations, matrix degrades at 30 to 50% of ultimate load. There is no fiber failure and therefore laminates withstand all applied loads in both examples

  19. The multiplicity of the digital textbook as design object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Ebbesen, Toke

    2015-01-01

    Building on a preliminary case study of the Danish educational publisher Systime A/S and its flagship product, the web-based ‘iBog’/‘iBook’, this article explores how digital textbooks can be understood as design. The shaping of digital books is seen as being intertwined in a wider circuit...... reorganization of the publishing company, web-based user interfaces, and ultimately the branding, which market these new digital objects, are building power- ful discourses around the product. Thus it is suggested that the design process of the iBog case can be understood in a model of database-based publishing...... with multiple levels. In the final analysis, the iBog is much more than a product and a technology. It is a brand that goes beyond what can be studied by looking at the digital textbook as a singular artefact....

  20. Microseismic Monitoring Design Optimization Based on Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Y.; Tamimi, N.; Ostadhassan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracture treatments of unconventional reservoirs is a widely used method in the oil and gas industry. Sometimes, the quality of the acquired microseismic data is poor. One of the reasons for poor data quality is poor survey design. We attempt to provide a comprehensive and thorough workflow, using multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA), to optimize planning micriseismic monitoring. So far, microseismic monitoring has been used extensively as a powerful tool for determining fracture parameters that affect the influx of formation fluids into the wellbore. The factors that affect the quality of microseismic data and their final results include average distance between microseismic events and receivers, complexity of the recorded wavefield, signal-to-noise ratio, data aperture, etc. These criteria often conflict with each other. In a typical microseismic monitoring, those factors should be considered to choose the best monitoring well(s), optimum number of required geophones, and their depth. We use MDCA to address these design challenges and develop a method that offers an optimized design out of all possible combinations to produce the best data acquisition results. We believe that this will be the first research to include the above-mentioned factors in a 3D model. Such a tool would assist companies and practicing engineers in choosing the best design parameters for future microseismic projects.

  1. Development of a Whole-Body Haptic Sensor with Multiple Supporting Points and Its Application to a Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Toshiaki

    This paper proposes a whole-body haptic sensing system that has multiple supporting points between the body frame and the end-effector. The system consists of an end-effector and multiple force sensors. Using this mechanism, the position of a contact force on the surface can be calculated without any sensor array. A haptic sensing system with a single supporting point structure has previously been developed by the present authors. However, the system has drawbacks such as low stiffness and low strength. Therefore, in this study, a mechanism with multiple supporting points was proposed and its performance was verified. In this paper, the basic concept of the mechanism is first introduced. Next, an evaluation of the proposed method, performed by conducting some experiments, is presented.

  2. Adaptive aspirations and performance heterogeneity : Attention allocation among multiple reference points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blettner, D.P.; He, Z.; Hu, S.; Bettis, R.

    Organizations learn and adapt their aspiration levels based on reference points (prior aspiration, prior performance, and prior performance of reference groups). The relative attention that organizations allocate to these reference points impacts organizational search and strategic decisions.

  3. Modeling spatial variability of sand-lenses in clay till settings using transition probability and multiple-point geostatistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Nilsson, Bertel; Klint, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    (TPROGS) of alternating geological facies. The second method, multiple-point statistics, uses training images to estimate the conditional probability of sand-lenses at a certain location. Both methods respect field observations such as local stratigraphy, however, only the multiple-point statistics can...... of sand-lenses in clay till. Sand-lenses mainly account for horizontal transport and are prioritised in this study. Based on field observations, the distribution has been modeled using two different geostatistical approaches. One method uses a Markov chain model calculating the transition probabilities...

  4. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The engine requirements are emphasized and include: high specific impulse within a restricted installed length constraint, long life, multiple starts, different thrust levels, and man-rated reliability. The engine operating characteristics and the major component analytical design are summarized.

  5. Channel capacity of TDD-OFDM-MIMO for multiple access points in a wireless single-frequency-network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takatori, Y.; Fitzek, Frank; Tsunekawa, K.

    2005-01-01

    MIMO data transmission scheme, which combines Single-Frequency-Network (SFN) with TDD-OFDM-MIMO applied for wireless LAN networks. In our proposal, we advocate to use SFN for multiple access points (MAP) MIMO data transmission. The goal of this approach is to achieve very high channel capacity in both......The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technique is the most attractive candidate to improve the spectrum efficiency in the next generation wireless communication systems. However, the efficiency of MIMO techniques reduces in the line of sight (LOS) environments. In this paper, we propose a new...

  6. Conservatism implications of shock test tailoring for multiple design environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Thomas J.; Bell, R. Glenn; Robbins, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for analyzing shock conservation in test specifications that have been tailored to qualify a structure for multiple design environments is discussed. Shock test conservation is qualified for shock response spectra, shock intensity spectra and ranked peak acceleration data in terms of an Index of Conservation (IOC) and an Overtest Factor (OTF). The multi-environment conservation analysis addresses the issue of both absolute and average conservation. The method is demonstrated in a case where four laboratory tests have been specified to qualify a component which must survive seven different field environments. Final judgment of the tailored test specification is shown to require an understanding of the predominant failure modes of the test item.

  7. Multiple-point statistical simulation for hydrogeological models: 3-D training image development and conditioning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Vignoli, Giulio; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Thanh Vu, Le; Keefer, Donald A.; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2017-12-01

    Most studies on the application of geostatistical simulations based on multiple-point statistics (MPS) to hydrogeological modelling focus on relatively fine-scale models and concentrate on the estimation of facies-level structural uncertainty. Much less attention is paid to the use of input data and optimal construction of training images. For instance, even though the training image should capture a set of spatial geological characteristics to guide the simulations, the majority of the research still relies on 2-D or quasi-3-D training images. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for 3-D MPS modelling characterized by (i) realistic 3-D training images and (ii) an effective workflow for incorporating a diverse group of geological and geophysical data sets. The study covers an area of 2810 km2 in the southern part of Denmark. MPS simulations are performed on a subset of the geological succession (the lower to middle Miocene sediments) which is characterized by relatively uniform structures and dominated by sand and clay. The simulated domain is large and each of the geostatistical realizations contains approximately 45 million voxels with size 100 m × 100 m × 5 m. Data used for the modelling include water well logs, high-resolution seismic data, and a previously published 3-D geological model. We apply a series of different strategies for the simulations based on data quality, and develop a novel method to effectively create observed spatial trends. The training image is constructed as a relatively small 3-D voxel model covering an area of 90 km2. We use an iterative training image development strategy and find that even slight modifications in the training image create significant changes in simulations. Thus, this study shows how to include both the geological environment and the type and quality of input information in order to achieve optimal results from MPS modelling. We present a practical workflow to build the training image and

  8. The collapsed cone algorithm for (192)Ir dosimetry using phantom-size adaptive multiple-scatter point kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson; Plamondon, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-07-07

    The aim of this work was to investigate how dose distributions calculated with the collapsed cone (CC) algorithm depend on the size of the water phantom used in deriving the point kernel for multiple scatter. A research version of the CC algorithm equipped with a set of selectable point kernels for multiple-scatter dose that had initially been derived in water phantoms of various dimensions was used. The new point kernels were generated using EGSnrc in spherical water phantoms of radii 5 cm, 7.5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Dose distributions derived with CC in water phantoms of different dimensions and in a CT-based clinical breast geometry were compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the Geant4-based brachytherapy specific MC code Algebra. Agreement with MC within 1% was obtained when the dimensions of the phantom used to derive the multiple-scatter kernel were similar to those of the calculation phantom. Doses are overestimated at phantom edges when kernels are derived in larger phantoms and underestimated when derived in smaller phantoms (by around 2% to 7% depending on distance from source and phantom dimensions). CC agrees well with MC in the high dose region of a breast implant and is superior to TG43 in determining skin doses for all multiple-scatter point kernel sizes. Increased agreement between CC and MC is achieved when the point kernel is comparable to breast dimensions. The investigated approximation in multiple scatter dose depends on the choice of point kernel in relation to phantom size and yields a significant fraction of the total dose only at distances of several centimeters from a source/implant which correspond to volumes of low doses. The current implementation of the CC algorithm utilizes a point kernel derived in a comparatively large (radius 20 cm) water phantom. A fixed point kernel leads to predictable behaviour of the algorithm with the worst case being a source/implant located well within a patient

  9. Dual keel Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Class, Brian F.; Bauer, Frank H.; Lebair, Deborah A.

    1988-01-01

    A Space Station attached Payload Pointing System (PPS) has been designed and analyzed. The PPS is responsible for maintaining fixed payload pointing in the presence of disturbance applied to the Space Station. The payload considered in this analysis is the Solar Optical Telescope. System performance is evaluated via digital time simulations by applying various disturbance forces to the Space Station. The PPS meets the Space Station articulated pointing requirement for all disturbances except Shuttle docking and some centrifuge cases.

  10. Simultaneous reconstruction of multiple depth images without off-focus points in integral imaging using a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Faliu; Lee, Jieun; Moon, Inkyu

    2014-05-01

    The reconstruction of multiple depth images with a ray back-propagation algorithm in three-dimensional (3D) computational integral imaging is computationally burdensome. Further, a reconstructed depth image consists of a focus and an off-focus area. Focus areas are 3D points on the surface of an object that are located at the reconstructed depth, while off-focus areas include 3D points in free-space that do not belong to any object surface in 3D space. Generally, without being removed, the presence of an off-focus area would adversely affect the high-level analysis of a 3D object, including its classification, recognition, and tracking. Here, we use a graphics processing unit (GPU) that supports parallel processing with multiple processors to simultaneously reconstruct multiple depth images using a lookup table containing the shifted values along the x and y directions for each elemental image in a given depth range. Moreover, each 3D point on a depth image can be measured by analyzing its statistical variance with its corresponding samples, which are captured by the two-dimensional (2D) elemental images. These statistical variances can be used to classify depth image pixels as either focus or off-focus points. At this stage, the measurement of focus and off-focus points in multiple depth images is also implemented in parallel on a GPU. Our proposed method is conducted based on the assumption that there is no occlusion of the 3D object during the capture stage of the integral imaging process. Experimental results have demonstrated that this method is capable of removing off-focus points in the reconstructed depth image. The results also showed that using a GPU to remove the off-focus points could greatly improve the overall computational speed compared with using a CPU.

  11. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Improving Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with an Automatic Target Acquisition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Peng, Chin-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Target Acquisition Program (ATAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to monitor mouse movement and intercept click action). Initially, both…

  12. Multiple memory systems, multiple time points: how science can inform treatment to control the expression of unwanted emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renée M; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Henson, Richard N; Holmes, Emily A

    2018-03-19

    Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation. While the idea of targeting maladaptive memories is promising for the treatment of stress and anxiety disorders, a direct application of the procedures used in non-human animals to humans in clinical settings is not straightforward. In translational research, more attention needs to be paid to specifying what aspect of memory (i) can be modified and (ii) should be modified. This requires a clear conceptualization of what aspect of memory is being targeted, and how different memory expressions may map onto clinical symptoms. Furthermore, memory processes are dynamic, so procedural details concerning timing are crucial when implementing a treatment and when assessing its effectiveness. To target emotional memory in its full complexity, including its malleability, science cannot rely on a single method, species or paradigm. Rather, a constructive dialogue is needed between multiple levels of research, all the way 'from mice to mental health'.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'. © 2018 The Authors.

  13. Design of the cooling systems for the multiplicity and vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Cunningham, R.

    1997-11-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being constructed to investigate a phase of matter termed the quark-gluon plasma. The plasma will be produced through the collision of two heavy ions. The multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD) located in the center of PHENIX will characterize the events, determine the collision point, and act as a central trigger. This report presents the final mechanical designs of the cooling systems for the Multiplicity and Vertex Detector (MVD). In particular, the design procedure and layouts are discussed for two different air cooling systems for the multichip modules and MVD enclosure, and a liquid cooling system for the low dropout voltage regulators. First of all, experimental prototype cooling system test results used to drive the final mechanical designs are summarized and discussed. Next, the cooling system requirements and design calculation for the various subsystem components are presented along with detailed lists of supply vendors, components, and costs. Finally, safety measures incorporated in the final mechanical design and operation procedures for each of the subsystems are detailed

  14. Solving the multiple-set split equality common fixed-point problem of firmly quasi-nonexpansive operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zong, Haili

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose parallel and cyclic iterative algorithms for solving the multiple-set split equality common fixed-point problem of firmly quasi-nonexpansive operators. We also combine the process of cyclic and parallel iterative methods and propose two mixed iterative algorithms. Our several algorithms do not need any prior information about the operator norms. Under mild assumptions, we prove weak convergence of the proposed iterative sequences in Hilbert spaces. As applications, we obtain several iterative algorithms to solve the multiple-set split equality problem.

  15. Roadside Multiple Objects Extraction from Mobile Laser Scanning Point Cloud Based on DBN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Haifeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an novel algorithm for exploring deep belief network (DBN architectures to extract and recognize roadside facilities (trees,cars and traffic poles from mobile laser scanning (MLS point cloud.The proposed methods firstly partitioned the raw MLS point cloud into blocks and then removed the ground and building points.In order to partition the off-ground objects into individual objects,off-ground points were organized into an Octree structure and clustered into candidate objects based on connected component.To improve segmentation performance on clusters containing overlapped objects,a refining processing using a voxel-based normalized cut was then implemented.In addition,multi-view features descriptor was generated for each independent roadside facilities based on binary images.Finally,a deep belief network (DBN was trained to extract trees,cars and traffic pole objects.Experiments are undertaken to evaluate the validities of the proposed method with two datasets acquired by Lynx Mobile Mapper System.The precision of trees,cars and traffic poles objects extraction results respectively was 97.31%,97.79% and 92.78%.The recall was 98.30%,98.75% and 96.77% respectively.The quality is 95.70%,93.81% and 90.00%.And the F1 measure was 97.80%,96.81% and 94.73%.

  16. Under digital fluoroscopic guidance multiple-point injection with absolute alcohol and pinyangmycin for the treatment of superficial venous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Xiao Gang; Peng Youlin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of multiple-point injection with absolute alcohol and pinyangmycin under digital fluoroscopic guidance for superficial venous malformations. Methods: By using a disposal venous transfusion needle the superficial venous malformation was punctured and then contrast media lohexol was injected in to visualize the tumor body, which was followed by the injection of ethanol and pinyangmycin when the needle was confirmed in the correct position. The procedure was successfully performed in 31 patients. The clinical results were observed and analyzed. Results: After one treatment complete cure was achieved in 21 cases and marked effect was obtained in 8 cases, with a total effectiveness of 93.5%. Conclusion: Multiple-point injection with ethanol and pinyangmycin under digital fluoroscopic guidance is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of superficial venous malformations, especially for the lesions that are deeply located and ill-defined. (authors)

  17. Reliability of impingement sampling designs: An example from the Indian Point station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, M.T.; Waxman, J.B.; Watson, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A 4-year data base (1976-1979) of daily fish impingement counts at the Indian Point electric power station on the Hudson River was used to compare the precision and reliability of three random-sampling designs: (1) simple random, (2) seasonally stratified, and (3) empirically stratified. The precision of daily impingement estimates improved logarithmically for each design as more days in the year were sampled. Simple random sampling was the least, and empirically stratified sampling was the most precise design, and the difference in precision between the two stratified designs was small. Computer-simulated sampling was used to estimate the reliability of the two stratified-random-sampling designs. A seasonally stratified sampling design was selected as the most appropriate reduced-sampling program for Indian Point station because: (1) reasonably precise and reliable impingement estimates were obtained using this design for all species combined and for eight common Hudson River fish by sampling only 30% of the days in a year (110 d); and (2) seasonal strata may be more precise and reliable than empirical strata if future changes in annual impingement patterns occur. The seasonally stratified design applied to the 1976-1983 Indian Point impingement data showed that selection of sampling dates based on daily species-specific impingement variability gave results that were more precise, but not more consistently reliable, than sampling allocations based on the variability of all fish species combined. 14 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  18. Fuzzy Controller Design Using FPGA for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Basil M Hamed; Mohammed S. El-Moghany

    2012-01-01

    The cell has optimum operating point to be able to get maximum power. To obtain Maximum Power from photovoltaic array, photovoltaic power system usually requires Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller. This paper provides a small power photovoltaic control system based on fuzzy control with FPGA technology design and implementation for MPPT. The system composed of photovoltaic module, buck converter and the fuzzy logic controller implemented on FPGA for controlling on/off time of MOSF...

  19. Modeling a Single SEP Event from Multiple Vantage Points Using the iPATH Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junxiang; Li, Gang; Fu, Shuai; Zank, Gary; Ao, Xianzhi

    2018-02-01

    Using the recently extended 2D improved Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (iPATH) model, we model an example gradual solar energetic particle event as observed at multiple locations. Protons and ions that are energized via the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism are followed at a 2D coronal mass ejection-driven shock where the shock geometry varies across the shock front. The subsequent transport of energetic particles, including cross-field diffusion, is modeled by a Monte Carlo code that is based on a stochastic differential equation method. Time intensity profiles and particle spectra at multiple locations and different radial distances, separated in longitudes, are presented. The results shown here are relevant to the upcoming Parker Solar Probe mission.

  20. Design and evaluation of aircraft heat source systems for use with high-freezing point fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives were the design, performance and economic analyses of practical aircraft fuel heating systems that would permit the use of high freezing-point fuels on long-range aircraft. Two hypothetical hydrocarbon fuels with freezing points of -29 C and -18 C were used to represent the variation from current day jet fuels. A Boeing 747-200 with JT9D-7/7A engines was used as the baseline aircraft. A 9300 Km mission was used as the mission length from which the heat requirements to maintain the fuel above its freezing point was based.

  1. Contribution to coherent atom optics - Design of multiple wave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, F.

    2008-03-01

    The theoretical work presented in this manuscript addresses two complementary issues in coherent atom optics. The first part addresses the perspectives offered by coherent atomic sources through the design of two experiment involving the levitation of a cold atomic sample in a periodic series of light pulses, and for which coherent atomic clouds are particularly well-suited. These systems appear as multiple wave atom interferometers. A striking feature of these experiments is that a unique system performs both the sample trapping and interrogation. To obtain a transverse confinement, a novel atomic lens is proposed, relying on the interaction between an atomic wave with a spherical light wave. The sensitivity of the sample trapping towards the gravitational acceleration and towards the pulse frequencies is exploited to perform the desired measurement. These devices constitute atomic wave resonators in momentum space, which is a novel concept in atom optics. A second part develops new theoretical tools - most of which inspired from optics - well-suited to describe the propagation of coherent atomic sources. A phase-space approach of the propagation, relying on the evolution of moments, is developed and applied to study the low-energy dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. The ABCD method of propagation for atomic waves is extended beyond the linear regime to account perturbatively for mean-field atomic interactions in the atom-optical aberration-less approximation. A treatment of the atom laser extraction enabling one to describe aberrations in the atomic beam, developed in collaboration with the Atom Optics group at the Institute of Optics, is exposed. Last, a quality factor suitable for the characterization of diluted matter waves in a general propagation regime has been proposed. (author)

  2. Meta-Analysis of Effect Sizes Reported at Multiple Time Points Using General Linear Mixed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musekiwa, Alfred; Manda, Samuel O. M.; Mwambi, Henry G.; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies combines effect sizes measured at pre-determined time points. The most common approach involves performing separate univariate meta-analyses at individual time points. This simplistic approach ignores dependence between longitudinal effect sizes, which might result in less precise parameter estimates. In this paper, we show how to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal effect sizes where we contrast different covariance structures for dependence between effect sizes, both within and between studies. We propose new combinations of covariance structures for the dependence between effect size and utilize a practical example involving meta-analysis of 17 trials comparing postoperative treatments for a type of cancer, where survival is measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post randomization. Although the results from this particular data set show the benefit of accounting for within-study serial correlation between effect sizes, simulations are required to confirm these results. PMID:27798661

  3. A Fixed Point VHDL Component Library for a High Efficiency Reconfigurable Radio Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Scott D.; Figueiredo, Marco A.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technologies enable the implementation of reconfigurable radio systems for both ground and space applications. The development of such systems challenges the current design paradigms and requires more robust design techniques to meet the increased system complexity. Among these techniques is the development of component libraries to reduce design cycle time and to improve design verification, consequently increasing the overall efficiency of the project development process while increasing design success rates and reducing engineering costs. This paper describes the reconfigurable radio component library developed at the Software Defined Radio Applications Research Center (SARC) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Microwave and Communications Branch (Code 567). The library is a set of fixed-point VHDL components that link the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) simulation environment with the FPGA design tools. This provides a direct synthesis path based on the latest developments of the VHDL tools as proposed by the BEE VBDL 2004 which allows for the simulation and synthesis of fixed-point math operations while maintaining bit and cycle accuracy. The VHDL Fixed Point Reconfigurable Radio Component library does not require the use of the FPGA vendor specific automatic component generators and provide a generic path from high level DSP simulations implemented in Mathworks Simulink to any FPGA device. The access to the component synthesizable, source code provides full design verification capability:

  4. Higher moments of net kaon multiplicity distributions at RHIC energies for the search of QCD Critical Point at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Amal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the measurements of the various moments mean (M, standard deviation (σ skewness (S and kurtosis (κ of the net-Kaon multiplicity distribution at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at RHIC in an effort to locate the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as also to the correlation length of the system. A non-monotonic behavior of these variable indicate the presence of the critical point. In this work we also present the moments products Sσ, κσ2 of net-Kaon multiplicity distribution as a function of collision centrality and energies. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments of net-Kaons and their products have been compared with it0s Poisson expectation and with simulations from AMPT which does not include the critical point. From the measurement at all seven available beam energies, we find no evidence for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for √sNN below 200 GeV.

  5. Clutter-free Visualization of Large Point Symbols at Multiple Scales by Offset Quadtrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the cartographic problems in map mash-up applications in the Web 2.0 context, this paper studies a clutter-free technique for visualizing large symbols on Web maps. Basically, a quadtree is used to select one symbol in each grid cell at each zoom level. To resolve the symbol overlaps between neighboring quad-grids, multiple offsets are applied to the quadtree and a voting strategy is used to compute the significant level of symbols for their selection at multiple scales. The method is able to resolve spatial conflicts without explicit conflict detection, thus enabling a highly efficient processing. Also the resulting map forms a visual hierarchy of semantic importance. We discuss issues such as the relative importance, symbol-to-grid size ratio, and effective offset schemes, and propose two extensions to make better use of the free space available on the map. Experiments were carried out to validate the technique,which demonstrates its robustness and efficiency (a non-optimal implementation leads to a sub-second processing for datasets of a 105 magnitude.

  6. Approach and landing guidance design for reusable launch vehicle using multiple sliding surfaces technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous approach and landing (A&L guidance law is presented in this paper for landing an unpowered reusable launch vehicle (RLV at the designated runway touchdown. Considering the full nonlinear point-mass dynamics, a guidance scheme is developed in three-dimensional space. In order to guarantee a successful A&L movement, the multiple sliding surfaces guidance (MSSG technique is applied to derive the closed-loop guidance law, which stems from higher order sliding mode control theory and has advantage in the finite time reaching property. The global stability of the proposed guidance approach is proved by the Lyapunov-based method. The designed guidance law can generate new trajectories on-line without any specific requirement on off-line analysis except for the information on the boundary conditions of the A&L phase and instantaneous states of the RLV. Therefore, the designed guidance law is flexible enough to target different touchdown points on the runway and is capable of dealing with large initial condition errors resulted from the previous flight phase. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law in different scenarios.

  7. Targeting a heterologous protein to multiple plant organelles via rationally designed 5? mRNA tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voges, M.J.; Silver, P.A.; Way, J.C.; Mattozzi, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant bioengineers require simple genetic devices for predictable localization of heterologous proteins to multiple subcellular compartments. Results We designed novel hybrid signal sequences for multiple-compartment localization and characterize their function when fused to GFP in

  8. Analytical solutions of nonlocal Poisson dielectric models with multiple point charges inside a dielectric sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dexuan; Volkmer, Hans W.; Ying, Jinyong

    2016-04-01

    The nonlocal dielectric approach has led to new models and solvers for predicting electrostatics of proteins (or other biomolecules), but how to validate and compare them remains a challenge. To promote such a study, in this paper, two typical nonlocal dielectric models are revisited. Their analytical solutions are then found in the expressions of simple series for a dielectric sphere containing any number of point charges. As a special case, the analytical solution of the corresponding Poisson dielectric model is also derived in simple series, which significantly improves the well known Kirkwood's double series expansion. Furthermore, a convolution of one nonlocal dielectric solution with a commonly used nonlocal kernel function is obtained, along with the reaction parts of these local and nonlocal solutions. To turn these new series solutions into a valuable research tool, they are programed as a free fortran software package, which can input point charge data directly from a protein data bank file. Consequently, different validation tests can be quickly done on different proteins. Finally, a test example for a protein with 488 atomic charges is reported to demonstrate the differences between the local and nonlocal models as well as the importance of using the reaction parts to develop local and nonlocal dielectric solvers.

  9. Multiple organ failure in the newborn: the point of view of the pathologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gerosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe events occurring in critically ill patients admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU center is represented by the multiple organ failure (MOF, a systemic inflammatory response leading to a progressive organ dysfunction and mortality in newborns. MOF may occur in newborns primarily affected by multiple single organ diseases, including respiratory distress syndrome neonatal sepsis with acute kidney injury, post-asphyxial hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 infection. In a previous article from our group, based on the histological examination of all organs at autopsy of newborns affected by MOF, all organs studied did not escape to be damaged, including thymus and pancreas normally not mentioned in the literature of MOF. The aim of this article is to review the most important pathological changes pathologists should look for in every case of MOF occurring in the perinatal period, with particular attention to systemic endothelial changes occurring in blood vessels in all organs and sytems. On the basis of our experience, matching data during the last phases of the clinicopathological diagnosis represents a useful method, much more productive as compared to the method based on giving pathological answers to the clinical questions prospected before autopsy. As for the pathological features observed in neonatal MOF, one of them deserves a particular attention: the vascular lesions, and in particular the multiple changes occurring during MOF development in endothelial cells, ending with the loss of the endothelial barrier, probably the most relevant histological lesion followed by the insurgence of interstitial edema and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Small vessels should be observed at high power, with particular attention to the size and shape of endothelial nuclei, in order to evidence endothelial swelling, probably the initial modification of the endothelial cells leading to their

  10. Design and Implementation of an IoT Access Point for Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yung Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Network communication and micro-electro-mechanical embedded technologies have attracted much attention in recent years. Through these technologies, the capabilities of sensing, identification, and communication can be embedded in various smart devices. These smart devices can automatically connect to the Internet and form an intelligent network called Internet of Things (IoT. However, these devices are embedded with different wireless communication interfaces such as Wi-Fi and ZigBee. This paper presents the design and implementation of an IoT access point that supports functionalities of coordination of various wireless transmission protocols. Based on the existing Wi-Fi access point, we have embedded a ZigBee module and implemented ZigBee and UPnP protocols into the designed IoT access point, which supports ZigBee communication capabilities over the Internet.

  11. Effect of fuel fabrication parameters on performance- designer's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, P.N.; Ravi, M.; Soni, R.; Bajaj, S.S.; Bhardwaj, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The fuel bundle performance in reactor depends upon the material properties, dimensions of the different components and their inter-compatibility. This paper brings out the fuel parameters required to be optimised to achieve better fuel reliability, operational flexibility, safety and economics from the designer point of view

  12. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on design and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, B.V.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The policy is to replicate the Sizewell ''B'' PWR design. The Hinkley Point ''C'' design is described indicating where changes in the Sizewell ''B'' design have been made to accommodate site differences. These are associated with the civil engineering construction and some of the electrical systems and do not affect the safety case. External hazards differ from site to site and the effect on the safety case of those specific to Hinkley Point are examined. The Chernobyl accident and the assessment of the United Kingdom PWR which was carried out subsequently are reviewed. The assessment indicated that no changes in the Sizewell ''B'' design and safety case were called for as a result of this accident; accident management developments are also reviewed, however. The CEGB's approach to minimizing occupational radiation doses is described. (UK)

  13. Optimization Algorithms for Calculation of the Joint Design Point in Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1992-01-01

    In large structures it is often necessary to estimate the reliability of the system by use of parallel systems. Optimality criteria-based algorithms for calculation of the joint design point in a parallel system are described and efficient active set strategies are developed. Three possible...

  14. A Microsoft Kinect-Based Point-of-Care Gait Assessment Framework for Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Farnood; Trojan, Daria A; Kovecses, Jozsef; Haddad, Wassim M; Gholami, Behnood

    2017-09-01

    Gait impairment is a prevalent and important difficulty for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a common neurological disorder. An easy to use tool to objectively evaluate gait in MS patients in a clinical setting can assist clinicians to perform an objective assessment. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework to quantify gait abnormalities in MS patients using the Microsoft Kinect for the Windows sensor; an inexpensive, easy to use, portable camera. Specifically, we aim to evaluate its feasibility for utilization in a clinical setting, assess its reliability, evaluate the validity of gait indices obtained, and evaluate a novel set of gait indices based on the concept of dynamic time warping. In this study, ten ambulatory MS patients, and ten age and sex-matched normal controls were studied at one session in a clinical setting with gait assessment using a Kinect camera. The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) clinical ambulation score was calculated for the MS subjects, and patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis walking scale (MSWS). Based on this study, we established the potential feasibility of using a Microsoft Kinect camera in a clinical setting. Seven out of the eight gait indices obtained using the proposed method were reliable with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.61 to 0.99. All eight MS gait indices were significantly different from those of the controls (p-values less than 0.05). Finally, seven out of the eight MS gait indices were correlated with the objective and subjective gait measures (Pearson's correlation coefficients greater than 0.40). This study shows that the Kinect camera is an easy to use tool to assess gait in MS patients in a clinical setting.

  15. Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2013-01-01

    fun for families in the library? • How can play help to promote interaction and communication? The students worked with the space in Dokk1 as the “third place”, which is identified by Oldenburg (1999) as “great good places”, being public places on neutral ground where people can gather and interact......Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view By Aviaja Borup Lynggaard & Birgitte Geert Jensen This poster presents a design case of collaborative innovation between design students from Aarhus School of Architecture and pupils from the public school, Samsøgades School in Aarhus, facilitated...... by the research project Kids n’Tweens Lifestyle. The scope of collaborating was to design the content for DOKK1, the new Mediaspace center in Aarhus, where design students took offset from the children’s world in a creative workshop as inspiration for the final design proposals. The task was carried out...

  16. Design of Wireless Point of Sale Based on ZigBee Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Point of Sale technology and modern communication technology, financial Point of Sale terminal system has been started from wired to wireless. Wireless payment technology can used where can’t rely on or even no cable network. As one of the most important technologies in the information era, Wireless Sensor Network has been widely used in banking business and other various modem business fields. This paper describes a kind of simple portable Point of Sale terminal based on the ZigBee wireless network 1, which is a low power, low cost, flexible, safe and reliable network. This Point of Sale system can be applied gas stations, liquefied petroleum gas stations and other complex sales environment, and it improves safety of gas station and personnel safety. Simple and user-friendly, this formula design and optimization method greatly improves efficiency and thus has much value for practical application.

  17. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F.; Kort, Peter M.; Novak, Andreas J.; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure’s actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader. PMID:23565027

  18. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F; Kort, Peter M; Novak, Andreas J; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure's actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader.

  19. A method for untriggered time-dependent searches for multiple flares from neutrino point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gora, D.; Bernardini, E.; Cruz Silva, A.H.

    2011-04-01

    A method for a time-dependent search for flaring astrophysical sources which can be potentially detected by large neutrino experiments is presented. The method uses a time-clustering algorithm combined with an unbinned likelihood procedure. By including in the likelihood function a signal term which describes the contribution of many small clusters of signal-like events, this method provides an effective way for looking for weak neutrino flares over different time-scales. The method is sensitive to an overall excess of events distributed over several flares which are not individually detectable. For standard cases (one flare) the discovery potential of the method is worse than a standard time-dependent point source analysis with unknown duration of the flare by a factor depending on the signal-to-background level. However, for flares sufficiently shorter than the total observation period, the method is more sensitive than a time-integrated analysis. (orig.)

  20. Multiple Information Fusion Face Recognition Using Key Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Kezheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available After years of face recognition research,due to the effect of illumination,noise and other conditions have led to the recognition rate is relatively low,2 d face recognition technology has couldn’t keep up with the pace of The Times the forefront,Although 3 d face recognition technology is developing step by step,but it has a higher complexity. In order to solve this problem,based on the traditional depth information positioning method and local characteristic analysis methods LFA,puts forward an improved 3 d face key feature points localization algorithm, and on the basis of the trained sample which obtained by complete cluster,further put forward the global and local feature extraction algorithm of weighted fusion. Through FRGC and BU-3DFE experiment data comparison and analysis of the two face library,the method in terms of 3 d face recognition effect has a higher robustness.

  1. A method for untriggered time-dependent searches for multiple flares from neutrino point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gora, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Cracow (Poland); Bernardini, E.; Cruz Silva, A.H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Cracow (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    A method for a time-dependent search for flaring astrophysical sources which can be potentially detected by large neutrino experiments is presented. The method uses a time-clustering algorithm combined with an unbinned likelihood procedure. By including in the likelihood function a signal term which describes the contribution of many small clusters of signal-like events, this method provides an effective way for looking for weak neutrino flares over different time-scales. The method is sensitive to an overall excess of events distributed over several flares which are not individually detectable. For standard cases (one flare) the discovery potential of the method is worse than a standard time-dependent point source analysis with unknown duration of the flare by a factor depending on the signal-to-background level. However, for flares sufficiently shorter than the total observation period, the method is more sensitive than a time-integrated analysis. (orig.)

  2. [Multiple time scales analysis of spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss within watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-bing; Chen, Xing-wei; Chen, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Identification of the critical source areas of non-point source pollution is an important means to control the non-point source pollution within the watershed. In order to further reveal the impact of multiple time scales on the spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss, a SWAT model of Shanmei Reservoir watershed was developed. Based on the simulation of total nitrogen (TN) loss intensity of all 38 subbasins, spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen loss and critical source areas were analyzed at three time scales of yearly average, monthly average and rainstorms flood process, respectively. Furthermore, multiple linear correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of natural environment and anthropogenic disturbance on nitrogen loss. The results showed that there were significant spatial differences of TN loss in Shanmei Reservoir watershed at different time scales, and the spatial differentiation degree of nitrogen loss was in the order of monthly average > yearly average > rainstorms flood process. TN loss load mainly came from upland Taoxi subbasin, which was identified as the critical source area. At different time scales, land use types (such as farmland and forest) were always the dominant factor affecting the spatial distribution of nitrogen loss, while the effect of precipitation and runoff on the nitrogen loss was only taken in no fertilization month and several processes of storm flood at no fertilization date. This was mainly due to the significant spatial variation of land use and fertilization, as well as the low spatial variability of precipitation and runoff.

  3. Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR): sensitivity study and design-point determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique, magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the viewpoint of low-field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. A comprehensive system model is developed and described for a steady-state, compact RFP reactor (CRFPR). This model is used to select a unique cost-optimized design point that will be used for a conceptual engineering design. The cost-optimized CRFPR design presented herein would operate with system power densities and mass utilizations that are comparable to fission power plants and are an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion power. The sensitivity of the base-case design point to changes in plasma transport, profiles, beta, blanket thickness, normal vs superconducting coils, and fuel cycle (DT vs DD) is examined. The RFP approach is found to yield a point design for a high-power-density reactor that is surprisingly resilient to changes in key, but relatively unknown, physics and systems parameters

  4. The ARIES-I high-field-tokamak reactor: Design-point determination and parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The multi-institutional ARIES study has examined the physics, technology, safety, and economic issues associated with the conceptual design of a tokamak magnetic-fusion reactor. The ARIES-I variant envisions a DT-fueled device based on advanced superconducting coil, blanket, and power-conversion technologies and a modest extrapolation of existing tokamak physics. A comprehensive systems and trade study has been conducted as an integral and ongoing part of the reactor assessment in order to identify an acceptable design point to be subjected to detailed analysis and integration as well as to characterize the ARIES-I operating space. Results of parametric studies leading to the identification of such a design point are presented. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. How Managers Can Benefit from Multiple Perspectives on Design Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Marta; Christiansen, John K.

    Operations management should be more concerned with the relationship to design and how the interplay between design processes and operations can be managed. The design of products and services has huge implications on operations in different ways: Design can increase the value of products......; influence and lead to innovation of manufacturing processes; implications for the supply chain processes and has implications on the life cycle of products and sustainability issues. To fully exploit the opportunities, we claim that it's useful for managers to be aware of the different ways that design...... processes might be perceived and managed. Illustrated with examples....

  6. Does the nervous system use equilibrium-point control to guide single and multiple joint movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, E; Hogan, N; Mussa-Ivaldi, F A; Giszter, S

    1992-12-01

    The hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) generates movement as a shift of the limb's equilibrium posture has been corroborated experimentally in studies involving single- and multijoint motions. Posture may be controlled through the choice of muscle length-tension curve that set agonist-antagonist torque-angle curves determining an equilibrium position for the limb and the stiffness about the joints. Arm trajectories seem to be generated through a control signal defining a series of equilibrium postures. The equilibrium-point hypothesis drastically simplifies the requisite computations for multijoint movements and mechanical interactions with complex dynamic objects in the environment. Because the neuromuscular system is springlike, the instantaneous difference between the arm's actual position and the equilibrium position specified by the neural activity can generate the requisite torques, avoiding the complex "inverse dynamic" problem of computing the torques at the joints. The hypothesis provides a simple, unified description of posture and movement as well as contact control task performance, in which the limb must exert force stably and do work on objects in the environment. The latter is a surprisingly difficult problem, as robotic experience has shown. The prior evidence for the hypothesis came mainly from psychophysical and behavioral experiments. Our recent work has shown that microstimulation of the frog spinal cord's premotoneural network produces leg movements to various positions in the frog's motor space. The hypothesis can now be investigated in the neurophysiological machinery of the spinal cord.

  7. Finite element and node point generation computer programs used for the design of toroidal field coils in tokamak fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.

    1975-06-01

    The structural analysis of toroidal field coils in Tokamak fusion machines can be performed with the finite element method. This technique has been employed for design evaluations of toroidal field coils on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The application of the finite element method can be simplified with computer programs that are used to generate the input data for the finite element code. There are three areas of data input where significant automation can be provided by supplementary computer codes. These concern the definition of geometry by a node point mesh, the definition of the finite elements from the geometric node points, and the definition of the node point force/displacement boundary conditions. The node point forces in a model of a toroidal field coil are computed from the vector cross product of the coil current and the magnetic field. The computer programs named PDXNODE and ELEMENT are described. The program PDXNODE generates the geometric node points of a finite element model for a toroidal field coil. The program ELEMENT defines the finite elements of the model from the node points and from material property considerations. The program descriptions include input requirements, the output, the program logic, the methods of generating complex geometries with multiple runs, computational time and computer compatibility. The output format of PDXNODE and ELEMENT make them compatible with PDXFORC and two general purpose finite element computer codes: (ANSYS) the Engineering Analysis System written by the Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., and (WECAN) the Westinghouse Electric Computer Analysis general purpose finite element program. The Fortran listings of PDXNODE and ELEMENT are provided

  8. Practical Design of Delta-Sigma Multiple Description Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leegaard, Jack Højholt; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    It was recently shown that delta-sigma quantization (DSQ) can be used for optimal multiple description (MD) coding of Gaussian sources. The DSQ scheme combined oversampling, prediction, and noise-shaping in order to trade off side distortion for central distortion in MD coding. It was shown that ...

  9. Monte Carlo full-waveform inversion of crosshole GPR data using multiple-point geostatistical a priori information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We present a general Monte Carlo full-waveform inversion strategy that integrates a priori information described by geostatistical algorithms with Bayesian inverse problem theory. The extended Metropolis algorithm can be used to sample the a posteriori probability density of highly nonlinear...... inverse problems, such as full-waveform inversion. Sequential Gibbs sampling is a method that allows efficient sampling of a priori probability densities described by geostatistical algorithms based on either two-point (e.g., Gaussian) or multiple-point statistics. We outline the theoretical framework......) Based on a posteriori realizations, complicated statistical questions can be answered, such as the probability of connectivity across a layer. (3) Complex a priori information can be included through geostatistical algorithms. These benefits, however, require more computing resources than traditional...

  10. Structural Design of Systems with Safe Behavior under Single and Multiple Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Staroswiecki, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Handling of multiple simultaneous faults is a complex issue in fault-tolerant control. The design task is particularly made difficult by to the numerous different cases that need be analyzed. Aiming at safe fault-handling, this paper shows how structural analysis can be applied to find...... to structural analysis to disclose which faults could be isolated from a structural point of view using active fault isolation. Results from application on a marine control system illustrate the concepts....... the analytical redundancy relations for all relevant combinations of faults, and can cope with the complexity and size of a real system. Being essential for fault-tolerant control schemes that shall handle particular cases of faults/failures, fault isolation is addressed. The paper introduces an extension...

  11. A novel data mining system points out hidden relationships between immunological markers in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gironi Maira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a multi-factorial disease, where a single biomarker unlikely can provide comprehensive information. Moreover, due to the non-linearity of biomarkers, traditional statistic is both unsuitable and underpowered to dissect their relationship. Patients affected with primary (PP=14, secondary (SP=33, benign (BB=26, relapsing-remitting (RR=30 MS, and 42 sex and age matched healthy controls were studied. We performed a depth immune-phenotypic and functional analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs by flow-cytometry. Semantic connectivity maps (AutoCM were applied to find the natural associations among immunological markers. AutoCM is a special kind of Artificial Neural Network able to find consistent trends and associations among variables. The matrix of connections, visualized through minimum spanning tree, keeps non linear associations among variables and captures connection schemes among clusters. Results Complex immunological relationships were shown to be related to different disease courses. Low CD4IL25+ cells level was strongly related (link strength, ls=0.81 to SP MS. This phenotype was also associated to high CD4ROR+ cells levels (ls=0.56. BB MS was related to high CD4+IL13 cell levels (ls=0.90, as well as to high CD14+IL6 cells percentage (ls=0.80. RR MS was strongly (ls=0.87 related to CD4+IL25 high cell levels, as well indirectly to high percentages of CD4+IL13 cells. In this latter strong (ls=0.92 association could be confirmed the induction activity of the former cells (CD4+IL25 on the latter (CD4+IL13. Another interesting topographic data was the isolation of Th9 cells (CD4IL9 from the main part of the immunological network related to MS, suggesting a possible secondary role of this new described cell phenotype in MS disease. Conclusions This novel application of non-linear mathematical techniques suggests peculiar immunological signatures for different MS phenotypes. Notably, the

  12. Design and Development of A Three-Point Auto Hitch Dynamometer for An Agricultural Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Kheiralla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, development and calibration of a three-point auto hitch dynamometer for measuring the horizontal and vertical forces that existed at the three-point hitch of an agricultural tractor.  The design concept of the dynamometer was based on an instrumented inverted U frame assembly that was mounted between tractor links and implement. The design incorporates for both lower point hitch spread and mast height adjustments, and quick hitch capability in accordance with category 1 and II three-point hitch system.  The force sensing elements were comprised of three steel extended octagonal ring transducers that were located between the inverted U frame and hook brackets.  Electrical resistance strain gauges were mounted on the extended octagonal ring transducer at strain angle nodes to independently monitor strains that were proportional to the horizontal and vertical forces at the ring center. Each transducer was designed for maximum horizontal and vertical forces of 25 kN and 10 kN at measurement mean sensitivities of 25.19 µStrain/kN and 25.60 µStrain/kN, respectively. However, the complete dynamometer has been designed to measure the maximum resultant horizontal and vertical forces of 50 kN and 20 kN, respectively.  Field demonstration tests on the dynamometer and data acquisition system showed that they were able to function effectively as intended.  The data acquisition system was able to successfully scan and record the dynamometer signals as programmed.  This dynamometer was part of the complete instrumentation system to be developed onboard a Massey Ferguson 3060 tractor for the generation of a comprehensive database on the power and energy requirements of the tractor and its working implement in the field.

  13. The Multiple Roles of the Task Design Mediator in Telecollaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Carolin; Snyder, Bill; Tung, Bruce; Jung Han, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores how a Chinese-American novice teacher acted as mediator in a telecollaboration with student teacher (ST) peers in the USA who designed tasks for his English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in China. The novice teacher was instrumental in mediating the student teachers' task design process by providing feedback…

  14. Accuracy improvement techniques in Precise Point Positioning method using multiple GNSS constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileios Psychas, Dimitrios; Delikaraoglou, Demitris

    2016-04-01

    The future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), including modernized GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou, offer three or more signal carriers for civilian use and much more redundant observables. The additional frequencies can significantly improve the capabilities of the traditional geodetic techniques based on GPS signals at two frequencies, especially with regard to the availability, accuracy, interoperability and integrity of high-precision GNSS applications. Furthermore, highly redundant measurements can allow for robust simultaneous estimation of static or mobile user states including more parameters such as real-time tropospheric biases and more reliable ambiguity resolution estimates. This paper presents an investigation and analysis of accuracy improvement techniques in the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method using signals from the fully operational (GPS and GLONASS), as well as the emerging (Galileo and BeiDou) GNSS systems. The main aim was to determine the improvement in both the positioning accuracy achieved and the time convergence it takes to achieve geodetic-level (10 cm or less) accuracy. To this end, freely available observation data from the recent Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service, as well as the open source program RTKLIB were used. Following a brief background of the PPP technique and the scope of MGEX, the paper outlines the various observational scenarios that were used in order to test various data processing aspects of PPP solutions with multi-frequency, multi-constellation GNSS systems. Results from the processing of multi-GNSS observation data from selected permanent MGEX stations are presented and useful conclusions and recommendations for further research are drawn. As shown, data fusion from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems is becoming increasingly significant nowadays resulting in a position accuracy increase (mostly in the less favorable East direction) and a large reduction of convergence

  15. Radar Precoder Design for Spectral Coexistence with Coordinated Multi-point (CoMP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahal, Jasmin A.; Khawar, Awais; Abdelhadi, Ahmed; Clancy, T. Charles

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the design of precoders for a MIMO radar spectrally coexistent with a MIMO cellular network. We focus on a coordinated multi-point (CoMP) system where a cluster of base stations (BSs) coordinate their transmissions to the intended user. The radar operates in two modes, interference-mitigation mode when it avoids interference with the CoMP system and cooperation mode when it exchanges information with it. Using either the conventional Switched Null Space Projection (SNSP) or...

  16. A Design Study to Develop Young Children's Understanding of Multiplication and Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Brenda; Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Nguyen, Nhung

    2016-01-01

    This design study investigated the use of multiplication and division problems to help 5-year-old children develop an early understanding of multiplication and division. One teacher and her class of 15 5-year-old children were involved in a collaborative partnership with the researchers. The design study was conducted over two 4-week periods in…

  17. Aerodynamic and Performance Behavior of a Three-Stage High Efficiency Turbine at Design and Off-Design Operating Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Schobeiri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the aerodynamic and performance behavior of a three-stage high pressure research turbine with 3-D curved blades at its design and off-design operating points. The research turbine configuration incorporates six rows beginning with a stator row. Interstage aerodynamic measurements were performed at three stations, namely downstream of the first rotor row, the second stator row, and the second rotor row. Interstage radial and circumferential traversing presented a detailed flow picture of the middle stage. Performance measurements were carried out within a rotational speed range of 75% to 116% of the design speed. The experimental investigations have been carried out on the recently established multi-stage turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory, TPFL, of Texas A&M University.

  18. Star Tracker Based ATP System Conceptual Design and Pointing Accuracy Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfiz, Gerardo G.; Lee, Shinhak

    2006-01-01

    A star tracker based beaconless (a.k.a. non-cooperative beacon) acquisition, tracking and pointing concept for precisely pointing an optical communication beam is presented as an innovative approach to extend the range of high bandwidth (> 100 Mbps) deep space optical communication links throughout the solar system and to remove the need for a ground based high power laser as a beacon source. The basic approach for executing the ATP functions involves the use of stars as the reference sources from which the attitude knowledge is obtained and combined with high bandwidth gyroscopes for propagating the pointing knowledge to the beam pointing mechanism. Details of the conceptual design are presented including selection of an orthogonal telescope configuration and the introduction of an optical metering scheme to reduce misalignment error. Also, estimates are presented that demonstrate that aiming of the communications beam to the Earth based receive terminal can be achieved with a total system pointing accuracy of better than 850 nanoradians (3 sigma) from anywhere in the solar system.

  19. Dynamic analysis of multiple nuclear-coupled boiling channels based on a multi-point reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Pan Chin

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the non-linear dynamics and stabilities of a multiple nuclear-coupled boiling channel system based on a multi-point reactor model using the Galerkin nodal approximation method. The nodal approximation method for the multiple boiling channels developed by Lee and Pan [Lee, J.D., Pan, C., 1999. Dynamics of multiple parallel boiling channel systems with forced flows. Nucl. Eng. Des. 192, 31-44] is extended to address the two-phase flow dynamics in the present study. The multi-point reactor model, modified from Uehiro et al. [Uehiro, M., Rao, Y.F., Fukuda, K., 1996. Linear stability analysis on instabilities of in-phase and out-of-phase modes in boiling water reactors. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 33, 628-635], is employed to study a multiple-channel system with unequal steady-state neutron density distribution. Stability maps, non-linear dynamics and effects of major parameters on the multiple nuclear-coupled boiling channel system subject to a constant total flow rate are examined. This study finds that the void-reactivity feedback and neutron interactions among subcores are coupled and their competing effects may influence the system stability under different operating conditions. For those cases with strong neutron interaction conditions, by strengthening the void-reactivity feedback, the nuclear-coupled effect on the non-linear dynamics may induce two unstable oscillation modes, the supercritical Hopf bifurcation and the subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Moreover, for those cases with weak neutron interactions, by quadrupling the void-reactivity feedback coefficient, period-doubling and complex chaotic oscillations may appear in a three-channel system under some specific operating conditions. A unique type of complex chaotic attractor may evolve from the Rossler attractor because of the coupled channel-to-channel thermal-hydraulic and subcore-to-subcore neutron interactions. Such a complex chaotic attractor has the imbedding dimension of 5 and the

  20. Supporting Affect Regulation in Children With Multiple Disabilities During Psychotherapy: A Multiple Case Design Study of Therapeutic Attachment. [Miscellaneous Article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C; Sterkenburg, P S; Jeczynski, P; Janssen, C G C; Jongbloed, G

    2009-01-01

    : In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase,

  1. RNAblueprint: flexible multiple target nucleic acid sequence design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Stefan; Tschiatschek, Birgit; Flamm, Christoph; Hofacker, Ivo L; Findeiß, Sven

    2017-09-15

    Realizing the value of synthetic biology in biotechnology and medicine requires the design of molecules with specialized functions. Due to its close structure to function relationship, and the availability of good structure prediction methods and energy models, RNA is perfectly suited to be synthetically engineered with predefined properties. However, currently available RNA design tools cannot be easily adapted to accommodate new design specifications. Furthermore, complicated sampling and optimization methods are often developed to suit a specific RNA design goal, adding to their inflexibility. We developed a C ++  library implementing a graph coloring approach to stochastically sample sequences compatible with structural and sequence constraints from the typically very large solution space. The approach allows to specify and explore the solution space in a well defined way. Our library also guarantees uniform sampling, which makes optimization runs performant by not only avoiding re-evaluation of already found solutions, but also by raising the probability of finding better solutions for long optimization runs. We show that our software can be combined with any other software package to allow diverse RNA design applications. Scripting interfaces allow the easy adaption of existing code to accommodate new scenarios, making the whole design process very flexible. We implemented example design approaches written in Python to demonstrate these advantages. RNAblueprint , Python implementations and benchmark datasets are available at github: https://github.com/ViennaRNA . s.hammer@univie.ac.at, ivo@tbi.univie.ac.at or sven@tbi.univie.ac.at. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs

  3. Characterization and Design of Digital Pointing Subsystem for Optical Communication Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racho, C.; Portillo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory-based lasercom demonstration terminal designed to validate several key technologies, including beacon acquisition, high bandwidth tracking, precision bearn pointing, and point-ahead compensation functions. It has been under active development over the past few years. The instrument uses a CCD array detector for both spatial acquisition and high-bandwidth tracking, and a fiber coupled laser transmitter. The array detector tracking concept provides wide field-of-view acquisition and permits effective platform jitter compensation and point-ahead control using only one steering mirror. This paper describes the detailed design and characterization of the digital control loop system which includes the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), the CCD image tracker, and the associated electronics. The objective is to improve the overall system performance using laboratory measured data. The. design of the digital control loop is based on a linear time invariant open loop model. The closed loop performance is predicted using the theoretical model. With the digital filter programmed into the OCD control software, data is collected to verify the predictions. This paper presents the results of the, system modeling and performance analysis. It has been shown that measurement data closely matches theoretical predictions. An important part of the laser communication experiment is the ability of FSM to track the laser beacon within the. required tolerances. The pointing must be maintained to an accuracy that is much smaller than the transmit signal beamwidth. For an earth orbit distance, the system must be able to track the receiving station to within a few microradians. The failure. to do so will result in a severely degraded system performance.

  4. [Concern points and considerations for pharmacodynamic study design of new traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Pharmacodynamic (PD) studies play an important role in research and development of new traditonal Chinese medicines (TCMs). Phamacologic and toxicologic studies that aim to research drug ability can provide supporting data for the clinical trials and reduce the risk of clinical trials. In recent years, PD studies in TCMs are developing and progressing, but there are still some problems affecting the value of PD studies in the development of new TCMs. The value of PD studies depends on scientific and rational study design. This article summaries some defects in PD study design of new TCMs that are common in the application data, including defects in study type, testing targets, dosing, duration of administration, control group, testing time. This article also discusses some points of concern and specific requirements for PD study design of new TCMs.

  5. Near-maximum-power-point-operation (nMPPO) design of photovoltaic power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.J.; Sun, F.S.; Ho, R.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2006-08-15

    The present study proposes a PV system design, called 'near-maximum power-point-operation' (nMPPO) that can maintain the performance very close to PV system with MPPT (maximum-power-point tracking) but eliminate hardware of the MPPT. The concept of nMPPO is to match the design of battery bank voltage V{sub set} with the MPP (maximum-power point) of the PV module based on an analysis using meteorological data. Three design methods are used in the present study to determine the optimal V{sub set}. The analytical results show that nMPPO is feasible and the optimal V{sub set} falls in the range 13.2-15.0V for MSX60 PV module. The long-term performance simulation shows that the overall nMPPO efficiency {eta}{sub nMPPO} is higher than 94%. Two outdoor field tests were carried out in the present study to verify the design of nMPPO. The test results for a single PV module (60Wp) indicate that the nMPPO efficiency {eta}{sub nMPPO} is mostly higher than 93% at various PV temperature T{sub pv}. Another long-term field test of 1kWp PV array using nMPPO shows that the power generation using nMPPO is almost identical with MPPT at various weather conditions and T{sub pv} variation from 24{sup o}C to 70{sup o}C. (author)

  6. Cost-Based Design and Selection of Point Absorber Devices for the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Piscopo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea wave energy is one of the most promising renewable sources, even if relevant technology is not mature enough for the global energy market and is not yet competitive if compared with solar, wind and tidal current devices. Particularly, among the variety of wave energy converters developed in the last decade, heaving point absorbers represent one of the most feasible and studied technologies, as shown by the small-scale testing and full-scale prototypes, deployed in the last years throughout the world. Nevertheless, the need for further reduction of the energy production costs requires a specialized design of wave energy converters, accounting for the restraints provided by the power take-off unit and the device operational profile. Hence, actual analysis focuses on a new cost-based design procedure for heaving point absorbers. The device is equipped with a floating buoy with an optional fully submerged mass connected, by means of a tensioned line, to the power take-off unit. It consists of a permanent magnet linear generator, lying on the seabed and equipped with a gravity-based foundation. The proposed procedure is applied to several candidate deployment sites located in the Mediterranean Sea; the incidence of the power take-off restraint and the converter operational profile is fully investigated and some recommendations for preliminary design of wave energy converter devices are provided. Current results show that there is wide scope to make the wave energy sector more competitive on the international market, by properly selecting the main design parameters of point absorbers, on the basis of met-ocean conditions at the deployment site.

  7. Design and construction of a point-contact spectroscopy rig with lateral scanning capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortello, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, Torino 10129 (Italy); Park, W. K., E-mail: wkpark@illinois.edu; Ascencio, C. O.; Saraf, P.; Greene, L. H. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The design and realization of a cryogenic rig for point-contact spectroscopy measurements in the needle-anvil configuration is presented. Thanks to the use of two piezoelectric nano-positioners, the tip can move along the vertical (z) and horizontal (x) direction and thus the rig is suitable to probe different regions of a sample in situ. Moreover, it can also form double point-contacts on different facets of a single crystal for achieving, e.g., an interferometer configuration for phase-sensitive measurements. For the later purpose, the sample holder can also host a Helmholtz coil for applying a small transverse magnetic field to the junction. A semi-rigid coaxial cable can be easily added for studying the behavior of Josephson junctions under microwave irradiation. The rig can be detached from the probe and thus used with different cryostats. The performance of this new probe has been tested in a Quantum Design PPMS system by conducting point-contact Andreev reflection measurements on Nb thin films over large areas as a function of temperature and magnetic field.

  8. Design of ultrasonically-activatable nanoparticles using low boiling point perfluorocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Luois, Samantha H; Mullin, Lee B; Matsunaga, Terry O; Dayton, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Recently, an interest has developed in designing biomaterials for medical ultrasonics that can provide the acoustic activity of microbubbles, but with improved stability in vivo and a smaller size distribution for extravascular interrogation. One proposed alternative is the phase-change contrast agent. Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) consist of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) that are initially in liquid form, but can then be vaporized with acoustic energy. Crucial parameters for PCCAs include their sensitivity to acoustic energy, their size distribution, and their stability, and this manuscript provides insight into the custom design of PCCAs for balancing these parameters. Specifically, the relationship between size, thermal stability and sensitivity to ultrasound as a function of PFC boiling point and ambient temperature is illustrated. Emulsion stability and sensitivity can be 'tuned' by mixing PFCs in the gaseous state prior to condensation. Novel observations illustrate that stable droplets can be generated from PFCs with extremely low boiling points, such as octafluoropropane (b.p. -36.7 °C), which can be vaporized with acoustic parameters lower than previously observed. Results demonstrate the potential for low boiling point PFCs as a useful new class of compounds for activatable agents, which can be tailored to the desired application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Absorption in multiple scattering systems of coated spheres: design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, Brian; Andraud, Christine; Stout, Sophie; Lafait, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of some recently derived transfer matrix methods for electromagnetic scattering calculations in systems composed of coated spherical scatterers. Any of the spherical coatings, cores, or host media may be composed of absorbing materials. Our formulae permit the calculation of local absorption in either orientation fixed or orientation averaged situations. We introduce methods for estimating the macroscopic transport properties of such media, and show how our scattering calculations can permit 'design' optimization of macroscopic properties

  10. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T [Phoenix, AZ; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  11. Modeling low-thrust transfers between periodic orbits about five libration points: Manifolds and hierarchical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Zhang, Jingrui

    2018-04-01

    The low-thrust version of the fuel-optimal transfers between periodic orbits with different energies in the vicinity of five libration points is exploited deeply in the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem. Indirect optimization technique incorporated with constraint gradients is employed to further improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the algorithm. The required optimal thrust magnitude and direction can be determined to create the bridging trajectory that connects the invariant manifolds. A hierarchical design strategy dividing the constraint set is proposed to seek the optimal solution when the problem cannot be solved directly. Meanwhile, the solution procedure and the value ranges of used variables are summarized. To highlight the effectivity of the transfer scheme and aim at different types of libration point orbits, transfer trajectories between some sample orbits, including Lyapunov orbits, planar orbits, halo orbits, axial orbits, vertical orbits and butterfly orbits for collinear and triangular libration points, are investigated with various time of flight. Numerical results show that the fuel consumption varies from a few kilograms to tens of kilograms, related to the locations and the types of mission orbits as well as the corresponding invariant manifold structures, and indicates that the low-thrust transfers may be a beneficial option for the extended science missions around different libration points.

  12. Modelling a real-world buried valley system with vertical non-stationarity using multiple-point statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiulan; Sonnenborg, Torben; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    -stationary geological system characterized by a network of connected buried valleys that incise deeply into layered Miocene sediments (case study in Denmark). The results show that, based on fragmented information of the formation boundaries, the MPS partition method is able to simulate a non-stationary system......Stationarity has traditionally been a requirement of geostatistical simulations. A common way to deal with non-stationarity is to divide the system into stationary sub-regions and subsequently merge the realizations for each region. Recently, the so-called partition approach that has...... the flexibility to model non-stationary systems directly was developed for multiple-point statistics simulation (MPS). The objective of this study is to apply the MPS partition method with conventional borehole logs and high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, for simulation of a real-world non...

  13. Investigating lithological and geophysical relationships with applications to geological uncertainty analysis using Multiple-Point Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian

    The PhD thesis presents a new method for analyzing the relationship between resistivity and lithology, as well as a method for quantifying the hydrostratigraphic modeling uncertainty related to Multiple-Point Statistical (MPS) methods. Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are im...... is to improve analysis and research of the resistivity-lithology relationship and ensemble geological/hydrostratigraphic modeling. The groundwater mapping campaign in Denmark, beginning in the 1990’s, has resulted in the collection of large amounts of borehole and geophysical data. The data has been compiled...... in two publicly available databases, the JUPITER and GERDA databases, which contain borehole and geophysical data, respectively. The large amounts of available data provided a unique opportunity for studying the resistivity-lithology relationship. The method for analyzing the resistivity...

  14. Portable Amplifier Design for a Novel EEG Monitor in Point-of-Care Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Bo; Sun, Mingui; Jia, Wenyan

    2012-01-01

    The Electroencephalography (EEG) is a common diagnostic tool for neurological diseases and dysfunctions, such as epilepsy and insomnia. However, the current EEG technology cannot be utilized quickly and conveniently at the point of care due to the complex skin preparation procedures required and the inconvenient EEG data acquisition systems. This work presents a portable amplifier design that integrates a set of skin screw electrodes and a wireless data link. The battery-operated amplifier contains an instrumentation amplifier, two noninverting amplifiers, two high-pass filters, and a low-pass filter. It is able to magnify the EEG signals over 10,000 times and has a high impedance, low noise, small size and low weight. Our electrode and amplifier are ideal for point-of-care applications, especially during transportation of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury or stroke.

  15. Safe design and operation of tank reactors for multiple-reaction networks: uniqueness and multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Westerink, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A method is developed to design a tank reactor in which a network of reactions is carried out. The network is a combination of parallel and consecutive reactions. The method ensures unique operation. Dimensionless groups are used which are either representative of properties of the reaction system

  16. Layout design of user interface components with multiple objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-goal layout problem may be formulated as a Quadratic Assignment model, considering multiple goals (or factors, both qualitative and quantitative in the objective function. The facilities layout problem, in general, varies from the location and layout of facilities in manufacturing plant to the location and layout of textual and graphical user interface components in the human–computer interface. In this paper, we propose two alternate mathematical approaches to the single-objective layout model. The first one presents a multi-goal user interface component layout problem, considering the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of closeness relationships and the interactions. The second one considers the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of normalized weighted closeness relationships and normalized weighted interactions. The results of first approach are compared with that of an existing single objective model for example task under consideration. Then, the results of first approach and second approach of the proposed model are compared for the example task under consideration.

  17. Observer-based design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaki-Sedigh, A.; Yazdanpanah-Goharrizi, A.

    2006-01-01

    A gradient based approach for the design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems is presented. In this approach, Lyapunov exponents are used to select the controller gain. In the case of unknown or time varying chaotic plants, the Lyapunov exponents may vary during the plant operation. In this paper, an effective adaptive strategy is used for online identification of Lyapunov exponents and adaptive control of nonlinear chaotic plants. Also, a nonlinear observer for estimation of the states is proposed. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology

  18. Observer-based design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaki-Sedigh, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Sayyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati Street, Tehran 16314 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: sedigh@kntu.ac.ir; Yazdanpanah-Goharrizi, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Sayyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati Street, Tehran 16314 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: yazdanpanah@ee.kntu.ac.ir

    2006-09-15

    A gradient based approach for the design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems is presented. In this approach, Lyapunov exponents are used to select the controller gain. In the case of unknown or time varying chaotic plants, the Lyapunov exponents may vary during the plant operation. In this paper, an effective adaptive strategy is used for online identification of Lyapunov exponents and adaptive control of nonlinear chaotic plants. Also, a nonlinear observer for estimation of the states is proposed. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  19. Serial network simplifies the design of multiple microcomputer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkes, D.

    1981-01-01

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in developing network communication schemes for carrying digital data between locally distributed computing stations. Many of these schemes have focused on distributed networking techniques for data processing applications. These applications suggest the use of a serial, multipoint bus, where a number of remote intelligent units act as slaves to a central or host computer. Each slave would be serially addressable from the host and would perform required operations upon being addressed by the host. Based on an MK3873 single-chip microcomputer, the SCU 20 is designed to be such a remote slave device. The capabilities of the SCU 20 and its use in systems applications are examined.

  20. Does decision documentation help junior designers rationalize their decisions? A comparative multiple-case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, U. van; Avgeriou, P.; Tang, A.

    Software architecture design is challenging, especially for junior software designers. Lacking practice and experience, junior designers need process support in order to make rational architecture decisions. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative multiple-case study conducted to find

  1. Optimal design of structures with multiple design variables per group and multiple loading conditions on the personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A finite element based programming system for minimum weight design of a truss-type structure subjected to displacement, stress, and lower and upper bounds on design variables is presented. The programming system consists of a number of independent processors, each performing a specific task. These processors, however, are interfaced through a well-organized data base, thus making the tasks of modifying, updating, or expanding the programming system much easier in a friendly environment provided by many inexpensive personal computers. The proposed software can be viewed as an important step in achieving a 'dummy' finite element for optimization. The programming system has been implemented on both large and small computers (such as VAX, CYBER, IBM-PC, and APPLE) although the focus is on the latter. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. The present programming system can be used stand-alone or as part of the multilevel decomposition procedure to obtain optimum design for very large scale structural systems. Furthermore, other related research areas such as developing optimization algorithms (or in the larger level: a structural synthesis program) for future trends in using parallel computers may also benefit from this study.

  2. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  3. System Identification of a Heaving Point Absorber: Design of Experiment and Device Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Bacelli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirically based modeling is an essential aspect of design for a wave energy converter. Empirically based models are used in structural, mechanical and control design processes, as well as for performance prediction. Both the design of experiments and methods used in system identification have a strong impact on the quality of the resulting model. This study considers the system identification and model validation process based on data collected from a wave tank test of a model-scale wave energy converter. Experimental design and data processing techniques based on general system identification procedures are discussed and compared with the practices often followed for wave tank testing. The general system identification processes are shown to have a number of advantages, including an increased signal-to-noise ratio, reduced experimental time and higher frequency resolution. The experimental wave tank data is used to produce multiple models using different formulations to represent the dynamics of the wave energy converter. These models are validated and their performance is compared against one another. While most models of wave energy converters use a formulation with surface elevation as an input, this study shows that a model using a hull pressure measurement to incorporate the wave excitation phenomenon has better accuracy.

  4. Building a Better Mousetrap: How Design-Based Research Was Used to Improve Homemade PowerPoint Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siko, Jason P.; Barbour, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of a three-cycle, design-based research study that explored the relationship between the pedagogical research and the actual implementation of a game design project using Microsoft PowerPoint. Much of the initial literature on using homemade PowerPoint games showed no significant improvement in test scores when students…

  5. A Virtual Pivot Point MEMS Actuator with Externally Mounted Mirror: Design, Fabrication and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Fahim AMIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of a virtual pivot point micro electromechanical systems (MEMS electrostatic actuator with externally mounted mirror is presented. The point of rotation of the movable arm of the actuator is distant from the physical actuator. This is a requirement for certain applications, such as an external cavity laser in Littman configuration. A maximum rotational radius of 5 mm from the virtual pivot point was achieved. A detailed analytical analysis for the displacement of the structure is presented. The dynamic characterization of the device with a finite element analysis simulation shows that the resonance frequency of the in-plane rotational mode is well separated from that of the out-of-plane bending mode, confirming high in-plane stability. The devices were fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with device layer thickness of 100 µm. Thin mirrors were fabricated by dicing a 100 µm thick silicon wafer. A resonance frequency of about 5.9 ´ 102 Hz for the maximum sized mounted mirror (1.7 mm ´ 100 µm ´ 1.0 mm was determined by optical characterization.

  6. Kick-Off Point (KOP and End of Buildup (EOB Data Analysis in Trajectory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novrianti Novrianti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Well X is a development well which is directionally drilled. Directional drilling is choosen because the coordinate target of Well X is above the buffer zone. The directional track plan needs accurate survey calculation in order to make the righ track for directional drilling. There are many survey calculation in directional drilling such as tangential, underbalance, average angle, radius of curvature, and mercury method. Minimum curvature method is used in this directional track plan calculation. This method is used because it gives less error than other method.  Kick-Off Point (KOP and End of Buildup (EOB analysis is done at 200 ft, 400 ft, and 600 ft depth to determine the trajectory design and optimal inclination. The hole problem is also determined in this trajectory track design. Optimal trajectory design determined at 200 ft depth because the inclination below 35º and also already reach the target quite well at 1632.28 ft TVD and 408.16 AHD. The optimal inclination at 200 ft KOP depth because the maximum inclination is 18.87º which is below 35º. Hole problem will occur if the trajectory designed at 600 ft. The problems are stuck pipe and the casing or tubing will not able to bend.

  7. Improving Graduate Students' Graphing Skills of Multiple Baseline Designs with Microsoft[R] Excel 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Starling, A. Leyf Peirce

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a graphing task analysis using the Microsoft[R] Office Excel 2007 program on the single-subject multiple baseline graphing skills of three university graduate students. Using a multiple probe across participants design, the study demonstrated a functional relationship between the number of correct graphing…

  8. Optimal design of a beam-based dynamic vibration absorber using fixed-points theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yingyu; Wong, Waion; Cheng, Li

    2018-05-01

    The addition of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) to a vibrating structure could provide an economic solution for vibration suppressions if the absorber is properly designed and located onto the structure. A common design of the DVA is a sprung mass because of its simple structure and low cost. However, the vibration suppression performance of this kind of DVA is limited by the ratio between the absorber mass and the mass of the primary structure. In this paper, a beam-based DVA (beam DVA) is proposed and optimized for minimizing the resonant vibration of a general structure. The vibration suppression performance of the proposed beam DVA depends on the mass ratio, the flexural rigidity and length of the beam. In comparison with the traditional sprung mass DVA, the proposed beam DVA shows more flexibility in vibration control design because it has more design parameters. With proper design, the beam DVA's vibration suppression capability can outperform that of the traditional DVA under the same mass constraint. The general approach is illustrated using a benchmark cantilever beam as an example. The receptance theory is introduced to model the compound system consisting of the host beam and the attached beam-based DVA. The model is validated through comparisons with the results from Abaqus as well as the Transfer Matrix method (TMM) method. Fixed-points theory is then employed to derive the analytical expressions for the optimum tuning ratio and damping ratio of the proposed beam absorber. A design guideline is then presented to choose the parameters of the beam absorber. Comparisons are finally presented between the beam absorber and the traditional DVA in terms of the vibration suppression effect. It is shown that the proposed beam absorber can outperform the traditional DVA by following this proposed guideline.

  9. Turning challenges into design principles: Telemonitoring systems for patients with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mehwish; Kuluski, Kerry; McIsaac, Warren J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2018-01-01

    People with multiple chronic conditions often struggle with managing their health. The purpose of this research was to identify specific challenges of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to use the findings to form design principles for a telemonitoring system tailored for these patients. Semi-structured interviews with 15 patients with multiple chronic conditions and 10 clinicians were conducted to gain an understanding of their needs and preferences for a smartphone-based telemonitoring system. The interviews were analyzed using a conventional content analysis technique, resulting in six themes. Design principles developed from the themes included that the system must be modular to accommodate various combinations of conditions, reinforce a routine, consolidate record keeping, as well as provide actionable feedback to the patients. Designing an application for multiple chronic conditions is complex due to variability in patient conditions, and therefore, design principles developed in this study can help with future innovations aimed to help manage this population.

  10. Multiple Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Four-Point Singular Boundary Value Problem with a p-Laplacian Operator on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihuang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present sufficient conditions for the existence of at least twin or triple positive solutions of a nonlinear four-point singular boundary value problem with a p-Laplacian dynamic equation on a time scale. Our results are obtained via some new multiple fixed point theorems.

  11. Metal food packaging design based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP system in canned food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.

  12. Using the Direct Sampling Multiple-Point Geostatistical Method for Filling Gaps in Landsat 7 ETM+ SLC-off Imagery

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Gaohong

    2016-05-01

    Since the failure of the Scan Line Corrector (SLC) instrument on Landsat 7, observable gaps occur in the acquired Landsat 7 imagery, impacting the spatial continuity of observed imagery. Due to the highly geometric and radiometric accuracy provided by Landsat 7, a number of approaches have been proposed to fill the gaps. However, all proposed approaches have evident constraints for universal application. The main issues in gap-filling are an inability to describe the continuity features such as meandering streams or roads, or maintaining the shape of small objects when filling gaps in heterogeneous areas. The aim of the study is to validate the feasibility of using the Direct Sampling multiple-point geostatistical method, which has been shown to reconstruct complicated geological structures satisfactorily, to fill Landsat 7 gaps. The Direct Sampling method uses a conditional stochastic resampling of known locations within a target image to fill gaps and can generate multiple reconstructions for one simulation case. The Direct Sampling method was examined across a range of land cover types including deserts, sparse rural areas, dense farmlands, urban areas, braided rivers and coastal areas to demonstrate its capacity to recover gaps accurately for various land cover types. The prediction accuracy of the Direct Sampling method was also compared with other gap-filling approaches, which have been previously demonstrated to offer satisfactory results, under both homogeneous area and heterogeneous area situations. Studies have shown that the Direct Sampling method provides sufficiently accurate prediction results for a variety of land cover types from homogeneous areas to heterogeneous land cover types. Likewise, it exhibits superior performances when used to fill gaps in heterogeneous land cover types without input image or with an input image that is temporally far from the target image in comparison with other gap-filling approaches.

  13. Mixed-flow vertical tubular hydraulic turbine. Determination of proper design duty point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirok, B. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Bergant, A. [Litostroj Power, d.o.o., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hoefler, E.

    2011-12-15

    A new vertical single-regulated mixed-flow turbine with conical guide apparatus and without spiral casing is presented in this paper. Runner blades are fixed to the hub and runner band and resemble to the Francis type runner of extremely high specific speed. Due to lack of information and guidelines for the design of a new turbine, a theoretical model was developed in order to determinate the design duty point, i.e. to determine the optimum narrow operation range of the turbine. It is not necessary to know the kinematic conditions at the runner inlet, but only general information on the geometry of turbine flow-passage, meridional contour of the runner and blading, the number of blades and the turbine speed of rotation. The model is based on the integral tangential lift coefficient, which is the average value over the entire runner blading. The results are calculated for the lift coefficient 0.5 and 0.6, for the flow coefficient range from 0.2 to 0.36, for the number of the blades between 5 and 13, and are finally presented in the Cordier diagram (specific speed vs. specific diameter). Calculated results of the turbine optimum operation in Cordier diagram correspond very well to the adequate area of Kaplan turbines with medium and low specific speed and extends into the area of Francis turbines with high specific speed. Presented model clearly highlights the parameters that affect specific load of the runner blade row and therefore the optimum turbine operation (discharge - turbine head). The presented method is not limited to a specific reaction type of the hydraulic turbine. The method can therefore be applied to a wide range from mixed-flow (radial-axial) turbines to the axial turbines. Applicability of the method may be considered as a tool in the first stage of the turbine design i.e. when designing the meridional geometry and selecting the number of blades according to calculated operating point. Geometric and energy parameters are generally defined to an

  14. Detection of uterine MMG contractions using a multiple change point estimator and the K-means cluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Patricio S; Nehorai, Arye; Eswaran, Hari; Lowery, Curtis L; Preissl, Hubert

    2008-02-01

    We propose a single channel two-stage time-segment discriminator of uterine magnetomyogram (MMG) contractions during pregnancy. We assume that the preprocessed signals are piecewise stationary having distribution in a common family with a fixed number of parameters. Therefore, at the first stage, we propose a model-based segmentation procedure, which detects multiple change-points in the parameters of a piecewise constant time-varying autoregressive model using a robust formulation of the Schwarz information criterion (SIC) and a binary search approach. In particular, we propose a test statistic that depends on the SIC, derive its asymptotic distribution, and obtain closed-form optimal detection thresholds in the sense of the Neyman-Pearson criterion; therefore, we control the probability of false alarm and maximize the probability of change-point detection in each stage of the binary search algorithm. We compute and evaluate the relative energy variation [root mean squares (RMS)] and the dominant frequency component [first order zero crossing (FOZC)] in discriminating between time segments with and without contractions. The former consistently detects a time segment with contractions. Thus, at the second stage, we apply a nonsupervised K-means cluster algorithm to classify the detected time segments using the RMS values. We apply our detection algorithm to real MMG records obtained from ten patients admitted to the hospital for contractions with gestational ages between 31 and 40 weeks. We evaluate the performance of our detection algorithm in computing the detection and false alarm rate, respectively, using as a reference the patients' feedback. We also analyze the fusion of the decision signals from all the sensors as in the parallel distributed detection approach.

  15. Performance comparison of liquid metal and gas cooled ATW system point designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Taiwo, T.A.; Hill, R.N.; Khalil, H.S.; Wade, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) program in the U.S., preliminary design studies have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to define and compare candidate Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems. The studies at ANL have focused primarily on the transmutation blanket component of the overall system. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), sodium, and gas cooled systems are among the blanket technology options currently under consideration. This paper summarizes the results from neutronics trade studies performed at ANL. Core designs have been developed for LBE and sodium cooled 840 MWt fast spectrum accelerator driven systems employing re-cycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses have been performed for a helium-cooled 600 MWt hybrid thermal and fast spectrum system proposed by General Atomics (GA), which is operated in the critical mode for three cycles and in a subcritical accelerator driven mode for a subsequent single cycle. For these three point designs, isotopic inventories, consumption rates, and annual burnup rates are compared. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic (TRU) isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation are also compared on a consistent basis. (author)

  16. Design and Evaluation of Large-Aperture Gallium Fixed-Point Blackbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromchenko, V. B.; Mekhontsev, S. N.; Hanssen, L. M.

    2009-02-01

    To complement existing water bath blackbodies that now serve as NIST primary standard sources in the temperature range from 15 °C to 75 °C, a gallium fixed-point blackbody has been recently built. The main objectives of the project included creating an extended-area radiation source with a target emissivity of 0.9999 capable of operating either inside a cryo-vacuum chamber or in a standard laboratory environment. A minimum aperture diameter of 45 mm is necessary for the calibration of radiometers with a collimated input geometry or large spot size. This article describes the design and performance evaluation of the gallium fixed-point blackbody, including the calculation and measurements of directional effective emissivity, estimates of uncertainty due to the temperature drop across the interface between the pure metal and radiating surfaces, as well as the radiometrically obtained spatial uniformity of the radiance temperature and the melting plateau stability. Another important test is the measurement of the cavity reflectance, which was achieved by using total integrated scatter measurements at a laser wavelength of 10.6 μm. The result allows one to predict the performance under the low-background conditions of a cryo-chamber. Finally, results of the spectral radiance comparison with the NIST water-bath blackbody are provided. The experimental results are in good agreement with predicted values and demonstrate the potential of our approach. It is anticipated that, after completion of the characterization, a similar source operating at the water triple point will be constructed.

  17. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at “Zusanli” acupoint (ST-36 as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  18. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guangli; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yingzhi; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at "Zusanli" acupoint (ST-36) as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  19. Three-dimensional cross point readout detector design for including depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha

    2018-04-01

    We designed a depth-encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a cross point readout method with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers. To evaluate the characteristics of the novel detector module and the PET system, we used the DETECT2000 to perform optical photon transport in the crystal array. The GATE was also used. The detector module is made up of four layers of scintillator arrays, the five layers of WLS fiber arrays, and two sensor arrays. The WLS fiber arrays in each layer cross each other to transport light to each sensor array. The two sensor arrays are coupled to the forward and left sides of the WLS fiber array, respectively. The identification of three-dimensional pixels was determined using a digital positioning algorithm. All pixels were well decoded, with the system resolution ranging from 2.11 mm to 2.29 mm at full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  20. Design and control of a point absorber wave energy converter with an open loop hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, YaJun; Mu, AnLe; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Point absorber wave energy converter is presented. • Piston pump module captures and converts wave energy. • Hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Fuzzy controller adjusts the displacement of hydraulic motor. • Generator outputs meet the electricity demand precisely. - Abstract: In this paper, a point absorber wave energy converter combined with offshore wind turbine is proposed. In the system, the wave energy is captured and converted into hydraulic energy by a piston pump module, which is combined with a wind turbine floating platform, and then the hydraulic energy is converted into electricity energy by a variable displacement hydraulic motor and induction generator. In order to smooth and stabilize the captured wave energy, a hydraulic accumulator is applied to store and release the excess energy. In order to meet the demand power a fuzzy controller is designed to adjust the displacement of hydraulic motor and controlled the output power. Simulation under irregular wave condition has been carried out to verify the validity of the mathematical model and the effectiveness of the controller strategy. The results show that the wave energy converter system could deliver the required electricity power precisely as the motor output torque is controlled. The accumulator could damp out all the fluctuations in output power, so the wave energy would become a dispatchable power source.

  1. Design of point-of-care (POC) microfluidic medical diagnostic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James F.

    2018-02-01

    Design of inexpensive and portable hand-held microfluidic flow/image cytometry devices for initial medical diagnostics at the point of initial patient contact by emergency medical personnel in the field requires careful design in terms of power/weight requirements to allow for realistic portability as a hand-held, point-of-care medical diagnostics device. True portability also requires small micro-pumps for high-throughput capability. Weight/power requirements dictate use of super-bright LEDs and very small silicon photodiodes or nanophotonic sensors that can be powered by batteries. Signal-to-noise characteristics can be greatly improved by appropriately pulsing the LED excitation sources and sampling and subtracting noise in between excitation pulses. The requirements for basic computing, imaging, GPS and basic telecommunications can be simultaneously met by use of smartphone technologies, which become part of the overall device. Software for a user-interface system, limited real-time computing, real-time imaging, and offline data analysis can be accomplished through multi-platform software development systems that are well-suited to a variety of currently available cellphone technologies which already contain all of these capabilities. Microfluidic cytometry requires judicious use of small sample volumes and appropriate statistical sampling by microfluidic cytometry or imaging for adequate statistical significance to permit real-time (typically medical decisions for patients at the physician's office or real-time decision making in the field. One or two drops of blood obtained by pin-prick should be able to provide statistically meaningful results for use in making real-time medical decisions without the need for blood fractionation, which is not realistic in the field.

  2. The design of visible system for improving the measurement accuracy of imaging points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qiu-sha; Li, Gang; Zeng, Luan; Liu, Kai; Yan, Pei-pei; Duan, Jing; Jiang, Kai

    2018-02-01

    It has a widely applications in robot vision and 3D measurement for binocular stereoscopic measurement technology. And the measure precision is an very important factor, especially in 3D coordination measurement, high measurement accuracy is more stringent to the distortion of the optical system. In order to improving the measurement accuracy of imaging points, to reducing the distortion of the imaging points, the optical system must be satisfied the requirement of extra low distortion value less than 0.1#65285;, a transmission visible optical lens was design, which has characteristic of telecentric beam path in image space, adopted the imaging model of binocular stereo vision, and imaged the drone at the finity distance. The optical system was adopted complex double Gauss structure, and put the pupil stop on the focal plane of the latter groups, maked the system exit pupil on the infinity distance, and realized telecentric beam path in image space. The system mainly optical parameter as follows: the system spectrum rangement is visible light wave band, the optical effective length is f '=30mm, the relative aperture is 1/3, and the fields of view is 21°. The final design results show that the RMS value of the spread spots of the optical lens in the maximum fields of view is 2.3μm, which is less than one pixel(3.45μm) the distortion value is less than 0.1%, the system has the advantage of extra low distortion value and avoids the latter image distortion correction; the proposed modulation transfer function of the optical lens is 0.58(@145 lp/mm), the imaging quality of the system is closed to the diffraction limited; the system has simply structure, and can satisfies the requirements of the optical indexes. Ultimately, based on the imaging model of binocular stereo vision was achieved to measuring the drone at the finity distance.

  3. Design optimization of offshore wind farms with multiple types of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on offshore wind farm design assume a uniform wind farm, which consists of an identical type of wind turbines. In order to further reduce the cost of energy, we investigate the design of non-uniform offshore wind farms, i.e., wind farms with multiple types of wind turbines and hub-he...

  4. "Delineamento duplo central composto com 29 pontos" Double central composite design with 29 points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Conagin

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available O delineamento duplo central composto com 29 pontos representa uma extensão do delineamento central composto e foi desenvolvido para o estudo de três fatores em mais de três níveis. Essencialmente, consta de dois fatoriais 2³ (níveis 1 e B, de duas estrelas (níveis a e 2alfa e de um ponto no centro do delineamento. É mostrada a origem do delineamento, o tipo não ortogonal, completamente casualizado, o tipo ortogonal completamente casualizado e o ortogonal divisível em dois blocos. No primeiro deles, seriam estudados três fatores em cinco níveis (-2, -1,-0, + 1 e +2; no segundo, três fatores em nove níveis (-3,02; -2,00; -1,51; -1,00; 0,00; + 1,00; +1,51; +2,00 e +3.02 e, no terceiro, três fatores nos nove níveis seguintes (-7,262; -4,391; -3,631; -1,000; 0,000; +1,000; +3,631; +4,391 e +7,262. É apresentado também um exemplo do último delineamento. com sua análise respectiva. De acordo com o critério de Box & Wilson (2, esse último delineamento é mais eficiente que o fatorial 3 x 3 x 3 divisível em blocos de nove. Os três delineamentos podem ser empregados em programas de adubação visando ao estudo de macronutrientes com vistas à recomendação das doses ótimas de fertilizantes que possibilitem a maximização do lucro obtido e, ainda, em outras áreas da pesquisa científica em que se deseja a avaliação da superfície de resposta, o estudo dos seus pontos extremos, etc.The double central composite design with 29 points rcpresents an extension of the central composite design and was developed for the study of three factors in more than three levels. Essentially it is composed of two 2³ factorials (levels 1 and B, of two stars (levels alpha and 2alpha and of one central point. In the present paper the origin of the design, the double central composite completely randomized not orthogonal in 5 levels (-2, -1, 0, +1 and +2, the completely randomized design, orthogonal, in nine levels (-3.02; -2.00; -1.51; -1.00; 0

  5. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)377840; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia Maria; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 period (LS1), that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) Project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 virtual machines (VMs) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 22000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 Project; operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities. The design aspects a...

  6. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS simulation in Point1 project.

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    During the LHC long shutdown period (LS1), that started in 2013, the simulation in Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage in an opportunistic way of the trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) farm of the ATLAS experiment. The farm provides more than 1500 computer nodes, and they are particularly suitable for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2500 virtual machines (VM) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 20000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a thorough review of the design, the results and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project operating a large scale Openstack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive GRID sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities within the ATLAS collaboration. The particular design ...

  7. Point design for deuterium-deuterium compact reversed-field pinch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Dobrott, D.R.; Gurol, H.; Schnack, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactor may be made comparable in size and cost to a deuterium-tritium (D-T) reactor at the expense of high-thermal heat load to the first wall. This heat load is the result of the larger percentage of fusion power in charged particles in the D-D reaction as compared to the D-T reaction. The heat load may be reduced by increasing the reactor size and hence the cost. In addition to this ''degraded'' design, the size may be kept small by means of a higher heat load wall, or by means of a toroidal divertor, in which case most of the heat load seen by the wall is in the form of radiation. Point designs are developed for these approaches and cost studies are performed and compared with a D-T reactor. The results indicate that the cost of electricity of a D-D RFP reactor is about20% higher than a D-T RFP reactor. This increased cost could be offset by the inherent safety features of the D-D fuel cycle

  8. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  9. Does decision documentation help junior designers rationalize their decisions? A comparative multiple-case study

    OpenAIRE

    Heesch, U. van; Avgeriou, P.; Tang, A.

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture design is challenging, especially for junior software designers. Lacking practice and experience, junior designers need process support in order to make rational architecture decisions. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative multiple-case study conducted to find out if decision viewpoints from van Heesch et al. (2012, in press) can provide such a support. The case study was conducted with four teams of software engineering students working in industrial s...

  10. From Takeoff to Landing: Looking at the Design Process for the Development of NASA Blast at Thanksgiving Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ashton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the process of design used to develop and design the NASA Blast exhibition at Thanksgiving Point, a museum complex in Lehi, Utah. This was a class project for the Advanced Instructional Design Class at Brigham Young University. In an attempt to create a new discourse (Krippendorff, 2006 for Thanksgiving Point visitors and staff members, the design class used a very fluid design approach by utilizing brainstorming, researching, class member personas, and prototyping to create ideas for the new exhibition. Because of the nature of the experience, the design class developed their own techniques to enhance the process of their design. The result of the design was a compelling narrative that brought all the elements of the exhibition together in a cohesive piece.

  11. On strength design using free material subjected to multiple load cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together with a prac......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...... with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation...

  12. BSDB: A New Consistent Designation Scheme for Identifying Objects in Binary and Multiple Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva D. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new consistent scheme for designation of objects in binary and multiple systems, BSDB, is described. It was developed in the frame of the Binary star DataBase, BDB (http://www.inasan.ru, due to necessity of a unified and consistent system for designation of objects in the database, and the name of the designation scheme was derived from that of the database. The BSDB scheme covers all types of observational data. Three classes of objects introduced within the BSDB nomenclature provide correct links between objects and data, what is especially important for complex multiple stellar systems. The final stage of establishing the BSDB scheme is compilation of the Identification List of Binaries, ILB, where all known objects in binary and multiple stars are presented with their BSDB identifiers along with identifiers according to major catalogues and lists.

  13. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrero, S.; Batraneanu, S. M.; Brasolin, F.; Contescu, C.; Fazio, D.; Di Girolamo, A.; Lee, C. J.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Sedov, A.; Twomey, M. S.; Wang, F.; Zaytsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LSI) period, that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High-Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 Virtual Machines (VMs) each with 8 CPU cores, for a total of up to 22000 parallel jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project, operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 33 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.1 billion Monte Carlo events. The design aspects are presented: the virtualization platform exploited by Sim@P1 avoids interferences with TDAQ operations and it guarantees the security and the usability of the ATLAS private network. The cloud mechanism allows the separation of the needed support on both infrastructural (hardware, virtualization layer) and logical (Grid site support) levels. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of such a large system during the upcoming LHC Run 2 period: simple, reliable, and efficient tools are needed to quickly switch from Sim@P1 to TDAQ mode and back, to exploit the resources when they are not used for the data acquisition, even for short periods. The evolution of the central OpenStack infrastructure is described, as it was upgraded from Folsom to the Icehouse release, including the scalability issues addressed.

  14. An efficient method for the prediction of deleterious multiple-point mutations in the secondary structure of RNAs using suboptimal folding solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barash Danny

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNAmute is an interactive Java application which, given an RNA sequence, calculates the secondary structure of all single point mutations and organizes them into categories according to their similarity to the predicted structure of the wild type. The secondary structure predictions are performed using the Vienna RNA package. A more efficient implementation of RNAmute is needed, however, to extend from the case of single point mutations to the general case of multiple point mutations, which may often be desired for computational predictions alongside mutagenesis experiments. But analyzing multiple point mutations, a process that requires traversing all possible mutations, becomes highly expensive since the running time is O(nm for a sequence of length n with m-point mutations. Using Vienna's RNAsubopt, we present a method that selects only those mutations, based on stability considerations, which are likely to be conformational rearranging. The approach is best examined using the dot plot representation for RNA secondary structure. Results Using RNAsubopt, the suboptimal solutions for a given wild-type sequence are calculated once. Then, specific mutations are selected that are most likely to cause a conformational rearrangement. For an RNA sequence of about 100 nts and 3-point mutations (n = 100, m = 3, for example, the proposed method reduces the running time from several hours or even days to several minutes, thus enabling the practical application of RNAmute to the analysis of multiple-point mutations. Conclusion A highly efficient addition to RNAmute that is as user friendly as the original application but that facilitates the practical analysis of multiple-point mutations is presented. Such an extension can now be exploited prior to site-directed mutagenesis experiments by virologists, for example, who investigate the change of function in an RNA virus via mutations that disrupt important motifs in its secondary

  15. Design of Neutral-Point Voltage Controller of a Three-level NPC Inverter with Small DC-Link Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, S.

    2013-01-01

    A Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) three-level inverter with small dc-link capacitors is presented in this paper. The inverter requires zero average neutral-point current for stable neutral-point voltage. The small dc-link capacitors may not maintain capacitor voltage balance, even with zero neutral......-point voltage control on the basis of the continuous model. The design method for optimum performance is discussed. The implementation of the proposed modulation strategy and the controller is very simple. The controller is implemented in a 7.5 kW induction machine based drive with only 14 ìF dc-link capacitors...

  16. Variation in type and frequency of diagnostic imaging during trauma care across multiple time points by patient insurance type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Nathaniel; Repáraz, Laura; Fry, William R.; Smith, R. Stephen; Luis, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that uninsured patients receive fewer radiographic studies during trauma care, but less is known as to whether differences in care are present among other insurance groups or across different time points during hospitalization. Our objective was to examine the number of radiographic studies administered to a cohort of trauma patients over the entire hospital stay as well as during the first 24-hours of care. Patient data were obtained from an American College of Surgeons (ACS) verified Level I Trauma Center between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. We used negative binomial regression to construct relative risk (RR) ratios for type and frequency of radiographic imaging received among persons with Medicare, Medicaid, no insurance, or government insurance plans in reference to those with commercial indemnity plans. The analysis was adjusted for patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, injury severity score, injury mechanism, comorbidities, complications, hospital length of stay, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. A total of 3621 records from surviving patients age > =18 years were assessed. After adjustment for potential confounders, the expected number of radiographic studies decreased by 15 % among Medicare recipients (RR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.78–0.93), 11 % among Medicaid recipients (0.89, 0.81–0.99), 10 % among the uninsured (0.90, 0.85–0.96) and 19 % among government insurance groups (0.81, 0.72–0.90), compared with the reference group. This disparity was observed during the first 24-hours of care among patients with Medicare (0.78, 0.71–0.86) and government insurance plans (0.83, 0.74–0.94). Overall, there were no differences in the number of radiographic studies among the uninsured or among Medicaid patients during the first 24-hours of care compared with the reference group, but differences were observed among the uninsured in a sub-analysis of severely injured patients (ISS > 15). Both uninsured and insured patients treated at a

  17. Multiple-point statistical simulation for hydrogeological models: 3-D training image development and conditioning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-S. Høyer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the application of geostatistical simulations based on multiple-point statistics (MPS to hydrogeological modelling focus on relatively fine-scale models and concentrate on the estimation of facies-level structural uncertainty. Much less attention is paid to the use of input data and optimal construction of training images. For instance, even though the training image should capture a set of spatial geological characteristics to guide the simulations, the majority of the research still relies on 2-D or quasi-3-D training images. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for 3-D MPS modelling characterized by (i realistic 3-D training images and (ii an effective workflow for incorporating a diverse group of geological and geophysical data sets. The study covers an area of 2810 km2 in the southern part of Denmark. MPS simulations are performed on a subset of the geological succession (the lower to middle Miocene sediments which is characterized by relatively uniform structures and dominated by sand and clay. The simulated domain is large and each of the geostatistical realizations contains approximately 45 million voxels with size 100 m  ×  100 m  ×  5 m. Data used for the modelling include water well logs, high-resolution seismic data, and a previously published 3-D geological model. We apply a series of different strategies for the simulations based on data quality, and develop a novel method to effectively create observed spatial trends. The training image is constructed as a relatively small 3-D voxel model covering an area of 90 km2. We use an iterative training image development strategy and find that even slight modifications in the training image create significant changes in simulations. Thus, this study shows how to include both the geological environment and the type and quality of input information in order to achieve optimal results from MPS modelling. We present a practical

  18. Design and Implementation of Numerical Linear Algebra Algorithms on Fixed Point DSPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Frantz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical linear algebra algorithms use the inherent elegance of matrix formulations and are usually implemented using C/C++ floating point representation. The system implementation is faced with practical constraints because these algorithms usually need to run in real time on fixed point digital signal processors (DSPs to reduce total hardware costs. Converting the simulation model to fixed point arithmetic and then porting it to a target DSP device is a difficult and time-consuming process. In this paper, we analyze the conversion process. We transformed selected linear algebra algorithms from floating point to fixed point arithmetic, and compared real-time requirements and performance between the fixed point DSP and floating point DSP algorithm implementations. We also introduce an advanced code optimization and an implementation by DSP-specific, fixed point C code generation. By using the techniques described in the paper, speed can be increased by a factor of up to 10 compared to floating point emulation on fixed point hardware.

  19. Initial Scaling Studies and Conceptual Thermal Fluids Experiments for the Prismatic NGNP Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial high temperature gas reactor scaling studies and conceptual experiment design for gas flow and heat transfer. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/ATHENA/RELAP5-3D calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses are being applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant forced convection with slight transverse property variation. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple buoyant jets into a confined density-stratified crossflow -- with obstructions. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second experiment will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets

  20. Application of multiple-point geostatistics to simulate the effect of small-scale aquifer heterogeneity on the efficiency of aquifer thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possemiers, Mathias; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-08-01

    Adequate aquifer characterization and simulation using heat transport models are indispensible for determining the optimal design for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems and wells. Recent model studies indicate that meter-scale heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field introduce a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of thermal energy around an ATES system and can lead to a reduction in the thermal recoverability. In a study site in Bierbeek, Belgium, the influence of centimeter-scale clay drapes on the efficiency of a doublet ATES system and the distribution of the thermal energy around the ATES wells are quantified. Multiple-point geostatistical simulation of edge properties is used to incorporate the clay drapes in the models. The results show that clay drapes have an influence both on the distribution of thermal energy in the subsurface and on the efficiency of the ATES system. The distribution of the thermal energy is determined by the strike of the clay drapes, with the major axis of anisotropy parallel to the clay drape strike. The clay drapes have a negative impact (3.3-3.6 %) on the energy output in the models without a hydraulic gradient. In the models with a hydraulic gradient, however, the presence of clay drapes has a positive influence (1.6-10.2 %) on the energy output of the ATES system. It is concluded that it is important to incorporate small-scale heterogeneities in heat transport models to get a better estimate on ATES efficiency and distribution of thermal energy.

  1. Application of multiple-point geostatistics to simulate the effect of small scale aquifer heterogeneity on the efficiency of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possemiers, Mathias; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    Adequate aquifer characterization and simulation using heat transport models are indispensible for determining the optimal design for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems and wells. Recent model studies indicate that meter scale heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field introduce a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of thermal energy around an ATES system and can lead to a reduction in the thermal recoverability. In this paper, the influence of centimeter scale clay drapes on the efficiency of a doublet ATES system and the distribution of the thermal energy around the ATES wells are quantified. Multiple-point geostatistical simulation of edge properties is used to incorporate the clay drapes in the models. The results show that clay drapes have an influence both on the distribution of thermal energy in the subsurface and on the efficiency of the ATES system. The distribution of the thermal energy is determined by the strike of the clay drapes, with the major axis of anisotropy parallel to the clay drape strike. The clay drapes have a negative impact (3.3 - 3.6%) on the energy output in the models without a hydraulic gradient. In the models with a hydraulic gradient, however, the presence of clay drapes has a positive influence (1.6 - 10.2%) on the energy output of the ATES system. It is concluded that it is important to incorporate small scale heterogeneities in heat transport models to get a better estimate on ATES efficiency and distribution of thermal energy.

  2. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  3. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) design plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The general design plan for the implementation of a common user interface to multiple remote information systems within a microcomputer-based environment is presented. The intent is to provide a framework for the development of detailed specifications which will be used as guidelines for the actual development of the system.

  4. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  5. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs in...

  6. Design of a smart textile mat to study pressure distribution on multiple foam material configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van R.; Chen, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a design of a smart textile pressure mat to study the pressure distribution with multiple foam material configurations for neonatal monitoring at Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). A smart textile mat with 64 pressure sensors has been developed including software at the

  7. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs...

  8. Residue-based Coordinated Selection and Parameter Design of Multiple Power System Stabilizers (PSSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    data from time domain simulations. Then a coordinated approach for multiple PSS selection and parameter design based on residue method is proposed and realized in MATLAB m-files. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted in the coordination process. The IEEE 39-bus New England system model...

  9. The computer-aided design of a servo system as a multiple-criteria decision problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper treats the selection of controller gains of a servo system as a multiple-criteria decision problem. In contrast to the usual optimization-based approaches to computer-aided design, inequality constraints are included in the problem as unconstrained objectives. This considerably simplifies

  10. Evaluation of biases present in the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candlish, Jane; Pate, Alexander; Sperrin, Matthew; Staa, Tjeerd P van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT) design provides an opportunity to incorporate the benefits of randomisation within clinical practice; thus reducing costs, integrating electronic healthcare records, and improving external validity. This study aims to address a key

  11. Optimal design of compact and connected nature reserves for multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yicheng; Önal, Hayri

    2016-04-01

    When designing a conservation reserve system for multiple species, spatial attributes of the reserves must be taken into account at species level. The existing optimal reserve design literature considers either one spatial attribute or when multiple attributes are considered the analysis is restricted only to one species. We built a linear integer programing model that incorporates compactness and connectivity of the landscape reserved for multiple species. The model identifies multiple reserves that each serve a subset of target species with a specified coverage probability threshold to ensure the species' long-term survival in the reserve, and each target species is covered (protected) with another probability threshold at the reserve system level. We modeled compactness by minimizing the total distance between selected sites and central sites, and we modeled connectivity of a selected site to its designated central site by selecting at least one of its adjacent sites that has a nearer distance to the central site. We considered structural distance and functional distances that incorporated site quality between sites. We tested the model using randomly generated data on 2 species, one ground species that required structural connectivity and the other an avian species that required functional connectivity. We applied the model to 10 bird species listed as endangered by the state of Illinois (U.S.A.). Spatial coherence and selection cost of the reserves differed substantially depending on the weights assigned to these 2 criteria. The model can be used to design a reserve system for multiple species, especially species whose habitats are far apart in which case multiple disjunct but compact and connected reserves are advantageous. The model can be modified to increase or decrease the distance between reserves to reduce or promote population connectivity. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Design, implementation and evaluation of a point cloud codec for Tele-Immersive Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); C.L. Blom (Kees); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2017-01-01

    htmlabstractwe present a generic and real-time time-varying point cloud codec for 3D immersive video. This codec is suitable for mixed reality applications where 3D point clouds are acquired at a fast rate. In this codec, intra frames are coded progressively in an octree subdivision. To further

  13. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  14. Designing an Electronic Patient Management System for Multiple Sclerosis: Building a Next Generation Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Raimar; Haase, Rocco; Eisele, Judith Christina; Thomas, Katja; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2016-01-08

    Technologies like electronic health records or telemedicine devices support the rapid mediation of health information and clinical data independent of time and location between patients and their physicians as well as among health care professionals. Today, every part of the treatment process from diagnosis, treatment selection, and application to patient education and long-term care may be enhanced by a quality-assured implementation of health information technology (HIT) that also takes data security standards and concerns into account. In order to increase the level of effectively realized benefits of eHealth services, a user-driven needs assessment should ensure the inclusion of health care professional perspectives into the process of technology development as we did in the development process of the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System 3D. After analyzing the use of information technology by patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, we focused on the needs of neurological health care professionals and their handling of health information technology. Therefore, we researched the status quo of eHealth adoption in neurological practices and clinics as well as health care professional opinions about potential benefits and requirements of eHealth services in the field of multiple sclerosis. We conducted a paper-and-pencil-based mail survey in 2013 by sending our questionnaire to 600 randomly chosen neurological practices in Germany. The questionnaire consisted of 24 items covering characteristics of participating neurological practices (4 items), the current use of network technology and the Internet in such neurological practices (5 items), physicians' attitudes toward the general and MS-related usefulness of eHealth systems (8 items) and toward the clinical documentation via electronic health records (4 items), and physicians' knowledge about the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System (3 items). From 600 mailed surveys, 74 completed surveys were returned

  15. A quantitative analysis of statistical power identifies obesity end points for improved in vivo preclinical study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimkhanov, J; Thompson, W C; Guo, J; Hall, K D; Musante, C J

    2017-08-01

    The design of well-powered in vivo preclinical studies is a key element in building the knowledge of disease physiology for the purpose of identifying and effectively testing potential antiobesity drug targets. However, as a result of the complexity of the obese phenotype, there is limited understanding of the variability within and between study animals of macroscopic end points such as food intake and body composition. This, combined with limitations inherent in the measurement of certain end points, presents challenges to study design that can have significant consequences for an antiobesity program. Here, we analyze a large, longitudinal study of mouse food intake and body composition during diet perturbation to quantify the variability and interaction of the key metabolic end points. To demonstrate how conclusions can change as a function of study size, we show that a simulated preclinical study properly powered for one end point may lead to false conclusions based on secondary end points. We then propose the guidelines for end point selection and study size estimation under different conditions to facilitate proper power calculation for a more successful in vivo study design.

  16. Design of four-point SENB specimens with stable crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeppe Bjørn; Kildegaard, Casper; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2018-01-01

    A four-point single-edge-notch-beam (SENB) test specimen loaded in displacement control (fixed grip) is proposed for studying crack deflection at bi-material interfaces. In order to ensure stable crack growth, a novel analytical model of the four-point SENB specimen in fixed grip is derived...... and compared with numerical models. Model results show that the specimen should be short and thick, and the start-crack length should be deep for the crack to propagate stable towards the bi-material interface. Observations from experimental tests of four-point SENB specimens with different start-crack lengths...

  17. Design of clinical trials involving multiple hypothesis tests with a common control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, I Manjula; Marschner, Ian C

    2017-07-01

    Randomized clinical trials comparing several treatments to a common control are often reported in the medical literature. For example, multiple experimental treatments may be compared with placebo, or in combination therapy trials, a combination therapy may be compared with each of its constituent monotherapies. Such trials are typically designed using a balanced approach in which equal numbers of individuals are randomized to each arm, however, this can result in an inefficient use of resources. We provide a unified framework and new theoretical results for optimal design of such single-control multiple-comparator studies. We consider variance optimal designs based on D-, A-, and E-optimality criteria, using a general model that allows for heteroscedasticity and a range of effect measures that include both continuous and binary outcomes. We demonstrate the sensitivity of these designs to the type of optimality criterion by showing that the optimal allocation ratios are systematically ordered according to the optimality criterion. Given this sensitivity to the optimality criterion, we argue that power optimality is a more suitable approach when designing clinical trials where testing is the objective. Weighted variance optimal designs are also discussed, which, like power optimal designs, allow the treatment difference to play a major role in determining allocation ratios. We illustrate our methods using two real clinical trial examples taken from the medical literature. Some recommendations on the use of optimal designs in single-control multiple-comparator trials are also provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Design and implementation of the modified signed digit multiplication routine on a ternary optical computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun; Wang, Xianchao; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    Multiplication with traditional electronic computers is faced with a low calculating accuracy and a long computation time delay. To overcome these problems, the modified signed digit (MSD) multiplication routine is established based on the MSD system and the carry-free adder. Also, its parallel algorithm and optimization techniques are studied in detail. With the help of a ternary optical computer's characteristics, the structured data processor is designed especially for the multiplication routine. Several ternary optical operators are constructed to perform M transformations and summations in parallel, which has accelerated the iterative process of multiplication. In particular, the routine allocates data bits of the ternary optical processor based on digits of multiplication input, so the accuracy of the calculation results can always satisfy the users. Finally, the routine is verified by simulation experiments, and the results are in full compliance with the expectations. Compared with an electronic computer, the MSD multiplication routine is not only good at dealing with large-value data and high-precision arithmetic, but also maintains lower power consumption and fewer calculating delays.

  19. Mobile Web for Pervasive environments - design webexperiences for multiple mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an architecture for designing web pages that uses multiple mobile and stationary devices to present web content. The architecture extends standard web technology with a number of functions for expressing how web content might migrate and use multiple displays....... The architecture is developed to support desktop applications, but in this paper we describe how the architecture can be extended to mobile devices by using AJAX technology. The paper also presents an implementation and presents a number of applications for mobile devices developed with this framework....

  20. Integrated conservation planning for coral reefs: Designing conservation zones for multiple conservation objectives in spatial prioritisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers focus on representing biodiversity pattern, maintaining connectivity, and strengthening resilience to global warming when designing marine protected area (MPA systems, especially in coral reef ecosystems. The achievement of these broad conservation objectives will likely require large areas, and stretch limited funds for MPA implementation. We undertook a spatial prioritisation of Brazilian coral reefs that considered two types of conservation zones (i.e. no-take and multiple use areas and integrated multiple conservation objectives into MPA planning, while assessing the potential impact of different sets of objectives on implementation costs. We devised objectives for biodiversity, connectivity, and resilience to global warming, determined the extent to which existing MPAs achieved them, and designed complementary zoning to achieve all objectives combined in expanded MPA systems. In doing so, we explored interactions between different sets of objectives, determined whether refinements to the existing spatial arrangement of MPAs were necessary, and tested the utility of existing MPAs by comparing their cost effectiveness with an MPA system designed from scratch. We found that MPAs in Brazil protect some aspects of coral reef biodiversity pattern (e.g. threatened fauna and ecosystem types more effectively than connectivity or resilience to global warming. Expanding the existing MPA system was as cost-effective as designing one from scratch only when multiple objectives were considered and management costs were accounted for. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of integrating multiple objectives in the initial stages of conservation planning, and yields insights for planners of MPAs tackling multiple objectives in other regions.

  1. Power points: how to design and deliver presentations that sizzle and sell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Harry

    2007-01-01

    ... Flow and Direction Sell the Sizzle Starting Strongly Making Your Point Finishing in Style Bridging with Transitions Tried and Proven Organizational Patterns Use a Persuasive Structure to Add Cohere...

  2. Interferometry with flexible point source array for measuring complex freeform surface and its design algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Shen, Hua; Zhu, Rihong; Gao, Jinming; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinsong; Li, Bo

    2018-06-01

    The precision of the measurements of aspheric and freeform surfaces remains the primary factor restrict their manufacture and application. One effective means of measuring such surfaces involves using reference or probe beams with angle modulation, such as tilted-wave-interferometer (TWI). It is necessary to improve the measurement efficiency by obtaining the optimum point source array for different pieces before TWI measurements. For purpose of forming a point source array based on the gradients of different surfaces under test, we established a mathematical model describing the relationship between the point source array and the test surface. However, the optimal point sources are irregularly distributed. In order to achieve a flexible point source array according to the gradient of test surface, a novel interference setup using fiber array is proposed in which every point source can be independently controlled on and off. Simulations and the actual measurement examples of two different surfaces are given in this paper to verify the mathematical model. Finally, we performed an experiment of testing an off-axis ellipsoidal surface that proved the validity of the proposed interference system.

  3. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  4. Digital dashboard design using multiple data streams for disease surveillance with influenza surveillance as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K Y; Ip, Dennis K M; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y

    2011-10-14

    Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public health actions.

  5. Design and use of multiple blade slurry sawing in a production atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynah, F. P., Jr.; Ross, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The technique and uses of the multiple blade slurry (MBS) saw are considered. Multiple bands of steel are arranged in a frame and the frame is reciprocated with the steel bands to a workpiece, while simultaneously applying abrasive at the point of contact. The blades wear slots in the workpiece and progress through the piece resulting in several parts of wafers. The transition to MBA from diamond slicing is justified by savings resulting from minimized kerf losses, minimized subsurface damage, and improved surface quality off the saw. This allows wafering much closer to finished thickness specifications. The current state of the art MBS technology must be significantly improved if the low cost solar array (LSA) goals are to be attained. It is concluded that although MBS will never be the answer to every wafering requirement, the economical production of wafers to LSA project specifications will be achieved.

  6. Generalized linear models and point count data: statistical considerations for the design and analysis of monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel E. Seavy; Suhel Quader; John D. Alexander; C. John Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The success of avian monitoring programs to effectively guide management decisions requires that studies be efficiently designed and data be properly analyzed. A complicating factor is that point count surveys often generate data with non-normal distributional properties. In this paper we review methods of dealing with deviations from normal assumptions, and we focus...

  7. A comparative study of the design software systems from the view point of optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, U. P.; Park, G. J.; Park, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis technology is widely accepted and quite popular these days. Incorporation of the analysis result into design process is a key factor for the success of the analysis area. A few design software products have been commercialized. Generally, they are trying to make an interface between various design methods and analysis software. Optimization is a representative design method. The products are investigated and compared for the aspects of user convenience and algorithm performance. A few popular products are selected. Graphic User Interface(GUI) is compared for the function and efficiency. The performances of the optimization algorithms are tested by mathematical and engineering examples. The results are discussed

  8. The ARIES-III D-3He tokamak reactor: Design-point determination and parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Werley, K.A.; Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Santarius, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The multi-institutional ARIES study has generated a conceptual design of another tokamak fusion reactor in a series that varies the assumed advances in technology and physics. The ARIES-3 design uses a D- 3 He fuel cycle and requires advances in technology and physics for economical attractiveness. The optimal design was characterized through systems analyses for eventual conceptual engineering design. Results from the systems analysis are summarized, and a comparison with the high-field, D-T fueled ARIES-1 is included. 11 refs., 5 figs

  9. A SCHEDULING SCHEME WITH DYNAMIC FREQUENCY CLOCKING AND MULTIPLE VOLTAGES FOR LOW POWER DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Dongxin; Wang Ling; Yang Xiaozong

    2007-01-01

    In this letter, a scheduling scheme based on Dynamic Frequency Clocking (DFC) and multiple voltages is proposed for low power designs under the timing and the resource constraints.Unlike the conventional methods at high level synthesis where only voltages of nodes were considered,the scheme based on a gain function considers both voltage and frequency simultaneously to reduce energy consumption. Experiments with a number of DSP benchmarks show that the proposed scheme achieves an effective energy reduction.

  10. Collaborative E-Learning with Multiple Imaginary Co-Learner: Design, Issues and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Ballera; Mosbah Mohamed Elssaedi; Ahmed Khalil Zohdy

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative problem solving in e-learning can take in the form of discussion among learner, creating a highly social learning environment and characterized by participation and interactivity. This paper, designed a collaborative learning environment where agent act as co-learner, can play different roles during interaction. Since different roles have been assigned to the agent, learner will assume that multiple co-learner exists to help and guide him all throughout the ...

  11. Automatic differentiation for design sensitivity analysis of structural systems using multiple processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc T.; Storaasli, Olaf O.; Qin, Jiangning; Qamar, Ramzi

    1994-01-01

    An automatic differentiation tool (ADIFOR) is incorporated into a finite element based structural analysis program for shape and non-shape design sensitivity analysis of structural systems. The entire analysis and sensitivity procedures are parallelized and vectorized for high performance computation. Small scale examples to verify the accuracy of the proposed program and a medium scale example to demonstrate the parallel vector performance on multiple CRAY C90 processors are included.

  12. Design of e-Science platform for biomedical imaging research cross multiple academic institutions and hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ling, Tonghui; Wang, Tusheng; Wang, Mingqing; Hu, Haibo; Xu, Xuemin

    2012-02-01

    More and more image informatics researchers and engineers are considering to re-construct imaging and informatics infrastructure or to build new framework to enable multiple disciplines of medical researchers, clinical physicians and biomedical engineers working together in a secured, efficient, and transparent cooperative environment. In this presentation, we show an outline and our preliminary design work of building an e-Science platform for biomedical imaging and informatics research and application in Shanghai. We will present our consideration and strategy on designing this platform, and preliminary results. We also will discuss some challenges and solutions in building this platform.

  13. Sequential, Multiple Assignment, Randomized Trial Designs in Immuno-oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Postow, Michael A; Panageas, Katherine S

    2018-02-15

    Clinical trials investigating immune checkpoint inhibitors have led to the approval of anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4), anti-PD-1 (programmed death-1), and anti-PD-L1 (PD-ligand 1) drugs by the FDA for numerous tumor types. In the treatment of metastatic melanoma, combinations of checkpoint inhibitors are more effective than single-agent inhibitors, but combination immunotherapy is associated with increased frequency and severity of toxicity. There are questions about the use of combination immunotherapy or single-agent anti-PD-1 as initial therapy and the number of doses of either approach required to sustain a response. In this article, we describe a novel use of sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) design to evaluate immune checkpoint inhibitors to find treatment regimens that adapt within an individual based on intermediate response and lead to the longest overall survival. We provide a hypothetical example SMART design for BRAF wild-type metastatic melanoma as a framework for investigating immunotherapy treatment regimens. We compare implementing a SMART design to implementing multiple traditional randomized clinical trials. We illustrate the benefits of a SMART over traditional trial designs and acknowledge the complexity of a SMART. SMART designs may be an optimal way to find treatment strategies that yield durable response, longer survival, and lower toxicity. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 730-6. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Design of multiple sequence alignment algorithms on parallel, distributed memory supercomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Philip C; Goscinski, Andrzej; Holt, Kathryn; Inouye, Michael; Ghoting, Amol; Makarychev, Konstantin; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The challenge of comparing two or more genomes that have undergone recombination and substantial amounts of segmental loss and gain has recently been addressed for small numbers of genomes. However, datasets of hundreds of genomes are now common and their sizes will only increase in the future. Multiple sequence alignment of hundreds of genomes remains an intractable problem due to quadratic increases in compute time and memory footprint. To date, most alignment algorithms are designed for commodity clusters without parallelism. Hence, we propose the design of a multiple sequence alignment algorithm on massively parallel, distributed memory supercomputers to enable research into comparative genomics on large data sets. Following the methodology of the sequential progressiveMauve algorithm, we design data structures including sequences and sorted k-mer lists on the IBM Blue Gene/P supercomputer (BG/P). Preliminary results show that we can reduce the memory footprint so that we can potentially align over 250 bacterial genomes on a single BG/P compute node. We verify our results on a dataset of E.coli, Shigella and S.pneumoniae genomes. Our implementation returns results matching those of the original algorithm but in 1/2 the time and with 1/4 the memory footprint for scaffold building. In this study, we have laid the basis for multiple sequence alignment of large-scale datasets on a massively parallel, distributed memory supercomputer, thus enabling comparison of hundreds instead of a few genome sequences within reasonable time.

  15. Design and evaluation of pointing devices; Gestaltung und Evaluation von koordinatengebenden Interaktionsgeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, L.; Zuehlke, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Pointing devices e.g. the computer mouse are gaining considerable importance in modern human-machine-systems as a major part of the interaction interface between human beings and machines. During the dialogues with window-based operating systems the human being - the user - moves the cursor to a certain position on the screen by means of pointing devices. Microsoft products like WINDOWS have asserted themselves in the meantime in office applications and are currently conquering the market of industrial control systems as well. In office applications the mouse has become established as the most important pointing device for interaction. However, an 'office mouse' is not really suitable in a manufacturing environment. Only a few investigations exist evaluating alternatives to the mouse, which are suitable for industrial applications. At the Center of Human-Machine-Interaction (ZMMI) of the Institute of Production Automation (pak) at the University of Kaiserslautern a comparative investigation was carried out for alternative pointing devices like mouse, mousepad, mousebutton, mousestick, trackball, joystick, touchscreen, digitizing tablet and keyboard to determine their industrial suitability. This paper presents the methods of investigation and the most important results. The known Fitts' law model is mainly used in the field of HCl for office applications in order to evaluate interaction devices. This paper presents the new method DEVICE and is applied in the field of HMI for the evaluation of pointing devices. Tests with DEVICE and Fitts' method were conducted with machine operators under industrial environments to determine the suitability of thirty different pointing devices. The comparison between DEVICE and Fitts' law model shows that the results of certain partial tests correlate with each other. DEVICE can be used as substitute for Fitts' law model and offers additional parameters such as e.g. error rates and pointing deviation

  16. Multiscale Analysis of Effects of Additive and Multiplicative Noise on Delay Differential Equations near a Bifurcation Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klosek, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We study effects of noisy and deterministic perturbations on oscillatory solutions to delay differential equations. We develop the multiscale technique and derive amplitude equations for noisy oscillations near a critical delay. We investigate effects of additive and multiplicative noise. We show that if the magnitudes of noise and deterministic perturbations are balanced, then the oscillatory behavior persists for long times being sustained by the noise. We illustrate the technique and its results on linear and logistic delay equations. (author)

  17. Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trials: An Opportunity for Improved Design of Stroke Reperfusion Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, William J; Seewald, Nicholas J; Kidwell, Kelley

    2017-04-01

    Modern clinical trials in stroke reperfusion fall into 2 categories: alternative systemic pharmacological regimens to alteplase and "rescue" endovascular approaches using targeted thrombectomy devices and/or medications delivered directly for persistently occluded vessels. Clinical trials in stroke have not evaluated how initial pharmacological thrombolytic management might influence subsequent rescue strategy. A sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) is a novel trial design that can test these dynamic treatment regimens and lead to treatment guidelines that more closely mimic practice. To characterize a SMART design in comparison to traditional approaches for stroke reperfusion trials. We conducted a numerical simulation study that evaluated the performance of contrasting acute stroke clinical trial designs of both initial reperfusion and rescue therapy. We compare a SMART design where the same patients are followed through initial reperfusion and rescue therapy within 1 trial to a standard phase III design comparing 2 reperfusion treatments and a separate phase II futility design of rescue therapy in terms of sample size, power, and ability to address particular research questions. Traditional trial designs can be well powered and have optimal design characteristics for independent treatment effects. When treatments, such as the reperfusion and rescue therapies, may interact, commonly used designs fail to detect this. A SMART design, with similar sample size to standard designs, can detect treatment interactions. The use of SMART designs to investigate effective and realistic dynamic treatment regimens is a promising way to accelerate the discovery of new, effective treatments for stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A CAREM reactor's design evaluation from the nuclear security point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, J.M.; Felizia, E.R.; Navarro, N.R.; Caruso, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to define the adequate rules for CAREM reactor security systems design and processes which aim to assure verification of the CALIN regulations 'Radiological Criteria' in relation to accidents concerning CAREM reactor design. (Author) [es

  19. Exploring Optimization Opportunities in Four-Point Suspension Wind Turbine Drivetrains Through Integrated Design Approaches: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Drivetrain design has significant influence on the costs of wind power generation. Current industry practices usually approach the drivetrain design with loads and system requirements defined by the turbine manufacturer. Several different manufacturers are contracted to supply individual components from the low-speed shaft to the generator - each receiving separate design specifications from the turbine manufacturer. Increasingly, more integrated approaches to turbine design have shown promise for blades and towers. Yet, integrated drivetrain design is a challenging task owing to the complex physical behavior of the important load-bearing components, namely the main bearings, gearbox, and the generator. In this paper we combine two of NREL's systems engineering design tools, DriveSE and GeneratorSE, to enable a comprehensive system-level drivetrain optimization for the IEAWind reference turbine for land-based applications. We compare a more traditional design with integrated approaches employing decoupled and coupled design optimization. It is demonstrated that both approaches have the potential to realize notable mass savings with opportunities to lower the costs of energy.

  20. Exploring Optimization Opportunities in Four-Point Suspension Wind Turbine Drivetrains through Integrated Design Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Drivetrain design has significant influence on the costs of wind power generation. Current industry practices usually approach the drivetrain design with loads and system requirements defined by the turbine manufacturer. Several different manufacturers are contracted to supply individual components from the low-speed shaft to the generator - each receiving separate design specifications from the turbine manufacturer. Increasingly, more integrated approaches to turbine design have shown promise for blades and towers. Yet, integrated drivetrain design is a challenging task owing to the complex physical behavior of the important load-bearing components, namely the main bearings, gearbox, and the generator. In this paper we combine two of NREL's systems engineering design tools, DriveSE and GeneratorSE, to enable a comprehensive system-level drivetrain optimization for the IEAWind reference turbine for land-based applications. We compare a more traditional design with integrated approaches employing decoupled and coupled design optimization. It is demonstrated that both approaches have the potential to realize notable mass savings with opportunities to lower the costs of energy.

  1. Design and fabrication of a diffractive beam splitter for dual-wavelength and concurrent irradiation of process points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Jun; Shinozaki, Yu

    2016-07-11

    We report on a dual-wavelength diffractive beam splitter designed for use in parallel laser processing. This novel optical element generates two beam arrays of different wavelengths and allows their overlap at the process points on a workpiece. To design the deep surface-relief profile of a splitter using a simulated annealing algorithm, we introduce a heuristic but practical scheme to determine the maximum depth and the number of quantization levels. The designed corrugations were fabricated in a photoresist by maskless grayscale exposure using a high-resolution spatial light modulator. We characterized the photoresist splitter, thereby validating the proposed beam-splitting concept.

  2. VNM: An R Package for Finding Multiple-Objective Optimal Designs for the 4-Parameter Logistic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Seung Won; Wong, Weng Kee; Yang, Yarong

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-objective optimal design is useful for dose-response studies because it can incorporate several objectives at the design stage. Objectives can be of varying interests and a properly constructed multiple-objective optimal design can provide user-specified efficiencies, delivering higher efficiencies for the more important objectives. In this work, we introduce the VNM package written in R for finding 3-objective locally optimal designs for the 4-parameter logistic (4PL) model widely...

  3. Two-surface Monte Carlo with basin hopping: quantum mechanical trajectory and multiple stationary points of water cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2008-04-07

    The efficiency of the two-surface monte carlo (TSMC) method depends on the closeness of the actual potential and the biasing potential used to propagate the system of interest. In this work, it is shown that by combining the basin hopping method with TSMC, the efficiency of the method can be increased by several folds. TSMC with basin hopping is used to generate quantum mechanical trajectory and large number of stationary points of water clusters.

  4. Screening the Medicines for Malaria Venture Pathogen Box across Multiple Pathogens Reclassifies Starting Points for Open-Source Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sandra; Sykes, Melissa L; Jones, Amy J; Shelper, Todd B; Simpson, Moana; Lang, Rebecca; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Sleebs, Brad E; Avery, Vicky M

    2017-09-01

    Open-access drug discovery provides a substantial resource for diseases primarily affecting the poor and disadvantaged. The open-access Pathogen Box collection is comprised of compounds with demonstrated biological activity against specific pathogenic organisms. The supply of this resource by the Medicines for Malaria Venture has the potential to provide new chemical starting points for a number of tropical and neglected diseases, through repurposing of these compounds for use in drug discovery campaigns for these additional pathogens. We tested the Pathogen Box against kinetoplastid parasites and malaria life cycle stages in vitro Consequently, chemical starting points for malaria, human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis drug discovery efforts have been identified. Inclusive of this in vitro biological evaluation, outcomes from extensive literature reviews and database searches are provided. This information encompasses commercial availability, literature reference citations, other aliases and ChEMBL number with associated biological activity, where available. The release of this new data for the Pathogen Box collection into the public domain will aid the open-source model of drug discovery. Importantly, this will provide novel chemical starting points for drug discovery and target identification in tropical disease research. Copyright © 2017 Duffy et al.

  5. Seismic Performance and Design of Steel Plate Shear Walls with Low Yield Point Steel Infill Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Zirakian, Tadeh

    2013-01-01

    Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) have been frequently used as the primary or part of the primary lateral force-resisting system in design of low-, medium-, and high-rise buildings. Their application has been based on two different design philosophies as well as detailing strategies. Stiffened and/or stocky-web SPSWs with improved buckling stability and high seismic performance have been mostly used in Japan, which is one of the pioneering countries in design and application of these systems. U...

  6. Development of Bioclimatic Design Tool for Oman Using Dry Bulb and Dew Point Temperatures Open Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Azri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioclimatic charts are used by engineers and architects in implementing passive cooling systems and architectural optimization with respect to natural air conditioning. Conventionally, the development of these charts is based on the availability of typical meteorological year which requires a record of meteorological data that are rarely available in sufficient amounts. Bioclimatic charts in Oman were developed earlier by the authors for limited locations based on the available typical meteorological years. Using dry bulb and dew point temperatures only, bioclimatic charts are developed for Adam, Buraimi, Ibra, Muscat, Nizwa, Rustaq, Saiq, Salalah, Suhar and Sur. These charts are better representative of bioclimatic trends since their development is mainly based on the relevant parameters, namely dry bulb temperature and dew point.

  7. Design and fabrication of micro-nano enhanced surfaces for controlling Leidenfrost point

    OpenAIRE

    Grøstad, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    The technological revolution has driven the need for faster microprocessors. In order to fabricate faster microprocessors the trend has been to increase the amount of transistors and increase the clock speed. Microprocessor clock speed reached a point of saturation in 2006 because of the thermal challenges related to the transistors. As microprocessor power densities are increasing beyond air cooling limits, liquid cooling will become necessary. Spray cooling turn out to be the best candidate...

  8. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  9. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Detailed computer models of the engine were developed to predict both the steady state and transient operation of the engine system. Mechanical design layout drawings were prepared for the following components: thrust chamber and nozzle; extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal; LOX turbopump and boost pump; hydrogen turbopump and boost pump; and the propellant control valves. The necessary heat transfer, stress, fluid flow, dynamic, and performance analyses were performed to support the mechanical design.

  10. The local domain wall position in ferromagnetic thin wires: simultaneous measurement of resistive and transverse voltages at multiple points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, R.; Sugawara, H.; Aoki, Y.; Sato, H.; Shigeto, K.; Shinjo, T.; Ono, T.; Miyajima, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have simultaneously measured the field dependences of voltages at multiple pairs of resistance and transverse voltage probes in ferromagnetic wires (with either magnetic or non-magnetic voltage probes). Both the resistive (through the giant magnetoresistance and anisotropic magnetoresistance) and transverse voltages (through the planar Hall effect) exhibit abrupt jumps, reflecting discrete motion of domain walls or rotations of magnetization. Voltage probes, even if non-magnetic, are found to affect the jump fields depending on the sample conditions. We demonstrate that the specific information on the domain (wall) motion along a thin ferromagnetic wire could be obtained from the jump fields. (author)

  11. An Application of Graphical Approach to Construct Multiple Testing Procedure in a Hypothetical Phase III Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitee eTing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many multiple testing procedures (MTP have been developed in recent years. Among these new procedures, the graphical approach is flexible and easy to communicate with non-statisticians. A hypothetical Phase III clinical trial design is introduced in this manuscript to demonstrate how graphical approach can be applied in clinical product development. In this design, an active comparator is used. It is thought that this test drug under development could potentially be superior to this comparator. For comparison of efficacy, the primary endpoint is well established and widely accepted by regulatory agencies. However, an important secondary endpoint based on Phase II findings looks very promising. The target dose may have a good opportunity to deliver superiority to the comparator. Furthermore, a lower dose is included in case the target dose may demonstrate potential safety concerns. This Phase III study is designed as a non-inferiority trial with two doses, and two endpoints. This manuscript will illustrate how graphical approach is applied to this design in handling multiple testing issues.

  12. Cross-Layer Design for Two-Way Relaying Networks with Multiple Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhuo wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a cross-layer design for two-way relaying (TWR networks with multiple antennas, where two single antenna source nodes exchange information with the aid of one multiple antenna relay node. The proposed cross-layer design considers adaptive modulation (AM and space-time block coding (STBC at the physical layer with an automatic repeat request (ARQ protocol at the data link layer, in order to maximize the spectral efficiency under specific delay and packet error ratio (PER constraints. An MMSE-interference cancellation (IC receiver is employed at the relay node, to remove the interference in the fist phase of the TWR transmission. The transmission mode is updated for each phase of the TWR transmission on a frame-by-frame basis, to match the time-varying channel conditions and exploit the system performance and throughput gain. Simulation results show that retransmission at the data link layer could alleviate rigorous error-control requirements at the physical layer, and thereby allows higher data transmission. As a result, cross-layer design helps to achieve considerable system spectral efficiency gain for TWR networks, compared to those without cross-layer design.

  13. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant - Insights Gained from the INEEL Point Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides the results of an assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Insights gained regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the two designs are also discussed. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two major modifications of the current Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) design were needed to obtain a prismatic block design with a 1000 C outlet temperature: reducing the bypass flow and better controlling the inlet coolant flow distribution to the core. The total power that could be obtained for different core heights without exceeding a peak transient fuel temperature of 1600 C during a high or low-pressure conduction cooldown event was calculated. With a coolant inlet temperature of 490 C and 10% nominal core bypass flow, it is estimated that the peak power for a 10-block high core is 686 MWt, for a 12-block high core is 786 MWt, and for a 14-block core is about 889 MWt. The core neutronics calculations showed that the NGNP will exhibit strongly negative Doppler and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity over the burnup cycle. In the event of rapid loss of the helium gas, there is negligible core reactivity change. However, water or steam ingress into the core coolant channels can produce a relatively large reactivity effect. Two versions of an annular pebble-bed NGNP have also been developed, a 300 and a 600 MWt module. From this work we learned how to design passively safe pebble bed reactors that produce more than 600 MWt. We also found a way to improve both the fuel utilization and safety by modifying the pebble design (by adjusting the fuel zone radius in the pebble to optimize the fuel

  14. A Methodology for the Design of Robotic Hands with Multiple Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Parada Puig

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology that has been applied for a design process of anthropomorphic hands with multiple fingers. Biomechanical characteristics of human hand have been analysed so that ergonomic and anthropometric aspects have been used as fundamental references for obtaining grasping mechanisms. A kinematic analysis has been proposed to define the requirements for designing grasping functions. Selection of materials and actuators has been discussed too. This topic has been based on previous experiences with prototypes that have been developed at the Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics (LARM of the University of Cassino. An example of the application of the proposed method has been presented for the design of a first prototype of LARM Hand.

  15. Multiple critical points and liquid-liquid equilibria from the van der Waals like equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemenko, Sergey; Lozovsky, Taras; Mazur, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The principal aim of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the phase diagram of water via the van der Waals like equations of state (EoSs) which are considered as superpositions of repulsive and attractive forces. We test more extensively the modified van der Waals EoS (MVDW) proposed by Skibinski et al (2004 Phys. Rev. E 69 061206) and refine this model by introducing instead of the classical van der Waals repulsive term a very accurate hard sphere EoS over the entire stable and metastable regions (Liu 2006 Preprint cond-mat/0605392). It was detected that the simplest form of MVDW EoS displays a complex phase behavior, including three critical points, and identifies four fluid phases (gas, low density liquid (LDL), high density liquid (HDL), and very high density liquid (VHDL)). Moreover the experimentally observed (Mallamace et al 2007 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104 18387) anomalous behavior of the density of water in the deeply supercooled region (a density minimum) is reproduced by the MWDW EoS. An improvement of the repulsive part does not change the topological picture of the phase behavior of water in the wide range of thermodynamic variables. The new parameters set for second and third critical points are recognized by thorough analysis of experimental data for the loci of thermodynamic response function extrema

  16. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  17. Designed multiple ligands in metabolic disease research: from concept to platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattrell, W; Johnstone, C; Patel, S; Smith, C Sambrook; Scheel, A; Schindler, M

    2013-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and drug monotherapy typically results in unsatisfactory treatment outcomes for patients. Even when used in combination, existing therapies lack efficacy in the long term. Designed multiple ligands (DMLs) are compounds developed to modulate multiple targets relevant to a disease. DMLs offer the potential to yield greater efficacy over monotherapies, either by modulating different biological pathways, or by boosting a single one. However, examples of DMLs progressing into clinical trials, or onto the market are rare; DML drug discovery is challenging, and perceived by some to be almost impossible. Nevertheless, with the judicious selection of biological targets, both from a biological and chemical perspective, it is possible to develop drug-like DMLs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical design of multi-multiple expander structure of laser gas analysis and measurement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiang; Wei, Biao

    2018-03-01

    The installation and debugging of optical circuit structure in the application of carbon monoxide distributed laser gas analysis and measurement, there are difficult key technical problems. Based on the three-component expansion theory, multi-multiple expander structure with expansion ratio of 4, 5, 6 and 7 is adopted in the absorption chamber to enhance the adaptability of the installation environment of the gas analysis and measurement device. According to the basic theory of aberration, the optimal design of multi-multiple beam expander structure is carried out. By using image quality evaluation method, the difference of image quality under different magnifications is analyzed. The results show that the optical quality of the optical system with the expanded beam structure is the best when the expansion ratio is 5-7.

  19. Cost-constrained design point for the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    A broad spectrum of Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) operating modes are compared on an economics basis. An RFPR with superconducting coils and an air-core poloidal field transformer optimizes to give a minimum cost system when compared to normal-conducting coils and the iron-core transformer used in earlier designs. An interim design is described that exhibits a thermally stable, unrefueled, 21 s burn (burnup 50 percent) with an energy containment time equal to 200 times the Bohm time, which is consistent with present-day tokamak experiments. This design operates near the minimum energy state (THETA = B/sub THETA/(r/sub w/)/[B/sub z/] = 2.0 and F = B/sub z/(r/sub w/)/[B/sub z/] = 1.0 from the High Beta Model) of the RFP configuration. This cost-optimized design produces a reactor of 1.5-m minor radius and 12.8-m major radius, that generates 1000 MWe (net) with a recirculating power fraction of 0.15 at a direct capital cost of 970 $/kWe

  20. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the study was to generate the system design of a performance-optimized, advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle space engine. The engine requirements are summarized, and the development and operational experience with the expander cycle RL10 engine were reviewed. The engine development program is outlined.

  1. Point process-based modeling of multiple debris flow landslides using INLA: an application to the 2009 Messina disaster

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi

    2018-02-13

    We develop a stochastic modeling approach based on spatial point processes of log-Gaussian Cox type for a collection of around 5000 landslide events provoked by a precipitation trigger in Sicily, Italy. Through the embedding into a hierarchical Bayesian estimation framework, we can use the integrated nested Laplace approximation methodology to make inference and obtain the posterior estimates of spatially distributed covariate and random effects. Several mapping units are useful to partition a given study area in landslide prediction studies. These units hierarchically subdivide the geographic space from the highest grid-based resolution to the stronger morphodynamic-oriented slope units. Here we integrate both mapping units into a single hierarchical model, by treating the landslide triggering locations as a random point pattern. This approach diverges fundamentally from the unanimously used presence–absence structure for areal units since we focus on modeling the expected landslide count jointly within the two mapping units. Predicting this landslide intensity provides more detailed and complete information as compared to the classically used susceptibility mapping approach based on relative probabilities. To illustrate the model’s versatility, we compute absolute probability maps of landslide occurrences and check their predictive power over space. While the landslide community typically produces spatial predictive models for landslides only in the sense that covariates are spatially distributed, no actual spatial dependence has been explicitly integrated so far. Our novel approach features a spatial latent effect defined at the slope unit level, allowing us to assess the spatial influence that remains unexplained by the covariates in the model. For rainfall-induced landslides in regions where the raingauge network is not sufficient to capture the spatial distribution of the triggering precipitation event, this latent effect provides valuable imaging support

  2. Exploiting the anti-HIV 6-desfluoroquinolones to design multiple ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancineto, Luca; Iraci, Nunzio; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Massari, Serena; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Corazza, Gianmarco; Cecchetti, Violetta; Marcello, Alessandro; Daelemans, Dirk; Pannecouque, Christophe; Tabarrini, Oriana

    2014-09-01

    It is getting clearer that many drugs effective in different therapeutic areas act on multiple rather than single targets. The application of polypharmacology concepts might have numerous advantages especially for disease such as HIV/AIDS, where the rapid emergence of resistance requires a complex combination of more than one drug. In this paper, we have designed three hybrid molecules combining WM5, a quinolone derivative we previously identified as HIV Tat-mediated transcription (TMT) inhibitor, with the tricyclic core of nevirapine and BILR 355BS (BILR) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) to investigate whether it could be possible to obtain molecules acting on both transcription steps of the HIV replicative cycle. One among the three designed multiple ligands, reached this goal. Indeed, compound 1 inhibited both TMT and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Unexpectedly, while the anti-TMT activity exerted by compound 1 resulted into a selective inhibition of HIV-1 reactivation from latently infected OM10.1 cells, the anti-RT properties shown by all of the synthesized compounds did not translate into an anti-HIV activity in acutely infected cells. Thus, we have herein produced the proof of concept that the design of dual TMT-RT inhibitors is indeed possible, but optimization efforts are needed to obtain more potent derivatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Generation of synthetic time histories compatible with multiple-damping design response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilhanand, K.; Tseng, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Seismic design of nuclear power plants as currently practiced requires time history analyses be performed to generate floor response spectra for seismic qualification of piping, equipment, and components. Since design response spectra are normally prescribed in the form of smooth spectra, the generation of synthetic time histories whose response spectra closely match the ''target'' design spectra of multiple damping values, is often required for the seismic time history analysis purpose. Various methods of generation of synthetic time histories compatible with target response spectra have been proposed in the literature. Since the mathematical problem of determining a time history from a given set of response spectral values is not unique, an exact solution is not possible, and all the proposed methods resort to some forms of approximate solutions. In this paper, a new iteration scheme, is described which effectively removes the difficulties encountered by the existing methods. This new iteration scheme can not only improve the accuracy of spectrum matching for a single-damping target spectrum, but also automate the spectrum matching for multiple-damping target spectra. The applicability and limitations as well as the method adopted to improve the numerical stability of this new iteration scheme are presented. The effectiveness of this new iteration scheme is illustrated by two example applications

  4. Design of PH-based accelerated life testing plans under multiple-stress-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, E.A.; Zhang Hao

    2007-01-01

    Accelerated life testing (ALT) is used to obtain failure time data quickly under high stress levels in order to predict product life performance under design stress conditions. Most of the previous work on designing ALT plans is focused on the application of a single stress. However, as components or products become more reliable due to technological advances, it becomes more difficult to obtain significant amount of failure data within reasonable amount of time using single stress only. Multiple-stress-type ALTs have been employed as a means of overcoming such difficulties. In this paper, we design optimum multiple-stress-type ALT plans based on the proportional hazards model. The optimum combinations of stresses and their levels are determined such that the variance of the reliability estimate of the product over a specified period of time is minimized. The use of the model is illustrated using numerical example, and sensitivity analysis shows that the resultant optimum ALT plan is robust to the deviation in model parameters

  5. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A

    2013-08-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition

  6. Deployment Design of Wireless Sensor Network for Simple Multi-Point Surveillance of a Moving Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Ueda, Hirofumi; Tamura, Hitomi; Kawahara, Kenji; Oie, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of tracking a moving target in a wireless sensor network (WSN), in which the capability of each sensor is relatively limited, to construct large-scale WSNs at a reasonable cost. We first propose two simple multi-point surveillance schemes for a moving target in a WSN and demonstrate that one of the schemes can achieve high tracking probability with low power consumption. In addition, we examine the relationship between tracking probability and sensor density through simulations, and then derive an approximate expression representing the relationship. As the results, we present guidelines for sensor density, tracking probability, and the number of monitoring sensors that satisfy a variety of application demands. PMID:22412326

  7. Designing a point-absorber wave energy converter for the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archetti, Renata; Moreno Miquel, Adria; Antonini, Alessandro; Passoni, Giuseppe; Bozzi, Silvia; Gruosso, Giambattista; Scarpa, Francesca; Bizzozero, Federica; Giassi, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential for wave energy production in the Italian seas by the deployment of arrays of heaving point absorbers, specifically optimized for mild climates. We model a single-body WEC, consisting of a cylindrical heaving buoy, attached to a linear electric generator placed on the seabed. The model includes both hydrodynamic and electromechanical forces. The results show that the best buoy-generator configuration at the selected sites (Alghero and Mazara del Vallo) is given by a 6 to 10 kW device and with a buoy with diameter between 4 and 5 m. This device can be brought to resonance, increasing the performances, by adding a submerged sphere. These results are encouraging and enlarge the perspective on wave energy production in the Italian seas. [it

  8. Design of a Binocular Pupil and Gaze Point Detection System Utilizing High Definition Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Durna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel binocular pupil and gaze detection system utilizing a remote full high definition (full HD camera and employing LabVIEW. LabVIEW is inherently parallel and has fewer time-consuming algorithms. Many eye tracker applications are monocular and use low resolution cameras due to real-time image processing difficulties. We utilized the computer’s direct access memory channel for rapid data transmission and processed full HD images with LabVIEW. Full HD images make easier determinations of center coordinates/sizes of pupil and corneal reflection. We modified the camera so that the camera sensor passed only infrared (IR images. Glints were taken as reference points for region of interest (ROI area selection of the eye region in the face image. A morphologic filter was applied for erosion of noise, and a weighted average technique was used for center detection. To test system accuracy with 11 participants, we produced a visual stimulus set up to analyze each eye’s movement. Nonlinear mapping function was utilized for gaze estimation. Pupil size, pupil position, glint position and gaze point coordinates were obtained with free natural head movements in our system. This system also works at 2046 × 1086 resolution at 40 frames per second. It is assumed that 280 frames per second for 640 × 480 pixel images is the case. Experimental results show that the average gaze detection error for 11 participants was 0.76° for the left eye, 0.89° for right eye and 0.83° for the mean of two eyes.

  9. Optimization of mechanical properties of structures from the point of aseismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model, N.; Dineva, P.; Hadjikov, L.

    1987-01-01

    The vibroinsulation problem is solved by passive and active dynamic systems control methods. The attacking of the problem by design of vibroisolators that passively extinguish the harmful vibration has begun historically earlier. Quite in the latest years some attention has been drawn on the possibility about dynamical system's active control. But the questions about the technical realization at the optimal and the modal regulators making the behaviour safe during earthquake remains open until now. The optimal control theory application to the aims of the dynamical systems stability motion (systems being described as rigid, nondeformable solids) by a passive vibroinsulation is done. Thus the optimal dynamic system properties are identified without one having to solve the problem about a technical realization of active control equipments. An aim of this paper is an application of an optimal control theory to obtaining optimal elastic and dissipative characteristics of the buildings at their aseismic design

  10. Creation of the Driver Fixed Heel Point (FHP) CAD Accommodation Model for Military Ground Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Standard: Human Engineering, 2012. The unifying factor amongst these is the requirement to accommodate the central 90% of the Soldier population. MIL...STD-1472G provides little quantitative guidance for vehicle layout , so it is open to interpretation and is difficult for designers to apply...seats, in which the crew are required to interact with vehicle controls and displays using hands and forward vision (Zerehsaz, Ebert, and Reed, 2014

  11. Design and DSP implementation of star image acquisition and star point fast acquiring and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guohui; Wang, Xiaodong; Hao, Zhihang

    2006-02-01

    Star sensor is a special high accuracy photoelectric sensor. Attitude acquisition time is an important function index of star sensor. In this paper, the design target is to acquire 10 samples per second dynamic performance. On the basis of analyzing CCD signals timing and star image processing, a new design and a special parallel architecture for improving star image processing are presented in this paper. In the design, the operation moving the data in expanded windows including the star to the on-chip memory of DSP is arranged in the invalid period of CCD frame signal. During the CCD saving the star image to memory, DSP processes the data in the on-chip memory. This parallelism greatly improves the efficiency of processing. The scheme proposed here results in enormous savings of memory normally required. In the scheme, DSP HOLD mode and CPLD technology are used to make a shared memory between CCD and DSP. The efficiency of processing is discussed in numerical tests. Only in 3.5ms is acquired the five lightest stars in the star acquisition stage. In 43us, the data in five expanded windows including stars are moved into the internal memory of DSP, and in 1.6ms, five star coordinates are achieved in the star tracking stage.

  12. JIGSAW: Acquisition, Display and Analysis system designed to collect data from Multiple Gamma-Ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.E.; Bamford, G.J.; Rester, A.C.; Coldwell, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report on work performed to date on JIGSAW - a self contained data acquisition, display and analysis system designed to collect data form multiple gamma-ray detectors. The data acquisition system utilizes commercially available VMEbus and NIM hardware modules and the VME exec real time operating system. A Unix based software package, written in ANSI standard C and with the XII graphics routines, allows the user to view the acquired spectra. Analysis of the histograms can be performed in background during the run with the ROBFIT suite of curve fitting routines

  13. Two-point versus multiple-point geostatistics: the ability of geostatistical methods to capture complex geobodies and their facies associations—an application to a channelized carbonate reservoir, southwest Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Seyyedhossein; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Ataee-pour, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Facies models try to explain facies architectures which have a primary control on the subsurface heterogeneities and the fluid flow characteristics of a given reservoir. In the process of facies modeling, geostatistical methods are implemented to integrate different sources of data into a consistent model. The facies models should describe facies interactions; the shape and geometry of the geobodies as they occur in reality. Two distinct categories of geostatistical techniques are two-point and multiple-point (geo) statistics (MPS). In this study, both of the aforementioned categories were applied to generate facies models. A sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and a truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS) represented two-point geostatistical methods, and a single normal equation simulation (SNESIM) selected as an MPS simulation representative. The dataset from an extremely channelized carbonate reservoir located in southwest Iran was applied to these algorithms to analyze their performance in reproducing complex curvilinear geobodies. The SNESIM algorithm needs consistent training images (TI) in which all possible facies architectures that are present in the area are included. The TI model was founded on the data acquired from modern occurrences. These analogies delivered vital information about the possible channel geometries and facies classes that are typically present in those similar environments. The MPS results were conditioned to both soft and hard data. Soft facies probabilities were acquired from a neural network workflow. In this workflow, seismic-derived attributes were implemented as the input data. Furthermore, MPS realizations were conditioned to hard data to guarantee the exact positioning and continuity of the channel bodies. A geobody extraction workflow was implemented to extract the most certain parts of the channel bodies from the seismic data. These extracted parts of the channel bodies were applied to the simulation workflow as hard data

  14. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  15. Compact collimators designed with a modified point approximation for light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    We present a novel freeform lens design method for an application to LED collimating illumination. The method is derived from a basic geometric-optics analysis and construction approach. By using this method, a compact collimated lenses with Aspect Ratio = 0.219 is presented. Moreover, the utility efficiency (UE) inside the angle defined by ideal concentrator hypothesis with different lens-to-LED size ratios for both this lens and TIR lens are presented. A prototype of the collimator lens is also made to verify the practical performance of the lens, which has light distribution very compatible with the simulation results.

  16. An intelligent, knowledge-based multiple criteria decision making advisor for systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchang

    In systems engineering, design and operation of systems are two main problems which always attract researcher's attentions. The accomplishment of activities in these problems often requires proper decisions to be made so that the desired goal can be achieved, thus, decision making needs to be carefully fulfilled in the design and operation of systems. Design is a decision making process which permeates through out the design process, and is at the core of all design activities. In modern aircraft design, more and more attention is paid to the conceptual and preliminary design phases so as to increase the odds of choosing a design that will ultimately be successful at the completion of the design process, therefore, decisions made during these early design stages play a critical role in determining the success of a design. Since aerospace systems are complex systems with interacting disciplines and technologies, the Decision Makers (DMs) dealing with such design problems are involved in balancing the multiple, potentially conflicting attributes/criteria, transforming a large amount of customer supplied guidelines into a solidly defined set of requirement definitions. Thus, one could state with confidence that modern aerospace system design is a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) process. A variety of existing decision making methods are available to deal with this type of decision problems. The selection of the most appropriate decision making method is of particular importance since inappropriate decision methods are likely causes of misleading engineering design decisions. With no sufficient knowledge about each of the methods, it is usually difficult for the DMs to find an appropriate analytical model capable of solving their problems. In addition, with the complexity of the decision problem and the demand for more capable methods increasing, new decision making methods are emerging with time. These various methods exacerbate the difficulty of the selection

  17. Design and Analysis of Cooperative Cable Parallel Manipulators for Multiple Mobile Cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The design, dynamic modelling, and workspace are presented in this paper concerning cooperative cable parallel manipulators for multiple mobile cranes (CPMMCs. The CPMMCs can handle complex tasks that are more difficult or even impossible for a single mobile crane. Kinematics and dynamics of the CPMMCs are studied on the basis of geometric methodology and d'Alembert's principle, and a mathematical model of the CPMMCs is developed and presented with dynamic simulation. The constant orientation workspace analysis of the CPMMCs is carried out additionally. As an example, a cooperative cable parallel manipulator for triple mobile cranes with 6 Degrees of Freedom is investigated on the basis of the above design objectives.

  18. Novel anti-HIV peptides containing multiple copies of artificially designed heptad repeat motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Weiguo; Qi Zhi; Pan Chungen; Xue Na; Debnath, Asim K.; Qie Jiankun; Jiang Shibo; Liu Keliang

    2008-01-01

    The peptidic anti-HIV drug T20 (Fuzeon) and its analog C34 share a common heptad repeat (HR) sequence, but they have different functional domains, i.e., pocket- and lipid-binding domains (PBD and LBD, respectively). We hypothesize that novel anti-HIV peptides may be designed by using artificial sequences containing multiple copies of HR motifs plus zero, one or two functional domains. Surprisingly, we found that the peptides containing only the non-natural HR sequences could significantly inhibit HIV-1 infection, while addition of PBD and/or LBD to the peptides resulted in significant improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. These results suggest that these artificial HR sequences, which may serve as structural domains, could be used as templates for the design of novel antiviral peptides against HIV and other viruses with class I fusion proteins

  19. Development of a multicomponent Staphylococcus aureus vaccine designed to counter multiple bacterial virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Miller, Alita A.; Donald, Robert G.K.; Scully, Ingrid L.; Nanra, Jasdeep S.; Cooper, David; Jansen, Kathrin U.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease in hospitalized patients. Despite increasingly rigorous infection control guidelines, the prevalence and corresponding negative impact of S. aureus infections remain considerable. Difficulties in controlling S. aureus infections as well as the associated treatment costs are exacerbated by increasing rates of resistance to available antibiotics. Despite ongoing efforts over the past 20 years, no licensed S. aureus vaccine is currently available. However, learnings from past clinical failures of vaccine candidates and a better understanding of the immunopathology of S. aureus colonization and infection have aided in the design of new vaccine candidates based on multiple important bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms. This review outlines important considerations in designing a vaccine for the prevention of S. aureus disease in healthcare settings. PMID:22922765

  20. Base Isolation for Seismic Retrofitting of a Multiple Building Structure: Design, Construction, and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferraioli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the seismic retrofit of a multiple building structure belonging to the Hospital Centre of Avellino (Italy. At first, the paper presents the preliminary investigations, the in situ measurements and laboratory tests, and the seismic assessment of the existing fixed-base structures. Having studied different strategies, base isolation proved to be the more appropriate, also for the possibility offered by the geometry of the building to easily create an isolation interface at the ground level. The paper presents the design project, the construction process, and the details of the isolation intervention. Some specific issues of base isolation for seismic retrofitting of multiple building structures were lightened. Finally, the seismic assessment of the base-isolated building was carried out. The seismic response was evaluated through nonlinear time-history analysis, using the well-known Bouc-Wen model as the constitutive law of the isolation bearings. For reliable dynamic analyses, a suite of natural accelerograms compatible with acceleration spectra of Italian Code was first selected and then applied along both horizontal directions. The results were finally used to address some of the critical issues of the seismic response of the base-isolated multiple building structure: accidental torsional effects and potential poundings during strong earthquakes.

  1. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA. Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  2. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA.Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  3. Free-space optical code-division multiple-access system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeromin, Lori L.; Kaufmann, John E.; Bucher, Edward A.

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes an optical direct-detection multiple access communications system for free-space satellite networks utilizing code-division multiple-access (CDMA) and forward error correction (FEC) coding. System performance is characterized by how many simultaneous users operating at data rate R can be accommodated in a signaling bandwidth W. The performance of two CDMA schemes, optical orthogonal codes (OOC) with FEC and orthogonal convolutional codes (OCC), is calculated and compared to information-theoretic capacity bounds. The calculations include the effects of background and detector noise as well as nonzero transmitter extinction ratio and power imbalance among users. A system design for 10 kbps multiple-access communications between low-earth orbit satellites is given. With near- term receiver technology and representative system losses, a 15 W peak-power transmitter provides 10-6 BER performance with seven interfering users and full moon background in the receiver FOV. The receiver employs an array of discrete wide-area avalanche photodiodes (APD) for wide field of view coverage. Issues of user acquisition and synchronization, implementation technology, and system scalability are also discussed.

  4. Design and protocol of a randomized multiple behavior change trial: Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Steglitz, Jeremy; Johnston, Winter; Warnick, Jennifer; Adams, Tiara; McFadden, H G; Siddique, Juned; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-03-01

    Suboptimal diet and inactive lifestyle are among the most prevalent preventable causes of premature death. Interventions that target multiple behaviors are potentially efficient; however the optimal way to initiate and maintain multiple health behavior changes is unknown. The Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2) trial aims to examine whether sustained healthful diet and activity change are best achieved by targeting diet and activity behaviors simultaneously or sequentially. Study design approximately 250 inactive adults with poor quality diet will be randomized to 3 conditions examining the best way to prescribe healthy diet and activity change. The 3 intervention conditions prescribe: 1) an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption (F/V+), decrease in sedentary leisure screen time (Sed-), and increase in physical activity (PA+) simultaneously (Simultaneous); 2) F/V+ and Sed- first, and then sequentially add PA+ (Sequential); or 3) Stress Management Control that addresses stress, relaxation, and sleep. All participants will receive a smartphone application to self-monitor behaviors and regular coaching calls to help facilitate behavior change during the 9 month intervention. Healthy lifestyle change in fruit/vegetable and saturated fat intakes, sedentary leisure screen time, and physical activity will be assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months. MBC2 is a randomized m-Health intervention examining methods to maximize initiation and maintenance of multiple healthful behavior changes. Results from this trial will provide insight about an optimal technology supported approach to promote improvement in diet and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  6. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A. L.; Betzler, Benjamin R.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Carbajo, Juan; Greenwood, Michael Scott; Hale, Richard Edward; Harrison, Thomas J.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Terrell, Jerry W.

    2015-01-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  7. Influences of sodium carbonate on physicochemical properties of lansoprazole in designed multiple coating pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Yang, Min; Fan, Jun Hong; Feng, Cai Xia; Zhang, Su Juan; Wang, Jin Xu; Guan, Pei Pei; Wu, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Lansoprazole (LSP), a proton-pump inhibitor, belongs to class II drug. It is especially instable to heat, light, and acidic media, indicating that fabrication of a formulation stabilizing the drug is difficult. The addition of alkaline stabilizer is the most powerful method to protect the drug in solid formulations under detrimental environment. The purpose of the study was to characterize the designed multiple coating pellets of LSP containing an alkaline stabilizer (sodium carbonate) and assess the effect of the stabilizer on the physicochemical properties of the drug. The coated pellets were prepared by layer-layer film coating with a fluid-bed coater. In vitro release and acid-resistance studies were carried out in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, respectively. Furthermore, the moisture-uptake test was performed to evaluate the influence of sodium carbonate on the drug stability. The results indicate that the drug exists in the amorphous state or small (nanometer size) particles without crystallization even after storage at 40°C/75% for 5 months. The addition of sodium carbonate to the pellet protects the drug from degradation in simulated gastric fluid in a dose-dependent manner. The moisture absorbed into the pellets has a detrimental effect on the drug stability. The extent of drug degradation is directly correlated with the content of moisture absorption. In conclusion, these results suggest that the presence of sodium carbonate influence the physicochemical properties of LSP, and the designed multiple coating pellets enhance the drug stability.

  8. Point-of-care solution for osteoporosis management design, fabrication, and validation of new technology

    CERN Document Server

    Khashayar, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the important clinical problem of accurately diagnosing osteoporosis, and analyzes how Bone Turnover Markers (BTMs) can improve osteoporosis detection. In her research, the author integrated microfluidic technology with electrochemical sensing to embody a reaction/detection chamber to measure serum levels of different biomarkers, creating a microfluidic proteomic platform that can easily be translated into a biomarker diagnostic. The Osteokit System, a result of the integration of electrochemical system and microfluidic chips, is a unique design that offers the potential for greater sensitivity. The implementation, feasibility, and specificity of the Osteokit platform is demonstrated in this book, which is appropriate for researchers working on bone biology and mechanics, as well as clinicians.

  9. More Stamina, a Gamified mHealth Solution for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Research Through Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonopoulou, Vasiliki; Rivera Romero, Octavio

    2018-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world’s most common neurologic disorders. Fatigue is one of most common symptoms that persons with MS experience, having significant impact on their quality of life and limiting their activity levels. Self-management strategies are used to support them in the care of their health. Mobile health (mHealth) solutions are a way to offer persons with chronic conditions tools to successfully manage their symptoms and problems. Gamification is a current trend among mHealth apps used to create engaging user experiences and is suggested to be effective for behavioral change. To be effective, mHealth solutions need to be designed to specifically meet the intended audience needs. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy that proposes placing end users’ needs and characteristics in the center of design and development, involving users early in the different phases of the software life cycle. There is a current gap in mHealth apps for persons with MS, which presents an interesting area to explore. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the design and evaluation process of a gamified mHealth solution for behavioral change in persons with MS using UCD. Methods Building on previous work of our team where we identified needs, barriers, and facilitators for mHealth apps for persons with MS, we followed UCD to design and evaluate a mobile app prototype aimed to help persons with MS self-manage their fatigue. Design decisions were evidence-driven and guided by behavioral change models (BCM). Usability was assessed through inspection methods using Nielsen’s heuristic evaluation. Results The mHealth solution More Stamina was designed. It is a task organization tool designed to help persons with MS manage their energy to minimize the impact of fatigue in their day-to-day life. The tool acts as a to-do list where users can input tasks in a simple manner and assign Stamina Credits, a representation of perceived

  10. More Stamina, a Gamified mHealth Solution for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Research Through Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, Guido; Mylonopoulou, Vasiliki; Rivera Romero, Octavio

    2018-03-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world's most common neurologic disorders. Fatigue is one of most common symptoms that persons with MS experience, having significant impact on their quality of life and limiting their activity levels. Self-management strategies are used to support them in the care of their health. Mobile health (mHealth) solutions are a way to offer persons with chronic conditions tools to successfully manage their symptoms and problems. Gamification is a current trend among mHealth apps used to create engaging user experiences and is suggested to be effective for behavioral change. To be effective, mHealth solutions need to be designed to specifically meet the intended audience needs. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy that proposes placing end users' needs and characteristics in the center of design and development, involving users early in the different phases of the software life cycle. There is a current gap in mHealth apps for persons with MS, which presents an interesting area to explore. The purpose of this study was to describe the design and evaluation process of a gamified mHealth solution for behavioral change in persons with MS using UCD. Building on previous work of our team where we identified needs, barriers, and facilitators for mHealth apps for persons with MS, we followed UCD to design and evaluate a mobile app prototype aimed to help persons with MS self-manage their fatigue. Design decisions were evidence-driven and guided by behavioral change models (BCM). Usability was assessed through inspection methods using Nielsen's heuristic evaluation. The mHealth solution More Stamina was designed. It is a task organization tool designed to help persons with MS manage their energy to minimize the impact of fatigue in their day-to-day life. The tool acts as a to-do list where users can input tasks in a simple manner and assign Stamina Credits, a representation of perceived effort, to the task to help energy management

  11. Optimal protein library design using recombination or point mutations based on sequence-based scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazes, Robert J; Saraf, Manish C; Maranas, Costas D

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce and test two new sequence-based protein scoring systems (i.e. S1, S2) for assessing the likelihood that a given protein hybrid will be functional. By binning together amino acids with similar properties (i.e. volume, hydrophobicity and charge) the scoring systems S1 and S2 allow for the quantification of the severity of mismatched interactions in the hybrids. The S2 scoring system is found to be able to significantly functionally enrich a cytochrome P450 library over other scoring methods. Given this scoring base, we subsequently constructed two separate optimization formulations (i.e. OPTCOMB and OPTOLIGO) for optimally designing protein combinatorial libraries involving recombination or mutations, respectively. Notably, two separate versions of OPTCOMB are generated (i.e. model M1, M2) with the latter allowing for position-dependent parental fragment skipping. Computational benchmarking results demonstrate the efficacy of models OPTCOMB and OPTOLIGO to generate high scoring libraries of a prespecified size.

  12. An Improved Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Method for Economic Dispatch Problems with Multiple Fuel Options and Valve-Points Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO is an efficient and powerful population-based optimization technique, which is inspired by the conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO and quantum mechanics theories. In this paper, an improved QPSO named SQPSO is proposed, which combines QPSO with a selective probability operator to solve the economic dispatch (ED problems with valve-point effects and multiple fuel options. To show the performance of the proposed SQPSO, it is tested on five standard benchmark functions and two ED benchmark problems, including a 40-unit ED problem with valve-point effects and a 10-unit ED problem with multiple fuel options. The results are compared with differential evolution (DE, particle swarm optimization (PSO and basic QPSO, as well as a number of other methods reported in the literature in terms of solution quality, convergence speed and robustness. The simulation results confirm that the proposed SQPSO is effective and reliable for both function optimization and ED problems.

  13. A point-wise fiber Bragg grating displacement sensing system and its application for active vibration suppression of a smart cantilever beam subjected to multiple impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching; Liao, Heng-Tseng

    2012-01-01

    In this work, active vibration suppression of a smart cantilever beam subjected to disturbances from multiple impact loadings is investigated with a point-wise fiber Bragg grating (FBG) displacement sensing system. An FBG demodulator is employed in the proposed fiber sensing system to dynamically demodulate the responses obtained by the FBG displacement sensor with high sensitivity. To investigate the ability of the proposed FBG displacement sensor as a feedback sensor, velocity feedback control and delay control are employed to suppress the vibrations of the first three bending modes of the smart cantilever beam. To improve the control performance for the first bending mode when the cantilever beam is subjected to an impact loading, we improve the conventional velocity feedback controller by tuning the control gain online with the aid of information from a higher vibration mode. Finally, active control of vibrations induced by multiple impact loadings due to a plastic ball is performed with the improved velocity feedback control. The experimental results show that active vibration control of smart structures subjected to disturbances such as impact loadings can be achieved by employing the proposed FBG sensing system to feed back out-of-plane point-wise displacement responses with high sensitivity. (paper)

  14. Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making in the Design of Innovative Lock Walls for Barge Impact; Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, James

    2001-01-01

    .... This research project consists of two phases: Phase 1, which culminates with this report, investigated the use of multiple-criteria decision-making in the design process of lock approach walls to consider barge impact and earthquake loads...

  15. A note on “An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems”

    OpenAIRE

    R. Venkata Rao

    2012-01-01

    A paper published by Maniya and Bhatt (2011) (An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 61, 542-549) proposed an alternative multiple attribute decision making method named as “Preference Selection Index (PSI) method” for selection of an optimal facility layout design. The authors had claimed that the method was logical and more appropriate and the method gives directly the o...

  16. Care Model Design for E-Health: Integration of Point-of-Care Testing at Dutch General Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Verhees

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care testing (POCT—laboratory tests performed with new mobile devices and online technologies outside of the central laboratory—is rapidly outpacing the traditional laboratory test market, growing at a rate of 12 to 15% each year. POCT impacts the diagnostic process of care providers by yielding high efficiency benefits in terms of turnaround time and related quality improvements in the reduction of errors. However, the implementation of this disruptive eHealth technology requires the integration and transformation of diagnostic services across the boundaries of healthcare organizations. Research has revealed both advantages and barriers of POCT implementations, yet to date, there is no business model for the integration of POCT within general practice. The aim of this article is to contribute with a design for a care model that enables the integration of POCT in primary healthcare. In this research, we used a design modelling toolkit for data collection at five general practices. Through an iterative design process, we modelled the actors and value transactions, and designed an optimized care model for the dynamic integration of POCTs into the GP’s network of care delivery. The care model design will have a direct bearing on improving the integration of POCT through the connectivity and norm guidelines between the general practice, the POC technology, and the diagnostic centre.

  17. Care Model Design for E-Health: Integration of Point-of-Care Testing at Dutch General Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhees, Bart; van Kuijk, Kees; Simonse, Lianne

    2017-12-21

    Point-of-care testing (POCT)-laboratory tests performed with new mobile devices and online technologies outside of the central laboratory-is rapidly outpacing the traditional laboratory test market, growing at a rate of 12 to 15% each year. POCT impacts the diagnostic process of care providers by yielding high efficiency benefits in terms of turnaround time and related quality improvements in the reduction of errors. However, the implementation of this disruptive eHealth technology requires the integration and transformation of diagnostic services across the boundaries of healthcare organizations. Research has revealed both advantages and barriers of POCT implementations, yet to date, there is no business model for the integration of POCT within general practice. The aim of this article is to contribute with a design for a care model that enables the integration of POCT in primary healthcare. In this research, we used a design modelling toolkit for data collection at five general practices. Through an iterative design process, we modelled the actors and value transactions, and designed an optimized care model for the dynamic integration of POCTs into the GP's network of care delivery. The care model design will have a direct bearing on improving the integration of POCT through the connectivity and norm guidelines between the general practice, the POC technology, and the diagnostic centre.

  18. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Large-Scale 5G Networks: Interference Aware Design

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2017-09-18

    Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is promoted as a key component of 5G cellular networks. As the name implies, NOMA operation introduces intracell interference (i.e., interference arising within the cell) to the cellular operation. The intracell interference is managed by careful NOMA design (e.g., user clustering and resource allocation) along with successive interference cancellation. However, most of the proposed NOMA designs are agnostic to intercell interference (i.e., interference from outside the cell), which is a major performance limiting parameter in 5G networks. This article sheds light on the drastic negative-impact of intercell interference on the NOMA performance and advocates interference-aware NOMA design that jointly accounts for both intracell and intercell interference. To this end, a case study for fair NOMA operation is presented and intercell interference mitigation techniques for NOMA networks are discussed. This article also investigates the potential of integrating NOMA with two important 5G transmission schemes, namely, full duplex and device-to-device communication. This is important since the ambitious performance defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for 5G is foreseen to be realized via seamless integration of several new technologies and transmission techniques.

  19. Optimal design of hydraulic excavator working device based on multiple surrogate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingying Qiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimal design of hydraulic excavator working device is often characterized by computationally expensive analysis methods such as finite element analysis. Significant difficulties also exist when using a sensitivity-based decomposition approach to such practical engineering problems because explicit mathematical formulas between the objective function and design variables are impossible to formulate. An effective alternative is known as the surrogate model. The purpose of this article is to provide a comparative study on multiple surrogate models, including the response surface methodology, Kriging, radial basis function, and support vector machine, and select the one that best fits the optimization of the working device. In this article, a new modeling strategy based on the combination of the dimension variables between hinge joints and the forces loaded on hinge joints of the working device is proposed. In addition, the extent to which the accuracy of the surrogate models depends on different design variables is presented. The bionic intelligent optimization algorithm is then used to obtain the optimal results, which demonstrate that the maximum stresses calculated by the predicted method and finite element analysis are quite similar, but the efficiency of the former is much higher than that of the latter.

  20. An Optimal Design of Multiple Antenna Positions on Mobile Devices Based on Mutual Coupling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerapong Uthansakul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of practical implementation of multiple antenna systems for mobile communications has recently gained a lot of attention. Due to the area constraint on a mobile device, the problem of how to design such a system in order to achieve the best benefit is still a huge challenge. In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA is used to find the optimal antenna positions on a mobile device. Two cases of 3×3 and 4×4 MIMO systems are undertaken. The effect of mutual coupling based on Z-parameter is the main factor to determine the MIMO capacity concerning the objective function of GA search. The results confirm the success of the proposed method to design MIMO antenna positions on a mobile device. Moreover, this paper introduces the method to design the antenna positions for the condition of nondeterministic channel. The concern of channel variation has been included in the process of finding optimal MIMO antenna positions. The results suggest that the averaging position from all GA solutions according to all channel conditions provides the most acceptable benefit.

  1. Analysis, Design, and Construction of a Base-Isolated Multiple Building Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sorace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and design of a multiple residential building, seismically protected by a base isolation system incorporating double friction pendulum sliders as protective devices, are presented in the paper. The building, situated in the suburban area of Florence, is composed of four independent reinforced concrete framed structures, mutually separated by three thermal expansion joints. The plan is L-shaped, with dimensions of about 75 m in the longitudinal direction and about 30 m along the longest side of the transversal direction. These characteristics identify the structure as the largest example of a base-isolated “artificial ground” ever built in Italy. The base isolation solution guarantees lower costs, a much greater performance, and a finer architectural look, as compared to a conventional fixed-base antiseismic design. The characteristics of the building and the isolators, the mechanical properties and the experimental characterization campaign and preliminary sizing carried out on the latter, and the nonlinear time-history design and performance assessment analyses developed on the base isolated building are reported in this paper, along with details about the installation of the isolators and the plants and highlights of the construction works.

  2. Novel four-point-probe design and nanorobotic dual endeffector strategy for electrical characterization of as-grown SWCNT bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, V; Fatikow, S; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel nanorobotic strategy for non-destructive and direct electrical characterization of as-grown bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is presented. For this purpose, test patterns of SWCNT bundles having different diameters are grown on a silicon substrate...... by chemical vapor deposition. A new design of microstructured four-point-probes is proposed and fabricated allowing for direct contacting of vertically aligned bundles of SWCNTs. A nanorobotic setup is upgraded into a dual endeffector system to achieve good electrical contact between four...

  3. Multiple active myofascial trigger points and pressure pain sensitivity maps in the temporalis muscle are related in women with chronic tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Caminero, Ana B; Madeleine, Pascal; Guillem-Mesado, Amparo; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To describe the common locations of active trigger points (TrPs) in the temporalis muscle and their referred pain patterns in chronic tension type headache (CTTH), and to determine if pressure sensitivity maps of this muscle can be used to describe the spatial distribution of active TrPs. Forty women with CTTH were included. An electronic pressure algometer was used to assess pressure pain thresholds (PPT) from 9 points over each temporalis muscle: 3 points in the anterior, medial and posterior part, respectively. Both muscles were examined for the presence of active TrPs over each of the 9 points. The referred pain pattern of each active TrP was assessed. Two-way analysis of variance detected significant differences in mean PPT levels between the measurement points (F=30.3; P<0.001), but not between sides (F=2.1; P=0.2). PPT scores decreased from the posterior to the anterior column (P<0.001). No differences were found in the number of active TrPs (F=0.3; P=0.9) between the dominant side the nondominant side. Significant differences were found in the distribution of the active TrPs (chi2=12.2; P<0.001): active TrPs were mostly found in the anterior column and in the middle of the muscle belly. The analysis of variance did not detect significant differences in the referred pain pattern between active TrPs (F=1.1, P=0.4). The topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps showed the distinct distribution of the TrPs indicated by locations with low PPTs. Multiple active TrPs in the temporalis muscle were found, particularly in the anterior column and in the middle of the muscle belly. Bilateral posterior to anterior decreased distribution of PPTs in the temporalis muscle in women with CTTH was found. The locations of active TrPs in the temporalis muscle corresponded well to the muscle areas with lower PPT, supporting the relationship between multiple active muscle TrPs and topographical pressure sensitivity maps in the temporalis muscle in women with CTTH.

  4. Robust design method and thermostatic experiment for multiple piezoelectric vibration absorber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Yohsuke; Takashima, Toshihide; Inagaki, Akiya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of connecting multiplexing shunt circuits composed of inductors and resistors to piezoelectric transducers so as to improve the robustness of a piezoelectric vibration absorber (PVA). PVAs are well known to be effective at suppressing the vibration of an adaptive structure; their weakness is low robustness to changes in the dynamic parameters of the system, including the main structure and the absorber. In the application to space structures, the temperature-dependency of capacitance of piezoelectric ceramics is the factor that causes performance reduction. To improve robustness to the temperature-dependency of the capacitance, this paper proposes a multiple-PVA system that is composed of distributed piezoelectric transducers and several shunt circuits. The optimization problems that determine both the frequencies and the damping ratios of the PVAs are multi-objective problems, which are solved using a real-coded genetic algorithm in this paper. A clamped aluminum beam with four groups of piezoelectric ceramics attached was considered in simulations and experiments. Numerical simulations revealed that the PVA systems designed using the proposed method had tolerance to changes in the capacitances. Furthermore, experiments using a thermostatic bath were conducted to reveal the effectiveness and robustness of the PVA systems. The maximum peaks of the transfer functions of the beam with the open circuit, the single-PVA system, the double-PVA system, and the quadruple-PVA system at 20 °C were 14.3 dB, −6.91 dB, −7.47 dB, and −8.51 dB, respectively. The experimental results also showed that the multiple-PVA system is more robust than a single PVA in a variable temperature environment from −10 °C to 50 °C. In conclusion, the use of multiple PVAs results in an effective, robust vibration control method for adaptive structures. (paper)

  5. Damping-tunable energy-harvesting vehicle damper with multiple controlled generators: Design, modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Longhan; Li, Jiehong; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Ledeng; Cai, Siqi

    2018-01-01

    Hydraulic dampers are used to decrease the vibration of a vehicle, where vibration energy is dissipated as heat. In addition to resulting in energy waste, the damping coefficient in hydraulic dampers cannot be changed during operation. In this paper, an energy-harvesting vehicle damper was proposed to replace traditional hydraulic dampers. The goal is not only to recover kinetic energy from suspension vibration but also to change the damping coefficient during operation according to road conditions. The energy-harvesting damper consists of multiple generators that are independently controlled by switches. One of these generators connects to a tunable resistor for fine tuning the damping coefficient, while the other generators are connected to a control and rectifying circuit, each of which both regenerates electricity and provides a constant damping coefficient. A mathematical model was built to investigate the performance of the energy-harvesting damper. By controlling the number of switched-on generators and adjusting the value of the external tunable resistor, the damping can be fine tuned according to the requirement. In addition to the capability of damping tuning, the multiple controlled generators can output a significant amount of electricity. A prototype was built to test the energy-harvesting damper design. Experiments on an MTS testing system were conducted, with results that validated the theoretical analysis. Experiments show that changing the number of switched-on generators can obviously tune the damping coefficient of the damper and simultaneously produce considerable electricity.

  6. Performance of Cross-layer Design with Multiple Outdated Estimates in Multiuser MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By combining adaptive modulation (AM and automatic repeat request (ARQ protocol as well as user scheduling, the cross-layer design scheme of multiuser MIMO system with imperfect feedback is presented, and multiple outdated estimates method is proposed to improve the system performance. Based on this method and imperfect feedback information, the closed-form expressions of spectral efficiency (SE and packet error rate (PER of the system subject to the target PER constraint are respectively derived. With these expressions, the system performance can be effectively evaluated. To mitigate the effect of delayed feedback, the variable thresholds (VTs are also derived by means of the maximum a posteriori method, and these VTs include the conventional fixed thresholds (FTs as special cases. Simulation results show that the theoretical SE and PER are in good agreement with the corresponding simulation. The proposed CLD scheme with multiple estimates can obtain higher SE than the existing CLD scheme with single estimate, especially for large delay. Moreover, the CLD scheme with VTs outperforms that with conventional FTs.

  7. Design of a Flexible Hardware Interface for Multiple Remote Electronic practical Experiments of Virtual Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Said

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to present a new design of a Flexible Hardware Interface (FHI based on PID control techniques to use in a virtual laboratory. This flexible hardware interface allows the easy implementation of different and multiple remote electronic practical experiments for undergraduate engineering classes. This interface can be viewed as opened hardware architecture to easily develop simple or complex remote experiments in the electronic domain. The philosophy of the use of this interface can also be expanded to many other domains as optic experiments for instance. It is also demonstrated that software can be developed to enable remote measurements of electronic circuits or systems using only Web site Interface. Using standard browsers (such as Internet explorer, Firefox, Chrome or Safari, different students can have a remote access to different practical experiments at a time.

  8. Adaptive Control Design for Autonomous Operation of Multiple Energy Storage Systems in Power Smoothing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    -pass-filter (HPF) structure. It generates the power reference according to the fluctuating power and provides a stabilization effect. The power and energy supplied by ESS are majorly configured by the cut-off frequency and gain of the HPF. Considering the operational limits on ESS state-of-charge (SoC), this paper...... proposes an adaptive cut-off frequency design method to realize communication-less and autonomous operation of a system with multiple distributed ESS. The experimental results demonstrate that the SoCs of all ESS units are kept within safe margins, while the SoC level and power of the paralleled units...... converge to the final state, providing a natural plug-and-play function....

  9. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  10. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  11. Designs of Optoelectronic Trinary Signed-Digit Multiplication by use of Joint Spatial Encodings and Optical Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Abdallah K.

    1999-02-01

    Trinary signed-digit (TSD) symbolic-substitution-based (SS-based) optical adders, which were recently proposed, are used as the basic modules for designing highly parallel optical multiplications by use of cascaded optical correlators. The proposed multiplications perform carry-free generation of the multiplication partial products of two words in constant time. Also, three different multiplication designs are presented, and new joint spatial encodings for the TSD numbers are introduced. The proposed joint spatial encodings allow one to reduce the SS computation rules involved in optical multiplication. In addition, the proposed joint spatial encodings increase the space bandwidth product of the spatial light modulators of the optical system. This increase is achieved by reduction of the numbers of pixels in the joint spatial encodings for the input TSD operands as well as reduction of the number of pixels used in the proposed matched spatial filters for the optical multipliers.

  12. Testing of an End-Point Control Unit Designed to Enable Precision Control of Manipulator-Coupled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Tobbe, Patrick A.; Weathers, John M.; Manouchehri, Davoud; Lindsay, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an end-point control concept designed to enable precision telerobotic control of manipulator-coupled spacecraft. The concept employs a hardware unit (end-point control unit EPCU) that is positioned between the end-effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System and the payload. Features of the unit are active compliance (control of the displacement between the end-effector and the payload), to allow precision control of payload motions, and inertial load relief, to prevent the transmission of loads between the end-effector and the payload. This paper presents the concept and studies the active compliance feature using a simulation and hardware. Results of the simulation show the effectiveness of the EPCU in smoothing the motion of the payload. Results are presented from initial, limited tests of a laboratory hardware unit on a robotic arm testbed at the l Space Flight Center. Tracking performance of the arm in a constant speed automated retraction and extension maneuver of a heavy payload with and without the unit active is compared for the design speed and higher speeds. Simultaneous load reduction and tracking performance are demonstrated using the EPCU.

  13. Barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well-based solar-cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Jihad M.; Shum, Kai; Wang, W. B.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-based solar-cell structures is reported for the purpose of achieving maximum efficiency. The time-dependent short-circuit current density at the collector side of various MQW solar-cell structures under resonant condition was numerically calculated using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The energy efficiency of solar cells based on the InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW structues were compared when carriers are excited at a particular solar-energy band. Using InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As MQW structures it is found that a maximum energy efficiency can be achieved if the structure is designed with barrier potential of about 450 meV. The efficiency is found to decline linearly as the barrier potential increases for GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW-structure-based solar cells.

  14. Designing for multiple global user populations: increasing resource allocation efficiency for greater sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadadur, G; Parkinson, M B

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify opportunities for increasing the efficiency of raw material allocation decisions for products that are simultaneously targeted at multiple user populations around the world. The values of 24 body measures at certain key percentiles were used to estimate the best-fitting anthropometric distributions for female and male adults in nine national populations, which were selected to represent the diverse target markets multinational companies must design for. These distributions were then used to synthesize body measure data for combined populations with a 1:1 female:male ratio. An anthropometric range metric (ARM) was proposed for assessing the variation of these body measures across the populations. At any percentile, ARM values were calculated as the percentage difference between the highest and lowest anthropometric values across the considered user populations. Based on their magnitudes, plots of ARM values computed between the 1st and 99 th percentiles for each body measure were grouped into low, medium, and high categories. This classification of body measures was proposed as a means of selecting the most suitable strategies for designing raw material-efficient products. The findings in this study and the contributions of subsequent work along these lines are expected to help achieve greater efficiencies in resource allocation in global product development.

  15. Stochastic production phase design for an open pit mining complex with multiple processing streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Mohammad Waqar Ali; Dimitrakopoulos, Roussos; van Eldert, Jeroen

    2014-08-01

    In a mining complex, the mine is a source of supply of valuable material (ore) to a number of processes that convert the raw ore to a saleable product or a metal concentrate for production of the refined metal. In this context, expected variation in metal content throughout the extent of the orebody defines the inherent uncertainty in the supply of ore, which impacts the subsequent ore and metal production targets. Traditional optimization methods for designing production phases and ultimate pit limit of an open pit mine not only ignore the uncertainty in metal content, but, in addition, commonly assume that the mine delivers ore to a single processing facility. A stochastic network flow approach is proposed that jointly integrates uncertainty in supply of ore and multiple ore destinations into the development of production phase design and ultimate pit limit. An application at a copper mine demonstrates the intricacies of the new approach. The case study shows a 14% higher discounted cash flow when compared to the traditional approach.

  16. Modern drug design: the implication of using artificial neuronal networks and multiple molecular dynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Oleksandr; Jones, Steven J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the implementation of molecular modeling approaches developed as a part of the 2016 Grand Challenge 2, the blinded competition of computer aided drug design technologies held by the D3R Drug Design Data Resource (https://drugdesigndata.org/). The challenge was focused on the ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a highly flexible nuclear receptor of the cholesterol derivative chenodeoxycholic acid. FXR is considered an important therapeutic target for metabolic, inflammatory, bowel and obesity related diseases (Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 4:523-532, 2015), but in the context of this competition it is also interesting due to the significant ligand-induced conformational changes displayed by the protein. To deal with these conformational changes we employed multiple simulations of molecular dynamics (MD). Our MD-based protocols were top-ranked in estimating the free energy of binding of the ligands and FXR protein. Our approach was ranked second in the prediction of the binding poses where we also combined MD with molecular docking and artificial neural networks. Our approach showed mediocre results for high-throughput scoring of interactions.

  17. Optical design of a Michelson wide-field multiple-aperture telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassaing, Frederic; Sorrente, Beatrice; Fleury, Bruno; Laubier, David

    2004-02-01

    Multiple-Aperture Optical Telescopes (MAOTs) are a promising solution for very high resolution imaging. In the Michelson configuration, the instrument is made of sub-telescopes distributed in the pupil and combined by a common telescope via folding periscopes. The phasing conditions of the sub-pupils lead to specific optical constraints in these subsystems. The amplitude of main contributors to the wavefront error (WFE) is given as a function of high level requirements (such as field or resolution) and free parameters, mainly the sub-telescope type, magnification and diameter. It is shown that for the periscopes, the field-to-resolution ratio is the main design driver and can lead to severe specifications. The effect of sub-telescopes aberrations on the global WFE can be minimized by reducing their diameter. An analytical tool for the MAOT design has been derived from this analysis, illustrated and validated in three different cases: LEO or GEO Earth observation and astronomy with extremely large telescopes. The last two cases show that a field larger than 10 000 resolution elements can be covered with a very simple MAOT based on Mersenne paraboloid-paraboloid sub-telescopes. Michelson MAOTs are thus a solution to be considered for high resolution wide-field imaging, from space or ground.

  18. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P J; Ingram, Ben R

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs.

  19. Analysis of Multiple Choice Tests Designed by Faculty Members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourmirza Kalhori

    2013-12-01

    .14 and 23.99% (± 15.40, respectively. Comparison of the variances of qualitative and quantitative indices indicated significant differences between difficulty index, differ¬entiation index, reliability of the total test and percentage of taxonomy II among faculties (P_value<0.001, but this differences were not observed in taxonomies I and III. The results of Tukey multiple comparison test revealed a statistically significantly increase in the reliability of the medical faculty tests (P_value=0.001 and a statistically significantly decrease in the difficulty index of paramedi¬cal faculty tests compared to other faculties (P_value =0.041. Due to the lower differentiation index, the per¬centage of taxonomies II and III and the percentage of the questions with no structural problems compared to the standard criterion in some faculties, it is necessary to provide qualitative and quantitative feedback for the faculty members, as mentioned in previous studies (5 to promote their knowledge in designing the multiple-choice questions as an assessing tool of students.

  20. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area.

  1. Multiple Time-Point 68Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT for Characterization of Primary Prostate Cancer: Value of Early Dynamic and Delayed Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Sebastian; Mamach, Martin; Wilke, Florian; von Klot, Christoph A; Henkenberens, Christoph; Thackeray, James T; Sohns, Jan M; Geworski, Lilli; Ross, Tobias L; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Christiansen, Hans; Bengel, Frank M; Derlin, Thorsten

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to gain mechanistic insights into prostate cancer biology using dynamic imaging and to evaluate the usefulness of multiple time-point Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) I&T PET/CT for the assessment of primary prostate cancer before prostatectomy. Twenty patients with prostate cancer underwent Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT before prostatectomy. The PET protocol consisted of early dynamic pelvic imaging, followed by static scans at 60 and 180 minutes postinjection (p.i.). SUVs, time-activity curves, quantitative analysis based on a 2-tissue compartment model, Patlak analysis, histopathology, and Gleason grading were compared between prostate cancer and benign prostate gland. Primary tumors were identified on both early dynamic and delayed imaging in 95% of patients. Tracer uptake was significantly higher in prostate cancer compared with benign prostate tissue at any time point (P ≤ 0.0003) and increased over time. Consequently, the tumor-to-nontumor ratio within the prostate gland improved over time (2.8 at 10 minutes vs 17.1 at 180 minutes p.i.). Tracer uptake at both 60 and 180 minutes p.i. was significantly higher in patients with higher Gleason scores (P dynamic and static delayed Ga-PSMA ligand PET images. The tumor-to-nontumor ratio in the prostate gland improves over time, supporting a role of delayed imaging for optimal visualization of prostate cancer.

  2. Disaster damage detection through synergistic use of deep learning and 3D point cloud features derived from very high resolution oblique aerial images, and multiple-kernel-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrivel, Anand; Gerke, Markus; Kerle, Norman; Nex, Francesco; Vosselman, George

    2018-06-01

    Oblique aerial images offer views of both building roofs and façades, and thus have been recognized as a potential source to detect severe building damages caused by destructive disaster events such as earthquakes. Therefore, they represent an important source of information for first responders or other stakeholders involved in the post-disaster response process. Several automated methods based on supervised learning have already been demonstrated for damage detection using oblique airborne images. However, they often do not generalize well when data from new unseen sites need to be processed, hampering their practical use. Reasons for this limitation include image and scene characteristics, though the most prominent one relates to the image features being used for training the classifier. Recently features based on deep learning approaches, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have been shown to be more effective than conventional hand-crafted features, and have become the state-of-the-art in many domains, including remote sensing. Moreover, often oblique images are captured with high block overlap, facilitating the generation of dense 3D point clouds - an ideal source to derive geometric characteristics. We hypothesized that the use of CNN features, either independently or in combination with 3D point cloud features, would yield improved performance in damage detection. To this end we used CNN and 3D features, both independently and in combination, using images from manned and unmanned aerial platforms over several geographic locations that vary significantly in terms of image and scene characteristics. A multiple-kernel-learning framework, an effective way for integrating features from different modalities, was used for combining the two sets of features for classification. The results are encouraging: while CNN features produced an average classification accuracy of about 91%, the integration of 3D point cloud features led to an additional

  3. Research on an uplink carrier sense multiple access algorithm of large indoor visible light communication networks based on an optical hard core point process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Zhufen; Chi, Xuefen

    2016-12-20

    The IEEE 802.15.7 protocol suggests that it could coordinate the channel access process based on the competitive method of carrier sensing. However, the directionality of light and randomness of diffuse reflection would give rise to a serious imperfect carrier sense (ICS) problem [e.g., hidden node (HN) problem and exposed node (EN) problem], which brings great challenges in realizing the optical carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) mechanism. In this paper, the carrier sense process implemented by diffuse reflection light is modeled as the choice of independent sets. We establish an ICS model with the presence of ENs and HNs for the multi-point to multi-point visible light communication (VLC) uplink communications system. Considering the severe optical ICS problem, an optical hard core point process (OHCPP) is developed, which characterizes the optical CSMA for the indoor VLC uplink communications system. Due to the limited coverage of the transmitted optical signal, in our OHCPP, the ENs within the transmitters' carrier sense region could be retained provided that they could not corrupt the ongoing communications. Moreover, because of the directionality of both light emitting diode (LED) transmitters and receivers, theoretical analysis of the HN problem becomes difficult. In this paper, we derive the closed-form expression for approximating the outage probability and transmission capacity of VLC networks with the presence of HNs and ENs. Simulation results validate the analysis and also show the existence of an optimal physical carrier-sensing threshold that maximizes the transmission capacity for a given emission angle of LED.

  4. Design, development and integration of a large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, Andrew A.; Liu, Tong; Ng, Ivan Kee Beng; Teng, Wei Yuen; Yap, Tsi Tung; Wan, Siew Ping; Kong, Chun Jeng

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allows visualisation of the physical structures in the interior of an object without physically opening or cutting it. This technology supports a wide range of applications in the non-destructive testing, failure analysis or performance evaluation of industrial products and components. Of the numerous factors that influence the performance characteristics of an X-ray CT system the energy level in the X-ray spectrum to be used is one of the most significant. The ability of the X-ray beam to penetrate a given thickness of a specific material is directly related to the maximum available energy level in the beam. Higher energy levels allow penetration of thicker components made of more dense materials. In response to local industry demand and in support of on-going research activity in the area of 3D X-ray imaging for industrial inspection the Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech) engaged in the design, development and integration of large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system based on X-ray sources operating at higher energies than previously available in the Institute. The system consists of a large area direct digital X-ray detector (410 x 410 mm), a multiple-axis manipulator system, a 225 kV open tube microfocus X-ray source and a 450 kV closed tube millifocus X-ray source. The 225 kV X-ray source can be operated in either transmission or reflection mode. The body of the 6-axis manipulator system is fabricated from heavy-duty steel onto which high precision linear and rotary motors have been mounted in order to achieve high accuracy, stability and repeatability. A source-detector distance of up to 2.5 m can be achieved. The system is controlled by a proprietary X-ray CT operating system developed by SIMTech. The system currently can accommodate samples up to 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m in size with weight up to 50 kg. These specifications will be increased to 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 m and 100 kg in future

  5. Hardware description ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP as designed in a remotely controlled digital CW Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. E.; Robinson, S. H.

    A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployed, and remotely controlled. The heart of this system is a DSP/control board using Analog Devices ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor. Two 18-bit audio A/D converters provide digital input to the DSP/controller board for near real time target detection. Program memory for the DSP is dual ported with an Intel 87C51 microcontroller allowing DSP code to be up-loaded or down-loaded from a central controlling computer. The 87C51 provides overall system control for the remote radar and includes a time-of-day/day-of-year real time clock, system identification (ID) switches, and input/output (I/O) expansion by an Intel 82C55 I/O expander.

  6. [INVITED] Design of turn around point long period fiber grating sensor with Au-nanoparticle self monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sankhyabrata; Basumallick, Nandini; Bysakh, Sandip; Dey, Tanoy Kumar; Biswas, Palas; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath

    2018-06-01

    In this paper studies on the design and fabrication of a long period fiber grating (LPFG) with a self mono layer of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) has been presented. Refractive index (RI) sensitivity of a dispersed cladding mode (DCM) near turn around point (TAP) of its phase matching curve (PMC) has been investigated with and also without AuNP coated LPFG. The typical role played by the intermediate layer of AuNP on the effective index and thus on the sensitivity of the cladding mode to the surrounding RI has also been explored by carrying out coupled mode analysis of the requisite multilayer waveguide. Deposition of AuNP enhanced the sensitivity by more than a factor of 2. Measured sensitivity was found to be ∼3928 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) in the range of 1.3333-1.3428.

  7. Design and implementation of a microcontroller-based maximum power point tracking fuzzy solar-charge controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qazalbash, A.A.; Iqbal, T.; Shafiq, M.Z. [National Univ. of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays are particularly useful for electrical power generation in remote, off-grid areas in developing countries. However, PV arrays offer a small power to area ratio, resulting in the need for more PV arrays which increases the cost of the system. In order to improve the profitability of PV arrays, the power extraction from available PV array systems must be maximized. This paper presented an analysis, modeling and implementation of an efficient solar charge controller. It was shown that the maximum power of a photovoltaic system depends largely on temperature and insolation. A perturb and observe algorithm was used for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). MPPT maximizes the efficiency of a solar PV system. A solar charge controller determines the optimal values of output current and voltage of converters to maximize power output for battery charging. In order to improve performance and implement the perturb and observe algorithm, the authors designed a fuzzy rule-based system in which a solar charge controller worked with a PWM controlled DC-DC converter for battery charging. The system was implemented on a low-cost PIC microcontroller. Results were better than conventional techniques in power efficiency. Swift maximum power point tracking was obtained. 13 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  8. Designing a solar powered Stirling heat engine based on multiple criteria: Maximized thermal efficiency and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Dehghani, Saeed; Hosseinzade, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic model of a solar-dish Stirling engine was presented. • Thermal efficiency and output power of the engine were simultaneously maximized. • A final optimal solution was selected using several decision-making methods. • An optimal solution with least deviation from the ideal design was obtained. • Optimal solutions showed high sensitivity against variation of system parameters. - Abstract: A solar-powered high temperature differential Stirling engine was considered for optimization using multiple criteria. A thermal model was developed so that the output power and thermal efficiency of the solar Stirling system with finite rate of heat transfer, regenerative heat loss, conductive thermal bridging loss, finite regeneration process time and imperfect performance of the dish collector could be obtained. The output power and overall thermal efficiency were considered for simultaneous maximization. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) based on the NSGA-II algorithm were employed while the solar absorber temperature and the highest and lowest temperatures of the working fluid were considered the decision variables. The Pareto optimal frontier was obtained and a final optimal solution was also selected using various decision-making methods including the fuzzy Bellman–Zadeh, LINMAP and TOPSIS. It was found that multi-objective optimization could yield results with a relatively low deviation from the ideal solution in comparison to the conventional single objective approach. Furthermore, it was shown that, if the weight of thermal efficiency as one of the objective functions is considered to be greater than weight of the power objective, lower absorber temperature and low temperature ratio should be considered in the design of the Stirling engine

  9. Multiple-aperture optical design for micro-level cameras using 3D-printing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Jei; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Lung; Yu, Zong-Ru; Chou, Hsiao-Yu; Chen, Fong-Zhi; Fu, Chien-Chung; Wu, Chong-Syuan; Huang, Chao-Tsung

    2018-02-01

    The design of the ultra miniaturized camera using 3D-printing technology directly printed on to the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imaging sensor is presented in this paper. The 3D printed micro-optics is manufactured using the femtosecond two-photon direct laser writing, and the figure error which could achieve submicron accuracy is suitable for the optical system. Because the size of the micro-level camera is approximately several hundreds of micrometers, the resolution is reduced much and highly limited by the Nyquist frequency of the pixel pitch. For improving the reduced resolution, one single-lens can be replaced by multiple-aperture lenses with dissimilar field of view (FOV), and then stitching sub-images with different FOV can achieve a high resolution within the central region of the image. The reason is that the angular resolution of the lens with smaller FOV is higher than that with larger FOV, and then the angular resolution of the central area can be several times than that of the outer area after stitching. For the same image circle, the image quality of the central area of the multi-lens system is significantly superior to that of a single-lens. The foveated image using stitching FOV breaks the limitation of the resolution for the ultra miniaturized imaging system, and then it can be applied such as biomedical endoscopy, optical sensing, and machine vision, et al. In this study, the ultra miniaturized camera with multi-aperture optics is designed and simulated for the optimum optical performance.

  10. Evaluation of biases present in the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Candlish

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT design provides an opportunity to incorporate the benefits of randomisation within clinical practice; thus reducing costs, integrating electronic healthcare records, and improving external validity. This study aims to address a key concern of the cmRCT design: refusal to treatment is only present in the intervention arm, and this may lead to bias and reduce statistical power. Methods We used simulation studies to assess the effect of this refusal, both random and related to event risk, on bias of the effect estimator and statistical power. A series of simulations were undertaken that represent a cmRCT trial with time-to-event endpoint. Intention-to-treat (ITT, per protocol (PP, and instrumental variable (IV analysis methods, two stage predictor substitution and two stage residual inclusion, were compared for various refusal scenarios. Results We found the IV methods provide a less biased estimator for the causal effect when refusal is present in the intervention arm, with the two stage residual inclusion method performing best with regards to minimum bias and sufficient power. We demonstrate that sample sizes should be adapted based on expected and actual refusal rates in order to be sufficiently powered for IV analysis. Conclusion We recommend running both an IV and ITT analyses in an individually randomised cmRCT as it is expected that the effect size of interest, or the effect we would observe in clinical practice, would lie somewhere between that estimated with ITT and IV analyses. The optimum (in terms of bias and power instrumental variable method was the two stage residual inclusion method. We recommend using adaptive power calculations, updating them as refusal rates are collected in the trial recruitment phase in order to be sufficiently powered for IV analysis.

  11. Imagery Rescripting for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Multiple-Baseline Single-Case Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Rob; Veale, David; Freeston, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) often experience negative distorted images of their appearance, and research suggests these may be linked to memories of adverse events such as bullying or teasing. This study evaluates imagery rescripting (ImR) as an intervention for BDD. In this article, we present a multiple-baseline single-case experimental design testing imagery rescripting as a brief, stand-alone intervention, with six individuals with BDD that related to aversive memories. The impact of the intervention was assessed by self-reported daily measures of symptom severity (preoccupation with appearance, appearance-related checking behaviors, appearance-related distress, and strength of belief that their main problem is their appearance) and standardized clinician ratings of BDD severity (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for BDD). Four out of six of the participants responded positively to the intervention, with clinically meaningful improvement in symptomatology. Overall response was rapid; improvements began within the first week post-ImR intervention. From a small sample it is cautiously concluded that imagery rescripting may show promise as a module in cognitive-behavioral therapy for BDD, and is worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Design of an image encryption scheme based on a multiple chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiao-Jun

    2013-07-01

    In order to solve the problem that chaos is degenerated in limited computer precision and Cat map is the small key space, this paper presents a chaotic map based on topological conjugacy and the chaotic characteristics are proved by Devaney definition. In order to produce a large key space, a Cat map named block Cat map is also designed for permutation process based on multiple-dimensional chaotic maps. The image encryption algorithm is based on permutation-substitution, and each key is controlled by different chaotic maps. The entropy analysis, differential analysis, weak-keys analysis, statistical analysis, cipher random analysis, and cipher sensibility analysis depending on key and plaintext are introduced to test the security of the new image encryption scheme. Through the comparison to the proposed scheme with AES, DES and Logistic encryption methods, we come to the conclusion that the image encryption method solves the problem of low precision of one dimensional chaotic function and has higher speed and higher security.

  13. Design and implementation of a contactless multiple hand feature acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiushi; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhang, David

    2012-06-01

    In this work, an integrated contactless multiple hand feature acquisition system is designed. The system can capture palmprint, palm vein, and palm dorsal vein images simultaneously. Moreover, the images are captured in a contactless manner, that is, users need not to touch any part of the device when capturing. Palmprint is imaged under visible illumination while palm vein and palm dorsal vein are imaged under near infrared (NIR) illumination. The capturing is controlled by computer and the whole process is less than 1 second, which is sufficient for online biometric systems. Based on this device, this paper also implements a contactless hand-based multimodal biometric system. Palmprint, palm vein, palm dorsal vein, finger vein, and hand geometry features are extracted from the captured images. After similarity measure, the matching scores are fused using weighted sum fusion rule. Experimental results show that although the verification accuracy of each uni-modality is not as high as that of state-of-the-art, the fusion result is superior to most of the existing hand-based biometric systems. This result indicates that the proposed device is competent in the application of contactless multimodal hand-based biometrics.

  14. The Dynamics of Multiple Pair-Wise Collisions in a Chain for Designing Optimal Shock Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Rodgers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The major focus of this work is to examine the dynamics of velocity amplification through pair-wise collisions between multiple masses in a chain, in order to develop useful machines. For instance low-cost machines based on this principle could be used for detailed, very-high acceleration shock-testing of MEMS devices. A theoretical basis for determining the number and mass of intermediate stages in such a velocity amplifier, based on simple rigid body mechanics, is proposed. The influence of mass ratios and the coefficient of restitution on the optimisation of the system is identified and investigated. In particular, two cases are examined: in the first, the velocity of the final mass in the chain (that would have the object under test mounted on it is maximised by defining the ratio of adjacent masses according to a power law relationship; in the second, the energy transfer efficiency of the system is maximised by choosing the mass ratios such that all masses except the final mass come to rest following impact. Comparisons are drawn between both cases and the results are used in proposing design guidelines for optimal shock amplifiers. It is shown that for most practical systems, a shock amplifier with mass ratios based on a power law relationship is optimal and can easily yield velocity amplifications of a factor 5–8 times. A prototype shock testing machine that was made using above principles is briefly introduced.

  15. Design of multiple representations e-learning resources based on a contextual approach for the basic physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, F.; Muliyati, D.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to design e-learning resources with multiple representations based on a contextual approach for the Basic Physics Course. The research uses the research and development methods accordance Dick & Carey strategy. The development carried out in the digital laboratory of Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Science Faculty, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. The result of the process of product development with Dick & Carey strategy, have produced e-learning design of the Basic Physics Course is presented in multiple representations in contextual learning syntax. The appropriate of representation used in the design of learning basic physics include: concept map, video, figures, data tables of experiment results, charts of data tables, the verbal explanations, mathematical equations, problem and solutions example, and exercise. Multiple representations are presented in the form of contextual learning by stages: relating, experiencing, applying, transferring, and cooperating.

  16. Performance of a new meter designed for assisted monitoring of blood glucose and point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrury, Sandra; Srinivasan, Aparna; Mahoney, John J

    2013-03-01

    Blood glucose (BG) meters used for assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG) require different attributes compared with meters designed for home use. These include safety considerations (i.e., minimized risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission), capability for testing multiple blood sample types, and enhanced performance specifications. The OneTouch® Verio™Pro+ BG meter is designed to incorporate all of these attributes. Meter accuracy was assessed in clinical studies with arterial, venous, and capillary blood samples with a hematocrit range of 22.9-59.8%. The effect of interferents, including anticoagulants, on accuracy was evaluated. The meter disinfection protocol was validated, and instructions for use and user acceptance of the system were assessed. A total of 97% (549/566) of BG measures from all blood sample types and 95.5% (191/200) of arterial blood samples were within ±12 mg/dl or 12.5% of reference measurements. The system was unaffected by 4 anticoagulants and 57 of 59 endogenous and exogenous compounds; it was affected by 2 compounds: pralidoxime iodide and xylose. Bleach wipes were sufficient to disinfect the meter. Users felt that the meter's quality control (QC) prompts would help them to comply with regulatory requirements. The meter provided accurate measurements of different blood samples over a wide hematocrit range and was not affected by 57 physiologic and therapeutic compounds. The QC prompts and specific infection-mitigating design further aid to make this meter system practical for AMBG in care facilities. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Service design: a review of methods and techniques inthe point of view of service operations management area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Torres Júnior

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As in many developing countries, the service sector in Brazil is responsible for generating income and employment for a significant portion of the population. Due to this economic relevance, service organizations are faced with an increasingly demanding and competitive market. This demand greater innovation and business planning. Despite this, the process of service development remains a relatively unexplored subject in the literature. Several issues regarding the planning and management remain without clear ideas or propositions that guide their appropriate treatment. The result of this situation, the methods and techniques that help design the services are not properly disseminated. These are scattered through the literature of operations management services. Given this framework, the light of a review of the literature and concerning the elements that compose the service project according to the works of Machuca, Zamora-Gonzalez and Aguilar-Escobar (2007 and Edvardsson (1997, the present work points and examine the methods and techniques suggested by many authors and works on the area of Service Operations. It was found that the knowledge about the methods and techniques is diffuse. This knowledge is concentrated on the design process and determining the location of services.

  18. Design, simulation and fabrication of a novel contact-enhanced MEMS inertial switch with a movable contact point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Haogang; Ding Guifu; Yang Zhuoqing; Su Zhijuan; Zhou Jiansheng; Wang Hong

    2008-01-01

    A novel inertial switch based on a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) was designed, which consists of three main parts: a proof mass as the movable electrode, a cross beam as the stationary electrode and a movable contact point to prolong the contact time. A MATLAB/Simulink model, which had been verified by comparison with ANSYS transient simulation, was built to simulate the dynamic response, based on which the contact-enhancing mechanism was confirmed and the dependence of threshold acceleration on the proof mass thickness was studied. The simulated dynamic responses under various accelerations exhibit satisfactory device behaviors: the switch-on time is prolonged under transient acceleration; the switch-on state is more continuous than the conventional design under long lasting acceleration. The inertial micro-switch was fabricated by multilayer electroplating technology and then tested by a drop hammer experiment. The test results indicate that the contact effect was improved significantly and a steady switch-on time of over 50 µs was observed under half-sine wave acceleration with 1 ms duration, in agreement with the dynamic simulation

  19. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    Control of multiple autonomous aircraft for search and exploration, is a topic of current research interest for applications such as weather monitoring, geographical surveys, search and rescue, tactical reconnaissance, and extra-terrestrial exploration, and the need to distribute sensing is driven by considerations of efficiency, reliability, cost and scalability. Hence, this problem has been extensively studied in the fields of controls and artificial intelligence. The task of persistent surveillance is different from a coverage/exploration problem, in that all areas need to be continuously searched, minimizing the time between visitations to each region in the target space. This distinction does not allow a straightforward application of most exploration techniques to the problem, although ideas from these methods can still be used. The use of aerial vehicles is motivated by their ability to cover larger spaces and their relative insensitivity to terrain. However, the dynamics of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) adds complexity to the control problem. Most of the work in the literature decouples the vehicle dynamics and control policies, but their interaction is particularly interesting for a surveillance mission. Stochastic environments and UAV failures further enrich the problem by requiring the control policies to be robust, and this aspect is particularly important for hardware implementations. For a persistent mission, it becomes imperative to consider the range/endurance constraints of the vehicles. The coupling of the control policy with the endurance constraints of the vehicles is an aspect that has not been sufficiently explored. Design of UAVs for desirable mission performance is also an issue of considerable significance. The use of a single monolithic optimization for such a problem has practical limitations, and decomposition-based design is a potential alternative. In this research high-level control policies are devised, that are scalable, reliable

  20. The integration of occupational therapy into primary care: a multiple case study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background For over two decades occupational therapists have been encouraged to enhance their roles within primary care and focus on health promotion and prevention activities. While there is a clear fit between occupational therapy and primary care, there have been few practice examples, despite a growing body of evidence to support the role. In 2010, the province of Ontario, Canada provided funding to include occupational therapists as members of Family Health Teams, an interprofessional model of primary care. The integration of occupational therapists into this model of primary care is one of the first large scale initiatives of its kind in North America. The objective of the study was to examine how occupational therapy services are being integrated into primary care teams and understand the structures supporting the integration. Methods A multiple case study design was used to provide an in-depth description of the integration of occupational therapy. Four Family Health Teams with occupational therapists as part of the team were identified. Data collection included in-depth interviews, document analyses, and questionnaires. Results Each Family Health Team had a unique organizational structure that contributed to the integration of occupational therapy. Communication, trust and understanding of occupational therapy were key elements in the integration of occupational therapy into Family Health Teams, and were supported by a number of strategies including co-location, electronic medical records and team meetings. An understanding of occupational therapy was critical for integration into the team and physicians were less likely to understand the occupational therapy role than other health providers. Conclusion With an increased emphasis on interprofessional primary care, new professions will be integrated into primary healthcare teams. The study found that explicit strategies and structures are required to facilitate the integration of a new professional group

  1. Learning Physics Teaching through Collaborative Design of Conceptual Multiple-Choice Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student engagement through Electronic Response Systems (clickers) has been widely researched. Its success largely depends on the quality of multiple-choice questions used by instructors. This paper describes a pilot project that focused on the implementation of online collaborative multiple-choice question repository, PeerWise, in a…

  2. Design and Delivery of Multiple Server-Side Computer Languages Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    Given the emergence of service-oriented architecture, IS students need to be knowledgeable of multiple server-side computer programming languages to be able to meet the needs of the job market. This paper outlines the pedagogy of an innovative course of multiple server-side computer languages for the undergraduate IS majors. The paper discusses…

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Fluid Flow in Continental Carbonate Reservoir Rocks and in Upscaled Rock Models Generated with Multiple-Point Geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcomputed tomography (μCT and Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM simulations were applied to continental carbonates to quantify fluid flow. Fluid flow characteristics in these complex carbonates with multiscale pore networks are unique and the applied method allows studying their heterogeneity and anisotropy. 3D pore network models were introduced to single-phase flow simulations in Palabos, a software tool for particle-based modelling of classic computational fluid dynamics. In addition, permeability simulations were also performed on rock models generated with multiple-point geostatistics (MPS. This allowed assessing the applicability of MPS in upscaling high-resolution porosity patterns into large rock models that exceed the volume limitations of the μCT. Porosity and tortuosity control fluid flow in these porous media. Micro- and mesopores influence flow properties at larger scales in continental carbonates. Upscaling with MPS is therefore necessary to overcome volume-resolution problems of CT scanning equipment. The presented LBM-MPS workflow is applicable to other lithologies, comprising different pore types, shapes, and pore networks altogether. The lack of straightforward porosity-permeability relationships in complex carbonates highlights the necessity for a 3D approach. 3D fluid flow studies provide the best understanding of flow through porous media, which is of crucial importance in reservoir modelling.

  4. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a

  5. Designing and evaluating sports footwear from the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and wearers - an analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research work are: a to analyse the sports footwear, giving emphasis to its development, technical criteria and making, the opinion of the sportperson as an important element in parameter definition for the manufacturing and aspects concerning problems of the feet; b to verify the tecnical evolution the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and researches; c identify the criteria adopted by wearers in their choice and evaluation. Data information was obtained from literature and bibliographical research (On-line systems, Comut, Sibradid and Internet in Portuguese, English and French. Through content analysis technique the following information was obtained: a concern on the design and manufacture of the sports footwear goes back to 19th century. Sports footwear has been moulded according to the charactectistics of type of sports, taking into consideration the rules of the games, the suggestion of specilists, the examination of the footwear and the type of injuries endured; b evaluation is an old practice, going back to the time of the footwear’s design and manufacturing. In a set of tests the first criterion was always the prevention of lesions. Five and ten criteria were adopted in 1977 and in 1980, respectively. Durability was included, enhancing consumerism; c for a host of reason the Brazilian consumer is a good of the footwear. This fact is indicative of his/her education as a consumer; d definition of parameters is urgent. They are an integral part of laws on quality control and production and propaganda material for the consumer’s orientation.

  6. Design and implementation of the reconstruction software for the photon multiplicity detector in object oriented programming framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhayay, Subhasis; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gupta, R.; Mishra, D.; Phatak, S.C.; Sood, G.

    2002-01-01

    High granularity photon multiplicity detector (PMD) is scheduled to take data in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision(RHIC) this year. A detailed scheme has been designed and implemented in object oriented programming framework using C++ for the monitoring and reconstruction job of PMD data

  7. Optimization of the 3-Point Bending Failure of Anodized Aluminum Formed in Tartaric/Sulphuric Acid Using Doehlert Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, W.; Feki, M.; De-Petris Wery, M.; Ayedi, H. F.

    2015-02-01

    The bending failure of anodized aluminum in tartaric/sulphuric acid bath was modeled using Doehlert design. Bath temperature, anodic current density, sulphuric acid, and tartaric acid concentrations were retained as variables. Thickness measurements and 3-point bending experiments were conducted. The deflection at failure ( D f) and the maximum load ( F m) of each sample were, then, deducted from the corresponding flexural responses. The treatment of experimental results has established mathematical models of second degree reflecting the relation of cause and effect between the factors and the studied properties. The optimum path study of thickness, deflection at failure, and maximum load, showed that the three optima were opposite. Multicriteria optimization using the desirability function was achieved in order to maximize simultaneously the three responses. The optimum conditions were: C tar = 18.2 g L-1, T = 17.3 °C, J = 2.37 A dm-2, C sul = 191 g L-1, while the estimated response values were e = 57.7 µm, D f = 5.6 mm, and F m = 835 N. Using the established models, a mathematical correlation was found between deflection at failure and thickness of the anodic oxide layer. Before bending tests, aluminum oxide layer was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. After tests, the morphology and the composition of the anodic oxide layer were inspected by SEM, optical microscopy, and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy.

  8. Towards Integration of CAx Systems and a Multiple-View Product Modeller in Mechanical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Song

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of an integration framework and its implementation for the connexion of CAx systems and multiple-view product modelling. The integration framework is presented regarding its conceptual level and the implementation level is described currently with the connexion of a functional modeller, a multiple-view product modeller, an optimisation module and a CAD system. The integration between the multiple-view product modeller and CATIA V5 based on the STEP standard is described in detail. Finally, the presented works are discussed and future research developments are suggested. 

  9. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal

  10. Optimal Reinsurance Design for Pareto Optimum: From the Perspective of Multiple Reinsurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates optimal reinsurance strategies for an insurer which cedes the insured risk to multiple reinsurers. Assume that the insurer and every reinsurer apply the coherent risk measures. Then, we find out the necessary and sufficient conditions for the reinsurance market to achieve Pareto optimum; that is, every ceded-loss function and the retention function are in the form of “multiple layers reinsurance.”

  11. Impact of Genomics Platform and Statistical Filtering on Transcriptional Benchmark Doses (BMD and Multiple Approaches for Selection of Chemical Point of Departure (PoD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Francina Webster

    Full Text Available Many regulatory agencies are exploring ways to integrate toxicogenomic data into their chemical risk assessments. The major challenge lies in determining how to distill the complex data produced by high-content, multi-dose gene expression studies into quantitative information. It has been proposed that benchmark dose (BMD values derived from toxicogenomics data be used as point of departure (PoD values in chemical risk assessments. However, there is limited information regarding which genomics platforms are most suitable and how to select appropriate PoD values. In this study, we compared BMD values modeled from RNA sequencing-, microarray-, and qPCR-derived gene expression data from a single study, and explored multiple approaches for selecting a single PoD from these data. The strategies evaluated include several that do not require prior mechanistic knowledge of the compound for selection of the PoD, thus providing approaches for assessing data-poor chemicals. We used RNA extracted from the livers of female mice exposed to non-carcinogenic (0, 2 mg/kg/day, mkd and carcinogenic (4, 8 mkd doses of furan for 21 days. We show that transcriptional BMD values were consistent across technologies and highly predictive of the two-year cancer bioassay-based PoD. We also demonstrate that filtering data based on statistically significant changes in gene expression prior to BMD modeling creates more conservative BMD values. Taken together, this case study on mice exposed to furan demonstrates that high-content toxicogenomics studies produce robust data for BMD modelling that are minimally affected by inter-technology variability and highly predictive of cancer-based PoD doses.

  12. Design and Testing of an EHR-Integrated, Busulfan Pharmacokinetic Decision Support Tool for the Point-of-Care Clinician.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Abdel-Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Busulfan demonstrates a narrow therapeutic index for which clinicians routinely employ therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM. However, operationalizing TDM can be fraught with inefficiency. We developed and tested software encoding a clinical decision support tool (DST that is embedded into our electronic health record (EHR and designed to streamline the TDM process for our oncology partners. METHODS: Our development strategy was modeled based on the features associated with successful DSTs. An initial Requirements Analysis was performed to characterize tasks, information flow, user needs, and system requirements to enable push/pull from the EHR. Back-end development was coded based on the algorithm used when manually performing busulfan TDM. The code was independently validated in MATLAB using 10,000 simulated patient profiles. A 296-item heuristic checklist was used to guide design of the front-end user interface. Content experts and end-users (n=28 were recruited to participate in traditional usability testing under an IRB approved protocol. RESULTS: Decision support software was developed to systematically walk the point-of-care clinician through the TDM process. The system is accessed through the EHR which transparently imports all of the requisite patient data. Data are visually inspected and then curve fit using a model-dependent approach. Quantitative goodness-of-fit are converted to single tachometer where green alerts the user that the model is strong, yellow signals caution and red indicates that there may be a problem with the fitting. Override features are embedded to permit application of a model-independent approach where appropriate. Simulations are performed to target a desired exposure or dose as entered by the clinician and the DST pushes the user approved recommendation back into the EHR. Usability testers were highly satisfied with our DST and quickly became proficient with the software.CONCLUSIONS: With early and

  13. The design of an ultra-thin and multiple channels optical receiving antenna system with freeform lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyun; Cheng, Dewen; Hu, Yuan; Song, Weitao; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-11-01

    Visible Light Communications (VLC) has become an emerging area of research since it can provide higher data transmission speed and wider bandwidth. The white LEDs are very important components of the VLC system, because it has the advantages of higher brightness, lower power consumption, and a longer lifetime. More importantly, their intensity and color are modulatable. Besides the light source, the optical antenna system also plays a very important role in the VLC system since it determines the optical gain, effective working area and transmission rate of the VLC system. In this paper, we propose to design an ultra-thin and multiple channels optical antenna system by tiling multiple off-axis lenses, each of which consists of two reflective and two refractive freeform surfaces. The tiling of multiple systems and detectors but with different band filters makes it possible to design a wavelength division multiplexing VLC system to highly improve the system capacity. The field of view of the designed antenna system is 30°, the entrance pupil diameter is 1.5mm, and the thickness of the system is under 4mm. The design methods are presented and the results are discussed in the last section of this paper. Besides the optical gain is analyzed and calculated. The antenna system can be tiled up to four channels but without the increase of thickness.

  14. A Sequential Circuit-Based IP Watermarking Algorithm for Multiple Scan Chains in Design-for-Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI design, the existing Design-for-Test(DFT based watermarking techniques usually insert watermark through reordering scan cells, which causes large resource overhead, low security and coverage rate of watermark detection. A novel scheme was proposed to watermark multiple scan chains in DFT for solving the problems. The proposed scheme adopts DFT scan test model of VLSI design, and uses a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR for pseudo random test vector generation. All of the test vectors are shifted in scan input for the construction of multiple scan chains with minimum correlation. Specific registers in multiple scan chains will be changed by the watermark circuit for watermarking the design. The watermark can be effectively detected without interference with normal function of the circuit, even after the chip is packaged. The experimental results on several ISCAS benchmarks show that the proposed scheme has lower resource overhead, probability of coincidence and higher coverage rate of watermark detection by comparing with the existing methods.

  15. Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2014-01-01

    A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.

  16. Beyond Jeopardy and Lectures: Using "Microsoft PowerPoint" as a Game Design Tool to Teach Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael; Toker, Sacip

    2011-01-01

    To date, research involving homemade PowerPoint games as an instructional tool has not shown statistically significant gains in student performance. This paper examines the results of a study comparing the performance of students in a high school chemistry course who created homemade PowerPoint games as a test review with the students who used a…

  17. 48 CFR 47.303-15 - F.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... charges up to this point; (3) Provide a clean bill of lading and/or air waybill; (4) Be responsible for... carrier's terminal, point of exportation. 47.303-15 Section 47.303-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply...

  18. Data Base Design with GIS in Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management in Artvin, Turkey: A Case Study in Balcı Forest Management Planning Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolasığmaz, Hacı Ahmet; Keleş, Sedat

    2009-01-01

    In Turkey, the understanding of planning focused on timber production has given its place on Multiple Use Management (MUM). Because the whole infrastructure of forestry with inventory system leading the way depends on timber production, some cases of bottle neck are expected during the transition period. Database design, probably the most important stage during the transition to MUM, together with the digital basic maps making up the basis of this infrastructure constitute the main point of this article. Firstly, the forest management philosophy of Turkey in the past was shortly touched upon in the article. Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management (EBMUFM) approaches was briefly introduced. The second stage of the process of EBMUFM, database design was described by examining the classical planning infrastructure and the coverage to be produced and consumed were suggested in the form of lists. At the application stage, two different geographical databases were established with GIS in Balcı Planning Unit of the years 1984 and 2006. Following that the related basic maps are produced. Timely diversity of the planning unit of 20 years is put forward comparatively with regard to the stand parameters such as tree types, age class, development stage, canopy closure, mixture, volume and increment.

  19. First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives: DESIGNING STRATOSPHERIC GEOENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Ben [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; MacMartin, Douglas G. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA; Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA; Mills, Michael J. [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Richter, Jadwiga H. [Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Tilmes, Simone [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Lamarque, Jean-Francois [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Tribbia, Joseph J. [Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Vitt, Francis [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA

    2017-12-07

    We describe the first simulations of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering using multiple injection locations to meet multiple simultaneous surface temperature objectives. Simulations were performed using CESM1(WACCM), a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with fully interactive stratospheric chemistry, dynamics (including an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation), and a sophisticated treatment of sulfate aerosol formation, microphysical growth, and deposition. The objectives are defined as maintaining three temperature features at their 2020 levels against a background of the RCP8.5 scenario over the period 2020-2099. These objectives are met using a feedback mechanism in which the rate of sulfur dioxide injection at each of the four locations is adjusted independently every year of simulation. Even in the presence of uncertainties, nonlinearities, and variability, the objectives are met, predominantly by SO2 injection at 30°N and 30°S. By the last year of simulation, the feedback algorithm calls for a total injection rate of 51 Tg SO2 per year. The injections are not in the tropics, which results in a greater degree of linearity of the surface climate response with injection amount than has been found in many previous studies using injection at the equator. Because the objectives are defined in terms of annual mean temperature, the required geeongineering results in "overcooling" during summer and "undercooling" during winter. The hydrological cycle is also suppressed as compared to the reference values corresponding to the year 2020. The demonstration we describe in this study is an important step toward understanding what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.

  20. Design and Analysis of a Forging Die for Manufacturing of Multiple Connecting Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megharaj, C. E.; Nagaraj, P. M.; Jeelan Pasha, K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper demonstrates to utilize the hammer capacity by modifying the die design such that forging hammer can manufacture more than one connecting rod in a given forging cycle time. To modify the die design study is carried out to understand the parameters that are required for forging die design. By considering these parameters, forging die is designed using design modelling tool solid edge. This new design now can produce two connecting rods in same capacity hammer. The new design is required to validate by verifying complete filing of metal in die cavities without any defects in it. To verify this, analysis tool DEFORM 3D is used in this project. Before start of validation process it is require to convert 3D generated models in to. STL file format to import the models into the analysis tool DEFORM 3D. After importing these designs they are analysed for material flow into the cavities and energy required to produce two connecting rods in new forging die design. It is found that the forging die design is proper without any defects and also energy graph shows that the forging energy required to produce two connecting rods is within the limit of that hammer capacity. Implementation of this project increases the production of connecting rods by 200% in less than previous cycle time.

  1. Preliminary trajectory design for a solar polar observatory using SEP and multiple gravity assists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpaccioli, L.; Noomen, R.; De Smet, S.; Parker, J.S.; Herman, J.F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite solar observatories have always been of central importance to heliophysics; while there have been numerous such missions, the solar poles have been extremely under-observed. This paper proposes to use low-thrust as well as multiple gravity assists to reach the enormous energies required

  2. Design of Multiple Trellis-Coded Multi-h CPM Based on Super Trellis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu. A. Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the multiple trellis code can perform better than the conventional trellis code over AWGN channels, at the cost of additional computations per trellis branch. Multiple trellis coded multi-h CPM schemes have been shown in the literature to have attractive power-bandwidth performance at the expense of increased receiver complexity. In this method, the multi-h format is made to be associated with the specific pattern and repeated rather than cyclically changed in time for successive symbol intervals, resulting in a longer effective length of the error event with better performance. It is well known that the rate (n-1/n multiple trellis codes combined with 2^n-level CPM have good power-bandwidth performance. In this paper, a scheme combining rate 1/2 and 2/3 multiple trellis codes with 4- and 8-level multi-h CPM is shown to have better power-bandwidth performance over the upper bound than the scheme with single-h.

  3. Qualification of new design of flexible pipe against singing: testing at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Lunde, K.; Vijlbrief, O.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible pipes for production of oil and gas typically present a corrugated inner surface. This has been identified as the cause of "singing risers": Flow-Induced Pulsations due to the interaction of sound waves with the shear layers at the small cavities present at each of the multiple

  4. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  5. The analysis of visual variables for use in the cartographic design of point symbols for mobile Augmented Reality applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halik, Łukasz

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present deliberations was to systematise our knowledge of static visual variables used to create cartographic symbols, and also to analyse the possibility of their utilisation in the Augmented Reality (AR) applications on smartphone-type mobile devices. This was accomplished by combining the visual variables listed over the years by different researchers. Research approach was to determine the level of usefulness of particular characteristics of visual variables such as selective, associative, quantitative and order. An attempt was made to provide an overview of static visual variables and to describe the AR system which is a new paradigm of the user interface. Changing the approach to the presentation of point objects is caused by applying different perspective in the observation of objects (egocentric view) than it is done on traditional analogue maps (geocentric view). Presented topics will refer to the fast-developing field of cartography, namely mobile cartography. Particular emphasis will be put on smartphone-type mobile devices and their applicability in the process of designing cartographic symbols. Celem artykułu było usystematyzowanie wiedzy na temat statycznych zmiennych wizualnych, które sa kluczowymi składnikami budujacymi sygnatury kartograficzne. Podjeto próbe zestawienia zmiennych wizualnych wyodrebnionych przez kartografów na przestrzeni ostatnich piecdziesieciu lat, zaczynajac od klasyfikacji przedstawionej przez J. Bertin’a. Dokonano analizy stopnia uzytecznosci poszczególnych zmiennych graficznych w aspekcie ich wykorzystania w projektowaniu znaków punktowych dla mobilnych aplikacji tworzonych w technologii Rzeczywistosci Rozszerzonej (Augmented Reality). Zmienne poddano analizie pod wzgledem czterech charakterystyk: selektywnosci, skojarzeniowosci, odzwierciedlenia ilosci oraz porzadku. W artykule zwrócono uwage na odmienne zastosowanie perspektywy pomiedzy tradycyjnymi analogowymi mapami (geocentrycznosc) a

  6. How is brand experience designed in practice? : Results of a multiple-case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Wu, S.; Calabretta, G.; Hultink, H.J.; Bohemia, E.; de Bont, C.; Svengren Holm, L.

    2017-01-01

    Brand experience is an important concept in marketing because it can affect brand loyalty, brand recall, and brand attitude. Brand experience design is therefore an important practice for companies to create favourable and meaningful experiences, through the design of various touchpoints that are in

  7. Design of glass-ceramic complex microstructure with using onset point of crystallization in differential thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seongjin; Kim, Jinho; Shin, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Jong-Hee; Kim, Hyungsun

    2008-01-01

    Two types of frits with different compositions were used to develop a high strength substrate in electronic packaging using a low temperature co-fired ceramic process. In order to reveal the crystallization stage during heating to approximately 900 deg. C, a glass-ceramic consisting of the two types of frits, which had been crystallized to diopside and anorthite after firing, was tested at different mixing ratios of the frits. The exothermal peaks deconvoluted by a Gauss function in the differential thermal analysis curves were used to determine the onset point of crystallization of diopside or anorthite. The onset points of crystallization were affected by the mixing ratio of the frits, and the microstructure of the glass-ceramic depended on the onset point of crystallization. It was found that when multicrystalline phases appear in the microstructure, the resulting complex microstructure could be predicted from the onset point of crystallization obtained by differential thermal analysis

  8. Design and selection of load control strategies using a multiple objective model and evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Alvaro; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a multiple objective model to evaluate the attractiveness of the use of demand resources (through load management control actions) by different stakeholders and in diverse structure scenarios in electricity systems. For the sake of model flexibility, the multiple (and conflicting) objective functions of technical, economical and quality of service nature are able to capture distinct market scenarios and operating entities that may be interested in promoting load management activities. The computation of compromise solutions is made by resorting to evolutionary algorithms, which are well suited to tackle multiobjective problems of combinatorial nature herein involving the identification and selection of control actions to be applied to groups of loads. (Author)

  9. Design and performance of beam test electronics for the PHENIX multiplicity vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The system architecture and test results of the custom circuits and beam test system for the Multiplicity-Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX detector collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are presented in this paper. The final detector per-channel signal processing chain will consist of a preamplifier-gain stage, a current-mode summed multiplicity discriminator, a 64-deep analog memory (simultaneous read-write), a post-memory analog correlator, and a 10-bit 5 μs ADC. The Heap Manager provides all timing control, data buffering, and data formatting for a single 256-channel multi-chip module (MCM). Each chip set is partitioned into 32-channel sets. Beam test (16-cell deep memory) performance for the various blocks will be presented as well as the ionizing radiation damage performance of the 1.2 μ n-well CMOS process used for preamplifier fabrication

  10. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A robust procedure for comparing multiple means under heteroscedasticity in unbalanced designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Herberich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigating differences between means of more than two groups or experimental conditions is a routine research question addressed in biology. In order to assess differences statistically, multiple comparison procedures are applied. The most prominent procedures of this type, the Dunnett and Tukey-Kramer test, control the probability of reporting at least one false positive result when the data are normally distributed and when the sample sizes and variances do not differ between groups. All three assumptions are non-realistic in biological research and any violation leads to an increased number of reported false positive results. Based on a general statistical framework for simultaneous inference and robust covariance estimators we propose a new statistical multiple comparison procedure for assessing multiple means. In contrast to the Dunnett or Tukey-Kramer tests, no assumptions regarding the distribution, sample sizes or variance homogeneity are necessary. The performance of the new procedure is assessed by means of its familywise error rate and power under different distributions. The practical merits are demonstrated by a reanalysis of fatty acid phenotypes of the bacterium Bacillus simplex from the "Evolution Canyons" I and II in Israel. The simulation results show that even under severely varying variances, the procedure controls the number of false positive findings very well. Thus, the here presented procedure works well under biologically realistic scenarios of unbalanced group sizes, non-normality and heteroscedasticity.

  12. Low-cost design of next generation SONET/SDH networks with multiple constraints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karem, TR

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available on constraints programming satisfaction technology is proposed. The algorithm is tested in OPNET simulation environment using different network models derived from a hypothetical case study of an optical network design for Bellville area in Cape Town, South...

  13. Control room conceptual design of nuclear power plant with multiple modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Qianqian; Qu Ronghong; Zhang Liangju

    2014-01-01

    A conceptual design of the control room layout for the nuclear power plant with multiple modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors has been developed. The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors may need to be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands to realize the economic efficiency. There are many differences between the multi-modular plant and the current NPPs in the control room. These differences may include the staffing level, the human-machine interface design, the operation mode, etc. The potential challenges of the human factor engineering (HFE) in the control room of the multi-modular plant are analyzed, including the operation workload of the multi-modular tasks, how to help the crew to keep situation awareness of all modules, and how to support team work, the control of shared system between modules, etc. A concept design of control room for the multi-modular plant is presented based on the design aspect of HTR-PM (High temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble bed module). HFE issues are considered in the conceptual design of control room for the multi-modular plant and some design strategies are presented. As a novel conceptual design, verifications and validations are needed, and focus of further work is sketch out. (author)

  14. Designing Websites for Displaying Large Data Sets and Images on Multiple Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A.; Wolf, V. G.; Garron, J.; Kirschner, M.

    2012-12-01

    The desire to build websites to analyze and display ever increasing amounts of scientific data and images pushes for web site designs which utilize large displays, and to use the display area as efficiently as possible. Yet, scientists and users of their data are increasingly wishing to access these websites in the field and on mobile devices. This results in the need to develop websites that can support a wide range of devices and screen sizes, and to optimally use whatever display area is available. Historically, designers have addressed this issue by building two websites; one for mobile devices, and one for desktop environments, resulting in increased cost, duplicity of work, and longer development times. Recent advancements in web design technology and techniques have evolved which allow for the development of a single website that dynamically adjusts to the type of device being used to browse the website (smartphone, tablet, desktop). In addition they provide the opportunity to truly optimize whatever display area is available. HTML5 and CSS3 give web designers media query statements which allow design style sheets to be aware of the size of the display being used, and to format web content differently based upon the queried response. Web elements can be rendered in a different size, position, or even removed from the display entirely, based upon the size of the display area. Using HTML5/CSS3 media queries in this manner is referred to as "Responsive Web Design" (RWD). RWD in combination with technologies such as LESS and Twitter Bootstrap allow the web designer to build web sites which not only dynamically respond to the browser display size being used, but to do so in very controlled and intelligent ways, ensuring that good layout and graphic design principles are followed while doing so. At the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Satellite Facility SAR Data Center (ASF) recently redesigned their popular Vertex application and converted it from a

  15. Human-Centered Design and Evaluation of Haptic Cueing for Teleoperation of Multiple Mobile Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyoung Il; Franchi, Antonio; Chuang, Lewis L; Kim, Junsuk; Bulthoff, Heinrich H; Giordano, Paolo Robuffo

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of haptic cueing on a human operator's performance in the field of bilateral teleoperation of multiple mobile robots, particularly multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Two aspects of human performance are deemed important in this area, namely, the maneuverability of mobile robots and the perceptual sensitivity of the remote environment. We introduce metrics that allow us to address these aspects in two psychophysical studies, which are reported here. Three fundamental haptic cue types were evaluated. The Force cue conveys information on the proximity of the commanded trajectory to obstacles in the remote environment. The Velocity cue represents the mismatch between the commanded and actual velocities of the UAVs and can implicitly provide a rich amount of information regarding the actual behavior of the UAVs. Finally, the Velocity+Force cue is a linear combination of the two. Our experimental results show that, while maneuverability is best supported by the Force cue feedback, perceptual sensitivity is best served by the Velocity cue feedback. In addition, we show that large gains in the haptic feedbacks do not always guarantee an enhancement in the teleoperator's performance.

  16. Design and synthesis of multiple antigenic peptides and their application for dengue diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Reeta; Dubey, Sameer; Santosh, K V; Biswas, Ashutosh; Mehrotra, Vinit; Rao, D N

    2017-09-01

    Major difficulty in development of dengue diagnostics is availability of suitable antigens. To overcome this, we made an attempt to develop a peptide based diagnosis which offers significant advantage over other methods. With the help of in silico methods, two epitopes were selected from envelope protein and three from NS1 protein of dengue virus. These were synthesized in combination as three multiple antigenic peptides (MAPs). We have tested 157 dengue positive sera confirmed for NS1 antigen. MAP1 showed 96.81% sera positive for IgM and 68.15% positive for IgG. MAP2 detected 94.90% IgM and 59.23% IgG positive sera. MAP3 also detected 96.17% IgM and 59.87% IgG positive sera. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study describing the use of synthetic multiple antigenic peptides for the diagnosis of dengue infection. This study describes MAPs as a promising tool for the use in serodiagnosis of dengue. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 46 CFR 153.488 - Design and equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B. Unless waived under § 153.491, for a ship to have its Certificate of Inspection or Certificate of Compliance endorsed allowing a tank to carry...

  18. Care model design for E-health : Integration of point-of-care testing at Dutch general practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, Bart; van Kuijk, Kees; Simonse, W.L.

    2018-01-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT)—laboratory tests performed with new mobile devices and online technologies outside of the central laboratory—is rapidly outpacing the traditional laboratory test market, growing at a rate of 12 to 15% each year. POCT impacts the diagnostic process of care providers by

  19. Game Design and Homemade PowerPoint Games: An Examination of the Justifications and a Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research on educational games often focuses on the benefits that playing games has on student achievement. However, there is a growing body of research examining the benefits of having students design games rather than play them. Problems with game design as an instructional tool include the additional instruction on the programming language…

  20. Freed : a system for creating multiple views of a digital collection during the design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendels, P.; Overbeeke, C.J.; Frens, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Freed is presented, a system that enables design students to spatially organize their digital collection, define relations between collection content and reflect on it. The system features a force-based layout that allows to explore spatial organizations, and hence to gain new

  1. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Large-Scale 5G Networks: Interference Aware Design

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.; Elsawy, Hesham; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    the cell), which is a major performance limiting parameter in 5G networks. This article sheds light on the drastic negative-impact of intercell interference on the NOMA performance and advocates interference-aware NOMA design that jointly accounts for both

  2. Multiple Pathways to Learning: An Examination of Universal Design and Online Strategic Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Maryruth Wilks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of universally designed (UD) instruction on strategic learning in an online, interactive learning environment (ILE). The research focused on the premise that the customizable, media-based framework of UD instruction might influence diverse online learning strategies. This study…

  3. Data-driven soft sensor design with multiple-rate sampled data: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Schmidt, Torben M.

    2009-01-01

    to design quality soft sensors for cement kiln processes using data collected from a simulator and a plant log system. Preliminary results reveal that the WPLS approach is able to provide accurate one-step-ahead prediction. The regularized data lifting technique predicts the product quality of cement kiln...

  4. Multiple-bunch-length operating mode design for a storage ring using hybrid low alpha and harmonic cavity method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weiwei, E-mail: gaomqr@mail.ustc.edu.cn [College of Mathematics and Physics, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 (China); Wang, Lin; Li, Heting [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2017-03-11

    In this paper we design a simultaneous three bunch length operating mode at the HLS-II (Hefei Light Source II) storage ring by installing two harmonic cavities and minimizing the momentum compaction factor. The short bunches (2.6 mm) presented in this work will meet the requirement of coherent millimeter-wave and sub-THz radiation experiments, while the long bunches (20 mm) will efficiently increase the total beam current. Therefore, this multiple-bunch-length operating mode allows present synchrotron users and coherent millimeter-wave users (or sub THz users) to carry out their experiments simultaneously. Since the relatively low energy characteristic of HLS-II we achieve the multiple-bunch-length operating mode without multicell superconducting RF cavities, which is technically feasible.

  5. Design Studies for a Multiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation Experiments (MATRIX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Michael A.; Gougar, Hans D.; Ryskamp, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels testing along with radioisotope production. Should unforeseen circumstances lead to the decommissioning of ATR, the U.S. Government would be left without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could satisfy the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. A survey was conducted in order to catalogue the anticipated needs of potential customers. Then, concepts were evaluated to fill the role for this reactor, dubbed the Multi-Application Thermal Reactor Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX). The baseline MATRIX design is expected to be capable of longer cycle lengths than ATR given a particular batch scheme. The volume of test space in In-Pile-Tubes (IPTs) is larger in MATRIX than in ATR with comparable magnitude of neutron flux. Furthermore, MATRIX has more locations of greater volume having high fast neutron flux than ATR. From the analyses performed in this work, it appears that the lead MATRIX design can be designed to meet the anticipated needs of the ATR replacement reactor. However, this design is quite immature, and therefore any requirements currently met must be re-evaluated as the design is developed further.

  6. Designing and using multiple-possibility physics problems in physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoyan, Vazgen

    2012-02-01

    One important aspect of physics instruction is helping students develop better problem solving expertise. Besides enhancing the content knowledge, problems help students develop different cognitive abilities and skills. This presentation focuses on multiple-possibility problems (alternatively called ill-structured problems). These problems are different from traditional ``end of chapter'' single-possibility problems. They do not have one right answer and thus the student has to examine different possibilities, assumptions and evaluate the outcomes. To solve such problems one has to engage in a cognitive monitoring called epistemic cognition. It is an important part of thinking in real life. Physicists routinely use epistemic cognition when they solve problems. I have explored the instructional value of using such problems in introductory physics courses.

  7. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption without degrading the quality of service of the terminals. In our analysis, we start by deriving closed-form expressions of the optimal powers allocated to terminals. We then employ a strong optimization tool based on the particle swarm optimization technique to find the optimal power allocated at each relay antenna. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and show that it achieves a sub-optimal solution very close to the optimal one.

  8. A New Chaotic System with Multiple Attractors: Dynamic Analysis, Circuit Realization and S-Box Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about a novel three-dimensional chaotic system with three nonlinearities. The system has one stable equilibrium, two stable equilibria and one saddle node, two saddle foci and one saddle node for different parameters. One salient feature of this novel system is its multiple attractors caused by different initial values. With the change of parameters, the system experiences mono-stability, bi-stability, mono-periodicity, bi-periodicity, one strange attractor, and two coexisting strange attractors. The complex dynamic behaviors of the system are revealed by analyzing the corresponding equilibria and using the numerical simulation method. In addition, an electronic circuit is given for implementing the chaotic attractors of the system. Using the new chaotic system, an S-Box is developed for cryptographic operations. Moreover, we test the performance of this produced S-Box and compare it to the existing S-Box studies.

  9. A simple method for combining genetic mapping data from multiple crosses and experimental designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy L Peirce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past decade many linkage studies have defined chromosomal intervals containing polymorphisms that modulate a variety of traits. Many phenotypes are now associated with enough mapping data that meta-analysis could help refine locations of known QTLs and detect many novel QTLs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a simple approach to combining QTL mapping results for multiple studies and demonstrate its utility using two hippocampus weight loci. Using data taken from two populations, a recombinant inbred strain set and an advanced intercross population we demonstrate considerable improvements in significance and resolution for both loci. 1-LOD support intervals were improved 51% for Hipp1a and 37% for Hipp9a. We first generate locus-wise permuted P-values for association with the phenotype from multiple maps, which can be done using a permutation method appropriate to each population. These results are then assigned to defined physical positions by interpolation between markers with known physical and genetic positions. We then use Fisher's combination test to combine position-by-position probabilities among experiments. Finally, we calculate genome-wide combined P-values by generating locus-specific P-values for each permuted map for each experiment. These permuted maps are then sampled with replacement and combined. The distribution of best locus-specific P-values for each combined map is the null distribution of genome-wide adjusted P-values. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach is applicable to a wide variety of segregating and non-segregating mapping populations, facilitates rapid refinement of physical QTL position, is complementary to other QTL fine mapping methods, and provides an appropriate genome-wide criterion of significance for combined mapping results.

  10. First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Mills, Michael J.; Richter, Jadwiga H.; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tribbia, Joseph J.; Vitt, Francis

    2017-12-01

    We describe the first simulations of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering using multiple injection locations to meet multiple simultaneous surface temperature objectives. Simulations were performed using CESM1(WACCM), a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with fully interactive stratospheric chemistry, dynamics (including an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation), and a sophisticated treatment of sulfate aerosol formation, microphysical growth, and deposition. The objectives are defined as maintaining three temperature features at their 2020 levels against a background of the RCP8.5 scenario over the period 2020-2099. These objectives are met using a feedback mechanism in which the rate of sulfur dioxide injection at each of the four locations is adjusted independently every year of simulation. Even in the presence of uncertainties, nonlinearities, and variability, the objectives are met, predominantly by SO2 injection at 30°N and 30°S. By the last year of simulation, the feedback algorithm calls for a total injection rate of 51 Tg SO2 per year. The injections are not in the tropics, which results in a greater degree of linearity of the surface climate response with injection amount than has been found in many previous studies using injection at the equator. Because the objectives are defined in terms of annual mean temperature, the required geongineering results in "overcooling" during summer and "undercooling" during winter. The hydrological cycle is also suppressed as compared to the reference values corresponding to the year 2020. The demonstration we describe in this study is an important step toward understanding what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.

  11. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  12. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

    2015-01-30

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance-covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Concurrent topological design of composite structures and materials containing multiple phases of distinct Poisson's ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kai; Yuan, Philip F.; Xu, Shanqing; Xie, Yi Min

    2018-04-01

    Most studies on composites assume that the constituent phases have different values of stiffness. Little attention has been paid to the effect of constituent phases having distinct Poisson's ratios. This research focuses on a concurrent optimization method for simultaneously designing composite structures and materials with distinct Poisson's ratios. The proposed method aims to minimize the mean compliance of the macrostructure with a given mass of base materials. In contrast to the traditional interpolation of the stiffness matrix through numerical results, an interpolation scheme of the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using different parameters is adopted. The numerical results demonstrate that the Poisson effect plays a key role in reducing the mean compliance of the final design. An important contribution of the present study is that the proposed concurrent optimization method can automatically distribute base materials with distinct Poisson's ratios between the macrostructural and microstructural levels under a single constraint of the total mass.

  14. An FPGA-Based Multiple-Axis Velocity Controller and Stepping Motors Drives Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Chiu-Keng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Field Programmable Gate Array based system is a great hardware platform to support the implementation of hardware controllers such as PID controller and fuzzy controller. It is also programmed as hardware accelerator to speed up the mathematic calculation and greatly enhance the performance as applied to motor drive and motion control. Furthermore, the open structure of FPGA-based system is suitable for those designs with the ability of parallel processing or soft code processor embedded. In this paper, we apply the FPGA to a multi-axis velocity controller design. The developed system integrated three functions inside the FPGA chip, which are respectively the stepping motor drive, the multi-axis motion controller and the motion planning. Furthermore, an embedded controller with a soft code processor compatible to 8051 micro-control unit (MCU is built to handle the data transfer between the FPGA board and host PC. The MCU is also used to initialize the motion control and run the interpolator. The designed system is practically applied to a XYZ motion platform which is driven by stepping motors to verify its performance.

  15. Benefits and challenges of using the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design for testing an intervention for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viksveen, Petter; Relton, Clare; Nicholl, Jon

    2017-07-06

    Trials which test the effectiveness of interventions compared with the status quo frequently encounter challenges. The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT) design is an innovative approach to the design and conduct of pragmatic trials which seeks to address some of these challenges. In this article, we report our experiences with the first completed randomised controlled trial (RCT) using the cmRCT design. This trial-the Depression in South Yorkshire (DEPSY) trial-involved comparison of treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU plus the offer of an intervention for people with self-reported long-term moderate to severe depression. In the trial, we used an existing large population-based cohort: the Yorkshire Health Study. We discuss our experiences with recruitment, attrition, crossover, data analysis, generalisability of results, and cost. The main challenges in using the cmRCT design were the high crossover to the control group and the lower questionnaire response rate among patients who refused the offer of treatment. However, the design did help facilitate efficient and complete recruitment of the trial population as well as analysable data that were generalisable to the population of interest. Attrition rates were also smaller than those reported in other depression trials. This first completed full trial using the cmRCT design testing an intervention for self-reported depression was associated with a number of important benefits. Further research is required to compare the acceptability and cost effectiveness of standard pragmatic RCT design with the cmRCT design. ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN02484593 . Registered on 7 Jan 2013.

  16. Local Flexibility Market Design for Aggregators Providing Multiple Flexibility Services at Distribution Network Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Olivella-Rosell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a general description of local flexibility markets as a market-based management mechanism for aggregators. The high penetration of distributed energy resources introduces new flexibility services like prosumer or community self-balancing, congestion management and time-of-use optimization. This work is focused on the flexibility framework to enable multiple participants to compete for selling or buying flexibility. In this framework, the aggregator acts as a local market operator and supervises flexibility transactions of the local energy community. Local market participation is voluntary. Potential flexibility stakeholders are the distribution system operator, the balance responsible party and end-users themselves. Flexibility is sold by means of loads, generators, storage units and electric vehicles. Finally, this paper presents needed interactions between all local market stakeholders, the corresponding inputs and outputs of local market operation algorithms from participants and a case study to highlight the application of the local flexibility market in three scenarios. The local market framework could postpone grid upgrades, reduce energy costs and increase distribution grids’ hosting capacity.

  17. Development of multiple performance indices and system parameter study for the design of a MEMS accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Il; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2012-01-01

    For the design of a MEMS accelerometer, proper performance indices should be defined and employed. Performance indices are obtained using either an experimental method or a numerical method. In the present study, a vibration analysis model of a MEMS accelerometer is introduced to calculate three performance indices: sensitivity, measurable acceleration range, and measurable frequency range. The accuracy of the vibration analysis model is first validated by comparing its modal and transient results with those of a commercial finite element code. Measurable acceleration and frequency ranges versus allowable errors for electrical and mechanical sensitivities are obtained and the effects of system parameter variations on the three performance indices are investigated

  18. Design of a web portal for interdisciplinary image retrieval from multiple online image resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, F J; Frankewitsch, T; Prokosch, H-U

    2009-01-01

    Images play an important role in medicine. Finding the desired images within the multitude of online image databases is a time-consuming and frustrating process. Existing websites do not meet all the requirements for an ideal learning environment for medical students. This work intends to establish a new web portal providing a centralized access point to a selected number of online image databases. A back-end system locates images on given websites and extracts relevant metadata. The images are indexed using UMLS and the MetaMap system provided by the US National Library of Medicine. Specially developed functions allow to create individual navigation structures. The front-end system suits the specific needs of medical students. A navigation structure consisting of several medical fields, university curricula and the ICD-10 was created. The images may be accessed via the given navigation structure or using different search functions. Cross-references are provided by the semantic relations of the UMLS. Over 25,000 images were identified and indexed. A pilot evaluation among medical students showed good first results concerning the acceptance of the developed navigation structures and search features. The integration of the images from different sources into the UMLS semantic network offers a quick and an easy-to-use learning environment.

  19. A design of a wavelength-hopping time-spreading incoherent optical code division multiple access system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glesk, I.; Baby, V.

    2005-01-01

    We present the architecture and code design for a highly scalable, 2.5 Gb/s per user optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system. The system is scalable to 100 potential and more than 10 simultaneous users, each with a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10 -9 . The system architecture uses a fast wavelength-hopping, time-spreading codes. Unlike frequency and phase sensitive coherent OCDMA systems, this architecture utilizes standard on off keyed optical pulses allocated in the time and wavelength dimensions. This incoherent OCDMA approach is compatible with existing WDM optical networks and utilizes off the shelf components. We discuss the novel optical subsystem design for encoders and decoders that enable the realization of a highly scalable incoherent OCDMA system with rapid reconfigurability. A detailed analysis of the scalability of the two dimensional code is presented and select network deployment architectures for OCDMA are discussed (Authors)

  20. Design of high-order all-optical temporal differentiators based on multiple-phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulishov, Mykola; Azaña, José

    2007-05-14

    A simple and general approach for designing practical all-optical (all-fiber) arbitrary-order time differentiators is introduced here for the first time. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Nth time derivative of an input optical waveform can be obtained by reflection of this waveform in a single uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) incorporating N &pi-phase shifts properly located along its grating profile. The general design procedure of an arbitrary-order optical time differentiator based on a multiple-phase-shifted FBG is described and numerically demonstrated for up to fourth-order time differentiation. Our simulations show that the proposed approach can provide optical operation bandwidths in the tens-of-GHz regime using readily feasible FBG structures.

  1. A methodology for the design of experiments in computational intelligence with multiple regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Gestal, Marcos; Munteanu, Cristian R; Dorado, Julian; Pazos, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The design of experiments and the validation of the results achieved with them are vital in any research study. This paper focuses on the use of different Machine Learning approaches for regression tasks in the field of Computational Intelligence and especially on a correct comparison between the different results provided for different methods, as those techniques are complex systems that require further study to be fully understood. A methodology commonly accepted in Computational intelligence is implemented in an R package called RRegrs. This package includes ten simple and complex regression models to carry out predictive modeling using Machine Learning and well-known regression algorithms. The framework for experimental design presented herein is evaluated and validated against RRegrs. Our results are different for three out of five state-of-the-art simple datasets and it can be stated that the selection of the best model according to our proposal is statistically significant and relevant. It is of relevance to use a statistical approach to indicate whether the differences are statistically significant using this kind of algorithms. Furthermore, our results with three real complex datasets report different best models than with the previously published methodology. Our final goal is to provide a complete methodology for the use of different steps in order to compare the results obtained in Computational Intelligence problems, as well as from other fields, such as for bioinformatics, cheminformatics, etc., given that our proposal is open and modifiable.

  2. A methodology for the design of experiments in computational intelligence with multiple regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernandez-Lozano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of experiments and the validation of the results achieved with them are vital in any research study. This paper focuses on the use of different Machine Learning approaches for regression tasks in the field of Computational Intelligence and especially on a correct comparison between the different results provided for different methods, as those techniques are complex systems that require further study to be fully understood. A methodology commonly accepted in Computational intelligence is implemented in an R package called RRegrs. This package includes ten simple and complex regression models to carry out predictive modeling using Machine Learning and well-known regression algorithms. The framework for experimental design presented herein is evaluated and validated against RRegrs. Our results are different for three out of five state-of-the-art simple datasets and it can be stated that the selection of the best model according to our proposal is statistically significant and relevant. It is of relevance to use a statistical approach to indicate whether the differences are statistically significant using this kind of algorithms. Furthermore, our results with three real complex datasets report different best models than with the previously published methodology. Our final goal is to provide a complete methodology for the use of different steps in order to compare the results obtained in Computational Intelligence problems, as well as from other fields, such as for bioinformatics, cheminformatics, etc., given that our proposal is open and modifiable.

  3. The Design of New HIV-IN Tethered Bifunctional Inhibitors using Multiple Microdomain Targeted Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Mihai; Musat, Mihaela Georgiana; Surleac, Marius; Ionita, Elena; Petrescu, Andrei Jose; Abele, Edgars; Abele, Ramona

    2018-04-05

    Currently used antiretroviral HIV therapy drugs exclusively target critical groups in the enzymes essential for the viral life cycle. Increased mutagenesis of their genes, changes these viral enzymes which once mutated can evade therapeutic targeting, effects which confer drug resistance. To circumvent this, our review addresses a strategy to design and derive HIV-Integrase (HIV-IN) inhibitors which simultaneously target two IN functional domains, rendering it inactive even if the enzyme accumulates many mutations. First we review the enzymatic role of IN to insert the copied viral DNA into a chromosome of the host T lymphocyte, highlighting its main functional and structural features to be subjected to inhibitory action. From a functional and structural perspective we present all classes of HIV-IN inhibitors with their most representative candidates. For each chosen compound we also explain its mechanism of IN inhibition. We use the recently resolved cryo EM IN tetramer intasome DNA complex [1] onto which we dock various reference IN inhibitory chemical scaffolds such as to target adjacent functional IN domains. Pairing compounds with complementary activity, which dock in the vicinity of a IN structural microdomain, we design bifunctional new drugs which may not only be more resilient to IN mutations but also may be more potent inhibitors than their original counterparts. In the end of our review we propose synthesis pathways to link such paired compounds with enhanced synergistic IN inhibitory effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Examining Design and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Rubric Measuring Research Quality across Multiple Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilee J. Bresciani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rubric to help evaluate the quality of research projects. The rubric was applied in a competition across a variety of disciplines during a two-day research symposium at one institution in the southwest region of the United States of America. It was collaboratively designed by a faculty committee at the institution and was administered to 204 undergraduate, master, and doctoral oral presentations by approximately 167 different evaluators. No training or norming of the rubric was given to 147 of the evaluators prior to the competition. The findings of the inter-rater reliability analysis reveal substantial agreement among the judges, which contradicts literature describing the fact that formal norming must occur prior to seeing substantial levels of inter-rater reliability. By presenting the rubric along with the methodology used in its design and evaluation, it is hoped that others will find this to be a useful tool for evaluating documents and for teaching research methods.

  5. Multiple approaches to valuation of conservation design and low-impact development features in residential subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Troy; Tyndall, John C; Thompson, Janette; Kliebenstein, James; Colletti, Joe P

    2012-08-15

    Residents, developers and civic officials are often faced with difficult decisions about appropriate land uses in and around metropolitan boundaries. Urban expansion brings with it the potential for negative environmental impacts, but there are alternatives, such as conservation subdivision design (CSD) or low-impact development (LID), which offer the possibility of mitigating some of these effects at the development site. Many urban planning jurisdictions across the Midwest do not currently have any examples of these designs and lack information to identify public support or barriers to use of these methods. This is a case study examining consumer value for conservation and low-impact design features in one housing market by using four different valuation techniques to estimate residents' willingness to pay for CSD and LID features in residential subdivisions. A contingent valuation survey of 1804 residents in Ames, IA assessed familiarity with and perceptions of subdivision development and used an ordered value approach to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. A majority of residents were not familiar with CSD or LID practices. Residents indicated a willingness to pay for most CSD and LID features with the exception of clustered housing. Gender, age, income, familiarity with LID practices, perceptions of attractiveness of features and the perceived effect of CSD and LID features on ease of future home sales were important factors influencing residents' willingness to pay. A hypothetical referendum measured willingness to pay for tax-funded conservation land purchases and estimated that a property tax of around $50 would be the maximum increase that would pass. Twenty-seven survey respondents participated in a subsequent series of experimental real estate negotiations that used an experimental auction mechanism to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. Participants indicated that clustered housing (with interspersed preserved forest

  6. Relevancies of multiple-interaction events and signal-to-noise ratio for Anger-logic based PET detector designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    A fundamental challenge for PET block detector designs is to deploy finer crystal elements while limiting the number of readout channels. The standard Anger-logic scheme including light sharing (an 8 by 8 crystal array coupled to a 2×2 photodetector array with an optical diffuser, multiplexing ratio: 16:1) has been widely used to address such a challenge. Our work proposes a generalized model to study the impacts of two critical parameters on spatial resolution performance of a PET block detector: multiple interaction events and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The study consists of the following three parts: (1) studying light output profile and multiple interactions of 511 keV photons within crystal arrays of different crystal widths (from 4 mm down to 1 mm, constant height: 20 mm); (2) applying the Anger-logic positioning algorithm to investigate positioning/decoding uncertainties (i.e., "block effect") in terms of peak-to-valley ratio (PVR), with light sharing, multiple interactions and photodetector SNR taken into account; and (3) studying the dependency of spatial resolution on SNR in the context of modulation transfer function (MTF). The proposed model can be used to guide the development and evaluation of a standard Anger-logic based PET block detector including: (1) selecting/optimizing the configuration of crystal elements for a given photodetector SNR; and (2) predicting to what extent additional electronic multiplexing may be implemented to further reduce the number of readout channels.

  7. Designing Kerr interactions using multiple superconducting qubit types in a single circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Matthew; Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2018-02-01

    The engineering of Kerr interactions is of great interest for processing quantum information in multipartite quantum systems and for investigating many-body physics in a complex cavity-qubit network. We study how coupling multiple different types of superconducting qubits to the same cavity modes can be used to modify the self- and cross-Kerr effects acting on the cavities and demonstrate that this type of architecture could be of significant benefit for quantum technologies. Using both analytical perturbation theory results and numerical simulations, we first show that coupling two superconducting qubits with opposite anharmonicities to a single cavity enables the effective self-Kerr interaction to be diminished, while retaining the number splitting effect that enables control and measurement of the cavity field. We demonstrate that this reduction of the self-Kerr effect can maintain the fidelity of coherent states and generalised Schrödinger cat states for much longer than typical coherence times in realistic devices. Next, we find that the cross-Kerr interaction between two cavities can be modified by coupling them both to the same pair of qubit devices. When one of the qubits is tunable in frequency, the strength of entangling interactions between the cavities can be varied on demand, forming the basis for logic operations on the two modes. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of producing an array of cavities and qubits where intermediary and on-site qubits can tune the strength of self- and cross-Kerr interactions across the whole system. This architecture could provide a way to engineer interesting many-body Hamiltonians and be a useful platform for quantum simulation in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Identification of Critical Design Points for the EAP of a Space-based Doppler Lidar Wind Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of making tropospheric wind measurements with a space-based Doppler lidar was studied by a number of agencies over the past 10-15 years. Currently NASA has a plan to launch such an instrument, the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), within the next decade. The design of the LAWS continues to undergo a series of iterations common to most instruments targeted for a space platform. In general, the constraints of available platform power, weight allowance, and project funds continue to change. With these changes the performance and design specifications also must change.

  9. The project of documentary space 'ExploRe' Opened pluri-disciplinary exploration of reversibility: multiple-point of view access to exploratory works of Andra on reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahier, Jean-Pierre; Desfriches, Orelie; Zacklad, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a digital space (a web site - 'ExploRe') which would allows a community to share a set of pluri-disciplinary information items concerning reversibility, and in which the community members describe the items by using attributes and themes belonging to different points of view

  10. Note to Budget Cutters: The Arts Are Good Business--Multiple Studies Point to Arts Education as an Important Economic Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    They say desperate times call for desperate measures. But in this time of economic uncertainty, the desperate cutting of budgets for arts funding and, by extension, all types of arts education, including music, is not prudent. That is the consensus of several national and local studies, which converge on a single point--that the arts actually can…

  11. The software design of multi-branch, multi-point remote monitoring system for temperature measurement based on MSP430 and DS18B20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun; Yan Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper present that the system can acquire the remote temperature measurement data of 40 monitoring points, through the RS-232 serial port and the Intranet. System's hardware is consist of TI's MSP430F149 mixed-signal processor and UA7000A network module. Using digital temperature sensor DS18B20, the structure is simple and easy to expand, the sensors directly send out the temperature data, MSP430F149 has the advantage of ultra-low-power and high degree of integration. Using msp430F149, the multi-branch multi-point temperature measurement system is powerful, simple structure, high reliability, strong anti-interference capability. The client software is user-friendly and easy to use, it is designed in Microsoft Visual C+ +6.0 environment. The monitoring system is able to complete a total of 4 branches of the 40-point temperature measurements in real-time remote monitoring. (authors)

  12. Design of turn-around-point long-period gratings in a photonic crystal fiber for refractometry of gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 6 (2013), s. 16-24 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11030; GA MŠk(CZ) LF11001 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber design * Photonic crystal fiber * Microstructured optical fiber Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2013

  13. Design of thermoelectrically highly efficient Heusler compounds using phase separations and nano-composites under an economic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Benjamin

    Half-Heusler (HH) compounds are one of the most promising candidates for thermoelectric materials for automotive and industrial waste heat recovery applications. In this talk, I will give an overview about our recent investigations of phase separations in HH thermoelectrics, focusing on the ternary system TiNiSn-ZrNiSn-HfNiSn. I will show how we adapted this knowledge to design a p-type HH compound which exhibits a ZT that is increased by 130% compared to the best published bulk p-type Heusler. I will also present how we used the phase separation to design thermoelectric highly efficient nano-composites of different single-phase materials. Since the price for Hafnium doubled within the last year, our research focused on the design of HH compounds without Hafnium. I will present a very recent calculation on ZT per Euro and efficiency per Euro for various materials followed by our latest very promising results for n-type Heusler compunds without Hafnium resulting in 20 times higher ZT/Euro values. These results strongly underline the importance of phase separations as a powerful tool for designing highly efficient materials for thermoelectric applications that fulfill the industrial demands for a thermoelectric converter. The author gratefully acknowledges financial support by the thermoHEUSLER2 Project (Project No. 19U15006F) of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi).

  14. Operational procedure for computer program for design point characteristics of a compressed-air generator with through-flow combustor for V/STOL applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    The computer program described in this report calculates the design-point characteristics of a compressed-air generator for use in V/STOL applications such as systems with a tip-turbine-driven lift fan. The program computes the dimensions and mass, as well as the thermodynamic performance of a model air generator configuration which involves a straight through-flow combustor. Physical and thermodynamic characteristics of the air generator components are also given. The program was written in FORTRAN IV language. Provision has been made so that the program will accept input values in either SI units or U.S. customary units. Each air generator design-point calculation requires about 1.5 seconds of 7094 computer time for execution.

  15. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  16. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  17. Modelling and design of a capacitive touch sensor for urinary tract infection detection at the point-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cátia; Dong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Due to great use of touchscreens in mobile telephones and other electronic devices, there has been great evolution in this technology. Its wide applicability makes the touch sensor technology suitable for detection of specific components in urine, responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI). Integration of a touch sensor in a disposable probe tip to be used in UTI detection represents a powerful tool to develop new point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The simplified structure of an electrodes array touch screen was simulated using the software COMSOL Multiphysics to prove that capacitive based touch screens can be used for detection of UTI. Besides we assumed presence of E.coli, one of the major causes of UTI urine. Results show that global capacitance increases if an E.coli sphere is present near the active electrodes, remaining approximately constant when further apart electrodes are excited. The output simulated voltage varies according to the capacitance value, decreasing when the capacitance is increased.

  18. Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S; Haak, J; Wilke, F; Hübner, C; Dahms, C; Hoffmann, W; Kramer, A

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions.

  19. A Small Modular Reactor Design for Multiple Energy Applications: HTR50S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X.; Tachibana, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Sato, H.; Tazawa, Y.; Kunitomi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    HTR50S is a small modular reactor system based on HTGR. It is designed for a triad of applications to be implemented in successive stages. In the first stage, a base plant for heat and power is constructed of the fuel proven in JAEA's 950 .deg. C, 30MWt test reactor HTTR and a conventional steam turbine to minimize development risk. While the outlet temperature is lowered to 750 .deg. C for the steam turbine, thermal power is raised to 50MWt by enabling 40% greater power density in 20% taller core than the HTTR. However the fuel temperature limit and reactor pressure vessel diameter are kept. In second stage, a new fuel that is currently under development at JAEA will allow the core outlet temperature to be raised to 900 .deg. C for the purpose of demonstrating more efficient gas turbine power generation and high temperature heat supply. The third stage adds a demonstration of nuclear-heated hydrogen production by a thermochemical process. A licensing approach to coupling high temperature industrial process to nuclear reactor will be developed. The low initial risk and the high longer-term potential for performance expansion attract development of the HTR50S as a multipurpose industrial or distributed energy source.

  20. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Luis; Jiménez, Mariano; Espinosa, María Del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system. From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data. Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants.

  1. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Romero

    Full Text Available This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system.From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data.Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants.

  2. Design of a Soft Robot with Multiple Motion Patterns Using Soft Pneumatic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yu; Dong, Wei; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-11-01

    Soft robots are made of soft materials and have good flexibility and infinite degrees of freedom in theory. These properties enable soft robots to work in narrow space and adapt to external environment. In this paper, a 2-DOF soft pneumatic actuator is introduced, with two chambers symmetrically distributed on both sides and a jamming cylinder along the axis. Fibers are used to constrain the expansion of the soft actuator. Experiments are carried out to test the performance of the soft actuator, including bending and elongation characteristics. A soft robot is designed and fabricated by connecting four soft pneumatic actuators to a 3D-printed board. The soft robotic system is then established. The pneumatic circuit is built by pumps and solenoid valves. The control system is based on the control board Arduino Mega 2560. Relay modules are used to control valves and pressure sensors are used to measure pressure in the pneumatic circuit. Experiments are conducted to test the performance of the proposed soft robot.

  3. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Luis; Jiménez, Mariano; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system. Method From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data. Results Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants. PMID:26696528

  4. Applications of multiple change point detections to monthly streamflow and rainfall in Xijiang River in southern China, part II: trend and mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongqin David; Jiang, Jianmin; Zhu, Yuxiang; Huang, Changxing; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    This article, as part II, illustrates applications of other two algorithms, i.e., the scanning F test of change points in trend and the scanning t test of change points in mean, to both series of the normalized streamflow index (NSI) at Makou section in the Xijiang River and the normalized precipitation index (NPI) over the watershed of Xijiang River. The results from these two tests show mainly positive coherency of changes between the NSI and NPI. However, some minor negative coherency patches may expose somewhat impacts of human activities, but they were often associated with nearly normal climate periods. These suggest that the runoff still depends upon well the precipitation in the Xijiang catchment. The anthropogenic disturbances have not yet reached up to violating natural relationship on the whole in this river.

  5. Spatial Evaluation of Multiple Benefits to Encourage Multi-Functional Design of Sustainable Drainage in Blue-Green Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fenner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban drainage systems that incorporate elements of green infrastructure (SuDS/GI are central features in Blue-Green and Sponge Cities. Such approaches provide effective control of stormwater management whilst generating a range of other benefits. However these benefits often occur coincidentally and are not developed or maximised in the original design. Of all the benefits that may accrue, the relevant dominant benefits relating to specific locations and socio-environmental circumstances need to be established, so that flood management functions can be co-designed with these wider benefits to ensure both are achieved during system operation. The paper reviews a number of tools which can evaluate the multiple benefits of SuDS/GI interventions in a variety of ways and introduces new concepts of benefit intensity and benefit profile. Examples of how these concepts can be applied is provided in a case study of proposed SuDS/GI assets in the central area of Newcastle; UK. Ways in which SuDS/GI features can be actively extended to develop desired relevant dominant benefits are discussed; e.g., by (i careful consideration of tree and vegetation planting to trap air pollution; (ii extending linear SuDS systems such as swales to enhance urban connectivity of green space; and (iii managing green roofs for the effective attenuation of noise or carbon sequestration. The paper concludes that more pro-active development of multiple benefits is possible through careful co-design to achieve the full extent of urban enhancement SuDS/GI schemes can offer.

  6. Design and synthesis of an amphiphilic graft hydrogel having a hydrophobic domain formed by multiple interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, Kyohei [Department of Life and Functional Material Science, Graduate School of Natural Science, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (DC1), Ichibancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8471 (Japan); Kimoto, Atsushi [Department of Chemistry of Functional Molecules, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Watanabe, Junji, E-mail: junjiknd@konan-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry of Functional Molecules, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    A novel hydrogel having hydrophobic oligo segments and hydrophilic poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid) (PAGA) as pH responsive polymer segments was designed and synthesized to be used as a soft biomaterial. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as the side chain, for which the degrees of polymerization were 9, 19, and 49, and the composition ratios were 1, 5, and 10 mol%, was used as the oligo segment in the hydrogel. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel was investigated under various changes in conditions such as pH, temperature, and hydrogen bonding upon urea addition. Under pH 2–11 conditions, the graft gel reversibly swelled and shrank due to the effect of PAGA main chain. The interior morphology and skin layer of the hydrogel was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The hydrogel composed of PAGA as the hydrophilic polymer backbone had a sponge-like structure, with a pore size of approximately 100 μm. On the other hand, upon increasing the ratio of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) units in the hydrogel, the pores became smaller or disappeared. Moreover, thickness of the skin layer significantly increased with the swelling ratio depended on the incorporation ratios of the PTMC macromonomer. Molecular incorporation in the hydrogel was evaluated using a dye as a model drug molecule. These features would play an important role in drug loading. Increasing the ratio of TMC units favored the adsorption of the dye and activation of the incorporation behavior. - Highlights: • Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction are dominant factor for forming hydrogels. • Hydrogel properties were tuned by changing in graft length and macromonomer content in feed. • The resulting graft gel could encapsulate and retain organic dye in the hydrogel. • Poly(trimethylene carbonate) segment in the hydrogel was dominant unit for hydrogel.

  7. Design and synthesis of an amphiphilic graft hydrogel having a hydrophobic domain formed by multiple interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Kyohei; Kimoto, Atsushi; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrogel having hydrophobic oligo segments and hydrophilic poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid) (PAGA) as pH responsive polymer segments was designed and synthesized to be used as a soft biomaterial. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as the side chain, for which the degrees of polymerization were 9, 19, and 49, and the composition ratios were 1, 5, and 10 mol%, was used as the oligo segment in the hydrogel. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel was investigated under various changes in conditions such as pH, temperature, and hydrogen bonding upon urea addition. Under pH 2–11 conditions, the graft gel reversibly swelled and shrank due to the effect of PAGA main chain. The interior morphology and skin layer of the hydrogel was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The hydrogel composed of PAGA as the hydrophilic polymer backbone had a sponge-like structure, with a pore size of approximately 100 μm. On the other hand, upon increasing the ratio of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) units in the hydrogel, the pores became smaller or disappeared. Moreover, thickness of the skin layer significantly increased with the swelling ratio depended on the incorporation ratios of the PTMC macromonomer. Molecular incorporation in the hydrogel was evaluated using a dye as a model drug molecule. These features would play an important role in drug loading. Increasing the ratio of TMC units favored the adsorption of the dye and activation of the incorporation behavior. - Highlights: • Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction are dominant factor for forming hydrogels. • Hydrogel properties were tuned by changing in graft length and macromonomer content in feed. • The resulting graft gel could encapsulate and retain organic dye in the hydrogel. • Poly(trimethylene carbonate) segment in the hydrogel was dominant unit for hydrogel.

  8. Natural abundant solid state NMR studies in designed tripeptides for differentiation of multiple conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, S; Chatterjee, Bhaswati; Raghothama, S

    2009-10-01

    Solid state NMR (SSNMR) experiments on heteronuclei in natural abundance are described for three synthetically designed tripeptides Piv-(L)Pro-(L)Pro-(L)Phe-OMe (1), Piv-(D)Pro-(L)Pro-(L)Phe-OMe (2), and Piv-(D)Pro-(L)Pro-(L)Phe-NHMe (3). These peptides exist in different conformation as shown by solution state NMR and single crystal X-ray analysis (Chatterjee et al., Chem Eur J 2008, 14, 6192). In this study, SSNMR has been used to probe the conformations of these peptides in their powder form. The (13)C spectrum of peptide (1) showed doubling of resonances corresponding to cis/cis form, unlike in solution where the similar doubling is attributed to cis/trans form. This has been confirmed by the chemical shift differences of C(beta) and C(gamma) carbon of Proline in peptide (1) both in solution and SSNMR. Peptide (2) and (3) provided single set of resonances which represented all trans form across the di-Proline segment. The results are in agreement with the X-ray analysis. Solid state (15)N resonances, especially from Proline residues provided additional information, which is normally not observable in solution state NMR. (1)H chemical shifts are also obtained from a two-dimensional heteronuclear correlation experiment between (1)H--(13)C. The results confirm the utility of NMR as a useful tool for identifying different conformers in peptides in the solid state. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 851-860, 2009.

  9. [Key points for esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth using chair-side computer aided design and computer aided manufacture technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Feng, H L

    2018-04-09

    With the rapid development of the chair-side computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology, its accuracy and operability of have been greatly improved in recent years. Chair-side CAD/CAM system may produce all kinds of indirect restorations, and has the advantages of rapid, accurate and stable production. It has become the future development direction of Stomatology. This paper describes the clinical application of the chair-side CAD/CAM technology for anterior aesthetic restorations from the aspects of shade and shape.

  10. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  11. A Survivable Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network with Both Point-to-Point Service and Broadcast Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuejiao; Gan, Chaoqin; Deng, Shiqi; Huang, Yan

    2011-11-01

    A survivable wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network enabling both point-to-point service and broadcast service is presented and demonstrated. This architecture provides an automatic traffic recovery against feeder and distribution fiber link failure, respectively. In addition, it also simplifies the protection design for multiple services transmission in wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks.

  12. Multi-point Shock and Flux Rope Analysis of Multiple Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections around 2010 August 1 in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, C.; Farrugia, C. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Jian, L. K.; Liu, Y.; Eastwood, J. P.; Harrison, R. A.; Webb, D. F.; Temmer, M.; Odstrcil, D.; Davies, J. A.; Rollett, T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Nitta, N.; Mulligan, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Forsyth, R.; Lavraud, B.; de Koning, C. A.; Veronig, A. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Zhang, T. L.; Anderson, B. J.

    2012-10-01

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120° in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index (≈ - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

  13. MULTI-POINT SHOCK AND FLUX ROPE ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AROUND 2010 AUGUST 1 IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moestl, C.; Liu, Y.; Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Farrugia, C. J. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Kilpua, E. K. J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland); Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Eastwood, J. P.; Forsyth, R. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom); Webb, D. F. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Newton, MA (United States); Temmer, M.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A. M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Odstrcil, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Nitta, N. [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Mulligan, T. [Space Science Applications Laboratory, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); Jensen, E. A. [ACS Consulting, Houston, TX (United States); Lavraud, B. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), F-31400 Toulouse (France); De Koning, C. A., E-mail: christian.moestl@uni-graz.at [NOAA/SWPC, Boulder, Colorado (United States); and others

    2012-10-10

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120 Degree-Sign in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index ( Almost-Equal-To - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

  14. Design of a Novel Low Cost Point of Care Tampon (POCkeT) Colposcope for Use in Resource Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christopher T.; Krieger, Marlee S.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Asma, Betsy; Muasher, Lisa C.; Schmitt, John W.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines by WHO for cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries involves visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) of the cervix, followed by treatment during the same visit or a subsequent visit with cryotherapy if a suspicious lesion is found. Implementation of these guidelines is hampered by a lack of: trained health workers, reliable technology, and access to screening facilities. A low cost ultra-portable Point of Care Tampon based digital colposcope (POCkeT Colposcope) for use at the community level setting, which has the unique form factor of a tampon, can be inserted into the vagina to capture images of the cervix, which are on par with that of a state of the art colposcope, at a fraction of the cost. A repository of images to be compiled that can be used to empower front line workers to become more effective through virtual dynamic training. By task shifting to the community setting, this technology could potentially provide significantly greater cervical screening access to where the most vulnerable women live. The POCkeT Colposcope’s concentric LED ring provides comparable white and green field illumination at a fraction of the electrical power required in commercial colposcopes. Evaluation with standard optical imaging targets to assess the POCkeT Colposcope against the state of the art digital colposcope and other VIAM technologies. Results Our POCkeT Colposcope has comparable resolving power, color reproduction accuracy, minimal lens distortion, and illumination when compared to commercially available colposcopes. In vitro and pilot in vivo imaging results are promising with our POCkeT Colposcope capturing comparable quality images to commercial systems. Conclusion The POCkeT Colposcope is capable of capturing images suitable for cervical lesion analysis. Our portable low cost system could potentially increase access to cervical cancer screening in limited resource settings through task shifting to community

  15. Numerical flow simulation methods and additive manufacturing methods for the development of a flow optimised design of a novel point-of-care diagnostic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dethloff Manuel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For the development of a novel, user-friendly and low cost point-of-care diagnostic device for the detection of disease specific biomarker a flow optimised design of the test system has to be investigated. The resulting test system is characterised by a reduced execution period, a reduction of execution steps and an integrated waste management. Based on previous results, the current study focused on the design implementation of the fluidic requirements, e. g. tightness, inside the test device. With the help of fluid flow simulations (CFD – computational fluid dynamics the flow behaviour inside the test device was analysed for different designs and arrangements. Prototypes generated from additive manufacturing technologies (PolyJet modeling are used for validating the simulation results and further experimental tests.

  16. After Action Report:Idaho National Laboratory (INL) 2014 Multiple Facility Beyond Design Basis (BDBE) Evaluated Drill October 21, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, V. Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    On October 21, 2014, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in coordination with local jurisdictions, and Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) conducted an evaluated drill to demonstrate the ability to implement the requirements of DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System” when responding to a beyond design basis event (BDBE) scenario as outlined in the Office of Health, Safety, and Security Operating Experience Level 1 letter (OE-1: 2013-01). The INL contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), in coordination with CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC (CWI), and Idaho Treatment Group LLC (ITG), successfully demonstrated appropriate response measures to mitigate a BDBE event that would impact multiple facilities across the INL while protecting the health and safety of personnel, the environment, and property. Offsite response organizations participated to demonstrate appropriate response measures.

  17. Mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard X-ray focusing in twenty-nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Liu, Jie; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg M.; Roehrig, Christian; Wojcik, Michael J.; Vogt, Franz Stefan

    2017-04-04

    An enhanced mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing in a twenty-nanometer scale is provided. The precision alignment apparatus includes a zone plate alignment base frame; a plurality of zone plates; and a plurality of zone plate holders, each said zone plate holder for mounting and aligning a respective zone plate for hard x-ray focusing. At least one respective positioning stage drives and positions each respective zone plate holder. Each respective positioning stage is mounted on the zone plate alignment base frame. A respective linkage component connects each respective positioning stage and the respective zone plate holder. The zone plate alignment base frame, each zone plate holder and each linkage component is formed of a selected material for providing thermal expansion stability and positioning stability for the precision alignment apparatus.

  18. A national assessment of underground natural gas storage: identifying wells with designs likely vulnerable to a single-point-of-failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michanowicz, Drew R.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Rowland, Sebastian T.; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Goho, Shaun A.; Bernstein, Aaron S.

    2017-05-01

    The leak of processed natural gas (PNG) from October 2015 to February 2016 from the Aliso Canyon storage facility, near Los Angeles, California, was the largest single accidental release of greenhouse gases in US history. The Interagency Task Force on Natural Gas Storage Safety and California regulators recently recommended operators phase out single-point-of-failure (SPF) well designs. Here, we develop a national dataset of UGS well activity in the continental US to assess regulatory data availability and uncertainty, and to assess the prevalence of certain well design deficiencies including single-point-of-failure designs. We identified 14 138 active UGS wells associated with 317 active UGS facilities in 29 states using regulatory and company data. State-level wellbore datasets contained numerous reporting inconsistencies that limited data concatenation. We identified 2715 active UGS wells across 160 facilities that, like the failed well at Aliso Canyon, predated the storage facility, and therefore were not originally designed for gas storage. The majority (88%) of these repurposed wells are located in OH, MI, PA, NY, and WV. Repurposed wells have a median age of 74 years, and the 2694 repurposed wells constructed prior to 1979 are particularly likely to exhibit design-related deficiencies. An estimated 210 active repurposed wells were constructed before 1917—before cement zonal isolation methods were utilized. These wells are located in OH, PA, NY, and WV and represent the highest priority related to potential design deficiencies that could lead to containment loss. This national baseline assessment identifies regulatory data uncertainties, highlights a potentially widespread vulnerability of the natural gas supply chain, and can aid in prioritization and oversight for high-risk wells and facilities.

  19. Per-point and per-field contextual classification of multipolarization and multiple incidence angle aircraft L-band radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Roger M.; Hussin, Yousif Ali

    1989-01-01

    Multipolarized aircraft L-band radar data are classified using two different image classification algorithms: (1) a per-point classifier, and (2) a contextual, or per-field, classifier. Due to the distinct variations in radar backscatter as a function of incidence angle, the data are stratified into three incidence-angle groupings, and training and test data are defined for each stratum. A low-pass digital mean filter with varied window size (i.e., 3x3, 5x5, and 7x7 pixels) is applied to the data prior to the classification. A predominately forested area in northern Florida was the study site. The results obtained by using these image classifiers are then presented and discussed.

  20. Multiple positive solutions of nonlinear singular m-point boundary value problem for second-order dynamic equations with sign changing coefficients on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Xu

    2010-04-01

    \\end{array}\\right.$$ where $1\\leq k\\leq s\\leq m-2, a_i, b_i\\in(0,+\\infty$ with $0<\\sum_{i=1}^{k}b_{i}-\\sum_{i=k+1}^{s}b_{i}<1, 0<\\sum_{i=1}^{m-2}a_{i}<1, 0<\\xi_1<\\xi_2<\\cdots<\\xi_{m-2}<\\rho(T$, $f\\in C( [0,+\\infty,[0,+\\infty$, $a(t$ may be singular at $t=0$. We show that there exist two positive solutions by using two different fixed point theorems respectively. As an application, some examples are included to illustrate the main results. In particular, our criteria extend and improve some known results.