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Sample records for multiple base excision

  1. An inverse switch in DNA base excision and strand break repair contributes to melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells.

    Mirta M L Sousa

    Full Text Available Alterations in checkpoint and DNA repair pathways may provide adaptive mechanisms contributing to acquired drug resistance. Here, we investigated the levels of proteins mediating DNA damage signaling and -repair in RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cells and its Melphalan-resistant derivative 8226-LR5. We observed markedly reduced steady-state levels of DNA glycosylases UNG2, NEIL1 and MPG in the resistant cells and cross-resistance to agents inducing their respective DNA base lesions. Conversely, repair of alkali-labile sites was apparently enhanced in the resistant cells, as substantiated by alkaline comet assay, autoribosylation of PARP-1, and increased sensitivity to PARP-1 inhibition by 4-AN or KU58684. Reduced base-excision and enhanced single-strand break repair would both contribute to the observed reduction in genomic alkali-labile sites, which could jeopardize productive processing of the more cytotoxic Melphalan-induced interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs. Furthermore, we found a marked upregulation of proteins in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathway of double-strand break (DSB repair, likely contributing to the observed increase in DSB repair kinetics in the resistant cells. Finally, we observed apparent upregulation of ATR-signaling and downregulation of ATM-signaling in the resistant cells. This was accompanied by markedly increased sensitivity towards Melphalan in the presence of ATR-, DNA-PK, or CHK1/2 inhibitors whereas no sensitizing effect was observed subsequent to ATM inhibition, suggesting that replication blocking lesions are primary triggers of the DNA damage response in the Melphalan resistant cells. In conclusion, Melphalan resistance is apparently contributed by modulation of the DNA damage response at multiple levels, including downregulation of specific repair pathways to avoid repair intermediates that could impair efficient processing of cytotoxic ICLs and ICL-induced DSBs. This study has revealed several novel

  2. Mitochondrial base excision repair assays

    Maynard, Scott; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The main source of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal cellular metabolism. The main mtDNA lesions generated by ROS are base modifications, such as the ubiquitous 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesion; however, base loss and strand breaks may also occur....... Many human diseases are associated with mtDNA mutations and thus maintaining mtDNA integrity is critical. All of these lesions are repaired primarily by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. It is now known that mammalian mitochondria have BER, which, similarly to nuclear BER, is catalyzed by DNA...... glycosylases, AP endonuclease, DNA polymerase (POLgamma in mitochondria) and DNA ligase. This article outlines procedures for measuring oxidative damage formation and BER in mitochondria, including isolation of mitochondria from tissues and cells, protocols for measuring BER enzyme activities, gene...

  3. Black-hole excision with multiple grid patches

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    When using black-hole excision to numerically evolve a black-hole spacetime with no continuous symmetries, most 3 + 1 finite differencing codes use a Cartesian grid. It is difficult to do excision on such a grid because the natural r = constant excision surface must be approximated either by a very different shape such as a contained cube, or by an irregular and non-smooth 'LEGO 1 sphere' which may introduce numerical instabilities into the evolution. In this paper I describe an alternate scheme which uses multiple {r x (angular coordinates)} grid patches, each patch using a different (nonsingular) choice of angular coordinates. This allows excision on a smooth r = constant 2-sphere. I discuss the key design choices in such a multiple-patch scheme, including the choice of ghost-zone versus internal-boundary treatment of the interpatch boundaries (I use a ghost-zone scheme), the number and shape of the patches (I use a 6-patch 'inflated-cube' scheme), the details of how the ghost zones are 'synchronized' by interpolation from neighbouring patches, the tensor basis for the Einstein equations in each patch, and the handling of non-tensor field variables such as the BSSN Γ-tilde i (I use a scheme which requires ghost zones which are twice as wide for the BSSN conformal factor φ as for Γ-tilde i and the other BSSN field variables). I present sample numerical results from a prototype implementation of this scheme. This code simulates the time evolution of the (asymptotically flat) spacetime around a single (excised) black hole, using fourth-order finite differencing in space and time. Using Kerr initial data with J/m 2 = 0.6, I present evolutions to t ∼> 1500m. The lifetime of these evolutions appears to be limited only by outer boundary instabilities, not by any excision instabilities or by any problems inherent to the multiple-patch scheme

  4. Base excision repair, aging and health span

    Xu, G.; Herzig, M.; Rotrekl, Vladimír; Walter, Ch. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 129, 7-8 (2008), s. 366-382 ISSN 0047-6374 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : base excision repair * aging * DNA damage Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.915, year: 2008

  5. Black-hole excision with multiple grid patches

    Thornburg, Jonathan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2004-08-07

    When using black-hole excision to numerically evolve a black-hole spacetime with no continuous symmetries, most 3 + 1 finite differencing codes use a Cartesian grid. It is difficult to do excision on such a grid because the natural r = constant excision surface must be approximated either by a very different shape such as a contained cube, or by an irregular and non-smooth 'LEGO{sup 1} sphere' which may introduce numerical instabilities into the evolution. In this paper I describe an alternate scheme which uses multiple {l_brace}r x (angular coordinates){r_brace} grid patches, each patch using a different (nonsingular) choice of angular coordinates. This allows excision on a smooth r = constant 2-sphere. I discuss the key design choices in such a multiple-patch scheme, including the choice of ghost-zone versus internal-boundary treatment of the interpatch boundaries (I use a ghost-zone scheme), the number and shape of the patches (I use a 6-patch 'inflated-cube' scheme), the details of how the ghost zones are 'synchronized' by interpolation from neighbouring patches, the tensor basis for the Einstein equations in each patch, and the handling of non-tensor field variables such as the BSSN {gamma}-tilde{sup i} (I use a scheme which requires ghost zones which are twice as wide for the BSSN conformal factor {phi} as for {gamma}-tilde{sup i} and the other BSSN field variables). I present sample numerical results from a prototype implementation of this scheme. This code simulates the time evolution of the (asymptotically flat) spacetime around a single (excised) black hole, using fourth-order finite differencing in space and time. Using Kerr initial data with J/m{sup 2} = 0.6, I present evolutions to t {approx}> 1500m. The lifetime of these evolutions appears to be limited only by outer boundary instabilities, not by any excision instabilities or by any problems inherent to the multiple-patch scheme.

  6. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  7. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  8. Modeling base excision repair in Escherichia coli bacterial cells

    Belov, O.V.

    2011-01-01

    A model describing the key processes in Escherichia coli bacterial cells during base excision repair is developed. The mechanism is modeled of damaged base elimination involving formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (the Fpg protein), which possesses several types of activities. The modeling of the transitions between DNA states is based on a stochastic approach to the chemical reaction description

  9. Circumareolar incision-subdermal tunneling dissection for excision of multiple breast fibroadenomata

    S O Agodirin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excision of multiple fibroadenomas (MF in separate breast quadrants presents difficulties of number and location of incision(s and extent of tissue dissection and may be associated with more complications and poorer cosmetic outcome. This is a report of excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast using a modification of subcutaneous dissection technique dubbed the circumareolar incision and subdermal tunneling (CAST dissection. After exposure of the superficial fascia with circumareolar incision, subdermal cone-wise dissection was made to allow mobilization of the segment bearing the lump(s. The lump(s were enucleated and removed. MF were removed from four breasts in three young unmarried females. The first patient had multiple adenomas removed from three quadrants of both breasts: 14 on the right and six on the left. The second patient had excision of three lumps in three separate quadrants, and the third patient had excision of two lumps in two separate quadrants. All patients had edema and bruising. One breast had wound infection and dehiscence. There were no skin necrosis, no nipple loss, and no breast distortion. All ensuing scars were camouflaged. CAST dissection was used for excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast with preservation of excellent cosmetic outcome of a single circumareolar incision.

  10. Both base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair in humans are influenced by nutritional factors.

    Brevik, Asgeir; Karlsen, Anette; Azqueta, Amaya; Tirado, Anna Estaban; Blomhoff, Rune; Collins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Lack of reliable assays for DNA repair has largely prevented measurements of DNA repair from being included in human biomonitoring studies. Using newly developed modifications of the comet assay we tested whether a fruit- and antioxidant-rich plant-based intervention could affect base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) in a group of 102 male volunteers. BER and NER repair capacities were measured in lymphocytes before and after a dietary intervention lasting 8 weeks. The study had one control group, one group consuming three kiwifruits per day and one group consuming a variety of antioxidant-rich fruits and plant products in addition to their normal diet. DNA strand breaks were reduced following consumption of both kiwifruits (13%, p = 0.05) and antioxidant-rich plant products (20%, p = 0.02). Increased BER (55%, p = 0.01) and reduced NER (-39%, p plant products. Reduced NER was also observed in the kiwifruit group (-38%, p = 0.05), but BER was not affected in this group. Here we have demonstrated that DNA repair is affected by diet and that modified versions of the comet assay can be used to assess activity of different DNA repair pathways in human biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Modulation of DNA base excision repair during neuronal differentiation

    Sykora, Peter; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Ferrarelli, Leslie K

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage susceptibility and base excision DNA repair (BER) capacity in undifferentiated and differentiated human neural cells. The results show that undifferentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are less sensitive to oxidative damage than their differentiated counterparts, in part because...

  12. Base excision repair mechanisms and relevance to cancer susceptibility

    Dogliotti, E.; Wilson, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway is considered the predominant DNA repair system in mammalian cells for eliminating small DNA lesions generated at DNA bases either exogenously by environmental agents or endogenously by normal cellular metabolic processes (e.g. production of oxyradical species, alkylating agents, etc). The main goal of this project is the understanding of the involvement of BER in genome stability and in particular in sporadic cancer development associated with inflammation such as gastric cancer (GC). A major risk factor of GC is the infection by Helicobacter pylori, which causes oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by BER

  13. Nucleotide excision repair is a potential therapeutic target in multiple myeloma

    Szalat, R; Samur, M K; Fulciniti, M; Lopez, M; Nanjappa, P; Cleynen, A; Wen, K; Kumar, S; Perini, T; Calkins, A S; Reznichenko, E; Chauhan, D; Tai, Y-T; Shammas, M A; Anderson, K C; Fermand, J-P; Arnulf, B; Avet-Loiseau, H; Lazaro, J-B; Munshi, N C

    2018-01-01

    Despite the development of novel drugs, alkylating agents remain an important component of therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). DNA repair processes contribute towards sensitivity to alkylating agents and therefore we here evaluate the role of nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is involved in the removal of bulky adducts and DNA crosslinks in MM. We first evaluated NER activity using a novel functional assay and observed a heterogeneous NER efficiency in MM cell lines and patient samples. Using next-generation sequencing data, we identified that expression of the canonical NER gene, excision repair cross-complementation group 3 (ERCC3), significantly impacted the outcome in newly diagnosed MM patients treated with alkylating agents. Next, using small RNA interference, stable knockdown and overexpression, and small-molecule inhibitors targeting xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group B (XPB), the DNA helicase encoded by ERCC3, we demonstrate that NER inhibition significantly increases sensitivity and overcomes resistance to alkylating agents in MM. Moreover, inhibiting XPB leads to the dual inhibition of NER and transcription and is particularly efficient in myeloma cells. Altogether, we show that NER impacts alkylating agents sensitivity in myeloma cells and identify ERCC3 as a potential therapeutic target in MM. PMID:28588253

  14. Base Sequence Context Effects on Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Yuqin Cai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide excision repair (NER plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the genome when damaged by bulky DNA lesions, since inefficient repair can cause mutations and human diseases notably cancer. The structural properties of DNA lesions that determine their relative susceptibilities to NER are therefore of great interest. As a model system, we have investigated the major mutagenic lesion derived from the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 10S (+-trans-anti-B[a]P-2-dG in six different sequence contexts that differ in how the lesion is positioned in relation to nearby guanine amino groups. We have obtained molecular structural data by NMR and MD simulations, bending properties from gel electrophoresis studies, and NER data obtained from human HeLa cell extracts for our six investigated sequence contexts. This model system suggests that disturbed Watson-Crick base pairing is a better recognition signal than a flexible bend, and that these can act in concert to provide an enhanced signal. Steric hinderance between the minor groove-aligned lesion and nearby guanine amino groups determines the exact nature of the disturbances. Both nearest neighbor and more distant neighbor sequence contexts have an impact. Regardless of the exact distortions, we hypothesize that they provide a local thermodynamic destabilization signal for repair.

  15. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    Li, Han; Marple, Teresa; Hasty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H 2 O 2 and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs

  16. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    Li, Han [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain); Marple, Teresa [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Hasty, Paul, E-mail: hastye@uthscsa.edu [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs.

  17. Base excision repair deficiency in acute myeloid leukemia

    Scheer, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy of the hematopoietic system arising from a transformed myeloid progenitor cell. Genomic instability is the hallmark of AML and characterized by a variety of cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. Whereas 10% to 20% of AML cases reflect long-term sequelae of cytotoxic therapies for a primary disorder, the etiology for the majority of AMLs remains unknown. The integrity of DNA is under continuous attack from a variety of exogenous and endogenous DNA damaging agents. The majority of DNA damage is caused by constantly generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from metabolic by-products. Base excision repair (BER) is the major DNA repair mechanism dealing with DNA base lesions that are induced by oxidative stress or alkylation. In this study we investigated the BER in AML. Primary AML patients samples as well as AML cell lines were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). DNA damage induction and repair was monitored by the alkaline comet assay. In 15/30 leukemic samples from patients with therapy-related AML, in 13/35 with de novo AML and 14/26 with AML following a myelodysplastic syndrome, significantly reduced single strand breaks (SSBs) representing BER intermediates were found. In contrast, normal SSB formation was seen in mononuclear cells of 30 healthy individuals and 30/31 purified hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cell preparations obtained from umbilical cord blood. Additionally, in 5/10 analyzed AML cell lines, no SSBs were formed upon H 2 O 2 treatment, either. Differences in intracellular ROS concentrations or apoptosis could be excluded as reason for this phenomenon. A significantly diminished cleavage capacity for 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine as well as for Furan was observed in cell lines that exhibited no SSB formation. These data demonstrate for the first time that initial steps of BER are impaired in a proportion of AML cell lines and leukemic cells from patients with different forms of

  18. A history of the DNA repair and mutagenesis field: The discovery of base excision repair.

    Friedberg, Errol C

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the early history of the discovery of an DNA repair pathway designated as base excision repair (BER), since in contrast to the enzyme-catalyzed removal of damaged bases from DNA as nucleotides [called nucleotide excision repair (NER)], BER involves the removal of damaged or inappropriate bases, such as the presence of uracil instead of thymine, from DNA as free bases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Excision without excision

    Brown, David; Sarbach, Olivier; Schnetter, Erik; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel; Hawke, Ian; Pollney, Denis

    2007-01-01

    to turducken (turduckens, turduckening, turduckened, turduckened) [math.]: To stuff a black hole. We analyze and apply an alternative to black hole excision based on smoothing the interior of black holes with arbitrary initial data, and solving the vacuum Einstein evolution equations everywhere. By deriving the constraint propagation system for our hyperbolic formulation of the BSSN evolution system we rigorously prove that the constraints propagate causally and so any constraint violations introduced inside the black holes cannot affect the exterior spacetime. We present evolutions of Cook-Pfeiffer binary black hole initial configurations showing that these techniques appear to work robustly for generic data. We also present evidence from spherically symmetric evolutions that for the gauge conditions used the same stationary end-state is approached irrespective of the choice of initial data and smoothing procedure

  20. Enhanced base excision repair capacity in carotid atherosclerosis may protect nuclear DNA but not mitochondrial DNA

    Skarpengland, Tonje; B. Dahl, Tuva; Skjelland, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Lesional and systemic oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, potentially leading to accumulation of DNA base lesions within atherosclerotic plaques. Although base excision repair (BER) is a major pathway counteracting oxidative DNA damage, our knowledge on BER...

  1. Facial resurfacing with a monoblock full-thickness skin graft after multiple malignant melanomas excision in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Uygur, Safak; Eryilmaz, Tolga; Ak, Betul

    2012-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by vulnerability of the skin to solar radiation. Increase in sunlight-induced cancer is a direct consequence of an increase in mutated cells of the skin of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. There is no specific technique for facial resurfacing in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In this article, a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum with multiple malignant melanomas on her face and radical excision of total facial skin followed by facial resurfacing with monoblock full-thickness skin graft from the abdomen is presented.

  2. X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 in base excision repair

    Hanssen-Bauer, Audun; Solvang-Garten, Karin; Akbari, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate the assembly of large...

  3. Base excision repair deficient mice lacking the Aag alkyladenine DNA glycosylase.

    B.P. Engelward (Bevin); G. Weeda (Geert); M.D. Wyatt; J.L.M. Broekhof (Jose'); J. de Wit (Jan); I. Donker (Ingrid); J.M. Allan (James); B. Gold (Bert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); L.D. Samson (Leona)

    1997-01-01

    textabstract3-methyladenine (3MeA) DNA glycosylases remove 3MeAs from alkylated DNA to initiate the base excision repair pathway. Here we report the generation of mice deficient in the 3MeA DNA glycosylase encoded by the Aag (Mpg) gene. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase turns out to be the major DNA

  4. The role of DNA base excision repair in brain homeostasis and disease

    Akbari, Mansour; Morevati, Marya; Croteau, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification and spontaneous loss of nucleotide bases from DNA are estimated to occur at the rate of thousands per human cell per day. DNA base excision repair (BER) is a critical mechanism for repairing such lesions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Defective expression or function of p...... energy homeostasis, mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics, with especially strong influence on neurological function. Further studies in this area could lead to novel approaches to prevent and treat human neurodegenerative disease....

  5. Genetic variation in the base excision repair pathway, environmental risk factors, and colorectal adenoma risk.

    Roman Corral

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking, high alcohol intake, and low dietary folate levels are risk factors for colorectal adenomas. Oxidative damage caused by these three factors can be repaired through the base excision repair pathway (BER. We hypothesized that genetic variation in BER might modify colorectal adenoma risk. In a sigmoidoscopy-based study, we examined associations between 182 haplotype tagging SNPs in 14 BER genes, and colorectal adenoma risk, and examined their potential role as modifiers of the effect cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and dietary folate levels. Among all individuals, no statistically significant associations between BER SNPs and adenoma risk persisted after correction for multiple comparisons. However, among Asian-Pacific Islanders we observed two SNPs in FEN1 and one in NTHL1, and among African-Americans one SNP in APEX1 that were associated with colorectal adenoma risk. Significant associations were also observed between SNPs in the NEIL2 gene and rectal adenoma risk. Three SNPS modified the effect of smoking (MUTYH interaction p = 0.002; OGG1 interaction p = 0.013; FEN1 interaction p = 0.013, one SNP in LIG3 modified the effect of alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.024 and two SNPs in LIG3 modified the effect of dietary folate (interaction p = 0.001 and p = 0.08 on colorectal adenoma risk. These findings support a role for genetic variants in the BER pathway as potential modifiers of colorectal adenoma risk. Our findings strengthen the role of oxidative damage induced by key lifestyle and dietary risk factors in colorectal adenoma formation.

  6. How are base excision DNA repair pathways deployed in vivo? [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Upasna Thapar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the base excision repair (BER system for DNA more than 40 years ago, new branches of the pathway have been revealed at the biochemical level by in vitro studies. Largely for technical reasons, however, the confirmation of these subpathways in vivo has been elusive. We review methods that have been used to explore BER in mammalian cells, indicate where there are important knowledge gaps to fill, and suggest a way to address them.

  7. Selective base excision repair of DNA damage by the non-base-flipping DNA glycosylase AlkC

    Shi, Rongxin; Mullins, Elwood A.; Shen, Xing; #8208; Xing; Lay, Kori T.; Yuen, Philip K.; David, Sheila S.; Rokas, Antonis; Eichman, Brandt F. (UCD); (Vanderbilt)

    2017-10-20

    DNA glycosylases preserve genome integrity and define the specificity of the base excision repair pathway for discreet, detrimental modifications, and thus, the mechanisms by which glycosylases locate DNA damage are of particular interest. Bacterial AlkC and AlkD are specific for cationic alkylated nucleobases and have a distinctive HEAT-like repeat (HLR) fold. AlkD uses a unique non-base-flipping mechanism that enables excision of bulky lesions more commonly associated with nucleotide excision repair. In contrast, AlkC has a much narrower specificity for small lesions, principally N3-methyladenine (3mA). Here, we describe how AlkC selects for and excises 3mA using a non-base-flipping strategy distinct from that of AlkD. A crystal structure resembling a catalytic intermediate complex shows how AlkC uses unique HLR and immunoglobulin-like domains to induce a sharp kink in the DNA, exposing the damaged nucleobase to active site residues that project into the DNA. This active site can accommodate and excise N3-methylcytosine (3mC) and N1-methyladenine (1mA), which are also repaired by AlkB-catalyzed oxidative demethylation, providing a potential alternative mechanism for repair of these lesions in bacteria.

  8. Surgical hip dislocation according to Ganz for excision of osteochondromas in patients with multiple hereditary exostoses

    Sorel, J. C.; Façee Schaeffer, M.; Homan, A. S.; Scholtes, V. A B; Kempen, D. H R; Ham, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We report a prospective cohort study of the midterm results of surgical dislocation of the hip (according to Ganz) to perform resection of osteochondromas involving the femoral neck in patients with multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE). Methods Hip range of movement (ROM) was assessed pre-and

  9. Initial steps of the base excision repair pathway within the nuclear architecture

    Amouroux, R.

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress induced lesions threaten aerobic organisms by representing a major cause of genomic instability. A common product of guanine oxidation, 8-oxo-guanine (8- oxoG) is particularly mutagenic by provoking G to T transversions. Removal of oxidised bases from DNA is initiated by the recognition and excision of the damaged base by a DNA glycosylase, initiating the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In mammals, 8-oxoG is processed by the 8-oxoG-DNA-glycosylase I (OGG1), which biochemical mechanisms has been well characterised in vitro. However how and where this enzyme finds the modified base within the complex chromatin architecture is not yet understood. We show that upon induction of 8-oxoG, OGG1, together with at least two other proteins involved in BER, is recruited from a soluble fraction to chromatin. Formation kinetics of this patches correlates with 8-oxoG excision, suggesting a direct link between presence of this chromatin-associated complexes and 8-oxoG repair. More precisely, these repair patches are specifically directed to euchromatin regions, and completely excluded from heterochromatin regions. Inducing of artificial chromatin compaction results in a complete inhibition of the in vivo repair of 8-oxoG, probably by impeding the access of OGG1 to the lesion. Using OGG1 mutants, we show that OGG1 direct recognition of 8-oxoG did not trigger its re-localisation to the chromatin. We conclude that in response to the induction of oxidative DNA damage, the DNA glycosylase is actively recruited to regions of open chromatin allowing the access of the BER machinery to the lesions. (author)

  10. Aag-initiated base excision repair promotes ischemia reperfusion injury in liver, brain, and kidney.

    Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Daneshmand, Ali; Mazumder, Aprotim; Allocca, Mariacarmela; Calvo, Jennifer A; Abolhassani, Nona; Jhun, Iny; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ayata, Cenk; Samson, Leona D

    2014-11-11

    Inflammation is accompanied by the release of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) that damage DNA, among other cellular molecules. Base excision repair (BER) is initiated by DNA glycosylases and is crucial in repairing RONS-induced DNA damage; the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag/Mpg) excises several DNA base lesions induced by the inflammation-associated RONS release that accompanies ischemia reperfusion (I/R). Using mouse I/R models we demonstrate that Aag(-/-) mice are significantly protected against, rather than sensitized to, I/R injury, and that such protection is observed across three different organs. Following I/R in liver, kidney, and brain, Aag(-/-) mice display decreased hepatocyte death, cerebral infarction, and renal injury relative to wild-type. We infer that in wild-type mice, Aag excises damaged DNA bases to generate potentially toxic abasic sites that in turn generate highly toxic DNA strand breaks that trigger poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) hyperactivation, cellular bioenergetics failure, and necrosis; indeed, steady-state levels of abasic sites and nuclear PAR polymers were significantly more elevated in wild-type vs. Aag(-/-) liver after I/R. This increase in PAR polymers was accompanied by depletion of intracellular NAD and ATP levels plus the translocation and extracellular release of the high-mobility group box 1 (Hmgb1) nuclear protein, activating the sterile inflammatory response. We thus demonstrate the detrimental effects of Aag-initiated BER during I/R and sterile inflammation, and present a novel target for controlling I/R-induced injury.

  11. Abnormal Base Excision Repair at Trinucleotide Repeats Associated with Diseases: A Tissue-Selective Mechanism

    Agathi-Vasiliki Goula

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available More than fifteen genetic diseases, including Huntington’s disease, myotonic dystrophy 1, fragile X syndrome and Friedreich ataxia, are caused by the aberrant expansion of a trinucleotide repeat. The mutation is unstable and further expands in specific cells or tissues with time, which can accelerate disease progression. DNA damage and base excision repair (BER are involved in repeat instability and might contribute to the tissue selectivity of the process. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat instability, focusing more specifically on the role of BER.

  12. Oxidatively-induced DNA damage and base excision repair in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Ceylan, Deniz; Tuna, Gamze; Kirkali, Güldal; Tunca, Zeliha; Can, Güneş; Arat, Hidayet Ece; Kant, Melis; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Özerdem, Ayşegül

    2018-05-01

    Oxidatively-induced DNA damage has previously been associated with bipolar disorder. More recently, impairments in DNA repair mechanisms have also been reported. We aimed to investigate oxidatively-induced DNA lesions and expression of DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy individuals. DNA base lesions including both base and nucleoside modifications were measured using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with isotope-dilution in DNA samples isolated from leukocytes of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (n = 32) and healthy individuals (n = 51). The expression of DNA repair enzymes OGG1 and NEIL1 were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The levels of malondialdehyde were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Seven DNA base lesions in DNA of leukocytes of patients and healthy individuals were identified and quantified. Three of them had significantly elevated levels in bipolar patients when compared to healthy individuals. No elevation of lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde was observed. The level of OGG1 expression was significantly reduced in bipolar patients compared to healthy individuals, whereas the two groups exhibited similar levels of NEIL1 expression. Our results suggest that oxidatively-induced DNA damage occurs and base excision repair capacity may be decreased in bipolar patients when compared to healthy individuals. Measurement of oxidatively-induced DNA base lesions and the expression of DNA repair enzymes may be of great importance for large scale basic research and clinical studies of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis by causing mutations, and indeed accumulation of oxidized DNA bases has been observed in samples obtained from tumors but not from surrounding tissue within the same patient. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway...... for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...

  14. Base excision repair in Archaea: back to the future in DNA repair.

    Grasso, Stefano; Tell, Gianluca

    2014-09-01

    Together with Bacteria and Eukarya, Archaea represents one of the three domain of life. In contrast with the morphological difference existing between Archaea and Eukarya, these two domains are closely related. Phylogenetic analyses confirm this evolutionary relationship showing that most of the proteins involved in DNA transcription and replication are highly conserved. On the contrary, information is scanty about DNA repair pathways and their mechanisms. In the present review the most important proteins involved in base excision repair, namely glycosylases, AP lyases, AP endonucleases, polymerases, sliding clamps, flap endonucleases, and ligases, will be discussed and compared with bacterial and eukaryotic ones. Finally, possible applications and future perspectives derived from studies on Archaea and their repair pathways, will be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA Damage and Base Excision Repair in Mitochondria and Their Role in Aging

    Ricardo Gredilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, our knowledge about the processes involved in the aging process has exponentially increased. However, further investigation will be still required to globally understand the complexity of aging. Aging is a multifactorial phenomenon characterized by increased susceptibility to cellular loss and functional decline, where mitochondrial DNA mutations and mitochondrial DNA damage response are thought to play important roles. Due to the proximity of mitochondrial DNA to the main sites of mitochondrial-free radical generation, oxidative stress is a major source of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Mitochondrial DNA repair mechanisms, in particular the base excision repair pathway, constitute an important mechanism for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA integrity. The results reviewed here support that mitochondrial DNA damage plays an important role in aging.

  16. Base excision DNA repair in the embryonic development of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Torgasheva, Natalya A; Menzorova, Natalya I; Sibirtsev, Yurii T; Rasskazov, Valery A; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-06-21

    In actively proliferating cells, such as the cells of the developing embryo, DNA repair is crucial for preventing the accumulation of mutations and synchronizing cell division. Sea urchin embryo growth was analyzed and extracts were prepared. The relative activity of DNA polymerase, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and other glycosylases was analyzed using specific oligonucleotide substrates of these enzymes; the reaction products were resolved by denaturing 20% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We have characterized the profile of several key base excision repair activities in the developing embryos (2 blastomers to mid-pluteus) of the grey sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The uracil-DNA glycosylase specific activity sharply increased after blastula hatching, whereas the specific activity of 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase steadily decreased over the course of the development. The AP-endonuclease activity gradually increased but dropped at the last sampled stage (mid-pluteus 2). The DNA polymerase activity was high at the first cleavage division and then quickly decreased, showing a transient peak at blastula hatching. It seems that the developing sea urchin embryo encounters different DNA-damaging factors early in development within the protective envelope and later as a free-floating larva, with hatching necessitating adaptation to the shift in genotoxic stress conditions. No correlation was observed between the dynamics of the enzyme activities and published gene expression data from developing congeneric species, S. purpuratus. The results suggest that base excision repair enzymes may be regulated in the sea urchin embryos at the level of covalent modification or protein stability.

  17. Repair of 3-methyladenine and abasic sites by base excision repair mediates glioblastoma resistance to temozolomide

    Bobola, Michael S.; Kolstoe, Douglas D.; Blank, A. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Chamberlain, Marc C. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Silber, John R., E-mail: jrsilber@u.washington.edu [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Alkylating agents have long played a central role in the adjuvant therapy of glioblastoma (GBM). More recently, inclusion of temozolomide (TMZ), an orally administered methylating agent with low systemic toxicity, during and after radiotherapy has markedly improved survival. Extensive in vitro and in vivo evidence has shown that TMZ-induced O{sup 6}-methylguanine (O{sup 6}-meG) mediates GBM cell killing. Moreover, low or absent expression of O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), the sole human repair protein that removes O{sup 6}-meG from DNA, is frequently associated with longer survival in GBMs treated with TMZ, promoting interest in developing inhibitors of MGMT to counter resistance. However, the clinical efficacy of TMZ is unlikely to be due solely to O{sup 6}-meG, as the agent produces approximately a dozen additional DNA adducts, including cytotoxic N3-methyladenine (3-meA) and abasic sites. Repair of 3-meA and abasic sites, both of which are produced in greater abundance than O{sup 6}-meG, is mediated by the base excision repair (BER) pathway, and occurs independently of removal of O{sup 6}-meG. These observations indicate that BER activities are also potential targets for strategies to potentiate TMZ cytotoxicity. Here we review the evidence that 3-meA and abasic sites mediate killing of GBM cells. We also present in vitro and in vivo evidence that alkyladenine-DNA glycosylase, the sole repair activity that excises 3-meA from DNA, and Ape1, the major human abasic site endonuclease, mediate TMZ resistance in GBMs and represent potential anti-resistance targets.

  18. Differential role of base excision repair proteins in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity.

    Sawant, Akshada; Floyd, Ashley M; Dangeti, Mohan; Lei, Wen; Sobol, Robert W; Patrick, Steve M

    2017-03-01

    Interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are covalent lesions formed by cisplatin. The mechanism for the processing and removal of ICLs by DNA repair proteins involves nucleotide excision repair (NER), homologous recombination (HR) and fanconi anemia (FA) pathways. In this report, we monitored the processing of a flanking uracil adjacent to a cisplatin ICL by the proteins involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Using a combination of extracts, purified proteins, inhibitors, functional assays and cell culture studies, we determined the specific BER proteins required for processing a DNA substrate with a uracil adjacent to a cisplatin ICL. Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) is the primary glycosylase responsible for the removal of uracils adjacent to cisplatin ICLs, whereas other uracil glycosylases can process uracils in the context of undamaged DNA. Repair of the uracil adjacent to cisplatin ICLs proceeds through the classical BER pathway, highlighting the importance of specific proteins in this redundant pathway. Removal of uracil is followed by the generation of an abasic site and subsequent cleavage by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). Inhibition of either the repair or redox domain of APE1 gives rise to cisplatin resistance. Inhibition of the lyase domain of Polymerase β (Polβ) does not influence cisplatin cytotoxicity. In addition, lack of XRCC1 leads to increased DNA damage and results in increased cisplatin cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that BER activation at cisplatin ICLs influences crosslink repair and modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity via specific UNG, APE1 and Polβ polymerase functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Base excision repair of both uracil and oxidatively damaged bases contribute to thymidine deprivation-induced radiosensitization

    Allen, Bryan G.; Johnson, Monika; Marsh, Anne E.; Dornfeld, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Increased cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation due to thymidine depletion is the basis of radiosensitization with fluoropyrimidine and methotrexate. The mechanism responsible for cytotoxicity has not been fully elucidated but appears to involve both the introduction of uracil into, and its removal from, DNA. The role of base excision repair of uracil and oxidatively damaged bases in creating the increased radiosensitization during thymidine depletion is examined. Methods and Materials: Isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae differing only at loci involved in DNA repair functions were exposed to aminopterin and sulfanilamide to induce thymidine deprivation. Cultures were irradiated and survival determined by clonogenic survival assay. Results: Strains lacking uracil base excision repair (BER) activities demonstrated less radiosensitization than the parental strain. Mutant strains continued to show partial radiosensitization with aminopterin treatment. Mutants deficient in BER of both uracil and oxidatively damaged bases did not demonstrate radiosensitization. A recombination deficient rad52 mutant strain was markedly sensitive to radiation; addition of aminopterin increased radiosensitivity only slightly. Radiosensitization observed in rad52 mutants was also abolished by deletion of the APN1, NTG1, and NTG2 genes. Conclusion: These data suggest radiosensitization during thymidine depletion is the result of BER activities directed at both uracil and oxidatively damaged bases

  20. The base excision repair pathway is required for efficient lentivirus integration.

    Kristine E Yoder

    Full Text Available An siRNA screen has identified several proteins throughout the base excision repair (BER pathway of oxidative DNA damage as important for efficient HIV infection. The proteins identified included early repair factors such as the base damage recognition glycosylases OGG1 and MYH and the late repair factor POLß, implicating the entire BER pathway. Murine cells with deletions of the genes Ogg1, Myh, Neil1 and Polß recapitulate the defect of HIV infection in the absence of BER. Defective infection in the absence of BER proteins was also seen with the lentivirus FIV, but not the gammaretrovirus MMLV. BER proteins do not affect HIV infection through its accessory genes nor the central polypurine tract. HIV reverse transcription and nuclear entry appear unaffected by the absence of BER proteins. However, HIV integration to the host chromosome is reduced in the absence of BER proteins. Pre-integration complexes from BER deficient cell lines show reduced integration activity in vitro. Integration activity is restored by addition of recombinant BER protein POLß. Lentiviral infection and integration efficiency appears to depend on the presence of BER proteins.

  1. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de, E-mail: nadja@iq.usp.br

    2015-06-15

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin.

  2. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de

    2015-01-01

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin

  3. DREMECELS: A Curated Database for Base Excision and Mismatch Repair Mechanisms Associated Human Malignancies.

    Ankita Shukla

    Full Text Available DNA repair mechanisms act as a warrior combating various damaging processes that ensue critical malignancies. DREMECELS was designed considering the malignancies with frequent alterations in DNA repair pathways, that is, colorectal and endometrial cancers, associated with Lynch syndrome (also known as HNPCC. Since lynch syndrome carries high risk (~40-60% for both cancers, therefore we decided to cover all three diseases in this portal. Although a large population is presently affected by these malignancies, many resources are available for various cancer types but no database archives information on the genes specifically for only these cancers and disorders. The database contains 156 genes and two repair mechanisms, base excision repair (BER and mismatch repair (MMR. Other parameters include some of the regulatory processes that have roles in these disease progressions due to incompetent repair mechanisms, specifically BER and MMR. However, our unique database mainly provides qualitative and quantitative information on these cancer types along with methylation, drug sensitivity, miRNAs, copy number variation (CNV and somatic mutations data. This database would serve the scientific community by providing integrated information on these disease types, thus sustaining diagnostic and therapeutic processes. This repository would serve as an excellent accompaniment for researchers and biomedical professionals and facilitate in understanding such critical diseases. DREMECELS is publicly available at http://www.bioinfoindia.org/dremecels.

  4. Discrepancies between biopsy-based and excision-based grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: the important role of time between excision and biopsy.

    Zhang, Lu; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Mingyu; Jia, Lin; Zhang, Youzhong

    2015-05-01

    We sought to evaluate the rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) ≤ 1 in loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) specimens after the treatment of biopsy-proven CIN 2-3, and to identify factors that are associated with the rate of CIN ≤ 1, especially focusing on the time interval between biopsy and LEEP. The goal of this research is to reduce the overtreatment of women with CIN 2-3. This was a retrospective study performed on women undergoing LEEP for biopsy-proven CIN 2-3 in Qilu hospital in Shandong, China. Patients were separated according to LEEP pathology (CIN ≤ 1 vs. CIN 2-3), and compared using the χ2 test and Student t test. The main outcome measures were pathologic discrepancy (defined as CIN 2-3 at biopsy, but CIN ≤ 1 at excision). Of the 391 women with biopsy-proven CIN 2-3, 26.9% had LEEP specimens with CIN ≤ 1 histologies. The likelihood of a CIN ≤ 1 LEEP specimen increases for greater biopsy-LEEP intervals (odds ratio, 1.374; 95% confidence interval, 1.089-1.735; P = 0.008). Cases in younger women and biopsy-assessed CIN 2 cases were both more likely to have CIN 1 or negative LEEP specimens. The rate of spontaneous histologic regression (defined as CIN ≤ 1 at resection) was 26.9%. These low-grade lesions were more common in LEEP specimens from young women with CIN 2 at biopsy, and who underwent LEEP later after the initial biopsy.

  5. Measurement of DNA base and nucleotide excision repair activities in mammalian cells and tissues using the comet assay - A methodological overview

    Azqueta, A.; Langie, S. A. S.; Slyšková, Jana; Collins, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2013), s. 1007-1010 ISSN 1568-7864 Grant - others:EU FP6(XE) LSHB-CT-2006-037575 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : comet assay * base excision repair * nucleotide excision repair Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.362, year: 2013

  6. On-bead fluorescent DNA nanoprobes to analyze base excision repair activities

    Gines, Guillaume; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier, E-mail: didier.gasparutto@cea.fr

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •On magnetic beads fluorescent enzymatic assays. •Simple, easy, non-radioactive and electrophoresis-free functional assay. •Lesion-containing hairpin DNA probes are selective for repair enzymes. •The biosensing platform allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or within cell free extracts. -- Abstract: DNA integrity is constantly threatened by endogenous and exogenous agents that can modify its physical and chemical structure. Changes in DNA sequence can cause mutations sparked by some genetic diseases or cancers. Organisms have developed efficient defense mechanisms able to specifically repair each kind of lesion (alkylation, oxidation, single or double strand break, mismatch, etc). Here we report the adjustment of an original assay to detect enzymes’ activity of base excision repair (BER), that supports a set of lesions including abasic sites, alkylation, oxidation or deamination products of bases. The biosensor is characterized by a set of fluorescent hairpin-shaped nucleic acid probes supported on magnetic beads, each containing a selective lesion targeting a specific BER enzyme. We have studied the DNA glycosylase alkyl-adenine glycosylase (AAG) and the human AP-endonuclease (APE1) by incorporating within the DNA probe a hypoxanthine lesion or an abasic site analog (tetrahydrofuran), respectively. Enzymatic repair activity induces the formation of a nick in the damaged strand, leading to probe's break, that is detected in the supernatant by fluorescence. The functional assay allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or in cell-free extracts in a fast, specific, quantitative and sensitive way, using only 1 pmol of probe for a test. We recorded a detection limit of 1 μg mL{sup −1} and 50 μg mL{sup −1} of HeLa nuclear extracts for APE1 and AAG enzymes, respectively. Finally, the on-bead assay should be useful to screen inhibitors of DNA repair

  7. On-bead fluorescent DNA nanoprobes to analyze base excision repair activities

    Gines, Guillaume; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •On magnetic beads fluorescent enzymatic assays. •Simple, easy, non-radioactive and electrophoresis-free functional assay. •Lesion-containing hairpin DNA probes are selective for repair enzymes. •The biosensing platform allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or within cell free extracts. -- Abstract: DNA integrity is constantly threatened by endogenous and exogenous agents that can modify its physical and chemical structure. Changes in DNA sequence can cause mutations sparked by some genetic diseases or cancers. Organisms have developed efficient defense mechanisms able to specifically repair each kind of lesion (alkylation, oxidation, single or double strand break, mismatch, etc). Here we report the adjustment of an original assay to detect enzymes’ activity of base excision repair (BER), that supports a set of lesions including abasic sites, alkylation, oxidation or deamination products of bases. The biosensor is characterized by a set of fluorescent hairpin-shaped nucleic acid probes supported on magnetic beads, each containing a selective lesion targeting a specific BER enzyme. We have studied the DNA glycosylase alkyl-adenine glycosylase (AAG) and the human AP-endonuclease (APE1) by incorporating within the DNA probe a hypoxanthine lesion or an abasic site analog (tetrahydrofuran), respectively. Enzymatic repair activity induces the formation of a nick in the damaged strand, leading to probe's break, that is detected in the supernatant by fluorescence. The functional assay allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or in cell-free extracts in a fast, specific, quantitative and sensitive way, using only 1 pmol of probe for a test. We recorded a detection limit of 1 μg mL −1 and 50 μg mL −1 of HeLa nuclear extracts for APE1 and AAG enzymes, respectively. Finally, the on-bead assay should be useful to screen inhibitors of DNA repair activities

  8. The mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in mitochondrial base excision repair

    Canugovi, Chandrika; Maynard, Scott; Bayne, Anne-Cécile V

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is an essential component of mitochondrial nucleoids. TFAM plays an important role in mitochondrial transcription and replication. TFAM has been previously reported to inhibit nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vitro but NER has not yet been detected i...

  9. Chromatin associated mechanisms in base excision repair - nucleosome remodeling and DNA transcription, two key players.

    Menoni, Hervé; Di Mascio, Paolo; Cadet, Jean; Dimitrov, Stefan; Angelov, Dimitar

    2017-06-01

    Genomic DNA is prone to a large number of insults by a myriad of endogenous and exogenous agents. The base excision repair (BER) is the major mechanism used by cells for the removal of various DNA lesions spontaneously or environmentally induced and the maintenance of genome integrity. The presence of persistent DNA damage is not compatible with life, since abrogation of BER leads to early embryonic lethality in mice. There are several lines of evidences showing existence of a link between deficient BER, cancer proneness and ageing, thus illustrating the importance of this DNA repair pathway in human health. Although the enzymology of BER mechanisms has been largely elucidated using chemically defined DNA damage substrates and purified proteins, the complex interplay of BER with another vital process like transcription or when DNA is in its natural state (i.e. wrapped in nucleosome and assembled in chromatin fiber is largely unexplored. Cells use chromatin remodeling factors to overcome the general repression associated with the nucleosomal organization. It is broadly accepted that energy-dependent nucleosome remodeling factors disrupt histones-DNA interactions at the expense of ATP hydrolysis to favor transcription as well as DNA repair. Importantly, unlike transcription, BER is not part of a regulated developmental process but represents a maintenance system that should be efficient anytime and anywhere in the genome. In this review we will discuss how BER can deal with chromatin organization to maintain genetic information. Emphasis will be placed on the following challenging question: how BER is initiated within chromatin? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal inhibition of human alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase activityin base excision repair

    Wang, Ping; Guliaev, Anton B.; Hang, Bo

    2006-02-28

    Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}), nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) and cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) are human and/or animal carcinogens. Zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) is not categorized as a carcinogen, and rather an essential element to humans. Metals were recently shown to inhibit DNA repair proteins that use metals for their function and/or structure. Here we report that the divalent ions Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} can inhibit the activity of a recombinant human N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) toward a deoxyoligonucleotide with ethenoadenine (var epsilonA). MPG removes a variety of toxic/mutagenic alkylated bases and does not require metal for its catalytic activity or structural integrity. At concentrations starting from 50 to 1000 {micro}M, both Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} showed metal-dependent inhibition of the MPG catalytic activity. Ni{sup 2+} also inhibited MPG, but to a lesser extent. Such an effect can be reversed with EDTA addition. In contrast, Co{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} did not inhibit the MPG activity in the same dose range. Experiments using HeLa cell-free extracts demonstrated similar patterns of inactivation of the var epsilonA excision activity by the same metals. Binding of MPG to the substrate was not significantly affected by Cd{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Ni{sup 2+} at concentrations that show strong inhibition of the catalytic function, suggesting that the reduced catalytic activity is not due to altered MPG binding affinity to the substrate. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with Zn{sup 2+} showed that the MPG active site has a potential binding site for Zn{sup 2+}, formed by several catalytically important and conserved residues. Metal binding to such a site is expected to interfere with the catalytic mechanism of this protein. These data suggest that inhibition of MPG activity may contribute to metal genotoxicity and depressed repair of alkylation damage by metals in vivo.

  11. DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) and Cancer Gene Therapy: Use of the Human N-mythlpurien DNA Glycosylase (MPG) to Sensitize Breast Cancer Cells to Low Dose Chemotherapy

    Harvey, Tia

    2003-01-01

    The DNA Base Excision Repair (PER) pathway is responsible for the repair of alkylation and oxidative DNA damage resulting in protection against the deleterious effects of endogenous and exogenous agents encountered on a daily basis...

  12. The degree of compliance based on excise duties in Romania between 2002 and 2015

    Todor Silvia Paula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal policy is an instrument that collects resources for the state budget necessary to perform state functions; stabilize the economy; regulation of the economy and recovery growth. The most important instruments are taxes and taxpayers. Since 1989, with the transition to a market economy, a special tax policy has been known by excise taxes. Analyzing the case of Romania and the evolution of excise duties (hereinafter ED conformity we created some regressions that illustrate the ED correlation in Romania between 2002 and 2015. The methodology used: three unifactorial regression models showing how ED impacts economic indicators such as GDP, power purchase expressed through the net annual average salary, and household final consumption expenditure. Moreover, each model has been tested and verified using statistic tests to give reliable results. In a first stage, we analyzed the correlation between GDP and consumption as endogen variable and ED, then we created another model that we kept ED as an independent variable, but we changed the dependent variable using the purchasing power as a dependent variable. Because according to the used tests we demonstrated that correlation coefficients are significant, we proceeded to explain them starting from fiscal policy and economic reality, own of these analyzed 14 years. In conclusion we highlighted below as the ED depends on GDP and consumption and the purchasing power can influence the ED. For future discussion and studies we intend to compare the results with other countries in different geographic areas in Europe

  13. IS IT NECESSARY TO EXCISE ALL BREAST LESIONS? EXPERIENCE FROM A UNIVERSITY-BASED BREAST UNIT

    YIP CH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is becoming more important in Asia since it affect the younger age group. Question arises whether it is safe for breast lesions to be left in-situ if all the elements in triple assessment are benign. The aim of this study is to audit all the excision biopsies of breast lumps done in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC, to review the association of age with the type of pathological finding and to evaluate the rate of carcinoma in these biopsies. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all women who had excision biopsy of a breast lump in the University Malaya Medical Centre from January 2005 to December 2006. All patients with malignant preoperative biopsies were excluded. Results: Of 717 lesions in 664 patients, 459 (64% were fibroadenoma, 114 (15.9% were fibrocystic disease, 20 (2.8% were phylloides tumour, 27 (3.8% were papilloma, 59 (8.2% were malignant and 38 (5.3% were of other pathology. Of the 717 open biopsies, 449 (62.6% had fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, 31 (4.3% had core needle biopsy (CNB, while 14 (2.0% had both FNAC and CNB done prior to excision biopsy. 251 (35% had neither FNAC nor CNB. The incidence of fibroadenoma decreased with increasing age and the incidence of fibrocystic changes and papilloma increased with increasing age. There was no association of age with phylloides tumour. The incidence of unexpected malignancy increased with increasing age. The incidence rates were 0.3%, 4.5%, 19.4%, 29.7% and 29.6% for the age group below 30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and above 60 years of age respectively. Of the 59 malignant lesions, FNAC was performed on 47 (79.7% and CNB on 16 (27.1%. 9 had both FNAC and CNB and 3 had neither FNAC nor CNB. Out of the 56 lesions where FNAC/CNB were done, 23 (41.1% were reported as benign, 20 (35.7% as suspicious, 4 (7.1% as atypical, 5 (8.9% as inadequate, 2 (3.6% as equivocal and 2 (3.6% as lymphoid lesions. Out of the 23 prior biopsies reported as

  14. Radiation-induced thymine base damage and its excision repair in active and inactive chromatin of HeLa cells

    Patil, M.S.; Locher, S.E.; Hariharan, P.V.

    1985-01-01

    The extent of production and excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type base (t') damage was determined in transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin of HeLa cells after exposure to 6.8 MeV electrons. It was observed that not only the yield but also rate of repair of t' products was greater in the active chromatin compared to the inactive chromatin of HeLa cells. The results strongly indicate that the conformation of chromatin is an important factor in determining the sensitivity to radiation damage and accessibility to enzymes required for repair of such damage. (author)

  15. Spontaneous germline excision of Tol1, a DNA-based transposable element naturally occurring in the medaka fish genome.

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koga, Hajime; Nakamura, Kodai; Fujita, Akiko; Hattori, Akimasa; Matsuda, Masaru; Koga, Akihiko

    2014-04-01

    DNA-based transposable elements are ubiquitous constituents of eukaryotic genomes. Vertebrates are, however, exceptional in that most of their DNA-based elements appear to be inactivated. The Tol1 element of the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, is one of the few elements for which copies containing an undamaged gene have been found. Spontaneous transposition of this element in somatic cells has previously been demonstrated, but there is only indirect evidence for its germline transposition. Here, we show direct evidence of spontaneous excision in the germline. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. In an albino laboratory strain of medaka fish, which is homozygous for a mutant tyrosinase gene in which a Tol1 copy is inserted, we identified de novo reversion mutations related to melanin pigmentation. The gamete-based reversion rate was as high as 0.4%. The revertant fish carried the tyrosinase gene from which the Tol1 copy had been excised. We previously reported the germline transposition of Tol2, another DNA-based element that is thought to be a recent invader of the medaka fish genome. Tol1 is an ancient resident of the genome. Our results indicate that even an old element can contribute to genetic variation in the host genome as a natural mutator.

  16. The mechanism of the glycosylase reaction with hOGG1 base-excision repair enzyme: concerted effect of Lys249 and Asp268 during excision of 8-oxoguanine

    Šebera, Jakub; Hattori, Y.; Sato, D.; Řeha, David; Nencka, Radim; Kohno, T.; Kojima, C.; Tanaka, Y.; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2017), s. 5231-5242 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27676S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : 8-oxoguanine * hOGG1 * QM/MM * NMR * base-excision repair Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/nar/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/nar/gkx157

  17. Targeted detection of in vivo endogenous DNA base damage reveals preferential base excision repair in the transcribed strand.

    Reis, António M C; Mills, Wilbur K; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Friedberg, Errol C; Thompson, David; Queimado, Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous DNA damage is removed mainly via base excision repair (BER), however, whether there is preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage is still under intense debate. We developed a highly sensitive primer-anchored DNA damage detection assay (PADDA) to map and quantify in vivo endogenous DNA damage. Using PADDA, we documented significantly higher levels of endogenous damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase than in exponential phase. We also documented that yeast BER-defective cells have significantly higher levels of endogenous DNA damage than isogenic wild-type cells at any phase of growth. PADDA provided detailed fingerprint analysis at the single-nucleotide level, documenting for the first time that persistent endogenous nucleotide damage in CAN1 co-localizes with previously reported spontaneous CAN1 mutations. To quickly and reliably quantify endogenous strand-specific DNA damage in the constitutively expressed CAN1 gene, we used PADDA on a real-time PCR setting. We demonstrate that wild-type cells repair endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. In contrast, yeast BER-defective cells accumulate endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. These data provide the first direct evidence for preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage and documents the major role of BER in this process.

  18. The Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Therapy on the DNA Base Excision Repair System of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Czarny, Piotr; Merecz-Sadowska, Anna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Szemraj, Janusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz; Karwowski, Bolesław

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can infect extrahepatic tissues, including lymphocytes, creating reservoir of the virus. Moreover, HCV proteins can interact with DNA damage response proteins of infected cells. In this article we investigated the influence of the virus infection and a new ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) anti-HCV therapy on the PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly lymphocytes) DNA base excision repair (BER) system. BER protein activity was analyzed in the nuclear and mitochondrial extracts (NE and ME) of PBMC isolated from patients before and after therapy, and from subjects without HCV, using modeled double-strand DNA, with 2'-deoxyuridine substitution as the DNA damage. The NE and ME obtained from patients before therapy demonstrated lower efficacy of 2'-deoxyuridine removal and DNA repair polymerization than those of the control group or patients after therapy. Moreover, the extracts from the patients after therapy had similar activity to those from the control group. However, the efficacy of apurinic/apyrimidinic site excision in NE did not differ between the studied groups. We postulate that infection of lymphocytes by the HCV can lead to a decrease in the activity of BER enzymes. However, the use of novel therapy results in the improvement of glycosylase activity as well as the regeneration of endonuclease and other crucial repair enzymes.

  19. Mitochondrial base excision repair in mouse synaptosomes during normal aging and in a model of Alzheimer's disease

    Diaz, Ricardo Gredilla; Weissman, Lior; Yang, JL

    2012-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with synaptic decline and synaptic function is highly dependent on mitochondria. Increased levels of oxidative DNA base damage and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations or deletions lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, playing an important role in the aging...... process and the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we have investigated the repair of oxidative base damage, in synaptosomes of mouse brain during normal aging and in an AD model. During normal aging, a reduction in the base excision repair (BER) capacity was observed...... suggest that the age-related reduction in BER capacity in the synaptosomal fraction might contribute to mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction during aging. The development of AD-like pathology in the 3xTgAD mouse model was, however, not associated with deficiencies of the BER mechanisms...

  20. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    2017 Nigerian Journal of Surgery | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Excision of ... This is a report of excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast using a ... Agodirin, et al. .... the breast: The Ribeiro technique modified by Rezai.

  1. Modulation of DNA polymerase beta-dependent base excision repair in cultured human cells after low dose exposure to arsenite

    Sykora, Peter; Snow, Elizabeth T.

    2008-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is crucial for development and for the repair of endogenous DNA damage. However, unlike nucleotide excision repair, the regulation of BER is not well understood. Arsenic, a well-established human carcinogen, is known to produce oxidative DNA damage, which is repaired primarily by BER, whilst high doses of arsenic can also inhibit DNA repair. However, the mechanism of repair inhibition by arsenic and the steps inhibited are not well defined. To address this question we have investigated the regulation of DNA polymerase β (Pol β) and AP endonuclease (APE1), in response to low, physiologically relevant doses of arsenic. GM847 lung fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to sodium arsenite, As(III), and mRNA, protein levels and BER activity were assessed. Both Pol β and APE1 mRNA exhibited significant dose-dependant down regulation at doses of As(III) above 1 μM. However, at lower doses Pol β mRNA and protein levels, and consequently, BER activity were significantly increased. In contrast, APE1 protein levels were only marginally increased by low doses of As(III) and there was no correlation between APE1 and overall BER activity. Enzyme supplementation of nuclear extracts confirmed that Pol β was rate limiting. These changes in BER correlated with overall protection against sunlight UV-induced toxicity at low doses of As(III) and produced synergistic toxicity at high doses. The results provide evidence that changes in BER due to low doses of arsenic could contribute to a non-linear, threshold dose response for arsenic carcinogenesis

  2. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L.; Jiang, Yanlin; Kelley, Mark R.; Vasko, Michael R.; Lee, Suk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons

  3. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Kim, Hyun-Suk [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Jiang, Yanlin [Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Kelley, Mark R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Vasko, Michael R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lee, Suk-Hee, E-mail: slee@iu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons.

  4. Distinct spatio temporal patterns and PARP dependence of XRCC1 recruitment to single-strand break and base excision repair

    Campalans, Anna; Kortulewski, Thierry; Amouroux, Rachel; Radicella, J. Pablo; Menoni, Herve; Vermeulen, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Single-strand break repair (SSBR) and base excision repair (BER) of modified bases and abasic sites share several players. Among them is XRCC1, an essential scaffold protein with no enzymatic activity, required for the coordination of both pathways. XRCC1 is recruited to SSBR by PARP-1, responsible for the initial recognition of the break. The recruitment of XRCC1 to BER is still poorly understood. Here we show by using both local and global induction of oxidative DNA base damage that XRCC1 participation in BER complexes can be distinguished from that in SSBR by several criteria. We show first that XRCC1 recruitment to BER is independent of PARP. Second, unlike SSBR complexes that are assembled within minutes after global damage induction, XRCC1 is detected later in BER patches, with kinetics consistent with the repair of oxidized bases. Third, while XRCC1-containing foci associated with SSBR are formed both in eu- and heterochromatin domains, BER complexes are assembled in patches that are essentially excluded from heterochromatin and where the oxidized bases are detected. (authors)

  5. DNA polymerases beta and lambda mediate overlapping and independent roles in base excision repair in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Elena K Braithwaite

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Base excision repair (BER is a DNA repair pathway designed to correct small base lesions in genomic DNA. While DNA polymerase beta (pol beta is known to be the main polymerase in the BER pathway, various studies have implicated other DNA polymerases in back-up roles. One such polymerase, DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda, was shown to be important in BER of oxidative DNA damage. To further explore roles of the X-family DNA polymerases lambda and beta in BER, we prepared a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line with deletions in the genes for both pol beta and pol lambda. Neutral red viability assays demonstrated that pol lambda and pol beta double null cells were hypersensitive to alkylating and oxidizing DNA damaging agents. In vitro BER assays revealed a modest contribution of pol lambda to single-nucleotide BER of base lesions. Additionally, using co-immunoprecipitation experiments with purified enzymes and whole cell extracts, we found that both pol lambda and pol beta interact with the upstream DNA glycosylases for repair of alkylated and oxidized DNA bases. Such interactions could be important in coordinating roles of these polymerases during BER.

  6. DNA Glycosylases Involved in Base Excision Repair May Be Associated with Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Osorio, Ana; Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of th...

  7. DNA Glycosylases Involved in Base Excision Repair May Be Associated with Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    A. Osorio (Ana); R.L. Milne (Roger); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); T. Vaclová (Tereza); G. Pita (Guillermo); R. Alonso (Rosario); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); I. Blanco (Ignacio); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); M. Durán (Mercedes); O. Díez (Orland); T. Ramon Y Cajal; I. Konstantopoulou (I.); C. Martínez-Bouzas (Cristina); R. Andrés Conejero (Raquel); P. Soucy (Penny); L. McGuffog (Lesley); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); A. Lee (Andrew); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); J. Rantala (Johanna); N. Loman (Niklas); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); M.S. Beattie (Mary); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); B.K. Arun (Banu); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); C.S. Walsh (Christine); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); E.M. John (Esther); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); M.B. Daly (Mary); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J.L. Hopper (John); M.-B. Terry (Mary-Beth); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); L. Steele (Linda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); L. Jønson (Lars); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); J. Infante (Jon); B. Herráez (Belén); L.T. Moreno (Leticia Thais); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); J. Herzog (Josef); K. Weeman (Kisa); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (D.); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); F. Mariette (F.); S. Volorio (Sara); A. Viel (Alessandra); L. Varesco (Liliana); L. Papi (Laura); L. Ottini (Laura); M.G. Tibiletti (Maria Grazia); P. Radice (Paolo); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); J. Garber; S.D. Ellis (Steve); D. Frost (Debra); R. Platte (Radka); E. Fineberg (Elena); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Eeles (Rosalind); J.W. Adlard (Julian); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); T.J. Cole (Trevor); D. Eccles (Diana); J. Cook (Jackie); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); C. Brewer (Carole); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); F. Douglas (Fiona); M.E. Porteous (Mary); L. Side (Lucy); L.J. Walker (Lisa); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); A. Donaldson (Alan); J. Kennedy (John); C. Foo (Claire); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); C.W. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); D. Niederacher (Dieter); C. Sutter (Christian); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); D. Steinemann (Doris); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); K. Kast (Karin); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); F. Damiola (Francesca); B. Poppe (Bruce); K. Claes (Kathleen); M. Piedmonte (Marion); K. Tucker (Kathryn); F.J. Backes (Floor); P.M. Rodríguez; W. Brewster (Wendy); K. Wakeley (Katie); T. Rutherford (Thomas); T. Caldes (Trinidad); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); M.A. Rookus (Matti); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); L. van der Kolk (Lizet); J.L. de Lange (J.); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); J.M. Collée (Margriet); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); P. Devilee (Peter); E. Olah (Edith); C. Lazaro (Conxi); A. Teulé (A.); M. Menéndez (Mireia); A. Jakubowska (Anna); C. Cybulski (Cezary); J. Gronwald (Jacek); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Durda (Katarzyna); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); O.T. Johannson (Oskar); C. Maugard; M. Montagna (Marco); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); P.J. Teixeira; S. Healey (Sue); C. Olswold (Curtis); L. Guidugli (Lucia); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); S. Slager (Susan); C. Szabo (Csilla); J. Vijai (Joseph); M. Robson (Mark); N. Kauff (Noah); L. Zhang (Lingling); R. Rau-Murthy (Rohini); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Rappaport (Christine); D. Geschwantler Kaulich (Daphne); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; A. Berger (Annemarie); C. Phelan (Catherine); M.H. Greene (Mark); P.L. Mai (Phuong); F. Lejbkowicz (Flavio); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); G. Glendon (Gord); A.E. Toland (Amanda); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); L. Sunde (Lone); M. Thomassen (Mads); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; E. Friedman (Eitan); Y. Laitman (Yael); S.P. Shimon (Shani Paluch); J. Simard (Jacques); D.F. Easton (Douglas); K. Offit (Kenneth); F.J. Couch (Fergus); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); J. Benítez (Javier)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSingle Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between

  8. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Osorio, A.; Milne, R.L.; Kuchenbaecker, K.; Vaclova, T.; Pita, G.; Alonso, R.; Peterlongo, P.; Blanco, I.; Hoya, M. de la; Duran, M.; Diez, O.; Ramon, Y.C.T.; Konstantopoulou, I.; Martinez-Bouzas, C.; Conejero, R. Andres; Soucy, P.; McGuffog, L.; Barrowdale, D.; Lee, A.; Swe, B.; Arver, B.; Rantala, J.; Loman, N.; Ehrencrona, H.; Olopade, O.I.; Beattie, M.S.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Arun, B.K.; Karlan, B.Y.; Walsh, C.; Lester, J.; John, E.M.; Whittemore, A.S.; Daly, M.B.; Southey, M.; Hopper, J.; Terry, M.B.; Buys, S.S.; Janavicius, R.; Dorfling, C.M.; Rensburg, E.J. van; Steele, L.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ding, Y.C.; Hansen, T.V.; Jonson, L.; Ejlertsen, B.; Gerdes, A.M.; Infante, M.; Herraez, B.; Moreno, L.T.; Weitzel, J.N.; Herzog, J.; Weeman, K.; Manoukian, S.; Peissel, B.; Zaffaroni, D.; Scuvera, G.; Bonanni, B.; Mariette, F.; Volorio, S.; Viel, A.; Varesco, L.; Papi, L.; Ottini, L.; Tibiletti, M.G.; Radice, P.; Yannoukakos, D.; Garber, J.; Ellis, S.; Frost, D.; Platte, R.; Fineberg, E.; Evans, G.; Lalloo, F.; Izatt, L.; Eeles, R.; Adlard, J.; Davidson, R.; Cole, T.; Eccles, D.; Cook, J; Hodgson, S.; Brewer, C.; Tischkowitz, M.; Douglas, F.; Porteous, M.; Side, L.; Walker, L.; Morrison, P.; Donaldson, A.; Kennedy, J.; Foo, C.; Godwin, A.K.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Rhiem, K.; Engel, C.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the

  9. Loop electrosurgical excision of the cervix and subsequent risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a population-based study of singleton deliveries during a 9-year period

    Noehr, Bugge; Jensen, Allan; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the association between loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and the subsequent risk for spontaneous preterm delivery, with the use of population-based data from various nationwide registries. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of all singleton...

  10. Variation within 3' UTRs of base excision repair genes and response to therapy in colorectal cancer patients: a potential modulation of microRNAs binding.

    Pardini, B.; Rosa, F.; Barone, E.; Di Gaetano, C.; Slyšková, Jana; Novotný, J.; Levý, M.; Garritano, S.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Buchler, T.; Gemignani, F.; Landi, S.; Vodička, Pavel; Naccarati, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2013), s. 6044-6056 ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/1286; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : colorectal cancer * base excision repair * survival Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.193, year: 2013

  11. Biochemical properties and base excision repair complex formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Kiyonari, Shinichi; Tahara, Saki; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Iwai, Shigenori; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2009-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are the most frequently found mutagenic lesions in DNA, and they arise mainly from spontaneous base loss or modified base removal by damage-specific DNA glycosylases. AP sites are cleaved by AP endonucleases, and the resultant gaps in the DNA are repaired by DNA polymerase/DNA ligase reactions. We identified the gene product that is responsible for the AP endonuclease activity in the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. Furthermore, we detected...

  12. Modulation of proteostasis counteracts oxidative stress and affects DNA base excision repair capacity in ATM-deficient cells.

    Poletto, Mattia; Yang, Di; Fletcher, Sally C; Vendrell, Iolanda; Fischer, Roman; Legrand, Arnaud J; Dianov, Grigory L

    2017-09-29

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a syndrome associated with loss of ATM protein function. Neurodegeneration and cancer predisposition, both hallmarks of A-T, are likely to emerge as a consequence of the persistent oxidative stress and DNA damage observed in this disease. Surprisingly however, despite these severe features, a lack of functional ATM is still compatible with early life, suggesting that adaptation mechanisms contributing to cell survival must be in place. Here we address this gap in our knowledge by analysing the process of human fibroblast adaptation to the lack of ATM. We identify profound rearrangement in cellular proteostasis occurring very early on after loss of ATM in order to counter protein damage originating from oxidative stress. Change in proteostasis, however, is not without repercussions. Modulating protein turnover in ATM-depleted cells also has an adverse effect on the DNA base excision repair pathway, the major DNA repair system that deals with oxidative DNA damage. As a consequence, the burden of unrepaired endogenous DNA lesions intensifies, progressively leading to genomic instability. Our study provides a glimpse at the cellular consequences of loss of ATM and highlights a previously overlooked role for proteostasis in maintaining cell survival in the absence of ATM function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Anatomy of the Transverse Mesocolon Based on Embryology for Laparoscopic Complete Mesocolic Excision of Right-Sided Colon Cancer.

    Matsuda, Takeru; Sumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Kanaji, Shingo; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    To treat colon cancer via complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (CVL), dissection along the embryologic fusion planes is required. However, this surgery is difficult, especially for right-sided colon cancer, because the anatomy and embryology of the transverse mesocolon are not familiar to gastrointestinal surgeons. In this video article, the anatomic details of the transverse mesocolon based on embryology are illustrated with a focus on the venous anatomy. Dissection of the transverse mesocolon along the embryologic planes using a cranial approach during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy also is presented. During the development of the primitive gastrointestinal tract, the transverse mesocolon locates between the terminal portion of the midgut and the beginning of the hindgut. After 270° counterclockwise rotation of the primary intestinal loop, the transverse mesocolon fuses with the frontal surface of the duodenum and pancreas. Simultaneously, the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach in front of the transverse colon and fuses with the transverse mesocolon. Moreover, the drainage vein of the right colon sometimes joins the right gastroepiploic vein, and the gastrocolic trunk is formed. Anatomic complexity of the transverse mesocolon is caused by rotation and fusion of the gastrointestinal tract during embryologic development. Knowledge concerning these embryologic peculiarities of the transverse mesocolon should be useful in the performance of laparoscopic CME with CVL for right-sided colon cancer.

  14. Self-excising Cre/mutant lox marker recycling system for multiple gene integrations and consecutive gene deletions in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Zhang, Silai; Ban, Akihiko; Ebara, Naoki; Mizutani, Osamu; Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we developed a self-excising Cre/loxP-mediated marker recycling system with mutated lox sequences to introduce a number of biosynthetic genes into Aspergillus oryzae. To construct the self-excising marker cassette, both the selectable marker, the Aspergillus nidulans adeA gene, and the Cre recombinase gene (cre), conditionally expressed by the xylanase-encoding gene promoter, were designed to be located between the mutant lox sequences, lox66 and lox71. However, construction of the plasmid failed, possibly owing to a slight expression of cre downstream of the fungal gene promoter in Escherichia coli. Hence, to avoid the excision of the cassette in E. coli, a 71-bp intron of the A. oryzae xynG2 gene was inserted into the cre gene. The A. oryzae adeA deletion mutant was transformed with the resulting plasmid in the presence of glucose, and the transformants were cultured in medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source. PCR analysis of genomic DNA from resultant colonies revealed the excision of both the marker and Cre expression construct, indicating that the self-excising marker cassette was efficient at removing the selectable marker. Using the marker recycling system, hyperproduction of kojic acid could be achieved in A. oryzae by the introduction of two genes that encode oxidoreductase and transporter. Furthermore, we also constructed an alternative marker recycling cassette bearing the A. nidulans pyrithiamine resistant gene (ptrA) as a dominant selectable marker. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. "Blow-torch phenomenon" during laser assisted excision of a thyroglossal cyst at the base of the tongue

    Anitha G Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of blow-torch phenomenon encountered during diode laser assisted excision of a thyroglossal cyst in a child. This is first such case report from India and highlights an unusual complication which anesthesiologists need to be aware of due to the increasing use of operative laser.

  16. The role of the PHP domain associated with DNA polymerase X from Thermus thermophilus HB8 in base excision repair.

    Nakane, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2012-11-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is one of the most commonly used DNA repair pathways involved in genome stability. X-family DNA polymerases (PolXs) play critical roles in BER, especially in filling single-nucleotide gaps. In addition to a polymerase core domain, bacterial PolXs have a polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain with phosphoesterase activity which is also required for BER. However, the role of the PHP domain of PolX in bacterial BER remains unresolved. We found that the PHP domain of Thermus thermophilus HB8 PolX (ttPolX) functions as two types of phosphoesterase in BER, including a 3'-phosphatase and an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease. Experiments using T. thermophilus HB8 cell lysates revealed that the majority of the 3'-phosphatase and AP endonuclease activities are attributable to the another phosphoesterase in T. thermophilus HB8, endonuclease IV (ttEndoIV). However, ttPolX possesses significant 3'-phosphatase activity in ΔttendoIV cell lysate, indicating possible complementation. Our experiments also reveal that there are only two enzymes that display the 3'-phosphatase activity in the T. thermophilus HB8 cell, ttPolX and ttEndoIV. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of ΔttpolX, ΔttendoIV, and ΔttpolX/ΔttendoIV using hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitrite supports the hypothesis that ttPolX functions as a backup for ttEndoIV in BER. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a cervical cancer screening program based on HPV testing and LLETZ excision in a low resource setting.

    Margaret McAdam

    Full Text Available We conducted studies in Vanuatu to evaluate potential screening and treatment strategies to assist with control of cervical cancer. In a pilot study of 496 women, visual inspection and cytology were evaluated as screening tests for detection of CIN 2 or worse (CIN2+, observed in 21 of 206 subjects biopsied on the basis of abnormal visual inspection or cytology. Sensitivity of visual inspection with Lugol's Iodine for detection of CIN2+ on biopsy was 0.63, specificity was 0.32, and the positive predictive value was 0.09. For HSIL cytology, sensitivity was 0.99, specificity was 0.77, and the positive predictive value was 0.88. HSIL cytology was significantly more sensitive and had a significantly higher PPV for CIN 2+ than visual inspection (p<0.01. In a further study of 514 women, we compared testing for HR HPV and cytology as predictors of biopsy proven CIN 2+. Sensitivity of HSIL cytology for CIN2+ as established by loop excision of the cervix was 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.48. Sensitivity of a positive test for HR HPV for detection of CIN2+ was non-significantly different from cytology at 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.42. Combining the two tests gave a significantly lower sensitivity of 0.63, a specificity of 0.98, and a positive predictive value of 0.68. For women over 30 in a low resource setting without access to cytology, a single locally conducted test for high risk HPV with effective intervention could reduce cervical cancer risk as effectively as intervention based on cytology conducted in an accredited laboratory.

  18. The role of base excision repair in the development of primary open angle glaucoma in the Polish population

    Cuchra, Magda; Markiewicz, Lukasz; Mucha, Bartosz [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland); Pytel, Dariusz [The Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Szymanek, Katarzyna [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Szemraj, Janusz [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Majsterek, Ireneusz, E-mail: ireneusz.majsterek@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We suggested the association of XRCC1 gene with the increase risk of POAG development. • We indicated the association of clinical factor and XRCC1, MUTYH, ADPRT and APE1 genes with POAG progression. • We postulated the increase level of oxidative DNA damage in group of patients with POAG in relation to healthy controls. • We suggested the slightly decrease ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage. • This is the first data that showed the role of BER mechanism in POAG pathogenesis. - Abstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in developing countries. Previous data have shown that progressive loss of human TM cells may be connected with chronic exposure to oxidative stress. This hypothesis may suggest a role of the base excision repair (BER) pathway of oxidative DNA damage in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an association of BER gene polymorphism with a risk of POAG. Moreover, an association of clinical parameters was examined including cup disk ratio (c/d), rim area (RA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) with glaucoma progression according to BER gene polymorphisms. Our research included 412 patients with POAG and 454 healthy controls. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) clinical parameters were also analyzed. The 399Arg/Gln genotype of the XRCC1 gene (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02–1.89 p = 0.03) was associated with an increased risk of POAG occurrence. It was indicated that the 399Gln/Gln XRCC1 genotype might increase the risk of POAG progression according to the c/d ratio (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.07–2.61 P = 0.02) clinical parameter. Moreover, the association of VF factor with 148Asp/Glu of APE1 genotype distribution and POAG progression (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.30–3.89) was also found. Additionally, the analysis of the 324Gln/His MUTYH polymorphism gene distribution in the patient group according to RNFL factor showed that it might

  19. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    Excision of multiple fibroadenomas (MF) in separate breast quadrants presents difficulties of number and location of incision(s) and extent of tissue dissection and may be associated with more complications and poorer cosmetic outcome. This is a report of excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast using a ...

  20. Remission of severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep after bilateral excision of multiple foot neuromas: a case report

    Lettau Ludwig A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs in response to uncomfortable leg sensations. While asleep, 70 to 90 percent of patients with restless legs syndrome have periodic limb movements in sleep. Frequent periodic limb movements in sleep and related brain arousals as documented by polysomnography are associated with poorer quality of sleep and daytime fatigue. Restless legs syndrome in middle age is sometimes associated with neuropathic foot dysesthesias. The causes of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep are unknown, but the sensorimotor symptoms are hypothesized to originate in the central nervous system. We have previously determined that bilateral forefoot digital nerve impingement masses (neuromas may be a cause of both neuropathic foot dysesthesias and the leg restlessness of restless legs syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bilateral foot neuromas as a cause of periodic limb movements in sleep. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman with severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep and bilateral neuropathic foot dysesthesias was diagnosed as having neuromas in the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head interspaces of both feet. The third interspace neuromas represented regrowth (or 'stump' neuromas that had developed since bilateral third interspace neuroma excision five years earlier. Because intensive conservative treatments including repeated neuroma injections and various restless legs syndrome medications had failed, radical surgery was recommended. All six neuromas were excised. Leg restlessness, foot dysesthesias and subjective sleep quality improved immediately. Assessment after 18 days showed an 84 to 100 percent reduction of visual analog scale scores for specific dysesthesias and marked reductions of pre-operative scores of the Pittsburgh sleep

  1. Use of capillary GC-MS for identification of radiation-induced DNA base damage: Implications for base-excision repair of DNA

    Dizdaroglu, M.

    1985-01-01

    Application of GC-MS to characterization of radiation-induced base products of DNA and DNa base-amino acid crosslinks is presented. Samples of γ-irradiated DNa were hydrolyzed with formic acid, trimethylsilylated and subjected to GC-MS analysis using a fused silica capillary column. Hydrolysis conditions suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the radiation-induced products of all four DNA bases in a single run were determined. The trimethylsilyl derivatives of these products had excellent GC-properties and easily interpretable mass spectra. The complementary use of t-butyldimetylsilyl derivatives was also demonstrated. Moreover, the usefulness of this method for identification of radiation-induced DNA base-amino acid crosslinks was shown using γ-irradiated mixtures of thymine and tyrosine or phenylalanine. Because of the excellent resolving power of capillary GC and the instant and highly sensitive identification by MS, GC-MS is suggested as a suitable technique for identification of altered bases removed from DNA by base-excision repair enzymes

  2. New insights in the removal of the hydantoins, oxidation product of pyrimidines, via the base excision and nucleotide incision repair pathways.

    Modesto Redrejo-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage to DNA, if not repaired, can be both miscoding and blocking. These genetic alterations can lead to mutations and/or cell death, which in turn cause cancer and aging. Oxidized DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping repair pathways: base excision (BER and nucleotide incision repair (NIR. Hydantoin derivatives such as 5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-Hyd and 5-methyl-5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-5Me-Hyd, major products of cytosine and thymine oxidative degradation pathways, respectively, have been detected in cancer cells and ancient DNA. Hydantoins are blocking lesions for DNA polymerases and excised by bacterial and yeast DNA glycosylases in the BER pathway. However little is known about repair of pyrimidine-derived hydantoins in human cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, using both denaturing PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS analyses we report that the bacterial, yeast and human AP endonucleases can incise duplex DNA 5' next to 5OH-Hyd and 5OH-5Me-Hyd thus initiating the NIR pathway. We have fully reconstituted the NIR pathway for these lesions in vitro using purified human proteins. Depletion of Nfo in E. coli and APE1 in HeLa cells abolishes the NIR activity in cell-free extracts. Importantly, a number of redundant DNA glycosylase activities can excise hydantoin residues, including human NTH1, NEIL1 and NEIL2 and the former protein being a major DNA glycosylase activity in HeLa cells extracts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that both BER and NIR pathways can compete and/or back-up each other to remove hydantoin DNA lesions in vivo.

  3. Base excision repair efficiency and mechanism in nuclear extracts are influenced by the ratio between volume of nuclear extraction buffer and nuclei-Implications for comparative studies

    Akbari, Mansour; Krokan, Hans E

    2012-01-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway corrects many different DNA base lesions and is important for genomic stability. The mechanism of BER cannot easily be investigated in intact cells and therefore in vitro methods that reflect the in vivo processes are in high demand. Reconstitution of BER...... using purified proteins essentially mirror properties of the proteins used, and does not necessarily reflect the mechanism as it occurs in the cell. Nuclear extracts from cultured cells have the capacity to carry out complete BER and can give important information on the mechanism. Furthermore......, candidate proteins in extracts can be inhibited or depleted in a controlled way, making defined extracts an important source for mechanistic studies. The major drawback is that there is no standardized method of preparing nuclear extract for BER studies, and it does not appear to be a topic given much...

  4. A mutant Pfu DNA polymerase designed for advanced uracil-excision DNA engineering.

    Nørholm, Morten H H

    2010-03-16

    The combined use of restriction enzymes with PCR has revolutionized molecular cloning, but is inherently restricted by the content of the manipulated DNA sequences. Uracil-excision based cloning is ligase and sequence independent and allows seamless fusion of multiple DNA sequences in simple one-tube reactions, with higher accuracy than overlapping PCR. Here, the addition of a highly efficient DNA polymerase and a low-background-, large-insertion- compatible site-directed mutagenesis protocol is described, largely expanding the versatility of uracil-excision DNA engineering. The different uracil-excision based molecular tools that have been developed in an open-source fashion, constitute a comprehensive, yet simple and inexpensive toolkit for any need in molecular cloning.

  5. Nucleotide Excision Repair Lesion-Recognition Protein Rad4 Captures a Pre-Flipped Partner Base in a Benzo[a]pyrene-Derived DNA Lesion: How Structure Impacts the Binding Pathway.

    Mu, Hong; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Min, Jung-Hyun; Zhang, Yingkai; Broyde, Suse

    2017-06-19

    The xeroderma pigmentosum C protein complex (XPC) recognizes a variety of environmentally induced DNA lesions and is the key in initiating their repair by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. When bound to a lesion, XPC flips two nucleotide pairs that include the lesion out of the DNA duplex, yielding a productively bound complex that can lead to successful lesion excision. Interestingly, the efficiencies of NER vary greatly among different lesions, influencing their toxicity and mutagenicity in cells. Though differences in XPC binding may influence NER efficiency, it is not understood whether XPC utilizes different mechanisms to achieve productive binding with different lesions. Here, we investigated the well-repaired 10R-(+)-cis-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-N 2 -dG (cis-B[a]P-dG) DNA adduct in a duplex containing normal partner C opposite the lesion. This adduct is derived from the environmental pro-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and is likely to be encountered by NER in the cell. We have extensively investigated its binding to the yeast XPC orthologue, Rad4, using umbrella sampling with restrained molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. The NMR solution structure of this lesion in duplex DNA has shown that the dC complementary to the adducted dG is flipped out of the DNA duplex in the absence of XPC. However, it is not known whether the "pre-flipped" base would play a role in its recognition by XPC. Our results show that Rad4 first captures the displaced dC, which is followed by a tightly coupled lesion-extruding pathway for productive binding. This binding path differs significantly from the one deduced for the small cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer lesion opposite mismatched thymines [ Mu , H. , ( 2015 ) Biochemistry , 54 ( 34 ), 5263 - 7 ]. The possibility of multiple paths that lead to productive binding to XPC is consistent with the versatile lesion recognition by XPC that is required for successful NER.

  6. Arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts.

    Bontempo, Nicholas A; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Arthroscopy is an advancing field in orthopedics, the applications of which have been expanding over time. Traditionally, excision of ganglion cysts has been done in an open fashion. However, more recently, studies show outcomes following arthroscopic excision to be as good as open excision. Cosmetically, the incisions are smaller and heal faster following arthroscopy. In addition, there is the suggested benefit that patients will regain function and return to work faster following arthroscopic excision. More prospective studies comparing open and arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts need to be done in order to delineate if there is a true functional benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wavelet based multicarrier code division multiple access ...

    This paper presents the study on Wavelet transform based Multicarrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) system for a downlink wireless channel. The performance of the system is studied for Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel (AWGN) and slowly varying multipath channels. The bit error rate (BER) versus ...

  8. RPA physically interacts with the human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 to regulate excision of oxidative DNA base damage in primer-template structures.

    Theriot, Corey A; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar

    2010-06-04

    The human DNA glycosylase NEIL1, activated during the S-phase, has been shown to excise oxidized base lesions in single-strand DNA substrates. Furthermore, our previous work demonstrating functional interaction of NEIL1 with PCNA and flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) suggested its involvement in replication-associated repair. Here we show interaction of NEIL1 with replication protein A (RPA), the heterotrimeric single-strand DNA binding protein that is essential for replication and other DNA transactions. The NEIL1 immunocomplex isolated from human cells contains RPA, and its abundance in the complex increases after exposure to oxidative stress. NEIL1 directly interacts with the large subunit of RPA (K(d) approximately 20 nM) via the common interacting interface (residues 312-349) in NEIL1's disordered C-terminal region. RPA inhibits the base excision activity of both wild-type NEIL1 (389 residues) and its C-terminal deletion CDelta78 mutant (lacking the interaction domain) for repairing 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) in a primer-template structure mimicking the DNA replication fork. This inhibition is reduced when the damage is located near the primer-template junction. Contrarily, RPA moderately stimulates wild-type NEIL1 but not the CDelta78 mutant when 5-OHU is located within the duplex region. While NEIL1 is inhibited by both RPA and Escherichia coli single-strand DNA binding protein, only inhibition by RPA is relieved by PCNA. These results showing modulation of NEIL1's activity on single-stranded DNA substrate by RPA and PCNA support NEIL1's involvement in repairing the replicating genome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MICA: Multiple interval-based curve alignment

    Mann, Martin; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Beck, Matthias; Bender, Bela Johannes; Spiecker, Heinrich; Backofen, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    MICA enables the automatic synchronization of discrete data curves. To this end, characteristic points of the curves' shapes are identified. These landmarks are used within a heuristic curve registration approach to align profile pairs by mapping similar characteristics onto each other. In combination with a progressive alignment scheme, this enables the computation of multiple curve alignments. Multiple curve alignments are needed to derive meaningful representative consensus data of measured time or data series. MICA was already successfully applied to generate representative profiles of tree growth data based on intra-annual wood density profiles or cell formation data. The MICA package provides a command-line and graphical user interface. The R interface enables the direct embedding of multiple curve alignment computation into larger analyses pipelines. Source code, binaries and documentation are freely available at https://github.com/BackofenLab/MICA

  10. A novel role for Gadd45α in base excision repair: Modulation of APE1 activity by the direct interaction of Gadd45α with PCNA

    Kim, Hye Lim; Kim, Sang Uk; Seo, Young Rok

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Emerging critical role for Gadd45α in modulating BER activity. ► Identifying specific PCNA binding site on Gadd45α protein. ► Regulating APE1 activity through interaction between Gadd45α and PCNA. ► Suggesting potential role of Gadd45α–PCNA binding in pancreatic carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: The growth arrest and DNA damage inducible, alpha (Gadd45α) protein regulates DNA repair by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Our previous study suggested a potential role for Gadd45α in the base excision repair (BER) pathway by affecting apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) protein in addition to its accepted role in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, we investigated whether the interaction of Gadd45α with PCNA affects APE1 activity. To address this issue, we used a siRNA directed to Gadd45α and a form of Gadd45α with a mutation to the predicted site of PCNA binding. There was a reduction of APE1 activity in cells transfected with the Gadd45α siRNA. Furthermore, the interaction of Gadd45α with PCNA and APE1 was lower in cells transfected with mutant Gadd45α compared with cells transfected with wild-type Gadd45α. Indeed, we observed that the APE1 activity in the Gadd45α-interacting complex was significantly lower in cells that overexpress mutant Gadd45α compared with cells that overexpress wild-type Gadd45α. We conclude that the PCNA binding site on Gadd45α plays a critical role in modulating the interaction with PCNA and APE1, affecting BER activity. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which BER activity is modulated, although the interaction of Gadd45α with APE1 needs to be clarified

  11. Value of histopathologic analysis of subcutis excisions by general practitioners

    Verweij Wim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only around 60% of skin lesions excised by GPs are referred to a pathologist. Clinical diagnoses of skin excisions by GPs may not be very accurate. Subcutis excisions are rarely done by GPs, and there is hence little information in the literature on the histopathological yield of subcutis excisions by GPs with regard to malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of histopathological investigation of a relatively large group of subcutis excisions by GPs, with special emphasis on discrepancies between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of malignancy. Methods We investigated a series of 90 subcutis excisions, which was derived from a database of consecutive GP submissions from the years 1999–2000 where in the same time period 4595 skin excisions were performed by the same group of GPs. This underlines the apparent reluctance of GPs to perform subcutis excisions. Results The final diagnosis was benign in 88 cases (97.8% and malignant in 2 cases (2.2%. Seven cases had no clinical diagnosis, all of which were benign. Of the 83 clinically benign cases, 81 (97.6% were indeed benign and 2 (2.4% were malignant: one Merkel cell carcinoma and one dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The former was clinically thought to be a lipoma, and the latter a trichilemmal cyst. The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presented at the age of 27, and the Merkel cell carcinoma at the age of 60. Both were incompletely removed and required re-excision by a surgical oncologist. Conclusion Histopathological investigation of subcutis excisions by GPs yields unexpected and rare malignancies in about 2% of cases that may initially be excised inadequately. Based on these data, and because of the relatively rareness of these type of excisions, it could be argued that it may be worthwhile to have all subcutis excisions by GPs routinely investigated by histopathology.

  12. Robotic Extramucosal Excision of Bladder Wall Leiomyoma

    Khalid E. Al-Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple case reports and reviews have been described in the literature for bladder wall leiomyoma resection via different approaches. The minimally invasive partial cystectomy remains the most widely accepted technique; however, case reports for enucleation of bladder wall leiomyoma have also been described. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the robotic extramucosal excision of a bladder wall leiomyoma, without cystotomy, but with complete removal of the muscular layer. Materials and Methods: A 35-year old male present with lower urinary tract symptoms and imaging showed bladder wall mass with histopathology showed leiomyoma. The patient consented for mass excision with the possibility of a partial cystectomy. The patient was placed in the supine, 30-degree Trendelenburg position during the procedure. A total of 4 ports were inserted. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. Extramucosal excision was accomplished without cystotomy and muscle approximation was achieved by 2 0 Vicryle. Result: The operative time was 90 minutes, blood loss of approximately 50mL and the patient was discharged after 72 hours with no immediate complications and a 6 months follow-up showed no recurrence. Conclusion: Such a technique results in complete excision of the tumor, without cystotomy, and also maintains an intact mucosa. These steps, in addition to decreasing the risk of local recurrence, also shorten the period of postoperative catheterization and hospitalization.

  13. Base excision repair efficiency and mechanism in nuclear extracts are influenced by the ratio between volume of nuclear extraction buffer and nuclei—Implications for comparative studies

    Akbari, Mansour; Krokan, Hans E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine effect of volume of extraction buffer relative to volume of isolated nuclei on repair activity of nuclear extract. • Base excision repair activity of nuclear extracts prepared from the same batch and number of nuclei varies inversely with the volume of nuclear extraction buffer. • Effect of the volume of extraction buffer on BER activity of nuclear extracts can only be partially reversed after concentration of the more diluted extract by ultrafiltration. - Abstract: The base excision repair (BER) pathway corrects many different DNA base lesions and is important for genomic stability. The mechanism of BER cannot easily be investigated in intact cells and therefore in vitro methods that reflect the in vivo processes are in high demand. Reconstitution of BER using purified proteins essentially mirror properties of the proteins used, and does not necessarily reflect the mechanism as it occurs in the cell. Nuclear extracts from cultured cells have the capacity to carry out complete BER and can give important information on the mechanism. Furthermore, candidate proteins in extracts can be inhibited or depleted in a controlled way, making defined extracts an important source for mechanistic studies. The major drawback is that there is no standardized method of preparing nuclear extract for BER studies, and it does not appear to be a topic given much attention. Here we have examined BER activity of nuclear cell extracts from HeLa cells, using as substrate a circular DNA molecule with either uracil or an AP-site in a defined position. We show that BER activity of nuclear extracts from the same batch of cells varies inversely with the volume of nuclear extraction buffer relative to nuclei volume, in spite of identical protein concentrations in the BER assay mixture. Surprisingly, the uracil–DNA glycosylase activity (mainly UNG2), but not amount of UNG2, also correlated negatively with the volume of extraction buffer. These studies demonstrate

  14. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  15. Bypass of a 5',8-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleoside by DNA polymerase β during DNA replication and base excision repair leads to nucleotide misinsertions and DNA strand breaks.

    Jiang, Zhongliang; Xu, Meng; Lai, Yanhao; Laverde, Eduardo E; Terzidis, Michael A; Masi, Annalisa; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Liu, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    5',8-Cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleosides including 5',8-cyclo-dA (cdA) and 5',8-cyclo-dG (cdG) are induced by hydroxyl radicals resulting from oxidative stress such as ionizing radiation. 5',8-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleoside lesions are repaired by nucleotide excision repair with low efficiency, thereby leading to their accumulation in the human genome and lesion bypass by DNA polymerases during DNA replication and base excision repair (BER). In this study, for the first time, we discovered that DNA polymerase β (pol β) efficiently bypassed a 5'R-cdA, but inefficiently bypassed a 5'S-cdA during DNA replication and BER. We found that cell extracts from pol β wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited significant DNA synthesis activity in bypassing a cdA lesion located in replication and BER intermediates. However, pol β knock-out cell extracts exhibited little DNA synthesis to bypass the lesion. This indicates that pol β plays an important role in bypassing a cdA lesion during DNA replication and BER. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pol β inserted both a correct and incorrect nucleotide to bypass a cdA at a low concentration. Nucleotide misinsertion was significantly stimulated by a high concentration of pol β, indicating a mutagenic effect induced by pol β lesion bypass synthesis of a 5',8-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleoside. Moreover, we found that bypass of a 5'S-cdA by pol β generated an intermediate that failed to be extended by pol β, resulting in accumulation of single-strand DNA breaks. Our study provides the first evidence that pol β plays an important role in bypassing a 5',8-cyclo-dA during DNA replication and repair, as well as new insight into mutagenic effects and genome instability resulting from pol β bypassing of a cdA lesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Is the Oxidative DNA Damage Level of Human Lymphocyte Correlated with the Antioxidant Capacity of Serum or the Base Excision Repair Activity of Lymphocyte?

    Yi-Chih Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A random screening of human blood samples from 24 individuals of nonsmoker was conducted to examine the correlation between the oxidative DNA damage level of lymphocytes and the antioxidant capacity of serum or the base excision repair (BER activity of lymphocytes. The oxidative DNA damage level was measured with comet assay containing Fpg/Endo III cleavage, and the BER activity was estimated with a modified comet assay including nuclear extract of lymphocytes for enzymatic cleavage. Antioxidant capacity was determined with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. We found that though the endogenous DNA oxidation levels varied among the individuals, each individual level appeared to be steady for at least 1 month. Our results indicate that the oxidative DNA damage level is insignificantly or weakly correlated with antioxidant capacity or BER activity, respectively. However, lymphocytes from carriers of Helicobacter pylori (HP or Hepatitis B virus (HBV tend to give higher levels of oxidative DNA damage (P<0.05. Though sera of this group of individuals show no particular tendency with reduced antioxidant capacity, the respective BER activities of lymphocytes are lower in average (P<0.05. Thus, reduction of repair activity may be associated with the genotoxic effect of HP or HBV infection.

  17. Demographics and Outcomes of Stage I-II Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery Compared with Wide Local Excision in the National Cancer Data Base.

    Singh, Babu; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Truong, Minh Tam; Sahni, Debjani

    2018-02-03

    The optimal surgical approach (wide local excision (WLE) vs. Mohs micrographic surgery (MOHS)) for treating Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is yet to be determined. To compare survival outcomes in patients with early stage MCC treated with MOHS versus WLE. A retrospective review of all cases in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of MCC of clinical Stage I-II MCC treated with WLE or MOHS was performed. 1,795 cases of Stage I-II MCC were identified who underwent WLE (N=1,685) or MOHS (N=110). There was no difference in residual tumor on surgical margins between the two treatment groups (p=0.588). On multivariate analysis, there was no difference in overall survival between the treatment modalities (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.72-1.45, p=0.897). There was no difference in overall survival between the two groups on propensity score matched analysis. Disease specific survival was not reported as this data in not available in the NCDB. MOHS appears to be as effective as WLE in treating early stage MCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The Mutyh base excision repair gene influences the inflammatory response in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis.

    Ida Casorelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mutyh DNA glycosylase is involved in the repair of oxidized DNA bases. Mutations in the human MUTYH gene are responsible for colorectal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis. Since defective DNA repair genes might contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, we compared the inflammatory response of wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The severity of colitis, changes in expression of genes involved in DNA repair and inflammation, DNA 8-oxoguanine levels and microsatellite instability were analysed in colon of mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. The Mutyh(-/- phenotype was associated with a significant accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in colon DNA of treated mice. A single DSS cycle induced severe acute ulcerative colitis in wild-type mice, whereas lesions were modest in Mutyh(-/- mice, and this was associated with moderate variations in the expression of several cytokines. Eight DSS cycles caused chronic colitis in both wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice. Lymphoid hyperplasia and a significant reduction in Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells were observed only in Mutyh(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that, in this model of ulcerative colitis, Mutyh plays a major role in maintaining intestinal integrity by affecting the inflammatory response.

  19. Polymorphisms in RAI and in genes of nucleotide and base excision repair are not associated with risk of testicular cancer.

    Laska, Magdalena J; Nexø, Bjørn A; Vistisen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla

    2005-07-28

    Testicular cancer has been suggested to be primed in utero and there is familiar occurrence, particularly brothers and sons of men with testicular cancer have increased risk. Although no specific causative genotoxic agents have been identified, variations in DNA repair capacity could be associated with the risk of testicular cancer. A case-control study of 184 testicular cancer cases and 194 population-based controls living in the Copenhagen Greater Area in Denmark was performed. We found that neither polymorphisms in several DNA repair genes nor alleles of several polymorphisms in the chromosomal of region 19q13.2-3, encompassing the genes ASE, ERCC1, RAI and XPD, were associated with risk of testicular cancer in Danish patients. This is in contrast to other cancers, where we reported strong associations between polymorphisms in ERCC1, ASE and RAI and occurrence of basal cell carcinoma, breast cancer and lung. To our knowledge this is the first study of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of testicular cancer.

  20. Multiple microprocessor based nuclear reactor power monitor

    Lewis, P.S.; Ethridge, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor power monitor is a portable multiple-microprocessor controlled data acquisition device being built for the International Atomic Energy Association. Its function is to measure and record the hourly integrated operating thermal power level of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of detecting unannounced plutonium production. The monitor consists of a 3 He proportional neutron detector, a write-only cassette tape drive and control electronics based on two INTEL 8748 microprocessors. The reactor power monitor operates from house power supplied by the plant operator, but has eight hours of battery backup to cover power interruptions. Both the hourly power levels and any line power interruptions are recorded on tape and in memory. Intermediate dumps from the memory to a data terminal or strip chart recorder can be performed without interrupting data collection

  1. Base excision repair of chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage predominantly causes contractions of expanded GAA repeats associated with Friedreich's ataxia.

    Yanhao Lai

    Full Text Available Expansion of GAA·TTC repeats within the first intron of the frataxin gene is the cause of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA, an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. However, no effective treatment for the disease has been developed as yet. In this study, we explored a possibility of shortening expanded GAA repeats associated with FRDA through chemotherapeutically-induced DNA base lesions and subsequent base excision repair (BER. We provide the first evidence that alkylated DNA damage induced by temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic DNA damaging agent can induce massive GAA repeat contractions/deletions, but only limited expansions in FRDA patient lymphoblasts. We showed that temozolomide-induced GAA repeat instability was mediated by BER. Further characterization of BER of an abasic site in the context of (GAA20 repeats indicates that the lesion mainly resulted in a large deletion of 8 repeats along with small expansions. This was because temozolomide-induced single-stranded breaks initially led to DNA slippage and the formation of a small GAA repeat loop in the upstream region of the damaged strand and a small TTC loop on the template strand. This allowed limited pol β DNA synthesis and the formation of a short 5'-GAA repeat flap that was cleaved by FEN1, thereby leading to small repeat expansions. At a later stage of BER, the small template loop expanded into a large template loop that resulted in the formation of a long 5'-GAA repeat flap. Pol β then performed limited DNA synthesis to bypass the loop, and FEN1 removed the long repeat flap ultimately causing a large repeat deletion. Our study indicates that chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage can induce large contractions/deletions of expanded GAA repeats through BER in FRDA patient cells. This further suggests the potential of developing chemotherapeutic alkylating agents to shorten expanded GAA repeats for treatment of FRDA.

  2. Polymorphisms in base excision repair genes as colorectal cancer risk factors and modifiers of the effect of diets high in red meat.

    Brevik, Asgeir; Joshi, Amit D; Corral, Román; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Le Marchand, Loïc; Baron, John A; Martinez, Maria Elena; Haile, Robert W; Ahnen, Dennis J; Sandler, Robert S; Lance, Peter; Stern, Mariana C

    2010-12-01

    A diet high in red meat is an established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factor. Carcinogens generated during meat cooking have been implicated as causal agents and can induce oxidative DNA damage, which elicits repair by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Using a family-based study, we investigated the role of polymorphisms in 4 BER genes (APEX1 Gln51His, Asp148Glu; OGG1 Ser236Cys; PARP Val742Ala; and XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln) as potential CRC risk factors and modifiers of the association between diets high in red meat or poultry and CRC risk. We tested for gene-environment interactions using case-only analyses (n = 577) and compared statistically significant results with those obtained using case-unaffected sibling comparisons (n = 307 sibships). Carriers of the APEX1 codon 51 Gln/His genotype had a reduced CRC risk compared with carriers of the Gln/Gln genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.03-0.69, P = 0.015). The association between higher red meat intake (>3 servings per week) and CRC was modified by the PARP Val762Ala single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; case-only interaction P = 0.026). This SNP also modified the association between higher intake of high-temperature cooked red meat (case-only interaction P = 0.0009). We report evidence that the BER pathway PARP gene modifies the association of diets high in red meat cooked at high temperatures with risk of CRC. Our findings suggest a contribution to colorectal carcinogenesis of free radical damage as one of the possible harmful effects of a diet high in red meat. ©2010 AACR.

  3. Multidirectional Vector Excision Leads to Better Outcomes than Traditional Elliptical Excision of Facial Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    Seung Il Oh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The elliptical excision is the standard method of removing benign skin lesions,such as congenital melanocytic nevi. This technique allows for primary closure, with little to nodog-ear deformity, but may sacrifice normal tissue adjacent to the lesion, resulting in scarswhich are unnecessarily long. This study was designed to compare the predicted results ofelliptical excision with those resulting from our excision technique.Methods Eighty-two patients with congenital melanocytic nevus on the face were prospectivelystudied. Each lesion was examined and an optimal ellipse was designed and marked onthe skin. After an incision on one side of the nevus margin, subcutaneous undermining wasperformed in the appropriate direction. The skin flap was pulled up and approximated alongseveral vectors to minimize the occurrence of dog-ear deformity.Results Overall, the final wound length was 21.1% shorter than that achieved by ellipticalexcision. Only 8.5% of the patients required dog-ear repair. There was no significant distortionof critical facial structures. All of the scars were deemed aesthetically acceptable based ontheir Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores.Conclusions When compared to elliptical excision, our technique appears to minimize dogeardeformity and decrease the final wound length. This technique should be considered analternative method for excision of facial nevi.

  4. Proteins of nucleotide and base excision repair pathways interact in mitochondria to protect from loss of subcutaneous fat, a hallmark of aging

    Y. Kamenisch (York); M.I. Fousteri (Maria); J. Knoch (Jennifer); A.K. Von Thaler (Anna Katherina); B. Fehrenbacher (Birgit); H. Kato (Hiroki); T. Becker (Tim); M.E.T. Dollé (Martijn); R. Kuiper (Ruud); M. Majora (Marc); M. Schaller (Martin); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); H. van Steeg (Harry); M. Röcken (Martin); D. Rapaport (Doron); J. Krutmann (Jean); L.H.F. Mullenders (Leon); M. Berneburg (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDefects in the DNA repair mechanism nucleotide excision repair (NER) may lead to tumors in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) or to premature aging with loss of subcutaneous fat in Cockayne syndrome (CS). Mutations of mitochondrial (mt)DNA play a role in aging, but a link between the

  5. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Ana Osorio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase, and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2 gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16, p = 2.7 × 10(-3 for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3. DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.

  6. Dideoxynucleoside triphosphate-sensitive DNA polymerase from rice is involved in base excision repair and immunologically similar to mammalian DNA pol beta.

    Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Bakshi, Sankar; Mokkapati, Sanath K; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2004-07-16

    A single polypeptide with ddNTP-sensitive DNA polymerase activity was purified to near homogeneity from the shoot tips of rice seedlings and analysis of the preparations by SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining showed a polypeptide of 67 kDa size. The DNA polymerase activity was found to be inhibitory by ddNTP in both in vitro DNA polymerase activity assay and activity gel analysis. Aphidicolin, an inhibitor of other types of DNA polymerases, had no effect on plant enzyme. The 67 kDa rice DNA polymerase was found to be recognized by the polyclonal antibody (purified IgG) made against rat DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) both in solution and also on Western blot. The recognition was found to be very specific as the activity of Klenow enzyme was unaffected by the antibody. The ability of rice nuclear extract to correct G:U mismatch of oligo-duplex was observed when oligo-duplex with 32P-labeled lower strand containing U (at 22nd position) was used as substrate. Differential appearance of bands at 21-mer, 22-mer, and 51-mer position in presence of dCTP was visible only with G:U mismatch oligo-duplex, but not with G:C oligo-duplex. While ddCTP or polyclonal antibody against rat-DNA pol beta inhibits base excision repair (BER), aphidicolin had no effect. These results for the first time clearly demonstrate the ability of rice nuclear extract to run BER and the involvement of ddNTP-sensitive pol beta type DNA polymerase. Immunological similarity of the ddNTP-sensitive DNA polymerase beta of rice and rat and its involvement in BER revealed the conservation of structure and function of ddNTP-sensitive DNA pol beta in plant and animal.

  7. Multiple Intelligences - Based Planning of EFL Classes

    Sanan Shero Malo Zebari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to set a plan for teaching EFL classes based on the identification of university students’ dominant multiple intelligences in EFL classes, and the differences in the types of intelligence between female and male students in terms of their gender. The problem the present study aimed to address is that the traditional concept that “one size fits all” is still adopted by many EFL teachers, and that EFL students’ differences and preferences are noticeably unheeded. It is believed that identifying students’ dominant intelligences is a sound remedial solution for such a problem before embarking on any teaching program. Moreover, getting students aware of their different types of intelligence will motivate and encourage them in the classroom. The researchers used a questionnaire as a research instrument for data collection.  The results arrived at showed that there were no significant differences in the types of intelligence between female and male students in terms of their gender, except for bodily- kinesthetic intelligence. They also showed that the dominant intelligences were ranked from the highest to the lowest as follows interpersonal, linguistic, spatial, logical-mathematical, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, musical, and naturalistic.

  8. Repair of DNA-polypeptide crosslinks by human excision nuclease

    Reardon, Joyce T.; Sancar, Aziz

    2006-03-01

    DNA-protein crosslinks are relatively common DNA lesions that form during the physiological processing of DNA by replication and recombination proteins, by side reactions of base excision repair enzymes, and by cellular exposure to bifunctional DNA-damaging agents such as platinum compounds. The mechanism by which pathological DNA-protein crosslinks are repaired in humans is not known. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of recognition and repair of protein-DNA and oligopeptide-DNA crosslinks by the human excision nuclease. Under our assay conditions, the human nucleotide excision repair system did not remove a 16-kDa protein crosslinked to DNA at a detectable level. However, 4- and 12-aa-long oligopeptides crosslinked to the DNA backbone were recognized by some of the damage recognition factors of the human excision nuclease with moderate selectivity and were excised from DNA at relatively efficient rates. Our data suggest that, if coupled with proteolytic degradation of the crosslinked protein, the human excision nuclease may be the major enzyme system for eliminating protein-DNA crosslinks from the genome. damage recognition | nucleotide excision repair

  9. Correlation between base-excision repair gene polymorphisms and levels of in-vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Hongping Yu

    Full Text Available In vitro benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral lymphocytes have been shown to be a phenotypic biomarker of individual's DNA repair phenotype that is associated with cancer risk. In this study, we explored associations between genotypes of base-excision repair genes (PARP1 Val762Ala, APEX1 Asp148Glu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln and in vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in 706 cancer-free non-Hispanic white subjects. We found that levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers and that individuals with the Glu variant genotypes (i.e., Asp/Glu and Glu/Glu exhibited lower levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts than did individuals with the common Asp/Asp homozygous genotype (median RAL levels: 32.0 for Asp/Asp, 27.0 for Asp/Glu, and 17.0 for Glu/Glu, respectively; P(trend = 0.030. Further stratified analysis showed that compared with individuals with the common APEX1-148 homozygous Asp/Asp genotype, individuals with the APEX1-148Asp/Glu genotype or the Glu/Glu genotype had a lower risk of having higher-level adducts (adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98 and adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.86, respectively; P(trend = 0.012 among smokers. Such an effect was not observed in non-smokers. However, there was no significant interaction between the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and smoking exposure in this study population (P = 0.512. Additional genotype-phenotype analysis found that the APEX1-148Glu allele had significantly increased expression of APEX1 mRNA in 270 Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, which is likely associated with more active repair activity. Our findings suggest that the functional APEX1-148Glu allele is associated with reduced risk of having high levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts mediated with high levels of mRNA expression.

  10. Transvaginal sling excision: tips and tricks.

    Clifton, Marisa M; Goldman, Howard B

    2017-01-01

    Complications of synthetic midurethral sling surgery include bladder outlet obstruction, mesh extrusion, and vaginal pain. A treatment of these complications is transvaginal mesh removal. The objectives of this video are to present cases of complications after sling placement and describe techniques to help with successful sling removal. Three patients are presented in this video. One experienced urinary hesitancy and was found to have bladder outlet obstruction on urodynamic study. The second patient presented to the clinic with diminished force of stream and significant dyspareunia. The last patient presented with mesh extrusion. After discussion of management options, all three patients wished to pursue transvaginal sling excision. All patients had successful removal of a portion of their synthetic midurethral sling. This video presents techniques to aide with dissection, mesh excision and prevention of further mesh complications. These include using an individualized surgical technique based on patient presentation and surgeon expertise, planning surgical incisions based on where mesh can be identified or palpated, using a cystoscope sheath or urethral dilator to identify any bladder outlet obstruction, and using a knife blade to identify mesh from surrounding tissue. Sling excision can be successfully performed with careful surgical technique and dissection.

  11. Excision of x-ray-induced thymine damage in chromatin from heated cells

    Warters, R.L.; Roti Roti, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed to distinguish between two possible modes of hyperthermia-induced inhibition of thymine base damage excision from the DNA of CHO cells: (1) heat denaturation of excision enzyme(s) or (2) heat-induced alteration of the substrate for damage excision (chromatin). While hyperthermia (45 0 C, 15 min) had no apparent effect on the capacity of the excision enzymes to excise damage from DNA it had a dramatic effect (ca. 80% inhibition) on the ability of chromatin to serve as a substrate for unheated enzymes. These results suggest that hyperthermia-induced radiosensitization of CHO cells may be due primarily to lesions in the cellular chromatin

  12. Dissimilarity-based multiple instance learning

    Sørensen, Lauge; Loog, Marco; Tax, David M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to solve multiple instance learning problems using a dissimilarity representation of the objects. Once the dissimilarity space has been constructed, the problem is turned into a standard supervised learning problem that can be solved with a general purpose supervised cla...... between distributions of within- and between set point distances, thereby taking relations within and between sets into account. Experiments on five publicly available data sets show competitive performance in terms of classification accuracy compared to previously published results....

  13. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  14. Nuclear translocation contributes to regulation of DNA excision repair activities

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Lützen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    for regulation of nuclear import that is necessary for proper localization of the repair proteins. This review summarizes the current knowledge on nuclear import mechanisms of DNA excision repair proteins and provides a model that categorizes the import by different mechanisms, including classical nuclear import......DNA mutations are circumvented by dedicated specialized excision repair systems, such as the base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Although the individual repair pathways have distinct roles in suppressing changes in the nuclear DNA......, it is evident that proteins from the different DNA repair pathways interact [Y. Wang, D. Cortez, P. Yazdi, N. Neff, S.J. Elledge, J. Qin, BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures, Genes Dev. 14 (2000) 927-939; M. Christmann, M...

  15. The formation of double-strand breaks at multiply damaged sites is driven by the kinetics of excision/incision at base damage in eukaryotic cells

    Kozmin, S.G.; Sedletska, Y.; Reynaud-Angelin, A.; Sage, E.; Kozmin, S.G.; Sedletska, Y.; Reynaud-Angelin, A.; Sage, E.; Gasparutto, D.

    2009-01-01

    It has been stipulated that repair of clustered DNA lesions may be compromised, possibly leading to the formation of double-strand breaks (DSB) and, thus, to deleterious events. Using a variety of model multiply damaged sites (MDS), we investigated parameters that govern the formation of DSB during the processing of MDS. Duplexes carrying MDS were inserted into replicative or integrative vectors, and used to transform yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Formation of DSB was assessed by a relevant plasmid survival assay. Kinetics of excision/incision and DSB formation at MDS was explored using yeast cell extracts. We show that MDS composed of two uracils or abasic sites, were rapidly incised and readily converted into DSB in yeast cells. In marked contrast, none of the MDS carrying opposed oG and hU separated by 38 bp gave rise to DSB, despite the fact that some of them contained preexisting single-strand break (a 1-nt gap). Interestingly, the absence of DSB formation in this case correlated with slow excision/incision rates of lesions. We propose that the kinetics of the initial repair steps at MDS is a major parameter that direct towards the conversion of MDS into DSB. Data provides clues to the biological consequences of MDS in eukaryotic cells. (authors)

  16. A TetR family transcriptional factor directly regulates the expression of a 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase and physically interacts with the enzyme to stimulate its base excision activity in Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Cheng; He, Zheng-Guo

    2014-03-28

    3-Methyladenine DNA glycosylase recognizes and excises a wide range of damaged bases and thus plays a critical role in base excision repair. However, knowledge on the regulation of DNA glycosylase in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is limited. In this study, we successfully characterized a TetR family transcriptional factor from Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), namely BCG0878c, which directly regulates the expression of 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (designated as MbAAG) and influences the base excision activity of this glycosylase at the post-translational level. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNase I footprinting experiments, we identified two conserved motifs within the upstream region of mbaag specifically recognized by BCG0878c. Significant down-regulation of mbaag was observed in BCG0878c-overexpressed M. bovis BCG strains. By contrast, about 12-fold up-regulation of mbaag expression was found in bcg0878c-deleted mutant M. bovis BCG strains. β-Galactosidase activity assays also confirmed these results. Thus, BCG0878c can function as a negative regulator of mbaag expression. In addition, the regulator was shown to physically interact with MbAAG to enhance the ability of the glycosylase to bind damaged DNA. Interaction between the two proteins was further found to facilitate AAG-catalyzed removal of hypoxanthine from DNA. These results indicate that a TetR family protein can dually regulate the function of 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase in M. bovis BCG both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. These findings enhance our understanding of the expression and regulation of AAG in mycobacteria.

  17. Reflective type objective based spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography for high-sensitive structural and functional imaging of cochlear microstructures through intact bone of an excised guinea pig cochlea

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2013-03-01

    Most of the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) systems for high resolution imaging of biological specimens are based on refractive type microscope objectives, which are optimized for specific wave length of the optical source. In this study, we present the feasibility of using commercially available reflective type objective for high sensitive and high resolution structural and functional imaging of cochlear microstructures of an excised guinea pig through intact temporal bone. Unlike conventional refractive type microscopic objective, reflective objective are free from chromatic aberrations due to their all-reflecting nature and can support a broadband of spectrum with very high light collection efficiency.

  18. Antibody-Based Therapies in Multiple Myeloma

    Yu-Tzu Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The unmet need for improved multiple myeloma (MM therapy has stimulated clinical development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs targeting either MM cells or cells of the bone marrow (BM microenvironment. In contrast to small-molecule inhibitors, therapeutic mAbs present the potential to specifically target tumor cells and directly induce an immune response to lyse tumor cells. Unique immune-effector mechanisms are only triggered by therapeutic mAbs but not by small molecule targeting agents. Although therapeutic murine mAbs or chimeric mAbs can cause immunogenicity, the advancement of genetic recombination for humanizing rodent mAbs has allowed large-scale production and designation of mAbs with better affinities, efficient selection, decreasing immunogenicity, and improved effector functions. These advancements of antibody engineering technologies have largely overcome the critical obstacle of antibody immunogenicity and enabled the development and subsequent Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval of therapeutic Abs for cancer and other diseases.

  19. Lumbar disc excision through fenestration

    Sangwan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lumbar disc herniation often causes sciatica. Many different techniques have been advocated with the aim of least possible damage to other structures while dealing with prolapsed disc surgically in the properly selected and indicated cases. Methods : Twenty six patients with clinical symptoms and signs of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc having radiological correlation by MRI study were subjected to disc excision by interlaminar fenestration method. Results : The assessment at follow-up showed excellent results in 17 patients, good in 6 patients, fair in 2 patients and poor in 1 patient. The mean preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scores were 9.34 ±0.84 and 2.19 ±0.84 on scale of 0-10 respectively. These were statistically significant (p value< 0.001, paired t test. No significant complications were recorded. Conclusion : Procedures of interlaminar fenestration and open disc excision under direct vision offers sufficient adequate exposure for lumbar disc excision with a smaller incision, lesser morbidity, shorter convalescence, early return to work and comparable overall results in the centers where recent laser and endoscopy facilities are not available.

  20. Multiple intelligences and outcomes based education

    Elaine Ridge

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons that make it advantageous to develop learning programmes which draw on the theory of multiple intelligences (MI. A unitary view of intelligence privileges analytic/linguisticallygifted learners. The theory of MI, on the other hand, takes account of the diversity of learners and challenges educators to provide opportunities for them to use their varied intelligences.The outline of each of the eight intelligences demonstratesthe many ways in which learners can demonstrate their ability to excel. Application of these insights can complement the kind of transformatoryeducation envisaged in the Department of Education policy documents. MI translated into school practice has taken a variety of forms: project-basedapproaches, interdisciplinarycurriculums, entry points to lesson plans and complex assessments are only some of these. Ordinary classroom teachers can create diverse opportunities for all learners to enjoy a high measure of success.Hierdie artikel ondersoek die redes waarom dit voordelig is om leerprogramme te ontwikkel wal gebaseer is op idees uit die leorie van meervoudige intelligensies (MI.'n Unitêre siening van intelligensiebevoordeel analities- en taalbegaafde-leerders.Die MI-teorie, daarenleen neem die ongelyksoortigheidvan die leerders in ag en daag opvoeders uit om geleenthede te skep vir die leerlinge om verskeie van hulle intelligensies te gebruik. Die omskrywing van elk van die agt soorte intelligensies demonstreer die talryke-maniere waarop leerders hulle vermoë om uit te blink kan bewys.Die toepassing van hierdie insigte kan bydra tot die transformerendeaard van die opvoeding wat met die Departmentvan Opvoedkunde se beleidsdokumentebeoog word.MI toegepas in skoolpraktykneem verskillendevorms aan: projek-gebaseerdebenaderinge;interdissiplinêrekurrikulums; loelreepunte vir lesplanne en veelsydige assessering, om maar 'n paar te noem.Gewone klas-onderwysers kan 'n verskeidenheid geleenthede skep

  1. Calorimeter prediction based on multiple exponentials

    Smith, M.K.; Bracken, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Calorimetry allows very precise measurements of nuclear material to be carried out, but it also requires relatively long measurement times to do so. The ability to accurately predict the equilibrium response of a calorimeter would significantly reduce the amount of time required for calorimetric assays. An algorithm has been developed that is effective at predicting the equilibrium response. This multi-exponential prediction algorithm is based on an iterative technique using commercial fitting routines that fit a constant plus a variable number of exponential terms to calorimeter data. Details of the implementation and the results of trials on a large number of calorimeter data sets will be presented

  2. Archaeal DNA Polymerase-B as a DNA Template Guardian: Links between Polymerases and Base/Alternative Excision Repair Enzymes in Handling the Deaminated Bases Uracil and Hypoxanthine

    Javier Abellón-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Archaea repair of uracil and hypoxanthine, which arise by deamination of cytosine and adenine, respectively, is initiated by three enzymes: Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG, which recognises uracil; Endonuclease V (EndoV, which recognises hypoxanthine; and Endonuclease Q (EndoQ, (which recognises both uracil and hypoxanthine. Two archaeal DNA polymerases, Pol-B and Pol-D, are inhibited by deaminated bases in template strands, a feature unique to this domain. Thus the three repair enzymes and the two polymerases show overlapping specificity for uracil and hypoxanthine. Here it is demonstrated that binding of Pol-D to primer-templates containing deaminated bases inhibits the activity of UDG, EndoV, and EndoQ. Similarly Pol-B almost completely turns off EndoQ, extending earlier work that demonstrated that Pol-B reduces catalysis by UDG and EndoV. Pol-B was observed to be a more potent inhibitor of the enzymes compared to Pol-D. Although Pol-D is directly inhibited by template strand uracil, the presence of Pol-B further suppresses any residual activity of Pol-D, to near-zero levels. The results are compatible with Pol-D acting as the replicative polymerase and Pol-B functioning primarily as a guardian preventing deaminated base-induced DNA mutations.

  3. Multiple-valued logic design based on the multiple-peak BiCMOS-NDR circuits

    Kwang-Jow Gan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different multiple-valued logic (MVL designs using the multiple-peak negative-differential-resistance (NDR circuits are investigated. The basic NDR element, which is made of several Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOS and SiGe-based heterojunction-bipolar-transistor (HBT devices, can be implemented by using a standard BiCMOS process. These MVL circuits are designed based on the triggering-pulse control, saw-tooth input signal, and peak-control methods, respectively. However, there are some transient states existing between the multiple stable levels for the first two methods. These states might affect the circuit function in practical application. As a result, our proposed peak-control method for the MVL design can be used to overcome these transient states.

  4. Signal Recovery in Compressive Sensing via Multiple Sparsifying Bases

    Wijewardhana, U. L.; Belyaev, Evgeny; Codreanu, M.

    2017-01-01

    is sparse is the key assumption utilized by such algorithms. However, the basis in which the signal is the sparsest is unknown for many natural signals of interest. Instead there may exist multiple bases which lead to a compressible representation of the signal: e.g., an image is compressible in different...... wavelet transforms. We show that a significant performance improvement can be achieved by utilizing multiple estimates of the signal using sparsifying bases in the context of signal reconstruction from compressive samples. Further, we derive a customized interior-point method to jointly obtain multiple...... estimates of a 2-D signal (image) from compressive measurements utilizing multiple sparsifying bases as well as the fact that the images usually have a sparse gradient....

  5. Uracil excision repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell-free extracts.

    Kumar, Pradeep; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Varshney, Umesh

    2011-05-01

    Uracil excision repair is ubiquitous in all domains of life and initiated by uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs) which excise the promutagenic base, uracil, from DNA to leave behind an abasic site (AP-site). Repair of the resulting AP-sites requires an AP-endonuclease, a DNA polymerase, and a DNA ligase whose combined activities result in either short-patch or long-patch repair. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, has an increased risk of accumulating uracils because of its G + C-rich genome, and its niche inside host macrophages where it is exposed to reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, two major causes of cytosine deamination (to uracil) in DNA. In vitro assays to study DNA repair in this important human pathogen are limited. To study uracil excision repair in mycobacteria, we have established assay conditions using cell-free extracts of M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis (a fast-growing mycobacterium) and oligomer or plasmid DNA substrates. We show that in mycobacteria, uracil excision repair is completed primarily via long-patch repair. In addition, we show that M. tuberculosis UdgB, a newly characterized family 5 UDG, substitutes for the highly conserved family 1 UDG, Ung, thereby suggesting that UdgB might function as backup enzyme for uracil excision repair in mycobacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple access chaotic digital communication based on generalized synchronization

    Lu Junguo

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for multiple access chaotic digital communication based on the concept of chaos generalized synchronization and the on-line least square method is proposed. This method can be used for transmitting multiple digital information signals concurrently. We illustrate the method using a Lorenz system driving a Chua's circuit and then examine the robustness of the proposed method with respect to noise in communication channel

  7. 20 CFR 345.403 - Multiple base year employers.

    2010-04-01

    ..., benefits will be charged in reverse chronological order, but the amount charged to each base year employer...) In all other cases, benefits will be charged in the same ratio as the compensation paid to such... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple base year employers. 345.403 Section...

  8. Functional Polymorphisms of Base Excision Repair Genes XRCC1 and APEX1 Predict Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy

    Yin Ming; Liao Zhongxing; Liu Zhensheng; Wang, Li-E; Gomez, Daniel; Komaki, Ritsuko; Wei Qingyi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of base-excision repair genes are predictors of radiation treatment-related pneumonitis (RP), we investigated associations between functional SNPs of ADPRT, APEX1, and XRCC1 and RP development. Methods and Materials: We genotyped SNPs of ADPRT (rs1136410 [V762A]), XRCC1 (rs1799782 [R194W], rs25489 [R280H], and rs25487 [Q399R]), and APEX1 (rs1130409 [D148E]) in 165 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received definitive chemoradiation therapy. Results were assessed by both Logistic and Cox regression models for RP risk. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated for the cumulative RP probability by the genotypes. Results: We found that SNPs of XRCC1 Q399R and APEX1 D148E each had a significant effect on the development of Grade ≥2 RP (XRCC1: AA vs. GG, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.97; APEX1: GG vs. TT, adjusted HR = 3.61, 95% CI, 1.64-7.93) in an allele-dose response manner (Trend tests: p = 0.040 and 0.001, respectively). The number of the combined protective XRCC1 A and APEX1 T alleles (from 0 to 4) also showed a significant trend of predicting RP risk (p = 0.001). Conclusions: SNPs of the base-excision repair genes may be biomarkers for susceptibility to RP. Larger prospective studies are needed to validate our findings.

  9. Multiple exciton generation in quantum dot-based solar cells

    Goodwin, Heather; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Davis, Nathaniel J. L. K.; Böhm, Marcus L.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum-confined semiconductors is the process by which multiple bound charge-carrier pairs are generated after absorption of a single high-energy photon. Such charge-carrier multiplication effects have been highlighted as particularly beneficial for solar cells where they have the potential to increase the photocurrent significantly. Indeed, recent research efforts have proved that more than one charge-carrier pair per incident solar photon can be extracted in photovoltaic devices incorporating quantum-confined semiconductors. While these proof-of-concept applications underline the potential of MEG in solar cells, the impact of the carrier multiplication effect on the device performance remains rather low. This review covers recent advancements in the understanding and application of MEG as a photocurrent-enhancing mechanism in quantum dot-based photovoltaics.

  10. A 2:1 MUX Based on Multiple MEMS Resonators

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-01-09

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. This paper reports a realization of a 2:1 MUX, a concatenable digital logic element, based on electrothermal frequency tuning of electrically connected multiple arch resonators. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.

  11. A 2:1 MUX Based on Multiple MEMS Resonators

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. This paper reports a realization of a 2:1 MUX, a concatenable digital logic element, based on electrothermal frequency tuning of electrically connected multiple arch resonators. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.

  12. Multiple infrared bands absorber based on multilayer gratings

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Gao, Jinsong; Yang, Haigui; Wang, Xiaoyi; Guo, Chengli

    2018-03-01

    The present study offers an Ag/Si multilayer-grating microstructure based on an Si substrate. The microstructure exhibits designable narrowband absorption in multiple infrared wavebands, especially in mid- and long-wave infrared atmospheric windows. We investigate its resonance mode mechanism, and calculate the resonance wavelengths by the Fabry-Perot and metal-insulator-metal theories for comparison with the simulation results. Furthermore, we summarize the controlling rules of the absorption peak wavelength of the microstructure to provide a new method for generating a Si-based device with multiple working bands in infrared.

  13. Vehicle coordinated transportation dispatching model base on multiple crisis locations

    Tian, Ran; Li, Shanwei; Yang, Guoying

    2018-05-01

    Many disastrous events are often caused after unconventional emergencies occur, and the requirements of disasters are often different. It is difficult for a single emergency resource center to satisfy such requirements at the same time. Therefore, how to coordinate the emergency resources stored by multiple emergency resource centers to various disaster sites requires the coordinated transportation of emergency vehicles. In this paper, according to the problem of emergency logistics coordination scheduling, based on the related constraints of emergency logistics transportation, an emergency resource scheduling model based on multiple disasters is established.

  14. Deep convolutional neural network based antenna selection in multiple-input multiple-output system

    Cai, Jiaxin; Li, Yan; Hu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Antenna selection of wireless communication system has attracted increasing attention due to the challenge of keeping a balance between communication performance and computational complexity in large-scale Multiple-Input MultipleOutput antenna systems. Recently, deep learning based methods have achieved promising performance for large-scale data processing and analysis in many application fields. This paper is the first attempt to introduce the deep learning technique into the field of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output antenna selection in wireless communications. First, the label of attenuation coefficients channel matrix is generated by minimizing the key performance indicator of training antenna systems. Then, a deep convolutional neural network that explicitly exploits the massive latent cues of attenuation coefficients is learned on the training antenna systems. Finally, we use the adopted deep convolutional neural network to classify the channel matrix labels of test antennas and select the optimal antenna subset. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve better performance than the state-of-the-art baselines for data-driven based wireless antenna selection.

  15. Principles of Periocular Reconstruction following Excision of Cutaneous Malignancy

    Hayano, S. M.; Whipple, K. M.; Korn, B. S.; Kikkawa, D. O.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of periocular defects following excision of cutaneous malignancy can present difficulties for oculofacial and reconstructive surgeons. The intricate anatomy of the eyelids and face requires precise restoration in order to avoid postoperative functional anesthetic concerns. Various reconstructive procedures based on common principles, location and size of the defect, can be applied to achieve restoration with the best possible functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  16. Feasibility study of transanal total mesorectal excision

    Velthuis, S.; Boezem, P.B. van den; Peet, D.L. van der; Cuesta, M.A.; Sietses, C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancers is a safe alternative to open surgery. The conversion rate to open surgery remains fairly constant but is associated with increased morbidity. A new approach to the surgical excision of rectal cancer is transanal total mesorectal excision

  17. Iodine-based contrast media, multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies

    Stacul, Fulvio; Bertolotto, Michele; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many radiologists and clinicians still consider multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathies (MG) a contraindication for using iodine-based contrast media. The ESUR Contrast Media Safety Committee performed a systematic review of the incidence of post-contrast acute kidney injury...

  18. SDG and qualitative trend based model multiple scale validation

    Gao, Dong; Xu, Xin; Yin, Jianjin; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Beike

    2017-09-01

    Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) is key technology of simulation and modelling. For the traditional model validation methods, the completeness is weak; it is carried out in one scale; it depends on human experience. The SDG (Signed Directed Graph) and qualitative trend based multiple scale validation is proposed. First the SDG model is built and qualitative trends are added to the model. And then complete testing scenarios are produced by positive inference. The multiple scale validation is carried out by comparing the testing scenarios with outputs of simulation model in different scales. Finally, the effectiveness is proved by carrying out validation for a reactor model.

  19. Multi-lane detection based on multiple vanishing points detection

    Li, Chuanxiang; Nie, Yiming; Dai, Bin; Wu, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Lane detection plays a significant role in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for intelligent vehicles. In this paper we present a multi-lane detection method based on multiple vanishing points detection. A new multi-lane model assumes that a single lane, which has two approximately parallel boundaries, may not parallel to others on road plane. Non-parallel lanes associate with different vanishing points. A biological plausibility model is used to detect multiple vanishing points and fit lane model. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect both parallel lanes and non-parallel lanes.

  20. Cell-based therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis.

    Scolding, Neil J; Pasquini, Marcelo; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2017-11-01

    The availability of multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis illustrates the substantial progress made in therapy of the disease. However, all are only partially effective in preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Each approach has potential advantages but also safety concerns and unresolved questions. Moreover, clinical trials of cell-based therapies present several unique methodological and ethical issues. We summarize here the status of cell-based therapies to treat multiple sclerosis and make consensus recommendations for future research and clinical trials. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  1. MR-based conductivity imaging using multiple receiver coils.

    Lee, Joonsung; Shin, Jaewook; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    To propose a signal combination method for MR-based tissue conductivity mapping using a standard clinical scanner with multiple receiver coils. The theory of the proposed method is presented with two practical approaches, a coil-specific approach and a subject-specific approach. Conductivity maps were reconstructed using the transceive phase of the combined signal. The sensitivities of the coefficients used for signal combination were analyzed and the method was compared with other signal combination methods. For validation, multiple receiver brain coils and multiple receiver breast coils were used in phantom, in vivo brain, and in vivo breast studies. The variation among the conductivity estimates was conductivity estimates. MR-based tissue conductivity mapping is feasible when using a standard clinical MR scanner with multiple receiver coils. The proposed method reduces systematic errors in phase-based conductivity mapping that can occur due to the inhomogeneous magnitude of the combined receive profile. Magn Reson Med 76:530-539, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Isolated myocardial hydatid cyst: Managed with total curative excision

    Santosh Kumar Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is still prevalent in developing countries, and isolated cardiac hydatid cysts are the rarest presentation. We report a 40-year-old nondiabetic, nonhypertensive female who presented with low-grade fever for 2 months shortness of breath and orthopnea for 2 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large, round cystic lesion with multiple daughter cysts without any obvious intraluminal detached membranes with mass effect on the left ventricular outflow tract. After total excision, residual tissue was closed with Teflon patch. Germinative membrane and hundreds of daughter cysts were seen. Following total excision of the cyst from myocardium, myocardial cavity was washed thoroughly with 10% Betadine solution. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Preoperatively started albendazole was continued for 4 weeks even after the operation. On follow-up after 4 weeks, the patient is doing well and cardiac imaging showed normal contours of the heart.

  3. Impact of cigarette taxation policy on excise revenues and cigarette consumption in Uzbekistan

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uzbekistan ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which states that price and tax measures are an effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. We aimed to explore the effect of taxation policies on revenues and cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data on tax rates, revenues, cigarette sales were taken from national reports. To forecast potential revenues, a scenario analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 1991-2004, ad valorem excise system was in place in Uzbekistan, which was later replaced by the specific excise system. In 1997-2011, the nominal average excise has increased by a factor of twenty, but in real terms, after a sharp increase in 1999, average excise declined annually and increased only in 2010-2011. Annual cigarette sales per capita of adult population in 1999-2007 constituted 17-25 cigarette packs, while in 2008-2011 it increased to 30-37 packs. Four scenarios of excise tax increases in 2012 were developed: one actual scenario based on the rates effective in Uzbekistan in 2012, and three hypothetical ones anticipating excise rates increase by 1.5, 2 and 3-fold. With actual excise increase in 2012, the inflation-adjusted budget revenues would grow by 5%, and with three hypothetical - by 17%, 35% and 66% respectively, despite the decline of tax-paid cigarette sales. CONCLUSION: Stabilization or reduction in cigarette excises in Uzbekistan in 2002-2008 led to a decline in real excise revenues and the growth of cigarette sales. In 1999 and 2010-2011, excises were significantly increased and the real revenues have risen, despite the decline in cigarette sales. As cigarette prices are low, the illegal outflow of cigarettes from Uzbekistan apparently exceeds the illegal inflow. A significant increase in cigarette excise (1.5-3 fold can both increase budget revenues and reduce cigarette consumption, with greater increase yielding more benefits.

  4. Nasal encephalocele: endoscopic excision with anesthetic consideration.

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam; Qotb, Mohamed; El-Hamamsy, Mostafa; El-Sonbaty, Mohamed; Abdel-Badie, Hazem; Zynabdeen, Mustapha

    2010-08-01

    Nasal encephalocele may presents as a nasal mass, its treatment is surgical and it should be done early in life. When removal is indicated, there are multiple surgical approaches; including lateral rhinotomy, a transnasal approach and a coronal flap approach. However, the treatment of a basal intranasal encephalocele using transnasal endoscopic approach could obviates the possible morbidity associated with other approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic removal of intranasal encephalocele, also to document the role of anesthetist in the operative and postoperative periods. Nine cases with nasal encephalocele were included in this study; CT and/or MRI were used in their examination. The lesions were removed via transnasal endoscopic approach. Preoperative evaluation, intervention and postoperative follow-up were presented with discussion of anesthesia used for those children. The lesions of all patients were removed successfully with no recurrence through the follow-up period of at least 21 months. No cases showed morbidity or mortality intra- or post-operatively. Endoscopic excision of intranasal encephalocele is an effective method with high success rate. Anesthetist plays an important role in the operative and postoperative period, even during the endoscopic follow up; sedation of the children is usually needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MFAM: Multiple Frequency Adaptive Model-Based Indoor Localization Method.

    Tuta, Jure; Juric, Matjaz B

    2018-03-24

    This paper presents MFAM (Multiple Frequency Adaptive Model-based localization method), a novel model-based indoor localization method that is capable of using multiple wireless signal frequencies simultaneously. It utilizes indoor architectural model and physical properties of wireless signal propagation through objects and space. The motivation for developing multiple frequency localization method lies in the future Wi-Fi standards (e.g., 802.11ah) and the growing number of various wireless signals present in the buildings (e.g., Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, etc.). Current indoor localization methods mostly rely on a single wireless signal type and often require many devices to achieve the necessary accuracy. MFAM utilizes multiple wireless signal types and improves the localization accuracy over the usage of a single frequency. It continuously monitors signal propagation through space and adapts the model according to the changes indoors. Using multiple signal sources lowers the required number of access points for a specific signal type while utilizing signals, already present in the indoors. Due to the unavailability of the 802.11ah hardware, we have evaluated proposed method with similar signals; we have used 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi and 868 MHz HomeMatic home automation signals. We have performed the evaluation in a modern two-bedroom apartment and measured mean localization error 2.0 to 2.3 m and median error of 2.0 to 2.2 m. Based on our evaluation results, using two different signals improves the localization accuracy by 18% in comparison to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi-only approach. Additional signals would improve the accuracy even further. We have shown that MFAM provides better accuracy than competing methods, while having several advantages for real-world usage.

  6. MFAM: Multiple Frequency Adaptive Model-Based Indoor Localization Method

    Jure Tuta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents MFAM (Multiple Frequency Adaptive Model-based localization method, a novel model-based indoor localization method that is capable of using multiple wireless signal frequencies simultaneously. It utilizes indoor architectural model and physical properties of wireless signal propagation through objects and space. The motivation for developing multiple frequency localization method lies in the future Wi-Fi standards (e.g., 802.11ah and the growing number of various wireless signals present in the buildings (e.g., Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, etc.. Current indoor localization methods mostly rely on a single wireless signal type and often require many devices to achieve the necessary accuracy. MFAM utilizes multiple wireless signal types and improves the localization accuracy over the usage of a single frequency. It continuously monitors signal propagation through space and adapts the model according to the changes indoors. Using multiple signal sources lowers the required number of access points for a specific signal type while utilizing signals, already present in the indoors. Due to the unavailability of the 802.11ah hardware, we have evaluated proposed method with similar signals; we have used 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi and 868 MHz HomeMatic home automation signals. We have performed the evaluation in a modern two-bedroom apartment and measured mean localization error 2.0 to 2.3 m and median error of 2.0 to 2.2 m. Based on our evaluation results, using two different signals improves the localization accuracy by 18% in comparison to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi-only approach. Additional signals would improve the accuracy even further. We have shown that MFAM provides better accuracy than competing methods, while having several advantages for real-world usage.

  7. Central Decoding for Multiple Description Codes based on Domain Partitioning

    M. Spiertz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Description Codes (MDC can be used to trade redundancy against packet loss resistance for transmitting data over lossy diversity networks. In this work we focus on MD transform coding based on domain partitioning. Compared to Vaishampayan’s quantizer based MDC, domain based MD coding is a simple approach for generating different descriptions, by using different quantizers for each description. Commonly, only the highest rate quantizer is used for reconstruction. In this paper we investigate the benefit of using the lower rate quantizers to enhance the reconstruction quality at decoder side. The comparison is done on artificial source data and on image data. 

  8. Intelligent fault recognition strategy based on adaptive optimized multiple centers

    Zheng, Bo; Li, Yan-Feng; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2018-06-01

    For the recognition principle based optimized single center, one important issue is that the data with nonlinear separatrix cannot be recognized accurately. In order to solve this problem, a novel recognition strategy based on adaptive optimized multiple centers is proposed in this paper. This strategy recognizes the data sets with nonlinear separatrix by the multiple centers. Meanwhile, the priority levels are introduced into the multi-objective optimization, including recognition accuracy, the quantity of optimized centers, and distance relationship. According to the characteristics of various data, the priority levels are adjusted to ensure the quantity of optimized centers adaptively and to keep the original accuracy. The proposed method is compared with other methods, including support vector machine (SVM), neural network, and Bayesian classifier. The results demonstrate that the proposed strategy has the same or even better recognition ability on different distribution characteristics of data.

  9. A Concurrent Multiple Negotiation Protocol Based on Colored Petri Nets.

    Niu, Lei; Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan

    2017-11-01

    Concurrent multiple negotiation (CMN) provides a mechanism for an agent to simultaneously conduct more than one negotiation. There may exist different interdependency relationships among these negotiations and these interdependency relationships can impact the outcomes of these negotiations. The outcomes of these concurrent negotiations contribute together for the agent to achieve an overall negotiation goal. Handling a CMN while considering interdependency relationships among multiple negotiations is a challenging research problem. This paper: 1) comprehensively highlights research problems of negotiations at concurrent negotiation level; 2) provides a graph-based CMN model with consideration of the interdependency relationships; and 3) proposes a colored Petri net-based negotiation protocol for conducting CMNs. With the proposed protocol, a CMN can be efficiently and concurrently processed and negotiation agreements can be efficiently achieved. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed protocol in terms of the negotiation success rate, the negotiation time and the negotiation outcome.

  10. Cell-based therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis

    Scolding, Neil J; Pasquini, Marcelo; Reingold, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities......, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Each approach has potential advantages but also safety concerns and unresolved...

  11. Environmental Assessment: Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    2006-05-17

    Publico sobre el La Evaluation de lmpacto Ambiental de MUltiples Proyectos en Ia Base de Ia Fuerza Aerea Laughlin De acuerdo con el Acta Nacional de 1...which emphasizes frequencies in the middle of the audible spectrum and de -emphasizes low and high frequencies in a manner corresponding to the way the...feet from the source. Assuming that noise from the heavy equipment radiates equally in all directions, the sound intensity diminishes inversely as the

  12. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  13. Nonlinear Knowledge in Kernel-Based Multiple Criteria Programming Classifier

    Zhang, Dongling; Tian, Yingjie; Shi, Yong

    Kernel-based Multiple Criteria Linear Programming (KMCLP) model is used as classification methods, which can learn from training examples. Whereas, in traditional machine learning area, data sets are classified only by prior knowledge. Some works combine the above two classification principle to overcome the defaults of each approach. In this paper, we propose a model to incorporate the nonlinear knowledge into KMCLP in order to solve the problem when input consists of not only training example, but also nonlinear prior knowledge. In dealing with real world case breast cancer diagnosis, the model shows its better performance than the model solely based on training data.

  14. Obturator foramen dissection for excision of symptomatic transobturator mesh.

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Kit, Laura Chang; Kaufman, Melissa R; Karram, Mickey; Bales, Gregory T; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2012-05-01

    Groin pain after transobturator synthetic mesh placement can be recalcitrant to conservative therapy and ultimately requires surgical excision. We describe our experiences with and technique of obturator foramen dissection for mesh excision. The records of 8 patients treated from 2005 to 2010, were reviewed. Obturator dissection was performed via a lateral groin incision over the inferior pubic ramus at the level of the obturator foramen, typically in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. Five patients had transobturator mid urethral sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence, 2 had mid urethral sling and trocar based anterior vaginal wall mesh kits with transobturator passage of mesh arms for stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, and 1 had an anterior vaginal wall mesh kit for pelvic organ prolapse. Patients had 0 to 2 prior transvaginal mesh excisions before obturator surgery. All patients presented with intractable pain in the area of the obturator foramen and/or medial groin for which conservative treatment measures had failed. Six patients underwent concurrent vaginal and obturator dissection and 2 underwent obturator dissection alone. In all cases residual mesh (3 to 11 cm) was identified and excised from the obturator foramen. Mesh was closely associated to or traversing the adductor longus muscle and tendon with significant fibrous reaction in all cases. Postoperatively 5 patients were cured of pain and/or infection, and 3 reported no or some improvement at a mean followup of 6 months (range 1 to 12). Our experience suggests that surgical excision of residual mesh can alleviate many of the symptoms in many patients. In all cases mesh remnants were identified and removed, and typically involved neuromuscular structures adjacent to the obturator foramen. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple kernel boosting framework based on information measure for classification

    Qi, Chengming; Wang, Yuping; Tian, Wenjie; Wang, Qun

    2016-01-01

    The performance of kernel-based method, such as support vector machine (SVM), is greatly affected by the choice of kernel function. Multiple kernel learning (MKL) is a promising family of machine learning algorithms and has attracted many attentions in recent years. MKL combines multiple sub-kernels to seek better results compared to single kernel learning. In order to improve the efficiency of SVM and MKL, in this paper, the Kullback–Leibler kernel function is derived to develop SVM. The proposed method employs an improved ensemble learning framework, named KLMKB, which applies Adaboost to learning multiple kernel-based classifier. In the experiment for hyperspectral remote sensing image classification, we employ feature selected through Optional Index Factor (OIF) to classify the satellite image. We extensively examine the performance of our approach in comparison to some relevant and state-of-the-art algorithms on a number of benchmark classification data sets and hyperspectral remote sensing image data set. Experimental results show that our method has a stable behavior and a noticeable accuracy for different data set.

  16. Homography-based multiple-camera person-tracking

    Turk, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple video cameras are cheaply installed overlooking an area of interest. While computerized single-camera tracking is well-developed, multiple-camera tracking is a relatively new problem. The main multi-camera problem is to give the same tracking label to all projections of a real-world target. This is called the consistent labelling problem. Khan and Shah (2003) introduced a method to use field of view lines to perform multiple-camera tracking. The method creates inter-camera meta-target associations when objects enter at the scene edges. They also said that a plane-induced homography could be used for tracking, but this method was not well described. Their homography-based system would not work if targets use only one side of a camera to enter the scene. This paper overcomes this limitation and fully describes a practical homography-based tracker. A new method to find the feet feature is introduced. The method works especially well if the camera is tilted, when using the bottom centre of the target's bounding-box would produce inaccurate results. The new method is more accurate than the bounding-box method even when the camera is not tilted. Next, a method is presented that uses a series of corresponding point pairs "dropped" by oblivious, live human targets to find a plane-induced homography. The point pairs are created by tracking the feet locations of moving targets that were associated using the field of view line method. Finally, a homography-based multiple-camera tracking algorithm is introduced. Rules governing when to create the homography are specified. The algorithm ensures that homography-based tracking only starts after a non-degenerate homography is found. The method works when not all four field of view lines are discoverable; only one line needs to be found to use the algorithm. To initialize the system, the operator must specify pairs of overlapping cameras. Aside from that, the algorithm is fully automatic and uses the natural movement of

  17. Robust facial landmark detection based on initializing multiple poses

    Xin Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For robot systems, robust facial landmark detection is the first and critical step for face-based human identification and facial expression recognition. In recent years, the cascaded-regression-based method has achieved excellent performance in facial landmark detection. Nevertheless, it still has certain weakness, such as high sensitivity to the initialization. To address this problem, regression based on multiple initializations is established in a unified model; face shapes are then estimated independently according to these initializations. With a ranking strategy, the best estimate is selected as the final output. Moreover, a face shape model based on restricted Boltzmann machines is built as a constraint to improve the robustness of ranking. Experiments on three challenging datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed facial landmark detection method against state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Video based object representation and classification using multiple covariance matrices.

    Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Video based object recognition and classification has been widely studied in computer vision and image processing area. One main issue of this task is to develop an effective representation for video. This problem can generally be formulated as image set representation. In this paper, we present a new method called Multiple Covariance Discriminative Learning (MCDL) for image set representation and classification problem. The core idea of MCDL is to represent an image set using multiple covariance matrices with each covariance matrix representing one cluster of images. Firstly, we use the Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) method to do image clustering within each image set, and then adopt Covariance Discriminative Learning on each cluster (subset) of images. At last, we adopt KLDA and nearest neighborhood classification method for image set classification. Promising experimental results on several datasets show the effectiveness of our MCDL method.

  19. Treatment of multiple scalp cylindroma

    Radmilo Rončević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a rare, benign adnexal tumor of the skin. The most frequent tumor location is the head, especially the scalp, and neck area. This type of tumor can occur as solitary or multiple tumors. Tumor diagnosis is relatively easy and is based on clinical findings and biopsy. The therapy of choice is surgical excision with parts or entire scalp excision depending on whether it is solitary or multiple tumor. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with multiple scalp tumors of 0.5–6 cm in diameter. An entire scalp excision was performed and the postoperative wounds (i.e., the periosteum of the skull and the fascia galea were covered with free skin graft of partial thickness. In order to prevent profuse bleeding, we placed a tourniquet around his head and performed bilateral temporary ligature of temporal artery prior to surgery. During the nine-year follow-up, there were no new tumors or tumor recurrence reported.

  20. Multiple-input multiple-output visible light communication system based on disorder dispersion components

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Qi; Hao, Yue; Zhou, Xin-hui; Yi, Ming-dong; Wei, Wei; Huang, Wei; Li, Xing-ao

    2017-10-01

    A multiple-input multiple-output visible light communication (VLC) system based on disorder dispersion components is presented. Instead of monochromatic sources and large size photodetectors used in the traditional VLC systems, broadband sources with different spectra act as the transmitters and a compact imaging chip sensor accompanied by a disorder dispersion component and a calculating component serve as the receivers in the proposed system. This system has the merits of small size, more channels, simple structure, easy integration, and low cost. Simultaneously, the broadband sources are suitable to act as illumination sources for their white color. A regularized procedure is designed to solve a matrix equation for decoding the signals at the receivers. A proof-of-concept experiment using on-off keying modulation has been done to prove the feasibility of the design. The experimental results show that the signals decoded by the receivers fit well with those generated from the transmitters, but the bit error ratio is increased with the number of the signal channels. The experimental results can be further improved using a high-speed charge-coupled device, decreasing noises, and increasing the distance between the transmitters and the receivers.

  1. Youth experiences with multiple types of prejudice-based harassment.

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2016-08-01

    Despite prejudice-based harassment's associations with serious physical and mental health risks, research examining multiple forms of harassment among children/adolescents is lacking. This study documents the prevalence of prejudice-based harassment (i.e., harassment on the basis of gender, race/ethnicity, weight or physical appearance, sexual orientation, and disability status) among a large, statewide, school-based Midwestern U.S. sample of 162,034 adolescents. Weight-/appearance-based harassment was most prevalent among both girls (25.3%) and boys (19.8%). Adolescents from certain vulnerable groups experienced higher rates of multiple types of harassment, even when controlling for other sociodemographic characteristics. Prejudice-based harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent girls and boys. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic status (e.g., white female adolescents report a significantly lower rate of race-based harassment (4.8%), as compared to Native American (18.6%), mixed/other race (18.9%), Hispanic/Latina (21.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (24.2%), or Black/African American (24.8%) female adolescents); but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each harassment type emerge across a variety of statuses (e.g., disability-based harassment was statistically significantly higher among discordant heterosexual (12.7%), gay (13.0%), bisexual (15.3%), and unsure (15.3%) male adolescents than among heterosexual male (7.2%) adolescents). Adolescents from specific sociodemographic groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence-based evaluation of treatment strategy for multiple sclerosis

    LI Meng-qiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To formulate the best treatment plan for multiple sclerosis (MS patients by evaluating the therapeutic efficacy and side effect of various evidence-based programs. Methods Key words were defined as multiple sclerosis, immunomodulatory therapy and therapy, etc. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang data bases for Scientific Journals in China and National Knowledge Infrastructure for Chinese Scientific Journals Database. Additionally, we applied manual searching and screened out conference paper and academic dissertation, etc, from various references. After that we obtained and evaluated by Jadad scales on systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and observational study cases about glucocorticoids, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, IFN-β, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod. Results After screening, all seventeen selected resources included systematic reviews 6 articles, randomized controlled trials 7 articles, controlled clinical trials 2 articles, observational study cases 2 articles, among which fifteen articles were proved to be high quality (according to Jadad scoring system, five score 4, six score 5, four score 7, two chapters were judged to be low quality scoring 3. Finally, we summerize that: 1 The first choice of treatment for acute relapses is glucocorticoids and we suggest that plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin may be tried as an alternative therapy in acute MS relapse, especially in case of contraindications to intravenous methylprednisolone. 2 Immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatment (IFN-β, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab can be an option to prevent new relapses and progression of disability. 3 Fingolimod is an oral treatment for multiple sclerosis to improve treatment adherence. Conclusion Using evidence-based medicine methods can provide us best clinical evidence on MS treatment.

  3. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  4. Visualization-based analysis of multiple response survey data

    Timofeeva, Anastasiia

    2017-11-01

    During the survey, the respondents are often allowed to tick more than one answer option for a question. Analysis and visualization of such data have difficulties because of the need for processing multiple response variables. With standard representation such as pie and bar charts, information about the association between different answer options is lost. The author proposes a visualization approach for multiple response variables based on Venn diagrams. For a more informative representation with a large number of overlapping groups it is suggested to use similarity and association matrices. Some aggregate indicators of dissimilarity (similarity) are proposed based on the determinant of the similarity matrix and the maximum eigenvalue of association matrix. The application of the proposed approaches is well illustrated by the example of the analysis of advertising sources. Intersection of sets indicates that the same consumer audience is covered by several advertising sources. This information is very important for the allocation of the advertising budget. The differences between target groups in advertising sources are of interest. To identify such differences the hypothesis of homogeneity and independence are tested. Recent approach to the problem are briefly reviewed and compared. An alternative procedure is suggested. It is based on partition of a consumer audience into pairwise disjoint subsets and includes hypothesis testing of the difference between the population proportions. It turned out to be more suitable for the real problem being solved.

  5. Multiple Lookup Table-Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation

    Gong, Jin; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin

    Anew AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm implementation was proposed in this paper. It is based on five lookup tables, which are generated from S-box(the substitution table in AES). The obvious advantages are reducing the code-size, improving the implementation efficiency, and helping new learners to understand the AES encryption algorithm and GF(28) multiplication which are necessary to correctly implement AES[1]. This method can be applied on processors with word length 32 or above, FPGA and others. And correspondingly we can implement it by VHDL, Verilog, VB and other languages.

  6. Photodiode Based Detection for Multiple Trap Optical Tweezers

    Ott, Dino

    This thesis is concerned with the position tracking of microscopic, optically trapped particles and the quantification of the forces acting on them. A new detection method for simultaneous, three-dimensional tracking of multiple particles is presented, its performance is evaluated, and its...... usefulness is illustrated in specific application examples. Optical traps enable contact-less, all-optical manipulation of microscopic objects. Over the last decades, this laser-based micro-manipulation tool has facilitated numerous exciting discoveries within biology and physics, and it is today regarded...

  7. Interactive Visualization of DGA Data Based on Multiple Views

    Geng, Yujie; Lin, Ying; Ma, Yan; Guo, Zhihong; Gu, Chao; Wang, Mingtao

    2017-01-01

    The commission and operation of dissolved gas analysis (DGA) online monitoring makes up for the weakness of traditional DGA method. However, volume and high-dimensional DGA data brings a huge challenge for monitoring and analysis. In this paper, we present a novel interactive visualization model of DGA data based on multiple views. This model imitates multi-angle analysis by combining parallel coordinates, scatter plot matrix and data table. By offering brush, collaborative filter and focus + context technology, this model provides a convenient and flexible interactive way to analyze and understand the DGA data.

  8. Pyrrolo-dC modified duplex DNA as a novel probe for the sensitive assay of base excision repair enzyme activity.

    Lee, Chang Yeol; Park, Ki Soo; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2017-12-15

    We develop a novel approach to determine formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) activity by taking advantage of the unique fluorescence property of pyrrolo-dC (PdC) positioned opposite to 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in duplex DNA. In its initial state, PdC in duplex DNA undergoes the efficient stacking and collisional quenching interactions, showing the low fluorescence signal. In contrast, the presence of Fpg, which specifically removes 8-oxoG and incises resulting apurinic (AP) site, transforms duplex DNA into single-stranded (ss) DNAs. As a result, the intrinsic fluorescence signal of PdC in ssDNA is recovered to exhibit the significantly enhanced fluorescence signal. Based on this Fpg-dependent fluorescence response of PdC, we could reliably determine Fpg activity down to 1.25U/ml with a linear response from 0 to 50U/ml. In addition, the diagnostic capability of this strategy was successfully demonstrated by reliably assaying Fpg activity in human blood serum, showing its great potential in the practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Principles of Periocular Reconstruction following Excision of Cutaneous Malignancy

    Scott M. Hayano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of periocular defects following excision of cutaneous malignancy can present difficulties for oculofacial and reconstructive surgeons. The intricate anatomy of the eyelids and face requires precise restoration in order to avoid postoperative functional anesthetic concerns. Various reconstructive procedures based on common principles, location and size of the defect, can be applied to achieve restoration with the best possible functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  10. European Union Harmonized Excise Taxation : Occasional Importation Process

    Tanhua, Taina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written with the intent to compile the information related to occasional importation process and European Union harmonized taxation into a single package. The process is based on European Union legislation and the aim of it is to unify the taxation within the internal market area. The national excise duties are not part of the occasional importation process but are partly linked to it. The first part of the thesis discusses the occasional importation of goods subject to ha...

  11. The incidence and multiplicity rates of keratinocyte cancers in Australia.

    Pandeya, Nirmala; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C

    2017-10-16

    To assess the incidence and multiplicity of keratinocyte cancers (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) excised in Australia, and to examine variations by age, sex, state, and prior skin cancer history. Analysis of individual-level Medicare data for keratinocyte cancer treatments (identified by eight specific MBS item codes) during 2011-2014. Histological data from the QSkin prospective cohort study were analysed to estimate BCC and SCC incidence. A 10% systematic random sample of all people registered with Medicare during 1997-2014. People aged at least 20 years in 2011 who made at least one claim for any MBS medical service during 2011-2014 (1 704 193 individuals). Age-standardised incidence rates (ASRs) and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). The person-based incidence of keratinocyte cancer excisions in Australia was 1531 per 100 000 person-years; incidence increased with age, and was higher for men than women (SIR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.42-1.45). Lesion-based incidence was 3154 per 100 000 person-years. The estimated ASRs for BCC and SCC were 770 per 100 000 and 270 per 100 000 person-years respectively. During 2011-2014, 3.9% of Australians had one keratinocyte cancer excised, 2.7% had more than one excised; 74% of skin cancers were excised from patients who had two or more lesions removed. Multiplicity was strongly correlated with age; most male patients over 70 were treated for multiple lesions. Keratinocyte cancer incidence was eight times as high among people with a prior history of excisions as among those without. The incidence and multiplicity of keratinocyte cancer in Australia are very high, causing a large disease burden that has not previously been quantified.

  12. Feedback structure based entropy approach for multiple-model estimation

    Shen-tu Han; Xue Anke; Guo Yunfei

    2013-01-01

    The variable-structure multiple-model (VSMM) approach, one of the multiple-model (MM) methods, is a popular and effective approach in handling problems with mode uncertainties. The model sequence set adaptation (MSA) is the key to design a better VSMM. However, MSA methods in the literature have big room to improve both theoretically and practically. To this end, we propose a feedback structure based entropy approach that could find the model sequence sets with the smallest size under certain conditions. The filtered data are fed back in real time and can be used by the minimum entropy (ME) based VSMM algorithms, i.e., MEVSMM. Firstly, the full Markov chains are used to achieve optimal solutions. Secondly, the myopic method together with particle filter (PF) and the challenge match algorithm are also used to achieve sub-optimal solutions, a trade-off between practicability and optimality. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm provides not only refined model sets but also a good robustness margin and very high accuracy.

  13. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    王涛; 卜佳俊; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting human faces in color images. The algorithm consists of three image processing steps. The first step is human skin color statistics. Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions. After that, it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions. In the first step, 250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors. This chroma chart is used to generate, from the original color image, a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the skin. The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into separate skin regions from non skin regions. Finally, multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not. Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%, which is better than most color-based face detection systems. The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image (400×300 pixels) on a Pentium 3 (800MHz) PC.

  14. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    王涛; 卜佳酸; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting hu-man faces in color images.The algorithm comsists of three image processing steps.The first step is human skin color statistics.Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions.After that,it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions.In the first step,250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors.This chroma chart is used to generate,from the original color image,a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the shin,The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into sep-arate skin regions from non skin regions.Finally,multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not.Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%,which is better than most colou-based face detection sys-tems.The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image(400×300pixels) on a Pentium 3(800MHz) PC.

  15. Lossless Image Compression Based on Multiple-Tables Arithmetic Coding

    Rung-Ching Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to present a lossless image compression method based on multiple-tables arithmetic coding (MTAC method to encode a gray-level image f. First, the MTAC method employs a median edge detector (MED to reduce the entropy rate of f. The gray levels of two adjacent pixels in an image are usually similar. A base-switching transformation approach is then used to reduce the spatial redundancy of the image. The gray levels of some pixels in an image are more common than those of others. Finally, the arithmetic encoding method is applied to reduce the coding redundancy of the image. To promote high performance of the arithmetic encoding method, the MTAC method first classifies the data and then encodes each cluster of data using a distinct code table. The experimental results show that, in most cases, the MTAC method provides a higher efficiency in use of storage space than the lossless JPEG2000 does.

  16. Image Based Solution to Occlusion Problem for Multiple Robots Navigation

    Taj Mohammad Khan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In machine vision, occlusions problem is always a challenging issue in image based mapping and navigation tasks. This paper presents a multiple view vision based algorithm for the development of occlusion-free map of the indoor environment. The map is assumed to be utilized by the mobile robots within the workspace. It has wide range of applications, including mobile robot path planning and navigation, access control in restricted areas, and surveillance systems. We used wall mounted fixed camera system. After intensity adjustment and background subtraction of the synchronously captured images, the image registration was performed. We applied our algorithm on the registered images to resolve the occlusion problem. This technique works well even in the existence of total occlusion for a longer period.

  17. Ulnar nerve entrapment complicating radial head excision

    Kevin Parfait Bienvenu Bouhelo-Pam

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mechanisms are involved in ischemia or mechanical compression of ulnar nerve at the elbow. Presentation of case: We hereby present the case of a road accident victim, who received a radial head excision for an isolated fracture of the radial head and complicated by onset of cubital tunnel syndrome. This outcome could be the consequence of an iatrogenic valgus of the elbow due to excision of the radial head. Hitherto the surgical treatment of choice it is gradually been abandoned due to development of radial head implant arthroplasty. However, this management option is still being performed in some rural centers with low resources. Discussion: The radial head plays an important role in the stability of the elbow and his iatrogenic deformity can be complicated by cubital tunnel syndrome. Conclusion: An ulnar nerve release was performed with favorable outcome. Keywords: Cubital tunnel syndrome, Peripheral nerve palsy, Radial head excision, Elbow valgus

  18. Elliptical excisions: variations and the eccentric parallelogram.

    Goldberg, Leonard H; Alam, Murad

    2004-02-01

    The elliptical (fusiform) excision is a basic tool of cutaneous surgery. To assess the design, functionality, ease of construction, and aesthetic outcomes of the ellipse. A systematic review of elliptical designs and their site-specific benefits and limitations. In particular, we consider the (1). context of prevailing relaxed skin tension lines and tissue laxity; and (2). removal of the smallest possible amount of tissue around the lesion and in the "dog-ears." Attention is focused on intuitive methods that can be reproducibly planned and executed. Elliptical variations are easily designed and can be adapted to many situations. The eccentric parallelogram excision is offered as a new technique that minimizes notching and focal tension in the center of an elliptical closure. Conclusion The elliptical (fusiform) excision is an efficient, elegant, and versatile technique that will remain a mainstay of the cutaneous surgical armamentarium.

  19. Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation of Nucleotide Excision Repair: The Guardian of the Genome against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Jeong-Min Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation from sunlight represents a constant threat to genome stability by generating modified DNA bases such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4 photoproducts (6-4PP. If unrepaired, these lesions can have deleterious effects, including skin cancer. Mammalian cells are able to neutralize UV-induced photolesions through nucleotide excision repair (NER. The NER pathway has multiple components including seven xeroderma pigmentosum (XP proteins (XPA to XPG and numerous auxiliary factors, including ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR protein kinase and RCC1 like domain (RLD and homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (HERC2. In this review we highlight recent data on the transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of NER activity.

  20. Accurate DNA assembly and genome engineering with optimized uracil excision cloning

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Seppala, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Simple and reliable DNA editing by uracil excision (a.k.a. USER cloning) has been described by several research groups, but the optimal design of cohesive DNA ends for multigene assembly remains elusive. Here, we use two model constructs based on expression of gfp and a four-gene pathway that pro......Simple and reliable DNA editing by uracil excision (a.k.a. USER cloning) has been described by several research groups, but the optimal design of cohesive DNA ends for multigene assembly remains elusive. Here, we use two model constructs based on expression of gfp and a four-gene pathway...... that produces β-carotene to optimize assembly junctions and the uracil excision protocol. By combining uracil excision cloning with a genomic integration technology, we demonstrate that up to six DNA fragments can be assembled in a one-tube reaction for direct genome integration with high accuracy, greatly...... facilitating the advanced engineering of robust cell factories....

  1. Event recognition in personal photo collections via multiple instance learning-based classification of multiple images

    Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola; Boato, Giulia; De Natale, Francesco G. B.

    2017-11-01

    Over the last few years, a rapid growth has been witnessed in the number of digital photos produced per year. This rapid process poses challenges in the organization and management of multimedia collections, and one viable solution consists of arranging the media on the basis of the underlying events. However, album-level annotation and the presence of irrelevant pictures in photo collections make event-based organization of personal photo albums a more challenging task. To tackle these challenges, in contrast to conventional approaches relying on supervised learning, we propose a pipeline for event recognition in personal photo collections relying on a multiple instance-learning (MIL) strategy. MIL is a modified form of supervised learning and fits well for such applications with weakly labeled data. The experimental evaluation of the proposed approach is carried out on two large-scale datasets including a self-collected and a benchmark dataset. On both, our approach significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art.

  2. Multiple sclerosis in women having children by multiple partners. A population-based study in Denmark

    Basso, Olga; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether having children with multiple men is a risk factor for being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied a cohort of 151,328 women, of whom 64,704 had different men fathering their children and 86,624 the same partner for all births. Women were included if they had ...

  3. Skeleton-based human action recognition using multiple sequence alignment

    Ding, Wenwen; Liu, Kai; Cheng, Fei; Zhang, Jin; Li, YunSong

    2015-05-01

    Human action recognition and analysis is an active research topic in computer vision for many years. This paper presents a method to represent human actions based on trajectories consisting of 3D joint positions. This method first decompose action into a sequence of meaningful atomic actions (actionlets), and then label actionlets with English alphabets according to the Davies-Bouldin index value. Therefore, an action can be represented using a sequence of actionlet symbols, which will preserve the temporal order of occurrence of each of the actionlets. Finally, we employ sequence comparison to classify multiple actions through using string matching algorithms (Needleman-Wunsch). The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on datasets captured by commodity depth cameras. Experiments of the proposed method on three challenging 3D action datasets show promising results.

  4. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  5. Monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision

    Li, Jinlong; Wang, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Zhao, Quanke

    2010-10-01

    With the high demand of fire control in spacious buildings, computer vision is playing a more and more important role. This paper presents a new monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision and color detection. This system can adjust to the fire position and then extinguish the fire by itself. In this paper, the system structure, working principle, fire orientation, hydrant's angle adjusting and system calibration are described in detail; also the design of relevant hardware and software is introduced. At the same time, the principle and process of color detection and image processing are given as well. The system runs well in the test, and it has high reliability, low cost, and easy nodeexpanding, which has a bright prospect of application and popularization.

  6. Effective arithmetic in finite fields based on Chudnovsky's multiplication algorithm

    Atighehchi , Kévin; Ballet , Stéphane; Bonnecaze , Alexis; Rolland , Robert

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Thanks to a new construction of the Chudnovsky and Chudnovsky multiplication algorithm, we design efficient algorithms for both the exponentiation and the multiplication in finite fields. They are tailored to hardware implementation and they allow computations to be parallelized, while maintaining a low number of bilinear multiplications.À partir d'une nouvelle construction de l'algorithme de multiplication de Chudnovsky et Chudnovsky, nous concevons des algorithmes ef...

  7. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    Athas, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period

  8. Lower Lip Reconstruction after Wide Excision of a Malignancy with Barrel-Shaped Excision or the Webster Modification of the Bernard Operation

    Hyung Joon Seo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBecause there are numerous methods for reconstruction of the lower lip, it is not easy to choose the optimal method. In choosing the surgical method for lower lip reconstruction, we obtained acceptable outcomes based on our treatment strategy, which included either a barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification of the Bernard operation. We report on the surgical outcomes based on our treatment strategy.MethodsThis study included 26 patients who underwent lower lip reconstructive surgery from September 1996 to September 2010. The operation was done using either a barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification, considering the location of the defect, the size of the defect, and the amount of residual tissue on the lateral side of the vermilion after excision.ResultsIn our series, 3 patients underwent a single barrel-shaped excision, and nine patients underwent a double barrel-shaped excision. In addition, the unilateral Webster modification was performed on in 6 patients, and there were eight cases of bilateral Webster modification. All of the patients except one were satisfied with the postoperative shape of the lip. In one case both recurrence and dehiscence occurred. One patient had a good postoperative lip shape, but had difficulty wearing a denture, and also underwent commissuroplasty. Furthermore, there were two patients who complained of drooling, and 4 with paresthesia.ConclusionsA soft tissue defect resulting from wide excision of a lower lip malignancy can be successfully reconstructed using only one of two surgical methods: the barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification of the Bernard operation.

  9. Uracil Excision for Assembly of Complex Pathways

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2015-01-01

    Despite decreasing prices on synthetic DNA constructs, higher-order assembly of PCR-generated DNA continues to be an important exercise in molecular and synthetic biology. Simplicity and robustness are attractive features met by the uracil excision DNA assembly method, which is one of the most in...

  10. On pitch jumps between chest and falsetto registers in voice : Data from living and excised human larynges

    Svec, JG; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    The paper offers a new concept of studying abrupt chest-falsetto register transitions Clumps) based on the theory of nonlinear dynamics. The jumps were studied in an excised human larynx and in three living subjects tone female and two male). Data from the excised larynx revealed that a small and

  11. Novel organization of genes involved in prophage excision identified in the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    Breuner, Anne; Brøndsted, Lone; Hammer, Karin

    1999-01-01

    of genetic material based upon the upp gene (encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase) was designed, since upp mutants are resistant to fluorouracil. By using this system, frequencies of excision on the order of 10(-5) per cell could easily be measured. The described selection principle may be of general...... use for many organisms and also for types of deletion events other than excision....

  12. Vanpool trip planning based on evolutionary multiple objective optimization

    Zhao, Ming; Yang, Disheng; Feng, Shibing; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    Carpool and vanpool draw a lot of researchers’ attention, which is the emphasis of this paper. A concrete vanpool operation definition is given, based on the given definition, this paper tackles vanpool operation optimization using user experience decline index(UEDI). This paper is focused on making each user having identical UEDI and the system having minimum sum of all users’ UEDI. Three contributions are made, the first contribution is a vanpool operation scheme diagram, each component of the scheme is explained in detail. The second contribution is getting all customer’s UEDI as a set, standard deviation and sum of all users’ UEDI set are used as objectives in multiple objective optimization to decide trip start address, trip start time and trip destination address. The third contribution is a trip planning algorithm, which tries to minimize the sum of all users’ UEDI. Geographical distribution of the charging stations and utilization rate of the charging stations are considered in the trip planning process.

  13. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  14. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  15. Automatic feature-based grouping during multiple object tracking.

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Keane, Brian P; Mettler, Everett; Horowitz, Todd S; Kellman, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    Contour interpolation automatically binds targets with distractors to impair multiple object tracking (Keane, Mettler, Tsoi, & Kellman, 2011). Is interpolation special in this regard or can other features produce the same effect? To address this question, we examined the influence of eight features on tracking: color, contrast polarity, orientation, size, shape, depth, interpolation, and a combination (shape, color, size). In each case, subjects tracked 4 of 8 objects that began as undifferentiated shapes, changed features as motion began (to enable grouping), and returned to their undifferentiated states before halting. We found that intertarget grouping improved performance for all feature types except orientation and interpolation (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Most importantly, target-distractor grouping impaired performance for color, size, shape, combination, and interpolation. The impairments were, at times, large (>15% decrement in accuracy) and occurred relative to a homogeneous condition in which all objects had the same features at each moment of a trial (Experiment 2), and relative to a "diversity" condition in which targets and distractors had different features at each moment (Experiment 3). We conclude that feature-based grouping occurs for a variety of features besides interpolation, even when irrelevant to task instructions and contrary to the task demands, suggesting that interpolation is not unique in promoting automatic grouping in tracking tasks. Our results also imply that various kinds of features are encoded automatically and in parallel during tracking.

  16. Global Calibration of Multiple Cameras Based on Sphere Targets

    Junhua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global calibration methods for multi-camera system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement. Proposed in this paper is such a method based on several groups of sphere targets and a precision auxiliary camera. Each camera to be calibrated observes a group of spheres (at least three, while the auxiliary camera observes all the spheres. The global calibration can be achieved after each camera reconstructs the sphere centers in its field of view. In the process of reconstructing a sphere center, a parameter equation is used to describe the sphere projection model. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation are carried out to analyze the factors that affect the calibration accuracy. Simulation results show that the parameter equation can largely improve the reconstruction accuracy. In the experiments, a two-camera system calibrated by our method is used to measure a distance about 578 mm, and the root mean squared error is within 0.14 mm. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the method has simple operation and good flexibility, especially for the onsite multiple cameras without common field of view.

  17. Is surgical excision necessary for the treatment of Granulomatous lobular mastitis?

    Shin, Young Duck; Park, Sung Su; Song, Young Jin; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-07-24

    We aimed to investigate the role of surgical excision in treating granulomatous lobular mastitis. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis treated from March 2008 to March 2014. We analyzed clinical features and therapeutic modalities and compared the patient outcomes based on treatment. During the study period, a total of 34 patients were diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis and treated. Initial treatments included wide excision (18), oral steroids after incision and drainage (14), and antibiotic therapy (2). The patients receiving only antibiotic therapy showed no improvement after 1 month and wide excision was then performed. Wide excision resulted in nine case of delayed wound healing with fistula. These patients were treated with oral steroids for 1.5-5 months, with subsequent improvement. Overall, 11 out of 20 patients who had underwent wide excision showed improvement without additional treatment. Fourteen patients who had initially received oral steroids for 1 to 6 months (average, 2.8 months) after incision and drainage showed complete remission. During the median follow-up period with 45.5 months (range, 22-98 months), six patients (17.6%) experienced recurrence. Wide excision group experienced recurrence in five (25%) and steroid and drainage group experienced recurrence in one (7.1%). All six recurrences responded to additional steroid therapy for average 3.5 months. Most wide excision group left extensive breast scarring with deformation that was not in steroid and drainage group. Wide excision resulted high recurrence than steroid and drainage group and left extensive scarring. Steroid therapy with or without abscess drainage may be the first choice of treatment for majority cases with granulomatous lobular mastitis.

  18. 29 CFR 779.264 - Excise taxes separately stated.

    2010-07-01

    ... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.264 Excise taxes separately stated. A tax is separately stated where it clearly... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes separately stated. 779.264 Section 779.264...

  19. 75 FR 9359 - Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax

    2010-03-02

    ... Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... substitution drawback claim for internal revenue excise tax paid on imported merchandise in situations where no excise tax was paid upon the substituted merchandise or where the substituted merchandise is the subject...

  20. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  1. Symptomatic pancreatic heterotopia treated by local excision.

    De Friend, D J; Saa-Gandi, F W; Humphrey, C S; Foster, D N

    1991-01-01

    Non-ulcer dyspepsia is a continuing problem and in many cases a precise cause is never identified. We present five patients with an allegedly uncommon condition--pancreatic heterotopia. They were managed by local excision of the tumour and after a mean (range) follow up of 42 (9-80) months all remain free of the original symptoms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2013433

  2. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study

    Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, J. (Julie); Evers, K. (Kris); de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDevelopmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect o...

  3. Combined adaptive multiple subtraction based on optimized event tracing and extended wiener filtering

    Tan, Jun; Song, Peng; Li, Jinshan; Wang, Lei; Zhong, Mengxuan; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-06-01

    The surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) method is based on feedback formulation and has become one of the most preferred multiple suppression methods used. However, some differences are apparent between the predicted multiples and those in the source seismic records, which may result in conventional adaptive multiple subtraction methods being barely able to effectively suppress multiples in actual production. This paper introduces a combined adaptive multiple attenuation method based on the optimized event tracing technique and extended Wiener filtering. The method firstly uses multiple records predicted by SRME to generate a multiple velocity spectrum, then separates the original record to an approximate primary record and an approximate multiple record by applying the optimized event tracing method and short-time window FK filtering method. After applying the extended Wiener filtering method, residual multiples in the approximate primary record can then be eliminated and the damaged primary can be restored from the approximate multiple record. This method combines the advantages of multiple elimination based on the optimized event tracing method and the extended Wiener filtering technique. It is an ideal method for suppressing typical hyperbolic and other types of multiples, with the advantage of minimizing damage of the primary. Synthetic and field data tests show that this method produces better multiple elimination results than the traditional multi-channel Wiener filter method and is more suitable for multiple elimination in complicated geological areas.

  4. Regularization of positive definite matrix fields based on multiplicative calculus

    Florack, L.M.J.; Bruckstein, A.M.; Haar Romeny, ter B.M.; Bronstein, A.M.; Bronstein, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiplicative calculus provides a natural framework in problems involving positive images and positivity preserving operators. In increasingly important, complex imaging frameworks, such as diffusion tensor imaging, it complements standard calculus in a nontrivial way. The purpose of this article

  5. Identifying multiple influential spreaders based on generalized closeness centrality

    Liu, Huan-Li; Ma, Chuang; Xiang, Bing-Bing; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2018-02-01

    To maximize the spreading influence of multiple spreaders in complex networks, one important fact cannot be ignored: the multiple spreaders should be dispersively distributed in networks, which can effectively reduce the redundance of information spreading. For this purpose, we define a generalized closeness centrality (GCC) index by generalizing the closeness centrality index to a set of nodes. The problem converts to how to identify multiple spreaders such that an objective function has the minimal value. By comparing with the K-means clustering algorithm, we find that the optimization problem is very similar to the problem of minimizing the objective function in the K-means method. Therefore, how to find multiple nodes with the highest GCC value can be approximately solved by the K-means method. Two typical transmission dynamics-epidemic spreading process and rumor spreading process are implemented in real networks to verify the good performance of our proposed method.

  6. Relativistic hydrodynamic evolutions with black hole excision

    Duez, Matthew D.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Yo, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a numerical code designed to study astrophysical phenomena involving dynamical spacetimes containing black holes in the presence of relativistic hydrodynamic matter. We present evolutions of the collapse of a fluid star from the onset of collapse to the settling of the resulting black hole to a final stationary state. In order to evolve stably after the black hole forms, we excise a region inside the hole before a singularity is encountered. This excision region is introduced after the appearance of an apparent horizon, but while a significant amount of matter remains outside the hole. We test our code by evolving accurately a vacuum Schwarzschild black hole, a relativistic Bondi accretion flow onto a black hole, Oppenheimer-Snyder dust collapse, and the collapse of nonrotating and rotating stars. These systems are tracked reliably for hundreds of M following excision, where M is the mass of the black hole. We perform these tests both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We then apply our code to study the effect of the stellar spin parameter J/M 2 on the final outcome of gravitational collapse of rapidly rotating n=1 polytropes. We find that a black hole forms only if J/M 2 2 >1, the collapsing star forms a torus which fragments into nonaxisymmetric clumps, capable of generating appreciable 'splash' gravitational radiation

  7. Pisiform excision for pisotriquetral instability and arthritis.

    Campion, Heather; Goad, Andrea; Rayan, Ghazi; Porembski, Margaret

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate wrist strength and kinematics after pisiform excision and preservation of its soft tissue confluence for pisotriquetral instability and arthritis. We evaluated 12 patients, (14 wrists) subjectively and objectively an average of 7.5 years after pisiform excision. Three additional patients were interviewed by phone. Subjective evaluation included inquiry about pain and satisfaction with the treatment. Objective testing included measuring wrist flexion and extension range of motion, grip strength, and static and dynamic flexion and ulnar deviation strengths of the operative hand compared with the nonsurgical normal hand. Four patients had concomitant ulnar nerve decompression at the wrist. All patients were satisfied with the outcome. Wrist flexion averaged 99% and wrist extension averaged 95% of the nonsurgical hand. Mean grip strength of the operative hand was 90% of the nonsurgical hand. Mean static flexion strength of the operative hand was 94% of the nonsurgical hand, whereas mean dynamic flexion strength was 113%. Mean static ulnar deviation strength of the operative hand was 87% of the nonsurgical hand. The mean dynamic ulnar deviation strength of the operative hand was 103% of the nonsurgical hand. Soft tissue confluence-preserving pisiform excision relieved pain and retained wrist motion and static and dynamic strength. Associated ulnar nerve compression was a confounding factor that may have affected outcomes. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Research of Multiple Attenuation Based on Feedback Iteration and Independent Component Analysis

    Xu, X.; Tong, S.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    How to solve the problem of multiple suppression is a difficult problem in seismic data processing. The traditional technology for multiple attenuation is based on the principle of the minimum output energy of the seismic signal, this criterion is based on the second order statistics, and it can't achieve the multiple attenuation when the primaries and multiples are non-orthogonal. In order to solve the above problems, we combine the feedback iteration method based on the wave equation and the improved independent component analysis (ICA) based on high order statistics to suppress the multiple waves. We first use iterative feedback method to predict the free surface multiples of each order. Then, in order to predict multiples from real multiple in amplitude and phase, we design an expanded pseudo multi-channel matching filtering method to get a more accurate matching multiple result. Finally, we present the improved fast ICA algorithm which is based on the maximum non-Gauss criterion of output signal to the matching multiples and get better separation results of the primaries and the multiples. The advantage of our method is that we don't need any priori information to the prediction of the multiples, and can have a better separation result. The method has been applied to several synthetic data generated by finite-difference model technique and the Sigsbee2B model multiple data, the primaries and multiples are non-orthogonal in these models. The experiments show that after three to four iterations, we can get the perfect multiple results. Using our matching method and Fast ICA adaptive multiple subtraction, we can not only effectively preserve the effective wave energy in seismic records, but also can effectively suppress the free surface multiples, especially the multiples related to the middle and deep areas.

  9. A global calibration method for multiple vision sensors based on multiple targets

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Guangjun; Wei, Zhenzhong; Sun, Junhua

    2011-01-01

    The global calibration of multiple vision sensors (MVS) has been widely studied in the last two decades. In this paper, we present a global calibration method for MVS with non-overlapping fields of view (FOVs) using multiple targets (MT). MT is constructed by fixing several targets, called sub-targets, together. The mutual coordinate transformations between sub-targets need not be known. The main procedures of the proposed method are as follows: one vision sensor is selected from MVS to establish the global coordinate frame (GCF). MT is placed in front of the vision sensors for several (at least four) times. Using the constraint that the relative positions of all sub-targets are invariant, the transformation matrix from the coordinate frame of each vision sensor to GCF can be solved. Both synthetic and real experiments are carried out and good result is obtained. The proposed method has been applied to several real measurement systems and shown to be both flexible and accurate. It can serve as an attractive alternative to existing global calibration methods

  10. Multiple-predators-based capture process on complex networks

    Sharafat, Rajput Ramiz; Pu Cunlai; Li Jie; Chen Rongbin; Xu Zhongqi

    2017-01-01

    The predator/prey (capture) problem is a prototype of many network-related applications. We study the capture process on complex networks by considering multiple predators from multiple sources. In our model, some lions start from multiple sources simultaneously to capture the lamb by biased random walks, which are controlled with a free parameter α . We derive the distribution of the lamb’s lifetime and the expected lifetime 〈 T 〉. Through simulation, we find that the expected lifetime drops substantially with the increasing number of lions. Moreover, we study how the underlying topological structure affects the capture process, and obtain that locating on small-degree nodes is better than on large-degree nodes to prolong the lifetime of the lamb. The dense or homogeneous network structures are against the survival of the lamb. We also discuss how to improve the capture efficiency in our model. (paper)

  11. Pathogenicity Island Cross Talk Mediated by Recombination Directionality Factors Facilitates Excision from the Chromosome.

    Carpenter, Megan R; Rozovsky, Sharon; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2015-12-14

    demonstrated the dual functionality of RDF proteins: (i) inducing PAI excision and (ii) acting as transcriptional regulators. Findings from this study may be implicated in determining the mobilome contribution of other bacteria with multiple MIGEs. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Descriptive Study of Patients Receiving Excision and Radiotherapy for Keloids

    Speranza, Giovanna; Sultanem, Khalil M.D.; Muanza, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review and describe our institution's outcomes in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy after keloid excision. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study. Patients who received radiotherapy between July 1994 and January 2004 after keloid excision were identified. A questionnaire was mailed regarding sociodemographic factors, early and late radiation toxicities, the need for additional therapy, and satisfaction level. All patients had received a total of 15 Gy in three daily 5-Gy fractions. Treatment started within 24 h after surgery and was delivered on a Siemens orthovoltage machine. The data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package. Results: A total of 234 patients were approached. The response rate was 41%, and 75% were female. The mean age was 36.5 years (range, 16-69 years). The patients were mainly of European (53.1%) or African (19.8%) descent. For early toxicity outcomes, 54.2% reported skin redness and 24% reported skin peeling. For late toxicity outcomes, 27% reported telangiectasia and 62% reported permanent skin color changes. No association was found with gender, skin color, or age for the late toxicity outcomes. Of the patients responding, 14.6% required adjuvant treatment. On a visual scale of 1-10 for the satisfaction level, 60% reported a satisfaction level of ≥8. Telangiectasia was the most significant predictor of a low satisfaction level (≤3, p < 0.005). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that orthovoltage-based radiotherapy after surgical excision for keloids is a good method for the prevention of relapse. It is well tolerated, causes little toxicity, and leads to a high patient satisfaction level

  13. Incidental intraductal papillomas (breast diagnosed on needle core biopsy do not need to be excised.

    Jaffer, Shabnam; Bleiweiss, Ira J; Nagi, Chandandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most authors recommend excision of intraductal papillomas diagnosed on core needle biopsy. This leads to the question of whether or not excision is necessary for incidental intraductal papillomas on core needle biopsy as opposed to those corresponding to imaging findings. Using the pathology computerized data base we retrospectively identified 46 incidental intraductal papillomas diagnosed on core needle biopsy from 1/2000 to 12/2008. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic information was gathered and correlated. All core needle biopsies were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of incidental intraductal papillomas, and excision specimens reviewed when available. Of the 46 patients, follow-up information was available in only 38. The age of the patients ranged from 39 to 82 years (mean = 48 years). Most incidental intraductal papillomas were diagnosed by mammotome core needle biopsy (36 cases). A total of 33 cases were performed for calcifications with the following indications: clustered = 21, new = 4, pleomorphic = 3, increasing = 3, indeterminant = 2. The correlating diagnoses included the following: fibrocystic changes with calcium phosphate = 18 or calcium oxalate = 10, fibroadenoma with calcifications = 5. The three masses were: two cases of cystic papillary apocrine metaplasia (I Ultrasound and 1 MRI) and 1 fibroadenoma (Ultrasound). In all cases, the intraductal papillomas were ≤0.2 cm, were not associated with calcifications, and were incidental to them or the underlying mass. A total of 14 patients underwent excision, whereas the remaining 24 have remained radiologically stable for over 12 months. The excision specimen findings were: fibrocystic changes = 8 and intraductal papilloma = 6. With the exception of one case, all the intraductal papilloma remained incidental to imaging findings. In this solitary case, the calcifications were described as pleomorphic and corresponded to fibrocystic changes calcifications on core needle

  14. Electromagnetic Marchenko scheme based internal multiple elimination for lossless media

    Zhang, L.; Slob, E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Iterative substitution of the Marchenko equation has been introduced recently to integrate internal multiple reflection in the seismic and electromagnetic imaging process. In the so-called Marchenko imaging, solving the Marchenko equation at each imaging point is required to meet this objective.

  15. Additivity of Feature-based and Symmetry-based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    Chundi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple object tracking (MOT is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the laws of perceptual organization proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. Additive effect refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The where and what pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  16. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study.

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, Julie; Evers, Kris; de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-03-30

    Developmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect of both age and grouping type, indicating that 9- to 21-year-olds are sensitive to both connection-based and object-based grouping interference, and tracking ability increases with age. In addition to its importance for typical development, these results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in this regard. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The origin of the Gestalt principles is still an ongoing debate: Are they innate, learned over time, or both? Developmental research has revealed how each Gestalt principle has its own trajectory and unique relationship to visual experience. Both connectedness and object-based grouping play an important role in object formation during childhood. What does this study add? The study identifies how sensitivity to connectedness and object-based grouping evolves in individuals, aged 9-21 years old. Using multiple-object tracking, results reveal that the ability to track multiple objects increases with age. These results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in different types of grouping. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  17. The spectrum of skin biopsies and excisions in a pediatric skin center.

    Theiler, Martin; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Kerl, Katrin; Weibel, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the spectrum of pediatric skin disorders requiring biopsy/excision, their indication, impact on further management, and the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. We aimed to address these questions in the patient population seen at our Swiss University referral center for Pediatric Dermatology and Plastic Surgery. All skin biopsies/excisions performed in patients aged ≤ 16 years over a period of 2 years were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 506 samples were included. The majority of biopsies/excisions (n = 413, 82%) was performed for tumors, cysts, and hamartomas and 18% for other skin conditions. Malignant tumors were found in 12 samples (2%) from four patients. In 121 (24%) patients, the histopathology had an important impact on patient management. In 80 (16%) cases, the pathology did not match with the clinical diagnosis. In 382 (75%) cases, excision was the treatment of choice. Of these, the indication for surgery was based on patient's request in 181 (47%) cases. Surgical interventions for pediatric skin disorders are performed for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. In this cohort, histopathology was essential for treatment in one quarter of cases. Skin tumors, cysts, and hamartomas often require excision during childhood, with families' request and esthetic considerations playing an important role. What is Known: • The spectrum of pediatric skin conditions has been studied in outpatient, inpatient, and emergency settings. • In contrast, no data exist on the spectrum of pediatric skin disorders undergoing biopsy/excision specifically. What is New: • We analyze biopsies/excisions in children, focusing on diagnosis, indication, and impact on patient management. • Surgical interventions for skin disorders in children are often performed for tumors and hamartomas with esthetic considerations playing a relevant role. If used for diagnostic purposes, they are often performed to confirm or rule out severe skin disease.

  18. Optical encryption of multiple three-dimensional objects based on multiple interferences and single-pixel digital holography

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2018-03-01

    We present an optical encryption method of multiple three-dimensional objects based on multiple interferences and single-pixel digital holography. By modifying the Mach–Zehnder interferometer, the interference of the multiple objects beams and the one reference beam is used to simultaneously encrypt multiple objects into a ciphertext. During decryption, each three-dimensional object can be decrypted independently without having to decrypt other objects. Since the single-pixel digital holography based on compressive sensing theory is introduced, the encrypted data of this method is effectively reduced. In addition, recording fewer encrypted data can greatly reduce the bandwidth of network transmission. Moreover, the compressive sensing essentially serves as a secret key that makes an intruder attack invalid, which means that the system is more secure than the conventional encryption method. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method and show that the system has good security performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405130 and 61320106015).

  19. Limits in feature-based attention to multiple colors.

    Liu, Taosheng; Jigo, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Attention to a feature enhances the sensory representation of that feature. Although much has been learned about the properties of attentional modulation when attending to a single feature, the effectiveness of attending to multiple features is not well understood. We investigated this question in a series of experiments using a color-detection task while varying the number of attended colors in a cueing paradigm. Observers were shown either a single cue, two cues, or no cue (baseline) before detecting a coherent color target. We measured detection threshold by varying the coherence level of the target. Compared to the baseline condition, we found consistent facilitation of detection performance in the one-cue and two-cue conditions, but performance in the two-cue condition was lower than that in the one-cue condition. In the final experiment, we presented a 50% valid cue to emulate the situation in which observers were only able to attend a single color in the two-cue condition, and found equivalent detection thresholds with the standard two-cue condition. These results indicate a limit in attending to two colors and further imply that observers could effectively attend a single color at a time. Such a limit is likely due to an inability to maintain multiple active attentional templates for colors.

  20. Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Supported Project-Based Learning in EFL/ESL Classrooms

    Bas, Gokhan

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the implementation of Multiple Intelligences supported Project-Based learning in EFL/ESL Classrooms. In this study, after Multiple Intelligences supported Project-based learning was presented shortly, the implementation of this learning method into English classrooms. Implementation process of MI supported Project-based…

  1. Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Parallel Multiple Beam Selection Scheme for WDM FSO Systems

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ko, Young-Chai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for a free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred

  2. Balancing focused combinatorial libraries based on multiple GPCR ligands

    Soltanshahi, Farhad; Mansley, Tamsin E.; Choi, Sun; Clark, Robert D.

    2006-08-01

    G-Protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important targets for drug discovery, and combinatorial chemistry is an important tool for pharmaceutical development. The absence of detailed structural information, however, limits the kinds of combinatorial design techniques that can be applied to GPCR targets. This is particularly problematic given the current emphasis on focused combinatorial libraries. By linking an incremental construction method (OptDesign) to the very fast shape-matching capability of ChemSpace, we have created an efficient method for designing targeted sublibraries that are topomerically similar to known actives. Multi-objective scoring allows consideration of multiple queries (actives) simultaneously. This can lead to a distribution of products skewed towards one particular query structure, however, particularly when the ligands of interest are quite dissimilar to one another. A novel pivoting technique is described which makes it possible to generate promising designs even under those circumstances. The approach is illustrated by application to some serotonergic agonists and chemokine antagonists.

  3. City Sustainable Development Evaluation Based on Hesitant Multiplicative Fuzzy Information

    Xiaorong He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development evaluation is the basis of city sustainable development research, and effective evaluation is the foundation for guiding the formulation and implementation of sustainable development strategy. In this paper, we provided a new city sustainable development evaluation method called hesitant multiplicative fuzzy TODIM (HMF-TODIM. The main advantage of this method is that it can deal with the subjective preference information of the decision-makers. The comparison study of existing methods and HMF-TODIM is also carried out. Additionally, real case analysis is presented to show the validity and superiority of the proposed method. Research results in this paper can provide useful information for the construction of sustainable cities.

  4. Flocking of multiple mobile robots based on backstepping.

    Dong, Wenjie

    2011-04-01

    This paper considers the flocking of multiple nonholonomic wheeled mobile robots. Distributed controllers are proposed with the aid of backstepping techniques, results from graph theory, and singular perturbation theory. The proposed controllers can make the states of a group of robots converge to a desired geometric pattern whose centroid moves along a desired trajectory under the condition that the desired trajectory is available to a portion of the group of robots. Since communication delay is inevitable in distributed control, its effect on the performance of the closed-loop systems is analyzed. It is shown that the proposed controllers work well if communication delays are constant. To show effectiveness of the proposed controllers, simulation results are included.

  5. Surgical excision of eroded mesh after prior abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

    South, Mary M T; Foster, Raymond T; Webster, George D; Weidner, Alison C; Amundsen, Cindy L

    2007-12-01

    We previously described an endoscopic-assisted transvaginal mesh excision technique. This study compares surgical outcomes after transvaginal mesh excision vs endoscopic-assisted transvaginal mesh excision. In addition, we reviewed our postoperative outcomes with excision via laparotomy. This was an inclusive retrospective analysis of patients presenting to our institution from 1997 to 2006 for surgical management of vaginal erosion of permanent mesh after sacrocolpopexy. Three techniques were utilized: transvaginal, endoscopic-assisted transvaginal, and laparotomy. For the patients undergoing transvaginal excision, data recorded included number and type of excisions performed, number of prior excisions performed at outside facilities, intraoperative and postoperative complications (including blood transfusions, pelvic abscess, or bowel complications), use of postoperative antibiotics, persistent symptoms of vaginal bleeding and discharge at follow-up, and demographic characteristics. The intraoperative and postoperative complications and the postoperative symptoms were recorded for the laparotomy cases. Thirty-one patients underwent transvaginal mesh excision during this time period: 17 endoscopic-assisted transvaginal and 14 transvaginal without endoscope assistance. In addition, a total of 7 patients underwent abdominal excision via laparotomy. Comparison of the 2 vaginal methods revealed no difference in the demographics or success rate, with success defined as no symptoms at follow-up. Endoscopic-assisted transvaginal excision was successful in 7 of 17 patients and transvaginal without endoscopic assistance in 9 of 13 patients (1 patient excluded for lack of follow-up data) for a total vaginal success rate of 53.3%. No intraoperative and only minor postoperative complications occurred with either vaginal method. Three patients underwent 3 vaginal attempts to achieve complete symptom resolution. The average follow-up time for the entire vaginal group was 14

  6. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for multiple chemical sensitivity

    Hauge, Christian R; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Rasmussen, Alice

    2012-01-01

    no evidence-based treatments for MCS. Nevertheless, there is a substantial need for a treatment, because the condition can be severely disabling and can greatly reduce the quality of life (QOL) for those affected.In this study, we aim to assess the effects of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT...

  7. Excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine from the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans

    Targovnik, H.S.; Hariharan, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    One of the major ionizing radiation products, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), was measured in the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans following exposure of cells to 6.8-MeV electrons or 254-nm ultraviolet light. Removal of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine was measured in both an ionizing radiation-sensitive strain (262) and a highly radioresistant strain (the wild type W + ) of Micrococcus radiodurans. Within 30 min of incubation (33 0 C) following exposure to ultraviolet light (2400 J/m 2 ) approximately 60% of the thymine glycols were excised, whereas in the case of ionizing radiation (250 krad) only 35% were removed from the cellular DNA of the wild-type strain. In contrast less than 50% of the thymine glycols were excised from the sensitive strain. The amount of DNA degradation induced by radiation was less than 10% in both strains. The results suggest a possible correlation between reduced excision repair of base damage and increased radiation sensitivity

  8. [Transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer - just a fashion trend?].

    Kala, Z; Skrovina, M; Procházka, V; Grolich, T; Klos, K

    2014-12-01

    Transanal total mesorectal excision performed using equipment for transanal minimally invasive surgery is an innovative surgical technique introduced to facilitate this procedure and to reach better oncosurgical outcomes in patients with low rectal cancer. This article presents a brief summary of guidelines for treatment of patients with low rectal carcinoma. Up-to-date information about the principles of this new method, its modifications and contemporary indications is presented. Based on their own experience and literature resources, the authors inform about the advantages, limitations and unresolved issues of minimally invasive transanal mesorectal excision.

  9. Vision-Based Interest Point Extraction Evaluation in Multiple Environments

    McKeehan, Zachary D

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based vision is becoming a primary sensor mechanism in many facets of real world 2-D and 3-D applications, including autonomous robotics, augmented reality, object recognition, motion tracking, and biometrics...

  10. Model-based monitoring of rotors with multiple coexisting faults

    Rossner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring systems are applied to many rotors, but only few monitoring systems can separate coexisting errors and identify their quantity. This research project solves this problem using a combination of signal-based and model-based monitoring. The signal-based part performs a pre-selection of possible errors; these errors are further separated with model-based methods. This approach is demonstrated for the errors unbalance, bow, stator-fixed misalignment, rotor-fixed misalignment and roundness errors. For the model-based part, unambiguous error definitions and models are set up. The Ritz approach reduces the model order and therefore speeds up the diagnosis. Identification algorithms are developed for the different rotor faults. Hereto, reliable damage indicators and proper sub steps of the diagnosis have to be defined. For several monitoring problems, measuring both deflection and bearing force is very useful. The monitoring system is verified by experiments on an academic rotor test rig. The interpretation of the measurements requires much knowledge concerning the dynamics of the rotor. Due to the model-based approach, the system can separate errors with similar signal patterns and identify bow and roundness error online at operation speed. [de

  11. Trans-sphenoidal excision of craniopharyngiomas.

    Nagpal R

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas have been by and large excised by the transcranial route. Since 1982, 11 patients have been operated by the traus-sphensidal route in the department. The clinical features with which they were presented, diagnostic investigations, details of surgical procedures and follow-up analysis is being presented here. A retrospective study of radiological investigation was done to determine the features that help decide the choice of surgical approach to these lesions. Only lesions that were primarily intrasellar, cystic and those that expanded the sella could be treated by the trans-sphenoidal route. Associated suprasellar extensions could also be removed. Predominantly calcified or firm, fleshy tumours lent themselves poorly to removal by the trans-sphenoidal route.

  12. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair through ubiquitination

    Jia Li; Audesh Bhat; Wei Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the most versatile DNA-repair pathway in all organisms.While bacteria require only three proteins to complete the incision step of NER,eukaryotes employ about 30 proteins to complete the same step.Here we summarize recent studies demonstrating that ubiquitination,a post-translational modification,plays critical roles in regulating the NER activity either dependent on or independent of ubiquitin-proteolysis.Several NER components have been shown as targets of ubiquitination while others are actively involved in the ubiquitination process.We argue through this analysis that ubiquitination serves to coordinate various steps of NER and meanwhile connect NER with other related pathways to achieve the efficient global DNA-damage response.

  13. Piezosurgery for Excision of Large Osteoid Osteoma.

    Gadre, Pushkar; Singh, Divya; Gadre, Kiran; Khan, Imran

    2016-10-01

    Osteoid osteoma, a rare benign osteoblastic tumor first described by Jaffe in 1935, is characterized as a small but painful lesion that mostly affects younger people. Usually benign and harmless, osteomas are removed for pain or esthetic reasons.Piezoelectric surgery is also increasingly being used effectively in major and minor osseous oral and maxillofacial surgeries, in delicate areas. It is used regularly for various procedures, including sinus lift procedures, bone graft harvesting, osteogenic distraction, ridge expansion, inferior alveolar nerve decompression and lateralization, cyst removal, dental extraction, and impacted tooth removal.The following report presents a patient of intraoral excision of a large osteoid osteoma from lingual aspect of mandibular lower border in the body region using piezoelectric surgery.

  14. Multiple-Factor Based Sparse Urban Travel Time Prediction

    Xinyan Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of travel time is challenging given the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the uncertainty of travel, because it is influenced by multiple factors on the congested urban road networks. In our paper, we propose a three-layer neural network from big probe vehicles data incorporating multi-factors to estimate travel time. The procedure includes the following three steps. First, we aggregate data according to the travel time of a single taxi traveling a target link on working days as traffic flows display similar traffic patterns over a weekly cycle. We then extract feature relationships between target and adjacent links at 30 min interval. About 224,830,178 records are extracted from probe vehicles. Second, we design a three-layer artificial neural network model. The number of neurons in input layer is eight, and the number of neurons in output layer is one. Finally, the trained neural network model is used for link travel time prediction. Different factors are included to examine their influence on the link travel time. Our model is verified using historical data from probe vehicles collected from May to July 2014 in Wuhan, China. The results show that we could obtain the link travel time prediction results using the designed artificial neural network model and detect the influence of different factors on link travel time.

  15. Rank-based model selection for multiple ions quantum tomography

    Guţă, Mădălin; Kypraios, Theodore; Dryden, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of measurement data has become a key component of many quantum engineering experiments. As standard full state tomography becomes unfeasible for large dimensional quantum systems, one needs to exploit prior information and the ‘sparsity’ properties of the experimental state in order to reduce the dimensionality of the estimation problem. In this paper we propose model selection as a general principle for finding the simplest, or most parsimonious explanation of the data, by fitting different models and choosing the estimator with the best trade-off between likelihood fit and model complexity. We apply two well established model selection methods—the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC)—two models consisting of states of fixed rank and datasets such as are currently produced in multiple ions experiments. We test the performance of AIC and BIC on randomly chosen low rank states of four ions, and study the dependence of the selected rank with the number of measurement repetitions for one ion states. We then apply the methods to real data from a four ions experiment aimed at creating a Smolin state of rank 4. By applying the two methods together with the Pearson χ 2 test we conclude that the data can be suitably described with a model whose rank is between 7 and 9. Additionally we find that the mean square error of the maximum likelihood estimator for pure states is close to that of the optimal over all possible measurements. (paper)

  16. Microseismic Monitoring Design Optimization Based on Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Kovaleva, Y.; Tamimi, N.; Ostadhassan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracture treatments of unconventional reservoirs is a widely used method in the oil and gas industry. Sometimes, the quality of the acquired microseismic data is poor. One of the reasons for poor data quality is poor survey design. We attempt to provide a comprehensive and thorough workflow, using multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA), to optimize planning micriseismic monitoring. So far, microseismic monitoring has been used extensively as a powerful tool for determining fracture parameters that affect the influx of formation fluids into the wellbore. The factors that affect the quality of microseismic data and their final results include average distance between microseismic events and receivers, complexity of the recorded wavefield, signal-to-noise ratio, data aperture, etc. These criteria often conflict with each other. In a typical microseismic monitoring, those factors should be considered to choose the best monitoring well(s), optimum number of required geophones, and their depth. We use MDCA to address these design challenges and develop a method that offers an optimized design out of all possible combinations to produce the best data acquisition results. We believe that this will be the first research to include the above-mentioned factors in a 3D model. Such a tool would assist companies and practicing engineers in choosing the best design parameters for future microseismic projects.

  17. Multiple-region directed functional connectivity based on phase delays.

    Goelman, Gadi; Dan, Rotem

    2017-03-01

    Network analysis is increasingly advancing the field of neuroimaging. Neural networks are generally constructed from pairwise interactions with an assumption of linear relations between them. Here, a high-order statistical framework to calculate directed functional connectivity among multiple regions, using wavelet analysis and spectral coherence has been presented. The mathematical expression for 4 regions was derived and used to characterize a quartet of regions as a linear, combined (nonlinear), or disconnected network. Phase delays between regions were used to obtain network's temporal hierarchy and directionality. The validity of the mathematical derivation along with the effects of coupling strength and noise on its outcomes were studied by computer simulations of the Kuramoto model. The simulations demonstrated correct directionality for a large range of coupling strength and low sensitivity to Gaussian noise compared with pairwise coherences. The analysis was applied to resting-state fMRI data of 40 healthy young subjects to characterize the ventral visual system, motor system and default mode network (DMN). It was shown that the ventral visual system was predominantly composed of linear networks while the motor system and the DMN were composed of combined (nonlinear) networks. The ventral visual system exhibits its known temporal hierarchy, the motor system exhibits center ↔ out hierarchy and the DMN has dorsal ↔ ventral and anterior ↔ posterior organizations. The analysis can be applied in different disciplines such as seismology, or economy and in a variety of brain data including stimulus-driven fMRI, electrophysiology, EEG, and MEG, thus open new horizons in brain research. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1374-1386, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Decimal multiplication using compressor based-BCD to binary converter

    Sasidhar Mukkamala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to implement a scalable decimal to binary converter from 8 to 64 bits (i.e 2-digit to 16-digit using parallel architecture. The proposed converters, along with binary coded decimal (BCD adder and binary to BCD converters, are used in parallel implementation of Urdhva Triyakbhyam (UT-based 32-bit BCD multiplier. To increase the performance, compressor circuits were used in converters and multiplier. The designed hardware circuits were verified by behavioural and post layout simulations. The implementation was carried out using Virtex-6 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC with 90-nm technology library platforms. The results on FPGA shows that compressor based converters and multipliers produced less amount of propagation delay with a slight increase of hardware resources. In case of ASIC implementation, a compressor based converter delay is equivalent to conventional converter with a slight increase of gate count. However, the reduction of delay is evident in case of compressor based multiplier.

  19. Contaminant classification using cosine distances based on multiple conventional sensors.

    Liu, Shuming; Che, Han; Smith, Kate; Chang, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Emergent contamination events have a significant impact on water systems. After contamination detection, it is important to classify the type of contaminant quickly to provide support for remediation attempts. Conventional methods generally either rely on laboratory-based analysis, which requires a long analysis time, or on multivariable-based geometry analysis and sequence analysis, which is prone to being affected by the contaminant concentration. This paper proposes a new contaminant classification method, which discriminates contaminants in a real time manner independent of the contaminant concentration. The proposed method quantifies the similarities or dissimilarities between sensors' responses to different types of contaminants. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using data from contaminant injection experiments in a laboratory and compared with a Euclidean distance-based method. The robustness of the proposed method was evaluated using an uncertainty analysis. The results show that the proposed method performed better in identifying the type of contaminant than the Euclidean distance based method and that it could classify the type of contaminant in minutes without significantly compromising the correct classification rate (CCR).

  20. Knowledge representation to support reasoning based on multiple models

    Gillam, April; Seidel, Jorge P.; Parker, Alice C.

    1990-01-01

    Model Based Reasoning is a powerful tool used to design and analyze systems, which are often composed of numerous interactive, interrelated subsystems. Models of the subsystems are written independently and may be used together while they are still under development. Thus the models are not static. They evolve as information becomes obsolete, as improved artifact descriptions are developed, and as system capabilities change. Researchers are using three methods to support knowledge/data base growth, to track the model evolution, and to handle knowledge from diverse domains. First, the representation methodology is based on having pools, or types, of knowledge from which each model is constructed. In addition information is explicit. This includes the interactions between components, the description of the artifact structure, and the constraints and limitations of the models. The third principle we have followed is the separation of the data and knowledge from the inferencing and equation solving mechanisms. This methodology is used in two distinct knowledge-based systems: one for the design of space systems and another for the synthesis of VLSI circuits. It has facilitated the growth and evolution of our models, made accountability of results explicit, and provided credibility for the user community. These capabilities have been implemented and are being used in actual design projects.

  1. Ascaris phylogeny based on multiple whole mtDNA genomes

    Nejsum, Peter; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Betson, Martha

    2016-01-01

    and C) of human and pig Ascaris based on partial cox1 sequences. In the present study, we selected major haplotypes from these different clusters to characterize their whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic analysis. We also undertook coalescent simulations to investigate the evolutionary history...

  2. An Augmented Multiple-Protease-Based Human Phosphopeptide Atlas

    Giansanti, Piero; Aye, Thin Thin; van den Toorn, Henk; Peng, Mao; van Breukelen, Bas; Heck, Albert J R

    2015-01-01

    Although mass-spectrometry-based screens enable thousands of protein phosphorylation sites to be monitored simultaneously, they often do not cover important regulatory sites. Here, we hypothesized that this is due to the fact that nearly all large-scale phosphoproteome studies are initiated by

  3. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to treat multiple chemical sensitivities

    Skovbjerg, S; Hauge, Christian Riis; Rasmussen, Alice

    2012-01-01

    of an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program (MBCT) for adults with MCS and to evaluate possible effects on psychological distress and illness perception. The study design was a randomized clinical trial. The MBCT programme comprised 8 weekly sessions of 2½ hours. Forty-two adults were...

  4. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-21

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  5. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P; Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris; Goldin, Robert; O'Kelly, P S; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  6. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  7. Awake craniotomy for excision of arteriovenous malformations? A qualitative comparison study with stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Chan, David Yuen Chung; Chan, Danny Tat Ming; Zhu, Cannon Xian Lun; Kan, Patricia Kwok Yee; Ng, Amelia Yikjin; Hsieh, Yi-Pin Sonia; Abrigo, Jill; Poon, Wai Sang; Wong, George Kwok Chu

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) located at the eloquent area has been a challenge. Awake brain mapping allows identification of a non-eloquent gyrus for intervention and can potentially facilitate resection with preservation of functions. An alternative treatment option is stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The objective of this study was to perform a qualitative comparison of the treatment outcome of awake AVM excision versus SRS. We conducted a 13-year retrospective review of AVM excision under awake craniotomy performed at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, from 2003 to 2016. Patients' presentation, Spetzler-Martin (SM) grading, rate of obliteration and complication were reviewed and analyzed with the modified radiosurgery-based AVM score (RS score). Six patients had excision of AVM under awake mapping during this period of time. Two were SM Grade II and four were SM Grade III. Five located at the peri-rolandic region while one at the temporal language area. None had failed mapping. Five out of six achieved complete obliteration (83.3%). Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed better treatment outcome with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS with the obliteration rate of 100% versus 96% for RS score ≤1.00, 100% versus 78% for RS score 1.01-1.50, and 66% versus 50% for RS score >2.00 respectively. In conclusion, awake mapping and excision of AVMs at the eloquent area is feasible. Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed higher obliteration rate with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference. An optical encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain. A phase-only map is iteratively extracted based on a multiplane phase retrieval algorithm, and multiple plaintexts are simultaneously encrypted. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only map is further encrypted into two phase-only masks based on a non-iterative interference algorithm. During image decryption, the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystem are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optical multiple-image encryption method

  9. Excision technique in constrained formulations of Einstein equations: collapse scenario

    Cordero-Carrión, I; Vasset, N; Novak, J; Jaramillo, J L

    2015-01-01

    We present a new excision technique used in constrained formulations of Einstein equations to deal with black hole in numerical simulations. We show the applicability of this scheme in several scenarios. In particular, we present the dynamical evolution of the collapse of a neutron star to a black hole, using the CoCoNuT code and this excision technique. (paper)

  10. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax in the Philippines. A proposed law in the Philippines to increase the excise tax on tobacco by 215% will likely have implications for tobacco control and consumption, and public health, not just for that country but for the region. Although half of deaths due to ...

  11. Effects of burn wound excision on bacterial colonization and invasion

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    Rates of survival after thermal injury have improved in the past two decades, and rates of wound infections and sepsis have decreased during the same period. Early excision has been advocated as one of the major factors, but its safety and efficacy and the exact timing of burn excision are still

  12. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  13. System identification via sparse multiple kernel-based regularization using sequential convex optimization techniques

    Chen, Tianshi; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Ljung, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Model estimation and structure detection with short data records are two issues that receive increasing interests in System Identification. In this paper, a multiple kernel-based regularization method is proposed to handle those issues. Multiple kernels are conic combinations of fixed kernels...

  14. Joint Angle and Frequency Estimation Using Multiple-Delay Output Based on ESPRIT

    Xudong, Wang

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a novel ESPRIT algorithm-based joint angle and frequency estimation using multiple-delay output (MDJAFE). The algorithm can estimate the joint angles and frequencies, since the use of multiple output makes the estimation accuracy greatly improved when compared with a conventional algorithm. The useful behavior of the proposed algorithm is verified by simulations.

  15. Dual CRISPR-Cas9 Cleavage Mediated Gene Excision and Targeted Integration in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Gao, Difeng; Smith, Spencer; Spagnuolo, Michael; Rodriguez, Gabriel; Blenner, Mark

    2018-05-29

    CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been successfully applied in Yarrowia lipolytica for targeted genomic editing including gene disruption and integration; however, disruptions by existing methods typically result from small frameshift mutations caused by indels within the coding region, which usually resulted in unnatural protein. In this study, a dual cleavage strategy directed by paired sgRNAs is developed for gene knockout. This method allows fast and robust gene excision, demonstrated on six genes of interest. The targeted regions for excision vary in length from 0.3 kb up to 3.5 kb and contain both non-coding and coding regions. The majority of the gene excisions are repaired by perfect nonhomologous end-joining without indel. Based on this dual cleavage system, two targeted markerless integration methods are developed by providing repair templates. While both strategies are effective, homology mediated end joining (HMEJ) based method are twice as efficient as homology recombination (HR) based method. In both cases, dual cleavage leads to similar or improved gene integration efficiencies compared to gene excision without integration. This dual cleavage strategy will be useful for not only generating more predictable and robust gene knockout, but also for efficient targeted markerless integration, and simultaneous knockout and integration in Y. lipolytica. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Krishnan Sridhar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of  dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  17. Clustering economies based on multiple criteria decision making techniques

    Mansour Momeni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on many countries is to determine different important factors affecting economic growth. In this paper, we study some factors such as unemployment rate, inflation ratio, population growth, average annual income, etc to cluster different countries. The proposed model of this paper uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to prioritize the criteria and then uses a K-mean technique to cluster 59 countries based on the ranked criteria into four groups. The first group includes countries with high standards such as Germany and Japan. In the second cluster, there are some developing countries with relatively good economic growth such as Saudi Arabia and Iran. The third cluster belongs to countries with faster rates of growth compared with the countries located in the second group such as China, India and Mexico. Finally, the fourth cluster includes countries with relatively very low rates of growth such as Jordan, Mali, Niger, etc.

  18. 76 FR 52862 - Time for Payment of Certain Excise Taxes, and Quarterly Excise Tax Payments for Small Alcohol...

    2011-08-24

    ... 40 Cigars and cigarettes, Claims, Electronic fund transfers, Excise taxes, Labeling, Packaging and... that are not required to pay taxes through electronic funds transfer (EFT), this first payment period..., Electronic funds transfers, Excise taxes, Exports, Food additives, Fruit juices, Labeling, Liquors, Packaging...

  19. Multiple Beta Spectrum Analysis Method Based on Spectrum Fitting

    Lee, Uk Jae; Jung, Yun Song; Kim, Hee Reyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    When the sample of several mixed radioactive nuclides is measured, it is difficult to divide each nuclide due to the overlapping of spectrums. For this reason, simple mathematical analysis method for spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source has been studied. However, existing research was in need of more accurate spectral analysis method as it has a problem of accuracy. The study will describe the contents of the separation methods of the mixed beta ray source through the analysis of the beta spectrum slope based on the curve fitting to resolve the existing problem. The fitting methods including It was understood that sum of sine fitting method was the best one of such proposed methods as Fourier, polynomial, Gaussian and sum of sine to obtain equation for distribution of mixed beta spectrum. It was shown to be the most appropriate for the analysis of the spectrum with various ratios of mixed nuclides. It was thought that this method could be applied to rapid spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source.

  20. An evaluation of multiple annealing and looping based genome amplification using a synthetic bacterial community

    Wang, Yong; Gao, Zhaoming; Xu, Ying; Li, Guangyu; He, Lisheng; Qian, Peiyuan

    2016-01-01

    -generation-sequencing technology. Using a synthetic bacterial community, the amplification efficiency of the Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) kit that is originally developed to amplify the single-cell genomic DNA of mammalian organisms

  1. Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching: Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that single-purpose multiple store shopping is not only driven by opportunistic, promotion-based motivations, but may also be part of a longer term shopping planning process based on stable store characteristics.Starting from a utility-maximizing shopping behavior model, we find that consumers systematically visit multiple stores to take advantage of two types of store complementarity.With 'fixed cost complementarity', consumers alternate visits to highly preferr...

  2. Metabolic modulation of mammalian DNA excision repair

    Schrader, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    First, ultraviolet light (UVL)- and dimethylsulfate (DMS)-induced excision repair was examined in quiescent and lectin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes. Upon mitogenic stimulation, UVL-induced repair increased by a factor of 2 to 3, and reached this maximum 2 days before the onset of DNA replication. However, DMS-induced repair increased sevenfold in parallel with DNA replication. Repair patch sizes were smaller for DMS-induced damage reflecting patches of 7 nucleotides in quiescent lymphocytes compared to 20 nucleotides induced by UVL. The patch size increased during lymphocyte stimulation until one day prior to the peak of DNA replication when patch sizes of 45 and 35 nucleotides were produced in response to UVL- and DMS-induced damage, respectively. At the peak of DNA replication, the patch sizes were equal for both damaging agents at 34 nucleotides. In the second study, a small amount of repair replication was observed in undamaged quiescent and concanavalin A-stimulated bovine lymphocytes as well as in human T98G glioblastoma cells. Repair incorporation doubled in the presence of hydroxyurea. Thirdly, the enhanced repair replication induced by the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide, (3-AB), could not be correlated either with an increased rate of repair in the presence of 3-AB or with the use of hydroxyurea in the repair protocol. Finally, treatment of unstimulated lymphocytes with hyperthermia was accompanied by decreased repair replication while the repair patches remained constant at 20 nucleotides.

  3. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions.

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis.

  4. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Elif Ersoy Callıoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented.

  5. Uptake of benzyladenine by excised watermelon cotyledons.

    Lampugnani, M G; Fantelli, R; Longo, G P; Longo, C P; Rossi, G

    1981-07-01

    The uptake of 8-[(14)C]N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) was studied in excised watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons 24 hours after the start of imbibition. The passive nature of this uptake is suggested by the following evidence: (a) no sign of saturation on increasing external concentration of BA; (b) no decrease in uptake under conditions that inhibit ATP synthesis; (c) no change in amount of radioactivity absorbed when cotyledons are frozen and thawed before the uptake test. About two-thirds of the radioactivity taken up is released after 12 hours of washing. If the washing is performed at 2 C very little radioactivity is released.There seems to be a correlation between the level of radioactivity (i.e. of BA + derivatives) present in the cotyledons and the magnitude of hormonal responses that are observed four days after uptake. This relationship holds regardless of whether a given level of radioactivity has been reached after a short period of uptake or after a long period of uptake followed by washing.

  6. Beyond Wires and Seeds: Reflector-guided Breast Lesion Localization and Excision.

    Mango, Victoria L; Wynn, Ralph T; Feldman, Sheldon; Friedlander, Lauren; Desperito, Elise; Patel, Sejal N; Gomberawalla, Ameer; Ha, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To evaluate outcomes of Savi Scout (Cianna Medical, Aliso Viejo, Calif) reflector-guided localization and excision of breast lesions by analyzing reflector placement, localization, and removal, along with target excision and rates of repeat excision (referred to as re-excision). Materials and Methods A single-institution retrospective review of 100 women who underwent breast lesion localization and excision by using the Savi Scout surgical guidance system from June 2015 to May 2016 was performed. By using image guidance 0-8 days before surgery, 123 nonradioactive, infrared-activated, electromagnetic wave reflectors were percutaneously inserted adjacent to or within 111 breast targets. Twenty patients had two or three reflectors placed for bracketing or for localizing multiple lesions, and when ipsilateral, they were placed as close as 2.6 cm apart. Target and reflector were localized intraoperatively by one of two breast surgeons who used a handpiece that emitted infrared light and electromagnetic waves. Radiographs of the specimen and pathologic analysis helped verify target and reflector removal. Target to reflector distance was measured on the mammogram and radiograph of the specimen, and reflector depth was measured on the mammogram. Pathologic analysis was reviewed. Re-excision rates and complications were recorded. By using statistics software, descriptive statistics were generated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated. Results By using sonographic (40 of 123; 32.5%; 95% CI: 24.9%, 41.2%) or mammographic (83 of 123; 67.5%; 95% CI: 58.8% 75.1%) guidance, 123 (100%; 95% CI: 96.4%, 100%) reflectors were placed. Mean mammographic target to reflector distance was 0.3 cm. All 123 (100%; 95% CI: 96.4%, 100%) targets and reflectors were excised. Pathologic analysis yielded 54 of 110 malignancies (49.1%; 95% CI: 39.9%, 58.3%; average, 1.0 cm; range, 0.1-5 cm), 32 high-risk lesions (29.1%; 95% CI: 21.4%, 38.2%), and 24 benign lesions (21.8%; 95% CI

  7. The Role of Hemosiderin Excision in Seizure Outcome in Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Di Ruan

    Full Text Available Whether the excision of hemosiderin surrounding cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs is necessary to achieve a seizure-free result has been the subject of debate. Here, we report a systematic review of related literature up to Jan 1, 2015 including 594 patients to assess the effect of hemosiderin excision on seizure outcome in patients with CCMs by meta-analysis.Ten studies comparing extended hemosiderin excision with only lesion resection were identified by searching the English-language literature. Meta-analyses, subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were conducted to determine the association between hemosiderin excision and seizure outcome after surgery.Seizure outcome was significantly improved in the patients who underwent an extended excision of the surrounding hemosiderin (OR, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42-0.91; P = 0.01. In subgroup analysis, studies from Asia (OR, 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25-0.71; P = 0.001, male-majority (female ratio 1 year before surgery (OR, 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22-0.84; P = 0.01, lesion diameter > 2 cm (OR, 0.41; 95% CI: 0.19-0.87; P = 0.02 and short-term (< 3 years follow-up (OR, 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29-0.80; P = 0.005 tended to correlate with a significantly favorable outcome.Patients who underwent extended surrounding hemosiderin excision could exhibit significantly improved seizure outcomes compared to patients without hemosiderin excision. However, further well-designed prospective multiple-center RCT studies are still needed.

  8. The Strategy of Excise Taxation of Tobacco Products in Ukraine

    Pasichnyi Mykola D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing and improving approaches to the development of a strategy of excise tax policy in Ukraine, taking into account the foreign experience of harmonizing tax legislation in this sphere. An analysis of the implementation of the EU directives on the regulation of the minimum excise tax liability for the payment of excise taxes on tobacco products in the countries with transformational economies has been carried out. It has been found that, in cases of excessive tax pressure, the equilibrium of the market is disrupted, its shadow component is growing, and the overall economic efficiency level decreases. It has been determined that for the period of 2007-2016 the availability index for cigarettes in Ukraine decreased 2,3 times, which in some way demotivated their consumption. However, the change in the approach of calculation of ad valorem rate for the excise tax and introduction of the excise tax on the sub-excise goods sold by the retailers led to manipulative actions by the major actors in the market concerning the price of cigarettes, which impacted both the increase in the availability of cigarettes in 2016 and the decline in budget revenues. Regulation of the minimum excise duty is the most effective instrument of fiscal policy to achieve goals in the area of limitation of smoking.

  9. Laparoscopic excision of a newborn rectal duplication cyst.

    Hartin, Charles W; Lau, Stanley T; Escobar, Mauricio A; Glick, Philip L

    2008-08-01

    Congenital rectal duplication cyst is a rare entity treated with surgical excision. Without treatment, a rectal duplication cyst may cause a variety of complications, most notably, transforming into a malignancy. We report on a 7-week-old girl who was found to have a rectal duplication cyst. The rectal duplication cyst was successfully excised laparoscopically. Rectal duplication cysts are rare alimentary tract anomalies generally discovered during childhood. Complications include symptoms arising from the cyst and the possibility of malignant degeneration. They are typically managed by surgical excision.

  10. Global-genome Nucleotide Excision Repair Controlled by Ubiquitin/Sumo Modifiers

    Peter eRuethemann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Global-genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER prevents genome instability by excising a wide range of structurally unrelated DNA base adducts and crosslinks induced by chemical carcinogens, ultraviolet (UV radiation or intracellular metabolic by-products. As a versatile damage sensor, xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC protein initiates this generic defense reaction by locating the damage and recruiting the subunits of a large lesion demarcation complex that, in turn, triggers the excision of aberrant DNA by endonucleases. In the very special case of a DNA repair response to UV radiation, the function of this XPC initiator is tightly controlled by the dual action of cullin-type CRL4DDB2 and sumo-targeted RNF111 ubiquitin ligases. This twofold protein ubiquitination system promotes GG-NER reactions by spatially and temporally regulating the interaction of XPC protein with damaged DNA across the nucleosome landscape of chromatin. In the absence of either CRL4DDB2 or RNF111, the DNA excision repair of UV lesions is inefficient, indicating that these two ubiquitin ligases play a critical role in mitigating the adverse biological effects of UV light in the exposed skin.

  11. Minimally invasive endoscope-assisted trans-oral excision of huge parapharyngeal space tumors.

    Li, Shang-Yi; Hsu, Ching-Hui; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-04-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare head and neck neoplasms, and most are benign lesions. Complete excision of these tumors is difficult because of the complexity of the surrounding anatomic structures. The algorithm for excision of these tumors is typically based on the tumor's characteristics; excision is performed via approaches such as the trans-oral route, the trans-cervical route, and even a combination of the trans-parotid route and mandibulotomy. However, each of these approaches is associated with some complications. Endoscope-assisted minimally invasive surgery is being increasingly employed for surgeries in the head and neck regions. It has the advantage of leaving no facial scars, and ensures better patient comfort after the operation. Here, we report the use of endoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery for excision of parapharyngeal space tumors. The technique yields an excellent outcome and should be a feasible, safe, and economic method for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nucleotide excision repair in differentiated cells

    Wees, Caroline van der [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Jansen, Jacob [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Vrieling, Harry [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Laarse, Arnoud van der [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Zeeland, Albert van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Mullenders, Leon [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.mullenders@lumc.nl

    2007-01-03

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the principal pathway for the removal of a wide range of DNA helix-distorting lesions and operates via two NER subpathways, i.e. global genome repair (GGR) and transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Although detailed information is available on expression and efficiency of NER in established mammalian cell lines, little is known about the expression of NER pathways in (terminally) differentiated cells. The majority of studies in differentiated cells have focused on repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4-photoproducts (6-4PP) because of the high frequency of photolesions at low level of toxicity and availability of sensitive technologies to determine photolesions in defined regions of the genome. The picture that emerges from these studies is blurred and rather complex. Fibroblasts and terminally differentiated myocytes of the rat heart display equally efficient GGR of 6-4PP but poor repair of CPD due to the absence of p48 expression. This repair phenotype is clearly different from human terminal differentiated neurons. Furthermore, both cell types were found to carry out TCR of CPD, thus mimicking the repair phenotype of established rodent cell lines. In contrast, in intact rat spermatogenic cells repair was very inefficient at the genome overall level and in transcriptionally active genes indicating that GGR and TCR are non-functional. Also, non-differentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit low levels of NER after UV irradiation. However, the mechanisms that lead to low NER activity are clearly different: in differentiated spermatogenic cells differences in chromatin compaction and sequestering of NER proteins may underlie the lack of NER activity in pre-meiotic cells, whereas in non-differentiated ES cells NER is impaired by a strong apoptotic response.

  13. DNA excision repair in permeable human fibroblasts

    Kaufmann, W.K.; Bodell, W.J.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    U.v. irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts activated DNA repair, aspects of which were characterized in the cells after they were permeabilized. Incubation of intact cells for 20 min between irradiation and harvesting was necessary to obtain a maximum rate of reparative DNA synthesis. Cells harvested immediately after irradiation before repair was initiated displayed only a small stimulation of DNA synthesis, indicating that permeable cells have a reduced capacity to recognize pyrimidine dimers and activate repair. The distribution of sizes of DNA strands labeled during 10 min of reparative DNA synthesis resembled that of parental DNA. However, during a 60-min incubation of permeable cells at 37 degrees C, parental DNA and DNA labeled by reparative DNA synthesis were both cleaved to smaller sizes. Cleavage also occurred in unirradiated cells, indicating that endogenous nuclease was active during incubation. Repair patches synthesized in permeable cells displayed increased sensitivity to digestion by micrococcal nuclease. However, the change in sensitivity during a chase with unlabeled DNA precursors was small, suggesting that reassembly of nucleosome structure at sites of repair was impaired. To examine whether this deficiency was due to a preponderance of incomplete or unligated repair patches, 3H-labeled (repaired) DNA was purified, then digested with exonuclease III and nuclease S1 to probe for free 3' ends and single-stranded regions. About 85% of the [3H]DNA synthesized during a 10-min pulse resisted digestion, suggesting that a major fraction of the repair patches that were filled were also ligated. U.v. light-activated DNA synthesis in permeable cells, therefore, appears to represent the continuation of reparative gap-filling at sites of excision repair activated within intact cells. Gap-filling and ligation were comparatively efficient processes in permeable cells

  14. Child Maltreatment Among Singletons and Multiple Births in Japan: A Population-Based Study.

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Oda, Terumi; Nagai, Noriyo; Sugimoto, Masako; Mizukami, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of multiple births has been recognized as a risk factor for child maltreatment. However, few population-based studies have examined the relationship between multiple births and child maltreatment. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of risk of child maltreatment among singletons and multiple births in Japan and to identify factors associated with increased risk. Using population-based data, we analyzed the database of records on child maltreatment and medical checkups for infants aged 1.5 years filed at Nishinomiya City Public Health Center between April 2007 and March 2011. To protect personal information, the data were transferred to anonymized electronic files for analysis. After adjusting by logistic regression for each associated factor and gestation number, multiples themselves were not associated with the risk of child maltreatment. However, compared with singletons, multiples had a significantly higher rate of risk factors for child maltreatment, including low birth weight and neural abnormality. Moreover, compared with mothers of singleton, mothers of twins had a significantly higher rate of poor health, which is a risk factor of child maltreatment. Multiples were not associated with the risk of child maltreatment. However, compared with singletons, multiples and their mothers had a significantly higher rate of risk factors of child maltreatment.

  15. Attending to Multiple Visual Streams: Interactions between Location-Based and Category-Based Attentional Selection

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate that subjects are able to divide attention between multiple streams of information at different locations. However, it is still unclear to what extent the observed costs reflect processes specifically associated with spatial attention, versus more general interference due the concurrent monitoring of multiple streams of…

  16. Multiple classifier systems in texton-based approach for the classification of CT images of Lung

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Sørensen, Lauge; Shaker, Saher B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose using texton signatures based on raw pixel representation along with a parallel multiple classifier system for the classification of emphysema in computed tomography images of the lung. The multiple classifier system is composed of support vector machines on the texton.......e., texton size and k value in k-means. Our results show that while aggregation of single decisions by SVMs over various k values using multiple classifier systems helps to improve the results compared to single SVMs, combining over different texton sizes is not beneficial. The performance of the proposed...

  17. Cryptanalysis of the public key encryption based on multiple chaotic systems

    Zhang Linhua

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Ranjan proposed a novel public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems [Phys Lett 2005;95]. Unfortunately, Wang soon gave a successful attack on its special case based on Parseval's theorem [Wang K, Pei W, Zhou L, et al. Security of public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic system. Phys Lett A, in press]. In this letter, we give an improved example which can avoid the attack and point out that Wang cannot find the essential drawback of the technique. However, further experimental result shows Ruanjan's encryption technique is inefficient, and detailed theoretic analysis shows that the complexity to break the cryptosystem is overestimated

  18. Technique for laparoscopic autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision.

    Breukink, S O; Pierie, J P E N; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, W J H J

    2006-05-01

    With the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) for treatment of rectal cancer, the prognosis of patients with rectal cancer is improved. With this better prognosis, there is a growing awareness about the quality of life of patients after rectal carcinoma. Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) for rectal cancer offers several advantages in comparison with open total mesorectal excision (OTME), including greater patient comfort and an earlier return to daily activities while preserving the oncologic radicality of the procedure. Moreover, laparoscopy allows good exposure of the pelvic cavity because of magnification and good illumination. The laparoscope seems to facilitate pelvic dissection including identification and preservation of critical structures such as the autonomic nervous system. The technique for laparoscopic autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision is reported. A three- or four-port technique is used. Vascular ligation, sharp mesorectal dissection and identification and preservation of the autonomic pelvic nerves are described.

  19. Development of excise on automotive fuels in the neighbouring countries

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Janse, P.

    1994-04-01

    The political options for the Netherlands to implement the pricing policy for road traffic by means of an increase of excise, as formulated in the Second Transport Structure Plan (SVV-2), are limited by the excise level in neighbouring countries. Therefore, a study on the title subject has been carried out. First, an overview is given of the historical development of sales prices since 1980 for Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and France with special attention for the large price differences. Next, insight into the effects of a price difference at the borders is given. Subsequently the development in the policy of the European Union with regard to harmonization of excise tariffs is discussed. Environmental organizations in Belgium and Luxembourg were contacted to learn about the expected development of excises in those countries. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 4 appendices, 10 refs

  20. Impacts of restructuring tabacco excise tax in the Philippines

    A recently approved law restructuring tobacco taxes in the. Philippines includes a steep increase in the excise tax (the tax paid by producers which ... part of Canada's International Development Research Centre. (IDRC), a Canadian Crown ...

  1. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision ...

    Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision histology results in sarcoma: Experience at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. KG Panda, MJ Hale, D Kruger, TE Luvhengo ...

  2. Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching : Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that single-purpose multiple store shopping is not only driven by opportunistic, promotion-based motivations, but may also be part of a longer term shopping planning process based on stable store characteristics.Starting from a utility-maximizing shopping behavior

  3. Identification of Multiple-Mode Linear Models Based on Particle Swarm Optimizer with Cyclic Network Mechanism

    Tae-Hyoung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the metaheuristic optimizer-based direct identification of a multiple-mode system consisting of a finite set of linear regression representations of subsystems. To this end, the concept of a multiple-mode linear regression model is first introduced, and its identification issues are established. A method for reducing the identification problem for multiple-mode models to an optimization problem is also described in detail. Then, to overcome the difficulties that arise because the formulated optimization problem is inherently ill-conditioned and nonconvex, the cyclic-network-topology-based constrained particle swarm optimizer (CNT-CPSO is introduced, and a concrete procedure for the CNT-CPSO-based identification methodology is developed. This scheme requires no prior knowledge of the mode transitions between subsystems and, unlike some conventional methods, can handle a large amount of data without difficulty during the identification process. This is one of the distinguishing features of the proposed method. The paper also considers an extension of the CNT-CPSO-based identification scheme that makes it possible to simultaneously obtain both the optimal parameters of the multiple submodels and a certain decision parameter involved in the mode transition criteria. Finally, an experimental setup using a DC motor system is established to demonstrate the practical usability of the proposed metaheuristic optimizer-based identification scheme for developing a multiple-mode linear regression model.

  4. Excision of Mucocele Using Diode Laser in Lower Lip

    Subramaniam Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoceles are nonneoplastic cystic lesions of major and minor salivary glands which result from the accumulation of mucus. These lesions are most commonly seen in children. Though usually these lesions can be treated by local surgical excision, in our case, to avoid intraoperative surgical complications like bleeding and edema and to enable better healing, excision was done using a diode laser in the wavelength of 940 nm.

  5. Determining Factors for Fast Corneal Sensitivity Recovery After Pterygium Excision

    Julio Morán, Gemma; Campos, Pamela; Pujol Vives, Pere; Munguia, Aitana; Mas Aixalà, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish determining factors for fast corneal sensitivity (CS) recovery after pterygium excision. Methods: Thirty-two eyes of 14 males and 18 females with primary nasal pterygium were recruited. Differences in CS (in the 4 quadrants and the center using a Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometer), pterygium corneal area (PCA), tear osmolarity, tear break-up time, Schirmer test, and ocular symptoms were analyzed before and 1 month after lesion excision. The relationship between CS recovery...

  6. The Bacillus anthracis chromosome contains four conserved, excision-proficient, putative prophages

    Sozhamannan Shanmuga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus anthracis is considered to be a recently emerged clone within the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. The B. anthracis genome sequence contains four putative lambdoid prophages. We undertook this study in order to understand whether the four prophages are unique to B. anthracis and whether they produce active phages. Results More than 300 geographically and temporally divergent isolates of B. anthracis and its near neighbors were screened by PCR for the presence of specific DNA sequences from each prophage region. Every isolate of B. anthracis screened by PCR was found to produce all four phage-specific amplicons whereas none of the non-B. anthracis isolates, produced more than one phage-specific amplicon. Excision of prophages could be detected by a PCR based assay for attP sites on extra-chromosomal phage circles and for attB sites on phage-excised chromosomes. SYBR-green real-time PCR assays indicated that prophage excision occurs at very low frequencies (2 × 10-5 - 8 × 10-8/cell. Induction with mitomycin C increased the frequency of excision of one of the prophages by approximately 250 fold. All four prophages appear to be defective since, mitomycin C induced culture did not release any viable phage particle or lyse the cells or reveal any phage particle under electron microscopic examination. Conclusion The retention of all four putative prophage regions across all tested strains of B. anthracis is further evidence of the very recent emergence of this lineage and the prophage regions may be useful for differentiating the B. anthracis chromosome from that of its neighbors. All four prophages can excise at low frequencies, but are apparently defective in phage production.

  7. Intralesional excision with topical intralesional cryotherapy improves the treatment of keloid scarring in a paediatric patient.

    Reissis, D; Tickunas, T; Agha, R A; Greig, Avh

    2017-11-01

    Recurrent keloid scarring has a significant impact on quality of life. Management is complex, particularly for scars resistant to conventional treatments and in paediatric cases where radiotherapy is not a suitable adjunct to surgical excision. We present the case of a nine-year-old African Caribbean girl with multiple large and recurrent keloid scars on both ears and bilateral sensorineural deafness. Following repeated intralesional excisions, corticosteroid and botulinum toxin injections, she continued to experience rapid recurrence of her keloids, worsening pain and pruritus. She was no longer able to wear her hearing aids because of the large size of the keloids. We employed a novel technique using topical intralesional cryotherapy, applying liquid nitrogen intraoperatively to the inside of the skin flaps immediately post-intralesional keloid excision and before wound closure. At 26-month follow-up a good aesthetic and symptomatic result was achieved, with minimal hypopigmentation, significantly reduced scar volume and significantly slowed recurrence. We discuss this case and review the current literature on the use of topical intralesional cryotherapy for keloid scarring.

  8. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  9. Volta-Based Cells Materials Chemical Multiple Representation to Improve Ability of Student Representation

    Helsy, I.; Maryamah; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the application of teaching materials, analyze the increase in the ability of students to connect the three levels of representation and student responses after application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. The method used quasi one-group pretest-posttest design to 71 students. The results showed the application of teaching materials carried 88% with very good category. A significant increase ability to connect the three levels of representation of students after the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry with t-value > t-crit (11.402 > 1.991). Recapitulation N-gain pretest and posttest showed relatively similar for all groups is 0.6 criterion being achievement. Students gave a positive response to the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. Students agree teaching materials used in teaching chemistry (88%), and agrees teaching materials to provide convenience in connecting the three levels of representation (95%).

  10. Universal suprapubic approach for complete mesocolic excision and central vascular ligation using the da Vinci Xi® system: from cadaveric models to clinical cases.

    Yeo, Shen Ann; Noh, Gyoung Tae; Han, Jeong Hee; Cheong, Chinock; Stein, Hubert; Kerdok, Amy; Min, Byung Soh

    2017-12-01

    There has been little enthusiasm for performing robotic colectomy for colon cancer in recent years due to multiple factors, one being that the previous robotic systems such as the da Vinci Si ® (dVSi) were poorly designed for multi-quadrant surgery. The new da Vinci Xi ® (dVXi) system enables colectomy with central mesocolic excision to be performed easily in a single docking procedure. We developed a universal port placement strategy to allow right and left hemicolectomies to be performed via a suprapubic approach and a Pfannensteil extraction site. This proof of concept paper describes the development and subsequent clinical application of this setup. After extensive training on the dVXi system concepts in collaboration with clinical development engineers, we developed a port placement strategy which was tested and adapted after performing experimental surgery in three cadaveric models. Subsequently our port placement was used for two clinical cases of suprapubic right and left hemicolectomy. With some modifications of port placements after the initial cadaveric colectomies, we have developed a potentially universal suprapubic port placement strategy for robotic colectomy with complete mesocolic excision and central vascular ligation using the dVXi robotic system. This port placement strategy was applied successfully in our first two clinical cases. Based on our cadaveric laboratory as well as our initial clinical application, the suprapubic port placement strategy for the dVXi system with its improved features over the dVSi can feasibly perform right and left hemicolectomy with complete mesocolic excision and central vascular ligation. Further studies will be required to establish efficacy as well as safety profile of these procedures.

  11. Vernier effect-based multiplication of the Sagnac beating frequency in ring laser gyroscope sensors

    Adib, George A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2018-02-01

    A multiplication method of the Sagnac effect scale factor in ring laser gyroscopes is presented based on the Vernier effect of a dual-coupler passive ring resonator coupled to the active ring. The multiplication occurs when the two rings have comparable lengths or integer multiples and their scale factors have opposite signs. In this case, and when the rings have similar areas, the scale factor is multiplied by ratio of their length to their length difference. The scale factor of the presented configuration is derived analytically and the lock-in effect is analyzed. The principle is demonstrated using optical fiber rings and semiconductor optical amplifier as gain medium. A scale factor multiplication by about 175 is experimentally measured, demonstrating larger than two orders of magnitude enhancement in the Sagnac effect scale factor for the first time in literature, up to the authors' knowledge.

  12. A Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA Based on PEAS for NCW in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Bong-Joo Koo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs can be implemented as one of sensor systems in Network Centric Warfare (NCW. Mobility support and energy efficiency are key concerns for this application, due to multiple mobile users and stimuli in real combat field. However, mobility support approaches that can be adopted in this circumstance are rare. This paper proposes Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA based on Probing Environment and Adaptive Sleeping (PEAS to support the simultaneous mobility of both multiple users and stimuli by sharing the information of stimuli in WSNs. Simulations using Qualnet are conducted, showing that MMSA can support multiple mobile users and stimuli with good energy efficiency. It is expected that the proposed MMSA can be applied to real combat field.

  13. A Full-Text-Based Search Engine for Finding Highly Matched Documents Across Multiple Categories

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report demonstrates the full-text-based search engine that works on any Web-based mobile application. The engine has the capability to search databases across multiple categories based on a user's queries and identify the most relevant or similar. The search results presented here were found using an Android (Google Co.) mobile device; however, it is also compatible with other mobile phones.

  14. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    2010-07-01

    ... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.262 Excise taxes at the retail level. (a) Federal excise taxes are imposed at... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes at the retail level. 779.262 Section 779.262...

  15. Low-dose multiple-information retrieval algorithm for X-ray grating-based imaging

    Wang Zhentian; Huang Zhifeng; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Jiang Xiaolei; Kang Kejun; Yin Hongxia; Wang Zhenchang; Stampanoni, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The present work proposes a low dose information retrieval algorithm for X-ray grating-based multiple-information imaging (GB-MII) method, which can retrieve the attenuation, refraction and scattering information of samples by only three images. This algorithm aims at reducing the exposure time and the doses delivered to the sample. The multiple-information retrieval problem in GB-MII is solved by transforming a nonlinear equations set to a linear equations and adopting the nature of the trigonometric functions. The proposed algorithm is validated by experiments both on conventional X-ray source and synchrotron X-ray source, and compared with the traditional multiple-image-based retrieval algorithm. The experimental results show that our algorithm is comparable with the traditional retrieval algorithm and especially suitable for high Signal-to-Noise system.

  16. Availability of thermodynamic system with multiple performance parameters based on vector-universal generating function

    Cai Qi; Shang Yanlong; Chen Lisheng; Zhao Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Vector-universal generating function was presented to analyze the availability of thermodynamic system with multiple performance parameters. Vector-universal generating function of component's performance was defined, the arithmetic model based on vector-universal generating function was derived for the thermodynamic system, and the calculation method was given for state probability of multi-state component. With the stochastic simulation of the degeneration trend of the multiple factors, the system availability with multiple performance parameters was obtained under composite factors. It is shown by an example that the results of the availability obtained by the binary availability analysis method are somewhat conservative, and the results considering parameter failure based on vector-universal generating function reflect the operation characteristics of the thermodynamic system better. (authors)

  17. hMuLab: A Biomedical Hybrid MUlti-LABel Classifier Based on Multiple Linear Regression.

    Wang, Pu; Ge, Ruiquan; Xiao, Xuan; Zhou, Manli; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2017-01-01

    Many biomedical classification problems are multi-label by nature, e.g., a gene involved in a variety of functions and a patient with multiple diseases. The majority of existing classification algorithms assumes each sample with only one class label, and the multi-label classification problem remains to be a challenge for biomedical researchers. This study proposes a novel multi-label learning algorithm, hMuLab, by integrating both feature-based and neighbor-based similarity scores. The multiple linear regression modeling techniques make hMuLab capable of producing multiple label assignments for a query sample. The comparison results over six commonly-used multi-label performance measurements suggest that hMuLab performs accurately and stably for the biomedical datasets, and may serve as a complement to the existing literature.

  18. Variable Speed Wind Turbine Based on Multiple Generators Drive-Train Configuration

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine is presented in this paper, where multiple permanent magnet synchronous generators (MPMSGs) drive-train configuration is employed in the wind turbine. A cascaded multilevel converter interface based on the MPMSGs is developed to synthesize a desired high ac sinusoidal...... output voltage, which could be directly connected to the grids. What is more, such arrangement has been made so that the output ac voltage having a selected phase angle difference among the stator windings of multiple generators. A phase angle shift strategy is proposed in this paper, which effectively...... reduce the fluctuation of the electromagnetic torque sum and results in a good performance for the MPMSGs structure. The simulation study is conducted using PSCAD/EMTDC, and the results verify the feasibility of this variable speed wind turbine based on multiple generators drive-train configuration....

  19. Improving the Pattern Reproducibility of Multiple-Point-Based Prior Models Using Frequency Matching

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Some multiple-point-based sampling algorithms, such as the snesim algorithm, rely on sequential simulation. The conditional probability distributions that are used for the simulation are based on statistics of multiple-point data events obtained from a training image. During the simulation, data...... events with zero probability in the training image statistics may occur. This is handled by pruning the set of conditioning data until an event with non-zero probability is found. The resulting probability distribution sampled by such algorithms is a pruned mixture model. The pruning strategy leads...... to a probability distribution that lacks some of the information provided by the multiple-point statistics from the training image, which reduces the reproducibility of the training image patterns in the outcome realizations. When pruned mixture models are used as prior models for inverse problems, local re...

  20. Is surgical excision necessary for the treatment of Granulomatous lobular mastitis?

    Shin, Young Duck; Park, Sung Su; Song, Young Jin; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the role of surgical excision in treating granulomatous lobular mastitis. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis treated from March 2008 to March 2014. We analyzed clinical features and therapeutic modalities and compared the patient outcomes based on treatment. Results During the study period, a total of 34 patients were diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis and treated. Initial treatments i...

  1. Multiple-Targeted Graphene-based Nanocarrier for Intracellular Imaging of mRNAs

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhaohui; Liu, Misha; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Yuehe; Li, Jinghong

    2017-08-29

    Simultaneous detection and imaging of multiple intracellular messenger RNA (mRNAs) hold great significant for early cancer diagnostics and preventive medicine development. Herein, we propose a multiple-targeted graphene oxide (GO) nanocarrier that can simultaneously detect and image different type mRNAs in living cells. First of all, in vitro detection of multiple targets have been realized successfully based on the multiple-targeted GO nanocarrier with linear relationship ranging from 3 nM to 200 nM, as well as sensitive detection limit of 1.84 nM for manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) mRNA and 2.45 nM for β-actin mRNA. Additionally, this nanosensing platform composed of fluorescent labeled single strand DNA probes and GO nanocarrier can identify Mn-SOD mRNA and endogenous mRNA of β-actin in living cancer cells, showing rapid response, high specificity, nuclease stability, and good biocompatibility during the cell imaging. Thirdly, changes of the expression levels of mRNA in living cells before or after the drug treatment can be monitored successfully. By using multiple ssDNA as probes and GO nanocarrier as the cellular delivery cargo, the proposed simultaneous multiple-targeted sensing platform will be of great potential as a powerful tool for intracellular trafficking process from basic research to clinical diagnosis.

  2. Germline excision of transgenes in Aedes aegypti by homing endonucleases.

    Aryan, Azadeh; Anderson, Michelle A E; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

    2013-01-01

    Aedes (Ae.) aegypti is the primary vector for dengue viruses (serotypes1-4) and chikungunya virus. Homing endonucleases (HEs) are ancient selfish elements that catalyze double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) in a highly specific manner. In this report, we show that the HEs Y2-I-AniI, I-CreI and I-SceI are all capable of catalyzing the excision of genomic segments from the Ae. aegypti genome in a heritable manner. Y2-I-AniI demonstrated the highest efficiency at two independent genomic targets, with 20-40% of Y2-I-AniI-treated individuals producing offspring that had lost the target transgene. HE-induced DSBs were found to be repaired via the single-strand annealing (SSA) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways in a manner dependent on the availability of direct repeat sequences in the transgene. These results support the development of HE-based gene editing and gene drive strategies in Ae. aegypti, and confirm the utility of HEs in the manipulation and modification of transgenes in this important vector.

  3. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    Muhammad, Akram; Musavarah, Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    In this research study, we introduce the concept of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We present the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We also develop an algorithm for computing domination in bipolar neutrosophic graphs.

  4. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) design plan

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The general design plan for the implementation of a common user interface to multiple remote information systems within a microcomputer-based environment is presented. The intent is to provide a framework for the development of detailed specifications which will be used as guidelines for the actual development of the system.

  5. Multiple Measures of Outcome in Assessing a Prison-Based Drug Treatment Program

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Wexler, Harry K.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations of prison-based drug treatment programs typically focus on one or two dichotomous outcome variables related to recidivism. In contrast, this paper uses multiple measures of outcomes related to crime and drug use to examine the impact of prison treatment. Crime variables included self-report data of time to first illegal activity,…

  6. Epidemiology of multiple congenital anomalies in Europe: A EUROCAT population-based registry study

    Calzolari, Elisa; Barisic, Ingeborg; Loane, Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study describes the prevalence, associated anomalies, and demographic characteristics of cases of multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) in 19 population-based European registries (EUROCAT) covering 959,446 births in 2004 and 2010. METHODS: EUROCAT implemented a computer algorithm f...

  7. Multiple-state based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we present asynchronous multiple-state based power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint...

  8. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  9. The MORPG-Based Learning System for Multiple Courses: A Case Study on Computer Science Curriculum

    Liu, Kuo-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game-based (MORPG) Learning system which enabled instructors to construct a game scenario and manage sharable and reusable learning content for multiple courses. It used the curriculum of "Introduction to Computer Science" as a study case to assess students' learning…

  10. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based multiple access protocol for the extension of wireline ATM to wireless networks. The objective is to enable effecient transmission of all kinds of ATM traffic in the wireless channel with guaranteed QoS.The proposed protocol utilixes knowledge of the main...... guaranteed QoS requirements to a variety of ATM applications....

  11. Multiple Sclerosis and Employment: A Research Review Based on the International Classification of Function

    Frain, Michael P.; Bishop, Malachy; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Chan, Fong; Tansey, Timothy N.; Strauser, David; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable, sometimes progressive chronic illness affecting people in the prime of their working lives. This article reviews the effects of MS on employment based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Correlations between employment and…

  12. Dispersion-flattened-fiber based optical thresholder for multiple-access-interference suppression in OCDMA system.

    Wang, Xu; Hamanaka, Taro; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-Ichi

    2005-07-11

    An optical thresholding technique based on super-continuum generation in dispersion flattened fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to enable data-rate detection in optical code division multiple access networks. The proposed scheme exhibits an excellent discrimination between a desired signal and interference signals with features of pulse reshaping, low insertion loss, polarization independency as well as reasonable operation power.

  13. Stepwise Analysis of Differential Item Functioning Based on Multiple-Group Partial Credit Model.

    Muraki, Eiji

    1999-01-01

    Extended an Item Response Theory (IRT) method for detection of differential item functioning to the partial credit model and applied the method to simulated data using a stepwise procedure. Then applied the stepwise DIF analysis based on the multiple-group partial credit model to writing trend data from the National Assessment of Educational…

  14. Residue-based Coordinated Selection and Parameter Design of Multiple Power System Stabilizers (PSSs)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    data from time domain simulations. Then a coordinated approach for multiple PSS selection and parameter design based on residue method is proposed and realized in MATLAB m-files. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted in the coordination process. The IEEE 39-bus New England system model...

  15. Multiple flood vulnerability assessment approach based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and coordinated development degree model.

    Yang, Weichao; Xu, Kui; Lian, Jijian; Bin, Lingling; Ma, Chao

    2018-05-01

    Flood is a serious challenge that increasingly affects the residents as well as policymakers. Flood vulnerability assessment is becoming gradually relevant in the world. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach to reveal the relationship between exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity for better flood vulnerability assessment, based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCEM) and coordinated development degree model (CDDM). The approach is organized into three parts: establishment of index system, assessment of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, and multiple flood vulnerability assessment. Hydrodynamic model and statistical data are employed for the establishment of index system; FCEM is used to evaluate exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity; and CDDM is applied to express the relationship of the three components of vulnerability. Six multiple flood vulnerability types and four levels are proposed to assess flood vulnerability from multiple perspectives. Then the approach is applied to assess the spatiality of flood vulnerability in Hainan's eastern area, China. Based on the results of multiple flood vulnerability, a decision-making process for rational allocation of limited resources is proposed and applied to the study area. The study shows that multiple flood vulnerability assessment can evaluate vulnerability more completely, and help decision makers learn more information about making decisions in a more comprehensive way. In summary, this study provides a new way for flood vulnerability assessment and disaster prevention decision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple hypothesis tracking based extraction of airway trees from CT data

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; de Bruijne, Marleen

    Segmentation of airway trees from CT scans of lungs has important clinical applications, in relation to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here we present a method based on multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) and template matching, originally devised for vessel...... segmentation, to extract airway trees. Idealized tubular templates are constructed and ranked using scores assigned based on the image data. Several such regularly spaced hypotheses are used in constructing a hypothesis tree, which is then traversed to obtain improved segmentation results....

  17. Security Analysis of a Block Encryption Algorithm Based on Dynamic Sequences of Multiple Chaotic Systems

    Du, Mao-Kang; He, Bo; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the cryptosystem based on chaos has attracted much attention. Wang and Yu (Commun. Nonlin. Sci. Numer. Simulat. 14 (2009) 574) proposed a block encryption algorithm based on dynamic sequences of multiple chaotic systems. We analyze the potential flaws in the algorithm. Then, a chosen-plaintext attack is presented. Some remedial measures are suggested to avoid the flaws effectively. Furthermore, an improved encryption algorithm is proposed to resist the attacks and to keep all the merits of the original cryptosystem.

  18. Colloidal silver-based nanogel as nonocclusive dressing for multiple superficial pellet wounds.

    Dharmshaktu, Ganesh Singh; Singhal, Aanshu; Pangtey, Tanuja

    2016-01-01

    A good dressing is mandatory to an uncomplicated wound healing, especially when foreign particles contaminate the wound. Various forms of dressing preparations are available for use and differ in chemical composition and efficacy. Silver has been a known agent with good antimicrobial and healing properties and recent times has seen an upsurge in various silver-based dressing supplements. We describe our report of use and efficacy of a silver nanoparticle- based gel dressing in the healing of multiple superficial firearm pellet wounds.

  19. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Sridhar Krishnan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of −10 dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  20. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice

    Takayuki Sakurai; Akiko Kamiyoshi; Hisaka Kawate; Chie Mori; Satoshi Watanabe; Megumu Tanaka; Ryuichi Uetake; Masahiro Sato; Takayuki Shindo

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9...

  1. Conditions for a carrier multiplication in amorphous-selenium based photodetector

    Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Kuniyoshi, Shingo; Onishi, Masanori; Kato, Richika; Saito, Ichitaro; Okano, Ken [Department of Material Science, International Christian University, S102 Science Hall, ICU, 3-10-2 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585 (Japan); Yamada, Takatoshi [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Koh, Angel T. T.; Chua, Daniel H. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Shimosawa, Tatsuo [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyoku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2013-02-18

    Amorphous selenium is a promising candidate for high sensitivity photodetector due to its unique carrier multiplication phenomenon. More than 10 carriers can be generated per incident photon, which leads to high photo-conversion efficiency of 1000% that allows real-time imaging in dark ambient. However, application of this effect has been limited to specific devices due to the lack in material characterization. In this article, mechanism of carrier multiplication has been clarified using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A prototype photodetector achieved photo conversion efficiency of 4000%, which explains the signal enhancement mechanism in a-Se based photodetector.

  2. Conditions for a carrier multiplication in amorphous-selenium based photodetector

    Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Kuniyoshi, Shingo; Onishi, Masanori; Kato, Richika; Saito, Ichitaro; Okano, Ken; Yamada, Takatoshi; Koh, Angel T. T.; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Shimosawa, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous selenium is a promising candidate for high sensitivity photodetector due to its unique carrier multiplication phenomenon. More than 10 carriers can be generated per incident photon, which leads to high photo-conversion efficiency of 1000% that allows real-time imaging in dark ambient. However, application of this effect has been limited to specific devices due to the lack in material characterization. In this article, mechanism of carrier multiplication has been clarified using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A prototype photodetector achieved photo conversion efficiency of 4000%, which explains the signal enhancement mechanism in a-Se based photodetector.

  3. Robust Inventory System Optimization Based on Simulation and Multiple Criteria Decision Making

    Ahmad Mortazavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory management in retailers is difficult and complex decision making process which is related to the conflict criteria, also existence of cyclic changes and trend in demand is inevitable in many industries. In this paper, simulation modeling is considered as efficient tool for modeling of retailer multiproduct inventory system. For simulation model optimization, a novel multicriteria and robust surrogate model is designed based on multiple attribute decision making (MADM method, design of experiments (DOE, and principal component analysis (PCA. This approach as a main contribution of this paper, provides a framework for robust multiple criteria decision making under uncertainty.

  4. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from surgically excised lumbar disc herniations

    Rollason, Jess; McDowell, Andrew; Albert, Hanne B

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised...... from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods...... isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed....

  5. TREATMENT OF DOGS WITH ORAL MELANOMA RECURRENCE BY DIODE LASER EXCISION

    Cornel Igna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of oral melanomas utilizes the surgical excision-resection (Culp et al., 2013 and/or radiation therapy (Proulx et al., 2003, chemotherapy with carboplatin (Brockley et al., 2013, immunotherapy (Ottnod et al., 2013. Treatment based on surgical excision is usually palliative (Freeman et al., 2003. Aims: In the literature even though there are data concerning the prognosis of oral melanomas in dogs after surgery, are missing data after laser excision. Taking into account these findings we wished to present our experience regarding three cases of oral melanoma recurrence and immediate and long term laser surgery results. Materials and Methods: The casuistry consisted of three dogs with recurrent oral malignant melanomas, subjected to surgical reintervention. The initial diagnosis was melanotic melanoma in stage I or II. The animals were brought back at different time intervals from originally excision with electric scalpel. Before reintervention, dogs were subjected to clinical, paraclinical exam and biopsy. Excision of the tumor mass was made with an optical fiber hawing a diameter of 400µm, at a power of 10W and a wavelength of 940 nm with a diode laser. At 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months after laser reintervention the dogs were reexamined. Results: Average time in which appeared canine oral melanoma relapse was 58.6 days. After reexamination all cases where reinstatement in stage I. Operators times were held in conditions of comfort with wide access, minimum bleeding, effective hemostasis. After surgery at 24 hours on the intervention place a slight local redness, without swelling and bleeding was observed. Palpation revealed initially also a slight local sensitivity which completely disappeared in 48 hours. There were no grasping and chewing disturbances. Macroscopic healing occurred in 7-9 days. At last recheck performed at 12 months there were no evidences of tumour recurrence or metastasis. Conclusion: Diode laser excision

  6. Memory-based attention capture when multiple items are maintained in visual working memory.

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Beck, Valerie M

    2016-07-01

    Efficient visual search requires that attention is guided strategically to relevant objects, and most theories of visual search implement this function by means of a target template maintained in visual working memory (VWM). However, there is currently debate over the architecture of VWM-based attentional guidance. We contrasted a single-item-template hypothesis with a multiple-item-template hypothesis, which differ in their claims about structural limits on the interaction between VWM representations and perceptual selection. Recent evidence from van Moorselaar, Theeuwes, and Olivers (2014) indicated that memory-based capture during search, an index of VWM guidance, is not observed when memory set size is increased beyond a single item, suggesting that multiple items in VWM do not guide attention. In the present study, we maximized the overlap between multiple colors held in VWM and the colors of distractors in a search array. Reliable capture was observed when 2 colors were held in VWM and both colors were present as distractors, using both the original van Moorselaar et al. singleton-shape search task and a search task that required focal attention to array elements (gap location in outline square stimuli). In the latter task, memory-based capture was consistent with the simultaneous guidance of attention by multiple VWM representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows.

    Ding, Jun; Arigong, Bayaner; Ren, Han; Zhou, Mi; Shao, Jin; Lu, Meng; Chai, Yang; Lin, Yuankun; Zhang, Hualiang

    2014-08-22

    Novel graphene-based tunable plasmonic metamaterials featuring single and multiple transparency windows are numerically studied in this paper. The designed structures consist of a graphene layer perforated with quadrupole slot structures and dolmen-like slot structures printed on a substrate. Specifically, the graphene-based quadrupole slot structure can realize a single transparency window, which is achieved without breaking the structure symmetry. Further investigations have shown that the single transparency window in the proposed quadrupole slot structure is more likely originated from the quantum effect of Autler-Townes splitting. Then, by introducing a dipole slot to the quadrupole slot structure to form the dolmen-like slot structure, an additional transmission dip could occur in the transmission spectrum, thus, a multiple-transparency-window system can be achieved (for the first time for graphene-based devices). More importantly, the transparency windows for both the quadrupole slot and the dolmen-like slot structures can be dynamically controlled over a broad frequency range by varying the Fermi energy levels of the graphene layer (through electrostatic gating). The proposed slot metamaterial structures with tunable single and multiple transparency windows could find potential applications in many areas such as multiple-wavelength slow-light devices, active plasmonic switching, and optical sensing.

  8. Principal axis-based correspondence between multiple cameras for people tracking.

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Min; Zhou, Xue; Tan, Tieniu; Lou, Jianguang; Maybank, Steve

    2006-04-01

    Visual surveillance using multiple cameras has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Correspondence between multiple cameras is one of the most important and basic problems which visual surveillance using multiple cameras brings. In this paper, we propose a simple and robust method, based on principal axes of people, to match people across multiple cameras. The correspondence likelihood reflecting the similarity of pairs of principal axes of people is constructed according to the relationship between "ground-points" of people detected in each camera view and the intersections of principal axes detected in different camera views and transformed to the same view. Our method has the following desirable properties: 1) Camera calibration is not needed. 2) Accurate motion detection and segmentation are less critical due to the robustness of the principal axis-based feature to noise. 3) Based on the fused data derived from correspondence results, positions of people in each camera view can be accurately located even when the people are partially occluded in all views. The experimental results on several real video sequences from outdoor environments have demonstrated the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of our method.

  9. Hypergraph partitioning implementation for parallelizing matrix-vector multiplication using CUDA GPU-based parallel computing

    Murni, Bustamam, A.; Ernastuti, Handhika, T.; Kerami, D.

    2017-07-01

    Calculation of the matrix-vector multiplication in the real-world problems often involves large matrix with arbitrary size. Therefore, parallelization is needed to speed up the calculation process that usually takes a long time. Graph partitioning techniques that have been discussed in the previous studies cannot be used to complete the parallelized calculation of matrix-vector multiplication with arbitrary size. This is due to the assumption of graph partitioning techniques that can only solve the square and symmetric matrix. Hypergraph partitioning techniques will overcome the shortcomings of the graph partitioning technique. This paper addresses the efficient parallelization of matrix-vector multiplication through hypergraph partitioning techniques using CUDA GPU-based parallel computing. CUDA (compute unified device architecture) is a parallel computing platform and programming model that was created by NVIDIA and implemented by the GPU (graphics processing unit).

  10. Uncommon nucleotide excision repair phenotypes revealed by targeted high-throughput sequencing.

    Calmels, Nadège; Greff, Géraldine; Obringer, Cathy; Kempf, Nadine; Gasnier, Claire; Tarabeux, Julien; Miguet, Marguerite; Baujat, Geneviève; Bessis, Didier; Bretones, Patricia; Cavau, Anne; Digeon, Béatrice; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Doray, Bérénice; Feillet, François; Gardeazabal, Jesus; Gener, Blanca; Julia, Sophie; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Mazur, Artur; Michot, Caroline; Renaldo-Robin, Florence; Rossi, Massimiliano; Sabouraud, Pascal; Keren, Boris; Depienne, Christel; Muller, Jean; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Laugel, Vincent

    2016-03-22

    Deficient nucleotide excision repair (NER) activity causes a variety of autosomal recessive diseases including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) a disorder which pre-disposes to skin cancer, and the severe multisystem condition known as Cockayne syndrome (CS). In view of the clinical overlap between NER-related disorders, as well as the existence of multiple phenotypes and the numerous genes involved, we developed a new diagnostic approach based on the enrichment of 16 NER-related genes by multiplex amplification coupled with next-generation sequencing (NGS). Our test cohort consisted of 11 DNA samples, all with known mutations and/or non pathogenic SNPs in two of the tested genes. We then used the same technique to analyse samples from a prospective cohort of 40 patients. Multiplex amplification and sequencing were performed using AmpliSeq protocol on the Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies). We identified causative mutations in 17 out of the 40 patients (43%). Four patients showed biallelic mutations in the ERCC6(CSB) gene, five in the ERCC8(CSA) gene: most of them had classical CS features but some had very mild and incomplete phenotypes. A small cohort of 4 unrelated classic XP patients from the Basque country (Northern Spain) revealed a common splicing mutation in POLH (XP-variant), demonstrating a new founder effect in this population. Interestingly, our results also found ERCC2(XPD), ERCC3(XPB) or ERCC5(XPG) mutations in two cases of UV-sensitive syndrome and in two cases with mixed XP/CS phenotypes. Our study confirms that NGS is an efficient technique for the analysis of NER-related disorders on a molecular level. It is particularly useful for phenotypes with combined features or unusually mild symptoms. Targeted NGS used in conjunction with DNA repair functional tests and precise clinical evaluation permits rapid and cost-effective diagnosis in patients with NER-defects.

  11. Total excision of intramedullary epidermoid cyst in one case

    PU Ke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical experience of total excision in a 14-year-old female with intramedullary epidermoid cyst was reported. The patient with L3-4 intramedullary epidermoid cyst underwent total excision through posterior median approach under microscopy. The patient was admitted for progressive strephexopodia and urinary and fecal incontinence. Preoperative imaging examination showed scoliosis, incontionous L4-S1 and abnormal signal of L3-4. Total excision and spinal remodeling were performed under intraoperative neurophysiological monitoning. Epidermoid cyst and its membrane were totally removed without aseptic meningitis after surgery, and the neurologic symptoms of the patient were gradually improved. Completely removing the membrane of epidermoid cyst is the key point to prevent recurrence and aseptic meningitis postoperatively. Dissection should be strictly in accordance with the boundaries of the membrane and the spinal cord, in order to avoid spinal cord injury.

  12. Excision of oral mucocele by different wavelength lasers

    Umberto Romeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucocele is a common benign neoplasm of oral soft tissues and the most common after fibroma. It generally occurs in the lower lip and its treatment includes excision of cyst and the responsible salivary gland, in order to prevent recurrences. Aims: To evaluate the capability of three different lasers in performing the excision of labial mucocele with two different techniques. Materials and Methods: In the presented cases, excision was performed using two different techniques (circumferential incision technique and mucosal preservation technique and three different laser wavelengths (Er,Cr:YSGG 2780 nm, diode 808 nm, and KTP 532 nm. Results: All the tested lasers, regardless of wavelength, showed many advantages (bloodless surgical field, no postoperative pain, relative speed, and easy execution. The most useful surgical technique depends on clinical features of the lesion. Conclusion: Tested lasers, with both techniques, are helpful in the management of labial mucocele.

  13. CELL POPULATION KINETICS OF EXCISED ROOTS OF PISUM SATIVUM

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1965-01-01

    The cell population kinetics of excised, cultured pea roots was studied with the use of tritiated thymidine and colchicine to determine (1) the influence of excision, (2) the influence of sucrose concentration, (3) the average mitotic cycle duration, and (4) the duration of mitosis and the G 1, S, and G 2 periods of interphase.1 The results indicate that the process of excision causes a drop in the frequency of mitotic figures when performed either at the beginning of the culture period or after 100 hours in culture. This initial decrease in frequency of cell division is independent of sucrose concentration, but the subsequent rise in frequency of division, after 12 hours in culture, is dependent upon sucrose concentration. Two per cent sucrose maintains the shortest mitotic cycle duration. The use of colchicine indicated an average cycle duration of 20 hours, whereas the use of tritiated thymidine produced an average cycle duration of 17 hours. PMID:5857253

  14. Base Isolation for Seismic Retrofitting of a Multiple Building Structure: Design, Construction, and Assessment

    Massimiliano Ferraioli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the seismic retrofit of a multiple building structure belonging to the Hospital Centre of Avellino (Italy. At first, the paper presents the preliminary investigations, the in situ measurements and laboratory tests, and the seismic assessment of the existing fixed-base structures. Having studied different strategies, base isolation proved to be the more appropriate, also for the possibility offered by the geometry of the building to easily create an isolation interface at the ground level. The paper presents the design project, the construction process, and the details of the isolation intervention. Some specific issues of base isolation for seismic retrofitting of multiple building structures were lightened. Finally, the seismic assessment of the base-isolated building was carried out. The seismic response was evaluated through nonlinear time-history analysis, using the well-known Bouc-Wen model as the constitutive law of the isolation bearings. For reliable dynamic analyses, a suite of natural accelerograms compatible with acceleration spectra of Italian Code was first selected and then applied along both horizontal directions. The results were finally used to address some of the critical issues of the seismic response of the base-isolated multiple building structure: accidental torsional effects and potential poundings during strong earthquakes.

  15. Olfactory groove meningioma: discussion of clinical presentation and surgical outcomes following excision via the subcranial approach.

    Pepper, Jon-Paul; Hecht, Sarah L; Gebarski, Stephen S; Lin, Erin M; Sullivan, Stephen E; Marentette, Lawrence J

    2011-11-01

    To describe surgical outcomes and radiographic features of olfactory groove meningiomas treated by excision through the subcranial approach. Special emphasis is placed on paranasal sinus and orbit involvement. Retrospective review of a series of patients. Nineteen patients underwent excision of olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) via the transglabellar/subcranial approach between December 1995 and November 2009. Nine patients had previously undergone prior resection at outside institutions, and four had prior radiotherapy in addition to a prior excision. Transglabellar/subcranial surgical approach to the anterior skull base was performed. Tumor histology included three World Health Organization (WHO) grade III lesions, one WHO grade II lesion, and 15 WHO grade I lesions. Fourteen patients had evidence of extension into the paranasal sinuses, with the ethmoid sinus being most commonly involved. Kaplan-Meier estimates of mean overall and disease-free survival were 121.45 months and 93.03 months, respectively. The mean follow-up interval was 41.0 months, and at the time of data analysis three patients had recurrent tumors. Seven (36.8%) patients experienced a major complication in the perioperative period; there were no perioperative mortalities. Orbit invasion was observed in four patients, with optic nerve impingement in 11 patients. Of these, three patients had long-term diplopia. No patients experienced worsening of preoperative visual acuity. Olfactory groove meningiomas demonstrate a propensity to spread into the paranasal sinuses, particularly in recurrent cases. Given a tendency for infiltrative recurrence along the skull base, this disease represents an important area of collaboration between neurosurgery and otolaryngology. The subcranial approach offers excellent surgical access for excision, particularly for recurrences that involve the paranasal sinuses and optic apparatus. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society

  16. Multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony with the genetic algorithm

    ChunYing Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the distribution routing plans of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem will increase exponentially along with the adding of customers. So, it becomes an important studying trend to solve the vehicle scheduling problem with heuristic algorithm. On the basis of building the model of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem, in order to improve the efficiency of the multiple depots vehicle routing, the paper puts forward a fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm. Design/methodology/approach: to achieve this objective, the genetic algorithm optimizes the parameters of the ant colony algorithm. The fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm is proposed. Findings: simulation experiment indicates that the result of the fusion algorithm is more excellent than the other algorithm, and the improved algorithm has better convergence effective and global ability. Research limitations/implications: in this research, there are some assumption that might affect the accuracy of the model such as the pheromone volatile factor, heuristic factor in each period, and the selected multiple depots. These assumptions can be relaxed in future work. Originality/value: In this research, a new method for the multiple depots vehicle routing is proposed. The fusion algorithm eliminate the influence of the selected parameter by optimizing the heuristic factor, evaporation factor, initial pheromone distribute, and have the strong global searching ability. The Ant Colony algorithm imports cross operator and mutation operator for operating the first best solution and the second best solution in every iteration, and reserves the best solution. The cross and mutation operator extend the solution space and improve the convergence effective and the global ability. This research shows that considering both the ant colony and genetic algorithm

  17. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  18. Moral motivation based on multiple developmental structures: an exploration of cognitive and emotional dynamics.

    Kaplan, Ulas; Tivnan, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    Intrapersonal variability and multiplicity in the complexity of moral motivation were examined from Dynamic Systems and Self-Determination Theory perspectives. L. Kohlberg's (1969) stages of moral development are reconceptualized as soft-assembled and dynamically transformable process structures of motivation that may operate simultaneously within person in different degrees. Moral motivation is conceptualized as the real-time process of self-organization of cognitive and emotional dynamics out of which moral judgment and action emerge. A detailed inquiry into intrapersonal variation in moral motivation is carried out based on the differential operation of multiple motivational structures. A total of 74 high school students and 97 college students participated in the study by completing a new questionnaire, involving 3 different hypothetical moral judgments. As hypothesized, findings revealed significant multiplicity in the within-person operation of developmental stage structures, and intrapersonal variability in the degrees to which stages were used. Developmental patterns were found in terms of different distributions of multiple stages between high school and college samples, as well as the association between age and overall motivation scores. Differential relations of specific emotions to moral motivation revealed and confirmed the value of differentiating multiple emotions. Implications of the present theoretical perspective and the findings for understanding the complexity of moral judgment and motivation are discussed.

  19. Union Women, the Tobacco Industry, and Excise Taxes

    Balbach, Edith D.; Campbell, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1997, the tobacco industry used the issue of cigarette excise tax increases to create a political partnership with the Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW), a group representing female trade unionists in the U.S. This paper documents how the industry created this relationship and the lessons tobacco-control advocates can learn from the industry’s example, in order to mitigate possible unintended consequences of advocating excise tax increases In 1998, under the terms of the Master Settlement Agreement, the tobacco industry began making documents produced in litigation available publicly. Currently, approximately 50 million pages are available online, including substantial documentation of the industry–CLUW relationship. For this study, a comprehensive search of these documents was conducted. The tobacco industry encouraged CLUW’s opposition to excise tax increases by emphasizing the economic regressivity of these taxes, discussing excise taxes generically to deflect attention from cigarettes, and encouraging opposition to earmarking cigarette taxes to pay for specific programs. In addition, CLUW received at least $221,500 in financial support between 1987 and 1997 and in-kind support for its conferences, membership materials, and other services. Excise tax increases, if pursued without considering the impacts they may have on low-SES populations, may have unintended consequences. In this case, such proposals may have helped to create a relationship between CLUW and the tobacco industry. Because excise taxes are endorsed in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, tobacco-control advocates must understand how to build relationships with low-SES populations and mitigate potential alliances with the tobacco industry. PMID:19591750

  20. Recurred Myofibroblastoma of Breast After Excision: A Case Report

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Yang, Keun Ho

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor that is known to occur in middle-aged and elderly men, yet there are some recent reports showing no certain difference for the gender distribution of this malady. Localized mass excision can usually provide a complete cure. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of metastasis or recurrence of this tumor. Here we describe the sonographic findings of a case of recurrent myofibroblastoma after surgical excision for suspected fibroadenomas in both breasts of a 25-year-old woman

  1. A seventh complementation group in excision-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum

    Keijzer, W.; Jaspers, N.G.J.; Bootsma, D.; Abrahams, P.J.; Taylor, A.M.R.; Arlett, C.F.; Zelle, B.; Kinmont, P.D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Cells from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient XP2B1 who has reached 17 years of age with no keratoses or skin tumours constitute a new, 7th complementation group G. These cells exhibit a low residual level of excision repair, 2% of normal after a UV dose of 5 J/m 2 and an impairment of post-replication repair characteristic of excision-defective XPs. They are also sensitive to the lethal effects of UV and defective in host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated SV40 DNA. (Auth.)

  2. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinum-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature

    Vilmar, A.; Sorensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    on carboplatin based on the current literature. Research on the development of a reliable methodology is warranted followed by validation in large, prospective, randomized trials as ERCC1 may possibly play an important role as tumour marker in tailored chemotherapy for NSCLC Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5......-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has shown potential as a predictive marker in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Carboplatin has gained widespread use in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and its mechanisms of action are likely similar to that of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature...... review on ERCC1 was conducted as predictor in NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based treatment with emphasis on carboplatin. English language publications from January 1996 to February 2008 were eligible and data on methodology and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Eight preclinical articles, 25 clinical...

  3. Fault diagnosis of sensor networked structures with multiple faults using a virtual beam based approach

    Wang, H.; Jing, X. J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a virtual beam based approach suitable for conducting diagnosis of multiple faults in complex structures with limited prior knowledge of the faults involved. The "virtual beam", a recently-proposed concept for fault detection in complex structures, is applied, which consists of a chain of sensors representing a vibration energy transmission path embedded in the complex structure. Statistical tests and adaptive threshold are particularly adopted for fault detection due to limited prior knowledge of normal operational conditions and fault conditions. To isolate the multiple faults within a specific structure or substructure of a more complex one, a 'biased running' strategy is developed and embedded within the bacterial-based optimization method to construct effective virtual beams and thus to improve the accuracy of localization. The proposed method is easy and efficient to implement for multiple fault localization with limited prior knowledge of normal conditions and faults. With extensive experimental results, it is validated that the proposed method can localize both single fault and multiple faults more effectively than the classical trust index subtract on negative add on positive (TI-SNAP) method.

  4. Multiple-targeted graphene-based nanocarrier for intracellular imaging of mRNAs

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhaohui; Liu, Misha; Xu, Jinjin; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Yuehe; Li, Jinghong

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous detection and imaging of multiple intracellular messenger RNA (mRNAs) hold great significant for early cancer diagnostics and preventive medicine development. Herein, we propose a multiple-targeted graphene oxide (GO) nanocarrier that can simultaneously detect and image different type mRNAs in living cells. First of all, in vitro detection of multiple targets have been realized successfully based on the multiple-targeted GO nanocarrier with linear relationship ranging from 3 nM to 200 nM, as well as sensitive detection limit of 1.84 nM for manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) mRNA and 2.45 nM for β-actin mRNA. Additionally, this nanosensing platform composed of fluorescent labelled single strand DNA probes and GO nanocarrier can identify Mn-SOD mRNA and endogenous mRNA of β-actin in living cancer cells, showing rapid response, high specificity, nuclease stability, and good biocompatibility during the cell imaging. Thirdly, changes of the expression levels of mRNA in living cells before or after the drug treatment can be monitored successfully. By using multiple ssDNA as probes and GO nanocarrier as the cellular delivery cargo, the proposed simultaneous multiple-targeted sensing platform will be of great potential as a powerful tool for intracellular trafficking process from basic research to clinical diagnosis. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of simultaneously multiple mRNAs monitoring inside single living breast cancer cell based on GO nanocarrier. In particular, the fluorescent signals could be monitored when Mn-SOD probe (red) and β-actin probe (green) hybridizes with their mRNA targets inside the living cells. Random probe (orange) was regarded as control probe for the sensing strategy. - Highlights: • A multiple-targeted GO nanocarrier was used for mRNAs imaging and expression changes after drug treatment can be monitored successfully. • Sensitive detection limit of 1.84 nM for manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) m

  5. Multiple Kernel Sparse Representation based Orthogonal Discriminative Projection and Its Cost-Sensitive Extension.

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Huaijiang; Xia, Guiyu; Sun, Quansen

    2016-07-07

    Sparse representation based classification (SRC) has been developed and shown great potential for real-world application. Based on SRC, Yang et al. [10] devised a SRC steered discriminative projection (SRC-DP) method. However, as a linear algorithm, SRC-DP cannot handle the data with highly nonlinear distribution. Kernel sparse representation-based classifier (KSRC) is a non-linear extension of SRC and can remedy the drawback of SRC. KSRC requires the use of a predetermined kernel function and selection of the kernel function and its parameters is difficult. Recently, multiple kernel learning for SRC (MKL-SRC) [22] has been proposed to learn a kernel from a set of base kernels. However, MKL-SRC only considers the within-class reconstruction residual while ignoring the between-class relationship, when learning the kernel weights. In this paper, we propose a novel multiple kernel sparse representation-based classifier (MKSRC), and then we use it as a criterion to design a multiple kernel sparse representation based orthogonal discriminative projection method (MK-SR-ODP). The proposed algorithm aims at learning a projection matrix and a corresponding kernel from the given base kernels such that in the low dimension subspace the between-class reconstruction residual is maximized and the within-class reconstruction residual is minimized. Furthermore, to achieve a minimum overall loss by performing recognition in the learned low-dimensional subspace, we introduce cost information into the dimensionality reduction method. The solutions for the proposed method can be efficiently found based on trace ratio optimization method [33]. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm when compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Re-excision rates of invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features compared with invasive ductal carcinomas and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast.

    Arps, David P; Jorns, Julie M; Zhao, Lili; Bensenhaver, Jessica; Kleer, Celina G; Pang, Judy C

    2014-12-01

    Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with lobular features (IDC-L) is not recognized as a subtype of breast cancer. We previously showed that IDC-L may be a variant of IDC with clinicopathological characteristics more similar to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). We sought to determine the re-excision rates of IDC-L compared with ILC and IDC, and the feasibility of diagnosing IDC-L on core biopsies. Surgical procedure, multiple tumor foci, tumor size, and residual invasive carcinoma on re-excision were recorded for IDC-L (n = 178), IDC (n = 636), and ILC (n = 251). Re-excision rates were calculated by excluding mastectomy as first procedure cases and including only re-excisions for invasive carcinoma. Slides of correlating core biopsies for IDC-L cases initially diagnosed as IDC were re-reviewed. For T2 tumors (2.1-5.0 cm), re-excision rates for IDC-L (76 %) and ILC (88 %) were higher than that for IDC (42 %) (p = 0.003). Multiple tumor foci were more common in IDC-L (31 %) and ILC (26 %) than IDC (7 %) (p < 0.0001), which was a significant factor in higher re-excision rates when compared with a single tumor focus (p < 0.001). Ninety-two of 149 patients (62 %) with IDC-L were diagnosed on core biopsies. Of the 44 patients initially diagnosed as IDC, 30 were re-reviewed, of which 24 (80 %) were re-classified as IDC-L. Similar to ILC, re-excision rates for IDC-L are higher than IDC for larger tumors. Patients may need to be counseled about the higher likelihood of additional procedures to achieve negative margins. This underscores the importance of distinguishing IDC-L from IDC on core biopsies.

  7. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  8. Paper-based immune-affinity arrays for detection of multiple mycotoxins in cereals.

    Li, Li; Chen, Hongpu; Lv, Xiaolan; Wang, Min; Jiang, Xizhi; Jiang, Yifei; Wang, Heye; Zhao, Yongfu; Xia, Liru

    2018-03-01

    Mycotoxins produced by different species of fungi may coexist in cereals and feedstuffs, and could be highly toxic for humans and animals. For quantification of multiple mycotoxins in cereals, we developed a paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array. First, paper-based microzone arrays were fabricated by photolithography. Then, monoclonal mycotoxin antibodies were added in a copolymerization reaction with a cross-linker to form an immune-affinity monolith on the paper-based microzone array. With use of a competitive immune-response format, paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity arrays were successfully applied to detect mycotoxins in samples. The detection limits for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin were 62.7, 10.8, 0.36, and 0.23 μg·kg -1 , respectively, which meet relevant requirements for these compounds in food. The recovery rates were 81-86% for deoxynivalenol, 89-117% for zearalenone, 79-86% for T-2 toxin, and 78-83% for HT-2 toxin, and showed the paper-based immune-affinity arrays had good reproducibility. In summary, the paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array provides a sensitive, rapid, accurate, stable, and convenient platform for detection of multiple mycotoxins in agro-foods. Graphical abstract Paper-based immune-affinity monolithic array. DON deoxynivalenol, HT-2 HT-2 toxin, T-2 T-2 toxin, PEGDA polyethylene glycol diacrylate, ZEN zearalenone.

  9. DOA Estimation of Multiple LFM Sources Using a STFT-based and FBSS-based MUSIC Algorithm

    K. B. Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Direction of arrival (DOA estimation is an important problem in array signal processing. An effective multiple signal classification (MUSIC method based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT and forward/ backward spatial smoothing (FBSS techniques for the DOA estimation problem of multiple time-frequency (t-f joint LFM sources is addressed. Previous work in the area e. g. STFT-MUSIC algorithm cannot resolve the t-f completely or largely joint sources because they can only select the single-source t-f points. The proposed method con¬structs the spatial t-f distributions (STFDs by selecting the multiple-source t-f points and uses the FBSS techniques to solve the problem of rank loss. In this way, the STFT-FBSS-MUSIC algorithm can resolve the t-f largely joint or completely joint LFM sources. In addition, the proposed algorithm also owns pretty low computational complexity when resolving multiple LFM sources because it can reduce the times of the feature decomposition and spectrum search. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the existing t-f based MUSIC algorithms through computer simulations and the results show its good performance.

  10. Study on multiple-hops performance of MOOC sequences-based optical labels for OPS networks

    Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun; Ma, Chunli

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we utilize a new study method that is under independent case of multiple optical orthogonal codes to derive the probability function of MOOCS-OPS networks, discuss the performance characteristics for a variety of parameters, and compare some characteristics of the system employed by single optical orthogonal code or multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences-based optical labels. The performance of the system is also calculated, and our results verify that the method is effective. Additionally it is found that performance of MOOCS-OPS networks would, negatively, be worsened, compared with single optical orthogonal code-based optical label for optical packet switching (SOOC-OPS); however, MOOCS-OPS networks can greatly enlarge the scalability of optical packet switching networks.

  11. Research on the Multiple Factors Influencing Human Identification Based on Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Lou, Ping; Hu, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of the multiple factors affecting human identification ability based on pyroelectric infrared technology is a complex problem. First, we examine various sensed pyroelectric waveforms of the human body thermal infrared signal and reveal a mechanism for affecting human identification. Then, we find that the mechanism is decided by the distance, human target, pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor, the body type, human moving velocity, signal modulation mask, and Fresnel lens. The mapping relationship between the sensed waveform and multiple influencing factors is established, and a group of mathematical models are deduced which fuse the macro factors and micro factors. Finally, the experimental results show the macro-factors indirectly affect the recognition ability of human based on the pyroelectric technology. At the same time, the correctness and effectiveness of the mathematical models is also verified, which make it easier to obtain more pyroelectric infrared information about the human body for discriminating human targets. PMID:29462908

  12. Detection-Discrimination Method for Multiple Repeater False Targets Based on Radar Polarization Echoes

    Z. W. ZONG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeat false targets (RFTs, created by the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM system of jammer, are widely used in practical to effectively exhaust the limited tracking and discrimination resource of defence radar. In this paper, common characteristic of radar polarization echoes of multiple RFTs is used for target recognition. Based on the echoes from two receiving polarization channels, the instantaneous polarization radio (IPR is defined and its variance is derived by employing Taylor series expansion. A detection-discrimination method is designed based on probability grids. By using the data from microwave anechoic chamber, the detection threshold of the method is confirmed. Theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that the method is valid and feasible. Furthermore, the estimation performance of IPRs of RFTs due to the influence of signal noise ratio (SNR is also covered.

  13. COLOR IMAGE RETRIEVAL BASED ON FEATURE FUSION THROUGH MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    K. Seetharaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel technique based on feature fusion using multiple linear regression analysis, and the least-square estimation method is employed to estimate the parameters. The given input query image is segmented into various regions according to the structure of the image. The color and texture features are extracted on each region of the query image, and the features are fused together using the multiple linear regression model. The estimated parameters of the model, which is modeled based on the features, are formed as a vector called a feature vector. The Canberra distance measure is adopted to compare the feature vectors of the query and target images. The F-measure is applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. The obtained results expose that the proposed technique is comparable to the other existing techniques.

  14. Dynamic Characteristics Analysis and Stabilization of PV-Based Multiple Microgrid Clusters

    Zhao, Zhuoli; Yang, Ping; Wang, Yuewu

    2018-01-01

    -based multiple microgrid clusters. A detailed small-signal model for PV-based microgrid clusters considering local adaptive dynamic droop control mechanism of the voltage-source PV system is developed. The complete dynamic model is then used to access and compare the dynamic characteristics of the single...... microgrid and interconnected microgrids. In order to enhance system stability of the PV microgrid clusters, a tie-line flow and stabilization strategy is proposed to suppress the introduced interarea and local oscillations. Robustly selecting of the key control parameters is transformed to a multiobjective......As the penetration of PV generation increases, there is a growing operational demand on PV systems to participate in microgrid frequency regulation. It is expected that future distribution systems will consist of multiple microgrid clusters. However, interconnecting PV microgrids may lead to system...

  15. UAV remote sensing atmospheric degradation image restoration based on multiple scattering APSF estimation

    Qiu, Xiang; Dai, Ming; Yin, Chuan-li

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote imaging is affected by the bad weather, and the obtained images have the disadvantages of low contrast, complex texture and blurring. In this paper, we propose a blind deconvolution model based on multiple scattering atmosphere point spread function (APSF) estimation to recovery the remote sensing image. According to Narasimhan analytical theory, a new multiple scattering restoration model is established based on the improved dichromatic model. Then using the L0 norm sparse priors of gradient and dark channel to estimate APSF blur kernel, the fast Fourier transform is used to recover the original clear image by Wiener filtering. By comparing with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method can correctly estimate blur kernel, effectively remove the atmospheric degradation phenomena, preserve image detail information and increase the quality evaluation indexes.

  16. A scheme of hidden-structure attribute-based encryption with multiple authorities

    Ling, J.; Weng, A. X.

    2018-05-01

    In the most of the CP-ABE schemes with hidden access structure, both all the user attributes and the key generation are managed by only one authority. The key generation efficiency will decrease as the number of user increases, and the data will encounter security issues as the only authority is attacked. We proposed a scheme of hidden-structure attribute-based encryption with multiple authorities, which introduces multiple semi-trusted attribute authorities, avoiding the threat even though one or more authorities are attacked. We also realized user revocation by managing a revocation list. Based on DBDH assumption, we proved that our scheme is of IND-CMA security. The analysis shows that our scheme improves the key generation efficiency.

  17. Development and validity of mathematical learning assessment instruments based on multiple intelligence

    Helmiah Suryani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to develop and produce an assessment instrument of mathematical learning results based on multiple intelligence. The methods in this study used Borg & Gall-Research and Development approach (Research & Development. The subject of research was 289 students. The results of research: (1 Result of Aiken Analysis showed 58 valid items were between 0,714 to 0,952. (2 Result of the Exploratory on factor analysis indicated the instrument consist of three factors i.e. mathematical logical intelligence-spatial intelligence-and linguistic intelligence. KMO value was 0.661 df 0.780 sig. 0.000 with valid category. This research succeeded to developing the assessment instrument of mathematical learning results based on multiple intelligence of second grade in elementary school with characteristics of logical intelligence of mathematics, spatial intelligence, and linguistic intelligence.

  18. Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Moreover, we propose a design algorithm with 3D structures that provide multiple different 2D full-colour patterns when viewed from different directions and experimentally demonstrate prototypes. It is considered that these types of 3D volumetric structures and their fabrication methods based on widely deployed existing printing technologies can be utilised as novel information display devices and systems, including digital signage, media art, entertainment and security.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves.

    Kim, Soo Ryang; Kanda, Fumio; Kobessho, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Koji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kudo, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2006-11-07

    We describe a rare case of HCV-related recurrent multiple hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves in a 50-year-old woman. The patient presented with symptoms of ptosis, fixation of the right eyeball, and left abducens palsy, indicating disturbances of the right oculomotor and trochlear nerves and bilateral abducens nerves. Brain contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed an ill-defined mass with abnormal enhancement around the sella turcica. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed that the mass involved the clivus, cavernous sinus, and petrous apex. On contrast-enhanced MRI with gadolinium-chelated contrast medium, the mass showed inhomogeneous intermediate enhancement. The diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the skull base was made on the basis of neurological findings and imaging studies including CT and MRI, without histological examinations. Further studies may provide insights into various methods for diagnosing HCC metastasizing to the craniospinal area.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves

    Soo Ryang Kim; Fumio Kanda; Hiroshi Kobessho; Koji Sugimoto; Toshiyuki Matsuoka; Masatoshi Kudo; Yoshitake Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    We describe a rare case of HCV-related recurrent multiple hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves in a 50-yearold woman. The patient presented with symptoms of ptosis, fixation of the right eyeball, and left abducens palsy, indicating disturbances of the right oculomotor and trochlear nerves and bilateral abducens nerves. Brain contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed an ill-defined mass with abnormal enhancement around the sella turcica. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)disclosed that the mass involved the clivus, cavernous sinus, and petrous apex. On contrast-enhanced MRI with gadolinium-chelated contrast medium, the mass showed inhomogeneous intermediate enhancement.The diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the skull base was made on the basis of neurological findings and imaging studies including CT and MRI, without histological examinations. Further studies may provide insights into various methods for diagnosing HCC metastasizing to the craniospinal area.

  1. Surgical Excision Of A Craniopharynginoma By Transcallosal ...

    complaints included: polydipsia and polyuria in one case, progressive hypopsia in the second case; headache in the third case; and hormonal manifestations in the .... Intraventricular craniopharyngiomas: topographical classification and surgical approach selection based on an extensive overview. Acta Neurochir , 2004 ,.

  2. Racial disparities in incidence and outcome in multiple myeloma: a population-based study

    Waxman, Adam J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Devesa, Susan S.; Anderson, William F.; Weiss, Brendan M.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common hematologic malignancy in blacks. Some prior studies suggest inferior survival in blacks; others suggest similar survival. Using the original 9 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries, we conducted a large-scale population-based study including 5798 black and 28 939 white MM patients diagnosed 1973-2005, followed through 2006. Age-adjusted incidence rates, disease-specific survival, and relative survival rates were calculated by race, ag...

  3. Development and tests of MCP based timing and multiplicity detector for MIPs

    Feofilov, G.; Kondratev, V.; Stolyarov, O.; Tulina, T.; Valiev, F.; Vinogradov, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present summary of technological developments and tests of the MCP based large area detector aimed at precise timing and charged particles multiplicity measurements. Results obtained in course of these developments of isochronous (simultaneity) precise signal readout, passive summation of 1 ns signals, fast (1 GHz) front-end electronics, miniature vacuum systems, etc. could be potentially interesting for a number of future applications in different fields.

  4. Biomedical implications from a morphoelastic continuum model for the simulation of contracture formation in skin grafts that cover excised burns

    Koppenol, D.C.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    A continuum hypothesis-based model is developed for the simulation of the (long term) contraction of skin grafts that cover excised burns in order to obtain suggestions regarding the ideal length of splinting therapy and when to start with this therapy such that the therapy is effective

  5. Exploring change in a group-based psychological intervention for multiple sclerosis patients.

    Borghi, Martina; Bonino, Silvia; Graziano, Federica; Calandri, Emanuela

    2018-07-01

    The study is focused on a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at promoting the quality of life and psychological well-being of multiple sclerosis patients. The study investigates how the group intervention promoted change among participants and fostered their adjustment to the illness. The intervention involved six groups of patients (a total of 41 patients) and included four consecutive sessions and a 6-month follow-up. To explore change, verbatim transcripts of the intervention sessions were analyzed using a mixed-methods content analysis with qualitative data combined with descriptive statistics. The categories of resistance and openness to change were used to describe the process of change. Resistance and openness to change coexisted during the intervention. Only in the first session did resistance prevail over openness to change; thereafter, openness to change gradually increased and stabilized over time, and openness to change was then always stronger than resistance. The study builds on previous research on the effectiveness of group-based psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis patients and gives methodological and clinical suggestions to health care professionals working with multiple sclerosis patients. Implications for rehabilitation The study suggests that a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention for multiple sclerosis patients focused on the promotion of identity redefinition, a sense of coherence and self-efficacy in dealing with multiple sclerosis fosters the process of change and may be effective in promoting patients' adjustment to their illness. Health care professionals leading group-based psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis patients should be aware that resistance and openness to change coexist in the process of change. The study suggests that the duration of the intervention is a crucial factor: a minimum of three sessions appears to be necessary for group participants to develop greater openness

  6. A study on software-based sensing technology for multiple object control in AR video.

    Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Ahn, Jae Young; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker'should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

  7. A Study on Software-based Sensing Technology for Multiple Object Control in AR Video

    Seoksoo Kim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Researches on Augmented Reality (AR have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

  8. A Novel CSR-Based Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication on GPUs

    Guixia He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse matrix-vector multiplication (SpMV is an important operation in scientific computations. Compressed sparse row (CSR is the most frequently used format to store sparse matrices. However, CSR-based SpMVs on graphic processing units (GPUs, for example, CSR-scalar and CSR-vector, usually have poor performance due to irregular memory access patterns. This motivates us to propose a perfect CSR-based SpMV on the GPU that is called PCSR. PCSR involves two kernels and accesses CSR arrays in a fully coalesced manner by introducing a middle array, which greatly alleviates the deficiencies of CSR-scalar (rare coalescing and CSR-vector (partial coalescing. Test results on a single C2050 GPU show that PCSR fully outperforms CSR-scalar, CSR-vector, and CSRMV and HYBMV in the vendor-tuned CUSPARSE library and is comparable with a most recently proposed CSR-based algorithm, CSR-Adaptive. Furthermore, we extend PCSR on a single GPU to multiple GPUs. Experimental results on four C2050 GPUs show that no matter whether the communication between GPUs is considered or not PCSR on multiple GPUs achieves good performance and has high parallel efficiency.

  9. PCA-based bootstrap confidence interval tests for gene-disease association involving multiple SNPs

    Xue Fuzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic association study is currently the primary vehicle for identification and characterization of disease-predisposing variant(s which usually involves multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs available. However, SNP-wise association tests raise concerns over multiple testing. Haplotype-based methods have the advantage of being able to account for correlations between neighbouring SNPs, yet assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and potentially large number degrees of freedom can harm its statistical power and robustness. Approaches based on principal component analysis (PCA are preferable in this regard but their performance varies with methods of extracting principal components (PCs. Results PCA-based bootstrap confidence interval test (PCA-BCIT, which directly uses the PC scores to assess gene-disease association, was developed and evaluated for three ways of extracting PCs, i.e., cases only(CAES, controls only(COES and cases and controls combined(CES. Extraction of PCs with COES is preferred to that with CAES and CES. Performance of the test was examined via simulations as well as analyses on data of rheumatoid arthritis and heroin addiction, which maintains nominal level under null hypothesis and showed comparable performance with permutation test. Conclusions PCA-BCIT is a valid and powerful method for assessing gene-disease association involving multiple SNPs.

  10. A trace ratio maximization approach to multiple kernel-based dimensionality reduction.

    Jiang, Wenhao; Chung, Fu-lai

    2014-01-01

    Most dimensionality reduction techniques are based on one metric or one kernel, hence it is necessary to select an appropriate kernel for kernel-based dimensionality reduction. Multiple kernel learning for dimensionality reduction (MKL-DR) has been recently proposed to learn a kernel from a set of base kernels which are seen as different descriptions of data. As MKL-DR does not involve regularization, it might be ill-posed under some conditions and consequently its applications are hindered. This paper proposes a multiple kernel learning framework for dimensionality reduction based on regularized trace ratio, termed as MKL-TR. Our method aims at learning a transformation into a space of lower dimension and a corresponding kernel from the given base kernels among which some may not be suitable for the given data. The solutions for the proposed framework can be found based on trace ratio maximization. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness in benchmark datasets, which include text, image and sound datasets, for supervised, unsupervised as well as semi-supervised settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Results of surgical excision of urethral prolapse in symptomatic patients.

    Hall, Mary E; Oyesanya, Tola; Cameron, Anne P

    2017-11-01

    Here, we present the clinical presentation and surgical outcomes of women with symptomatic urethral prolapse presenting to our institution over 20 years, and seek to provide treatment recommendations for management of symptomatic urethral prolapse and caruncle. A retrospective review of medical records from female patients who underwent surgery for symptomatic urethral prolapse from June 1995 to August 2015 was performed. Surgical technique consisted of a four-quadrant excisional approach for repair of urethral prolapse. A total of 26 patients were identified with a mean age of 38.8 years (range 3-81). The most common presentations were vaginal bleeding, hematuria, pain, and dysuria. All patients underwent surgical excision of urethral prolapse via a standard approach. Follow-up data was available in 24 patients. Six patients experienced temporary postoperative bleeding, and one patient required placement of a Foley catheter for tamponade. One patient experienced temporary postoperative urinary retention requiring Foley catheter placement. Three patients had visible recurrence of urethral prolapse, for which one later underwent re-excision. Surgical excision of urethral prolapse is a reasonable treatment option in patients who have tried conservative management without relief, as well as in those who present with severe symptoms. Possible complications following excision include postoperative bleeding and recurrence, and patients must be counseled accordingly. In this work, we propose a treatment algorithm for symptomatic urethral prolapse. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    A proposed law in the Philippines to increase the excise tax on tobacco by ... developing countries to reduce demand for tobacco through price and tax measures. Southeast Asian countries are struggling with how to implement the main provisions of the Convention. ... Far East Asia, Philippines, Central Asia, South Asia ...

  13. Positive malignant margins in clinically diagnosed and excised be ...

    This study was aimed at utilizing retrospective descriptive data to evaluate the percentage of clini-cally benign breast lumps that turned out to be histologically malignant and the prevalence of posi-tive tumour margins among the malignant cases. A total of 2,917 registered cases of excised breast lump at the Department of ...

  14. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision ...

    peripheral nerve sheath tumour (6%).[6] Soft-tissue sarcomas most frequently affect the extremities and include MFH (40%), lipo- sarcoma (25%), synovial sarcoma and fibrosarcoma.[7]. Appropriate management is reliant on an accurate preoperative histology result. Excision biopsy is recommended for tumours. <3 cm in ...

  15. The safety of complete mesocolic excision once again confirmed

    Bertelsen, C A; Neuenschwander, A U

    2018-01-01

    We would like to commend Bernhoff and colleagues (1) for publishing further evidence supporting complete mesocolic excision (CME) as a safe approach in colon cancer surgery. They report no increased risk of 30-day mortality or reoperation after right-sided CME in a nested case-control study...

  16. 26 CFR 25.2512-7 - Effect of excise tax.

    2010-04-01

    ... by a taxpayer and made the subject of gifts within a reasonable time after purchase, the purchase...-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-7 Effect of excise tax. If...

  17. Nucleotide excision repair II: From yeast to mammals

    J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAn intricate network of repair systems safeguards the integrity of genetic material, by eliminating DNA lesions induced by numerous environmental and endogenous genotoxic agents. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the most versatile DNA repair systems. Deficiencies in this

  18. Peri-operative management for excision of plexiform ...

    Case report: A 28-year-old female weighing 78 kilograms presented at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) with a huge left thigh mass, nodules and brownish skin patches (café-au-lait spots) all over her body. Plexiform neurofibromatosis was diagnosed. The mass was subsequently excised under ...

  19. Excise Taxes and the Price Elasticity of Demand.

    Gamble, Ralph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that, although the analysis of the imposition of an excise tax is widely used in economics courses, the consequences of a change in the tax rate are different and ignored. This article presents an effective way to teach about such a change. (GG)

  20. A Method To Determine Adhesion Of Suppository Mass On Excised ...

    A method to determine adhesion of suppository mass to intestinal tissue was developed using excised pig intestine. The method which employs the principe of drainage unto and subsequent detachment from the mucosa, of an adherent suppository mass is simple, inexpensive and accurate. Fully optimised, it can be used ...

  1. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  2. Papillary lesions of the breast: To excise or observe?

    Khan, Sidrah; Diaz, Adrian; Archer, Kellie J; Lehman, Rebecca R; Mullins, Tiffany; Cardenosa, Gilda; Bear, Harry D

    2018-05-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast range from benign to atypical to malignant. Although papillomas without frank cancer are benign, their management remains controversial. When a core needle biopsy of a lesion yields a diagnosis of intraductal papilloma with atypia, excision is generally recommended to rule out a concurrent malignant neoplasm. For intraductal papillomas without atypia, however, recommendations for excision versus observation are variable. The aims of this study are to evaluate the rate of concurrent malignancies for intraductal papilloma diagnosed on core needle biopsy and to assess the long-term risk of developing cancer after the diagnosis of a papillary lesion. This single institution retrospective study analyzed 259 patients that were diagnosed with intraductal papilloma (IDP) by core needle biopsy from 1995 to 2010. Patients were grouped by initial diagnosis into three groups (papilloma without atypia, papilloma with atypia, and papilloma with atypical duct hyperplasia or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ADH/ALH) and followed up for long-term outcomes. After a core needle biopsy showing IDP with atypia or IDP + ADH/ALH, surgical excision yielded a diagnosis of concomitant invasive or ductal in situ cancer in greater that 30% of cases. For intraductal papilloma without atypia, the likelihood of cancer was much lower. Moreover, even with excision, the finding of intraductal papilloma with atypia carries a significant risk of developing cancer long-term, and such patients should be followed carefully and perhaps should be considered for chemoprevention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    2011-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 [REG-112841-10] RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document provides notice...

  4. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    2010-06-15

    ... 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service.... 7805. * * * Par. 5. Section 49.0-3 is added to read as follows: Sec. 49.0-3 Introduction; cosmetic...--Cosmetic Services Sec. 49.5000B-1 Indoor tanning services. [The text of this proposed Sec. 49.5000B-1 is...

  5. of lung metastases carcinoma of the cervix Surgical excision from ...

    of lung metastases carcinoma of the cervix. Surgical excision from squamous. A report of 2 cases. N. G. DE MOOR, A. V. BERRY, M. M. NISSENBAUM. These2casereportsservetoemphasizetwoimpor- tant points concerning carcinoma of the cervix: (i) blood-borne metastases are now frequently encountered in this disease; ...

  6. Clinical trial comparing excision and primary closure with modified ...

    The aim of this study was to compare modified Limberg flap procedure with excision and primary closure in the treatment of uncomplicated pilonidal disease. Methods: This study was conducted on 120 patients with uncomplicated sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease that were randomly allocated into two groups: group I ...

  7. Microendoscopic excision of C2 osteoid osteoma: a technical report.

    Kulkarni, Arvind G; Dhruv, Abhilash N; Bassi, Anupreet J

    2013-09-01

    Case report and description of technique. To describe a microendoscopic posterior approach for excision of an osteoid osteoma of C2. Microendoscopic techniques are widely used in the management of degenerative disorders of the spine. This is the first report of their use in the management of an osteoid osteoma via the posterior approach. A 12-year-old-boy presented with left-sided neck pain of 3-month duration. Investigations revealed an osteoid osteoma of C2 lamina-lateral mass complex. The patient underwent a posterior microendoscopic excision using 18-mm diameter METRx system (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) of tubular retractors. A postoperative computed tomographic scan was done and preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scale and Neck Disability Index were evaluated. The patient was periodically followed up for 1 year. The postoperative computed tomographic scan revealed complete excision of the tumor. The visual analogue scale score for neck pain improved from 3/5 (preoperative) to 0/5 (postoperative) and Neck Disability Index from 33.33 (preoperative) to 0 (postoperative) at 1-year follow-up. Microendoscopic techniques can be extended to excise lesions of the spine. It is a safe procedure in experienced hands. The advantages are minimal morbidity, minimal postoperative pain and discomfort, less analgesic dependence, and better cosmesis. The authors recommend this technique for accessible lesions involving the spine.

  8. Surgical excision of lung metastases from squamous carcinoma of ...

    These 2 case reports serveto emphasizetwo important points concerning carcinoma of the cervix: (i) blood-borne metastases are now frequently encountered in this disease; and (ii). in selected cases surgical excision of a secondary deposit in the lung is the treatment of choice and may even result -in cure.

  9. Deficiency of UV-induced excision repair in human thymocytes

    Gensler, H.L.; Lindberg, R.E.; Pinnas, J.L.; Jones, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The capacity of human thymocytes and of differentiated lymphocytes circulating in peripheral blood to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis (a measure of nucleotide excision repair) after UV irradiation was measured by radioautographic analysis. Only 4% of immature T lymphocytes, but 68% of circulating lymphocytes exhibited unscheduled DNA synthesis. When UV sensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes from the same donor were compared, the thymocytes, in each case, were significantly more UV sensitive than were the circulating lymphocytes. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from subjects undergoing halothane and morphine anesthesia during surgery showed 56% less excision repair capacity than those from unanesthetized donors. The difference occurred in the number of cells capable of repair rather than in the extent of repair synthesis per cell. Ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis occurred in only 3% of the thymocytes removed from rats killed by cervical dislocation. Therefore, the deficiency of excision repair was observed in rat thymocytes which had not been affected by anesthesia or surgical trauma. The results indicate that immature T-cells are deficient in nucleotide excision repair whereas the majority of mature peripheral blood lymphocytes exhibit such repair. (author)

  10. Excision Les jeunes changent l'Afrique par les TIC

    Comité Inter-Africain sur les Pratiques Traditionnelles ayant effet sur la santé des ... Planche 7 - Perception genrée de la citoyenneté : les dire des femmes. 90 ...... dans le monde avec les migrations internationales, l'excision ne semble pas être ...... En utilisant les TIC pour exprimer leurs attentes et leurs besoins, les jeunes, ...

  11. Feature and score fusion based multiple classifier selection for iris recognition.

    Islam, Md Rabiul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al.

  12. A Targeted "Capture" and "Removal" Scavenger toward Multiple Pollutants for Water Remediation based on Molecular Recognition.

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Haijing; Hu, Xiaoxia; Li, Yan; Li, Zhihao; Xu, Jinfan; Song, Xiufeng; Zeng, Haibo; Yuan, Quan

    2016-03-01

    For the water remediation techniques based on adsorption, the long-standing contradictories between selectivity and multiple adsorbability, as well as between affinity and recyclability, have put it on weak defense amid more and more severe environment crisis. Here, a pollutant-targeting hydrogel scavenger is reported for water remediation with both high selectivity and multiple adsorbability for several pollutants, and with strong affinity and good recyclability through rationally integrating the advantages of multiple functional materials. In the scavenger, aptamers fold into binding pockets to accommodate the molecular structure of pollutants to afford perfect selectivity, and Janus nanoparticles with antibacterial function as well as anisotropic surfaces to immobilize multiple aptamers allow for simultaneously handling different kinds of pollutants. The scavenger exhibits high efficiencies in removing pollutants from water and it can be easily recycled for many times without significant loss of loading capacities. Moreover, the residual concentrations of each contaminant are well below the drinking water standards. Thermodynamic behavior of the adsorption process is investigated and the rate-controlling process is determined. Furthermore, a point of use device is constructed and it displays high efficiency in removing pollutants from environmental water. The scavenger exhibits great promise to be applied in the next generation of water purification systems.

  13. “TOTTO-CHAN”: INSIGHTS INTO MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES-BASED ENGLISH TEACHING TO YOUNG LEARNERS

    K. M. Widi Hadiyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Children are unique individuals who have their own ways to learn about the world and solve problems. It is supported by Gardner‘s ideas about multiple intelligences. Gardner (1993, 1998 suggested several kinds of intelligences. In their attempt to learn about the world, children make use of all resources, including their multiple intelligences. The application of multiple intelligences in teaching young learner seems to be apparent in Tetsuko Kuroyanagi‘s autobiographical memoir, ―Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window‖. This study identified and analyzed the techniques used to apply multiple intelligences in teaching young learners in Totto-chan‘s elementary school, Tomoe Gakuen. Based on the identification and analysis conducted in ―Totto-chan‖, this study elaborated the techniques in teaching English for young learners. In particular, this study proposed teaching techniques for four language skills. This study will be of great benefit for English teachers for young learners to enrich their teaching techniques that accord with the children nature of development.

  14. Voting-based consensus clustering for combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures

    Saeed Faisal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many consensus clustering methods have been successfully used for combining multiple classifiers in many areas such as machine learning, applied statistics, pattern recognition and bioinformatics, few consensus clustering methods have been applied for combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures. It is known that any individual clustering method will not always give the best results for all types of applications. So, in this paper, three voting and graph-based consensus clusterings were used for combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures to enhance the ability of separating biologically active molecules from inactive ones in each cluster. Results The cumulative voting-based aggregation algorithm (CVAA, cluster-based similarity partitioning algorithm (CSPA and hyper-graph partitioning algorithm (HGPA were examined. The F-measure and Quality Partition Index method (QPI were used to evaluate the clusterings and the results were compared to the Ward’s clustering method. The MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR dataset was used for experiments and was represented by two 2D fingerprints, ALOGP and ECFP_4. The performance of voting-based consensus clustering method outperformed the Ward’s method using F-measure and QPI method for both ALOGP and ECFP_4 fingerprints, while the graph-based consensus clustering methods outperformed the Ward’s method only for ALOGP using QPI. The Jaccard and Euclidean distance measures were the methods of choice to generate the ensembles, which give the highest values for both criteria. Conclusions The results of the experiments show that consensus clustering methods can improve the effectiveness of chemical structures clusterings. The cumulative voting-based aggregation algorithm (CVAA was the method of choice among consensus clustering methods.

  15. Tunable arbitrary unitary transformer based on multiple sections of multicore fibers with phase control.

    Zhou, Junhe; Wu, Jianjie; Hu, Qinsong

    2018-02-05

    In this paper, we propose a novel tunable unitary transformer, which can achieve arbitrary discrete unitary transforms. The unitary transformer is composed of multiple sections of multi-core fibers with closely aligned coupled cores. Phase shifters are inserted before and after the sections to control the phases of the waves in the cores. A simple algorithm is proposed to find the optimal phase setup for the phase shifters to realize the desired unitary transforms. The proposed device is fiber based and is particularly suitable for the mode division multiplexing systems. A tunable mode MUX/DEMUX for a three-mode fiber is designed based on the proposed structure.

  16. Deficiencies of the cryptography based on multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform.

    Ran, Qiwen; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Jin; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing

    2009-06-01

    Methods of image encryption based on fractional Fourier transform have an incipient flaw in security. We show that the schemes have the deficiency that one group of encryption keys has many groups of keys to decrypt the encrypted image correctly for several reasons. In some schemes, many factors result in the deficiencies, such as the encryption scheme based on multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform [Opt. Lett.33, 581 (2008)]. A modified method is proposed to avoid all the deficiencies. Security and reliability are greatly improved without increasing the complexity of the encryption process. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America.

  17. Estimation of Multiple Pitches in Stereophonic Mixtures using a Codebook-based Approach

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-pitch estimation of stereophonic mixtures of multiple harmonic signals is presented. The method is based on a signal model which takes the amplitude and delay panning parameters of the sources in a stereophonic mixture into account. Furthermore, the method is based...... on the extended invariance principle (EXIP), and a codebook of realistic amplitude vectors. For each fundamental frequency candidate in each of the sources, the amplitude estimates are mapped to entries in the codebook, and the pitch and model order are estimated jointly. The performance of the proposed method...

  18. Colloidal silver-based nanogel as nonocclusive dressing for multiple superficial pellet wounds

    Ganesh Singh Dharmshaktu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A good dressing is mandatory to an uncomplicated wound healing, especially when foreign particles contaminate the wound. Various forms of dressing preparations are available for use and differ in chemical composition and efficacy. Silver has been a known agent with good antimicrobial and healing properties and recent times has seen an upsurge in various silver-based dressing supplements. We describe our report of use and efficacy of a silver nanoparticle- based gel dressing in the healing of multiple superficial firearm pellet wounds.

  19. A permutation-based multiple testing method for time-course microarray experiments

    George Stephen L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time-course microarray experiments are widely used to study the temporal profiles of gene expression. Storey et al. (2005 developed a method for analyzing time-course microarray studies that can be applied to discovering genes whose expression trajectories change over time within a single biological group, or those that follow different time trajectories among multiple groups. They estimated the expression trajectories of each gene using natural cubic splines under the null (no time-course and alternative (time-course hypotheses, and used a goodness of fit test statistic to quantify the discrepancy. The null distribution of the statistic was approximated through a bootstrap method. Gene expression levels in microarray data are often complicatedly correlated. An accurate type I error control adjusting for multiple testing requires the joint null distribution of test statistics for a large number of genes. For this purpose, permutation methods have been widely used because of computational ease and their intuitive interpretation. Results In this paper, we propose a permutation-based multiple testing procedure based on the test statistic used by Storey et al. (2005. We also propose an efficient computation algorithm. Extensive simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the permutation-based multiple testing procedure. The application of the proposed method is illustrated using the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer developmental data. Conclusion Our method is computationally efficient and applicable for identifying genes whose expression levels are time-dependent in a single biological group and for identifying the genes for which the time-profile depends on the group in a multi-group setting.

  20. Outcome of excision of megarectum in children with anorectal malformation.

    Keshtgar, Alireza S; Ward, Harry C; Richards, Catherine; Clayden, Graham S

    2007-01-01

    Megarectum in association with anorectal malformation contributes to chronic constipation and fecal incontinence. Resection of megarectum in anorectal malformation improves bowel function, but neuropathy and poor sphincter quality may affect the outcome of fecal continence adversely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of resection of megarectum in anorectal malformation and to ascertain the impact of anal sphincter quality and neuropathy on the outcome. We studied 62 children with intractable fecal incontinence after repair of anorectal malformation between January 1991 and January 2005. All patients were investigated with anorectal manometry and anal endosonography under ketamine anesthesia. On endosonography, an intact or scarred internal anal sphincter (IAS) was classified as good and a fragmented or absent IAS as poor. On manometry, a resting anal sphincter pressure equal to or more than 30 mm Hg was classified as good and a lower pressure as poor. Functional assessment of fecal continence was done before and after excision of megarectum using a modified Wingfield scores. Sixteen children had excision of megarectum with median age of 9 years (range, 2-15 years) and postoperative follow-up of 5 years (range, 1-10 years). Seven had formation of antegrade continent enema stoma before excision of megarectum. Children were classified into three groups of anomalies: low (n = 6), intermediate (n = 4), and high (n = 6). All children were incontinent of feces. After excision of megarectum, of the 9 children with good IAS and no neuropathy, 7 became continent of feces. Of the remaining 7 children, 4 had poor IAS and 3 had neuropathy, 5 of whom required an antegrade continent enema stoma to be clean. Excision of megarectum in children who had previous repair of anorectal malformation results in fecal continence in the presence of a good IAS and absence of neuropathy. Patients with a poor IAS or neuropathy will often require artificial means of fecal

  1. MetaboSearch: tool for mass-based metabolite identification using multiple databases.

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available Searching metabolites against databases according to their masses is often the first step in metabolite identification for a mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics study. Major metabolite databases include Human Metabolome DataBase (HMDB, Madison Metabolomics Consortium Database (MMCD, Metlin, and LIPID MAPS. Since each one of these databases covers only a fraction of the metabolome, integration of the search results from these databases is expected to yield a more comprehensive coverage. However, the manual combination of multiple search results is generally difficult when identification of hundreds of metabolites is desired. We have implemented a web-based software tool that enables simultaneous mass-based search against the four major databases, and the integration of the results. In addition, more complete chemical identifier information for the metabolites is retrieved by cross-referencing multiple databases. The search results are merged based on IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI keys. Besides a simple list of m/z values, the software can accept the ion annotation information as input for enhanced metabolite identification. The performance of the software is demonstrated on mass spectrometry data acquired in both positive and negative ionization modes. Compared with search results from individual databases, MetaboSearch provides better coverage of the metabolome and more complete chemical identifier information.The software tool is available at http://omics.georgetown.edu/MetaboSearch.html.

  2. Category-based attentional guidance can operate in parallel for multiple target objects.

    Jenkins, Michael; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2018-04-30

    The question whether the control of attention during visual search is always feature-based or can also be based on the category of objects remains unresolved. Here, we employed the N2pc component as an on-line marker for target selection processes to compare the efficiency of feature-based and category-based attentional guidance. Two successive displays containing pairs of real-world objects (line drawings of kitchen or clothing items) were separated by a 10 ms SOA. In Experiment 1, target objects were defined by their category. In Experiment 2, one specific visual object served as target (exemplar-based search). On different trials, targets appeared either in one or in both displays, and participants had to report the number of targets (one or two). Target N2pc components were larger and emerged earlier during exemplar-based search than during category-based search, demonstrating the superior efficiency of feature-based attentional guidance. On trials where target objects appeared in both displays, both targets elicited N2pc components that overlapped in time, suggesting that attention was allocated in parallel to these target objects. Critically, this was the case not only in the exemplar-based task, but also when targets were defined by their category. These results demonstrate that attention can be guided by object categories, and that this type of category-based attentional control can operate concurrently for multiple target objects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Through-Wall Multiple Targets Vital Signs Tracking Based on VMD Algorithm

    Jiaming Yan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Targets located at the same distance are easily neglected in most through-wall multiple targets detecting applications which use the single-input single-output (SISO ultra-wideband (UWB radar system. In this paper, a novel multiple targets vital signs tracking algorithm for through-wall detection using SISO UWB radar has been proposed. Taking advantage of the high-resolution decomposition of the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD based algorithm, the respiration signals of different targets can be decomposed into different sub-signals, and then, we can track the time-varying respiration signals accurately when human targets located in the same distance. Intensive evaluation has been conducted to show the effectiveness of our scheme with a 0.15 m thick concrete brick wall. Constant, piecewise-constant and time-varying vital signs could be separated and tracked successfully with the proposed VMD based algorithm for two targets, even up to three targets. For the multiple targets’ vital signs tracking issues like urban search and rescue missions, our algorithm has superior capability in most detection applications.

  4. Efficacy of a brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention for college students.

    Werch, Chudley E; Moore, Michele J; Bian, Hui; DiClemente, Carlo C; Ames, Steven C; Weiler, Robert M; Thombs, Dennis; Pokorny, Steven B; Huang, I-Chan

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologic data indicate most adolescents and adults experience multiple, simultaneous risk behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention (MBI) for college students. A total of 303 college students were randomly assigned to: (1) a brief MBI or (2) a standard care control, with a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Omnibus treatment by time multivariate analysis of variance interactions were significant for three of six behavior groupings, with improvements for college students receiving the brief MBI on alcohol consumption behaviors, F(6, 261) = 2.73, p = 0.01, marijuana-use behaviors, F(4, 278) = 3.18, p = 0.01, and health-related quality of life, F(5, 277) = 2.80, p = 0.02, but not cigarette use, exercise, and nutrition behaviors. Participants receiving the brief MBI also got more sleep, F(1, 281) = 9.49, p = 0.00, than those in the standard care control. A brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention may be useful in influencing a number of critical health habits and health-related quality-of-life indicators of college students.

  5. Resampling-based methods in single and multiple testing for equality of covariance/correlation matrices.

    Yang, Yang; DeGruttola, Victor

    2012-06-22

    Traditional resampling-based tests for homogeneity in covariance matrices across multiple groups resample residuals, that is, data centered by group means. These residuals do not share the same second moments when the null hypothesis is false, which makes them difficult to use in the setting of multiple testing. An alternative approach is to resample standardized residuals, data centered by group sample means and standardized by group sample covariance matrices. This approach, however, has been observed to inflate type I error when sample size is small or data are generated from heavy-tailed distributions. We propose to improve this approach by using robust estimation for the first and second moments. We discuss two statistics: the Bartlett statistic and a statistic based on eigen-decomposition of sample covariance matrices. Both statistics can be expressed in terms of standardized errors under the null hypothesis. These methods are extended to test homogeneity in correlation matrices. Using simulation studies, we demonstrate that the robust resampling approach provides comparable or superior performance, relative to traditional approaches, for single testing and reasonable performance for multiple testing. The proposed methods are applied to data collected in an HIV vaccine trial to investigate possible determinants, including vaccine status, vaccine-induced immune response level and viral genotype, of unusual correlation pattern between HIV viral load and CD4 count in newly infected patients.

  6. 76 FR 3502 - Time for Payment of Certain Excise Taxes, and Quarterly Excise Tax Payments for Small Alcohol...

    2011-01-20

    ..., Surety bonds, Virgin Islands, Warehouses. 27 CFR Part 40 Cigars and cigarettes, Claims, Electronic fund... required to pay taxes through electronic funds transfer (EFT), this first payment period ends on September... Part 19 Caribbean Basin Initiative, Claims, Electronic funds transfers, Excise taxes, Exports, Gasohol...

  7. 76 FR 3584 - Time for Payment of Certain Excise Taxes, and Quarterly Excise Tax Payments for Small Alcohol...

    2011-01-20

    ... 40 Cigars and cigarettes, Claims, Electronic fund transfers, Excise taxes, Labeling, Packaging and..., Regulations.gov , we will post, and you may view, copies of this notice, any electronic or mailed comments we... material that we consider unsuitable for posting. You also may view copies of this notice, any electronic...

  8. Exposure estimates based on broadband elf magnetic field measurements versus the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule

    Paniagua, Jesus M.; Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Pachon, Fernando T.; Carrero, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields using broadband measurement techniques gives satisfactory results when the field has essentially a single frequency. Nevertheless, magnetic fields are in most cases distorted by harmonic components. This work analyses the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field in an outdoor urban context and compares the evaluation of the exposure based on broadband measurements with that based on spectral analysis. The multiple frequency rule of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory guidelines was applied. With the 1998 ICNIRP guideline, harmonics dominated the exposure with a 55 % contribution. With the 2010 ICNIRP guideline, however, the primary frequency dominated the exposure with a 78 % contribution. Values of the exposure based on spectral analysis were significantly higher than those based on broadband measurements. Hence, it is clearly necessary to determine the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field to assess exposure in urban contexts. (authors)

  9. Multiple local minima in IMRT optimization based on dose-volume criteria

    Wu Qiuwen; Mohan, Radhe

    2002-01-01

    significant way. Our study supports the notion that multiple minima should not be an impediment to finding a good solution when gradient-based optimization techniques are employed. Changing the parameters for the objective function had no observable effect on our findings

  10. Mass estimation of loose parts in nuclear power plant based on multiple regression

    He, Yuanfeng; Cao, Yanlong; Yang, Jiangxin; Gan, Chunbiao

    2012-01-01

    According to the application of the Hilbert–Huang transform to the non-stationary signal and the relation between the mass of loose parts in nuclear power plant and corresponding frequency content, a new method for loose part mass estimation based on the marginal Hilbert–Huang spectrum (MHS) and multiple regression is proposed in this paper. The frequency spectrum of a loose part in a nuclear power plant can be expressed by the MHS. The multiple regression model that is constructed by the MHS feature of the impact signals for mass estimation is used to predict the unknown masses of a loose part. A simulated experiment verified that the method is feasible and the errors of the results are acceptable. (paper)

  11. Dynamic Optimization for IPS2 Resource Allocation Based on Improved Fuzzy Multiple Linear Regression

    Maokuan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study mainly focuses on resource allocation optimization for industrial product-service systems (IPS2. The development of IPS2 leads to sustainable economy by introducing cooperative mechanisms apart from commodity transaction. The randomness and fluctuation of service requests from customers lead to the volatility of IPS2 resource utilization ratio. Three basic rules for resource allocation optimization are put forward to improve system operation efficiency and cut unnecessary costs. An approach based on fuzzy multiple linear regression (FMLR is developed, which integrates the strength and concision of multiple linear regression in data fitting and factor analysis and the merit of fuzzy theory in dealing with uncertain or vague problems, which helps reduce those costs caused by unnecessary resource transfer. The iteration mechanism is introduced in the FMLR algorithm to improve forecasting accuracy. A case study of human resource allocation optimization in construction machinery industry is implemented to test and verify the proposed model.

  12. Method of Fusion Diagnosis for Dam Service Status Based on Joint Distribution Function of Multiple Points

    Zhenxiang Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods of diagnosing dam service status are always suitable for single measuring point. These methods also reflect the local status of dams without merging multisource data effectively, which is not suitable for diagnosing overall service. This study proposes a new method involving multiple points to diagnose dam service status based on joint distribution function. The function, including monitoring data of multiple points, can be established with t-copula function. Therefore, the possibility, which is an important fusing value in different measuring combinations, can be calculated, and the corresponding diagnosing criterion is established with typical small probability theory. Engineering case study indicates that the fusion diagnosis method can be conducted in real time and the abnormal point can be detected, thereby providing a new early warning method for engineering safety.

  13. Multiple descriptions based on multirate coding for JPEG 2000 and H.264/AVC.

    Tillo, Tammam; Baccaglini, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella

    2010-07-01

    Multiple description coding (MDC) makes use of redundant representations of multimedia data to achieve resiliency. Descriptions should be generated so that the quality obtained when decoding a subset of them only depends on their number and not on the particular received subset. In this paper, we propose a method based on the principle of encoding the source at several rates, and properly blending the data encoded at different rates to generate the descriptions. The aim is to achieve efficient redundancy exploitation, and easy adaptation to different network scenarios by means of fine tuning of the encoder parameters. We apply this principle to both JPEG 2000 images and H.264/AVC video data. We consider as the reference scenario the distribution of contents on application-layer overlays with multiple-tree topology. The experimental results reveal that our method favorably compares with state-of-art MDC techniques.

  14. Structural invariance of multiple intelligences, based on the level of execution.

    Almeida, Leandro S; Prieto, María Dolores; Ferreira, Arístides; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Rosario; Hernández, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The independence of multiple intelligences (MI) of Gardner's theory has been debated since its conception. This article examines whether the one- factor structure of the MI theory tested in previous studies is invariant for low and high ability students. Two hundred ninety-four children (aged 5 to 7) participated in this study. A set of Gardner's Multiple Intelligence assessment tasks based on the Spectrum Project was used. To analyze the invariance of a general dimension of intelligence, the different models of behaviours were studied in samples of participants with different performance on the Spectrum Project tasks with Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA). Results suggest an absence of structural invariance in Gardner's tasks. Exploratory analyses suggest a three-factor structure for individuals with higher performance levels and a two-factor structure for individuals with lower performance levels.

  15. A prediction method based on wavelet transform and multiple models fusion for chaotic time series

    Zhongda, Tian; Shujiang, Li; Yanhong, Wang; Yi, Sha

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of chaotic time series, a prediction method based on wavelet transform and multiple models fusion is proposed. The chaotic time series is decomposed and reconstructed by wavelet transform, and approximate components and detail components are obtained. According to different characteristics of each component, least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as predictive model for approximation components. At the same time, an improved free search algorithm is utilized for predictive model parameters optimization. Auto regressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) is used as predictive model for detail components. The multiple prediction model predictive values are fusion by Gauss–Markov algorithm, the error variance of predicted results after fusion is less than the single model, the prediction accuracy is improved. The simulation results are compared through two typical chaotic time series include Lorenz time series and Mackey–Glass time series. The simulation results show that the prediction method in this paper has a better prediction.

  16. Noninvasive spectral imaging of skin chromophores based on multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation

    Nishidate, Izumi; Wiswadarma, Aditya; Hase, Yota; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Maeda, Takaaki; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize melanin and blood concentrations and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue, a simple imaging technique based on multispectral diffuse reflectance images acquired at six wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 580 and 600nm) was developed. The technique utilizes multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation for diffuse reflectance spectra. Using the absorbance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of melanin, oxygenated hemoglobin, and deoxygenated hemoglobin as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of melanin and total blood are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are deduced numerically in advance, while oxygen saturation is obtained directly from the regression coefficients. Experiments with a tissue-like agar gel phantom validated the method. In vivo experiments with human skin of the human hand during upper limb occlusion and of the inner forearm exposed to UV irradiation demonstrated the ability of the method to evaluate physiological reactions of human skin tissue.

  17. Multiple exciton generation in chiral carbon nanotubes: Density functional theory based computation

    Kryjevski, Andrei; Mihaylov, Deyan; Kilina, Svetlana; Kilin, Dmitri

    2017-10-01

    We use a Boltzmann transport equation (BE) to study time evolution of a photo-excited state in a nanoparticle including phonon-mediated exciton relaxation and the multiple exciton generation (MEG) processes, such as exciton-to-biexciton multiplication and biexciton-to-exciton recombination. BE collision integrals are computed using Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh many-body perturbation theory based on density functional theory simulations, including exciton effects. We compute internal quantum efficiency (QE), which is the number of excitons generated from an absorbed photon in the course of the relaxation. We apply this approach to chiral single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), such as (6,2) and (6,5). We predict efficient MEG in the (6,2) and (6,5) SWCNTs within the solar spectrum range starting at the 2Eg energy threshold and with QE reaching ˜1.6 at about 3Eg, where Eg is the electronic gap.

  18. An Extended TOPSIS Method for the Multiple Attribute Decision Making Problems Based on Interval Neutrosophic Set

    Pingping Chi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The interval neutrosophic set (INS can be easier to express the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information, and TOPSIS is one of the most commonly used and effective method for multiple attribute decision making, however, in general, it can only process the attribute values with crisp numbers. In this paper, we have extended TOPSIS to INS, and with respect to the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the attribute weights are unknown and the attribute values take the form of INSs, we proposed an expanded TOPSIS method. Firstly, the definition of INS and the operational laws are given, and distance between INSs is defined. Then, the attribute weights are determined based on the Maximizing deviation method and an extended TOPSIS method is developed to rank the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  19. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based Relay Vehicle Selection for Electric Vehicle Communication

    Zhao Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale electric vehicle integration into power grid and charging randomly will cause serious impacts on the normal operation of power grid. Therefore, it is necessary to control the charging behavior of electric vehicle, while information transmission for electric vehicle is significant. Due to the highly mobile characteristics of vehicle, transferring information to power grid directly might be inaccessible. Relay vehicle (RV can be used for supporting multi-hop connection between SV and power grid. This paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making (MADM-based RV selection algorithm, which considers multiple attribute, including data transfer rate, delay, route duration. It takes the characteristics of electric vehicle communication into account, which can provide protection for the communication services of electric vehicle charging and discharging. Numerical results demonstrate that compared to previous algorithm, the proposed algorithm offer better performance in terms of throughput, transmission delay.

  20. Prescription Dose Guideline Based on Physical Criterion for Multiple Metastatic Brain Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Sahgal, Arjun; Barani, Igor J.; Novotny, Josef; Zhang Beibei; Petti, Paula; Larson, David A.; Ma Lijun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Existing dose guidelines for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are primarily based on single-target treatment data. This study investigated dose guidelines for multiple targets treated with SRS. Methods and Materials: A physical model was developed to relate the peripheral isodose volume dependence on an increasing number of targets and prescription dose per target. The model was derived from simulated and clinical multiple brain metastatic cases treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion at several institutions, where the total number of targets ranged from 2 to 60. The relative increase in peripheral isodose volumes, such as the 12-Gy volume, was studied in the multitarget treatment setting based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 90-05 study dose levels. Results: A significant increase in the 12-Gy peripheral isodose volumes was found in comparing multiple target SRS to single-target SRS. This increase strongly correlated (R 2 = 0.92) with the total number of targets but not the total target volumes (R 2 = 0.06). On the basis of the correlated curve, the 12-Gy volume for multiple target treatment was found to increase by approximately 1% per target when a low target dose such as 15 Gy was used, but approximately 4% per target when a high dose such as 20-24 Gy was used. Reduction in the prescription dose was quantified for each prescription level in maintaining the 12-Gy volume. Conclusion: Normal brain dose increases predictably with increasing number of targets for multitarget SRS. A reduction of approximately 1-2 Gy in the prescribed dose is needed compared with single target radiosurgery.

  1. Identifying multiple influential spreaders in term of the distance-based coloring

    Guo, Lei; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang [Research Center of Complex Systems Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Liu, Jian-Guo, E-mail: liujg004@ustc.edu.cn [Research Center of Complex Systems Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Data Science and Cloud Service Research Centre, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-02-22

    Identifying influential nodes is of significance for understanding the dynamics of information diffusion process in complex networks. In this paper, we present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. In our method, each node is colored by a kind of color with the rule that the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance of a network. When all nodes are colored, nodes with the same color are sorted into an independent set. Then we choose the nodes at the top positions of the ranking list according to their centralities. The experimental results for an artificial network and three empirical networks show that, comparing with the performance of traditional coloring method, the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 12.82%, 8.16%, 4.45%, 2.93% for the ER, Erdős, Polblogs and Routers networks respectively. - Highlights: • We present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. • Each node is colored by a kind of color where the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance. • For three empirical networks show that the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 8.16% for the Erdos network.

  2. Identifying multiple influential spreaders in term of the distance-based coloring

    Guo, Lei; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Identifying influential nodes is of significance for understanding the dynamics of information diffusion process in complex networks. In this paper, we present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. In our method, each node is colored by a kind of color with the rule that the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance of a network. When all nodes are colored, nodes with the same color are sorted into an independent set. Then we choose the nodes at the top positions of the ranking list according to their centralities. The experimental results for an artificial network and three empirical networks show that, comparing with the performance of traditional coloring method, the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 12.82%, 8.16%, 4.45%, 2.93% for the ER, Erdős, Polblogs and Routers networks respectively. - Highlights: • We present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. • Each node is colored by a kind of color where the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance. • For three empirical networks show that the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 8.16% for the Erdos network.

  3. Multiple Maneuvering Target Tracking by Improved Particle Filter Based on Multiscan JPDA

    Jing Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple maneuvering target tracking algorithm based on a particle filter is addressed. The equivalent-noise approach is adopted, which uses a simple dynamic model consisting of target state and equivalent noise which accounts for the combined effects of the process noise and maneuvers. The equivalent-noise approach converts the problem of maneuvering target tracking to that of state estimation in the presence of nonstationary process noise with unknown statistics. A novel method for identifying the nonstationary process noise is proposed in the particle filter framework. Furthermore, a particle filter based multiscan Joint Probability Data Association (JPDA filter is proposed to deal with the data association problem in a multiple maneuvering target tracking. In the proposed multiscan JPDA algorithm, the distributions of interest are the marginal filtering distributions for each of the targets, and these distributions are approximated with particles. The multiscan JPDA algorithm examines the joint association events in a multiscan sliding window and calculates the marginal posterior probability based on the multiscan joint association events. The proposed algorithm is illustrated via an example involving the tracking of two highly maneuvering, at times closely spaced and crossed, targets, based on resolved measurements.

  4. The Effectiveness of learning materials based on multiple intelligence on the understanding of global warming

    Liliawati, W.; Purwanto; Zulfikar, A.; Kamal, R. N.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the use of teaching materials based on multiple intelligences on the understanding of high school students’ material on the theme of global warming. The research method used is static-group pretest-posttest design. Participants of the study were 60 high school students of XI class in one of the high schools in Bandung. Participants were divided into two classes of 30 students each for the experimental class and control class. The experimental class uses compound-based teaching materials while the experimental class does not use a compound intelligence-based teaching material. The instrument used is a test of understanding of the concept of global warming with multiple choices form amounted to 15 questions and 5 essay items. The test is given before and after it is applied to both classes. Data analysis using N-gain and effect size. The results obtained that the N-gain for both classes is in the medium category and the effectiveness of the use of teaching materials based on the results of effect-size test results obtained in the high category.

  5. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: pilot study.

    Keser, Ilke; Kirdi, Nuray; Meric, Aydin; Kurne, Asli Tuncer; Karabudak, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p 0.05). Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs.

  6. Development of a lithium fluoride zinc sulfide based neutron multiplicity counter

    Cowles, Christian; Behling, Spencer; Baldez, Phoenix; Folsom, Micah; Kouzes, Richard; Kukharev, Vladislav; Lintereur, Azaree; Robinson, Sean; Siciliano, Edward; Stave, Sean; Valdez, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Past 3He shortages led to investigations into replacement options for neutron detectors in systems that previously used 3He-based technologies. The goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of a full-scale lithium fluoride with silver activated zinc sulfide (LiF/ZnS) based neutron multiplicity counter. The LiF/ZnS based neutron multiplicity counter (LiNMC) was developed based on an iterative process between modeling and experimental measurements. Each active region of the LiNMC contains five sheets of LiF/ZnS sandwiched between six sheets of wavelength shifting plastic to form neutron detection stacks. The wavelength shifted scintillation light was collected by photomultiplier tubes located on each end of the stacks. Twelve such detector stacks were placed around a sample chamber in a square arrangement with lithiated high density polyethylene blocks in the corners to reflect high energy neutrons and capture low energy neutrons. Preliminary calibration with a 252Cf neutron source showed that the LiNMC was able to achieve 36% neutron detection efficiency (ε) and an 11.7 μs neutron die-away time (τ) for a doubles Figure-of-merit (ε2/ τ) of 109. This is the highest doubles Figure-of-merit performance measured to-date for a 3He-free neutron multiplicity counter system. By the end of this project, the LiNMC’s basic components were integrated into a single laboratory scale system capable of proof-of-concept measurements.

  7. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study

    R.E.R. van der Hallen (Ruth); Reusens, J. (Julie); Evers, K. (Kris); L. de-Wit (Lee); J. Wagemans (Johan)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDevelopmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based

  8. Robotic transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: experience with a first case

    Verheijen, P.M.; Consten, E.C.J.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: A transanal approach for total mesorectal excision (TME) using a single incision port is feasible. The disadvantages are technical difficulties associated with limited manoeuvrability. Methods: We present our first experience with robotic-assisted transanal total mesorectal excision. A

  9. Performance analysis of multiple interference suppression over asynchronous/synchronous optical code-division multiple-access system based on complementary/prime/shifted coding scheme

    Nieh, Ta-Chun; Yang, Chao-Chin; Huang, Jen-Fa

    2011-08-01

    A complete complementary/prime/shifted prime (CPS) code family for the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system is proposed. Based on the ability of complete complementary (CC) code, the multiple-access interference (MAI) can be suppressed and eliminated via spectral amplitude coding (SAC) OCDMA system under asynchronous/synchronous transmission. By utilizing the shifted prime (SP) code in the SAC scheme, the hardware implementation of encoder/decoder can be simplified with a reduced number of optical components, such as arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This system has a superior performance as compared to previous bipolar-bipolar coding OCDMA systems.

  10. Sequential optimization of a terrestrial biosphere model constrained by multiple satellite based products

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Various satellite-based spatial products such as evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) are now produced by integration of ground and satellite observations. Effective use of these multiple satellite-based products in terrestrial biosphere models is an important step toward better understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles. However, due to the complexity of terrestrial biosphere models with large number of model parameters, the application of these spatial data sets in terrestrial biosphere models is difficult. In this study, we established an effective but simple framework to refine a terrestrial biosphere model, Biome-BGC, using multiple satellite-based products as constraints. We tested the framework in the monsoon Asia region covered by AsiaFlux observations. The framework is based on the hierarchical analysis (Wang et al. 2009) with model parameter optimization constrained by satellite-based spatial data. The Biome-BGC model is separated into several tiers to minimize the freedom of model parameter selections and maximize the independency from the whole model. For example, the snow sub-model is first optimized using MODIS snow cover product, followed by soil water sub-model optimized by satellite-based ET (estimated by an empirical upscaling method; Support Vector Regression (SVR) method; Yang et al. 2007), photosynthesis model optimized by satellite-based GPP (based on SVR method), and respiration and residual carbon cycle models optimized by biomass data. As a result of initial assessment, we found that most of default sub-models (e.g. snow, water cycle and carbon cycle) showed large deviations from remote sensing observations. However, these biases were removed by applying the proposed framework. For example, gross primary productivities were initially underestimated in boreal and temperate forest and overestimated in tropical forests. However, the parameter optimization scheme successfully reduced these biases. Our analysis

  11. Improving multiple-point-based a priori models for inverse problems by combining Sequential Simulation with the Frequency Matching Method

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Lange, Katrine

    In order to move beyond simplified covariance based a priori models, which are typically used for inverse problems, more complex multiple-point-based a priori models have to be considered. By means of marginal probability distributions ‘learned’ from a training image, sequential simulation has...... proven to be an efficient way of obtaining multiple realizations that honor the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. The frequency matching method provides an alternative way of formulating multiple-point-based a priori models. In this strategy the pattern frequency distributions (i.......e. marginals) of the training image and a subsurface model are matched in order to obtain a solution with the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. Sequential Gibbs sampling is a simulation strategy that provides an efficient way of applying sequential simulation based algorithms as a priori...

  12. A threshold-based multiple optical signal selection scheme for WDM FSO systems

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, we propose a threshold-based-multiple optical signal selection scheme (TMOS) for free-space optical systems based on wavelength division multiplexing. With the proposed TMOS, we can obtain higher spectral efficiency while reducing the potential increase in complexity of implementation caused by applying a selection-based beam selection scheme without a considerable performance loss. Here, to accurately characterize the performance of the proposed TMOS, we statistically analyze the characteristics with heterodyne detection technique over independent and identically distributed Log-normal turbulence conditions taking into considerations the impact of pointing error. Specifically, we derive exact closed-form expressions for the average bit error rate, and the average spectral efficiency by adopting an adaptive modulation. Some selected results shows that the average spectral efficiency can be increased with TMOS while the system requirement is satisfied.

  13. Robust Transmission of Speech LSFs Using Hidden Markov Model-Based Multiple Description Index Assignments

    Pradeepa Yahampath

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech coding techniques capable of generating encoded representations which are robust against channel losses play an important role in enabling reliable voice communication over packet networks and mobile wireless systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple description index assignments (MDIAs for loss-tolerant transmission of line spectral frequency (LSF coefficients, typically generated by state-of-the-art speech coders. We propose a simulated annealing-based approach for optimizing MDIAs for Markov-model-based decoders which exploit inter- and intraframe correlations in LSF coefficients to reconstruct the quantized LSFs from coded bit streams corrupted by channel losses. Experimental results are presented which compare the performance of a number of novel LSF transmission schemes. These results clearly demonstrate that Markov-model-based decoders, when used in conjunction with optimized MDIA, can yield average spectral distortion much lower than that produced by methods such as interleaving/interpolation, commonly used to combat the packet losses.

  14. Robust Transmission of Speech LSFs Using Hidden Markov Model-Based Multiple Description Index Assignments

    Rondeau Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech coding techniques capable of generating encoded representations which are robust against channel losses play an important role in enabling reliable voice communication over packet networks and mobile wireless systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple description index assignments (MDIAs for loss-tolerant transmission of line spectral frequency (LSF coefficients, typically generated by state-of-the-art speech coders. We propose a simulated annealing-based approach for optimizing MDIAs for Markov-model-based decoders which exploit inter- and intraframe correlations in LSF coefficients to reconstruct the quantized LSFs from coded bit streams corrupted by channel losses. Experimental results are presented which compare the performance of a number of novel LSF transmission schemes. These results clearly demonstrate that Markov-model-based decoders, when used in conjunction with optimized MDIA, can yield average spectral distortion much lower than that produced by methods such as interleaving/interpolation, commonly used to combat the packet losses.

  15. A threshold-based multiple optical signal selection scheme for WDM FSO systems

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ko, Young-Chai; Cho, Sung Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a threshold-based-multiple optical signal selection scheme (TMOS) for free-space optical systems based on wavelength division multiplexing. With the proposed TMOS, we can obtain higher spectral efficiency while reducing the potential increase in complexity of implementation caused by applying a selection-based beam selection scheme without a considerable performance loss. Here, to accurately characterize the performance of the proposed TMOS, we statistically analyze the characteristics with heterodyne detection technique over independent and identically distributed Log-normal turbulence conditions taking into considerations the impact of pointing error. Specifically, we derive exact closed-form expressions for the average bit error rate, and the average spectral efficiency by adopting an adaptive modulation. Some selected results shows that the average spectral efficiency can be increased with TMOS while the system requirement is satisfied.

  16. Multimodal wireless sensor network-based ambient assisted living in real homes with multiple residents.

    Tunca, Can; Alemdar, Hande; Ertan, Halil; Incel, Ozlem Durmaz; Ersoy, Cem

    2014-05-30

    Human activity recognition and behavior monitoring in a home setting using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a great potential for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications, ranging from health and wellbeing monitoring to resource consumption monitoring. However, due to the limitations of the sensor devices, challenges in wireless communication and the challenges in processing large amounts of sensor data in order to recognize complex human activities, WSN-based AAL systems are not effectively integrated in the home environment. Additionally, given the variety of sensor types and activities, selecting the most suitable set of sensors in the deployment is an important task. In order to investigate and propose solutions to such challenges, we introduce a WSN-based multimodal AAL system compatible for homes with multiple residents. Particularly, we focus on the details of the system architecture, including the challenges of sensor selection, deployment, networking and data collection and provide guidelines for the design and deployment of an effective AAL system. We also present the details of the field study we conducted, using the systems deployed in two different real home environments with multiple residents. With these systems, we are able to collect ambient sensor data from multiple homes. This data can be used to assess the wellbeing of the residents and identify deviations from everyday routines, which may be indicators of health problems. Finally, in order to elaborate on the possible applications of the proposed AAL system and to exemplify directions for processing the collected data, we provide the results of several human activity inference experiments, along with examples on how such results could be interpreted. We believe that the experiences shared in this work will contribute towards accelerating the acceptance of WSN-based AAL systems in the home setting.

  17. Multiple goals and time constraints: perceived impact on physicians' performance of evidence-based behaviours

    Francis Jillian J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural approaches to knowledge translation inform interventions to improve healthcare. However, such approaches often focus on a single behaviour without considering that health professionals perform multiple behaviours in pursuit of multiple goals in a given clinical context. In resource-limited consultations, performing these other goal-directed behaviours may influence optimal performance of a particular evidence-based behaviour. This study aimed to investigate whether a multiple goal-directed behaviour perspective might inform implementation research beyond single-behaviour approaches. Methods We conducted theory-based semi-structured interviews with 12 general medical practitioners (GPs in Scotland on their views regarding two focal clinical behaviours--providing physical activity (PA advice and prescribing to reduce blood pressure (BP to Results Most GPs reported strong intention to prescribe to reduce BP but expressed reasons why they would not. Intention to provide PA advice was variable. Most GPs reported that time constraints and patient preference detrimentally affected their control over providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP, respectively. Most GPs perceived many of their other goal-directed behaviours as interfering with providing PA advice, while fewer GPs reported goal-directed behaviours that interfere with prescribing to reduce BP. Providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP were perceived to be facilitated by similar diabetes-related behaviours (e.g., discussing cholesterol. While providing PA advice was perceived to be mainly facilitated by providing other lifestyle-related clinical advice (e.g., talking about weight, BP prescribing was reported as facilitated by pursuing ongoing standard consultation-related goals (e.g., clearly structuring the consultation. Conclusion GPs readily relate their other goal-directed behaviours with having a facilitating and interfering influence on their

  18. Multimodal Wireless Sensor Network-Based Ambient Assisted Living in Real Homes with Multiple Residents

    Can Tunca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition and behavior monitoring in a home setting using wireless sensor networks (WSNs provide a great potential for ambient assisted living (AAL applications, ranging from health and wellbeing monitoring to resource consumption monitoring. However, due to the limitations of the sensor devices, challenges in wireless communication and the challenges in processing large amounts of sensor data in order to recognize complex human activities, WSN-based AAL systems are not effectively integrated in the home environment. Additionally, given the variety of sensor types and activities, selecting the most suitable set of sensors in the deployment is an important task. In order to investigate and propose solutions to such challenges, we introduce a WSN-based multimodal AAL system compatible for homes with multiple residents. Particularly, we focus on the details of the system architecture, including the challenges of sensor selection, deployment, networking and data collection and provide guidelines for the design and deployment of an effective AAL system. We also present the details of the field study we conducted, using the systems deployed in two different real home environments with multiple residents. With these systems, we are able to collect ambient sensor data from multiple homes. This data can be used to assess the wellbeing of the residents and identify deviations from everyday routines, which may be indicators of health problems. Finally, in order to elaborate on the possible applications of the proposed AAL system and to exemplify directions for processing the collected data, we provide the results of several human activity inference experiments, along with examples on how such results could be interpreted. We believe that the experiences shared in this work will contribute towards accelerating the acceptance of WSN-based AAL systems in the home setting.

  19. Track reconstruction for the Mu3e experiment based on a novel Multiple Scattering fit

    Kozlinskiy Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavor violating decay μ+ → e+e+e−. The aim of the experiment is to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 10−16. In a first phase the experiment will be performed at an existing beam line at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (Switzerland providing 108 muons per second, which will allow to reach a sensitivity of 2 · 10−15. The muons with a momentum of about 28 MeV/c are stopped and decay at rest on a target. The decay products (positrons and electrons with energies below 53MeV are measured by a tracking detector consisting of two double layers of 50 μm thin silicon pixel sensors. The high granularity of the pixel detector with a pixel size of 80 μm × 80 μm allows for a precise track reconstruction in the high multiplicity environment of the Mu3e experiment, reaching 100 tracks per reconstruction frame of 50 ns in the final phase of the experiment. To deal with such high rates and combinatorics, the Mu3e track reconstruction uses a novel fit algorithm that in the simplest case takes into account only the multiple scattering, which allows for a fast online tracking on a GPU based filter farm. An implementation of the 3-dimensional multiple scattering fit based on hit triplets is described. The extension of the fit that takes into account energy losses and pixel size is used for offline track reconstruction. The algorithm and performance of the offline track reconstruction based on a full Geant4 simulation of the Mu3e detector are presented.

  20. Efficacy and toxicity profile of carfilzomib based regimens for treatment of multiple myeloma: A systematic review.

    Mushtaq, Adeela; Kapoor, Vikas; Latif, Azka; Iftikhar, Ahmad; Zahid, Umar; McBride, Ali; Abraham, Ivo; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Anwer, Faiz

    2018-05-01

    Standard induction therapy for multiple myeloma is three-drug combination based on following classes of drugs: proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulators and steroids. Despite its notable efficacy, bortezomib has side effects like peripheral neuropathy (PNP) with reported incidence of grade ≥3 PNP between 2%-23% Schlafer et al., 2017. Carfilzomib (CFZ) has high selectivity and minimal off-target adverse effects including lower rates of PNP. CFZ is already approved for treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) as single agent as well as in combination with lenalidomide and/or dexamethasone. Extensive literature search identified a total of 1839 articles. Twenty-six articles (n = 5980) met the inclusion criteria, 15 in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) and 11 in RRMM group. CFZ demonstrates comparable or even better efficacy to bortezomib with much favorable AE profile. Deep, rapid and sustainable response using KRd with safer toxicity profile supports extension of KRd therapy to frontline therapy for all risk categories of MM. High incidence of grade ≥3 HTN underscores the importance of serial BP monitoring. In RRMM, CFZ has documented efficacy with standard 20-27mg/m2 dose. Further large-scale trials are needed to study benefit-to-risk profile of 20-56 and 20-70 mg/m2 dose of CFZ vs standard 20-27 mg/m2 dose in NDMM and RRMM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Iterative channel decoding of FEC-based multiple-description codes.

    Chang, Seok-Ho; Cosman, Pamela C; Milstein, Laurence B

    2012-03-01

    Multiple description coding has been receiving attention as a robust transmission framework for multimedia services. This paper studies the iterative decoding of FEC-based multiple description codes. The proposed decoding algorithms take advantage of the error detection capability of Reed-Solomon (RS) erasure codes. The information of correctly decoded RS codewords is exploited to enhance the error correction capability of the Viterbi algorithm at the next iteration of decoding. In the proposed algorithm, an intradescription interleaver is synergistically combined with the iterative decoder. The interleaver does not affect the performance of noniterative decoding but greatly enhances the performance when the system is iteratively decoded. We also address the optimal allocation of RS parity symbols for unequal error protection. For the optimal allocation in iterative decoding, we derive mathematical equations from which the probability distributions of description erasures can be generated in a simple way. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated over an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing system. The results show that the performance of the multiple description codes is significantly enhanced.

  2. [Construction of multiple drug release system based on components of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Liu, Dan; Jia, Xiaobin; Yu, Danhong; Zhang, Zhenhai; Sun, E

    2012-08-01

    With the development of the modernization drive of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations, new-type TCM dosage forms research have become a hot spot in the field. Because of complexity of TCM components as well as uncertainty of material base, there is still not a scientific system for modern TCM dosage forms so far. Modern TCM preparations inevitably take the nature of the multi-component and the general function characteristics of multi-link and multi-target into account. The author suggests building a multiple drug release system for TCM using diverse preparation techniques and drug release methods at levels on the basis the nature and function characteristics of TCM components. This essay expounds elaborates the ideas to build the multiple traditional Chinese medicine release system, theoretical basis, preparation techniques and assessment system, current problems and solutions, in order to build a multiple TCM release system with a view of enhancing the bioavailability of TCM components and provide a new form for TCM preparations.

  3. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  4. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants.

    Bednar, David; Beerens, Koen; Sebestova, Eva; Bendl, Jaroslav; Khare, Sagar; Chaloupkova, Radka; Prokop, Zbynek; Brezovsky, Jan; Baker, David; Damborsky, Jiri

    2015-11-01

    There is great interest in increasing proteins' stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt's reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (ΔTm = 24°C and 21°C) by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  5. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants.

    David Bednar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in increasing proteins' stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt's reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (ΔTm = 24°C and 21°C by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  6. The hybrid model for sampling multiple elastic scattering angular deflections based on Goudsmit-Saunderson theory

    Wasaye Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for the Monte Carlo simulation of electron multiple elastic scattering based on the framework of SuperMC (Super Monte Carlo simulation program for nuclear and radiation process is presented. This paper describes efficient and accurate methods by which the multiple scattering angular deflections are sampled. The Goudsmit-Saunderson theory of multiple scattering has been used for sampling angular deflections. Differential cross-sections of electrons and positrons by neutral atoms have been calculated by using Dirac partial wave program ELSEPA. The Legendre coefficients are accurately computed by using the Gauss-Legendre integration method. Finally, a novel hybrid method for sampling angular distribution has been developed. The model uses efficient rejection sampling method for low energy electrons (500 mean free paths. For small path lengths, a simple, efficient and accurate analytical distribution function has been proposed. The later uses adjustable parameters determined from the fitting of Goudsmith-Saunderson angular distribution. A discussion of the sampling efficiency and accuracy of this newly developed algorithm is given. The efficiency of rejection sampling algorithm is at least 50 % for electron kinetic energies less than 500 keV and longer path lengths (>500 mean free paths. Monte Carlo Simulation results are then compared with measured angular distributions of Ross et al. The comparison shows that our results are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  7. Hybrid wireless-over-fiber transmission system based on multiple injection-locked FP LDs.

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Chu, Chien-An; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Ting-Chien; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-07-27

    A hybrid wireless-over-fiber (WoF) transmission system based on multiple injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Unlike the traditional hybrid WoF transmission systems that require multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs to support different kinds of services, the proposed system employs multiple injection-locked FP LDs to provide different kinds of applications. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system delivers downstream intensity-modulated 20-GHz microwave (MW)/60-GHz millimeter-wave (MMW)/550-MHz cable television (CATV) signals and upstream phase-remodulated 20-GHz MW signal. Excellent bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 4-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system has practical applications for fiber-wireless convergence to provide broadband integrated services, including telecommunication, data communication, and CATV services.

  8. Gender-Based Violence Causing Severe Multiple Injuries; a Case Report

    Adalard Falschung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender-based violence (GBV against women has been identified as a global health and development issue. We reported a case of GBV causing sever, multiple injuries in a middle-aged female. Case report: A 47-year-old woman presented to emergency room with disturbed level of consciousness, shortness of breath and multiple patches of skin discoloration. On examination, the patient was semi-conscious, with multiple ecchymosis and bilateral decreased air entry. Computed tomography scan of the neck and chest showed six rib fractures on the left side, and eight rib fractures on the right side, sternal fracture, manubriosternal dislocation, bilateral hemothorax, fracture of body of eleventh thoracic vertebra, and fracture of cervical spine of fifth and seventh vertebrae. The patient was intubated and admitted to intensive care unit. She was discharged with good health condition after 23 days of hospital admission. Conclusion: GBV is still a cause of severe trauma that puts the patient’s life at risk.

  9. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    Duan Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification, create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  10. Resolution of vitiligo following excision of halo congenital melanocytic nevus: a rare case report.

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Weiqing

    2016-05-01

    Halo congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) associated with vitiligo is rare, especially with regard to CMN excision. Only two reports of excision of halo CMN following repigmentation of vitiligo are found in the literature. We present a case of a girl with halo CMN and periorbital vitiligo. The halo CMN was excised and followed by spontaneous improvement of vitiligo. The result suggests excision of the inciting lesion may be a promising way to control vitiligo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Consecutive Mean Excision

    2018-01-01

    kHz, 100 kHz, 1 MHz 100 MHz–1 GHz 1 100 kHz 3. Statistical Processing 3.1 Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis is the mathematical science...quantitative terms. In commercial prognostics and diagnostic vibrational monitoring applications , statistical techniques that are mainly used for alarm...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This report contains the statistical analysis of some RF

  12. SAR Target Recognition Based on Multi-feature Multiple Representation Classifier Fusion

    Zhang Xinzheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image target recognition algorithm based on multi-feature multiple representation learning classifier fusion. First, it extracts three features from the SAR images, namely principal component analysis, wavelet transform, and Two-Dimensional Slice Zernike Moments (2DSZM features. Second, we harness the sparse representation classifier and the cooperative representation classifier with the above-mentioned features to get six predictive labels. Finally, we adopt classifier fusion to obtain the final recognition decision. We researched three different classifier fusion algorithms in our experiments, and the results demonstrate thatusing Bayesian decision fusion gives thebest recognition performance. The method based on multi-feature multiple representation learning classifier fusion integrates the discrimination of multi-features and combines the sparse and cooperative representation classification performance to gain complementary advantages and to improve recognition accuracy. The experiments are based on the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR database,and they demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Exon sequence requirements for excision in vivo of the bacterial group II intron RmInt1

    Toro Nicolás

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II intron splicing proceeds through two sequential transesterification reactions in which the 5' and 3'-exons are joined together and the lariat intron is released. The intron-encoded protein (IEP assists the splicing of the intron in vivo and remains bound to the excised intron lariat RNA in a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP that promotes intron mobility. Exon recognition occurs through base-pairing interactions between two guide sequences on the ribozyme domain dI known as EBS1 and EBS2 and two stretches of sequence known as IBS1 and IBS2 on the 5' exon, whereas the 3' exon is recognized through interaction with the sequence immediately upstream from EBS1 [(δ-δ' interaction (subgroup IIA] or with a nucleotide [(EBS3-IBS3 interaction (subgroup IIB and IIC] located in the coordination-loop of dI. The δ nucleotide is involved in base pairing with another intron residue (δ' in subgroup IIB introns and this interaction facilitates base pairing between the 5' exon and the intron. Results In this study, we investigated nucleotide requirements in the distal 5'- and 3' exon regions, EBS-IBS interactions and δ-δ' pairing for excision of the group IIB intron RmInt1 in vivo. We found that the EBS1-IBS1 interaction was required and sufficient for RmInt1 excision. In addition, we provide evidence for the occurrence of canonical δ-δ' pairing and its importance for the intron excision in vivo. Conclusions The excision in vivo of the RmInt1 intron is a favored process, with very few constraints for sequence recognition in both the 5' and 3'-exons. Our results contribute to understand how group II introns spread in nature, and might facilitate the use of RmInt1 in gene targeting.

  14. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2014-01-01

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  15. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  16. Small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry.

    Wang, Shinn-Fwu; Chiu, Ming-Hung; Chen, Wei-Wu; Kao, Fu-Hsi; Chang, Rong-Seng

    2009-05-01

    A small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry is proposed. In this paper, a small displacement can be obtained only by measuring the variation in phase difference between s- and p-polarization states for the total internal reflection effect. In order to improve the sensitivity, we increase the number of total internal reflections by using a parallelogram prism. The theoretical resolution of the method is better than 0.417 nm. The method has some merits, e.g., high resolution, high sensitivity, and real-time measurement. Also, its feasibility is demonstrated.

  17. Evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences.

    Cason, K L

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences. Forty-six nutrition educators provided a series of 12 lessons to 6102 preschool-age children. The program was evaluated using a pretest/post-test design to assess differences in fruit and vegetable identification, healthy snack choices, willingness to taste foods, and eating behaviors. Subjects showed significant improvement in food identification and recognition, healthy snack identification, willingness to taste foods, and frequency of fruit, vegetable, meat, and dairy consumption. The evaluation indicates that the program was an effective approach for educating preschool children about nutrition.

  18. A novel EMD selecting thresholding method based on multiple iteration for denoising LIDAR signal

    Li, Meng; Jiang, Li-hui; Xiong, Xing-long

    2015-06-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) approach has been believed to be potentially useful for processing the nonlinear and non-stationary LIDAR signals. To shed further light on its performance, we proposed the EMD selecting thresholding method based on multiple iteration, which essentially acts as a development of EMD interval thresholding (EMD-IT), and randomly alters the samples of noisy parts of all the corrupted intrinsic mode functions to generate a better effect of iteration. Simulations on both synthetic signals and LIDAR signals from real world support this method.

  19. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the tongue base, its recurrence, and multiple lymph node metastases with imaging evidence

    Kim, Young Ho; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive and fast-growing malignant tumor. RMS predominantly arises in the head and neck of infancy and children. Metastasis is usually via the blood vessel. We report a case of a recurred RMS of the tongue base with the metastasis to multiple lymph nodes in a 37-year-old female. On the follow-up examination using advanced imaging modalities after surgical treatment of RMS, the lymph nodes should be carefully evaluated like in other malignancies, such as a carcinoma, showing frequent lymph node metastasis.

  20. Multi-Frame Rate Based Multiple-Model Training for Robust Speaker Identification of Disguised Voice

    Prasad, Swati; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Speaker identification systems are prone to attack when voice disguise is adopted by the user. To address this issue,our paper studies the effect of using different frame rates on the accuracy of the speaker identification system for disguised voice.In addition, a multi-frame rate based multiple......-model training method is proposed. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method compared to the commonly used single frame rate method for three types of disguised voice taken from the CHAINS corpus....

  1. A Multiple Criteria Decision Making Method Based on Relative Value Distances

    Shyur Huan-jyh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new multiple criteria decision-making method called ERVD (election based on relative value distances. The s-shape value function is adopted to replace the expected utility function to describe the risk-averse and risk-seeking behavior of decision makers. Comparisons and experiments contrasting with the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution method are carried out to verify the feasibility of using the proposed method to represent the decision makers’ preference in the decision making process. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach is an appropriate and effective MCDM method.

  2. Differential BPFs with Multiple Transmission Zeros Based on Terminated Coupled Lines

    Niu, Yiming; Yang, Guo; Wu, Wen

    2018-04-01

    Differential bandpass filters (BPFs) named Filter A and Filter B based on Terminated Coupled Lines (TCLs) are proposed in this letter. The TCLs contributes to not only three poles in differential-mode (DM) for wideband filtering response but also multiple zeros in both DM and common-mode (CM) offering wide DM out-of-band rejection and good CM suppression. Fabricated filters centred at 3.5 GHz with wide DM passband and wideband CM suppression have been designed and measured. The filters improved the noise suppression capability of the communication and radiometer systems. The simulated and measured results are in good agreement.

  3. Novel multiple opioid ligands based on 4-aminobenzazepinone (Aba), azepinoindole (Aia) and tetrahydroisoquinoline (Tic) scaffolds

    Ballet, Steven; Marczak, Ewa D.; Feytens, Debby; Salvadori, Severo; Sasaki, Yusuke; Abell, Andrew D.; Lazarus, Lawrence H.; Balboni, Gianfranco; Tourwé, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The dimerization and trimerization of the Dmt-Tic, Dmt-Aia and Dmt-Aba pharmacophores provided multiple ligands which were evaluated in vitro for opioid receptor binding and functional activity. Whereas the Tic- and Aba multimers proved to be dual and balanced δ/μ antagonists, as determined by the functional [S35]GTPγS binding assay, the dimerization of potent Aia-based ‘parent’ ligands unexpectedly resulted in substantial less efficient receptor binding and non-active dimeric compounds. PMID:20137938

  4. Research on Multiple Particle Swarm Algorithm Based on Analysis of Scientific Materials

    Zhao Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm based on analysis of scientific materials. The core thesis of MPSO (Multiple Particle Swarm Algorithm is to improve the single population PSO to interactive multi-swarms, which is used to settle the problem of being trapped into local minima during later iterations because it is lack of diversity. The simulation results show that the convergence rate is fast and the search performance is good, and it has achieved very good results.

  5. Trust Index Based Fault Tolerant Multiple Event Localization Algorithm for WSNs

    Xu, Xianghua; Gao, Xueyong; Wan, Jian; Xiong, Naixue

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of wireless sensor networks for multiple event source localization using binary information from the sensor nodes. The events could continually emit signals whose strength is attenuated inversely proportional to the distance from the source. In this context, faults occur due to various reasons and are manifested when a node reports a wrong decision. In order to reduce the impact of node faults on the accuracy of multiple event localization, we introduce a trust index model to evaluate the fidelity of information which the nodes report and use in the event detection process, and propose the Trust Index based Subtract on Negative Add on Positive (TISNAP) localization algorithm, which reduces the impact of faulty nodes on the event localization by decreasing their trust index, to improve the accuracy of event localization and performance of fault tolerance for multiple event source localization. The algorithm includes three phases: first, the sink identifies the cluster nodes to determine the number of events occurred in the entire region by analyzing the binary data reported by all nodes; then, it constructs the likelihood matrix related to the cluster nodes and estimates the location of all events according to the alarmed status and trust index of the nodes around the cluster nodes. Finally, the sink updates the trust index of all nodes according to the fidelity of their information in the previous reporting cycle. The algorithm improves the accuracy of localization and performance of fault tolerance in multiple event source localization. The experiment results show that when the probability of node fault is close to 50%, the algorithm can still accurately determine the number of the events and have better accuracy of localization compared with other algorithms. PMID:22163972

  6. Trust Index Based Fault Tolerant Multiple Event Localization Algorithm for WSNs

    Jian Wan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of wireless sensor networks for multiple event source localization using binary information from the sensor nodes. The events could continually emit signals whose strength is attenuated inversely proportional to the distance from the source. In this context, faults occur due to various reasons and are manifested when a node reports a wrong decision. In order to reduce the impact of node faults on the accuracy of multiple event localization, we introduce a trust index model to evaluate the fidelity of information which the nodes report and use in the event detection process, and propose the Trust Index based Subtract on Negative Add on Positive (TISNAP localization algorithm, which reduces the impact of faulty nodes on the event localization by decreasing their trust index, to improve the accuracy of event localization and performance of fault tolerance for multiple event source localization. The algorithm includes three phases: first, the sink identifies the cluster nodes to determine the number of events occurred in the entire region by analyzing the binary data reported by all nodes; then, it constructs the likelihood matrix related to the cluster nodes and estimates the location of all events according to the alarmed status and trust index of the nodes around the cluster nodes. Finally, the sink updates the trust index of all nodes according to the fidelity of their information in the previous reporting cycle. The algorithm improves the accuracy of localization and performance of fault tolerance in multiple event source localization. The experiment results show that when the probability of node fault is close to 50%, the algorithm can still accurately determine the number of the events and have better accuracy of localization compared with other algorithms.

  7. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) Model for Multiple Exposure Routes of Soman in Multiple Species

    Sweeney, Richard E; Langenberg, Jan P; Maxwell, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    ...) levels of soman challenge in three species (rat, guinea pig, marmoset). Allometric formulae were used to compute the compartment volumes, blood flow rates, tidal volume and respiratory rate based upon total animal weight...

  8. 29 CFR 779.263 - Excise taxes not at the retail level.

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.263 Excise taxes not at the retail level. There are also a wide variety of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes not at the retail level. 779.263 Section 779...

  9. First observation of excision and integration in Class 1 integron in ...

    So in this study, we tested in S. aureus, the class 1 integron mediated excision and integration. We first asked 8 plasmids from previous studies, then established some transformants and perform the excision and integration reaction. As the results revealed, we observed positive excision assay, which had been confirmed by ...

  10. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  11. Transanal vs laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Perdawood, Sharaf; Al Khefagie, Ghalib Ali Abod

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LaTME) has improved short-term outcomes of rectal cancer surgery with comparable oncological results to open approach. LaTME can be difficult in the lower most part of the rectum, leading potentially to higher rates of complications, conversion...... to open surgery and probably suboptimal oncological quality. Transanal TME (TaTME) can potentially solve these problems. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term results after TaTME with those after LaTME. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of consecutive patients who underwent Ta......TME was maintained. Results were compared with those underwent LaTME in the preceding period. Patients who underwent low anterior resection or intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision (APE) were included. Primary end-points were radical resection and specimen quality. Secondary end-points were complications, rates...

  12. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition

    Jarvis, P.; Belzile, F.; Page, T.; Dean, C.

    1997-01-01

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity

  14. Norwegian NOx emissions excise duty hits shipping and offshore industry

    Gulseth, Oeystein Arff; Fjeld-Nielsen, Siri

    2007-01-01

    The regulatory framework concerning the new excise duty appears as complex and unfinished, raising more questions than providing answers. The duty will entail a significant expense item for the businesses liable to register and it is therefore important to have an overview of how the regulatory framework should be understood. Errors made since 1 January 2007 may lead to future reassessments of duties, with interest (author) (ml)

  15. Temporal flap approach for preauricular epidermal cyst excision

    Harshavardhan N Reddy; D R Srinivas; Konappa E Reddy; C Chandrakiran

    2011-01-01

    A 40-year-old male presented with a fluctuant swelling in front of the right ear. His past history is significant for having undergone surgery for the swelling four times in the past 6 years with recurrence each time. We excised the swelling by using a preauricular incision with reverse question mark type extension into the temporal area. The advantages are complete unhindered exposure, excellent cosmesis, and prevention of damage to the temporal branch of facial nerve.

  16. Endoscope-assisted approach to excision of branchial cleft cysts.

    Teng, Stephanie E; Paul, Benjamin C; Brumm, John D; Fritz, Mark; Fang, Yixin; Myssiorek, David

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe an endoscope-assisted surgical technique for the excision of branchial cleft cysts and compare it to the standard approach. Retrospective case series review. Twenty-seven cases described as branchial cleft excisions performed by a single surgeon at one academic medical center were identified between 2007 and 2014. Twenty-five cases (8 endoscopic, 17 standard approach) were included in the study. Cases were excluded if final pathology was malignant. Patient charts were reviewed, and two techniques were compared through analysis of incision size, operative time, and surgical outcomes. This study showed that the length of incision required for the endoscopic approach (mean = 2.13 ± 0.23) was significantly less than that of the standard approach (mean = 4.10 ± 1.46, P = 0.008) despite the fact that there was no significant difference in cyst size between the two groups (P = 0.09). The other variables examined, including operative time and surgical outcomes, were not significantly different between the two groups. This transcervical endoscope-assisted approach to branchial cleft cyst excision is a viable option for uncomplicated cases. It provides better cosmetic results than the standard approach and does not negatively affect outcomes, increase operative time, or result in recurrence. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1339-1342, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P traffic accidents was disclosed under alternative model specifications. For instance, the regression model with ARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 1) errors revealed that a 1-unit increase in the tax rate is associated with a 1.6% decrease in the level of accidents per 100,000 population involving drunk motor vehicle drivers. No similar association was found in the cases of counterfactual models for non-alcohol-related traffic accidents. This article indicates that the level of alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  18. The Impact of Pterygium Excision on Corneal Astigmatism

    Khan, F. A.; Niazi, S. P. K.; Khan, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the corneal astigmatism before and after the excision of pterygium and also to determine the correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Study Design: Cross-sectional interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Eye Department, Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad, from May 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Thirty patients underwent pterygium excision. Pre-operatively Snellen visual acuity, manifest refraction and slit lamp examination was done. The size of the pterygium was recorded in mm by projecting a horizontal slit lamp beam from the limbus to the apex. All the pterygium were equal to or greater than 2.5 mm. Keratometry was performed with an automated keratometer. Keratometric data was recorded pre-operatively and at 28 days postoperatively. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for comparing the pre-operative and the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Spearman's rank order was calculated to observe correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative astigmatism. Results: The median (mean rank) pre-operative astigmatism of 2.25 (15.50) reduced to a median (mean rank) postoperative astigmatism of 1.30 (14.96). This decrease in the postoperative astigmatism was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically non-significant correlation between the postoperative astigmatism and the pterygium size (rs = -0.29, p = 0.12). Conclusion: Pterygium excision caused significant reduction in corneal astigmatism. (author)

  19. Quantitative Prediction of Coalbed Gas Content Based on Seismic Multiple-Attribute Analyses

    Renfang Pan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of gas planar distribution is crucial to selection and development of new CBM exploration areas. Based on seismic attributes, well logging and testing data we found that seismic absorption attenuation, after eliminating the effects of burial depth, shows an evident correlation with CBM gas content; (positive structure curvature has a negative correlation with gas content; and density has a negative correlation with gas content. It is feasible to use the hydrocarbon index (P*G and pseudo-Poisson ratio attributes for detection of gas enrichment zones. Based on seismic multiple-attribute analyses, a multiple linear regression equation was established between the seismic attributes and gas content at the drilling wells. Application of this equation to the seismic attributes at locations other than the drilling wells yielded a quantitative prediction of planar gas distribution. Prediction calculations were performed for two different models, one using pre-stack inversion and the other one disregarding pre-stack inversion. A comparison of the results indicates that both models predicted a similar trend for gas content distribution, except that the model using pre-stack inversion yielded a prediction result with considerably higher precision than the other model.

  20. Application of In-Segment Multiple Sampling in Object-Based Classification

    Nataša Đurić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When object-based analysis is applied to very high-resolution imagery, pixels within the segments reveal large spectral inhomogeneity; their distribution can be considered complex rather than normal. When normality is violated, the classification methods that rely on the assumption of normally distributed data are not as successful or accurate. It is hard to detect normality violations in small samples. The segmentation process produces segments that vary highly in size; samples can be very big or very small. This paper investigates whether the complexity within the segment can be addressed using multiple random sampling of segment pixels and multiple calculations of similarity measures. In order to analyze the effect sampling has on classification results, statistics and probability value equations of non-parametric two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and parametric Student’s t-test are selected as similarity measures in the classification process. The performance of both classifiers was assessed on a WorldView-2 image for four land cover classes (roads, buildings, grass and trees and compared to two commonly used object-based classifiers—k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN and Support Vector Machine (SVM. Both proposed classifiers showed a slight improvement in the overall classification accuracies and produced more accurate classification maps when compared to the ground truth image.

  1. Computed a multiple band metamaterial absorber and its application based on the figure of merit value

    Chen, Chao; Sheng, Yuping; Jun, Wang

    2018-01-01

    A high performed multiple band metamaterial absorber is designed and computed through the software Ansofts HFSS 10.0, which is constituted with two kinds of separated metal particles sub-structures. The multiple band absorption property of the metamaterial absorber is based on the resonance of localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes excited near edges of metal particles. The damping constant of gold layer is optimized to obtain a near-perfect absorption rate. Four kinds of dielectric layers is computed to achieve the perfect absorption perform. The perfect absorption perform of the metamaterial absorber is enhanced through optimizing the structural parameters (R = 75 nm, w = 80 nm). Moreover, a perfect absorption band is achieved because of the plasmonic hybridization phenomenon between LSP modes. The designed metamaterial absorber shows high sensitive in the changed of the refractive index of the liquid. A liquid refractive index sensor strategy is proposed based on the computed figure of merit (FOM) value of the metamaterial absorber. High FOM values (116, 111, and 108) are achieved with three liquid (Methanol, Carbon tetrachloride, and Carbon disulfide).

  2. Aptamer-based hydrogel barcodes for the capture and detection of multiple types of pathogenic bacteria.

    Xu, Yueshuang; Wang, Huan; Luan, Chengxin; Liu, Yuxiao; Chen, Baoan; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2018-02-15

    Rapid and sensitive diagnosing hematological infections based on the separation and detection of pathogenic bacteria in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. To address this, we herein present a new barcodes technology that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of pathogenic bacteria from a complex sample. The barcodes are poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel inverse opal particles with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during bacteria capture on their surfaces. As the spherical surface of the particles has ordered porous nanostructure, the barcodes can provide not only more surface area for probe immobilization and reaction, but also a nanopatterned platform for highly efficient bioreactions. In addition, the PEG hydrogel scaffold could decrease the non-specificity adsorption by its anti-adhesive effect, and the decorated aptamer probes in the scaffolds could increase the sensitivity, reliability, and specificity of the bacteria capture and detection. Moreover, the tagged magnetic nanoparticles in the PEG scaffold could impart the barcodes with controllable movement under magnetic fields, which can be used to significantly increase the reaction speed and simplify the processing of the bioassays. Based on the describe barcodes, it was demonstrated that the bacteria could be captured and identified even at low bacterial concentrations (100 CFU mL -1 ) within 2.5h, which is effectively shortened in comparison with the "gold standard" in clinic. These features make the barcodes ideal for capturing and detecting multiple bacteria from clinical samples for hematological infection diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple-Features-Based Semisupervised Clustering DDoS Detection Method

    Yonghao Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attack stream from different agent host converged at victim host will become very large, which will lead to system halt or network congestion. Therefore, it is necessary to propose an effective method to detect the DDoS attack behavior from the massive data stream. In order to solve the problem that large numbers of labeled data are not provided in supervised learning method, and the relatively low detection accuracy and convergence speed of unsupervised k-means algorithm, this paper presents a semisupervised clustering detection method using multiple features. In this detection method, we firstly select three features according to the characteristics of DDoS attacks to form detection feature vector. Then, Multiple-Features-Based Constrained-K-Means (MF-CKM algorithm is proposed based on semisupervised clustering. Finally, using MIT Laboratory Scenario (DDoS 1.0 data set, we verify that the proposed method can improve the convergence speed and accuracy of the algorithm under the condition of using a small amount of labeled data sets.

  4. Prediction of protein interaction hot spots using rough set-based multiple criteria linear programming.

    Chen, Ruoying; Zhang, Zhiwang; Wu, Di; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xinyang; Wang, Yong; Shi, Yong

    2011-01-21

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamentally important in many biological processes and it is in pressing need to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. Mutagenesis studies have found that only a small fraction of surface residues, known as hot spots, are responsible for the physical binding in protein complexes. However, revealing hot spots by mutagenesis experiments are usually time consuming and expensive. In order to complement the experimental efforts, we propose a new computational approach in this paper to predict hot spots. Our method, Rough Set-based Multiple Criteria Linear Programming (RS-MCLP), integrates rough sets theory and multiple criteria linear programming to choose dominant features and computationally predict hot spots. Our approach is benchmarked by a dataset of 904 alanine-mutated residues and the results show that our RS-MCLP method performs better than other methods, e.g., MCLP, Decision Tree, Bayes Net, and the existing HotSprint database. In addition, we reveal several biological insights based on our analysis. We find that four features (the change of accessible surface area, percentage of the change of accessible surface area, size of a residue, and atomic contacts) are critical in predicting hot spots. Furthermore, we find that three residues (Tyr, Trp, and Phe) are abundant in hot spots through analyzing the distribution of amino acids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Verifying Identities of Plant-Based Multivitamins Using Phytochemical Fingerprinting in Combination with Multiple Bioassays.

    Lim, Yeni; Ahn, Yoon Hee; Yoo, Jae Keun; Park, Kyoung Sik; Kwon, Oran

    2017-09-01

    Sales of multivitamins have been growing rapidly and the concept of natural multivitamin, plant-based multivitamin, or both has been introduced in the market, leading consumers to anticipate additional health benefits from phytochemicals that accompany the vitamins. However, the lack of labeling requirements might lead to fraudulent claims. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a strategy to verify identity of plant-based multivitamins. Phytochemical fingerprinting was used to discriminate identities. In addition, multiple bioassays were performed to determine total antioxidant capacity. A statistical computation model was then used to measure contributions of phytochemicals and vitamins to antioxidant activities. Fifteen multivitamins were purchased from the local markets in Seoul, Korea and classified into three groups according to the number of plant ingredients. Pearson correlation analysis among antioxidant capacities, amount phenols, and number of plant ingredients revealed that ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay results had the highest correlation with total phenol content. This suggests that FRAP and DPPH assays are useful for characterizing plant-derived multivitamins. Furthermore, net effect linear regression analysis confirmed that the contribution of phytochemicals to total antioxidant capacities was always relatively higher than that of vitamins. Taken together, the results suggest that phytochemical fingerprinting in combination with multiple bioassays could be used as a strategy to determine whether plant-derived multivitamins could provide additional health benefits beyond their nutritional value.

  6. Problem solving based learning model with multiple representations to improve student's mental modelling ability on physics

    Haili, Hasnawati; Maknun, Johar; Siahaan, Parsaoran

    2017-08-01

    Physics is a lessons that related to students' daily experience. Therefore, before the students studying in class formally, actually they have already have a visualization and prior knowledge about natural phenomenon and could wide it themselves. The learning process in class should be aimed to detect, process, construct, and use students' mental model. So, students' mental model agree with and builds in the right concept. The previous study held in MAN 1 Muna informs that in learning process the teacher did not pay attention students' mental model. As a consequence, the learning process has not tried to build students' mental modelling ability (MMA). The purpose of this study is to describe the improvement of students' MMA as a effect of problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach. This study is pre experimental design with one group pre post. It is conducted in XI IPA MAN 1 Muna 2016/2017. Data collection uses problem solving test concept the kinetic theory of gasses and interview to get students' MMA. The result of this study is clarification students' MMA which is categorized in 3 category; High Mental Modelling Ability (H-MMA) for 7Mental Modelling Ability (M-MMA) for 3Mental Modelling Ability (L-MMA) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 score. The result shows that problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach can be an alternative to be applied in improving students' MMA.

  7. Multiple Signal Classification Algorithm Based Electric Dipole Source Localization Method in an Underwater Environment

    Yidong Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel localization method based on multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm is proposed for positioning an electric dipole source in a confined underwater environment by using electric dipole-receiving antenna array. In this method, the boundary element method (BEM is introduced to analyze the boundary of the confined region by use of a matrix equation. The voltage of each dipole pair is used as spatial-temporal localization data, and it does not need to obtain the field component in each direction compared with the conventional fields based localization method, which can be easily implemented in practical engineering applications. Then, a global-multiple region-conjugate gradient (CG hybrid search method is used to reduce the computation burden and to improve the operation speed. Two localization simulation models and a physical experiment are conducted. Both the simulation results and physical experiment result provide accurate positioning performance, with the help to verify the effectiveness of the proposed localization method in underwater environments.

  8. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model for multiple exposure routes for soman in multiple species

    Sweeney, R.E.; Langenberg, J.P.; Maxwell, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model has been developed in advanced computer simulation language (ACSL) to describe blood and tissue concentration-time profiles of the C(±)P(-) stereoisomers of soman after inhalation, subcutaneous and intravenous exposures at low (0.8-1.0 × LD50),

  9. Performance analysis of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for WDM-based systems for Gamma-Gamma distributions

    Nam, Sung Sik; Yoon, Chang Seok; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme (TPMBS) for Free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has

  10. A Compton suppressed detector multiplicity trigger based digital DAQ for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Das, S.; Samanta, S.; Banik, R.; Bhattacharjee, R.; Basu, K.; Raut, R.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Imran, S.; Mukherjee, G.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Goswami, A.; Palit, R.; Tan, H.

    2018-06-01

    The development of a digitizer based pulse processing and data acquisition system for γ-ray spectroscopy with large detector arrays is presented. The system is based on 250 MHz 12-bit digitizers, and is triggered by a user chosen multiplicity of Compton suppressed detectors. The logic for trigger generation is similar to the one practised for analog (NIM/CAMAC) pulse processing electronics, while retaining the fast processing merits of the digitizer system. Codes for reduction of data acquired from the system have also been developed. The system has been tested with offline studies using radioactive sources as well as in the in-beam experiments with an array of Compton suppressed Clover detectors. The results obtained therefrom validate its use in spectroscopic efforts for nuclear structure investigations.

  11. Analysis of Multiple Structural Changes in Financial Contagion Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponents

    Rui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified multiple structural changes model is built to test structural breaks of the financial system based on calculating the largest Lyapunov exponents of the financial time series. Afterwards, the Lorenz system is used as a simulation example to inspect the new model. As the Lorenz system has strong nonlinearity, the verification results show that the new model has good capability in both finding the breakpoint and revealing the changes in nonlinear characteristics of the time series. The empirical study based on the model used daily data from the S&P 500 stock index during the global financial crisis from 2005 to 2012. The results provide four breakpoints of the period, which divide the contagion into four stages: stationary, local outbreak, global outbreak, and recovery period. An additional significant result is the obvious chaos characteristic difference in the largest Lyapunov exponents and the standard deviation at various stages, particularly at the local outbreak stage.

  12. Periodicity, chaos, and multiple attractors in a memristor-based Shinriki's circuit

    Kengne, J. [Laboratory of Automation and Applied Computer (LAIA), Department of Electrical Engineering, IUT-FV Bandjoun, University of Dschang, Dschang (Cameroon); Njitacke Tabekoueng, Z.; Kamdoum Tamba, V.; Nguomkam Negou, A. [Laboratory of Automation and Applied Computer (LAIA), Department of Electrical Engineering, IUT-FV Bandjoun, University of Dschang, Dschang (Cameroon); Department of Physics, Laboratory of Electronics and Signal Processing (LETS), Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang (Cameroon)

    2015-10-15

    In this contribution, a novel memristor-based oscillator, obtained from Shinriki's circuit by substituting the nonlinear positive conductance with a first order memristive diode bridge, is introduced. The model is described by a continuous time four-dimensional autonomous system with smooth nonlinearities. The basic dynamical properties of the system are investigated including equilibria and stability, phase portraits, frequency spectra, bifurcation diagrams, and Lyapunov exponents' spectrum. It is found that in addition to the classical period-doubling and symmetry restoring crisis scenarios reported in the original circuit, the memristor-based oscillator experiences the unusual and striking feature of multiple attractors (i.e., coexistence of a pair of asymmetric periodic attractors with a pair of asymmetric chaotic ones) over a broad range of circuit parameters. Results of theoretical analyses are verified by laboratory experimental measurements.

  13. Emotion recognition based on multiple order features using fractional Fourier transform

    Ren, Bo; Liu, Deyin; Qi, Lin

    2017-07-01

    In order to deal with the insufficiency of recently algorithms based on Two Dimensions Fractional Fourier Transform (2D-FrFT), this paper proposes a multiple order features based method for emotion recognition. Most existing methods utilize the feature of single order or a couple of orders of 2D-FrFT. However, different orders of 2D-FrFT have different contributions on the feature extraction of emotion recognition. Combination of these features can enhance the performance of an emotion recognition system. The proposed approach obtains numerous features that extracted in different orders of 2D-FrFT in the directions of x-axis and y-axis, and uses the statistical magnitudes as the final feature vectors for recognition. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized for the classification and RML Emotion database and Cohn-Kanade (CK) database are used for the experiment. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Low-Complexity Multiple Description Coding of Video Based on 3D Block Transforms

    Andrey Norkin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multiple description (MD video coder based on three-dimensional (3D transforms. Two balanced descriptions are created from a video sequence. In the encoder, video sequence is represented in a form of coarse sequence approximation (shaper included in both descriptions and residual sequence (details which is split between two descriptions. The shaper is obtained by block-wise pruned 3D-DCT. The residual sequence is coded by 3D-DCT or hybrid, LOT+DCT, 3D-transform. The coding scheme is targeted to mobile devices. It has low computational complexity and improved robustness of transmission over unreliable networks. The coder is able to work at very low redundancies. The coding scheme is simple, yet it outperforms some MD coders based on motion-compensated prediction, especially in the low-redundancy region. The margin is up to 3 dB for reconstruction from one description.

  15. Security of public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems

    Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang; Zou Liuhua; Cheung Yiuming; He Zhenya

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems has been proposed [B. Ranjan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 098702]. This scheme employs m-chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. Security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP) m , where N, P are the size of the key and the computational complexity of the linear functions respectively. In this Letter, the fundamental weakness of the cryptosystem is pointed out and a successful attack is described. Given the public keys and the initial vector, one can calculate the secret key based on Parseval's theorem. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the attacker can access to the secret key without difficulty. The lack of security discourages the use of such algorithm for practical applications

  16. Reliability-based assessment of deteriorating ship structures operating in multiple sea loading climates

    Moan, Torgeir [Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Marine Technology Centre, Tyholt, N 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: tormo@marin.ntnu.no; Ayala-Uraga, Efren [Department of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Marine Technology Centre, Tyholt, N 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-03-15

    A reliability-based model for assessment of deteriorating ships subjected to multiple environmental conditions is established. Deterioration due to combined crack growth and corrosion in structural components of a ship hull is accounted for based on a fracture mechanics formulation. The model enables to take into account the corrosion-induced increased crack growth rate in two ways: (1) the increased stress range produced by the plate thinning (wastage) effect and (2) corrosion fatigue itself. Sensitivity studies are carried out to evaluate the effect of inspection updating on a production ship subjected to two different climate conditions. The hazard rate concept is adopted as a measure of reliability and emphasized throughout the different case studies.

  17. Screen Space Ambient Occlusion Based Multiple Importance Sampling for Real-Time Rendering

    Zerari, Abd El Mouméne; Babahenini, Mohamed Chaouki

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new approximation technique for accelerating the Global Illumination algorithm for real-time rendering. The proposed approach is based on the Screen-Space Ambient Occlusion (SSAO) method, which approximates the global illumination for large, fully dynamic scenes at interactive frame rates. Current algorithms that are based on the SSAO method suffer from difficulties due to the large number of samples that are required. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the SSAO technique by integrating it with a Multiple Importance Sampling technique that combines a stratified sampling method with an importance sampling method, with the objective of reducing the number of samples. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our technique can produce high-quality images in real time and is significantly faster than traditional techniques.

  18. Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

  19. Multiple image encryption scheme based on pixel exchange operation and vector decomposition

    Xiong, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a new multiple image encryption scheme based on a pixel exchange operation and a basic vector decomposition in Fourier domain. In this algorithm, original images are imported via a pixel exchange operator, from which scrambled images and pixel position matrices are obtained. Scrambled images encrypted into phase information are imported using the proposed algorithm and phase keys are obtained from the difference between scrambled images and synthesized vectors in a charge-coupled device (CCD) plane. The final synthesized vector is used as an input in a random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme. In the proposed encryption scheme, pixel position matrices and phase keys serve as additional private keys to enhance the security of the cryptosystem which is based on a 4-f system. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed encryption scheme.

  20. Modeling multiple visual words assignment for bag-of-features based medical image retrieval

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval methods, which represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patch and key points with SIFT descriptor. To improve the bag-of-features method, we first model the assignment of local descriptor as contribution functions, and then propose a new multiple assignment strategy. By assuming the local feature can be reconstructed by its neighboring visual words in vocabulary, we solve the reconstruction weights as a QP problem and then use the solved weights as contribution functions, which results in a new assignment method called the QP assignment. We carry our experiments on ImageCLEFmed datasets. Experiments\\' results show that our proposed method exceeds the performances of traditional solutions and works well for the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval tasks.